WorldWideScience

Sample records for materials aerospace environmental

  1. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  2. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  3. Aerospace Materials Process Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    deTresca La d~termination du coefficient de frottement de Tresca 9 est effectu~e de facon courante en forgeant un anneau de g~oan~trie fix~e. On mesure la...ailleurs et vaut a= 105 xt 0 , 2 5 Les riductions relatives du diam~tre int~rieur sont report~es sur l1abaque TVM(fig. 2a). Les coefficient de frottement ...validated material data bass. Information such as constitutive equations, intrinsic workability maps, effective heat-transfer coefficients , interface

  4. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  5. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  6. Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

  7. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  8. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  9. Dielectric barrier discharge processing of aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, S. J.; Figgures, C. C.; Dixon, D. G.

    2004-08-01

    We report the use of atmospheric pressure, air based, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) to treat materials commonly used in the aerospace industries. The material samples were processed using a test-bed of a conventional DBD configuration in which the sample formed one of the electrodes and was placed in close proximity to a ceramic electrode. The discharges generated a powerful, cold oxidizing environment which was able to remove organic contaminants, etch primer and paint layers, oxidize aluminium and roughen carbon fibre composites by the selective removal of resin.

  10. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  11. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapena-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Orti, Fortunato [Boeing Research and Technology Europe Ltd., Environmental Technologies, C/ Canada Real de las Merinas 1-3, Building 4, 4th floor, Madrid 28042 (Spain); Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro [Intelligent Energy Ltd., The Innovation Centre, Epinal Way, Loughborough LE11 3EH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR and TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NOx, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power

  12. Optical Characterization of Window Materials for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  13. Optical characterization of window materials for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M.

    2013-09-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  14. Emergent Cure Chemistry in the Development of Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    R4 R3-SHR3-S-CH2-CH2-R4Product Anti-Markovnikov • Thiol-ene chemistry is a hybrid of free radical and condensation chemistry . It combines the speed...Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2015-March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Emergent cure chemistry in the development of aerospace materials...cure chemistry in the development of aerospace materials Joseph M. Mabry, Ph.D. Air Force Research Laboratory joseph.mabry@us.af.mil (661) 275-5857

  15. Nanocomposites as Advanced Materials for Aerospace Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George PELIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites, consisting of nanoparticles dispersed in polymer matrix, have gained interest due to the attractive properties of nanostructured fillers, as carbon nanotubes and layered silicates. Low volume additions (1- 5% of nanoparticles provide properties enhancements comparable to those achieved by conventional loadings (15- 40% of traditional fillers.Structural nanocomposites represent reinforcement structures based on carbon or glass fibers embedded into polymeric matrix modified with nanofillers.Structural composites are the most important application of nanaocomposites, in aerospace field, as, laminates and sandwich structures. Also, they can by used as anti-lightning, anti-radar protectors and paints. The paper presents the effects of sonic dispersion of carbon nanotubes and montmorrilonite on the mechanical, electrical, rheological and trybological properties of epoxy polymers and laminated composites, with carbon or glass fiber reinforcement, with nanoadditivated epoxy matrix. One significant observation is that nanoclay contents higher than 2% wt generate an increase of the resin viscosity, from 1500 to 50000- 100000 cP, making the matrix impossible to use in high performance composites.Also, carbon nanotubes provide the resin important electrical properties, passing from dielectric to semi- conductive class. These effects have also been observed for fiber reinforced composites.Contrarily to some opinions in literature, the results of carbon nanotubes or nanoclays addition on the mechanical characteristics of glass or carbon fiber composites seem to be rather low.

  16. Advanced materials for application in the aerospace and automotive industries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Damm, O

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR conducts research and development (R&D) involving advanced materials with applications in the local automotive and aerospace industries. The relevance of these R&D programmes is illustrated by positioning them in the context of key industry...

  17. Bio-based structural composite materials for aerospace applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available honeycomb cores were supplied by AIRBUS. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Flame retardant treatment The most important regulation in aerospace applications is maintaining the fire, smoke and toxicity (FST) standards. Flax is a flammable material... compounds, generally have low toxicity, have been shown to be effective flame retardants and smoke suppressants for natural fibres and synthetic polymers4 and phosphates have long been used for flame retarding cellulosic materials2 In this study, a...

  18. Characterization of Catalyst Materials for Production of Aerospace Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lauren M.; De La Ree, Ana B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to environmental, economic, and security issues, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. Additionally, efforts are concentrated on reducing costs coupled with fuel production from non-conventional sources. One solution to this issue is Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid technology. Fischer-Tropsch processing of synthesis gas (CO/H2) produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fisher-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur or aromatic compounds. This process is most commonly catalyzed by heterogeneous (in this case, silver and platinum) catalysts composed of cobalt supported on alumina or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Physisorption, chemisorptions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are described to better understand the potential performance of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt on alumina catalysts promoted with silver and platinum. The overall goal is to preferentially produce C8 to C18 paraffin compounds for use as aerospace fuels. Progress towards this goal will eventually be updated and achieved by a more thorough understanding of the characterization of catalyst materials. This work was supported by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing and In-situ Resource Utilization projects.

  19. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  20. Standard Guide for Testing Materials for Aerospace Plastic Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide is intended to summarize the standard test methods available on individual and composite materials utilized in fabrication of aerospace plastic transparent enclosures. As such, it is intended to specifically include transparent thermoplastics, transparent elastomers, and reinforced plastics, whether thermoplastic or thermosetting. 1.2 This guide is intended as an aid in the search for test methods pertinent to Aerospace Plastic Transparent Enclosures. It should be understood that all methods listed may not apply to all enclosures. 1.3 The standards included refer to the properties or aspects listed in Table 1. The properties or aspects are listed in alphabetical order and the descriptions used are intended to facilitate the search. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limi...

  1. Aerospace Structures Test Facility Environmental Test Chambers (ETC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The ETCs test the structural integrity of aerospace structures in representative operating temperatures and aerodynamic load distributions. The test article...

  2. Nondestructive materials characterization with applications to aerospace materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Peter; Rokhlin, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    With an emphasis on aircraft materials, this book describes techniques for the material characterization to detect and quantify degradation processes such as corrosion and fatigue. It introduces readers to these techniques based on x-ray, ultrasonic, optical and thermal principles and demonstrates the potential of the techniques for a wide variety of applications concerning aircraft materials, especially aluminum and titanium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are evaluated. An introductory chapter describes the typical degradation mechanisms that must be considered and the microstructure features that have to be detected by NDE methods. Finally, some approaches for making lifetime predictions are discussed. It is suitable as a textbook in special training courses in advanced NDE and aircraft materials characterization.

  3. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  4. Laser Materials Processing for NASA's Aerospace Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Hunyady, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, and surface treatment. Due to the multifunctional nature of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed, these attributes are attractive in order to support long-term missions in space. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications. Specifically, size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials are all concerns. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in solidstate laser (e.g., diode-pumped lasers) and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques in space has increased significantly. A review of the historical development of lasers from their infancy to the present will be used to show how these issues may be addressed. The review will also indicate where further development is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. Both short- and long-term space missions will benefit from the development of a universal laser-based tool with low power consumption, improved process flexibility, compactness (e.g., miniaturization), robustness, and automation for maximum utility with a minimum of human interaction. The potential advantages of using lasers with suitable wavelength and beam properties for future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will be discussed. The laser processing experiments in the present report were performed using a diode pumped, pulsed/continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (50 W max average laser power), with a 1064 nm wavelength. The processed materials included Ti-6AI-4V, Al-2219 and Al-2090. For Phase I of this project, the laser process conditions were varied and optimized

  5. Temperature restrictions for materials used in aerospace industry for the near-sun orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Ancona, Elena

    2016-01-01

    For near-Sun missions, the spacecraft approaches very close to the Sun and space environmental effects become relevant. Strong restrictions on how much close it can get derive from the maximum temperature that the used materials can stand, in order not to compromise the spacecraft's activity and functionalities. In other words, the minimum perihelion distance of a given mission can be determined based on the materials' temperature restrictions. The temperature of an object in space depends on its optical properties: reflectivity, absorptivity, transmissivity, and emissivity. Usually, it is considered as an approximation that the optical properties of materials are constant. However, emissivity depends on temperature. The consideration of the temperature dependence of emissivity and conductivity of materials used in the aerospace industry leads to the conclusion that the temperature dependence on the heliocentric distance is different from the case of constant optical properties [1]. Particularly, taking into ...

  6. REACH Impact on Aerospace Materials - U.S. Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Problems •Phthalates – Used to make stuff flexible •Aerospace Uses – sleeving, wire sheath , plastic panels, adhesives, etc, etc •Out of 30 most...offset cost • Apparently not for zinc chromate • Will the criticality of Aerospace products convince ECHA to exempt Hex Chrome or only Restrict

  7. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  8. Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates: A New Aerospace Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.; Cobb, Ted Q.; Lowther, Sharon; St.Clair, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    In the realm of aerospace design and performance, there are few boundaries in the never-ending drive for increased performance. This thirst for ever-increased performance of aerospace equipment has driven the aerospace and defense industries into developing exotic, extremely high-performance composites that are pushing the envelope in terms of strength-to-weight ratios, durability, and several other key measurements. To meet this challenge of ever-increasing improvement, engineers and scientists at NASA-Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) have developed a high-temperature metal laminate based upon titanium, carbon fibers, and a thermoplastic resin. This composite, known as the Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminate, or HTCL, is the latest chapter in a significant, but relatively short, history of metal laminates.

  9. Spacecraft materials studies on the Aerospace Corporation tray on EOIM-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Wayne K.; Hemminger, Carol S.; Steckel, Gary L.; Hills, Malina M.; Hilton, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A passive tray was flown on the Effects of Oxygen Interaction with Materials experiment on STS-46 (EOIM-3) with 82 samples from The Aerospace Corporation. A variety of advanced materials related to potential uses on future spacecraft were included for evaluation representing optical coatings, lubricants, polymers, composites, carbon-carbon composite protective coatings, graphite protective coatings, thermal-control materials, and some samples of current materials. An overview of the available results from the investigations of these materials is presented.

  10. Environmental Mineralogical Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Basic properties, including surface absorption, porous filtration, ion exchange, heat effect and chemical solubility of environmental mineralogical materials, are widely applied to the pollution prevention environment improvement. The pollunian prevenition environmenr means the quality improvement of surface water, groundwater, river, lake and ground reservoir: the improvement of soil, the disposal of nuclear waste, the purification of domestic sewage, the collection of smoke and dust and the treatment of waste water. The prospective investigation and utilization of environmental mineralogical materials have been dealt with in more detail by the author of this paper with emphases on the prevention and control of soil contamination by heavy metals, on the quality im provement and treatment of surface water and groundwater,and on the collection of smoke and dust arising from burning coals.

  11. Damage tolerance of continuous fibre composites: material and environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibo, G.A.; Hogg, P.J. [Queen Mary and Westfield Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    1998-05-01

    Aerospace design philosophies are used to discuss critically, the suitability of composite materials to primary structural applications. The principal issues limiting the use of composites, compression after impact performance and high cost, are examined in terms of material/manufacturing form and environmental conditioning. The material types investigated consist of thermoset and thermoplastic matrix reinforced unidirectional prepreg tape and textile manufactured architectures. (orig.) 141 refs.

  12. On the use of infrared thermography as NDT of aerospace materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan SOROHAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeronautical structures are manufactured in a large range of materials like metallic, plastic or composite. The maintenance of aerospace structures consists in conventional inspections using different Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE methods in order to maximize the structure life and safety. LEISC (Laboratory for Integrity Evaluation of Composite Structures from the POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest is currently developing NDE methods based on the ultrasonic guided Lamb waves propagation and on the infrared thermography (IRT, methods also adapted for composite and sandwich structures. The present study focuses on the aid provided by the infrared thermography for non-destructive evaluation of aerospace materials and structures. Several samples were manufactured and tested. They consist in different materials employed in aerospace structures (metals, plexiglass, composites, hybrid composites, sandwiches and include the most commonly encountered kinds of damages (inclusions, loss of material, delaminations, impact damages. Some results concerning the use of the Infrared Thermography (IRT for monitoring the integrity of different type of materials used in aerospace structures are presented. Both passive and active thermography applications with illustrative examples are considered.

  13. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986, the NASA-Langley Research Center has sponsored the NASA-UVa Light Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program at the University of Virginia (UVa). The fundamental objective of the LA2ST program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures. The LA2ST program has aimed to product relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The scope of the LA2ST Program is broad. Research areas include: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, (3) Mechanics of materials for Aerospace Structures, and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures. A substantial series of semi-annual progress reports issued since 1987 documents the technical objectives, experimental or analytical procedures, and detailed results of graduate student research in these topical areas.

  14. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  15. Enabling materials and processes for large aerospace mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Lawrence E.; Chen, Ming Y.

    2008-07-01

    The use of monolithic glass to produce large, rigid segmented members for lightweight space-based mirror systems appears to have reached its limits due to the long production lead times, high processing costs, and launch load/weight requirements. New material solutions and processes are required to meet the US Air Force's optical needs for directed energy, reconnaissance/surveillance, and communications. Mirror structural substrates made out of advanced materials (metal, ceramic, and polymer), composites, foams, and microsphere arrays should allow for CTE and modulus tailorability, low-density, and high values in strength, stiffness, thermal conductivity and toughness. Conventional mechanical polishing to visual specifications for figure and surface finish roughness requirements will be difficult, due to the multi-phase complexities of these new systems. Advances in surface removal technologies as well as replication processes will be required to produce the required optical finishes with reduced schedule and cost. In this paper selected material and process solutions being considered will be discussed.

  16. Improved Fatigue and Damage Tolerant Material Design for Aerospace Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yigeng XU; Jiang CHEN; Jianmin LI; Zefei ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Various micro-mechanical and micro-structural influences on fatigue crack growth resistance of the material have been investigated over the years. It is widely recognized that resistance to fatigue crack growth can be differentiated into ‘intrinsic’and ‘extrinsic’.The separation of intrinsic and extrinsic crack growth resistance has constituted a major theme of fatigue research in the last 30 years, with the concept of crack closure or crack tip shielding being used to rationalize a wide range of micro-structural and mechanical influences on fatigue crack growth behavior. An accurately quantitative understanding of intrinsic and extrinsic effects on crack growth is essential to directed alloy design for improved fatigue resistance, and/or improved structural service life. This paper presents a compliance-basedcrack closure measurement method and a multi-mechanism based analytical model for the separation of intrinsic and extrinsic material fatigue resistance, with application in characterizing the fatigue performance of two high strength damage tolerant aidrame Al alloys.

  17. Study of Aerospace Materials, Coatings, Adhesions and Processes. Aircraft Icing Processes. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-14

    AP A160 413 STUDY OF AEROSPACE MATERIALS CATIS AD|SIOS A - PROCESSES AIRCRAFT IC.. (UI INSTITUbO NACIONAL DE TECNICA AEROESPACIAL MORID ISPAIN) E I...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Prepared for INSTITTTTO NACIONAL DE TECNICA AEROESPACIAL "Esteban Terradas". Torrejdn de Ardoz...ADDRESS il0. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASKC Thstituto Naciorial Tecnica Aeroespacial Dto. Aerodindmica y Navegabilidad 2301 / D1 Torrejcn de Ardoz

  18. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Allison, Sidney G.

    2009-01-01

    A new technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in materials and structures by performing temperature measurements with fiber Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of structures with subsurface defects or thickness variations. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. The data obtained from grating sensors were further analyzed with thermal modeling to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. These results were found to be consistent with those from conventional thermography techniques. Limitations of the technique were investigated using both experimental and numerical simulation techniques. Methods for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  19. Advanced bearing materials for cryogenic aerospace engine turbopump requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G.; Bhat, B. N.

    1986-01-01

    The properties of eleven alloys were investigated to select an improved bearing material for the High Pressure Oxygen Turbo Pump which delivers liquid oxygen to the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The alloys, selected through detailed literature analysis, X 405, MRC-2001, T440V, 14-4/6V, D-5, V-M Pyromet 350, Stellite 3, FerroTic CS-40, Tribaloy 800, WD-65, and CBS-600. The alloys were tested in hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness tests, and their performance was compared with the baseline 440C test alloy. As a result, five alloys were eliminated, leaving the remaining six (X 405, MRC-2001, T440V, 14-4/6V, D-5, and WD-65 to be evaluated in the next phase of NASA tests which will include fracture toughness, rolling contact fatigue, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. From these, three alloys will be selected, which will be made into ninety bearings for subsequent testing.

  20. Subcritical crack growth of selected aerospace pressure vessel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L. R.; Bixler, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    This experimental program was undertaken to determine the effects of combined cyclic/sustained loads, stress level, and crack shape on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior of cracks subjected to plane strain conditions. Material/environment combinations tested included: 2219-T87 aluminum plate in gaseous helium, room air, and 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen; 5Al-2.5 Sn (ELI) titanium plate in liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen and 6AL-4V (ELI) STA titanium plate in gaseous helium and methanol at room temperature. Most testing was accomplished using surface flawed specimens instrumented with a clip gage to continuously monitor crack opening displacements at the specimen surface. Tapered double cantilever beam specimens were also tested. Static fracture and ten hour sustained load tests were conducted to determine fracture toughness and apparent threshold stress intensity values. Cyclic tests were performed using sinusoidal loading profiles at 333 MHz (20 cpm) and trapezoidal loading profiles at both 8.3 MHz (0.5 cpm) and 3.3 MHz (0.2 cpm). Data were evaluated using modified linear elastic fracture mechanics parameters.

  1. Optical fiber sensors for damage analysis in aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Paul; May, Russell; Claus, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Under this grant, fiber optic sensors were investigated for use in the nondestructive evaluation of aging aircraft. Specifically, optical fiber sensors for detection and location of impacts on a surface, and for detection of corrosion in metals were developed. The use of neural networks was investigated for determining impact location by processing the output of a network of fiberoptic strain sensors distributed on a surface. This approach employs triangulation to determine location by comparing the arrival times at several sensors, of the acoustic signal generated by the impact. For this study, a neural network simulator running on a personal computer was used to train a network using a back-propagation algorithm. Fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) strain sensors are attached to or embedded in the surface, so that stress waves emanating from an impact can be detected. The ability of the network to determine impact location by time-or-arrival of acoustic signals was assessed by comparing network outputs with actual experimental results using impacts on a panel instrumented with optical fiber sensors. Using the neural network to process the sensor outputs, the impact location can be inferred to centimeter range accuracy directly from the arrival time data. In addition, the network can be trained to determine impact location, regardless of material anisotropy. Results demonstrate that a back-propagation network identifies impact location for an anisotropic graphite/bismaleimide plate with the same accuracy as that for an isotropic aluminum plate. Two different approaches were investigated for the development of fiber optic sensors for corrosion detection in metals, both utilizing optical fiber sensors with metal coatings. In the first approach, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber optic strain sensor was placed under tensile stress, and while in the resulting strained position, a thick coating of metal was applied. Due to an increase in

  2. Optimal Composite Materials using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduced mass composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems, but their adoption is inhibited because they require autoclave consolidation, a...

  3. Aerospace Materials and Process Technology Reinvestment Workshop Held in Dayton, Ohio on 18-19 May 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-19

    Support Division Overview "* Key Personnel for Technology Transfer "* Topics for Technoilogy Transfer Aerospace Materials and Processes Mobile ...Automated] Technology Reinvestment Workshop I Scanner Large Area Composite Inspection - Mobile Automated Scanner "• Recdy for Transition Advanced Development

  4. Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials A New Generation of Multifunctional Hybrid Structural Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Kostopoulos, V

    2013-01-01

    The well documented increase in the use of high performance composites as structural materials in aerospace components is continuously raising the demands in terms of dynamic performance, structural integrity, reliable life monitoring systems and adaptive actuating abilities. Current technologies address the above issues separately; material property tailoring and custom design practices aim to the enhancement of dynamic and damage tolerance characteristics, whereas life monitoring and actuation is performed with embedded sensors that may be detrimental to the structural integrity of the component. This publication explores the unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) as an additive in the matrix of Fibre Reinforced Plastics (FRP), for producing structural composites with improved mechanical performance as well as sensing/actuating capabilities. The successful combination of the CNT properties and existing sensing actuating technologies leads to the realization of a multifunctional FRP structure. The curre...

  5. Standard Guide for Selection of Test Methods for Interlayer Materials for Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the standard test methods available for determining physical and mechanical characteristics of interlayer materials used in multi-ply aerospace transparent enclosures. 1.2 Interlayer materials are used to laminate glass-to-glass, glass-to-plastic, and plastic-to-plastic. Interlayer materials are basically transparent adhesives with high-quality optical properties. They can also serve as an energy absorbing medium, a fail-safe membrane to contain cockpit pressure and to prevent entry of impact debris; a strain insulator to accommodate different thermal expansion rates of members being laminated and as an adherent to prevent spalling of inner surface ply material fragments. The relative importance of an interlayer characteristic will be a function of the prime use it serves in its particular application. 1.3 This guide, as a summary of various methods in Section 2, is intended to facilitate the selection of tests that can be applied to interlayer materials. 1.4 The test methods list...

  6. Compilation and development of K-6 aerospace materials for implementation in NASA spacelink electronic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jean A.

    1987-01-01

    Spacelink is an electronic information service to be operated by the Marshall Space Flight Center. It will provide NASA news and educational resources including software programs that can be accessed by anyone with a computer and modem. Spacelink is currently being installed and will soon begin service. It will provide daily updates of NASA programs, information about NASA educational services, manned space flight, unmanned space flight, aeronautics, NASA itself, lesson plans and activities, and space program spinoffs. Lesson plans and activities were extracted from existing NASA publications on aerospace activities for the elementary school. These materials were arranged into 206 documents which have been entered into the Spacelink program for use in grades K-6.

  7. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  8. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  9. Prediction of Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Characteristics of Porous Carbon-Ceramic Composite Materials of the Heat Shield of Aerospace Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, S. V.; Prosuntsov, P. V.; Mikhailovskii, K. V.

    2015-05-01

    A procedure for predicting thermophysical and thermomechanical characteristics of porous carbon-ceramic composite materials of the heat shield of aerospace craft as functions of the type of reinforcement, porosity of the structure, and the characteristics of the material's components has been developed. Results of mathematical modeling of the temperature and stressed-strained states of representative volume elements for determining the characteristics of a carbon-ceramic composite material with account taken of its anisotropy have been given.

  10. Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a fourth year effort of a research program, conducted for NASA-LeRC by the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subject to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 has been analyzed using the developed methodology.

  11. Environmental TEM in Materials Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    Over the last decades, electron microscopy has played a large role in materials research. The increasing use of particularly environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in materials science provides new possibilities for investigating nanoscale components at work. Careful experimentation...... provides input for the development of new materials for e.g. energy production. In order to design experiments with the highest chance of a successful outcome, a detailed understanding of both the interaction of electrons with gas molecules, the effect of gas on high‐resolution imaging and the behavior...... in this environment is necessary. If data is to be interpreted quantitatively, interaction of the electrons with gas molecules must be taken into account. Whereas conventional TEM samples are usually thin (below 10‐20 nm), the dilute gas fills the entire gap between the pole pieces and is thus not spatially localized...

  12. 航空航天材料发展现状及前景%A review of aerospace materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐见茂

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews advanced aerospace materials, focusing on their role and features. The performances and the applications of aerospace materials are discussed with examples, including the structural materials (aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, advanced composite), the aeronautical functional materials (wave-transmitting composite, wave-absorbing stealthy composite), the astronautical functional materials (ablative thermal protection composite, functional gradient composite). It is pointed out that the development trends of aerospace materials are in the directions of high performance, compounding, intelligent, and low cost.%文章较系统地介绍了航空航天材料的特点、地位和作用,结合具体案例分析了铝合金、钛合金、先进复合材料等结构材料,以及以透波复合材料、吸波隐身复合材料为代表的航空功能材料和以防热耐烧蚀复合材料、梯度功能复合材料为代表的航天功能材料的性能和应用,指出航空航天材料的未来发展方向是高性能、多功能、复合化、智能化、整体化、多维化和低成本化.

  13. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene as a base material for shielding cosmic radiation in aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marlon A., E-mail: marlon@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Fisica Aplicada; Goncalez, Odair L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (PG/CTE/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias Espaciais

    2013-07-01

    Materials with high content of hydrogen have good properties of shielding against the effects of cosmic rays (CR) because are less effective than materials with high nuclear masses in the generation of secondary radiation. Beside the Aluminum, Polyethylene has been used as a reference and as a base material for composites applied in structures and in shielding of ionizing radiation for aerospace applications. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), pure and doped 10% by mass with cadmium chloride, had its shielding properties for CR evaluated in this paper. Methodology used was based in conventional radioactive sources employed on simple geometries experiments and then computational simulation for isotropic fluxes of cosmic-ray high energy particles. Transmission experiments were performed with a3.7GBq (100 mCi){sup 241}Am-Be neutron source and a set of conventional calibration gamma radiation sources. Samples were characterized according to their gamma total attenuation coefficients from 59 to 1,408 keV, dose deposition curve for {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, fast neutron transmission coefficient, generation and self-absorption of thermal neutrons as well as their generation of internal cascades of secondary electrons and gamma-rays by nuclear interactions of fast neutrons with shielding material. Main effects of the additive in the polyethylene base were the most effective removal of gamma radiation and of secondary electrons with energies below 200 keV, the reduction of the albedo as well as the thermal neutrons transmission. Dose reduction due to primary CR were not significant, since the largest contribution to the doses due to high energy ionizing particles transmitted and, also, due to secondary radiation with energy above 1 MeV produced in shielding. (author)

  14. Research with neutron and synchrotron radiation on aerospace and automotive materials and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaysser, Wolfgang; Abetz, Volker; Huber, Norbert; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Pyczak, Florian; Schreyer, Andreas; Staron, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum fuer Material und Kuestenforschung, Geesthacht (Germany); Esslinger, Joerg [MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Klassen, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum fuer Material und Kuestenforschung, Geesthacht (Germany); Helmut Schmidt Universitaet, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Characterization with neutrons and synchrotron radiation has yielded essential contributions to the research and development of automotive and aerospace materials, processing methods, and components. This review mainly emphasises developments related to commercial passenger airplanes and light-duty cars. Improved and partly new materials for the reduction of airframe weight and joining by laser-beam welding and friction stir welding are ongoing areas of assessment. Chemical reactions, microstructure development, and residual stresses are frequently measured. Polymers and polymer matrix composites often require special experimental techniques. The thrust-to-weight ratio of aero-engines is increasing due to the improved design of components and the use of innovative materials. Investigations on superalloys, {gamma}-TiAl, and thermal barrier coatings are described in some detail. A discussion of the use of neutron and synchrotron diffraction in automotive applications covers the analysis of surface effects with respect to lubricants and wear, as well as the investigation of microstructure development, deformation, and fatigue behavior of materials, welds and components. Special steels, Al and Mg alloys are discussed and residual stresses in automotive components such as gears or crankshafts are described. Applications of characterization methods on membranes for polymeric membrane fuel cells and on nanocrystalline metal hydrides for hydrogen storage are shown. The degradation of railway tracks after long-term use is taken as an example for the application of synchrotron methods to transport systems beyond the commercial aircraft and light duty passenger car. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Advanced materials for aerospace and biomedical applications: New glasses for hermetic titanium seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Tallant, D.R.; Crowder, S.V. [and others

    1996-11-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys have an outstanding strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance and so are materials of choice for a variety of aerospace and biomedical applications. Such applications are limited by the lack of a viable hermetic glass sealing technology. Conventional silicate sealing glasses are readily reduced by titanium to form interfacial silicides that are incompatible with a robust glass/metal seal. Borate-based glasses undergo a similar thermochemistry and are reduced to a titanium boride. The kinetics of this reactions, however, are apparently slower and so a deleterious interface does not form. Chemically durable lanthanoborate glasses were examined as candidate sealing compositions. The compositions, properties, and structures of several alkaline earth, alumina, and titania lanthanoborate glass forming systems were evaluated and this information was used as the basis for a designed experiment to optimize compositions for Ti-sealing. A number of viable compositions were identified and sealing procedures established. Finally, glass formation, properties, and structure of biocompatible Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and TiO{sub 2}-doped calcium phosphate systems were also evaluated.

  16. Design and Analysis of Crankshaft Used in Aerospace Applications and Comparision Using Different Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Narayana Gupta,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this project was to evaluate and compare the fatigue performance of two competing manufacturing technologies for aerospace crankshafts, namely forged steel and ductile cast iron. In this project a dynamic simulation was conducted on two crankshafts, forged steel and ductile cast iron, from similar four cylinder four stroke engines. Finite element analysis was performed to obtain the variation of stress magnitude at critical locations. The pressure-volume diagram was used to calculate the load boundary condition in dynamic simulation model, and other simulation inputs were taken from the engine specification chart. The dynamic analysis was done analytically and was verified by simulations in ANSYS. Results achieved from aforementioned analysis were used in optimization of the forged steel crankshaft. Geometry, material, and manufacturing processes were optimized considering different constraints, manufacturing feasibility, and cost. The optimization Process included geometry changes compatible with the current engine, fillet rolling, and the use of micro alloyed steel, resulting in increased fatigue strength and reduced cost of the crankshaft, without changing connecting rod and or engine block.

  17. Improvement of Strength Characteristics of Aerospace Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Graft Polymerization Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Tatsuji; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Tahara, Mitsuru; Okubo, Masaaki

    The atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasma-graft polymerization treatment is applied for the surface modification of the organic fibers in order to enhance the strength of the aerospace structural composite material consisting of the laminated textiles. The influence of the treatment on the composite materials' strength properties is examined. As a result, the plasma-graft polymerization surface treatment is effective for the compression and bend of the composite materials. Because the interfacial bonding between each fiber and matrix resin is strengthened by the treatment, the strengths of the composite materials are increased.

  18. Thermophysical Properties of Selected Aerospace Materials. Part 2. Thermophysical Properties of Seven Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Determining Thermal Conductivity of Solids from 20 to 600 K," Cryogenics, 5( 1), 17-20, 1965. 11. Garth, R.C. and Sailer , V.L., "Thermal Conductivity of...34Thermal Property Data Utilized for Asset Materials," McDonnell Aircraft Corp. Rept. A656, 45 pp., 1964. [AD 480 414] 23. Makarounls, O., " Solar

  19. Environmental testing techniques for electronics and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Testing Techniques for Electronics and Materials reviews environmental testing techniques for evaluating the performance of electronic equipment, components, and materials. Environmental test planning, test methods, and instrumentation are described, along with the general environmental conditions under which equipment must operate. This book is comprised of 15 chapters and begins by explaining why environmental testing is necessary and describing the environment in which electronics must operate. The next chapter considers how an environmental test plan is designed; the methods

  20. Hierarchically-driven Approach for Quantifying Materials Uncertainty in Creep Deformation and Failure of Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    affect microstructure? What is the uncertainty associated with microstructure statistics (i.e., representative volume size )? How does material...Voronoi vertices to the occurrence and size of these interdendritic features. Interestingly, with respect to the distance from the dendrite core, it...TMS 2015 Annual Meeting, March 15–19, 2013, Orlando, FL Program Review Meetings 1. M.A. Tschopp, A.L. Oppedal, S. Turnage, ( Poster ) Hierarchically

  1. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  2. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  3. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  4. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  5. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This report on the NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from July 1, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) Ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) Powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) Rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) Discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.

  6. The Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium Environmental Information Network : building 'learning communities' in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welling, L.; Seielstad, G.; McClurg, P.; Fagre, D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This paper discussed the work that the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) has done to bridge the gap between scientific understanding of Earth's systems and public awareness of what that understanding signifies. The case of climate change was exemplified. The current trend in technological innovation and the availability of scientific information clearly indicates that the understanding of science is becoming more relevant to decision-makers. All environmental issues facing society have an undisputed scientific basis, the implications of which are important for the health and well being of society. It was shown that when people are provided with accurate, timely information about the Earth, they can better understand how and why their actions can contribute to change. It was noted that while the present generation is borrowing from future generations, people will change their behaviours if provided sufficient information and given a voice in decision-making processes that affect their lives and the lives of their descendants. This paper described several climate change programs in which UMAC has been involved, including the Prairie-Mountain Explorer, a grade 6-12 computer application resource and teacher's guide. It also described the regional assessment on the impacts of climate change, the production of a public television interstitial series called Our Changing Climate, and their work regarding climate change in national parks. UMAC's web site, www.umac.org/OCP strives to be a source of accurate, timely environmental information.

  7. Technical features and criteria in designing fiber-reinforced composite materials: from the aerospace and aeronautical field to biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Antonio; Ronca, Dante; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Chierchia, Marianna; De Santis, Roberto; Nicolais, Luigi; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Polymer-based composite materials are ideal for applications where high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios are required. From aerospace and aeronautical field to biomedical applications, fiber-reinforced polymers have replaced metals, thus emerging as an interesting alternative. As widely reported, the mechanical behavior of the composite materials involves investigation on micro- and macro-scale, taking into consideration micromechanics, macromechanics and lamination theory. Clinical situations often require repairing connective tissues and the use of composite materials may be suitable for these applications because of the possibility to design tissue substitutes or implants with the required mechanical properties. Accordingly, this review aims at stressing the importance of fiber-reinforced composite materials to make advanced and biomimetic prostheses with tailored mechanical properties, starting from the basic principle design, technologies, and a brief overview of composites applications in several fields. Fiber-reinforced composite materials for artificial tendons, ligaments, and intervertebral discs, as well as for hip stems and mandible models will be reviewed, highlighting the possibility to mimic the mechanical properties of the soft and hard tissues that they replace.

  8. CSIR ScienceScope: Aerospace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available fighter aircraft, or additional applications in other areas such as the automotive and power generation industries. Aerospace capabilities are essential to national safety and security. A large proportion of products in the aerospace sector has... of the technology is perva- sive and can, as such, be refined to fulfil the harsh environmental parameters required in both near and outer space. Technologies focusing on the aerospace sector are also likely to find application in the automotive...

  9. Magnetic Processing – A Pervasive Energy Efficient Technology for Next Generation Materials for Aerospace and Specialty Steel Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Ludtka, G.M.; Ray, P. (Carpenter Technologies, Inc.); Magee, J. (Carpenter Technologies, Inc.)

    2010-09-10

    Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing is an exceptionally fertile, pervasive and cross-cutting technology that is just now being recognized by several major industry leaders for its significant potential to increase energy efficiency and materials performance for a myriad of energy intensive industries in a variety of areas and applications. ORNL has pioneered the use and development of large magnetic fields in thermomagnetically processing (T-MP) materials for altering materials phase equilibria and transformation kinetics. ORNL has discovered that using magnetic fields, we can produce unique materials responses. T-MP can produce unique phase stabilities & microstructures with improved materials performance for structural and functional applications not achieved with traditional processing techniques. These results suggest that there are unprecedented opportunities to produce significantly enhanced materials properties via atomistic level (nano-) microstructural control and manipulation. ORNL (in addition to others) have shown that grain boundary chemistry and precipitation kinetics are also affected by large magnetic fields. This CRADA has taken advantage of ORNL’s unique, custom-designed thermo-magnetic, 9 Tesla superconducting magnet facility that enables rapid heating and cooling of metallic components within the magnet bore; as well as ORNL’s expertise in high magnetic field (HMF) research. Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is a a US-based industrial company, that provides enhanced performance alloys for the Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. In this CRADA, Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is focusing on applying ORNL’s Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing (TMP) technology to improve their current and future proprietary materials’ product performance and open up new markets for their Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. Unprecedented mechanical property performance improvements have been demonstrated for a high strength bainitic alloy industrial

  10. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  11. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  12. Hierarchically nanostructured materials for sustainable environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions, and multiple functionalities toward water remediation, biosensing, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing, and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology. PMID:24790946

  13. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  14. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; Fajardo Peña, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263.

  15. Environmentally Assisted Cracking Properties of AA7249 Extrusions for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    M Alloy Products.” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 02.02. West Conshohocken, PA: 2001. 36 D.R. Askeland . The Science and Engineering of...Materials. Second Edition. Boston, MA 1989. Askeland . The Science and Engine 1989. 38 Current) Method.” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03

  16. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  17. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  18. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Among the...

  19. Research on lock-in thermography for aerospace materials of nondestructive test based on image sequence processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Dai, Jingmin; Wang, Yang

    2008-11-01

    IR Lock in thermography is an active thermography technology based on thermal wave signal processing, especially, it has many advantages for nondestructive test of composite materials and compound structure application and has been applied on aerospace, automotive, mechanics and electric fields. In lock in thermography, given sufficient time for periodic heating, the surface temperature will evolve periodically in a sinusoidal pattern form the transient state to the steady state. In this paper, the principle of lock in thermography is introduced and the heat transferring process is analyzed by the sinusoidal variation heating flow transferred in materials by means of FEM method. In experiment, the modulating optical stimulation is applied to sample, and image sequences are collected by Jade MWIR 550 FPA IR camera. The digital filter algorithm which is Savitzky-Golay digital smoothness filters is used to remove the effects of high frequency noise. A phase image at the frequency of periodic heating can be calculated using a Fourier transform of the periodic heating frequency in transient state for defect detection. The IR lock in thermography processing software is developed by using of visual C++ programmed based image sequence collected. The experimental results show that the developed system reached up to high level of conventional steady state Lock in method.

  20. Synthesis of Hafnium-Based Ceramic Materials for Ultra-High Temperature Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Feldman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    This project involved the synthesis of hafnium (Hf)-based ceramic powders and Hf-based precursor solutions that were suitable for preparation of Hf-based ceramics. The Hf-based ceramic materials of interest in this project were hafnium carbide (with nominal composition HE) and hafnium dioxide (HfO2). The materials were prepared at Georgia Institute of Technology and then supplied to research collaborators Dr. Sylvia Johnson and Dr. Jay Feldman) at NASA Ames Research Center.

  1. Synthesis of Hafnium-Based Ceramic Materials for Ultra-High Temperature Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Feldman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    This project involved the synthesis of hafnium (Hf)-based ceramic powders and Hf-based precursor solutions that were suitable for preparation of Hf-based ceramics. The Hf-based ceramic materials of interest in this project were hafnium carbide (with nominal composition HE) and hafnium dioxide (HfO2). The materials were prepared at Georgia Institute of Technology and then supplied to research collaborators Dr. Sylvia Johnson and Dr. Jay Feldman) at NASA Ames Research Center.

  2. Development of synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Arvic; Gilligan, Chris

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a novel way of developing synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials via the sol-gel process is described. Two solid reference materials (both having a SiO(2) matrix) were synthesised by hydrolysing a liquid mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), ethanol and standardised mixed radionuclide solutions. The certified values, which were in the Bqg(-1) range, for the radionuclides in the material were determined by NPL and compared with results from measurements made by 36 organisations from 17 countries using a 'consensus' approach. The measurements were made within two wider test exercises (the NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercises 2009 and 2010). Certified activity concentration values were obtained for (60)Co, (133)Ba, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, (154)Eu and (241)Am and indicative values were obtained for (55)Fe and (90)Sr.

  3. New Effective Material Couple--Oxide Ceramic and Carbon Nanotube-- Developed for Aerospace Microsystem and Micromachine Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; VanderWal, Randall L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2004-01-01

    The prime driving force for using microsystem and micromachine technologies in transport vehicles, such as spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles, is to reduce the weight, power consumption, and volume of components and systems to lower costs and increase affordability and reliability. However, a number of specific issues need to be addressed with respect to using microsystems and micromachines in aerospace applications--such as the lack of understanding of material characteristics; methods for producing and testing the materials in small batches; the limited proven durability and lifetime of current microcomponents, packaging, and interconnections; a cultural change with respect to system designs; and the use of embedded software, which will require new product assurance guidelines. In regards to material characteristics, there are significant adhesion, friction, and wear issues in using microdevices. Because these issues are directly related to surface phenomena, they cannot be scaled down linearly and they become increasingly important as the devices become smaller. When microsystems have contacting surfaces in relative motion, the adhesion and friction affect performance, energy consumption, wear damage, maintenance, lifetime and catastrophic failure, and reliability. Ceramics, for the most part, do not have inherently good friction and wear properties. For example, coefficients of friction in excess of 0.7 have been reported for ceramics and ceramic composite materials. Under Alternate Fuels Foundation Technologies funding, two-phase oxide ceramics developed for superior high-temperature wear resistance in NASA's High Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) project and new two-layered carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings (CNT topcoat/iron bondcoat/quartz substrate) developed in NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) project have been chosen as a materials couple for aerospace applications, including micromachines, in the nanotechnology

  4. Applying Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jon

    2017-01-01

    A variety of transparent ceramics, such as AlONs and spinels, that were developed for military applications hold promise as spacecraft windows. Window materials in spacecraft such as the Space Shuttle must meet many requirements such as maintaining cabin pressure, sustaining thermal shock, and tolerating damage from hyper-velocity impact while providing superior optical characteristics. The workhorse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low density, low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits lower fracture toughness and impact resistance as compared to newer materials. Can these newer transparent ceramics lighten spacecraft window systems and might they be useful for applications such as phone screens? This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and demonstrate how weight can be saved.

  5. Liquid crystalline thermosetting polymers as protective coatings for aerospace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerriero, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental regulations are driving the development of new aerospace coating systems, mainly to eliminate chromates and reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Among the various potential options for new coating materials, liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) are attractive due to their un

  6. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Energy and Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Asthana, Ralph N.

    2007-01-01

    Robust and affordable integration technologies for advanced ceramics are required to improve the performance, reliability, efficiency, and durability of components, devices, and systems based on them in a wide variety of energy, aerospace, and environmental applications. Many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors including joint design, analysis, and optimization must be considered in integration of similar and dissimilar material systems.

  7. Factors Affecting the Supply of Strategic Raw Materials with Particular Reference to the Aerospace Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    scale of production and technological-industrial problems, chromium, cobalt, hafnium , manganese, niobium, titanium, tungsten and vanadium are all...resources are likely to increase. While the raw materials specified (chromium, cobalt, hafnium , niobium, tantalum, manganese, molybdenum, titanium...are those based on aluminium , nickel, steel and titanium. In engine production nickel, steel and titanium are used respectively for the hot end

  8. Conference on Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures, 18-21 November 1975, Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    and forth and to the right and left in relacion to the area of interest and indexing approximately 0.050 inch increments along the canopy edge. During...in the K calculation is related to the Poisson ratio for the material and will be no greater than approxima’- ly 10%. A striking feature in all tests

  9. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  10. Conference on Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures Held at Scottsdale, Arizona on 11-14 July 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Lt. Col. L. V. Genco , Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory OPTICAL EFFECTS OF F-16 CANOPY AND HUD INTEGRATION 808 H. L. Task, Air Force...flight ready status. Increae-•td sortie generation rates js a goal for t:op wartime environnent . M&.thods of quicu ’:r repairin0 battle dauagee...VISUAL EFFECTS OF F-16 CANOPY/HUD INTEGRATION Lt Col Louis V. Genco Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Human Engineering

  11. A study of the applicability of gallium arsenide and silicon carbide as aerospace sensor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the piezoresistive sensors, to date, are made of silicon and germanium. Unfortunately, such materials are severly restricted in high temperature environments. By comparing the effects of temperature on the impurity concentrations and piezoresistive coefficients of silicon, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide, it is being determined if gallium arsenide and silicon carbide are better suited materials for piezoresistive sensors in high temperature environments. The results show that the melting point for gallium arsenide prevents it from solely being used in high temperature situations, however, when used in the alloy Al(x)Ga(1-x)As, not only the advantage of the wider energy band gas is obtained, but also the higher desire melting temperature. Silicon carbide, with its wide energy band gap and higher melting temperature suggests promise as a high temperature piezoresistive sensor.

  12. Pulsed Nd: YAG laser drilling of aerospace materials (Ti-6Al-4V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, N. D.; Marimuthu, S.; Yahya, W. J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the influence of Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) laser process parameters on laser drilled hole quality. Ti-6Al-4V of 1 mm and 3 mm thickness were used as the workpiece substrate. The principal findings are mainly based on minimising the taper angle in laser drilled holes, reducing the heat affected zone and reducing the production of spatter. Identification of key process variables associated with laser drilling process is accomplished by trial experimentation. Using the identified key process variables, further experiments were then performed with the assistance of statistical design of experiment (DOE) to find the interaction and individual effects of various laser process parameters on laser drilled hole quality. The lowest taper angle of 1.8 degrees was achieved with use of nitrogen as the assist gas. Furthermore, from the laser process observations, it was found that laser power significantly affects the quality of the laser drilled hole. Increase in laser power would increase the hole size and result in more spatter on the entry hole surfaces. The nozzle focus position substantially influenced the laser drilled hole size. The amount of spatter deposits increased with decrease in the nozzle offset. Increase in laser frequency significantly increased the exit diameter, which resulted in smaller taper angle. Number of pulse required to drill through a workpiece depends on the material properties and physical properties of the material. For 1mm Ti-6Al-4V, a minimum of two pulses was required to successfully removed the material during drilling and a minimum of 4 pulses was required to drill through the same material with 3mm thickness.

  13. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called digital materials. We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  14. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called "digital materials." We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  15. Today's wastes, tomorrow's materials for environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Macaskie, L.E.; Mikheenko, I.P.; Yong, P.; Deplanche, K; Murray, A J; Paterson-Beedle, M; Coker, V. S.; Pearce, C. I.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Vaughan, D.; Van Der Laan, G; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the literature has burgeoned with bioremediation approaches to heavy metal removal from wastes. The price of base and precious metals has dramatically increased. With the resurgence of nuclear energy uranium has become a strategic resource. Other 'non-carbon energy' technologies are driven by the need to reduce CO2 emissions. The 'New Biohydrometallurgy' we describe unites these drivers by the concept of conversion of wastes into new materials for environmental applicat...

  16. Progress in High Power Density SOFC Material Development for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Sofie, Stephen W.; Setlock, John A.; Misra, Ajay K.

    2004-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for aircraft applications require order of magnitude increase in specific power density and long life under aircraft operating conditions. Advanced SOFC materials and fabrication processes are being developed at NASA GRC to increase specific power density and durability of SOFC cell and stack. Initial research efforts for increasing specific power density are directed toward increasing the operating temperature for the SOFC system and reducing the weight of the stack. While significant research is underway to develop anode supported SOFC system operating at temperatures in the range of 650 - 850 C for ground power generation applications, such temperatures may not yield the power densities required for aircraft applications. For electrode-supported cells, SOFC stacks with power densities greater than 1.0 W/sq cm are favorable at temperatures in excess of 900 C. The performance of various commercial and developmental anode supported cells is currently being evaluated in the temperature range of 900 to 1000 C to assess the performance gains and materials reliability. The results from these studies will be presented. Since metal interconnects developed for lower temperature operation are not practical at these high temperatures, advanced perovskite based ceramic interconnects with high electronic conductivity and lower sintering temperatures are being developed. Another option for increasing specific power density of SOFC stacks is to decrease the stack weight. Since the interconnect contributes to a significant portion of the stack weight, considerable weight benefits can be derived by decreasing its thickness. Eliminating the gas channels in the interconnect by engineering the pore structure in both anode and cathode can offer significant reduction in thickness of the ceramic interconnect material. New solid oxide fuel cells are being developed with porous engineered electrode supported structures with a 10 - 20 micron thin

  17. The Development of Materials for Structures and Radiation Shielding in Aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Polymeric materials on space vehicles and high-altitude aircraft win be exposed to highly penetrating radiations. These radiations come from solar flares and galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Radiation from solar flares consists primarily of protons with energies less than 1 GeV. On the other hand, GCR consist of nuclei with energies as high as 10(exp 10) GeV. Over 90% of the nuclei in GCR are protons and alpha particles, however there is a small but significant component of particles with atomic numbers greater than ten. Particles with high atomic number (Z) and high energy interact with very high specific ionization and thus represent a serious hazard for humans and electronic equipment on a spacecraft or on high-altitude commercial aircraft (most importantly for crew members who would have long exposures). Neutrons generated by reactions with the high energy particles also represent a hazard both for humans and electronic equipment.

  18. Environmental Radiation Hazards of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. Nasser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the importance of studying the environmental impact of building material properties grew. The main focus was to study physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of building materials. Buildings are the environment that a human spend about 80% of his life. Human exposure to radiation doses emerging from natural and manufactured building materials caused serious diseases. The hazard of radiation doses on human body, especially Radon, was discovered. Radon is produced of the radioactive decay of Uranium and Thorium series. It is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas. It inters human body by breathing and produces harmful radioactive elements. It has become a goal to know the limits of safety for building materials and to establish green buildings. Health and environmental risks have to take first command in the construction field to take proper precautions to ward off risks. Radon emission was investigated. The radioactive concentration of indoor air may be decreased under the permissible doses by the building geometry variation and other ways as reviewed in this investigation.

  19. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  20. Aerospace dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry.

  1. Aerospace Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry.

  2. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the major environmental hazards in the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) are energetic charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. The charged particles, electrons and protons, range in energy from 0.1 to 4 MeV and each have a flux of 10 to the 8th sq cm/sec. Over a 30 year lifetime, materials in the GEO will have an absorbed dose from this radiation of 10 to the 10th rads. The ultraviolet radiation comes uninhibited from the sun with an irradiance of 1.4 kw/sq m. Radiation is known to initiate chain sission and crosslinking in polymeric materials, both of which affect their structural properties. The 30-year dose level from the combined radiation in the GEO exceeds the threshold for measurable damage in most polymer systems studied. Of further concern is possible synergistic effects from the simultaneous irradiation with charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. Most studies on radiation effects on polymeric materials use either electrons or ultraviolet radiation alone, or in a sequential combination.

  3. Environmental reference materials methods and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm-Nielsen, Karina Edith

    1998-01-01

    This thesis introduces the reader to the concept of chemical environmental reference materials and their role in traceability and chemical analyses of the environment. A number of models and principles from the literature are described. Some suggestions are made as to how stability studies can...... be modelled when the length of the study is unknown. Experimental data has been collected from two stability studies of aqueous matrices. The first study regards the stability of TN NO² + ³-N and n in autoclaved wastewater samples over a period of 22 months. Data was collected specifically for this study...... with two purposes: 1) to investigate the stability of selected analytes in the chosen matrices and 2) to explore the applicability of various statistical models for the description of stability studies. Three univariate and three multivariate stability models have been applied to these data sets...

  4. Studies of molecular properties of polymeric materials: Aerospace environmental effects on three linear polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, W. L.; Ries, H. R.; Bradbury, C. A.; Gray, S. L.; Collins, W. D.; Long, S. A. T.; Long, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The development of crystal handling techniques for reflection infrared spectroscopy and methods for the fabrication and testing of tensile specimens are discussed. Data from mechanical, ac and dc electrical, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies conducted to determine the effects of 0.1-MeV and 1.0-MeV electron radiation on Mylar, Kapton, Ultem, and metal-doped Ultem are presented. Total doses ranging from 1 X 10 to the 8 rads to 1 X 10 to the 10 rads and dose rates from 5 X 10 to the 7 rads/hr to 1 X 10 to the 9 rads/hr were employed. The results of a study on the effects of aircraft service-environment fluids on Ultem are also reported. The weights and mechanical properties of Ultem were evaluated before and after exposure to water, JP4, Skydrol, an antifreeze, and a paint stripper.

  5. Aerospace gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  6. Aerospace Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposal Title: Aerospace Systems Monitor PHASE 1 Technical Abstract: This Phase II STTR project will continue development and commercialization of the Aerospace...

  7. Health, safety and environmental requirements for composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazer, Kathleen A.

    1994-01-01

    The health, safety and environmental requirements for the production of composite materials are discussed. The areas covered include: (1) chemical identification for each chemical; (2) toxicology; (3) industrial hygiene; (4) fire and safety; (5) environmental aspects; and (6) medical concerns.

  8. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications, Report on NASA-Kamatics SAA3-1288

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Under NASA Space Act Agreement (SAA3-1288), NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54 kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  9. Environmental degradation of advanced and traditional engineering materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hihara, Lloyd H; Adler, Ralph P. I; Latanision, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    "From metals and polymers to ceramics, natural materials, and composites, this book covers the environmental impacts on a broad range of materials used for the engineering of infrastructure, buildings...

  10. Handbook of environmental degradation of materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kutz, Myer

    2012-01-01

    Divided into sections which deal with analysis, types of degradation, protection and surface engineering respectively, the reader is introduced to the wide variety of environmental effects and what...

  11. Prepsolv (TM): The optimum alternative to 1,1,1-trichloroethane and methyl ethyl ketone for hand-wipe cleaning of aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. Scott; Purvis, John A.; Moran, Wade W.

    1995-01-01

    Engineers at Hercules Aerospace, a rocket motor manufacturer in Utah, have worked closely with chemists at Glidco Organics to study the feasibility of using terpenes for zero-residue wipe cleaning. The result of this work is a technological breakthrough, in which the barrier to ultra-low non-volatile residue formation has been broken. After 2 years of development and testing, SCM Glidco Organics has announced the availability of Glidsafe(registered trademark) Prepsolv(TM): a state-of-the-art ultra-low residue terpene wipe cleaning agent that does not require rinsing. Prepsolv(TM) can successfully be used in simple hand-wipe cleaning processes without fear of leaving surface residues. Industry testing has confirmed that Prepsolv(TM) is not only highly effective, but can even be less expensive to use than traditional cleaning solvents like methyl chloroform. This paper addresses the features and benefits of Prepsolv(TM), and presents performance and material compatibility data that characterizes this unique cleaning agent. Since its commercialization, Hercules Aerospace has chosen Prepsolv(TM) as the optimum cleaning agent to replace ozone-depleting solvents in their weapons factory in Magna, UT. Likewise, Boeing has approved Prepsolv(TM) for cleaning components in the manufacture of commercial aircraft at their facilities in Seattle, WA and Wichita, KS. Additional approvals are forthcoming for this uniquely safe and effective solvent.

  12. Environmentally compatible next generation green energetic materials (GEMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Sivabalan, R; Mukundan, T; Muthurajan, H; Sikder, A K; Gandhe, B R; Rao, A Subhananda

    2009-01-30

    This paper briefly reviews the literature work reported on the environmentally compatible green energetic materials (GEMs) for defence and space applications. Currently, great emphasis is laid in the field of high-energy materials (HEMs) to increase the environmental stewardship along with the deliverance of improved performance. This emphasis is especially strong in the areas of energetic materials, weapon development, processing, and disposal operations. Therefore, efforts are on to develop energetic materials systems under the broad concept of green energetic materials (GEMs) in different schools all over the globe. The GEMs program initiated globally by different schools addresses these challenges and establishes the framework for advances in energetic materials processing and production that promote compliance with environmental regulations. This review also briefs the principles of green chemistry pertaining to HEMs, followed by the work carried out globally on environmentally compatible green energetic materials and allied ingredients.

  13. Aerospace Grade Carbon Felt Preform Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop an aerospace-grade carbon felt preform by employing application specific materials with effective processes and fabrication...

  14. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    level. The temporal scope is defined by the impact category considered. The technological scope includes both current environmental performance of biomaterials and a discussion of future perspectives, including potentials for future change in their environmental impacts compared to fossil based...... place in biomaterials, on which there is currently no consensus. Other important environmental aspects related to biomaterials that are currently not generally included in LCAs are land use and land use change (LULUC) related impacts, such as changes in biogenic carbon stocks (especially including soil......Goal and scope The goal of this PhD project is to contribute to a more consistent methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA) of biomaterials and to address the environmental performance and perspectives of biomaterials. In particular, it is the goal to develop an approach for dealing...

  15. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Richard; Clark, Brett

    2010-01-01

    There are widely divergent views on how science and technology are connected to environmental problems. A view commonly held among natural scientists and policy makers is that environmental problems are primarily technical problems that can be solved via the development and implementation of technological innovations. This technologically optimistic view tends to ignore power relationships in society and the political-economic order that drives environmental degradation. An opposed view, common among postmodernist and poststructuralist scholars, is that the emergence of the scientific worldview is one of the fundamental causes of human oppression. This postmodernist view rejects scientific epistemology and often is associated with an anti-realist stance, which ultimately serves to deny the reality of environmental problems, thus (unintentionally) abetting right-wing efforts to scuttle environmental protection. We argue that both the technologically optimistic and the postmodernist views are misguided, and both undermine our ability to address environmental crises. We advocate the adoption of a critical materialist stance, which recognizes the importance of natural science for helping us to understand the world while also recognizing the social embeddedness of the scientific establishment and the need to challenge the manipulation of science by the elite.

  16. Solar Sail: Materials and Space Environmental Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of a solar sail material degradation are presented when the solar electromagnetic and corpuscular forms of radiation were considered as sources of degradation. The analysis of the interaction of two components of solar radiation, the electromagnetic radiation and radiation of low- and high-energy electrons, protons, and helium ions emitted by the Sun with the solar-sail materials is discussed. The physical processes of the interactions of photons, electrons, protons and alpha-particles with sail material atoms and nuclei, leading to the degradation and ionization of solar sail materials are analyzed. The dependence of reflectivity and absorption for solar sail materials on temperature and on wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum of solar radiation is investigated. It is shown that the temperature of a solar sail increases approximately as T r^(-2/5), with the decrease of the heliocentric distance r, when are taking into account the temperature dependence of optical parameters of the s...

  17. Soft intelligent material and its applications in aerospace%智能软聚合物及其航空航天领域应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立武; 赵伟; 兰鑫; 刘彦菊; 冷劲松

    2016-01-01

    Soft intelligent materials can produce different deformation under some external stimuli ( such as temperature, electricity, light, magnetic field, and so on) to demonstrate the activities. As the representative of the new intelligent soft active polymer materials, shape memory polymer and electro active polymer are showing significant potential. In the review, the actuation methods, applications of SMP in the aerospace field and its composites are introduced; in addition, the recent progress of theoretical studies and aerospace applications of dielectric elastomer are summarized.%智能软材料针对外界的刺激(如温度、电场、光、磁场等等)能够产生不同程度的形变而体现出活性。作为新型智能软活性聚合物材料的代表,形状记忆聚合物和电致活性聚合物主动软材料日益显示出巨大的应用前景。本文综述了形状记忆聚合物及其复合材料以及驱动方法,形状记忆聚合物智能材料在航天领域的应用,介电弹性体材料及其复合材料,介电弹性体材料的理论研究进展,介电弹性体材料在航空航天领域的应用。

  18. Environmental assessment and specification of green building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschle, L. M.

    1998-12-01

    The central thesis of this paper is that building with environmentally friendly and `green` materials can lead to significant benefits in terms of improved indoor air quality and a healthy and more productive indoor environment. Recycled content and recyclable products can also help minimize the negative impact on the natural environment by keeping construction materials out of the waste stream, not to mention the cost savings that can be generated when specifying materials with recycled content. Savings in embodied energy is generally less when using recycled content as opposed to raw materials in the manufacture of building materials. The gradual depletion of raw materials will generate increased demand for `greener` products and may, in due course, replace traditional building products. Criteria for the assessment of environmental materials, the `greening` of project specifications, and a process for the environmental specification of building products is also described. 8 refs.

  19. NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report is concerned with 'Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft' which was initiated to identify the technology needs associated with advanced, low-cost aluminum base materials for use as primary structural materials. Using a reference baseline aircraft, these materials concept will be further developed and evaluated both technically and economically to determine the most attractive combinations of designs, materials, and manufacturing techniques for major structural sections of an HSCT. Once this has been accomplished, the baseline aircraft will be resized, if applicable, and performance objectives and economic evaluations made to determine aircraft operating costs. The two primary objectives of this study are: (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials, and (2) to assess these materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT.

  20. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  1. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand's consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  2. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  3. Materials for Energy Conversion and Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    they were well balanced , motivated and worked well together. They were very pleased with the student projects and some even offered to look into...Laboratório de Hidrogênio. He is also the editor of Materia . Prof. V. de Miranda’s current research interests include: hydrogen storage materials...external circuit. The electrolyte conducts these ions between the electrodes maintaining overall electrical charge balance . The flow of electrons

  4. The Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium Environmental Information Network: Building ‘Learning Communities’ in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Leigh; Seielstad, George; McClurg, Pat; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2000-01-01

    In the last two decades alone, the U.S. and large portions of the world have witnessed what can be aptly be described as an explosion of scientific information and technological innovations that has permeated almost every aspect of our lives. Given these trends, it is clear that science and the understanding of science are becoming increasingly more relevant and essential to decision-makers and the decision-making process. Every environmental issue confronting society has an undisputed scientific underpinning. Understanding the implications of the science underpinning issues of particular importance to the health and well being of society constitutes the basis for making more informed and enlightened decisions. However obvious this linkage may be, many factors continue to serve as impediments to the broader understanding and incorporation of science into policy- and decision-making processes, as perhaps is best exemplified by the case of climate science.

  5. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Polymeric materials that may be exposed on spacecraft to the hostile environment beyond Earth's atmosphere were subjected to atomic oxygen, electron bombardment, and ultraviolet radiation in terrestrial experiments. Evidence is presented for the utility of an inexpensive asher for determining the relative susceptibility of organic polymers to atomic oxygen. Kapton, Ultem, P1700 polysulfone, and m-CBB/BIS-A (a specially formulated polymer prepared at NASA Langley) all eroded at high rates, just as was observed in shuttle experiments. Films of Ultem, P1700 polysulfone, and m-CBB/BIS-A were irradiated with 85 keV electrons. The UV/VIS absorbance of Ultem was found to decay with time after irradiation, indicating free radical decay. The tensile properties of Ultem began to change only after it had been exposed to 100 Mrads. The effects of dose rate, temperature, and simultaneous vs. sequential electron and UV irradiation were also studied.

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the environmental survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), conducted June 16 through 27, 1986. The survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the FMPC. The survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at FMPC, and interviews with site personnel. The survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its onsite activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE national laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the FMPC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the FMPC survey. 41 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Materials selection and design of products with low environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M.F. [Engineering Design Centre, Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering, Engineering Design Centre; Wegst, U.G.K. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    The creation, use and disposal of any engineering product carry with it an environmental burden. Materials contribute to it in their production, use and disposal of these products. The minimisation of the environmental burden for the whole life-time requires the selection of materials that-without compromising product quality-create less toxic by-products, allow a longer life, are more easily recycled, are lighter and less energy intensive, and that, where possible, use renewable or non-critical resources. The research described here aims at the environmentally-conscious selection of materials early in the design process. It is illustrated by a case study on materials substitution for lightweight cars. (orig.)

  8. Environmental influences on materials. Umwelteinfluesse auf Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesch, S.; Faller, M.; Heimgartner, P. (Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Industrie, Bauwesen und Gewerbe, Duebendorf (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of different metals commonly used in civil engineering and construction was investigated under outdoor exposure conditions. The exposure sites were chosen at locations of the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL) in different regions of Switzerland, where the concentrations of different air pollutants and climate data are registered continuously. After different exposure times, a set of test specimen is taken back for gravimetric evaluation of material loss and chemical characterization of corrosion products and deposits. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to characterize corrosion products. Water soluble compounds on the metal surfaces have also been analyzed quantitatively. First results for the exposure period of six months are presented. They show large differences in corrosion rate and in the amount of corrosive species on the metal surface for the different test sites. In some cases a very good correlations to the specific pollution and climate conditions at the particular locations is possible. (author) 11 figs., 7 tabs., 40 refs.

  9. Standard practice for radiologic examination of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice is intended to be used as a supplement to Practices E 1742, E 1255, and E 2033. 1.2 This practice describes procedures for radiologic examination of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials made entirely or in part from fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites. Radiologic examination is: a) radiographic (RT) with film, b) Computed Radiography (CR) with Imaging Plate, c) Digital Radiology (DR) with Digital Detector Array’s (DDA), and d) Radioscopic (RTR) Real Time Radiology with a detection system such as an Image Intensifier. The composite materials under consideration typically contain continuous high modulus fibers (> 20 GPa), such as those listed in 1.4. 1.3 This practice describes established radiological examination methods that are currently used by industry that have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials during product process design and optimization, process control, after manufacture inspection, in service exami...

  10. PREFACE: Trends in Aerospace Manufacturing 2009 International Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Keith; Gault, Rosemary; Allen, Adrian

    2011-12-01

    The aerospace industry is rapidly changing. New aircraft structures are being developed and aero-engines are becoming lighter and more environmentally friendly. In both areas, innovative materials and manufacturing methods are used in an attempt to get maximum performance for minimum cost. At the same time, the structure of the industry has changed and there has been a move from large companies designing, manufacturing components and assembling aircraft to one of large global supply chains headed by large system integrators. All these changes have forced engineers and managers to bring in innovations in design, materials, manufacturing technologies and supply chain management. In September 2009, the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) at the University of Sheffield held the inaugural Trends in Aerospace Manufacturing conference (TRAM09). This brought together 28 speakers over two days, who presented in sessions on advanced manufacturing trends for the aerospace sector. Areas covered included new materials, including composites, advanced machining, state of the art additive manufacturing techniques, assembly and supply chain issues.

  11. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  12. Effect of Aerogel Particle Concentration on Mechanical Behavior of Impregnated RTV 655 Compound Material for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are a unique class of materials with superior thermal and mechanical properties particularly suitable for insulating and cryogenic storage applications. It is possible to overcome geometrical restrictions imposed by the rigidity of monolithic polyurea cross-linked silica aerogels by encapsulating micrometer-sized particles in a chemically resistant thermally insulating elastomeric “sleeve.” The ultimate limiting factor for the compound material’s performance is the effect of aerogel particles on the mechanical behavior of the compound material which needs to be fully characterized. The effect of size and concentration of aerogel microparticles on the tensile behavior of aerogel impregnated RTV655 samples was explored both at room temperature and at 77 K. Aerogel microparticles were created using a step-pulse pulverizing technique resulting in particle diameters between 425 μm and 90 μm and subsequently embedded in an RTV 655 elastomeric matrix. Aerogel particle concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 wt% were subjected to tensile tests and behavior of the compound material was investigated. Room temperature and cryogenic temperature studies revealed a compound material with rupture load values dependent on (1 microparticle size and (2 microparticle concentration. Results presented show how the stress elongation behavior depends on each parameter.

  13. Damage growth in aerospace composites

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents novel methods for the simulation of damage evolution in aerospace composites that will assist in predicting damage onset and growth and thus foster less conservative designs which realize the promised economic benefits of composite materials. The presented integrated numerical/experimental methodologies are capable of taking into account the presence of damage and its evolution in composite structures from the early phases of the design (conceptual design) through to the detailed finite element method analysis and verification phase. The book is based on the GARTEUR Research Project AG-32, which ran from 2007 to 2012, and documents the main results of that project. In addition, the state of the art in European projects on damage evolution in composites is reviewed. While the high specific strength and stiffness of composite materials make them suitable for aerospace structures, their sensitivity to damage means that designing with composites is a challenging task. The new approaches describ...

  14. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  15. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  16. Sandwiched composites in aerospace engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, J. P.; Silva,J.F.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers sandwiched composites used in aerospace applications. Typical sandwich composites consist of two thin, stiff, high-strength facing skins separated by a thick and light core. New developments in the type of face and core materials, production methods and joining and repair techniques are discussed in this chapter. It also discusses various properties as well as their main design methods for existing and future applications of sandwiched composites.

  17. Carbon nanotechnology for future aerospace

    OpenAIRE

    Inam, Fawad

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are being widely investigated for their addition in polymer, ceramic and metal matrices to prepare nanocomposites owing to the combination of the superlative mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties attributed to them. These materials are subject of significant research interest for their utilisation in an increasing number of applications including energy, transportation, defence, automotive, aerospace, sporting goods, and infrastructure sectors. Pa...

  18. Narcissism, Materialism, and Environmental Ethics in Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Westerman, Jennifer; Daly, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationships between narcissism, materialism, and environmental ethics in undergraduate business students. Data were collected from business students (n = 405) at an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited business school at a comprehensive state university. Results indicate that narcissism has an…

  19. Narcissism, Materialism, and Environmental Ethics in Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Westerman, Jennifer; Daly, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationships between narcissism, materialism, and environmental ethics in undergraduate business students. Data were collected from business students (n = 405) at an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited business school at a comprehensive state university. Results indicate that narcissism has an…

  20. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects on the structu...

  1. Expert opinion regarding environmental enrichment materials for pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report on the expert opinion regarding the provision of environmental enrichment for pigs. A questionnaire was sent to 53 pig welfare scientists who were asked to specify which enrichment materials they considered sufficient to ensure pig welfare; 68% responded. 89% sta

  2. Environmental stability study of holographic solar spectrum splitting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysler, Benjamin D.; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby D.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this study the impact of outdoor temperature variations and solar illumination exposure on spectral filter material and holographic optical elements is examined. Although holographic components have been shown to be useful for solar spectrum splitting designs, relatively little quantitative data exist to demonstrate the extent to which these materials can withstand outdoor conditions. As researchers seek to investigate practical spectrum splitting designs, the environmental stability of holographic materials should be considered as an important factor. In the experiment presented, two holographic materials, Covestro Bayfol HX photopolymer and dichromated gelatin, and 3M reflective polymer filter materials are exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of several months. The environmental effect on absorption, spectral and angular bandwidth, peak efficiency, and Bragg matching conditions for the holograms are examined. Spectral bandwidth and transmittance of the 3M reflective filter material are also monitored. Holographic gratings are recorded, measured, and mounted on glass substrates and then sealed with a glass cover plate. The test samples are then mounted on a photovoltaic panel to simulate realistic temperature conditions and placed at an outdoor test facility in Tucson, Arizona. A duplicate set of holograms and 3M filter material is stored as a control group and periodically compared over the test period.

  3. Selecting Materials for Environmental-Friendly Buildings: The Need for Improved Environmental Impact Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachawit T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings of the future need to be more environmental-friendly. Selecting environmentally-benign materials in design stage would partly help achieving such goal. Examination of existing environmental impact data of building materials reveals that the data differ greatly from one source to another. Comparisons of environmental impact values of selected materials are presented. The sources that give rise to data variation are identified and discussed. The applicability of existing data is assessed from the designers’ perspective. Limitations of current practice in data acquisition and presentation are also discussed. It is concluded that existing environmental impact data of building materials are inconsistent and perplexing to designers. An alternative approach to data acquisition and presentation is to break the life cycle of building materials into several phases and to calculate the total impact value as the sum of the impacts of all phases. This would make the determination of the full life cycle value feasible and increase external validity of research results.

  4. NASA’s Materials and Processes Technology Information System (MAPTIS): How It Relates to Sustainable Aerospace Advanced Manufacturing and Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NASA’s...Technology Roadmap Strategies”: * K. Geiser (2001) Materials Matter 1. Detoxification 2. Dematerialization 3. Decarbonization MAPTIS and Sustainable Materials

  5. A multicriteria approach for environmental impact assessment of contaminated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagigal, E.; Bonilla, A.; Urzelai, A. [LABEIN, Bilbao (Spain); Diaz, A.; Gorostiza, I. [GAIKER Technological Centre, Zamudio (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    This project aims to develop a method for the environmental assessment of contaminated materials. The core of the study is based on the ecotoxicological characterisation of the mobile/bioavailable fraction of the materials. In order to achieve this objective several assays were carried out divided into mobility/bioavailability tests and toxicity tests on mobile fractions. Mobility procedures involved batch leaching tests, column tests and sequential extraction tests. MicrotoxTM tests were employed for the measurement of the toxicological response of the extracted fractions. Toxicity tests on solid phase (Microtox SP and worms) were also carried out in order to assess correlation between both toxicity responses. This combination of leaching/toxicity tests provides a fast/low cost procedure for the ecotoxicological characterisation and the study of potential hazards associated to contaminated materials. In addition, an ecological risk assessment of the contaminated materials was carried out comparing chemical results with bibliographical toxicity data. According to obtained information, a stepwise methodology for the environmental risk assessment of contaminated materials was proposed. This protocol could be a very useful tool for the evaluation of potential risks for the ecosystems due to the presence of contaminated materials.

  6. Regional material flow accounting and environmental pressures: the Spanish case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Sergio; Carpintero, Óscar; Lomas, Pedro L

    2015-02-17

    This paper explores potential contributions of regional material flow accounting to the characterization of environmental pressures. With this aim, patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption, and productivity for the Spanish regions were studied within the 1996-2010 period. The main methodological variation as compared to whole-country based approaches is the inclusion of interregional trade, which can be separately assessed from the international exchanges. Each region was additionally profiled regarding its commercial exchanges with the rest of the regions and the rest of the world and the related environmental pressures. Given its magnitude, interregional trade is a significant source of environmental pressure. Most of the exchanges occur across regions and different extractive and trading patterns also arise at this scale. These differences are particularly great for construction minerals, which in Spain represent the largest share of extracted and consumed materials but do not cover long distances, so their impact is visible mainly at the regional level. During the housing bubble, economic growth did not improve material productivity.

  7. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  8. Using geo-topographic materials for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the requirements for the protection and development of environment, the usage of spatial data represents a specific need for different kinds of geographical and cartographical information. Theoretical and practical understanding of these requirements, with existing experiences and the use of appropriate standards, help in the process of solving particular ecological problems. In this paper, the analysis (theoretical understanding of the problem and the comparison of models will try to point out the importance, requirements and possibilities of using existing data from different geo-topographical materials such as charts at different scales in analog as well as digital forms. Sources of information about an area: Cartographic-analytic collecting of spatial information for environmental purposes is carried out mainly from the following sources: satellite images, geographic information systems / Environmental Information Systems (GIS / EIS, Geo-topographic materials in analogue and digital (especially maps forms and physical measurements of ambient environment. Types of maps which can be used for environmental protection: Base maps are widely used mostly for military purposes. Being highly detailed, these maps can be largely used for the purposes of environmental protection, especially topographic maps of a scale of 1:25 000 to 1:200 000 and 1:250 000. Thematic maps primarily give information on specific locations and specific content. For the purposes of environmental protection and improvement, thematic maps with specific topics are constructed most frequently. Combined maps are specific and they are a combination of base and thematic maps. These are, for example, political, travel, touristic, hydrological, and synoptic maps. Synthetic maps show the results and analysis of data collected. They cannot display all the characteristics or information related to the environment, especially data about complex ecosystems. Conclusion

  9. Design of advanced photocatalytic materials for energy and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coronado, Juan M; Hernández-Alonso, María D; Portela, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Research for the development of more efficient photocatalysts has experienced an almost exponential growth since its popularization in early 1970's. Despite the advantages of the widely used TiO2, the yield of the conversion of sun power into chemical energy that can be achieved with this material is limited prompting the research and development of  a number of structural, morphological and chemical modifications of TiO2 , as well as a number of novel photocatalysts with very different composition. Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications provides

  10. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 1. Environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on radioactivity survey in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on February, 1996. This data relates to radioactive materials such as Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 in environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, seawater, and sea sediments, which were collected at all over of Japan. In the survey report, followings are also contained; (1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, (2) Preparation of samples for analysis, (3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, (4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium and Potassium, (5) Counting, (6) Results, and (7) Contents of figure. (G.k.)

  11. Obsolescence Considerations for Materials in the Lower Sub-Tiers of the Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    contaminant – For conflict-driven material vulnerability uncertainties • Strategic and Critical Materials ( SCM ) List – Compiled through nominations from...DoD components and others, serving as the basis for studies every two years that identify materials of interest or concern (potential for shortfall...National Aerospace Standard (NAS) 411-1, Hazardous Material Target List (HMTL) – DLA’s SCM list – International Aerospace Environmental Group’s (IAEG

  12. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The issue of the effects of the space environment on spacecraft needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 KeV - 2.5 MeV can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 KeV to 2.5 MeV. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly less than 400 nm wavelength, is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study in order to perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. That system has continued to function as planned and has been used in carrying out portions of the proposed study.

  13. Feed Materials Production Center annual environmental report for calendar 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, T.A.; Gels, G.L.; Oberjohn, J.S.; Rogers, L.K.

    1990-10-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) has been to process uranium for United States' defense programs. On July 10, 1989, the FMPC suspended production operations, but remains on standby for certain segments of production. The FMPC also manages the storage of some radioactive and hazardous materials. As part of its operations, the FMPC continuously monitors the environment to determine that it is operating within federal and state standards and guidelines regarding emission of radioactive and nonradioactive materials. Data collected from the FMPC monitoring program are used to calculate estimates of radiation dose for residents due to FMPC operations. For 1989, the estimate of dose through the air pathway, excluding radon, indicated that people in the area were exposed to less than 6% of the DOE guideline established to protect the public from radiation exposure. When radon emissions are included, the dose from FMPC operations during 1989 was less than 22% of the annual background radiation dose in the Greater Cincinnati area. This report is a summary of FMPC's environmental activities and monitoring program for 1989. An Environmental Compliance Self-Assessment presents the FMPC's efforts to comply with environmental regulations through June 1990. 44 refs., 48 figs.

  14. 10 CFR 1.41 - Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Management Programs. (a) The Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management...) The Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs— (1) Plans and directs... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental...

  15. 10 CFR 51.80 - Draft environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-materials license. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.80 Draft environmental impact statement—materials license. (a) The NRC staff will either prepare a draft environmental...

  16. Aerospace Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I STTR project will demonstrate the Aerospace System Monitor (ASM). This technology transforms the power distribution network in a spacecraft or aircraft...

  17. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Millsaps, Knox T.; Gordis, J. H.; Brophy, C. M.; Stephens, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This brochure explains the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering program at the Naval Postgraduate School. Sections include: Advancing your career, student research, degree programs, special programs, research and distance learning programs. The Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (MAE) Department, the founding department of the Naval Postgraduate School in 1909, offers a wide range of graduate degree programs including M.S. and Ph.D., in either Mechanical or Astronautical En...

  18. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  19. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena

    hardly any construction product is designed keeping recycling/reuse in mind, the “Design for theEnvironment” -concept is one of the key steps towards increased recycling and reuse and thereby towards minimal environmental impacts. This project has been carried out by VTT with cooperation with the Danish......The construction sector consumes yearly about half of all natural resourcesextracted in Europe and their transformation into building products has huge energy demands. Therefore the focus of today’s environmental policy is on the building end-of-life scenarios and material efficiency. Here waste...... prevention and recycling / reuse play a key role by providing huge energy, water and materialsavings. These issues are also specifically addressed in the Construction Products Regulation (CPR2011), where health and safety aspects related to use of construction products cover the entire lifecycle. Meanwhile...

  20. Environmental behaviour and bioavailability of Depleted Uranium (DU) material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U.; Gerstmann, U.; Schimmack, W.; Szymczak, W.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This work was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and KFOR personnel serving on the Balkans. Therefore, the environmental behaviour and bioavailability of DU material have been explored. In order to investigate the environmental impact of DU ammunition, leaching experiments were carried out. DU penetrators were buried in soil filled in columns. The soil was irrigated (16 mm/week) and the uranium isotopes {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U which were washed out and transported into the eluate were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). After one year, an average of 1.7% of the original DU material corroded. About 40% of the corrosion products were located on the surface of the penetrator, 60% were recovered in the soil. On the other hand, only very small amounts of the DU material could be found in the eluate (about 1 ppm per year) suggesting a low solubility of DU and the corrosion products and/or a strong sorption to the soil. In another part of the study, the solubility of DU material in human body fluids was investigated to assess the bioavailability after oral intake and inhalation of DU particles. Therefore, DU corrosion products were powdered and incubated in artificial gastric juice and simulated lung fluid. About three-fourths of the DU material was dissolved in artificial gastric juice after 30 minutes. This fraction could not be increased, even when the incubation time was extended to 120 minutes. The dissolution of DU material in artificial lung fluid showed a distinct bi-phasic course with a readily soluble fraction and a fraction of very low solubility. These findings suggest that the DU corrosion products consist mainly of two types of uranium oxides, hexavalent and fast soluble compounds and tetravalent compounds with low solubility. Additional measurements with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) of DU corrosion material support this conclusion. The resulting

  1. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects...... on the structural integrity of bone was investigated. Metapodial roe deer bone samples were artificially aged under humidity and atmospheres of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in room temperature. Elemental micro-analysis of bone material through SEM-EDX and molecular investigations through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy......, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELIZA) were realized. Results show damage within the inorganic and the organic matrix; incorporation of sulfur and nitrogen groups, minor reduction of specific aminoacids and changes in collagen integrity were...

  2. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  3. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  4. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.97 Final environmental impact statement—materials license. (a) Independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI...

  5. Environmentally compatible solder materials for thick film hybrid assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.; Hernandez, C.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials and Process Sciences Center

    1997-02-01

    New soldering materials and processes have been developed over the last several years to address a variety of environmental issues. One of the primary efforts by the electronics industry has involved the development of alternative solders to replace the traditional lead-containing alloys. Sandia National Laboratories is developing such alternative solder materials for printed circuit board and hybrid microcircuit (HMC) applications. This paper describes the work associated with low residue, lead-free soldering of thick film HMC`s. The response of the different materials to wetting, aging, and mechanical test conditions was investigated. Hybrid test vehicles were designed and fabricated with a variety of chip capacitors and leadless ceramic chip carriers to conduct thermal, electrical continuity, and mechanical evaluations of prototype joints. Microstructural development along the solder and thick film interface, after isothermal solid state aging over a range of elevated temperatures and times, was quantified using microanalytical techniques. Flux residues on soldered samples were stressed (temperature-humidity aged) to identify potential corrosion problems. Mechanical tests also supported the development of a solder joint lifetime prediction model. Progress of this effort is summarized.

  6. Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

  7. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  8. Effect of materialism and environmental knowledge on environmental consciousness among high school students: A study conducted in Istanbul province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increased industrial production and individual consumption after the industrial revolution, environmental degradation became a growing global concern. Especially when we consider the fact that young people of today will be decision makers in the future, their attitudes and behavior towards the environment will doubtlessly have great influence on natural resources and their sustainability in the future. This study explores the effect of environmental knowledge and materialism values of high school students on environmental consciousness. Subsequently, it is explored whether there is a differentiation in materialism, environmental knowledge and environmental consciousness according to gender and pre-school knowledge level of the students. The convenience sampling method, multiple regression analysis and t-test were applied to the data obtained from the sample of 1011 12th grade students in Istanbul. The outcomes of the study shows that environmental knowledge and materialism variables are meaningful in explaining environmental consciousness.

  9. Environmental Degradation of Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories Engineered Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2006-12-24

    Several countries are considering geological repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. Most of the environments for these repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, copper, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  10. Advanced Carbon Materials for Environmental and Energy Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Dua, Rubal

    2014-05-01

    Carbon based materials, including porous carbons and carbon layer composites, are finding increased usage in latest environmental and energy related research. Among porous carbon materials, hierarchical porous carbons with multi-modal porosity are proving out to be an effective solution for applications where the traditional activated carbons fail. Thus, there has been a lot of recent interest in developing low-cost, facile, easy to scale-up, synthesis techniques for producing such multi-modal porous carbons. This dissertation offers two novel synthesis techniques: (i) ice templating integrated with hard templating, and (ii) salt templating coupled with hard templating, for producing such hierarchically porous carbons. The techniques offer tight control and tunability of porosity (macro- meso- and microscale) in terms of both size and extent. The synthesized multi-modal porous carbons are shown to be an effective solution for three important environment related applications – (i) Carbon dioxide capture using amine supported hierarchical porous carbons, (ii) Reduction in irreversible fouling of membranes used for wastewater reuse through a deposition of a layer of hierarchical porous carbons on the membrane surface, (iii) Electrode materials for electrosorptive applications. Finally, because of their tunability, the synthesized multi-modal porous carbons serve as excellent model systems for understanding the effect of different types of porosity on the performance of porous carbons for these applications. Also, recently, there has been a lot of interest in developing protective layer coatings for preventing photo-corrosion of semiconductor structures (in particular Cu2O) used for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Most of the developed protective strategies to date involve the use of metals or co-catalyst in the protective layer. Thus there is a big need for developing low-cost, facile and easy to scale protective coating strategies. Based on the expertise

  11. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  12. Study of Delft aerospace alumni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, G.N.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis reports on an alumni study of the Faculty Aerospace Engineering at Delft University of Technology to discover what the impact is of the degree in aerospace engineering on an alumnus' professional success and comment on what are important qualities for aerospace engineers to have in order

  13. An Aerospace Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Airlines lamented, “[We are] now laggards in every category.”13 Once we were visionaries, and integrated aerospace was a core cultural , industrial...share of advanced technology jobs in the United States lags behind the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Germany, Hungary, Sweden , Finland, Italy, Denmark

  14. Characteristics of meat packaging materials and their environmental suitability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After functional phase, packaging becomes waste that is recycled or disposed of in landfills. Recently, numerus packages have been developed for assessing the packaging risk on the environment. We applied Gabi 4 Education software on polymer product packaging for meat products. The objective of first part of the paper was characterization of materials used for meat and meat products packaging in terms of mechanical and barrier properties. Results show that tested materials are able to keep protective atmosphere and contribute to the quality and sustainability of the product. Air permeability was 3.60 and 26.60 ml/m224h, and water vapor was 6.90 and 9.50 ml/m224h, respectively, for foils 1 and 2, as a result of different film composition. In second part, based on real data, Gabi 4 Education software is applied. The obtained results showed that organic compounds emissions have the highest impact on human health and the most damaging environmental impact observed was the emission of CO2.

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  16. Magnetic mesoporous materials for removal of environmental wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Jinwoo; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Jaeyun; Joo, Jin; Lee, Jin Hyung; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Changha; Lee, Hongshin; Addleman, Raymond S.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-09-15

    We have synthesized two different magnetic mesoporous materials that can be easily separated from aqueous solutions by applying a magnetic field. Synthesized magnetic mesoporous materials, Mag-SBA-15 (magnetic ordered mesoporous silica) and Mag-OMC (magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon), have a high loading capacity of contaminants due to high surface area of the supports and high magnetic activity due to the embedded iron oxide particles. Application of surface-modified Mag-SBA-15 was investigated for the collection of mercury from water. The mercury adsorption using Mag-SBA-15 was rapid during the initial contact time and reached a steady-state condition, with an uptake of approximately 97% after 7 hours. Application of Mag-OMC for collection of organics from water, using fluorescein as an easily trackable model analyte, was explored. The fluorescein was absorbed into Mag-OMC within minutes and the fluorescent intensity of solution was completely disappeared after an hour. In another application, Mag-SBA-15 was used as a host of tyrosinase, and employed as recyclable catalytic scaffolds for tyrosinase-catalyzed biodegradation of catechol. Tyrosinase aggregates in Mag-SBA-15, prepared in a two step process of tyrosinase adsorption and crosslinking, could be used repeatedly for catechol degradation with no serious loss of enzyme activity. Considering these results of cleaning up water from toxic inorganic, organic and biochemical contaminants, magnetic mesoporous materials have a great potential to be employed for the removal of environmental contaminants and potentially for the application in large-scale wastewater treatment plants.

  17. Digital Library for Aerospace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudashev, Å. B.

    The article reviews the experience of the development of digital digital library for the problems in organisation of state-of-the-art education in remote sensing for environmental research. Information-education resources are installed on the Web-Server of Space Research Institute. Web Server was organized in the form the Remote Sensing Data Server, and Metadata Server on the base of digital catalogues with satellite imagery. The integration of Russian Satellite Data of Remote Sensing would conclude the Digital Library. For this project we had the following guiding principles: create the Web resources of Satellite Data, Metadata, and Geospatial Information for University community; provide the information support for the Inter-University Aerospace Centre; provide free Web access and obtaining satellite images over Internet; provide the information exchange and data acquisition.

  18. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  19. Iron: a versatile element to produce materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Araujo, Maria H.; Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Moura, Flavia C.C.; Lago, Rochel M., E-mail: rochel@ufmg.br, E-mail: anapct@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tristao, Juliana C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Florestal, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada; Amorim, Camila C., E-mail: juliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Iron is a versatile element forming several phases with different oxidation states and {sup s}tructures, such as Fe{sup 0}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. All these phases have unique physicochemical properties which can be used for different applications. In this work, it is described the use of different iron compounds, synthetic and also from natural and waste sources, in environmental and technological applications. Two main research areas are described. The first one is related to strategies to increase the reactivity of Fe phases, mainly by the formation of Fe{sup 0}/iron oxide composites and by the introduction of new metals in the iron oxide structure to promote new surface reactions. The second area is the use of the magnetic properties of some iron phases to produce versatile magnetic materials with focus in adsorption, catalysis and emulsions. (author)

  20. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 1. Environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This issue is the special number on the radioactive survey data of environmental materials collected in 1996. Samples were sent to Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 46 prefectures to analyze the levels of strontium-90 and cesium-137. Rain and dry fallout were collected monthly on a sampling tray (5000 cm{sup 2} in area). Airborne dusts were collected by an electrostatic precipitator or a filter air sampler for every 3 months. Service water at the intake of a water-treatment plant and from the tap, fresh water and sea water at fixed stations were yearly collected. Seasediments were collected in the same area as those for the sea water samples. Rain, service and fresh water were pretreated using cation-exchange column. Soil and sea sediment samples were ashed in an electric muffle furnace at 450degC. After separating strontium-90 and cesium-137 by precipitation method, their radioactivities were counted using low background {beta}-counters. And the contents of these nuclides in the original samples were estimated. The respective survey data are presented in this issue. (M.N.)

  1. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  2. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  3. Platinum Group Metals New Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ming; ZHANG Jiankang; WANG Saibei; HU Jieqiong; LIU Manmen; CHEN Yongtai; ZHANG Jiming; YANG Youcai; YANG Yunfeng; ZHANG Guoquan

    2012-01-01

    Platinum group metals (PGM) include six elements,namely Pt,Pd,Rh,Ir,Os and Ru.PGM and their alloys are the important fundamental materials for modern industry and national defense construction,they have special physical and chemical properties,widely used in metallurgy,chemical,electric,electronic,information,energy,environmental protection,aviation,aerospace,navigation and other high technology industry.Platinum group metals and their alloys,which have good plasticity and processability,can be processed to electrical contact materials,resistance materials,solder,electronic paste,temperature-measurement materials,elastic materials,magnetic materials and high temperature structural materials.

  4. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  5. Ultra High Temperature Ceramics for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowiak, A.; Justin, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Après relecture une erreur est apparue dans le document et doit être retiré; International audience; The Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are of great interest for different engineering sectors and notably the aerospace industry. Indeed, hypersonic flights, re-entry vehicles, propulsion applications and so on, require new materials that can perform in oxidizing or corrosive atmospheres at temperatures higher than 2000°C and sometimes, for long life-time. To fulfil these requirements, U...

  6. Selection of environmental sustainable fiber materials for wind turbine blades - a contra intuitive process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Corona, Andrea; Markussen, Christen Malte

    2013-01-01

    have thus partially been focused on the substitution of conventional fiber materials with bio-fibers. The major question is if this material substitution actually, is environmental sustainable. In order to assess a wide pallet of environmental impacts and taking into account positive and negative...

  7. Modelling transport of waste material leachate in soils in support of environmental standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren JCH; Aalbers TG; de Wilde PGM

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands a process of defining environmental standards is going on. These standards serve to protect the environment at the one hand, and to stimulate the reuse of rest-materials, e.g. ash from blast-furnaces, as building materials at the other hand. In order to come to an environmental

  8. The Development of Environmental Song-Based Materials Using a Scientific Approach for Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaela, Leonora Saantje

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and validate environmental song-based materials using a scientific approach which follow the stages of research and development. The writer created environmental lyrics and put them on traditional melodies that are familiar to the students. The materials were tried out using preliminary field test, main field…

  9. 航天物资信息网络管理系统的设计与实现%Design and implementation of network management system for aerospace material information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟

    2012-01-01

    The developing purpose and significance of the network management system for aerospace material information (NMSAMI) are introduced in this paper. The structure, working principle, function design, developing process, application result, developing direction and technical requirement of the whole system are summarized emphatically. The accounting, statistics, planning, purchase and warehouse management are integrated into the system. The computerization management of basic-level material accounting and statistics is implemented bythe system. It reduced the palaver manual operation and improved the management level of material information significantly.%介绍了“航天物质信息网络管理系统”开发的目的、意义,重点总结了系统的设计结构及原理、功能设计、开发过程、应用效果及与时俱进需改进的方向、要求.该系统融会计统计、计划采购、库房管理于一体,实现了基层物资会计与物资统计的电算化管理,减少繁琐手工操作,大大提高了物资信息管理水平.

  10. 空天飞行器用炭/双马复合材料环境损伤行为的研究现状%Investigation of the Environmental Damage Behaviors for Carbon/Bismaleimide Composite Used in Aerospace Flying Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高禹; 张志松; 王柏臣; 包建文; 郭扬; 董尚利

    2013-01-01

    Advanced composite materials (ACM) have became the basic materials of the aerospace structures in recent years.To meet the high performance,low cost and weight reduction requirements,ACM have attracted extensive attention and showed potential applications because of their excellent characteristics,such as low specific weight,low mass loss (ML) rate,high specific strength and specific modulus,good high temperature resistance,low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE),good fatigue resistance and so on.In this paper,recent progress of carbon/ bismaleimide composites in the aerospace engineering was comprehensively reviewed with respect to the different aspects of their application,environmental damage behaviors and mechanisms,domestic and overseas developments.Some future trends are also discussed to provide the consult for the future study in this field.%近年来先进复合材料已经成为航空航天结构的基本材料之一.为满足航空业对高性能低成本制备工艺技术和减重方面的高要求,先进复合材料以其相对密度小、质损率低、比强度比模量高、耐高温性能好、热膨胀系数小、耐疲劳性能优越等独特优点获得广泛应用,并具有极大的发展潜力.文中从应用状况、环境损伤行为与机理、国内外发展形势等角度对炭/双马复合材料的研究进展进行了全面系统的回顾与总结,并对今后的发展和研究方向作了探讨,供我国在该领域的研究和应用参考.

  11. Multimedia Environmental Assessment of Existing Materials Management Approaches for Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sustainable and Healthy Communities Program has a mission to develop data and tools that enable community leaders to integrate environmental, societal, and economic factors into their decision-making processes and thus foster community sustainability. This report examines on...

  12. Multimedia Environmental Assessment of Existing Materials Management Approaches for Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sustainable and Healthy Communities Program has a mission to develop data and tools that enable community leaders to integrate environmental, societal, and economic factors into their decision-making processes and thus foster community sustainability. This report examines on...

  13. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Supplement: Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the progress achieved over the past 6 to 12 months on four graduate student projects conducted within the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program. These studies were aimed specifically at light metallic alloy issues relevant to the High Speed Civil Transport. Research on Hydrogen-Enhanced Fracture of High-Strength Titanium Alloy Sheet refined successfully the high resolution R-curve method necessary to characterize initiation and growth fracture toughnesses. For solution treated and aged Low Cost Beta without hydrogen precharging, fracture is by ductile transgranular processes at 25 C, but standardized initiation toughnesses are somewhat low and crack extension is resolved at still lower K-levels. This fracture resistance is degraded substantially, by between 700 and 1000 wppm of dissolved hydrogen, and a fracture mode change is affected. The surface oxide on P-titanium alloys hinders hydrogen uptake and complicates the electrochemical introduction of low hydrogen concentrations that are critical to applications of these alloys. Ti-15-3 sheet was obtained for study during the next reporting period. Research on Mechanisms of deformation and Fracture in High-Strength Titanium Alloys is examining the microstructure and fatigue resistance of very thin sheet. Aging experiments on 0. 14 mm thick (0.0055 inch) foil show microstructural agility that may be used to enhance fatigue performance. Fatigue testing of Ti-15-3 sheet has begun. The effects of various thermo-mechanical processing regimens on mechanical properties will be examined and deformation modes identified. Research on the Effect of Texture and Precipitates on Mechanical Property Anisotropy of Al-Cu-Mg-X and Al-Cu alloys demonstrated that models predict a minor influence of stress-induced alignment of Phi, caused by the application of a tensile stress during aging, on the yield stress anisotropy of both modified AA2519 and a model Al-Cu binary alloy. This project

  14. Research on materials for advanced electronic and aerospace application. [including optical and magnetic data processing, stress corrosion and H2 interaction, and polymeric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Development and understanding of materials most suitable for use in compact magnetic and optical memory systems are discussed. Suppression of metal deterioration by hydrogen is studied. Improvement of mechanical properties of polymers is considered, emphasizing low temperature ductility and compatibility with high modulus fiber materials.

  15. 10 CFR 51.60 - Environmental report-materials licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion of uranium hexafluoride pursuant to part 70 of this chapter. (ii) Possession and use of source material for uranium milling or production of uranium hexafluoride pursuant to part 40 of this chapter... pursuant to part 61 of this chapter. (v) Processing of source material for extraction of rare earth...

  16. The Role of Material Efficiency in Environmental Stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, Ernst; Allwood, Julian; Gutowski, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Materials production requires a large amount of energy use and is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 25% of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. It produces large volumes of waste both in production and at end-of-life disposal. More efficient use of materials

  17. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeWeerd, HA; VanLoo, PLP; VanZutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value; Weerd, H.A. van de; Loo, P.L.P. van; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    1997-01-01

    Behavioural and psychological needs of laboratory animals generally cannot adequately be met in standard laboratory cages. Environmental enrichment, which provides a more structured environment can enhance the well-being of laboratory animals. They may perform more of their species-specific behaviou

  18. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeWeerd, HA; VanLoo, PLP; VanZutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value; Weerd, H.A. van de; Loo, P.L.P. van; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    Behavioural and psychological needs of laboratory animals generally cannot adequately be met in standard laboratory cages. Environmental enrichment, which provides a more structured environment can enhance the well-being of laboratory animals. They may perform more of their species-specific

  19. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  20. Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  1. Aerospace engineering training: universities experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertins Kseniya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary professional working in aerospace engineering must have a set of soft and hard skills. The experience gained in universities shows that training of a competent professional is impossible without an employer involved in this process. The paper provides an analysis of missions, tasks and experience of aerospace professionals and identifies the present and future roles, missions and required skills of a highly qualified specialist in aerospace engineering. This analysis can be used to design a master’s program aiming at providing students with the required knowledge, know-how and attitudes needed to succeed as professionals in industrial companies.

  2. Novel materials for environmental remediation of oil sands contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Headley, John V

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) within the framework structure of copolymer sorbent materials, represents a novel modular design approach with significant potential for controlled tuning of the textural mesoporosity of such sorbent frameworks. β-CD copolymers represent an innovative design strategy for the development of "smart" or "functional" porous materials with improved solid phase extraction (SPE) and molecular recognition properties because of the porogen characteristics and their unique host-guest properties. Carbohydrate-based copolymers containing cyclodextrins (CDs) are of interest, in part, because of their ability to form stable inclusion complexes in aqueous solution. The inclusion properties of β-CD copolymers are determined by the surface area, pore structure, and site accessibility of inclusion sites within the copolymer framework. A mini-review of recent research in our group concerning the use of copolymers containing β-CD as sorbent materials for naphthenic acids is presented herein.

  3. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft. Final report, 1 December 1991-31 March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, E.A. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    This is the final report of the study `Aluminum-Based Materials for high Speed Aircraft` which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX with Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  4. China To Boost Civil Aerospace Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) announced on January 30,2008 that it had approved the overall development planning of three national aerospace industrial bases.Building a civil aerospace industry base serves to optimize and integrate aerospace resources to further increase the potential for technological innovation and product R&D in China's aerospace industry.

  5. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  6. Comparative Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Bio-Based Fibre Reinforcement Materials for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Markussen, Christen Malte; Birkved, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    and flax/carbon, flax/glass mixed fibres) are compared in terms of environmental sustainability. Applying one of the most recent life cycle impact assessment methods, we demonstrate that the environmental sustainability of natural fibre based composite materials is similar or even lower, within certain......Over the recent decades biomaterials have been marketed successfully supported by the common perception that biomaterials and environmental sustainability de facto represents two sides of the same coin. The development of sustainable composite materials for wind turbine blades for small-scale wind...... turbines have therefore partially been focused on substitution of conventional fibre materials with bio-fibres assuming that this substitution was in the better for the environment and human health. The major question is if this material substitution, taking into account a multitude of environmental impact...

  7. Design of TiO2-loaded Porous Siliceous Materials and Application to Photocatalytic Environmental Purification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAMEGAWA, Takashi; KUWAHARA, Yasutaka; YAMASHITA, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    ... with additional functions. This review mainly describes our recent investigations on the design of TiO2-loaded porous siliceous materials for application to photocatalytic environmental purification via efficient adsorption...

  8. ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM VEGETAL RAW MATERIALS TO SOLVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mukhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for active carbons obtaining from vegetable byproducts such as straw, nut shells, fruit stones, sawdust, hydrolysis products of corn cobs and sunflower husks have been developed. The physico-chemical characteristics, structural parameters and sorption characteristics of obtained active carbons were determined. The ability of carbonaceous adsorbents for detoxification of soil against pesticides, purification of surface waters and for removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters has been evaluated. The obtained results reveal the effectiveness of their use in a number of environmental technologies.

  9. Material on the background integrated monitoring of natural environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovinsky, F.Y.; Koloskov, I.A.; Cherkhanov, Y.P.; Vorontsov, A.I.; Rusina, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    Stations for monitoring background pollution levels within the Global Environmental Monitoring System in the USSR have been established in seven biosphere reserves. The location of station Borovoe, established in 1976, is shown. Data are given from samples of air, soil and vegetation taken in both adjacent and nearby areas. The impact of regional and local sources on the station is assessed. Sulfur dioxide, dust, mercury vapor, aerosol components of lead and cadmium, arsenic and 3,4-benzo (A) pyrene are presented as time variations of mean monthly concentrations in surface air. Actinometric observations (AT-50 instrument) show the low turbidity of the atmosphere. Some comparisons are shown with field background observations.

  10. CISBAT 2007 - Environmental impacts of construction (ecological materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the eighth part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Environmental impacts of construction the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Nanostructured coatings for active solar facades' and 'Sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrids as binders for TISS paints'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings.

  11. Refining, revising, augmenting, compiling and developing computer assisted instruction K-12 aerospace materials for implementation in NASA spacelink electronic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jean A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Spacelink is an electronic information service operated by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The Spacelink contains extensive NASA news and educational resources that can be accessed by a computer and modem. Updates and information are provided on: current NASA news; aeronautics; space exploration: before the Shuttle; space exploration: the Shuttle and beyond; NASA installations; NASA educational services; materials for classroom use; and space program spinoffs.

  12. Environmental Management of Waste Based on Road Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Koletnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the European Council adopted a revised framework for waste management in the EU, with an objective to encourage recycling and reuse of waste, in order to reduce landfills and potential environmental emissions. This framework also sets new recycling targets for construction and demolition waste by 2020, suggesting that at least 70 % of the waste should be recycled. Nigrad d.d. is a utility company providing services to several municipalities in North-East Slovenia. These services include repairs to public roads and pavements. This paper examines the origin, amount and fraction of construction waste produced, identifying current waste management practices. Based on the state-of-the art study new approaches are to be proposed, which will make it possible to decrease environmental impacts and costs, when providing public services and establishing sustainable service systems. To reach this objective a life-cycle analysis of the existing service has been carried out, which will help identify the system parts that have the most significant impact on the environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.681

  13. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  14. Environmental history of a factory producing friction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J W; Dufficy, B L

    1983-02-01

    The fibre concentrations generated during the production of friction materials, incorporating asbestos, over the past 60 years have been studied to provide cumulative dust exposure data for a mortality study of the work-force. Chrysotile has been used almost exclusively during this period. The measurements made routinely by the factory staff provided information from 1950 onwards; concentrations for earlier years were derived from simulation studies using original materials, machines, and methods. These have shown that while high concentrations prevailed in the earliest years dust suppression measures initiated in 1931, and other factors, reduced the time-weighted average concentrations to moderate levels. There were two four-year periods when the production of brake blocks incorporating crocidolite occupied a well-defined area of the factory. The simulation of this production was not permissible, but the employees concerned could be identified.

  15. Sustainability of earth building materials - Environmental product declarations as an instrument of competition in building material industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Schroeder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the building process in terms of their environmental impact in all life cycle phases of a building leads to the key principle of sustainable building: the analysis of the life cycle of the materials used in a building. The goal of this analysis is to reduce waste and keep the environmental impact as low as possible by “closing” the cycle. During an inventory, the entire life cycle is assessed. This includes the sourcing and extracting of the raw material, the use of the raw material to produce building products, elements and structures, the use in finished buildings including emission of pollutants, decay and maintenance, and, finally, the demolition of the building and the recycling of the demolition materials. Transportation between the individual phases as well as production-related material and energy flows are also included in this evaluation. Several European and national norms and regulations define core rules and a special instrument for the evaluation of the sustainable quality of a building product based on a quantitative analysis of the life cycle of the materials used in a building: the Environmental Product Declaration EPD. These documents are voluntary standards, commitments or guarantees for building products. They are provided by producers, organizations and quality assurance associations in order to establish the “environmental performance” of buildings in the form of a certificate. Such declarations must fully include all phases of the life cycle of a product by describing the environmental impact during production and use as well as possible health hazards for the users. Until now, EPDs for earth building products do not exist. This paper will give current information about a project for developing EPDs for earth mortars and earth blocks started by the German Dachverband Lehm e.V. (DVL.

  16. Environmental impacts of construction materials use: a life cycle perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available , fibreboard, cellulose products, steel, aluminium frames, appliances, wire, paint, solvents, plate glass, carpet 3 On-site construction Foundation and site earthwork, concrete pouring, structural framing, roofing, mechanical... reusable materials, knock-down, site clearing, disposal PRE-USE PHASE USE-PHASE EOL 5 mining, growing/harvesting quarrying and felling is a source of air pollutants, solid waste, polluted water run-off and noise, vibration and odour. The processing...

  17. Comparative Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Bio-Based Fibre Reinforcement Materials for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Markussen, Christen Malte; Birkved, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    impact categories, than the conventional materials. This observation may seem contra-intuitive (i.e. most people would expect the bio-based to be most sustainable), but is primarily caused by the fact that the resin demand of biobased reinforcement materials is by far larger than that of conventional...... reinforcement materials. Since the environmental burden of the resin in addition is comparable to that of the fibres (especially in terms human health related impacts), the higher resin demand counterbalances the environmental sustainability improvements, obtained with the application of natural fibres....... turbines have therefore partially been focused on substitution of conventional fibre materials with bio-fibres assuming that this substitution was in the better for the environment and human health. The major question is if this material substitution, taking into account a multitude of environmental impact...

  18. A research of material input and environmental impact for Chinese economy:1990-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Kailing; Duan Ning; Sun Qihong

    2009-01-01

    The process of economic activities is on the basis of tremendous material inputs.China has been discharging an enormous amount of waste, giving rise to a wide range of environmental impacts.The method of economy-wide material flow analysis (FW-MFA) is one of the effective tools to examine the flow of materials entering physical economies, and recognize early environmental problems.Relevant researches are still at the early stage in China and most focus on material throughput but are rarely concerned about the utilization of recycling resource and environmental impact.Based on more than 3,000 items of data related, materials entering Chinese economy,are classified into three types, and then the characteristics of material input and environmental impact are presented for the years 1990-2005 by using the indicators derived,from EW-MFA.The Ratio of Recycled Material (RRM)is added as the new indicator in order to be in accordance with the need of circular economy being promoted in China.Results show that the great changes in the structure of material input cause the continuous increase of industrial solid waste emissions and the bogging down of material productivity.The RRM reveals that the utilization of recycling resources remains at a fairly low level in China.Finally, some weakness of EW-MFA is discussed according to the calculated results.

  19. Investigation of the Environmental Durability of a Powder Metallurgy Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, LaNita D.

    2004-01-01

    PM304 is a NASA-developed composite powder metallurgy material that is being developed for high temperature applications such as bushings in high temperature industrial furnace conveyor systems. My goal this summer was to analyze and evaluate the effects that heat exposure had on the PM304 material at 500 C and 650 C. The material is composed of Ni-Cr, Ag, Cr2O3, and eutectic BaF2-CaF2. PM304 is designed to eliminate the need for oil based lubricants in high temperature applications, while reducing friction and wear. However, further investigation was needed to thoroughly examine the properties of PM304. The effects of heat exposure on PM304 bushings were investigated. This investigation was necessary due to the high temperatures that the material would be exposed to in a typical application. Each bushing was cut into eight sections. The specimens were heated to 500 C or 650 C for time intervals from 1 hr to 5,000 hrs. Control specimens were kept at room temperature. Weight and thickness measurements were taken before and after the bushing sections were exposed to heat. Then the heat treated specimens were mounted and polished side by side with the control specimens. This enabled optical examination of the material's microstructure using a metallograph. The specimens were also examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microstructures were compared to observe the effects of the heat exposure. Chemical analysis was done to investigate the interactions between Ni-Cr and BaF2-CaF2 and between Cr2O3 and BaF2-CaF2 at high temperature. To observe this, the two compounds that were being analyzed were mixed in a crucible in varied weight percentages and heated to 1100 C in a furnace for approximately two hours. Then the product was allowed to cool and was then analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Interpretation of the results is in progress.

  20. Novel sorbent materials for environmental remediation via Pyrolysis of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaniotou, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    One of the major challenges facing society at this moment is the transition from a non-sustainable, fossil resources-based economy to a sustainable bio-based economy. By producing multiple products, a biorefinery can take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates and maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock. The high-value products enhance profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet national energy needs, and the power production reduces costs and avoids greenhouse-gas emissions From pyrolysis, besides gas and liquid products a solid product - char, is derived as well. This char contains the non converted carbon and can be used for activated carbon production and/or as additive in composite material production. Commercially available activated carbons are still considered expensive due to the use of non-renewable and relatively expensive starting material such as coal. The present study describes pyrolysis as a method to produce high added value carbon materials such as activated carbons (AC) from agricultural residues pyrolysis. Olive kernel has been investigated as the precursor of the above materials. The produced activated carbon was characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, BET method and porosity estimation. Furthermore, its adsorption of pesticide compound in aqueous solution by was studied. Pyrolysis of olive kernel was conducted at 800 oC for 45min in a fixed reactor. For the production of the activated carbon the pyrolytic char was physically activated under steam in the presence of CO2 at 970oC for 3 h in a bench scale reactor. The active carbons obtained from both scales were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K, methyl-blue adsorption (MB adsorption) at room temperature and SEM analysis. Surface area and MB adsorption were found to increase with the degree of burn-off. The surface area of the activated carbons was found to increase up to 1500 m2/g at a burn-off level of 60-65wt.%, while SEM analysis

  1. Environmental Effect on Evolutionary Cyclic Plasticity Material Parameters of 316 Stainless Steel: An Experimental & Material Modeling Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-20

    This report provides an update on an earlier assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor (LWR) materials under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue in the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall objective of this LWRS project is to assess the degradation by environmentally assisted cracking/fatigue of LWR materials such as various alloy base metals and their welds used in reactor coolant system piping. This effort is to support the Department of Energy LWRS program for developing tools to understand the aging/failure mechanism and to predict the remaining life of LWR components for anticipated 60-80 year operation.

  2. Environmentally Responsible Energetic Materials: Another Look at the Styphnates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Adam; Angliss, Timothy; Proud, William

    2009-06-01

    Lead Styphnate (lead 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinate) has many applications as a primary explosive, most notably in priming compositions. Its largest drawback, however, is the toxicity of lead. Heavy metals often feature in primary explosives, providing favourable density, bonding, and reaction products; but, the toxic nature of heavy metals makes these explosives of limited use. Current research efforts are being made to design new energetic materials (such as those based around the 5-nitrotetrazole molecule), but familiar energetics can still be of use. The styphnate anion provides many favourable energetic qualities (such as a ring structure and nitro groups), and while the lead salt has proven its usefulness, other metallic styphnates also provide a range of energetic qualities. This paper reports on ignition thresholds, energetic output, and thermal properties of the following salts of trinitroresorcinol: Barium, Bismuth, Calcium, Copper, Lithium, and Lead. Such information provides a list of characterized energetic materials, but also insight into how metal cations can control measurable energetic effects at the molecular and crystal level.

  3. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  4. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 6: Aerospace knowledge diffusion in the academic community: A report of phase 3 activities of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of aerospace-based scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic community are presented. An overview is provided of the Federal Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, illustrating a five-year program on aerospace knowledge diffusion. Preliminary results are presented of the project's research concerning the information-seeking habits, practices, and attitudes of U.S. aerospace engineering and science students and faculty. The type and amount of education and training in the use of information sources are examined. The use and importance ascribed to various information products by U.S. aerospace faculty and students including computer and other information technology is assessed. An evaluation of NASA technical reports is presented and it is concluded that NASA technical reports are rated high in terms of quality and comprehensiveness, citing Engineering Index and IAA as the most frequently used materials by faculty and students.

  6. The Oil Point Method - A tool for indicative environmental evaluation in material and process selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2000-01-01

    , transport, use to final disposal. Therefore, efforts focus on attempts to integrate environmental aspects into the whole process of product development and design. They often involve established tools and methods for environmental evaluation, such as formal Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). These tools...... are made, such as the decision upon materials and manufacturing processes. It is, therefore, a major challenge to develop tools and methods, which support the environmentally conscious selection of materials and processes while requiring only relatively little time and knowledge in the field...... methods for environmental evaluation: A formal LCA method and another indicator-based method. A set of data for applying the method is presented including over 70 materials in pure or semi-finished form, over 20 manufacturing processes and some 20 other life cycle processes. Other contributions...

  7. Identifying indoor environmental patterns from bioaerosol material using HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J R; Castillo, Josemar A; Taylor, Thomas J; Herckes, Pierre; Hayes, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    A substantial portion of the atmospheric particle budget is of biological origin (human and animal dander, plant and insect debris, etc.). These bioaerosols can be considered information-rich packets of biochemical data specific to the organism of origin. In this study, bioaerosol samples from various indoor environments were analyzed to create identifiable patterns attributable to a source level of occupation. Air samples were collected from environments representative of human high-traffic- and low-traffic indoor spaces along with direct human skin sampling. In all settings, total suspended particulate matter was collected and the total aerosol protein concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.2 μg/m(3). High performance liquid chromatography was chosen as a standard analysis technique for the examination of aqueous aerosol extracts to distinguish signatures of occupation compared to environmental background. The results of this study suggest that bioaerosol "fingerprinting" is possible with the two test environments being distinguishable at a 97% confidence interval.

  8. An Overview of Performance Characteristics, Experiences and Trends of Aerospace Engine Bearings Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebert Franz-Josef

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the operating conditions, technical requirements, performance characteristics, design ideas, application experiences and development trends of aerospace engine bearings, including material technology, integration design and reliability, are reviewed. The development history of aerospace engine bearing is recalled briefly at first. Then today's material technologies and the high bearing performances of the bearings obtained through the new materials are introduced, which play important rolls in the aeroengine bearing developments. The integration design ideas and practices are explained to indicate its significant advantages and importance to the aerospace engine bearings. And the reliability of the shaft-bearing system is pointed out and treated as the key requirement with goals for both engine and bearing. Finally, as it is believed that the correct design comes from practice, the pre-qualification rig testing conducted by FAG Aerospace GmbH & Co. KG is briefly illustrated as an example. All these lead to the development trends of aerospace engine bearings from different aspects.

  9. Kinetics of absorption of the environmental moisture in grainy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar-Cocina, E.; Valencia-Morales, E.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, R. [Universidad Central de las Villas, Villaclara (Cuba)

    2001-02-01

    The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental variable and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task, very refined and expensive trials are needed. The fitting of the model permits to determine the diffusion coefficient and the moisture concentration in the separation surface between the sample and the environment. The concentration profiles are established for different times. Finally, the possibility of occurrence of superimposed diffusive processes in some materials is analyzed and the diffusion coefficient and the amount of moisture incorporated by each process are calculated. [Spanish] Se analiza la absorcion de humedad en materiales granulados utilizados en tecnologias de funcion cuyo proceso tiene un comportamiento difusivo principalmente. Se utiliza una tecnica experimental simple en la cual el incremento en peso humedo es registrado como variable experimental. Un metodo analitico con procesamiento computacional es usado para determinar los parametros que caracterizan el proceso, cuya determinacion por metodos tradicionales es dificil y requiere de ensayos muy refinados y costosos. El ajuste del modelo permite determinar el coeficiente de difusion y la concentracion de humedad en la superficie de separacion de la muestra y la atmosfera circundante. Se establecen los perfiles de concentraciones para diferentes instantes de tiempo. Finalmente, la posibilidad de ocurrencia de procesos difusivos superpuestos en algunos materiales es analizada y son calculados los coeficientes de difusion y la cantidad de humedad incorporada por cada proceso.

  10. The environmental and medical geochemistry of potentially hazardous materials produced by disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Meeker, G.P.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Hageman, Philip L.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Many natural or human-caused disasters release potentially hazardous materials (HM) that may pose threats to the environment and health of exposed humans, wildlife, and livestock. This chapter summarizes the environmentally and toxicologically significant physical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of materials produced by a wide variety of recent disasters, such as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes and extreme storms, spills of mining/mineral-processing wastes or coal extraction by-products, and the 2001 attacks on and collapse of the World Trade Center towers. In describing these characteristics, this chapter also illustrates the important roles that geochemists and other earth scientists can play in environmental disaster response and preparedness. In addition to characterizing in detail the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of HM generated by the disasters, these roles also include (1) identifying and discriminating potential multiple sources of the materials; (2) monitoring, mapping, and modeling dispersal and evolution of the materials in the environment; (3) understanding how the materials are modified by environmental processes; (4) identifying key characteristics and processes that influence the materials' toxicity to exposed humans and ecosystems; (5) estimating shifts away from predisaster environmental baseline conditions; and (6) using geochemical insights learned from past disasters to help estimate, prepare for, and increase societal resilience to the environmental and related health impacts of future disasters.

  11. Radiological environmental pathway screening analysis for the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckart, R.; Carr, D.; Conner, B.; Janke, R.; Janke, R.

    1989-11-01

    The University of Cincinnati is working with the Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio (WMCO) to develop remedial action residual radioactive material soil guidelines for the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). As a first step in developing these soil guidelines, a radiological environmental pathway screening analysis was performed. The purpose of the pathway screening analysis was to identify the radionuclides and environmental pathways that would lead to the highest exposure or dose to humans from residual radioactivity in the soil at the FMPC. In addition, the screening analysis identifies those pathways that are critical to a particular radioisotope.

  12. Ceramic materials for energy and environmental applications: Functionalizing of properties by tailored compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Mariya; Ricote, Sandrine; Baumann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Stable social development requires novel approaches for energy production, distribution and storage combined with reasonable restrictions of the environmental impact. The fuel cell-based technologies, as well as the separation of gases from mixtures, particularly implemented into innovative power....... This chapter is dedicated to the fascinating world of tailoring ceramic materials for energy and environmental applications. Selected approaches to tune ceramics will be discussed to illustrate the versatile effects that compositional variation can have on the macroscopic properties, e.g. the conductivity...... additives and substituents on sinterability, electrical/electrochemical properties and stability of selected ceramic materials for energy and environmental applications. The material variety will cover ceramic materials with different crystal structures like fluorites, perovskites, pyrochlores, fergusonites...

  13. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  14. Development of inherently safe and environmentally acceptable intelligent processing technologies for HTS materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E.J.; Wangen, L.E.; Ott, K.C.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Parkinson, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The development of new processing technologies for the production, fabrication, and application of advanced materials proceeds through several complementary dimensions. The advanced materials dimension includes basic research on materials synthesis, composition, and properties; materials processing research; engineering characterization and materials applications; and product and process engineering. The health and environmental dimension includes identification of potential health and environmental constraints; characterization of candidate processes for waste and effluent quality; process optimization for both economic and environmental benefit; and development of control strategies to deal with health and environmental problems that cannot be solved through process modification. The intelligent processing dimension includes application of available sensors and the development of new diagnostics for real-time process measurements; development of control strategies and expert systems to use these process measurements for real-time process control; and development of capabilities to optimize working processes in real-time for both product quality and environmental acceptability. This paper discusses these issues in the context of the Laboratory's efforts to develop technologies based on the processing of the new high-temperature superconducting ceramic oxides.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN WASTE MATERIALS USED IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Netinger Grubeša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of solid waste in place of conventional materials in civil engineering structures preserves natural resources and energy and avoids expensive and/or potentially harmful waste disposal. Many studies are investigating the application of waste materials in civil engineering structures. However, in an effort to find out new areas of waste materials utilization, the environmental impact of the installation of such materials in building structures often remains neglected. This study focused on the environmental aspect of the application of currently investigated waste materials in Croatia with an emphasis on heavy metal content. Heavy metal concentration in steel slag, river sediment, and biomass ash was measured, and the possibility of their use in road construction in accordance with currently valid legislation was assessed.

  16. Establishment of a clean laboratory for ultra trace analysis of nuclear materials in safeguards environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has established a cleanroom facility with cleanliness of ISO Class 5: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). It was designed to be used for the analysis of nuclear materials in environmental samples mainly for the safeguards, in addition to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification and research on environmental sciences. The CLEAR facility was designed to meet conflicting requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials according to Japanese regulations, i.e., to avoid contamination from outside and to contain nuclear materials inside the facility. This facility has been intended to be used for wet chemical treatment, instrumental analysis and particle handling. A fume-hood to provide a clean work surface for handling of nuclear materials was specially designed. Much attention was paid to the selection of construction materials for use to corrosive acids. The performance of the cleanroom and analytical background in the laboratory are discussed. This facility has satisfactory specification required for joining the International Atomic Energy Agency Network of Analytical Laboratories. It can be concluded that the CLEAR facility enables analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials at sub-pictogram level in environmental samples. (author)

  17. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  18. Comparative Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Bio-Based Fibre Reinforcement Materials for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Markussen, Christen Malte; Birkved, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent decades biomaterials have been marketed successfully supported by the common perception that biomaterials and environmental sustainability de facto represents two sides of the same coin. The development of sustainable composite materials for wind turbine blades for small-scale wind...... categories, not only climate change, actually is supporting sustainable development or if the development of sustainable composite materials is more complex and perhaps even contra-intuitive due to complex trade-offs. Based on a case study 4 different types of fibres and fibre mixtures (flax, carbon, glass...... and flax/carbon, flax/glass mixed fibres) are compared in terms of environmental sustainability. Applying one of the most recent life cycle impact assessment methods, we demonstrate that the environmental sustainability of natural fibre based composite materials is similar or even lower, within certain...

  19. Radiation Exposure Effects and Shielding Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Richard; Armendariz, Lupita (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotube materials promise to be the basis for a variety of emerging technologies with aerospace applications. Potential applications to human space flight include spacecraft shielding, hydrogen storage, structures and fixtures and nano-electronics. Appropriate risk analysis on the properties of nanotube materials is essential for future mission safety. Along with other environmental hazards, materials used in space flight encounter a hostile radiation environment for all mission profiles, from low earth orbit to interplanetary space.

  20. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Maravić, Milutin; IVKOVIĆ, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2015-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology above all), and to the subject of Ecology in some profiles of secondary vocational education. There is no equal distribution of the environ...

  1. Space Station Freedom - A resource for aerospace education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the International Space Station in future U.S. aerospace education efforts is discussed from a NASA perspective. The overall design concept and scientific and technological goals of the Space Station are reviewed, and particular attention is given to education projects such as the Davis Planetarium Student Space Station, the Starship McCullough, the Space Habitat, the working Space Station model in Austin, TX, the Challenger Center for Space Life Education, Space M+A+X, and the Space Science Student Involvement Program. Also examined are learning-theory aspects of aerospace education: child vs adult learners, educational objectives, teaching methods, and instructional materials.

  2. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  3. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, En-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10-100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: (60)Co≤4.6%, (134)Cs≤4.7%, (137)Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and (3)H≤1.3%.

  4. Non-traditional Machining Techniques for Fabricating Metal Aerospace Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Zhu Di; D.M.Allen; H.J.A.Almondb

    2008-01-01

    Thanks to recent advances in manufacturing technology, aerospace system designers have many more options to fabricate high-quality, low-weight, high-capacity, cost-effective filters. Aside from traditional methods such as stamping, drilling and milling,many new approaches have been widely used in filter-manufacturing practices on account of their increased processing abilities. However, the restrictions on costs, the need for studying under stricter conditions such as in aggressive fluids, the complicity in design, the workability of materials, and others have made it difficult to choose a satisfactory method from the newly developed processes, such as,photochemical machining (PCM), photo electroforming (PEF) and laser beam machining (LBM) to produce small, inexpensive, lightweight aerospace filters. This article appraises the technical and economical viability of PCM, PEF, and LBM to help engineers choose the fittest approach to turn out aerospace filters.

  5. Remarks on Flammability Testing of Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.; Beeson, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    Agenda for the presentation: (1) Brief background of ISO 16697 (a) Reasons for the approach (b) Stated intent for this International Technical Specification (2) Evolution of initial considerations for the ISO approach (3) Discussion and recommendation

  6. Advanced Joining of Aerospace Metallic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    du materiau. 2.3 - Condhiion operatoires retenues Mat&iau :TA6V recuit Prdpaation de suiriace: fl~graissage alcalin D6capage Iluonitrique Paran,&itres...formage superplastique). in j (Ipa) 0.8 15 0 0.6 10 0.4 8 :8Ma 0,2 3.0 0. .00 Figure 3 - Ditermination des paramitres 9 et a 3.3 - Conditions operatoires ...translation horizontal (voir Fig. 8). Chaque b~ti comporte une matrice et un plateau chauffant reposant sur un bloc dlisolant. En position "ouverte

  7. Potential Applications of Biotechnology to Aerospace Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    sites) has revealed bacteria which can degrade PCBs or accumulate toxic metals. The ability to manipulate the genetic code to enhance or block an enzyme...303 S. Broadway Bolling AFB, DC 20332-6448 Tarryton, NY 1591 (202)767-4963 (914)631-2828 Lt. Mark Deysher Major Michael Binion FTD /TQTR HQ AMD/RDTB

  8. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  9. Advanced Materials Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, C. P. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Composites, polymer science, metallic materials (aluminum, titanium, and superalloys), materials processing technology, materials durability in the aerospace environment, ceramics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, tribology, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are discussed. Research and development activities are introduced to the nonaerospace industry. In order to provide a convenient means to help transfer aerospace technology to the commercial mainstream in a systematic manner.

  10. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  11. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  12. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  13. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, José D.; Pargana, Nuno; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel D.; Durão, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB) are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions), including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards. PMID:28773516

  14. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Silvestre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions, including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  15. Children's Recall and Motivation for an Environmental Education Video with Supporting Pedagogical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This study examined recall (Rcl) differences of high, average and low achieving fifth-grade elementary students (72) for an environmental education video with supporting pedagogical materials. In addition, it assessed the motivational level of all students. Recall assessment was carried out one-week and twenty-weeks after intervention. Main…

  16. The Cemented Material Dam: A New, Environmentally Friendly Type of Dam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinsheng Jia Michel Lino Feng Jin Cuiying Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The first author proposed the concept of the cemented material dam (CMD) in 2009. This concept was aimed at building an environmentally friendly dam in a safer and more economical way for both the dam and the area downstream...

  17. Nonflammable coolants for space vehicle environmental control systems Compatibility of component materials with selected dielectric fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R. T.; Korpolinski, T. S.; Mace, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    This paper summarizes a 4-year effort to evaluate and implement a nonflammable substitute coolant for application in the Saturn instrument unit (IU) environmental control system (ECS). Discussed are candidate material evaluations, detailed investigations of the properties of the coolant selected, and a summary of the implementation into a flight vehicle.

  18. The environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, van B.; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, de M.; Besten, den P.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, bioma

  19. Developing an environmental performance standard for the materials in buildings for the Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Groot-Van Dam, A. de; Kortman, J.G.M.; Huppes, G.; Ven, B. van der; Schuurmans, A.; Anink, D.

    2001-01-01

    After consulting the building industry the Dutch government decided in February 1998 to implement sustainability requirements in the Dutch Building Decree by the year 2001. Part of these requirements will be the material-based environmental performance of a building, mepb.. An energy performance

  20. Determination of thorium in environmental and workplace materials by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, L; Pilvio, R

    2000-01-01

    The paper outlines the advantages of the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) over radiometric techniques to measure natural thorium, 232Th. Experimental parameters that must be taken into account in the sample digestion, preparation and ICP-MS analysis of environmental (soils, rocks, sediments) or workplace (thorium oxide, reference solutions) materials are described. The methods presented are applied to various reference materials, with the aim of providing suitable procedures to be useful for other important thorium containing materials (such as monazite sands or welding electrodes). The participation in a European Commission intercomparison exercise is detailed and a comparison with alpha spectrometry is made.

  1. Recent development of carbon electrode materials and their bioanalytical and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Shuyun; Luque, Rafael; Han, Shuang; Hu, Lianzhe; Xu, Guobao

    2016-02-07

    Carbon materials have been extensively investigated due to their diversity, favorable properties, and active applications including electroanalytical chemistry. This critical review discusses new synthetic methods, novel carbon materials, new properties and electroanalytical applications of carbon materials particularly related to the preparation as well as bioanalytical and environmental applications of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, graphene, carbon nanotubes, various carbon films (e.g. pyrolyzed carbon films, boron-doped diamond films and diamond-like carbon films) and screen printing carbon electrodes. Future perspectives in the field have also been discussed (366 references).

  2. Efficiency of raw materials. Relief of the economy, environmental protection; Rohstoffeffizienz. Wirtschaft entlasten, Umwelt schonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Federal Statistical Office (Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) present actual data and analyses from environmentally economic total computations. In Germany, the use of raw materials became more efficient. Thus, 580 tons of raw materials per million Euro of gross domestic product were needed in the year 2008, while still 680 tons of raw materials were needed in the year 2000. The economical handling of natural resources relieves the environment and enables economic chances for individual companies and national economy. The lowering of environmental effects is to be in the focus of withdrawal and use of raw materials. This requires a stronger reduction of the consumption of raw materials. Savings potentials and an increased efficiency must be aspired in the short and medium term. The politics must create suitable incentives and framework conditions. The contribution under consideration presents new activities and strategies in order to achieve these targets.

  3. Feasibility study on consolidation of Fernald Environmental Management Project depleted uranium materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-30

    In 1991, the DOE made a decision to close the FMPC located in Fernald, Ohio, and end its production mission. The site was renamed FEMP to reflect Fernald`s mission change from uranium production to environmental restoration. As a result of this change, the inventory of strategic uranium materials maintained at Fernald by DOE DP will need to be relocated to other DOE sites. Although considered a liability to the Fernald Plant due to its current D and D mission, the FEMP DU represents a potentially valuable DOE resource. Recognizing its value, it may be important for the DOE to consolidate the material at one site and place it in a safe long-term storage condition until a future DOE programmatic requirement materializes. In August 1995, the DOE Office of Nuclear Weapons Management requested, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to assess the feasibility of consolidating the FEMP DU materials at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This feasibility study examines various phases associated with the consolidation of the FEMP DU at the ORR. If useful short-term applications for the DU fail to materialize, then long-term storage (up to 50 years) would need to be provided. Phases examined in this report include DU material value; potential uses; sampling; packaging and transportation; material control and accountability; environmental, health and safety issues; storage; project management; noneconomic factors; schedule; and cost.

  4. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  5. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

  6. ScienceScope: Aerospace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available technologies. These include advanced light materials, high-resolution sensors and advanced electronics. Of the 26 technology areas designated by the European Space Agency, 18 are covered to varying degrees within CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security, CSIR.... Light metals initia- tives focus on the reduction of aircraft structural weight and automobile weight, while increasing local content. Another priority technology flagship is advanced electronics, which includes sensor development, technology and fusion...

  7. Mechanical Properties of Air Plasma Sprayed Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Bradley; Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis; Wadley, Haydn

    2015-01-01

    Development work in Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) has focused considerably on the identification of materials systems and coating architectures to meet application needs. The evolution of these systems has occurred so quickly that modeling efforts and requisite data for modeling lag considerably behind development. Materials property data exists for many systems in the bulk form, but the effects of deposition on the critical properties of strength and fracture behavior are not well studied. We have plasma sprayed bulk samples of baseline EBC materials (silicon, ytterbium disilicate) and tested the mechanical properties of these materials to elicit differences in strength and toughness. We have also endeavored to assess the mixed-mode fracture resistance, Gc, of silicon in a baseline EBC applied to SiCSiC CMC via four point bend test. These results are compared to previously determined properties of the comparable bulk material.

  8. Chemistry of environmental materials. 3. Substitutive materials of asbestos; Kankyo zairyo no kagaku. Asbesto daitai zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    This paper outlines the synthesis and characteristics of substitutive materials of asbestos. Oxide system fibers are used as substitutes and classified into natural and synthetic fibers. As natural substitute, wollastonite fiber is used, while as synthetic substitute, silicate system, alumina system, zirconia system and potassium titanate system fibers are used. Wollastonite distributes in regional metamorphic rock and contact metamorphic zone between limestone and plutonic rock, and is used as heat insulator and adiabator. Silicate system fiber includes glass fiber, quartz fiber and silica fiber, while alumina system fiber includes alumina/silica fiber and alumina fiber. Glass fiber is composed of non-alkaline boro-silicate glass and classified into lint and staple. As fibers similar to glass staple, rock wool and slag wool are used. Only slag wool is produced in Japan because of its lower cost and higher qualitative stability than those of glass wool. Potassium titanate system fiber offers excellent heat resistance, thermal insulation and frictional resistance. 18 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS IN GOVERNING RECYCLED MATERIAL STYROFOAM FOR BUILDING HUMAN HABITAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini Aboo Talib Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Styrofoam is extensively used in food packaging businesses throughout the world. Its light weight makes it a favorite food package for entrepreneurs in food businesses. However, unlike its content, the food, which decomposed easily after some time, Styrofoam remains un-decomposed due to its oil-based structure. This study discusses the prospects of re-utilization of Styrofoam as environmentally friendly recycled material. This study uses the data from an exploratory survey on the usage of Styrofoam for food packaging-conducted in the district of Bangi, Malaysia-to highlight the magnitude of Styrofoam-waste generated in these activities. The study shows that Styrofoam can be used in combination of cement and concrete to produce a light weight, energy efficient and strong building can be built. Since there are a lot of supplies of waste Styrofoam, this material can be re-used in as part of construction material. In addition the use of Styrofoam in construction could be an innovative way for constructing termite’s free buildings. This study shows that recycling Styrofoam can assist in building environmentally friendly and cost efficient human habitat. Styrofoam can be channeled for a good cause and ways of governing the recycled materials. As such, the industrial waste generated by Styrofoam can be turned into other uses, thus reducing its environmental problems.

  11. Implications of Pb-free microelectronics assembly in aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A. A.; Bonner, J. K.; Ogunseitan, D.; Saphores, J. D.; Schoenung, J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial microelectronics industry is rapidly moving to completely Pb-free assembly strategies within the next decade. This trend is being driven by existing and proposed legislation in Europe and in Japan. The microelectronics industry has become truly global, as indicated by major U .S. firms who already adopted Pb-free implementation programs. Among these forward-looking firms are AT&T, IBM, Motorola, HP and Intel to name a few.Following Moore's law, advances in microelectronics are happening very rapidly. In many cases, commercial industry is ahead of the aerospace sector in technology. Progress by commercial industry, along with cost, drives the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts for military and space applications. We can thus anticipate that the aerospace industry will, at some point, be forced to use Pb-free components and subsystems as part of their standard business practices. In this paper we attempt to provide a snapshot of the commercial industry trends and how they may impact electronics in the aerospace environment. In addition, we also look at different strategies for implementation. Finally we present data collected on a recent NASA project to focus on finding suitable alternatives to eutectic tin-lead solders and solder pastes. The world is moving toward implementation of environmentally friendly manufacturing techniques. The aerospace industry will be forced to deal with issues related with Pb free assembly, either by availability or legislation. This paper provides some insight into some of the tradeoffs that should be considered.

  12. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  13. Aerospace Medicine Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation is next Sunday, May 10th. It will be to the Civil Aviation Medical Association, for 2 hours at Disney World in Orlando. It is a high level talk on space medicine, including history, the role of my office, human health risks of space flight, general aspects of space medicine practice, human health risk management (including integrated activities of medical operations and the Human Research Program, and thoughts concerning health risks for long duration exploration class space missions. No proprietary data or material will be used, all is readily available in the public sector. There is also a short (30 min) talk on Monday at the CAMA lunch. There we will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, with possible etiologies and plans for research (already selected studies). Again, nothing proprietary will be discussed.

  14. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  15. Communication for performance in aerospace

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelian Virgil BALUTA; Gabriela IOSIF

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlines rules for employees in the aerospace field about general procedures, accounting, budgets, employees involvement in the companies goals as a team or as a group. The quality of all communications activities is presented in correlation with performance. For us, performance means economic and social references, stability and credibility of the business and, not least, a good communication within the existing groups or teams. We take in account long-term, medium and short perfor...

  16. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on this postulate KIBO in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo industry is the first entomocole production company creat in Europe to human food; it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and various universities in France.

  17. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Format for Presentation of Material in Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... A of Part 51—Format for Presentation of Material in Environmental Impact Statements 1. General 2.... Appendices 1. General. (a) The Commission will use a format for environmental impact statements which will... following standard format for environmental impact statements should be followed unless there is a...

  18. Characterization of Environmental Impact of Building Materials for the Purpose of Ecodesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skele, Agnese; Repele, Mara; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2011-01-01

    -The building material manufacturing sector is one of the sectors with the highest consumption of fossil fuel resources. The "cradle-to-gate" study of the ceramic bricks made in the Āne plant of JSC Lode, Latvia, is performed according to ISO standards 14044:2006. Life cycle inventory data have been collected at the factory site. Three different perspectives of the "Eco-Indicator'99" method are used to conduct an environmental characterization of the building materials to obtain the total impact indicator.

  19. Environmental impacts of post-consumer material managements: recycling, biological treatments, incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, F

    2010-11-01

    The environmental impacts of recycling, mechanical biological treatments (MBT) and waste-to-energy incineration, the main management strategies to respond to the increasing production of post-consumer materials are reviewed and compared. Several studies carried out according to life-cycle assessment (LCA) confirm that the lowest environmental impact, on a global scale, is obtained by recycling and by biological treatments (composting and anaerobic fermentations) if compost is used in agriculture. The available air emission factors suggest that, on a local scale, mechanical biological treatments with energy recovery of biogas, may be intrinsically safer than waste-to-energy incinerators. Several studies confirm the capability of biological treatments to degrade many toxic xenobiotic contaminating urban wastes such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an important property to be improved, for safe agricultural use of compost. Further LCA studies to compare the environmental impact of MBTs and of waste-to-energy incinerators are recommended.

  20. Speciation Methods Used to Assess Potential Health Effects of Toxic Metals in Environmental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing potential exposures to toxic metals or metalloids such as arsenic and chromium in environmental materials is important in protecting public health. The chemical form of an element in, or released from, a material is also important, since some forms, such as Cr(VI), are more toxic than others, for example, Cr(III). We have used a variety of procedures to assess potential exposures to hexavalent chromium in ash and burned soils from October 2007 southern California wildfires. Synthetic lung-fluid and de-ionized water extractions simulate release in the lungs and potential environmental releases due to rainfall. Extracts were analyzed for specific chromium and arsenic species using HPLC-ICP-MS methodology. Results indicate that the highly oxidizing environment in wildfires promotes some chromium conversion to Cr(VI), and that the caustic alkalinity of ash enhances Cr(VI) release and stability in lung fluids and rainfall.

  1. Environmental and economic aspects of using marble fine waste in the manufacture of facing ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemlyanushnov Dmitriy Yur'evich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work considers economic expediency of using marble fine waste in facing ceramic materials manufacture by three-dimensional coloring method. Adding marble fine waste to the charge mixture reduces the production cost of the final product. This waste has a positive impact on the intensification of drying clay rocks and raw as a whole, which increases production efficiency. Using marble fine waste as a coloring admixture makes it possible to manufacture more environmentally friendly construction material with the use of wastes of hazard class 3 instead of class 4. At the same time, disposal areas and environmental load in the territories of mining and marble processing reduce significantly. Replacing ferrous pigments with manganese oxide for marble fine waste reduces the cost of the final product and the manufacture of facing ceramic brick of a wide range of colors - from dark brown to yellow.

  2. Market Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Celulose Insulation Material in the Construction Business in Srinagar, India

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rakhshanda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the market for environmentally-friendly cellulose insulation material in Srinagar, J&K, India. Insulation plays an important role when trying to decrease the energy consumption. At the same time, insulation creates better living conditions. Despite several benefits of insulation, the con-structions are not commonly insulated. To get a deeper understanding of this con-tradiction, this study focuses on questions: 1) what is the demand for cellulose insul...

  3. Environmental policy discourse and its material objects: Bridging the gap with 'modest realism'

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Discourse theories offer a penetrating approach to environmental policy analysis, as they focus on the interpretive worlds produced in policy actors' utterances and writings, and the argumentative struggles that lead to one view dominating over others in a policy domain. However they fail to theorise the relationships between policy discourse and the material realities that are the objects of policy. This is because their social constructivist epistemology deprives them of criteria for judgin...

  4. A standardized Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2014-11-01

    The success of any aerospace mission depends upon the reliability of the discrete components comprising the instrument. To this end, many test standards have been developed to define test protocols and methods for the parts used in these missions. To date, no recognized MIL-type standard exists for cryogenic temperature sensors that are used from room temperature to 20 K or below. The aerospace applications utilizing these sensors require the procuring entity to develop a specification which the sensor manufacturer uses to screen and qualify a single build lot for flight use. The individual applications often require only a small number of sensors with the end result being a relatively high cost and long delivery time. Over the past two decades, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has worked with many aerospace companies to supply Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensors for numerous missions. The experience gained from this work has led to the development of a manufacturing and test protocol resulting in 'off-the-shelf' cryogenic temperature sensors that should meet the requirements for many aerospace applications. Sensors will be available at the base part level with the ability to configure the delivered part with regard to lead wire material, package adapter, lead wire extensions, and calibration as appropriate or necessary for the application. This work presents details of this manufacturing, inspection, and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of Cernox™ temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  5. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  6. Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Aerospace Medicine technical reports are available in full-text from the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute’s publications Web site: www.faa.gov/library...Other Topics Related to Aerospace Medicine IBERIA Dirección Servicios al Cliente. Pasajeros con Movilidad Reducida. Consejos para el Viaje. Madrid...Enfermos. Madrid, Spain: Ministerio del Aire, Servicio Información Aeronáutica, 1956. National Air Transportation Association. NATA Bloodborne Pathogens

  7. Developing Digital Aerospace to Build The Advanced Aerospace Corporation in The World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HouJunjie; LiuHaibin; GaoShiwen

    2005-01-01

    It is the strategic goal to develop digital aerospace for ChinaAerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) to realize its leap development. In the paper, we expound the connotation of developing digital aerospace, i.e. the digitization of aerospace products, the informatization of R&D and manufacturing, the industrialization of software products, and the integration of information of ground and space sectors.

  8. Hazardous properties and environmental effects of materials used in solar heating and cooling (SHAC) technologies: interim handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, J.Q.

    1978-12-01

    General background informaion related to SHAC systems, how a particular material was chosen for this handbook, and codes and standards are given. Materials are categorized according to their functional use in SHAC systems as follows: (1) heat transfer fluids and fluid treatment chemicals, (2) insulation materials, (3) seals and sealant materials, (4) glazing materials, (5) collector materials, and (6) storage media. The informaion is presented under: general properties, chemical composition, thermal degradation products, and thermoxidative products of some commercial materials; toxic properties and other potential health effects; fire hazard properties; and environmental effects of and disposal methods for SHAC materials. (MHR)

  9. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

  10. The Oil Point Method - A tool for indicative environmental evaluation in material and process selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2000-01-01

    and methods are, however, often relatively complicated and require more time, data and specific expertise in the field than designers usually possess. Furthermore, the detailed information required for an LCA are not available in the early stages of the product development process, where crucial decisions...... are made, such as the decision upon materials and manufacturing processes. It is, therefore, a major challenge to develop tools and methods, which support the environmentally conscious selection of materials and processes while requiring only relatively little time and knowledge in the field......: the method considers exclusively primary energy relationships and it utilises material and process-specific indicators for the calculations. The validation of the method is accomplished by means of five case studies, where results obtained with the OPM are compared to results obtained with two established...

  11. Environmental transmission electron microscopy for catalyst materials using a spherical aberration corrector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Seiji, E-mail: takeda@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kuwauchi, Yasufumi; Yoshida, Hideto

    2015-04-15

    Atomic resolution has been obtained using environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) by installing a spherical aberration corrector (Cs-corrector) on the objective lens. Simultaneously, the technology for controlling the environment around a specimen in ETEM has advanced significantly in the past decade. Quantification methodology has recently been established for deriving relevant experimental data in catalyst materials from substantial and systematic ETEM observation at the atomic scale. With this background, this paper summarizes aspects of the evolutional microscopy technique: necessary conditions for atomic resolution in ETEM; reduction of the scattering of electrons by the medium surrounding a specimen; and an environmental cell for structural imaging of a crystalline specimen. The high spatial resolution of a Cs-corrected ETEM is demonstrated for different observation conditions. After statistical analysis combined with numerical image analysis of ETEM data is briefly described, the recent applications of the Cs-corrected ETEM to catalyst materials are reviewed. For gold nanoparticulate catalysts, the structural information on the reaction sites and adsorption sites are deduced. For Pt nanoparticulate catalysts, ETEM studies elucidate the correlation between the catalytic activity and the morphology of the nanoparticles. These studies also reveal oxidation and reduction on the topmost Pt surface layer at the atomic scale. Finally, current issues and the future perspectives of Cs-corrected ETEM are summarized, including the reproducibility of ETEM observation data, the control of environments, the critical evaluation of electron irradiation effects, the full implementation of transmission electron microscopy technology in ETEM, and the safety issues for an ETEM laboratory. - Highlights: • Advancement of Cs corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy. • Structural determination of catalyst materials in reaction environments.

  12. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  13. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Evangelos Z. Kordatos; Dimitrios G. Aggelis; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specificall...

  14. Adaptive control with aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadient, Ross

    Robust and adaptive control techniques have a rich history of theoretical development with successful application. Despite the accomplishments made, attempts to combine the best elements of each approach into robust adaptive systems has proven challenging, particularly in the area of application to real world aerospace systems. In this research, we investigate design methods for general classes of systems that may be applied to representative aerospace dynamics. By combining robust baseline control design with augmentation designs, our work aims to leverage the advantages of each approach. This research contributes the development of robust model-based control design for two classes of dynamics: 2nd order cascaded systems, and a more general MIMO framework. We present a theoretically justified method for state limiting via augmentation of a robust baseline control design. Through the development of adaptive augmentation designs, we are able to retain system performance in the presence of uncertainties. We include an extension that combines robust baseline design with both state limiting and adaptive augmentations. In addition we develop an adaptive augmentation design approach for a class of dynamic input uncertainties. We present formal stability proofs and analyses for all proposed designs in the research. Throughout the work, we present real world aerospace applications using relevant flight dynamics and flight test results. We derive robust baseline control designs with application to both piloted and unpiloted aerospace system. Using our developed methods, we add a flight envelope protecting state limiting augmentation for piloted aircraft applications and demonstrate the efficacy of our approach via both simulation and flight test. We illustrate our adaptive augmentation designs via application to relevant fixed-wing aircraft dynamics. Both a piloted example combining the state limiting and adaptive augmentation approaches, and an unpiloted example with

  15. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  16. Inspection tools for aerospace critical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Thompson, G. W.; Nerren, Billy H.; Burns, H. Dewitt, Jr.

    1998-03-01

    The measurement and control of cleanliness for critical surfaces during manufacturing and in service operations provides unique challenges in aerospace. For re-usable propulsion systems, such as the solid rocket motors, the current thrust for environmentally benign processes has had a major impact on programs designed for maintaining quality in the production of bondline surfaces. The major goal is to improve upon our ability to detect and identify possible contaminants which are detrimental to the integrity of the bondline. This effort requires an in-depth study of the possible sources of contamination, methodologies to detect and identify contaminants, discriminate between contaminants and chemical species caused by environmental conditions, and the effect of particular contaminants on the bondline integrity of the critical surfaces. This presentation will provide an overview of several optical methods used to detect and identify contamination on critical surfaces, currently being performed by the Surface Contamination and Analysis Team at Marshall Space Flight Center. The methods under development for contamination monitoring include FTIR and Near-IR SPectrometry, UV Fluorescence, and Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Comparisons between these methods and the current primary tool, optical stimulation of electron emission for on-line inspection will be presented. Experiments include quantitative measurement of silicone and Conoco HD2 greases, metal hydroxides, tape residues, etc. on solid rocket motor surfaces.

  17. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  18. FUNDAMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF THE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL 2LIBH4 MGH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, C.; Anton, D.; Cortes-Concepcion, J.; Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-01-10

    While the storage of hydrogen for portable and stationary applications is regarded as critical in bringing PEM fuel cells to commercial acceptance, little is known of the environmental exposure risks posed in utilizing condensed phase chemical storage options as in complex hydrides. It is thus important to understand the effect of environmental exposure of metal hydrides in the case of accident scenarios. Simulated tests were performed following the United Nations standards to test for flammability and water reactivity in air for a destabilized lithium borohydride and magnesium hydride system in a 2 to 1 molar ratio respectively. It was determined that the mixture acted similarly to the parent, lithium borohydride, but at slower rate of reaction seen in magnesium hydride. To quantify environmental exposure kinetics, isothermal calorimetry was utilized to measure the enthalpy of reaction as a function of exposure time to dry and humid air, and liquid water. The reaction with liquid water was found to increase the heat flow significantly during exposure compared to exposure in dry or humid air environments. Calorimetric results showed the maximum normalized heat flow the fully charged material was 6 mW/mg under liquid phase hydrolysis; and 14 mW/mg for the fully discharged material also occurring under liquid phase hydrolysis conditions.

  19. Measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental matrix standard reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, H.; Schantz, M.; Wise, S. (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of emerging contaminants of concern as many studies have now demonstrated that these compounds are bioaccumulative, persistent and increasing in concentration in the environment. PBDEs are being detected in almost every environmental sample examined, and they have even been measured in samples collected in the Arctic, further demonstrating their persistence and potential for long range transport. More and more studies are continuing to examine the fate and transport of these flame retardant compounds in environmental samples and as such, reference materials are needed to provide quality control on these measurements. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) supports a national Standard Reference Material (SRM) program for measurement of organic contaminants such as PCBs, PAHs and chlorinated pesticides in environmental matrices. This current study was undertaken to provide reference measurements for PBDEs in selected SRMs that are currently used by various laboratories throughout the United States. These SRMs include matrices such as marine mammal blubber, lake trout tissue, mussel tissue, sediment, house dust and human serum. We report here reference values for 22 PBDE congeners that have been quantified in these seven types of SRMs.

  20. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  1. Soft-Templating Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica-Based Materials for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, Chamila Asanka

    Dissertation research is mainly focus on: 1) the development of mesoporous silica materials with organic pendant and bridging groups (isocyanurate, amidoxime, benzene) and incorporated metal (aluminum, zirconium, calcium, and magnesium) species for high temperature carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption, 2) phosphorous-hydroxy functionalized mesoporous silica materials for water treatment, and 3) amidoxime-modified ordered mesoporous silica materials for uranium sorption under seawater conditions. The goal is to design composite materials for environmental applications with desired porosity, surface area, and functionality by selecting proper metal oxide precursors, organosilanes, tetraethylorthosilicate, (TEOS), and block copolymer templates and by adjusting synthesis conditions. The first part of dissertation presents experimental studies on the merge of aluminum, zirconium, calcium, and magnesium oxides with mesoporous silica materials containing organic pendant (amidoxime) and bridging groups (isocyanurate, benzene) to obtain composite sorbents for CO2 sorption at ambient (0-25 °C) and elevated (60-120 °C) temperatures. These studies indicate that the aforementioned composite sorbents are fairly good for CO2 capture at 25 °C via physisorption mechanism and show a remarkably high affinity toward CO2 chemisorption at 60-120 °C. The second part of dissertation is devoted to silica-based materials with organic functionalities for removal of heavy metal ions such as lead from contaminated water and for recovery of metal ions such as uranium from seawater. First, ordered mesoporous organosilica (OMO) materials with diethylphosphatoethyl and hydroxyphosphatoethyl surface groups were examined for Pb2+ adsorption and showed unprecedented adsorption capacities up to 272 mg/g and 202 mg/g, respectively However, the amidoxime-modified OMO materials were explored for uranium extraction under seawater conditions and showed remarkable capacities reaching 57 mg of uranium per gram

  2. Recent developments in graphite. [Use in HTGR and aerospace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Overall, the HTGR graphite situation is in excellent shape. In both of the critical requirements, fuel blocks and support structures, adequate graphites are at hand and improved grades are sufficiently far along in truncation. In the aerospace field, GraphNOL N3M permits vehicle performance with confidence in trajectories unobtainable with any other existing material. For fusion energy applications, no other graphite can simultaneously withstand both extreme thermal shock and neutron damage. Hence, the material promises to create new markets as well as to offer a better candidate material for existing applications.

  3. Advanced composites for aerospace, marine, and land applications

    CERN Document Server

    Srivatsan, T; Peretti, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover a broad spectrum of topics that represent the truly diverse nature of the field of composite materials. This collection presents research and findings relevant to the latest advances in composites materials, specifically their use in aerospace, maritime, and even land applications. The editors have made every effort to bring together authors who put forth recent advances in their research while concurrently both elaborating on and thereby enhancing our prevailing understanding of the salient aspects related to the science, engineering, and far-reaching technological applications of composite materials.

  4. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-05

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  5. Construction and Application of a National Data-Sharing Service Network of Material Environmental Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the key features of a newly developed national data-sharing online network for material environmental corrosion. Written in Java language and based on Oracle database technology, the central database in the network is supported with two unique series of corrosion failure data, both of which were accumulated during a long period of time. The first category of data, provided by national environment corrosion test sites, is corrosion failure data for different materials in typical environments (atmosphere, seawater and soil. The other category is corrosion data in production environments, provided by a variety of firms. This network system enables standardized management of environmental corrosion data, an effective data sharing process, and research and development support for new products and after-sale services. Moreover this network system provides a firm base and data-service platform for the evaluation of project bids, safety, and service life. This article also discusses issues including data quality management and evaluation in the material corrosion data sharing process, access authority of different users, compensation for providers of shared historical data, and finally, the related policy and law legal processes, which are required to protect the intellectual property rights of the database.

  6. Evaluation of natural colonisation of cementitious materials: effect of bioreceptivity and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Sandra; Calvo-Torras, María Ángeles; De Belie, Nele; Segura, Ignacio; Aguado, Antonio

    2015-04-15

    Incorporation of living organisms, such as photosynthetic organisms, on the structure envelope has become a priority in the area of architecture and construction due to aesthetical, economic and ecological advantages. Important research efforts are made to achieve further improvements, such as for the development of cementitious materials with an enhanced bioreceptivity to stimulate biological growth. Previously, the study of the bioreceptivity of cementitious materials has been carried out mainly under laboratory conditions although field-scale experiments may present different results. This work aims at analysing the colonisation of cementitious materials with different levels of bioreceptivity by placing them in three different environmental conditions. Specimens did not present visual colonisation, which indicates that environmental conditions have a greater impact than intrinsic properties of the material at this stage. Therefore, it appears that in addition to an optimized bioreceptivity of the concrete (i.e., composition, porosity and roughness), extra measures are indispensable for a rapid development of biological growth on concrete surfaces. An analysis of the colonisation in terms of genus and quantity of the most representative microorganisms found on the specimens for each location was carried out and related to weather conditions, such as monthly average temperature and total precipitation, and air quality in terms of NOx, SO2, CO and O3. OPC-based specimens presented a higher colonisation regarding both biodiversity and quantity. However, results obtained in a previous experimental programme under laboratory conditions suggested a higher suitability of Magnesium Phosphate Cement-based (MPC-based) specimens for algal growth. Consequently, carefully considering the environment and the relationships between the different organisms present in an environment is vital for successfully using a cementitious material as a substrate for biological growth

  7. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  8. Ceramic materials for energy and environmental applications: Functionalizing of properties by tailored compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Mariya; Ricote, Sandrine; Baumann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Stable social development requires novel approaches for energy production, distribution and storage combined with reasonable restrictions of the environmental impact. The fuel cell-based technologies, as well as the separation of gases from mixtures, particularly implemented into innovative power...... separation and ion/electron transport at the relevant operating conditions and stability ranges, improved electrical or ionic conductivities and permeation rates are required. That can be achieved by doping and substitution which are actors on a nano-scale that usually lead to macroscopic impacts....... This chapter is dedicated to the fascinating world of tailoring ceramic materials for energy and environmental applications. Selected approaches to tune ceramics will be discussed to illustrate the versatile effects that compositional variation can have on the macroscopic properties, e.g. the conductivity...

  9. Cost-effective synthesis of environmentally benign materials on the basis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Häberlein

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As an example for an environmentally benign and low-cost material we prepared blends from 1. copolyester-urethanes (PEU and 2. cellulose acetate recycling material (CAR. The copolyester-urethanes were prepared by joining blocks of alpha, omega-(poly-(R-3-hydroxybutyrate-diol and poly-butylenglycol-adipate-diol with hexamethylene diisocyanate. Fibrous CAR was transformed into a short-fiber felt by textile technology and calendared into the PEU melt. The processing of the blends was done at 80 - 100 °C mainly by injection molding. The mechanical properties of the tough-elastic materials were studied with respect to the influence of the PEU composition and the ratio of CAR admixture. The starting materials, (R-PHB and cellulose derivatives are obtained from agrarian resources. Therefore, the resulting polymers are stable under conditions of usage, yet readily bio-degradable on soil deposition. Mixing with cellulose acetate waste material allows for cost-effective production of such blends.

  10. Communication for performance in aerospace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Virgil BALUTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines rules for employees in the aerospace field about general procedures, accounting, budgets, employees involvement in the companies goals as a team or as a group. The quality of all communications activities is presented in correlation with performance. For us, performance means economic and social references, stability and credibility of the business and, not least, a good communication within the existing groups or teams. We take in account long-term, medium and short performance for a new and modern field such as the aerospace industry. The paper highlights the group communication aspects, the process needed to optimize communication within a group, the team characteristics and mission, the team involvement versus group involvement, organization of the work team and defining/definition of roles in a team according to individual skills and some technics; to apply the Belbin test for determining the role of individuals within the team, for identifying the types of communication in order to get the information transmitted to the different types of individuals such as “analytical type”, “director type”, “friendly type”, “expressive type”, the needs and interest of these individuals, assessing how the information was received and the impact of the feedback.

  11. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  12. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  13. Henkel Technologies and Products for China Aerospace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Cichon; Helen Wei Li; Alex Wong; Stan Lehmann; Raymond Wong

    2006-01-01

    Epoxy structural adhesives and composites have been in use for many years for the construction of aerospace vehicles. Henkel provides many epoxy products. Many other resin systems have been evaluated and several, such as imide,phenolic and cyanate ester, have also achieved significant use. Henkel's newly developed "Epsilon" chemistry demonstrates unique features that benefit application in aerospace structure that use adhesives and composites.

  14. Environmental profile of latent energy storage materials applied to industrial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Mainar-Toledo, M D; Ferreira, Victor J; Ferreira, Germán

    2014-03-01

    Industry sector is an intensive-energy consumer and approximately 20-50% of industrial energy consumption is lost as waste heat. Therefore, there is a great potential for reducing energy consumption and, subsequently, decreasing the fossil fuels used if this lost energy can be recovered. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) based on Latent Heat Storage systems (LHS) using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has become one of the most feasible solutions in achieving energy savings through waste heat recovery, especially when there is a mismatch between the supply and consumption of energy processes. In this paper, a shell and tube heat exchanger incorporating PCMs has been considered to store the excess energy available in an industrial process. Several attempts have been made to design the most appropriate system considering many cost-benefit and technical criteria to maximise the heat recovery. However, the environmental criterion also is an important factor when determining whether this technology is not only energy and cost-efficient but also environmentally friendly, considering the whole life of the system from its manufacture to its disposal. To this end, this research includes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to determine whether the energy savings of conventional fuels during the operation stage are large enough to balance the environmental impact originated in an industrial TES system including the manufacture, use and disposal phases. Inputs and outputs of each management stage have been defined, and the inventory emissions calculated by SIMAPRO v7.3.2. A midpoint and endpoint approaches have been carried out using two methods, CML 2001 and Eco-indicator 99, respectively. As a preliminary result, a promising reduction in the overall impacts was obtained by the use of this technology. From the environmental impact results, a matrix of possible technical solutions is displayed, to improve the environmental performance.

  15. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  16. Powered Flight The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Greatrix, David R

    2012-01-01

    Whilst most contemporary books in the aerospace propulsion field are dedicated primarily to gas turbine engines, there is often little or no coverage of other propulsion systems and devices such as propeller and helicopter rotors or detailed attention to rocket engines. By taking a wider viewpoint, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion aims to provide a broader context, allowing observations and comparisons to be made across systems that are overlooked by focusing on a single aspect alone. The physics and history of aerospace propulsion are built on step-by-step, coupled with the development of an appreciation for the mathematics involved in the science and engineering of propulsion. Combining the author’s experience as a researcher, an industry professional and a lecturer in graduate and undergraduate aerospace engineering, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion covers its subject matter both theoretically and with an awareness of the practicalities of the industry. To ...

  17. Consensus evaluation of radioactivity-in-soil reference materials in the context of an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Collins, Sean; Garcia Miranda, Maria; Ivanov, Peter; Larijani, Cyrus; Woods, Selina

    2017-01-25

    The development of two radioactivity-in-soil reference materials is described - one for peat and one for soil with high sand content. Each bulk material was processed, subdivided and measured before being sent to participants in an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in each material were determined by 'consensus' evaluations of participants' results using two weighted mean methods. The project demonstrated the use of such exercises in delivering reference materials to the user community.

  18. Engineered nano materials and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research at the Western Ecology Division in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanoparticles represent a unique hazard to human health and the environment because their inherent characteristics differ significantly from commonly used chemicals and bulk forms of materials. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecti...

  19. Nanotechnology patenting trends through an environmental lens: analysis of materials and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, Megan E. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States); Casman, Elizabeth [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States); Lowry, Gregory V., E-mail: glowry@cmu.edu [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Many international groups study environmental health and safety (EHS) concerns surrounding the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). These researchers frequently use the 'Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies' (PEN) inventory of nano-enabled consumer products to prioritize types of ENMs to study because estimates of life-cycle ENM releases to the environment can be extrapolated from the database. An alternative 'snapshot' of nanomaterials likely to enter commerce can be determined from the patent literature. The goal of this research was to provide an overview of nanotechnology intellectual property trends, complementary to the PEN consumer product database, to help identify potentially 'risky' nanomaterials for study by the nano-EHS community. Ten years of nanotechnology patents were examined to determine the types of nano-functional materials being patented, the chemical compositions of the ENMs, and the products in which they are likely to appear. Patenting trends indicated different distributions of nano-enabled products and materials compared to the PEN database. Recent nanotechnology patenting is dominated by electrical and information technology applications rather than the hygienic and anti-fouling applications shown by PEN. There is an increasing emphasis on patenting of nano-scale layers, coatings, and other surface modifications rather than traditional nanoparticles, and there is widespread use of nano-functional semiconductor, ceramic, magnetic, and biological materials that are currently less studied by EHS professionals. These commonly patented products and the nano-functional materials they contain may warrant life-cycle evaluations to determine the potential for environmental exposure and toxicity. The patent and consumer product lists contribute different and complementary insights into the emerging nanotechnology industry and its potential for introducing nanomaterials into the environment.

  20. Nanotechnology patenting trends through an environmental lens: analysis of materials and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Megan E.; Casman, Elizabeth; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2012-12-01

    Many international groups study environmental health and safety (EHS) concerns surrounding the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). These researchers frequently use the "Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies" (PEN) inventory of nano-enabled consumer products to prioritize types of ENMs to study because estimates of life-cycle ENM releases to the environment can be extrapolated from the database. An alternative "snapshot" of nanomaterials likely to enter commerce can be determined from the patent literature. The goal of this research was to provide an overview of nanotechnology intellectual property trends, complementary to the PEN consumer product database, to help identify potentially "risky" nanomaterials for study by the nano-EHS community. Ten years of nanotechnology patents were examined to determine the types of nano-functional materials being patented, the chemical compositions of the ENMs, and the products in which they are likely to appear. Patenting trends indicated different distributions of nano-enabled products and materials compared to the PEN database. Recent nanotechnology patenting is dominated by electrical and information technology applications rather than the hygienic and anti-fouling applications shown by PEN. There is an increasing emphasis on patenting of nano-scale layers, coatings, and other surface modifications rather than traditional nanoparticles, and there is widespread use of nano-functional semiconductor, ceramic, magnetic, and biological materials that are currently less studied by EHS professionals. These commonly patented products and the nano-functional materials they contain may warrant life-cycle evaluations to determine the potential for environmental exposure and toxicity. The patent and consumer product lists contribute different and complementary insights into the emerging nanotechnology industry and its potential for introducing nanomaterials into the environment.

  1. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

  2. An e-learning platform for aerospace medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, P D; Konstantinidis, S; Papadelis, C L; Perantoni, E; Styliadis, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Pappas, C

    2008-08-01

    The appeal of online education and distance learning as an educational alternative is ever increasing. To support and accommodate the over-specialized knowledge available by different experts, information technology can be employed to develop virtual distributed pools of autonomous specialized educational modules and provide the mechanisms for retrieving and sharing them. New educational standards such as SCORM and Healthcare LOM enhance this process of sharing by offering qualities like interoperability, accessibility, and reusability, so that learning material remains credible, up-to-date and tracks changes and developments of medical techniques and standards through time. Given that only a few e-learning courses exist in aerospace medicine the material of which may be exchanged among teachers, the aim of this paper is to illustrate the procedure of creating a SCORM compliant course that incorporates notions of recent advances in social web technologies. The course is in accordance with main educational and technological details and is specific to pulmonary disorders in aerospace medicine. As new educational trends place much emphasis in continuing medical education, the expansion of a general practitioner's knowledge in topics such as aviation and aerospace pulmonary disorders for crew and passengers becomes a societal requirement.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM: PROTOCOL FOR THE VERIFICATION OF GROUTING MATERIALS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE REHABILITATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON - CIGMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol was developed under the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, and is intended to be used as a guide in preparing laboratory test plans for the purpose of verifying the performance of grouting materials used for infra...

  4. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  5. 脉冲涡流无损检测技术及其用于航空航天材料缺陷检测的研究进展%Pulsed eddy current nondestructive testing technology and its applications for detection of aerospace material defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王三胜; 易忠; 侯化安; 石东

    2015-01-01

    对飞行器材料内部缺陷情况的及时有效检测,可实现对飞行器等重要器件材料缺陷而引起的风险作出预判,避免航空航天事故的发生.文章在回顾脉冲涡流无损检测基本原理的基础上,综述了该技术的国内外相关研究进展及其在航空航天材料缺陷检测中的应用.进而结合北京航空航天大学相关实验室的研究项目,介绍了基于超导量子干涉仪的脉冲涡流无损检测在微小缺陷检测方面的优势、相关技术和初步实验结果.%The timely and effective detection of the internal defects of the materials used in a flight vehicle can help the evaluation of the risk due to the material defects of the vehicle and other important components, and avoid some aerospace accidents. First, the principle of the eddy current nondestructive testing is discussed. And then, the related studies of the pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive test at home and abroad, as well as its application in aerospace material defect detections are reviewed. At last, the advantage of the PEC nondestructive in micro-defect tests and its related technology based on the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and the experimental results are analyzed in the context of the projects of the laboratories in Beihang University.

  6. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  7. Aerogels in Aerospace: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiir Bheekhun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are highly porous structures prepared via a sol-gel process and supercritical drying technology. Among the classes of aerogels, silica aerogel exhibits the most remarkable physical properties, possessing lower density, thermal conductivity, refractive index, and dielectric constant than any solids. Its acoustical property is such that it can absorb the sound waves reducing speed to 100 m/s compared to 332 m/s for air. However, when it comes to commercialization, the result is not as expected. It seems that mass production, particularly in the aerospace industry, has dawdled behind. This paper highlights the evolution of aerogels in general and discusses the functions and significances of silica aerogel in previous astronautical applications. Future outer-space applications have been proposed as per the current research trend. Finally, the implementation of conventional silica aerogel in aeronautics is argued with an alternative known as Maerogel.

  8. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Papercrete brick as an alternate building material to control Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Ramesh, S.; Jothilingam, M.; Ramasamy, Vishalatchi; Rajan, Rajitha J.

    2017-07-01

    Utilization of concrete in the construction industry is increasing day by day. The increasing demand for concrete in the future is the major issue, for which an alternate option is to find out at a reduced or no additional cost and to reduce the environmental impact due to increase of cement industries that are important ingredient to economic development. It turns out urgent to find out alternate for the partial replacement of concrete and cement, as natural sources of aggregates are becoming exhausted. As large quantity of paper waste is generated from different countries all over the world which causes serious environmental problems, So in this present study abandoned paper waste was used as a partial replacement material in concrete,. Study indicates that 80% of the construction cost of a building was contributed by building material and still millions of people in developing countries like India are not able to afford the cost of construction of house. This study is based on potential use of light weight composite brick as a building material and potential use of paper waste for producing at low-cost. Experimental investigation was carried out to analyse optimization of mix for papercrete bricks depending upon the water absorption, compressive strength and unit weight. Papercrete bricks were prepared out of waste paper, and quarry dust with partial replacement of cement by another industrial by-product Fly Ash in varying proportions of 25%, 40% and 55%. The properties like mechanical strength, standard quality comparisons with the conventional bricks through standard tests like hardness, soundness, fire resistance and Cost-Benefit Analysis were performed and studied. The specimens of dimension 230mm x 110mm x 80mm were subjected to 7 Days and 28 days air curing and sun drying before tests were performed on them. Based on the study it was found that for non-load bearing walls papercrete bricks are best suited.

  10. Bibliography of documents and related materials collected for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, F.M.; Boston, C.R.; Burns, J.C.; Hagan, C.W. Jr.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive information developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. On May 17, 1994, the USDOE published a notice in the Federal Register withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report provides a bibliography of documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were obtained or used. The report provides citations for approximately 642 documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were gathered to describe the potentially affected environment on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. The listing also does not include all the reference materials developed by support subcontractors and cooperating agencies who participated in the project. This listing does not include correspondence or other types of personal communications. The documents listed in this report can be obtained from original sources or libraries.

  11. Multivariate methods for analysis of environmental reference materials using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Awasthi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of emission from laser-induced plasma has a unique capability for quantifying the major and minor elements present in any type of samples under optimal analysis conditions. Chemometric techniques are very effective and reliable tools for quantification of multiple components in complex matrices. The feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS in combination with multivariate analysis was investigated for the analysis of environmental reference materials (RMs. In the present work, different (Certified/Standard Reference Materials of soil and plant origin were analyzed using LIBS and the presence of Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, K, Mn and Si were identified in the LIBS spectra of these materials. Multivariate statistical methods (Partial Least Square Regression and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis were employed for quantitative analysis of the constituent elements using the LIBS spectral data. Calibration models were used to predict the concentrations of the different elements of test samples and subsequently, the concentrations were compared with certified concentrations to check the authenticity of models. The non-destructive analytical method namely Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA using high flux reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was also used for intercomparison of results of two RMs by LIBS.

  12. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  13. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  14. Final environmental assessment for the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations receipt and storage of uranium materials from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Through a series of material transfers and sales agreements over the past 6 to 8 years, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has reduced its nuclear material inventory from 14,500 to approximately 6,800 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This effort is part of the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) decision to change the mission of the FEMP site; it is currently shut down and the site is being remediated. This EA focuses on the receipt and storage of uranium materials at various DOE-ORO sites. The packaging and transportation of FEMP uranium material has been evaluated in previous NEPA and other environmental evaluations. A summary of these evaluation efforts is included as Appendix A. The material would be packaged in US Department of Transportation-approved shipping containers and removed from the FEMP site and transported to another site for storage. The Ohio Field Office will assume responsibility for environmental analyses and documentation for packaging and transport of the material as part of the remediation of the site, and ORO is preparing this EA for receipt and storage at one or more sites.

  15. 76 FR 1600 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade.... Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada on May 2-4, 2011. This aerospace mission is an ] ideal opportunity for U.S. aerospace companies to gain valuable international business leads in a...

  16. 75 FR 39911 - Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China from November 7-17, 2010. The 2010 Aerospace Supplier... industry. It is intended to include representatives from a variety of U.S. aerospace industry...

  17. Micro/Nanoscale Chemicalsensor Systems for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary; Xu, Jennifer; Evans, Laura; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin; Ward, Benjamin; Rowe, Scott; Makel, Darby; Liu, Chung Chiun; Dutta, Prabir; Berger, Gordon; VanderWal, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace industry requires development of a range of chemical-sensor technologies for applications including emissions monitoring as well as fuel-leak and fire detection. Improvements in sensing technology are necessary to increase safety, reduce emissions, and increase performance. The overall aim is to develop intelligent-vehicle systems that can autonomously monitor their state and respond to environmental changes. A range of chemical sensors is under development to meet these needs, based in part on microfabrication technology which produces sensors of minimal size, weight, and power consumption. We have fabricated a range of sensor platforms, integrated them with hardware to form complete sensor systems, and demonstrated their applicability.

  18. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  19. Integrated Manufacturing of Aerospace Components by Superplastic Forming Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace vehicle requires lightweight structures to obtain weight saving and fuel efficiency. It is known that superplastic characteristics of some materials provide significant opportunity for forming complicated, lightweight components of aerospace structure. One of the most important advantages of using superplastic forming process is its simplicity to form integral parts and economy in tooling[1]. For instance, it can be applied to blow-forming, in which a metal sheet is deformed due to the pressure difference of hydrostatic gas on both sides of the sheet. Since the loading medium is gas pressure difference, this forming is different from conventional sheet metal forming technique in that this is stress-controlled rather than strain and strain rate controlled. This method is especially advantageous when several sheet metals are formed into complex shapes. In this study, it is demonstrated that superplastic forming process with titanium and steel alloy can be applied to manufacturing lightweight integral structures of aerospace structural parts and rocket propulsion components. The result shows that the technology to design and develop the forming process of superplastic forming can be applied for near net shape forming of a complex contour of a thrust chamber and a toroidal fuel tank.

  20. Calcium-magnesium Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2015-01-01

    Particulates, like sand and volcanic ash, threaten the development of robust environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) that protect next-generation silicon-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine engine components from harsh combustion environments during service. The siliceous particulates transform into molten glassy deposits of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) when ingested by an aircraft engine operating at temperatures above 1200C. In this study, a sample of desert sand was melted into CMAS glass to evaluate high-temperature interactions between the sand glass and an advanced EBC material. Desert sand glass was added to the surface of hot-pressed EBC substrates, which were then heated in air at temperatures ranging from 1200C to 1500C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate microstructure and phase compositions of specimens and the CMASEBC interface after heat treatments.

  1. A partial susceptibility approach to analysing the magnetic properties of environmental materials: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanju; Dearing, John A.; Bloemendal, Jan

    1999-09-01

    An approach to expressing the magnetic properties of environmental materials in terms of the contributions of the magnetic susceptibilities of specific magnetic components is reported. The approach links the partial susceptibilities of discrete particles, domains or mineral fractions with the concentration-dependent parameters by means of multiple linear regression methods. The case study, using the Liverpool street dust data set, demonstrates that the technique is able to model the contributions of the main magnetic components satisfactorily. Several factors may have a significant impact on the regression results. These include the validity of the linear proportional relationships between partial susceptibilities and the relevant concentration-dependent parameters, the adequacy of the variable selection procedure and the regression model, and the suitability of certain magnetic parameters.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of contaminated materials based on ecotoxicological relevance of mobile/bioavailable fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagigal, E.; Bonilla, A.; Urzelai, A. [Labein Technological Centre, Bilbao (Spain); Diaz, A.; Gorostiza, I. [Foundation Gaiker, Parque Tecnologico, Zamudio (Bizkaia) (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Chemical analyses in conjunction with leachate and speciation tests provide information about the presence and concentration of contaminants as well as the mobility of these contaminants. However, they are not able to predict the harmful biological or ecological effects. Current study aims to assess the environmental/ecological risks associated to contaminated soil, sediments or wastes. This assessment takes in consideration the analysis of leachate toxicity using bioassays. Bioassays provide direct evidence of ecological effects associated with soil and groundwater pollution, complementing conventional chemical analysis. Conventional biological tests are based on the exposition of organisms to the pollutants and contaminated media of interest. These tests are performed in solid phase being expensive, and space and time consuming. Our approach considers the use of bioassays traditionally applied in water monitoring or leachate ecotoxicity assessment. These methods are cheaper and have a quick response. This approach requires the development of extraction procedures to be used in conjunction with bioassays to determine the hazards due to soluble molecules, less soluble, soil bound molecules, etc. The combined application of extraction-leaching tests/bioassays/physico-chemical analysis on samples, will provide us a wide and complete information about the presence, behaviour and toxicity of pollutants in the tested materials. Final objective of the project is the development of a procedure to be used as a tool for the assessment of environmental impact of contaminated materials. On the framework of the project two mobility/bioavailability tests for both inorganic and organic compounds, and an ecotoxicological assay of the mobile/bioavailable fractions have been applied. Toxicity tests on solid phase were also carried out in order to assess the representativeness of the leaching protocols as a method to reproduce bioavailability of contaminants. (orig.)

  3. Robust and Adaptive Control With Aerospace Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lavretsky, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Robust and Adaptive Control shows the reader how to produce consistent and accurate controllers that operate in the presence of uncertainties and unforeseen events. Driven by aerospace applications the focus of the book is primarily on continuous-dynamical systems.  The text is a three-part treatment, beginning with robust and optimal linear control methods and moving on to a self-contained presentation of the design and analysis of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) for nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems. Recent extensions and modifications to MRAC design are included, as are guidelines for combining robust optimal and MRAC controllers. Features of the text include: ·         case studies that demonstrate the benefits of robust and adaptive control for piloted, autonomous and experimental aerial platforms; ·         detailed background material for each chapter to motivate theoretical developments; ·         realistic examples and simulation data illustrating key features ...

  4. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL FATIGUE OF METALLIC MATERIALS IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS – A REVIEW OF KOREAN TEST PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANGHEUI JANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental fatigue of the metallic components in light water reactors has been the subject of extensive research and regulatory interest in Korea and abroad. Especially, it was one of the key domestic issues for the license renewal of operating reactors and licensing of advanced reactors during the early 2000s. To deal with the environmental fatigue issue domestically, a systematic test program has been initiated and is still underway. The materials tested were SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steels, 316LN stainless steels, cast stainless steels, and an Alloy 690 and 52M weld. Through tests and subsequent analysis, the mechanisms of reduced low cycle fatigue life have been investigated for those alloys. In addition, the effects of temperature, dissolved oxygen level, and dissolved hydrogen level on low cycle fatigue behaviors have been investigated. In this paper, the test results and key analysis results are briefly summarized. Finally, an on-going test program for hot-bending of 347 stainless steel is introduced.

  6. Recent advances in MoS2 nanostructured materials for energy and environmental applications - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerthagiri, J.; Senthil, R. A.; Senthilkumar, B.; Reddy Polu, Anji; Madhavan, J.; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2017-08-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition metal dichalcogenide with an analogous structure to graphene, has attracted enormous attention worldwide owing to its use in a variety of applications such as energy storage, energy conversion, environmental remediation and sensors. MoS2 and graphene have almost similar functional properties such as high charge carrier transport, high wear resistance and good mechanical strength and friction. However, MoS2 is advantageous over graphene due to its low-cost, abundancy, tailorable morphologies and tuneable band gap with good visible light absorption properties. In this review, we have focussed mainly on recent advances in MoS2 nanostructured materials for the applications in the broad area of energy and environment. Special attention has been paid to their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells, supercapacitor, Li-ion battery, hydrogen evolution reaction, photocatalysis for the degradation of organic pollutants, chemical/bio sensors and gas sensors. Finally, the challenges to design MoS2 nanostructures suitable for energy and environmental applications are also highlighted.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  8. Autoclaves for Aerospace Applications: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Upadhya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Council of Scientific and Industerial Research National Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR-NAL, Bangalore, India has been engaged in the research of autoclaves for the past three decades and has pioneered their development and usage in India for aerospace/aircraft structural applications. The autoclaves at CSIR-NAL have played a significant role in all the major national aircraft/aerospace programs. The largest aerospace autoclave in India (working size of 4.4 m diameter and 9.0 m length has been successfully commissioned at CSIR-NAL. This paper gives the technological challenges faced and the innovative concepts that were introduced in these autoclaves.

  9. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  10. Where Are We Heading in Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety and Materials Characterization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nel, Andre; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Chan, Warren C.; Xia, Tian; Hersam, Mark C.; Brinker, C. J.; Zink, Jeffery I.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Baer, Donald R.; Weiss, Paul S.

    2015-06-23

    Every chemist, material scientist, physicist, engineer, or commercial enterprise involved in the synthesis and/or production of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) or nano-enabled products aspires to develop safe materials. Nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) is a research discipline that involves the study of the possible adverse health and biological effects that nanomaterials may have on humans and environmental organisms and ecosystems. NanoEHS research has provided a body of experimental evidence indicating the possibility of hazardous outcomes as a result of the interactions of unique ENM physicochemical properties with similar scale processes occurring at a wide range of nano/bio interfaces, including at biomolecular, cellular, subcellular, organ, systemic, whole organism, or ecosystems levels. This projected hazard and risk potential warrants rigorous attention to safety assessment, safe use, safe implementation, benign design, regulatory oversight, governance, and public awareness to address the possibility and prevention of nanotoxicity, now or at any time in the future.1 Thus, we should understand the properties of the ENMs that are responsible for the toxicological response, so that we can re-engineer their physicochemical characteristics for risk prevention and safer ENM design.2 However, in spite of widespread use, no human toxicological disease or major environmental impact has been reported for ENMs. Thus, while “Nanotoxicology” is a thriving sub-discipline of Nano-EHS, the use of the “root” word toxicology may elicit a feeling that nanomaterials are inherently toxic despite the fact that toxicity has not been established in real-life use so far. As a community, we may want to rename this sub-discipline as “Nanosafety,” since the objective is to use toxicology information to guide the design of safer nanomaterials for use in medicine, biology, electronics, lighting systems, etc. At ACS Nano, we are interested in

  11. Probability and Statistics in Aerospace Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Howell, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of probability and statistics with special consideration to problems frequently encountered in aerospace engineering. It is conceived to be both a desktop reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject.

  12. Introduction to NASA's Academy of Aerospace Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alice; Smith, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Academy of Aerospace Quality (AAQ) is an internet-based public domain forum of quality assurance-related educational modules for students and faculty at academic institutions targeting those involved in aerospace research, technology development, and payload design and development including Cube Sats, Small Sats, Nano Sats, Rockets and High Altitude Balloons. The target users are university project and research teams but the academy has also been used by K-12 teams, independent space...

  13. In Situ Environmental TEM in Imaging Gas and Liquid Phase Chemical Reactions for Materials Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Shan, Hao; Chen, Wenlong; Gu, Xin; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Gas and liquid phase chemical reactions cover a broad range of research areas in materials science and engineering, including the synthesis of nanomaterials and application of nanomaterials, for example, in the areas of sensing, energy storage and conversion, catalysis, and bio-related applications. Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) provides a unique opportunity for monitoring gas and liquid phase reactions because it enables the observation of those reactions at the ultra-high spatial resolution, which is not achievable through other techniques. Here, the fundamental science and technology developments of gas and liquid phase TEM that facilitate the mechanistic study of the gas and liquid phase chemical reactions are discussed. Combined with other characterization tools integrated in TEM, unprecedented material behaviors and reaction mechanisms are observed through the use of the in situ gas and liquid phase TEM. These observations and also the recent applications in this emerging area are described. The current challenges in the imaging process are also discussed, including the imaging speed, imaging resolution, and data management.

  14. Plastic packaging materials and environmental problems. Plastic hosozai to kankyo mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, T. (Sekisui Plastics Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes the recent trends in the environmental problems created from used plastic packaging materials. The 23 wards of the city of Tokyo produce refuses daily of 12,000 tons (1990), with plastics accounting for 15% by volume. Discussions to deal with plastic refuses that are bulky and standing out began as early as in 1971 when the disposal study meeting was inaugurated. As a result, wastes from polyvinyl chloride sheet for agricultural green houses had 40% recovered and recycled out of 100,000 tons generated annually, and styrofoam wastes at 10% of 150,000 tons. The wastes disposal law and the recycling law were established in 1991 aiming at reducing volume of wastes, promoting re-utilization, and assuring appropriate disposal methods and facilities. The Wastes Re-utilization Association was organized to handle styrofoam wastes that are attracting strong attention recently, the association having begun its activities with a good start. It is expected that styrofoam wastes will be molten thermally and regenerated into the same styrofoam products. Styrofoam could be more energy saving and resource saving material than paper cups. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Environmentally responsive material to address human-system interaction in the automotive cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, Jackie D.; Barbat, Saeed D.; Goldman, Neil M.; Samus, Marsha A.; Gold, Harris

    2001-06-01

    There is significant human-system interaction in an automotive cockpit, and for particular components this interaction can be ever-present while being transient in nature. It is envisioned that environmentally responsive materials can be used in some components to accommodate personal and transient differences in the desired human-system interaction. Systems containing responsive gels have been developed to provide user activation and adjustment of the physical properties of a particular interior automotive component. Proprietary reverse viscosification gel formulations were developed that are thermally responsive. Formulations were modified to adjust the dynamic modulus and viscosity in terms of magnitude, amount of change over the viscosification transition, and the temperature over which the transition occurs. Changes in the physical properties of two orders of magnitude and more were achieved over a narrow transition region. Preliminary human factors assessment indicates that this order of magnitude of change is desirable. As the system of responsive gel, encapsulating material and activation mechanism is developed further, additional human factors studies will refine the desired physical properties and thermal activation mechanism. Ultimately, this system will have to perform over the broad range of temperatures imposed on interior automotive components and exhibit long-term durability chemically, physically and mechanically.

  16. Optimal control with aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Longuski, James M; Prussing, John E

    2014-01-01

    Want to know not just what makes rockets go up but how to do it optimally? Optimal control theory has become such an important field in aerospace engineering that no graduate student or practicing engineer can afford to be without a working knowledge of it. This is the first book that begins from scratch to teach the reader the basic principles of the calculus of variations, develop the necessary conditions step-by-step, and introduce the elementary computational techniques of optimal control. This book, with problems and an online solution manual, provides the graduate-level reader with enough introductory knowledge so that he or she can not only read the literature and study the next level textbook but can also apply the theory to find optimal solutions in practice. No more is needed than the usual background of an undergraduate engineering, science, or mathematics program: namely calculus, differential equations, and numerical integration. Although finding optimal solutions for these problems is a...

  17. Aerospace Technology Innovation. Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor); Bennett, Evonne (Editor); Vendette, Joel (Editor); West, Kenyon (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Whether finding new applications for existing NASA technologies or developing unique marketing strategies to demonstrate them, NASA's offices are committed to identifying unique partnering opportunities. Through their efforts NASA leverages resources through joint research and development, and gains new insight into the core areas relevant to all NASA field centers. One of the most satisfying aspects of my job comes when I learn of a mission-driven technology that can be spun-off to touch the lives of everyday people. NASA's New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging is one such initiative. Not only does it promise to provide greater dividends for the country's investment in aerospace research, but also to enhance the American quality of life. This issue of Innovation highlights the new NASA-sponsored initiative in medical imaging. Early in 2001, NASA announced the launch of the New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging initiative to promote the partnership and commercialization of NASA technologies in the medical imaging industry. NASA and the medical imaging industry share a number of crosscutting technologies in areas such as high-performance detectors and image-processing tools. Many of the opportunities for joint development and technology transfer to the medical imaging market also hold the promise for future spin back to NASA.

  18. Aerospace Avionics and Allied Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avionics is a very crucial and important technology, not only for civil/military aircraft but also for missiles, spacecraft, micro air vehicles (MAVs and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. Even for ground-based vehicles and underwater vehicles (UWVs, avionics is a very important segment of their successful operation and mission accomplishment. The advances in many related and supporting technologies, especially digital electronics, embedded systems, embedded algorithms/software, mobile technology, sensors and instrumentation, computer (network-communication, and realtime operations and simulation, have given a great impetus to the field of avionics. Here, for the sake of encompassing many other applications as mentioned above, the term is used in an expanded sense: Aerospace Avionics (AA, although it is popularly known as Aviation Electronics (or Avionics. However, use of this technology is not limited to aircraft, and hence, we  can incorporate all the three types-ground, land, and underwater vehicles-under the term avionics.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.287-288, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1122

  19. Life cycle thinking and assessment tools on environmentally-benign electronics: Convergent optimization of materials use, end-of-life strategy and environmental policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying

    The purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative environmental performance assessment tools and the theory of multi-objective optimization within the boundary of electronic product systems to support the selection among design alternatives in terms of environmental impact, technical criteria, and economic feasibility. To meet with the requirements that result from emerging environmental legislation targeting electronics products, the research addresses an important analytical methodological approach to facilitate environmentally conscious design and end-of-life management with a life cycle viewpoint. A synthesis of diverse assessment tools is applied on a set of case studies: lead-free solder materials selection, cellular phone design, and desktop display technology assessment. In the first part of this work, an in-depth industrial survey of the status and concerns of the U.S. electronics industry on the elimination of lead (Pb) in solders is described. The results show that the trade-offs among environmental consequences, technology challenges, business risks, legislative compliance and stakeholders' preferences must be explicitly, simultaneously, and systematically addressed in the decision-making process used to guide multi-faceted planning of environmental solutions. In the second part of this work, the convergent optimization of the technical cycle, economic cycle and environmental cycle is addressed in a coherent and systematic way using the application of environmentally conscious design of cellular phones. The technical understanding of product structure, components analysis, and materials flow facilitates the development of "Design for Disassembly" guidelines. A bottom-up disassembly analysis on a "bill of materials" based structure at a micro-operational level is utilized to select optimal end-of-life strategies on the basis of economic feasibility. A macro-operational level life cycle model is used to investigate the environmental consequences

  20. From basic raw material goods to cultural and environmental services: the Chinese bamboo sophistication path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz Pérez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has deep cultural and economic roots in China, the country with the largest bamboo resources in the world. Over the last three decades bamboo has evolved from a supply of raw material for basic goods into the material base of an increasingly diversified array of products and, more recently, into a potentially important source of cultural and environmental services. Based on a general literature review and the lessons learned from detailed case studies in different regions of China, we explored the changing roles of bamboo, and its effects on local economies and farmers' livelihood strategies. As the country develops and new economic activities continue to appear, bamboo production has shifted from a superior income-generating opportunity that largely benefited the better-off to a less attractive option left for those who have no other choice. The nature of the work has also changed, from families working directly on their bamboo plots to an emphasis on hired labor, with prosperous bamboo owners devoting most of their time to more lucrative activities. A similar process can be observed in bamboo processing in counties where previous industrial structures hinged around raw material harvests, but which have now entered into other secondary and tertiary industry activities. At the same time, bamboo has attracted new opportunities as a source of cultural, aesthetic, and leisure-related activities, as well as some potentially important climatic, watershed, and biodiversity functions. We analyze the complementarity between goods and services provided by bamboo and discuss some research issues and future trends that may help in overcoming these conflicts.

  1. Hybrid manufacturing processes for fusion welding and friction stir welding of aerospace grade aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegesky, Megan Alexandra

    Friction stir welding and processing can provide for joints in aerospace grade aluminum alloys that have preferable material properties as compared to fusion welding techniques. Aerospace grade aluminum alloys such as AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 are considered non-weldable by traditional fusion welding techniques. Improved mechanical properties over previously used techniques are usually preferable for aerospace applications. Therefore, by combining traditional fusion welding and friction stir processing techniques, it could be plausible to create more difficult geometries in manufactured parts instead of using traditional techniques. While this combination of fusion welding and friction stir processing is not a new technology, its introduction to aerospace grade aluminum alloys as well as non-weldable alloys, is new. This is brought about by a lowered required clamping force required by adding a fusion weld before a friction stir processing technique. The changes in properties associated with joining techniques include: microstructural changes, changes in hardness, tensile strength, and corrosion resistance. This thesis illustrates these changes for the non-weldable AA2024-T351 and AA7075-T651 as well as the weldable alloy AA5052-H32. The microhardness, tensile strength and corrosion resistance of the four processing states: base material, fusion welded material, friction stir welded material, and friction stir processed fusion welded material is studied. The plausibility of this hybrid process for the three different materials is characterized, as well as plausible applications for this joining technique.

  2. Nondestructive damage evaluation in ceramic matrix composites for aerospace applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassios, Konstantinos G; Kordatos, Evangelos Z; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Matikas, Theodore E

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately.

  3. Quality Assurance System for Electronic Components of Aerospace Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁庶; 张倩旭; 吴琼

    2013-01-01

      $%Along with the development of space technology, the quantity of electronic device and components used in the single aerospace product is get ing more and more, and the requirements of quality and reliability for electronic device and components are becoming stricter and stricter as wel . In China,since the basic level of the electronic device and component industry is increasing and the quality control in the product cycle of design, material selection, proces , manufacturing in the electronic device and component producers is guaranteed in some extent, the quality of electronic device and components is improved observably.

  4. PMR polyimide composites for aerospace applications. [Polymerization of Monomer Reactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    A novel class of addition-type polyimides has been developed in response to the need for high temperature polymers with improved processability. The new plastic materials are known as PMR (for in situ polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimides. The highly processable PMR polyimides have made it possible to realize much of the potential of high temperature resistant polymers. Monomer reactant combinations for several PMR polyimides have been identified. The present investigation is concerned with a review of the current status of PMR polyimides. Attention is given to details of PMR polyimide chemistry, the processing of composites and their properties, and aerospace applications of PMR-15 polyimide composites.

  5. Technology challenges for the National Aero-Space Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piland, William M.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) will require an exceptionally high degree of integration between propulsion and aerodynamic configuration, in order to achieve the requisite specific impulse and low structural weight. This is to be achieved through the use of forebody shock compression and afterbody exhaust expansion. Attention is presently given to the materials and structural concepts required for the realization of these NASP airframe functions, in view of the exceptionally high aerothermodynamic loads that will be experienced at hypersonic speeds. Active cooling will have to be used in certain critical airframe and propulsion components. CFD characterizations of these processes must be carefully developed and fully validated.

  6. Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites - Aerospace potential and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stanley R.

    1992-01-01

    Thermostructural ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites are attractive in numerous aerospace applications; the noncatastrophic fracture behavior and flaw-insensitivity of continuous fiber-reinforced CMCs renders them especially desirable. The present development status evaluation notes that, for most highly-loaded high-temperature applications, the requisite fiber-technology base is at present insufficient. In addition to materials processing techniques, the life prediction and NDE methods are immature and require a projection of 15-20 years for the maturity of CMC turbine rotors. More lightly loaded, moderate temperature aircraft engine applications are approaching maturity.

  7. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd.

  8. Potential of used frying oil in paving material: solution to environmental pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Ackbarali, Dimple; Maharaj, Rean; Mohamed, Nazim; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra

    2017-05-01

    The improper disposal of used frying oil (UFO) presents numerous ecological, environmental and municipal problems. Of great concern is the resultant blockage of municipal drainage systems and water treatment facilities, harm to wildlife when they become coated in it and detriment to aquatic life and ecosystems due to the depletion of the oxygen content in water bodies such as rivers and lakes that have become contaminated. Statistics show that in Trinidad and Tobago, in excess of one million liters of used cooking oil is collected annually from various restaurant chains. This paper investigated the potential of using UFO as a performance enhancing additive for road paving applications utilizing Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA) and Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB) as a mitigation strategy for improper UFO disposal. Modified blends containing various additions of UFO (2-10% wt) were prepared for the TLA and TPB asphaltic binders. Results demonstrated in terms of stiffness, increasing the dosage of UFO in TLA and TPB base binders resulted in a gradual decrease in stiffness (G* value decreased). In terms of elasticity, increasing the dosage of the UFO additive in TLA resulted in a general decrease in the elasticity of the blends indicated by an increase in phase angle or phase lag (δ). Increasing dosages of the UFO additive in TPB resulted in a significant decrease in δ where the most elastic blend was at the 6% UFO level. TLA and UFO-TLA modified blends exhibited significantly lower values of δ and higher values of G* confirming the superiority of the TLA material. Incorporation of the UFO in the blends led to a decrease in the rutting resistance and increase in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G*/sinδ and G*sinδ, respectively). This study highlighted the potential for the reuse of UFO as an asphalt modifier capable of producing customized UFO modified asphaltic blends for special applications and confirms its feasibility as an environmentally attractive

  9. Development of an educational e-material on remote sensing environmental applications: a case study for schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitopoulou, Theodora; Retalis, Adrianos

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a proposal for an e-learning course in the field of remote sensing and environmental applications. E-learning is an educational process supported by specially developed educational material. The students can study and learn without, necessary, the physical presence of a teacher. The educational profile of students is determined. These are High School students in the Secondary Education Grade. The educational material is described in such a way that it would be suitable for distance learning and to cover the educational needs and requirements of students that could be used as an additional material in the Physical Sciences. The educational material includes electronic components designed with Courselab and presented in the Moodle platform. The objective is the transfer of knowledge regarding remote sensing environmental applications in a "friendly" way to the students. Thus, students attending the course will have the ability to fulfill their knowledge and adapt new skills.

  10. Standard practice for slow strain rate testing to evaluate the susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design, preparation, and use of axially loaded, tension test specimens and fatigue pre-cracked (fracture mechanics) specimens for use in slow strain rate (SSR) tests to investigate the resistance of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). While some investigators utilize SSR test techniques in combination with cyclic or fatigue loading, no attempt has been made to incorporate such techniques into this practice. 1.2 Slow strain rate testing is applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of metallic materials in test environments which simulate aqueous, nonaqueous, and gaseous service environments over a wide range of temperatures and pressures that may cause EAC of susceptible materials. 1.3 The primary use of this practice is to furnish accepted procedures for the accelerated testing of the resistance of metallic materials to EAC under various environmental conditions. In many cases, the initiation of EAC is accelerated through the applic...

  11. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  12. Smart Sensor Systems for Aerospace Applications: From Sensor Development to Application Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Dungan, L. K.; Ward, B. J.; Rowe, S.; Williams, J.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Chang, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The application of Smart Sensor Systems for aerospace applications is a multidisciplinary process consisting of sensor element development, element integration into Smart Sensor hardware, and testing of the resulting sensor systems in application environments. This paper provides a cross-section of these activities for multiple aerospace applications illustrating the technology challenges involved. The development and application testing topics discussed are: 1) The broadening of sensitivity and operational range of silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky gas sensor elements; 2) Integration of fire detection sensor technology into a "Lick and Stick" Smart Sensor hardware platform for Crew Exploration Vehicle applications; 3) Extended testing for zirconia based oxygen sensors in the basic "Lick and Stick" platform for environmental monitoring applications. It is concluded that that both core sensor platform technology and a basic hardware platform can enhance the viability of implementing smart sensor systems in aerospace applications.

  13. The feasibility of small size specimens for testing of environmentally assisted cracking of irradiated materials and of materials under irradiation in reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, A.; Moilanen, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Taehtinen, S.; Rintamaa, R.; Saario, T. [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of environmentally-friendly alkali activated slag cements and ancient building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulich, Aaron Richard

    Alternative cement technologies are an area of increasing interest due to growing environmental concerns and the relatively large carbon footprint of the cement industry. Many new cements have been developed, but one of the most promising is that made from granulated, ground blast furnace slag activated by a high-pH solution. Another is related to the discovery that some of the pyramid limestone blocks may have been cast using a combination of diatomaceous earth activated by lime which provides the high pH needed to dissolve the diatomaceous earth and bind the limestone aggregate together. The emphasis of this thesis is not on the latter---which was explored elsewhere---but on the results supplying further evidence that some of the pyramid blocks were indeed reconstituted limestone. The goal of this work is to chemically and mechanically characterize both alkali-activated slag cements as well as a number of historic materials, which may be ancient analogues to cement. Alkali activated slag cements were produced with a number of additives; concretes were made with the addition of a fine limestone aggregate. These materials were characterized mechanically and by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA. Samples from several Egyptian pyramids, an 'ancient floor' in Colorado, and the 'Bosnian Pyramids' were investigated. In the cements, it has been unequivocally shown that C-S-H, the same binding phase that is produced in ordinary portland cement, has been produced, as well as a variety of mineral side products. Significant recarbonation occurs during the first 20 months, but only for the Na2CO3-activated formulae. Radiocarbon dating proves that the 'Bosnian Pyramids' and 'ancient floors' are not made from any type of recarbonated lime; however, Egyptian pyramid limestones were finite, thus suggesting that they are of a synthetic nature. XRD and FTIR results were inconclusive, while TGA results indicate the limestones are identical to naturally occurring limestones, and SEM

  15. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Wu, Shaopeng; Hu, Xiaodi; Liu, Gang; Li, Bo

    2017-02-23

    Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC). This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing-thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  16. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC. This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  17. Nitric Oxide PLIF Measurements in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.; McRae, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of naturally occurring nitric oxide (NO) has been used to obtain instantaneous flow visualization images, and to make both radial and axial velocity measurements in the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represents the first application of NO PLIF flow visualization in HYMETS. Results are presented at selected facility run conditions, including some in a simulated Earth atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and others in a simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon), for specific bulk enthalpies ranging from 6.5 MJ/kg to 18.4 MJ/kg. Flow visualization images reveal the presence of large scale unsteady flow structures, and indicate nitric oxide fluorescence signal over more than 70% of the core flow for specific bulk enthalpies below about 11 MJ/kg, but over less than 10% of the core flow for specific bulk enthalpies above about 16 MJ/kg. Axial velocimetry was performed using molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). Axial velocities of about 3 km/s were measured along the centerline. Radial velocimetry was performed by scanning the wavelength of the narrowband laser and analyzing the resulting Doppler shift. Radial velocities of +/- 0.5 km/s were measured.

  18. A two-stage optimization model for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty in response to environmental accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Liu, Rentao; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-05

    In the emergency management relevant to pollution accidents, efficiency emergency rescues can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, a two-stage optimization framework is developed for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty to identify material warehouse locations and emergency material reserve schemes in pre-accident phase coping with potential environmental accidents. This framework is based on an integration of Hierarchical clustering analysis - improved center of gravity (HCA-ICG) model and material warehouse location - emergency material allocation (MWL-EMA) model. First, decision alternatives are generated using HCA-ICG to identify newly-built emergency material warehouses for risk sources which cannot be satisfied by existing ones with a time-effective manner. Second, emergency material reserve planning is obtained using MWL-EMA to make emergency materials be prepared in advance with a cost-effective manner. The optimization framework is then applied to emergency management system planning in Jiangsu province, China. The results demonstrate that the developed framework not only could facilitate material warehouse selection but also effectively provide emergency material for emergency operations in a quick response.

  19. Environmental Management Accounting for Cleaner Production: Systematization of Material Flow Cost Accounting (MCFA) into Corporate Management System

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAJIMA, Michiyasu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to consider the structure of a management system which supports countermeasures for the environment in the manufacturing process by Environmental Management Accounting and particularly by Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) and the features of its management system.

  20. Environmentally suitable building materials. Grey energy and sustainability of buildings; Umweltgerechte Baustoffe. Graue Energie und Nachhaltigkeit von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueschel, Danny; Teller, Matthias (eds.)

    2013-02-01

    The editors of the book under consideration present a compilation of contributions on environmentally suitable building materials from different perspectives. It provides an overview of 'Grey Energy' and a total energy balance of buildings. The most contributions are based on lectures of a symposium in April, 2011, in the Knobelsdorff School in Berlin-Spandau (Federal Republic of Germany).

  1. Aerospace concurrent engineering: a modern global approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Mariano; Li, Xiaoxing

    2009-12-01

    System engineering aspects, like concurrent engineering (CE) in the aerospace sector, has been studied by many authors. The change and evolution in this regard is continually influenced by the information technology advances. But global cooperation is only discussed by developed countries and high technology corporations. A review of CE and its ramifications in the aerospace industry is presented. Based on the current literature, the general lifecycle of a spacecraft and its phases are explained as well as the tools that are implemented in today's industry. In this paper we propose a new approach for the product development process in the spacecraft production industry the Aerospace Concurrent Engineering (ACE), which is mainly focused in the technology itself, its optimal design and environment impact rather than costs and marketing impact. And the potential of globally oriented research and implementation of space programs is discussed for its consideration.

  2. Machine intelligence and autonomy for aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Ewald (Editor); Lum, Henry (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present volume discusses progress toward intelligent robot systems in aerospace applications, NASA Space Program automation and robotics efforts, the supervisory control of telerobotics in space, machine intelligence and crew/vehicle interfaces, expert-system terms and building tools, and knowledge-acquisition for autonomous systems. Also discussed are methods for validation of knowledge-based systems, a design methodology for knowledge-based management systems, knowledge-based simulation for aerospace systems, knowledge-based diagnosis, planning and scheduling methods in AI, the treatment of uncertainty in AI, vision-sensing techniques in aerospace applications, image-understanding techniques, tactile sensing for robots, distributed sensor integration, and the control of articulated and deformable space structures.

  3. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  4. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wilson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  5. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  6. Aerospace manpower transfer to small business enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a program to effect transfer of aerospace professional people from the ranks of the unemployed into gainful employment in the small business community was investigated. The effectiveness of accomplishing transfer of technology from the aerospace effort into the private sector through migration of people rather than products or hardware alone was also studied. Two basic methodologies were developed. One involves the matching of ex-aerospace professionals and small companies according to their mutual needs. A training and indoctrination program is aimed at familiarizing the professional with the small company environment, and a program of follow-up counseling is defined. The second methodology incorporates efforts to inform and arouse interest among the nonaerospace business community toward affirmative action programs that will serve mutual self-interests of the individuals, companies, and communities involved.

  7. USING OF SOLID DETERGENT AS AN ECONOMIC MATERIAL AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY METHOD TOWARD LIGHTWEIGHT, SLOW ACTION AND ANTI ACID CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz I. Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid Detergent is one of  the Economic materials and Environmentally friendly method towards enhancing properties of concrete. Lightweight, slow reaction and anti acid concrete can achieving by using this materials, so many test made to validate the advantage and disadvantage ; initial and final hardening time  for cement mortar and compressive strength of concrete, also anti acid test made for cement mortar.The results of tests show this materials are suitable for achieving the purpose to lightweight, slow reaction additional  anti acid concrete.

  8. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos G. Dassios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography (IRT and acoustic emission (AE are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material’s performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately.

  9. NASA R and T aerospace plane vehicles: Progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Progress made in key technologies such as materials, structures, aerothermodynamics, hypersonic aerodynamics, and hypersonic airbreathing propulsion are reported. Advances were made in more generic, areas such as active controls, flight computer hardware and software, and interdisciplinary analytical design methodology. These technology advances coupled with the development of and experiences with the Space Shuttle make feasible aerospace plane-type vehicles that meet the more demanding requirements of various DOD missions and/or an all-weather Shuttle II with reduced launch costs. Technology needs and high payoff technologies, and the technology advancements in propulsion, control-configured-vehicles, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, aerothermal loads, and materials and structures were studied. The highest payoff technologies of materials and structures including thermal-structural analysis and high temperature test techniques are emphasized. The high priority technology of propulsion, and plans, of what remains to be done rather than firm program commitments, are briefly discussed.

  10. Research on Feature Extraction of Remnant Particles of Aerospace Relays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The existence of remnant particles, which significantly reduce the reliability of relays, is a serious problem for aerospace relays.The traditional method for detecting remnant particles-particle impact noise detection (PIND)-can be used merely to detect the existence of the particle; it is not able to provide any information about the particles' material. However, information on the material of the particles is very helpful for analyzing the causes of remnants. By analyzing the output acoustic signals from a PIND tester, this paper proposes three feature extraction methods: unit energy average pulse durative time, shape parameter of signal power spectral density(PSD), and pulse linear predictive coding coefficient sequence. These methods allow identified remnants to be classified into four categories based on their material. Furthermore, we prove the validity of this new method by processing PIND signals from actual tests.

  11. LCA as an environmental technology development performance indicator of engineered nano-materials and their application in polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    to assess products and systems, but current knowledge about the development of ENM’s environmental impacts is too scarce to be included for application within the LCA framework. In the EUFP7 project MINANO the aim is to develop an efficient, continuous method of large‐scale, low cost synthesis of ENM......Engineered nano‐material (ENM) application in products has in recent years developed to an important market segment but with rising environmental concerns, as the environmental life cycle impacts, especially toxicity of nanoparticles, are not assessed. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic tool...... to the conventional ways of attaining these in the polymer product industry. To assure environmental sustainability LCA will be performed within the MINANO project and more precisely comparing the new ENM technology and the conventional technology approach to attain the same functionalities. The LCA in the MINANO...

  12. Effectiveness and resolution of tests for evaluating the performance of cutting fluids in machining aerospace alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Axinte, Dragos A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses effectiveness and resolution of five cutting tests (turning, milling, drilling, tapping, VIPER grinding) and their quality output measures used in a multi-task procedure for evaluating the performance of cutting fluids when machining aerospace materials. The evaluation takes...

  13. Structural health management of aerospace hotspots under fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sunilkumar

    number of factors, such as actuation frequency and strength, minimum damage size, damage detection scheme, material damping, signal to noise ratio and sensing radius. Advanced information processing methodologies are discussed for damage diagnosis. A new, instantaneous approach for damage detection, localization and quantification is proposed for applications to practical problems associated with changes in reference states under different environmental and operational conditions. Such an approach improves feature extraction for state awareness, resulting in robust life prediction capabilities.

  14. Diagnosis of aerospace structure defects by a HPC implemented soft computing algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    D'Angelo, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns with the diagnosis of aerospace structure defects by applying a HPC parallel implementation of a novel learning algorithm, named U-BRAIN. The Soft Computing approach allows advanced multi-parameter data processing in composite materials testing. The HPC parallel implementation overcomes the limits due to the great amount of data and the complexity of data processing. Our experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the U-BRAIN parallel implementation as defect classifier in aerospace structures. The resulting system is implemented on a Linux-based cluster with multi-core architecture.

  15. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  16. Digital radiography in the aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, R. A.; Bueno, C.; Barry, R. C.; Barker, M. D.

    An account is given of the bases of digital radiography (DR), with a view to the identification of NDE systems with the greatest usefulness to the aerospace industry and the nature of the advanced image processing and reconstruction techniques that have been devised thus far. The spatial resolution of any DR system is fundamentally limited by the number of pixels in the digital image and the system field-of-view. Attention is given to the problems of image geometric unsharpness and radiation quantum noise limits, as well as to the potential role of advanced DR in future NDT of aerospace components.

  17. Environmental status of plant-based industries. Biomass and bio-materials; Bilan environnemental des filieres vegetales. Biomasse et biomateriaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindimian, E.; Boeglin, N.; Houillon, G.; Osset, Ph.; Vial, E.; Leguern, Y.; Gosse, G.; Gabrielle, B.; Dohy, M.; Bewa, H.; Rigal, L.; Guilbert, St.; Cesar, G.; Pandard, P.; Oster, D.; Normand, N.; Piccardi, M.; Garoux, V.; Arnaud, L.; Barbier, J.; Mougin, G.; Krausz, P.; Pluquet, V.; Massacrier, L.; Dussaud, J.

    2005-07-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the agency of Agriculture for chemistry and energy (Agrice) have jointly organized these technical days about the potentialities of plant-based products in front of the big environmental stakes of the diversification of energy sources, the development of new outputs for agriculture and the opening of new fields of industrial innovation. This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the presentations given during these 2 days of conference: 1 - Biomass and life cycle analysis (LCA) - impacts and benefits: introduction to LCA (E. Vindimian), keys to understand this environmental evaluation tool (N. Boeglin); environmental status of plant-based industries for chemistry, materials and energy: LCA knowledge status, plant versus fossil (G. Houillon), detailed analysis of 2 industries: agro-materials and bio-polymers (J. Payet); example of environmental and LCA studies: energy and greenhouse gas statuses of the biofuel production processes (P. Osset, E. Vial), LCA of collective and industrial wood-fueled space heating (Y. Leguern), contribution and limitations of LCA for plant-based industries (G. Gosse, B. Gabrielle), conclusion of the first day (M. Dohy). 2 - Biomass and materials: a reality: biomaterials in the Agrice program (H. Bewa), plant-derived materials: resources, status and perspectives (L. Rigal); biopolymers: overview of the industrial use of biopolymers: materials and markets, applications (S. Guibert), degradation mechanisms of biopolymers used in agriculture: biodegradability, eco-toxicity and accumulation in soils (G. Cesar, P. Pandard), present and future regulatory framework: specifications and methods of biodegradability evaluation of materials for agriculture and horticulture (D. Oster), standardization: necessity and possibilities (N. Normand); vegetable fibers and composite materials: market of new vegetable fiber uses (M. Piccardi, V. Garoux), vegetable particulates and

  18. Variational analysis and aerospace engineering mathematical challenges for the aerospace of the future

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Bijan; Pironneau, Olivier; Cipolla, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    This book presents papers surrounding the extensive discussions that took place from the ‘Variational Analysis and Aerospace Engineering’ workshop held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in 2015. Contributions to this volume focus on advanced mathematical methods in aerospace engineering and industrial engineering such as computational fluid dynamics methods, optimization methods in aerodynamics, optimum controls, dynamic systems, the theory of structures, space missions, flight mechanics, control theory, algebraic geometry for CAD applications, and variational methods and applications. Advanced graduate students, researchers, and professionals in mathematics and engineering will find this volume useful as it illustrates current collaborative research projects in applied mathematics and aerospace engineering.

  19. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronkhorst, J; Ariese, F; van Hattum, B; Postma, J F; de Kluijver, M; Den Besten, P J; Bergman, M J N; Daan, R; Murk, A J; Vethaak, A D

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction (<63 microm) from this site were 2-3 times higher than at the reference site. In four different bioassays with marine invertebrates the sediments showed no acute toxic effects. In tissue (pyloric caeca) of resident starfish Asterias rubens, residual levels of mercury, zinc, PCBs and dioxin-like activity were never more than twice those at the reference site. Four different biomarkers (DNA integrity, cytochrome P450 content, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition) were used on the starfish tissues, but no significant differences were found between North and the reference site. Minor pathological effects were observed in resident dab Limanda limanda. One year after dumping had ceased at the North site, a significant increase in the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates and a concomitant decrease in the fine sediment fraction of the seabed were observed. After 8.2 million m3 of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an area extending about 1-2 km eastwards. This correlated with a shift in sediment texture from sand to silt. The contamination of the fine sediment fraction at the Northwest location

  20. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, B. van; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, M. de; Besten, P.J. den; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D

    2003-07-01

    Marine benthic resources near dumping sites are adversely affected by physical disturbances, but a causal link to contaminant damage could not be found. - The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction (<63 {mu}m) from this site were 2-3 times higher than at the reference site. In four different bioassays with marine invertebrates the sediments showed no acute toxic effects. In tissue (pyloric caeca) of resident starfish Asterias rubens, residual levels of mercury, zinc, PCBs and dioxin-like activity were never more than twice those at the reference site. Four different biomarkers (DNA integrity, cytochrome P450 content, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition) were used on the starfish tissues, but no significant differences were found between North and the reference site. Minor pathological effects were observed in resident dab Limanda limanda. One year after dumping had ceased at the North site, a significant increase in the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates and a concomitant decrease in the fine sediment fraction of the seabed were observed. After 8.2 million m{sup 3} of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an

  1. Research progress of perovskite materials in photocatalysis- and photovoltaics-related energy conversion and environmental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-08-07

    Meeting the growing global energy demand is one of the important challenges of the 21st century. Currently over 80% of the world's energy requirements are supplied by the combustion of fossil fuels, which promotes global warming and has deleterious effects on our environment. Moreover, fossil fuels are non-renewable energy and will eventually be exhausted due to the high consumption rate. A new type of alternative energy that is clean, renewable and inexpensive is urgently needed. Several candidates are currently available such as hydraulic power, wind force and nuclear power. Solar energy is particularly attractive because it is essentially clean and inexhaustible. A year's worth of sunlight would provide more than 100 times the energy of the world's entire known fossil fuel reserves. Photocatalysis and photovoltaics are two of the most important routes for the utilization of solar energy. However, environmental protection is also critical to realize a sustainable future, and water pollution is a serious problem of current society. Photocatalysis is also an essential route for the degradation of organic dyes in wastewater. A type of compound with the defined structure of perovskite (ABX3) was observed to play important roles in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. These materials can be used as photocatalysts for water splitting reaction for hydrogen production and photo-degradation of organic dyes in wastewater as well as for photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells and light absorbers in perovskite-based solar cells for electricity generation. In this review paper, the recent progress of perovskites for applications in these fields is comprehensively summarized. A description of the basic principles of the water splitting reaction, photo-degradation of organic dyes and solar cells as well as the requirements for efficient photocatalysts is first provided. Then, emphasis is placed on the designation and strategies for perovskite catalysts to improve their

  2. Decision Support for Environmental Management of Industrial Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials: New Analytical Methods Combined with Simulation and Optimization Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requir...

  3. Environmental quality of primary and secundary construction materials in relation to re-use and protection of soil and surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers ThG; Wilde PGM de; Rood GA; Vermij PHM; Saft RJ; Beek AIM van de; Broekman MH; Masereeuw P; Kamphuis Ch; Dekker PM; Valentijn EA; LAE-RIVM

    1996-01-01

    To support the General Administrative Order on Construction Materials (Soil and Surface Waters Protection) this document supplies information on: 1) the quantification of the standard values for the application of construction materials ; 2) the environmental quality (characterization) of constructi

  4. Environmental exposure to TiO 2 nanomaterials incorporated in building material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossa, Nathan; Chaurand, Perrine; Levard, Clément; Borschneck, Daniel; Miche, Hélène; Vicente, Jérôme; Geantet, Christophe; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier; Michel, F. Marc; Rose, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly being used to improve the properties and functions of common building materials. A new type of self-cleaning cement incorporating TiO2 nanomaterials (TiO2-NMs) with photocatalytic properties is now marketed. This promising cement might provide air pollution-reducing properties but its environmental impact must be validated. During cement use and aging, an altered surface layer is formed that exhibits increased porosity. The surface layer thickness alteration and porosity increase with the cement degradation rate. The hardened cement paste leaching behavior has been fully documented, but the fate of incorporated TiO2-NMs and their state during/after potential release is currently unknown. In this study, photocatalytic cement pastes with increasing initial porosity were leached at a lab-scale to produce a range of degradation rates concerning the altered layer porosity and thickness. No dissolved Ti was released during leaching, only particulate TiO2-NM release was detected. The extent of release from this batch test simulating accelerated worst-case scenario was limited and ranged from 18.7 ± 2.1 to 33.5 ± 5.1 mg of Ti/m2 of cement after 168 h of leaching. TiO2-NMs released into neutral aquatic media (simulate pH of surface water) were not associated or coated by cement minerals. The TiO2-NM release mechanism is suspected to start from freeing of TiO2-NMs in the altered layer pore network due to partial cement paste dissolution followed by diffusion into the bulk pore solution to the surface. The extent of TiO2-NM release was not solely related to the cement degradation rate.

  5. FATIGUE LIVES FOR INDUCTION HARDENED SHAFTS MATERIALS ACCORDING TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.G. Lee; K.C.Jang; J.M. Kuk; I.S. Kim

    2005-01-01

    Rotary bending fatigue tests were carried out with two kinds of materials, S43C and S50C, using the front engine and front drive shaft (FF shaft) of vehicle. The specimens were induction hardened about 1.0mm depth from the specimen surface, and the hardness value on the surface was about HRC56-60. The tested environment temperatures were -30, 25 and 80℃ in order to look over effect of the induction hardening and the environmental temperatures on the fatigue characteristics. The fatigue limit of induction hardened specimens increased more about 45%than non-hardened specimens showing that the endurances of S43C and S50C were 98.1 and 107.9MPa in non-hardened samples, 147.1 and 156.9MPa in hardened samplesrespectably. The maximum tensile and compressive stress on the small circular defect was about +250 and -450MPa respectively when circular defect is situated on top and bottom. The fatigue life increased 80, 25and -30℃ in order regardless of hardening. In comparison of the fatigue lives on the basis of tested result at 25℃, the fatigue lives of non-hardened specimens decreased about 35%, but that of hardened specimens decreased about only 5% at 80℃ more than at 25℃. And fatigue life of non-hardened and hardened specimens were about 110% and 120% higher at -30℃ than that of 25℃. Based on the result of stress distribution near the defect, the tensile and compressive stress repeatedly generated by load direction were the largest on the small circular defect due to the stress concentration.

  6. Application of Smart Solid State Sensor Technology in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Dungan, L.K.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.; Androjna, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions in both space vehicles and aircraft operations. One example is the monitoring of oxygen. For example, monitoring of ambient oxygen (O2) levels is critical to ensuring the health, safety, and performance of humans living and working in space. Oxygen sensors can also be incorporated in detection systems to determine if hazardous leaks are occurring in space propulsion systems and storage facilities. In aeronautic applications, O2 detection has been investigated for fuel tank monitoring. However, as noted elsewhere, O2 is not the only species of interest in aerospace applications with a wide range of species of interest being relevant to understand an environmental or vehicle condition. These include combustion products such as CO, HF, HCN, and HCl, which are related to both the presence of a fire and monitoring of post-fire clean-up operations. This paper discusses the development of an electrochemical cell platform based on a polymer electrolyte, NAFION, and a three-electrode configuration. The approach has been to mature this basic platform for a range of applications and to test this system, combined with "Lick and Stick" electronics, for its viability to monitor an environment related to astronaut crew health and safety applications with an understanding that a broad range of applications can be addressed with a core technology.

  7. Characterization of post-disaster environmental management for Hazardous Materials Incidents: Lessons learnt from the Tianjin warehouse explosion, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Duan, Huabo; Zuo, Jian; Song, MingWei; Zhang, Yukui; Yang, Bo; Niu, Yongning

    2017-09-01

    Hazardous Materials Incidents (HMIs) have attracted a growing public concern worldwide. The health risks and environmental implications associated with HMIs are almost invariably severe, and underscore the urgency for sound management. Hazardous Materials Explosion incidents (HMEIs) belong to a category of extremely serious HMIs. Existing studies placed focuses predominately on the promptness and efficiency of emergency responses to HMIs and HMEIs. By contrast, post-disaster environmental management has been largely overlooked. Very few studies attempted to examine the post-disaster environmental management plan particularly its effectiveness and sufficiency. In the event of the Tianjin warehouse explosion (TWE), apart from the immediate emergency response, the post-disaster environmental management systems (P-EMSs) have been reported to be effective and sufficient in dealing with the environmental concerns. Therefore, this study aims to critically investigate the P-EMSs for the TWE, and consequently to propose a framework and procedures for P-EMSs in general for HMIs, particularly for HMEIs. These findings provide a useful reference to develop P-EMSs for HMIs in the future, not only in China but also other countries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  9. Environmentally responsive polymeric "intelligent" materials: the ideal components of non-mechanical valves that control flow in microfluidic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruben Morones-Ramirez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturization and commercialization of integrated microfluidic systems has had great success with the development of a wide variety of techniques in microfabrication, since they allowed their construction at a low cost and by following simple step-series procedures. However, one of the major challenges in the design of microfluidic systems is to achieve control of flow and delivery of different chemical reagents. This feature is especially important when using microfluidic systems in the development of cell culture systems, the construction of labs on a chip and the fabrication and design of chemical microreactors. Spatiotemporal control of the microenvironment in microfluidic devices has been only partially achieved by incorporating actuator parts (mechanical and non-mechanical within these devices; nevertheless, recently there has been enormous progress due to advances in the materials sciences, and the development of novel polymeric "intelligent" materials. These materials have proved to be excellent candidates in the construction of non-mechanical actuators in the form of environmentally responsive valves. These valves can more efficiently control flows because these "intelligent" materials are capable of undergoing conformational changes and phase transitions in response to different local or external environmental stimuli; allowing them to turn the valves from "on" to "off". In addition, these valves have very simple designs, and are easy and cheap to incorporate into microfluidic systems. Therefore, although there are many reviews that focus on the development and design of non-mechanical actuators, the following review proceeds to describe the exciting characteristics, potential uses and synthesis methods of the building blocks of the most recent and innovative non-mechanical valves, environmentally responsive polymeric "intelligent" materials. In addition, the last section of this review will focus on the synthesis of composite

  10. 76 FR 50881 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...-025-AD; Amendment 39-16771; AD 2011-17-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP.... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain M7 Aerospace LP Models SA226-T... AD, contact M7 Aerospace, LC, 10823 NE. Entrance Road, San Antonio, Texas 78216; telephone (210)...

  11. 77 FR 58413 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, October 12, 2012, 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive...

  12. 76 FR 2923 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, February 4, 2011, 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m... CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics...

  13. 76 FR 36937 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 15, 2011, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National...

  14. 78 FR 57903 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal and amendment of the charter of the Aerospace... the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public interest in connection with the performance...

  15. 75 FR 61219 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, October 22, 2010, 12:30 p.m. to 2 p.m... 77058. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  16. 78 FR 56941 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, October 11, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive...

  17. 78 FR 77618 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all M7 Aerospace LLC Models SA226-AT... bulkhead. This proposed AD also requires reporting certain inspection results to M7 Aerospace LLC. We...

  18. 76 FR 58776 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade... Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada, May 6-9, 2012. This aerospace mission is an ideal opportunity for...

  19. 75 FR 36697 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 16, 2010, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. ADDRESSES... CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics...

  20. Three Major Aerospace Industrial Projects Settled In Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Three major aerospace industrial projects settled in Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base and the signing ceremonywas held on August 13. The settlement of the 3 projects will promote the development of space science and technologyindustry and the local economy while speeding up the construction of Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base.

  1. 78 FR 36793 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP). DATES: Friday, July 12, 2013, 09:00-10:00 a.m.... Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics and...

  2. 76 FR 19147 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, April 29, 2011, from 11 p.m. to 1 p.m..., FL 32899. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  3. 78 FR 15976 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Wednesday April 3, 2013, 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m..., Greenbelt, MD 20771-0001. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety...

  4. 78 FR 1265 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. ] DATES: Friday, January 25, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m... CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics...

  5. 32 CFR 705.30 - Aerospace Education Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerospace Education Workshop. 705.30 Section 705... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.30 Aerospace Education Workshop. (a) This... of Naval Operations has cognizance of all assistance provided by the Navy to all Aerospace...

  6. CASC To Build A New Aerospace Industrial System By 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huiting

    2008-01-01

    @@ CASC held its fourth working conference in July 2008. At this conference, CASC proposed a new development target, "to build a new innovative, open and integrated aerospace industrial system by 2015", thus making CASC a large international leading aerospace group. The proposed new aerospace industrial system will mainly include the following aspects:

  7. 77 FR 54787 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ...-17177; AD 2012-18-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all M7 Aerospace LLC Models SA226-AT, SA226-T, SA226-T(B), SA226... information identified in this AD, contact M7 Aerospace LP, 10823 NE Entrance Road, San Antonio, Texas...

  8. 77 FR 38090 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 20, 2012, 11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. EDT... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive...

  9. 77 FR 75908 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Aerospace Corporation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aerospace Corporation Model GV and GV-SP airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of two failures... in this proposed AD, contact Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Technical Publications Dept., P.O....

  10. 76 FR 65750 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14(b)(1) and 9(c) of the Federal Advisory... of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public interest in connection with...

  11. 76 FR 26316 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... Federal Register of April 26, 2011, announcing a meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) to... Administration, Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-0732. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Aerospace Safety...

  12. 78 FR 77501 - NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Thursday, January 23, 2014, 1:00 p.m. to 2..., Houston, TX 77058. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Marian Norris, Aerospace Safety Advisory...

  13. 78 FR 30243 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... all Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 airplanes equipped with Avio, Avio with ETT, or Avio NG 1.0... identified in this proposed AD, contact Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. 26 East Palatine Road, Wheeling,...

  14. A Model Aerospace Curriculum: August Martin High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This document presents an operational model of a thematic aerospace education school--the August Martin High School (New York). Part 1 briefly describes the nature of aviation/aerospace education and the background of the school. This background information includes how the school was formed, rationale for an aerospace thematic school, research…

  15. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

  16. Chemical structure, synthesis, and physical and chemical properties of porous polymers as materials applied in analytical chemistry and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goś Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a series devoted to discussing strategies for the synthesis of ion-imprinted polymers and molecularly imprinted polymers, their chemical structure and great potential, which may be used in porous material design, analytical chemistry, environmental protection and other areas of science. The presented work constitutes a basis for a better understanding of what porous polymers are, how we can synthesise them and how to foresee their properties, which can be later used in studies of environmental pollution and analytical chemistry.

  17. Environmental assessment of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production--a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Li, Xiangzhi

    2011-06-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted. Results showed the impact generated from respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories had an important contribution to overall environmental impact, due to energy, clinker, and limestone production stages. Also, uncertainty analysis results showed the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production had little or no effect on changing the overall environmental potential impact generated from general cement production. Accordingly, using the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production is a good choice for reducing the pressure on the environment from dramatically increased sludge disposal. In addition, increasing electricity recovery rate, choosing natural gas fired electricity generation technology, and optimizing the raw material consumption in clinker production are highly recommended to reduce the adverse effects on the environment.

  18. Aerospace applications of PMR polyimide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of the novel class of processable, addition-type polyimides known as PMR (for in situ polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimides, developed by NASA at the Lewis Research Center, is reviewed. Highlights of PMR technology studies conducted at NASA Lewis are presented. Several examples of industrial applications of PMR-15 polyimide composites to aerospace structural components are examined.

  19. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of a NASA-sponsored medical program under which work is done by multidiscipline teams to provide an interface between aerospace and medicine. A prosthetic urethral valve, an ear oximeter for measurement of oxygen content in the blood, a radiation dosimeter and an electromyographic muscle trainer are noted as the products of this program.

  20. Occupant modeling in the aerospace environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaklin, P.; Lim, T.; Marshall, R.

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic testing and occupant protection standards are a reality in the aerospace industry. Methods to model these situations are evolving. A method of modeling an occupant on a crew seat, in a drop test is presented. This method combines a rigid body occupant model with a finite element model of the

  1. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, V.; Nowack, B.; Baun, A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Kammer, von den F.; Dusinska, M.; Handy, R.; Hankin, S.; Hassellöv, M.; Joner, E.; Fernandes, T.F.

    2010-01-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key que

  2. The Integration of Environmental Education in Science Materials by Using "MOTORIC" Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarjita, I. Wayan; Ardi, Muhammad; Rachman, Abdul; Supu, Amiruddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2015-01-01

    The research of the integration of Environmental Education in science subject matter by application of "MOTORIC" Learning models has carried out on Junior High School Kupang Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia. "MOTORIC" learning model is an Environmental Education (EE) learning model that collaborate three learning approach i.e.…

  3. High-Temperature Strain Sensing for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Anthony; Richards, Lance W.; Hudson, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are utilizing advanced materials that operate at temperatures that exceed abilities to measure structural performance. Robust strain sensors that operate accurately and reliably beyond 1800 F are needed but do not exist. These shortcomings hinder the ability to validate analysis and modeling techniques and hinders the ability to optimize structural designs. This presentation examines high-temperature strain sensing for aerospace applications and, more specifically, seeks to provide strain data for validating finite element models and thermal-structural analyses. Efforts have been made to develop sensor attachment techniques for relevant structural materials at the small test specimen level and to perform laboratory tests to characterize sensor and generate corrections to apply to indicated strains. Areas highlighted in this presentation include sensors, sensor attachment techniques, laboratory evaluation/characterization of strain measurement, and sensor use in large-scale structures.

  4. Aerospace applications of mass market MEMS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karin; Kroetz, Gerhard; Schalk, Josef; Mueller, Gerhard

    2002-07-01

    Aerospace applications of MEMS products, originally developed for automotive mass markets, are discussed. Various sensor examples with a high dual use potential are presented: inertial sensing, flow and gas sensing, robust micro sensors including SiC- and GaN-based devices, as well as first approaches towards flexible and distributed microsystems. In Europe the automotive industry is one of the main MEMS market drivers, simply because of the sheer size of this market and Europe's strong position in this industrial field. Main MEMS activities are development and integration of vehicle dynamics sensing systems, passenger safety and navigation systems, air and fuel intake systems, as well as sensor systems for exhaust gas after treatment and climate control. Benefits on the customer side are increased safety, passenger comfort and reduced fuel consumption. Benefits on the manufacturer's side are increased sub-system integration, modularity and reduced production cost. In the future the aerospace industry is likely to benefit from the introduction of micro-systems for the same reasons as the automotive industry. Interests of the aerospace industry are increasing safety and reliability of airplane operation, health and state monitoring of fuselage and airplane subsystems as well as improving service and maintenance procedures. In comparison to automotive applications, the numbers of devices needed is likely to be much smaller, however, new challenges arise in so far as distributed sensing and actuating microsystems will be needed. The idea is to identify and to exploit synergies between automotive mass market MEMS applications and lower-volume aerospace ones. The effort necessary to meet aerospace requirements and the extent of necessary trade-offs in customizing automotive MEMS is addressed considering the above-mentioned examples.

  5. A critical review of nanotechnologies for composite aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Vassilis; Masouras, Athanasios; Baltopoulos, Athanasios; Vavouliotis, Antonios; Sotiriadis, George; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The past decade extensive efforts have been invested in understanding the nano-scale and revealing the capabilities offered by nanotechnology products to structural materials. Integration of nano-particles into fiber composites concludes to multi-scale reinforced composites and has opened a new wide range of multi-functional materials in industry. In this direction, a variety of carbon based nano-fillers has been proposed and employed, individually or in combination in hybrid forms, to approach the desired performance. Nevertheless, a major issue faced lately more seriously due to the interest of industry is on how to incorporate these nano-species into the final composite structure through existing manufacturing processes and infrastructure. This interest originates from several industrial applications needs that request the development of new multi-functional materials which combine enhanced mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, an attempt is performed to review the most representative processes and related performances reported in literature and the experience obtained on nano-enabling technologies of fiber composite materials. This review focuses on the two main composite manufacturing technologies used by the aerospace industry; Prepreg/Autoclave and Resin Transfer technologies. It addresses several approaches for nano-enabling of composites for these two routes and reports latest achieved results focusing on performance of nano-enabled fiber reinforced composites extracted from literature. Finally, this review work identifies the gap between available nano-technology integration routes and the established industrial composite manufacturing techniques and the challenges to increase the Technology Readiness Level to reach the demands for aerospace industry applications.

  6. Advances in control system technology for aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to Control System Technology applied to aerospace and covers the four disciplines Cognitive Engineering, Computer Science, Operations Research, and Servo-Mechanisms. This edited book follows a workshop held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2012, where the today's most important aerospace challenges, including aerospace autonomy, safety-critical embedded software engineering, and modern air transportation were discussed over the course of two days of intense interactions among leading aerospace engineers and scientists. Its content provide a snapshot of today's aerospace control research and its future, including Autonomy in space applications, Control in space applications, Autonomy in aeronautical applications, Air transportation, and Safety-critical software engineering.

  7. Aerospace Robotic Implementations: An Assessment and Forecast. Phase 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    WELDING STATION Source : ROBOTIQUE , IV, 1985 ROB TODAY 12/85 P.26 Company ID No. 6 19 Non-aerospace Application Non-aerospace Application Appl. Axis...PROJECT Source . ROBOTIQUE , IV, 1985 AEROSPACE 8.85 P.4 D-3 1.0 WELDING 2.0 INSPECTION Company ID No. 8 21 Non-aerospace Application Non-aerospace...DIMENSIONAL CAL. Source . ROBOTIQUE , IV, 1985 Company ID No. Appl. Axis Code Task Performed Other Comments Source Company ID No. Appl. Axis Code Task

  8. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.; H. Heilmeier; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of s...

  9. Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon electrode material for highly selective determination of nitrite in physiological and environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenghai; Wu, Hongmin; Wu, Ying; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Jiang, Shang; Chen, Jian; Song, Wenbo, E-mail: wbsong@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon (HONC) was obtained from a mesoporous silica template through a nano-replication method using furfuryl alcohol as the carbon source. The structure and morphology of HONC were characterized and analyzed in detail by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2}-sorption, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. HONC was then demonstrated as active electrode material for selective determination of nitrite in either physiological or environmental system. Well separated oxidation peaks of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and nitrite were observed in physiological system, and simultaneous discrimination of catechol, hydroquinone, resorcinol and nitrite in environmental system was also accomplished. Distinctly improved performances for selective determination of nitrite (such as significantly fast and sensitive current response with especially high selectivity) coexisted with ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid in the physiological system, as well as with catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol in the environmental system were achieved at HONC electrode material. The excellent discriminating ability and high selectivity for NO{sub 2}{sup −} determination were ascribed to the good electronic conductivity, unique hemi-ordered porous structure, large surface area and large number of edge plane defect sites contained on the surface of nanopore walls of HONC. Results in this work demonstrated that HONC is one of the promising catalytic electrode materials for nitrite sensor fabrication. - Highlights: • Hemi-ordered nanoporous carbon as an active electrode material • Good discriminating ability towards NO{sub 2}{sup −} from physiological or environmental system • Highly selective determination of nitrite with fast and sensitive current response.

  10. Oxidation Resistant CMC Materials Technology for Lightweight and Environmentally Durable Propulsion Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Foster-Miller will demonstrate a novel processing method to develop environmentally resistant C/SiC composites for turbomachinery. The need to reduce the weight,...

  11. Oxidation Resistant CMC Materials Technology for Lightweight and Environmentally Durable Propulsion Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surmet will demonstrate a novel processing method to develop environmentally resistant C/SiC composites for turbomachinery. The need to reduce the weight, size, and...

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Common Plastic Packaging for Reducing Environmental Impact and Material Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visvaldas Varžinskas

    2009-12-01

    the Faculty of Design and Technologies, Kaunas University of Technology, together with packaging and environmental protection specialists of the University, and in cooperation with the Department of Printed Publications and Packaging of the Ukrainian Print Academy. The present paper analyses certain basic findings of the study on the possibilities of improving the ecological level of packaging within the framework of the project. It is stated that appropriate investigation of packaging, its production and application has to be performed in order to prove that the packaging was produced in compliance with preventive and other principles; this investigation is related to a wide variety of package testing, some of which has not yet got methodology acknowledged at a sufficient level (the EU or groups of countries. Therefore, one of the research directions in the above mentioned project, discussed in the present paper, is related to developing a single system, recognized throughout the EU, which would enable researchers to perform the required tests confirming the packaging quality compliance with the environmental requirements. The paper analyzes the EU prevention regulations for reducing the amount of raw material and the system of checking the realization of the requirements based on identification of critical areas, aimed at reaching the lowest possible package weight and/or volume, consequently, the minimum waste amount, without increasing the amount of faulty products and product waste. The paper presents the findings of the research obtained in assessing the life cycle, when applying the Ecoindicator'99 qualitative analysis, concerning the impact of common plastic packages and processes on the environment during manufacturing, usage and disposal. Compression test results of common type plastic packaging construction are presented, which allow us to assess the impact of the package shape and construction upon the packaging reliability and minimization of its mass.

  13. The Aerospace Spacecraft Charging Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-07

    materials is caused primarily by electrons with energies of a few hundred keV to 1.5 Hev (meg~alectron volts). These energetic electrons can penetrate thin ...Figure 13 presents a histogram of the amplitudes of those test dis- Chrges. For comparison purposes, Figure 14 presents a silar histogram of the natural...surface charging of dielectrics with respect to frame and other surface potentials include the use of transparent conduc- tive films grounded to the

  14. Green Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; DeLaRee, Ana B.; Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark; Hensel, Joseph D.; Kimble, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to produce green aerospace propellants from nonpetroleum sources are outlined. The paper begins with an overview of feedstock processing and relevant small molecule or C1 chemistry. Gas-to-liquid technologies, notably Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processing of synthesis gas (CO and H2), are being optimized to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to aviation (and other transportation) fuels at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Efforts to produce optimized catalysts are described. Given the high cost of space launch, the recycling of human metabolic and plastic wastes to reduce the need to transport consumables to orbit to support the crew of a space station has long been recognized as a high priority. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon or beyond are taken into account, the importance of developing waste recycling systems becomes still more imperative. One promising way to transform organic waste products into useful gases is steam reformation; this well-known technology is currently being optimized by a Colorado company for exploration and planetary surface operations. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. A technology that has successfully demonstrated production of fuels and related chemicals from waste plastics developed in Northeast Ohio is described. Technologies being developed by a Massachusetts company to remove sulfur impurities are highlighted. Common issues and concerns for nonpetroleum fuel production are emphasized. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether a terrestrial operation or on the lunar (or Martian) surface; the term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of grid-energy usage. For space exploration, energy efficiency can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing

  15. Aberration corrected and monochromated environmental transmission electron microscopy: challenges and prospects for materials science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The latest generation of environmental transmission electron microscopes incorporates aberration correctors and monochromators, allowing studies of chemical reactions and growth processes with improved spatial resolution and spectral sensitivity. Here, we describe the performance of such an instr......The latest generation of environmental transmission electron microscopes incorporates aberration correctors and monochromators, allowing studies of chemical reactions and growth processes with improved spatial resolution and spectral sensitivity. Here, we describe the performance...

  16. Sintering and properties of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    Justin, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) represent a very interesting family of materials and therefore they are the subject of increasing attention from different engineering sectors and notably the aerospace industry. Indeed, hypersonic flights, re-entry vehicles, propulsion applications and so on, require new materials that can perform in oxidizing or corrosive atmospheres at temperatures higher than 2000°C and sometimes, for long life-time. To fulfil these requirements, UHTCs seems to ...

  17. Development of UHTC- Ultra-high-temperature ceramics for aerospace and industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bellosi, Alida

    2009-01-01

    Zirconium and Hafnium diborides and carbides belong to the class of Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) for their high melting point (2700-3900?C). The interest on these materials is due to the unique combination of properties 8High hardness, high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical inertness). They constitute a clss of promising materials for HT applications in industrial secors like foundry, refractory or nuclear plants. Applications are also found in aerospace industry: leadin...

  18. Advancing Malaysia’s Aerospace Industry: A Review of Governing Behaviors Required in Overcoming the Barriers in Global Aerospace Supply Chain Integration

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Jones

    2006-01-01

    The global aerospace manufacturing industry is defined by original equipment manufacturers (OEM’s) consisting of major manufacturers of aircraft or aircraft systems as well as their principal and sub-tier suppliers. It is dominated by large manufacturers known as primes supported by system integrators and numerous component, parts and material suppliers. These are focused on meeting the diverse and differing capital equipment needs of these sectors. These supply products and services in direc...

  19. Non-Catalytic Self Healing Composite Material Solution Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber reinforce polymer (FRP) composite materials are seeing increasing use in the construction of a wide variety of aerospace structures. However, uncertainties...

  20. Experimental Methods of Load Bearing Capacity Under High Temperature in Aerospace Composite Materials%航天用复合材料结构高温极限承载能力试验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢睿; 范新中; 王世勋; 王婧超

    2012-01-01

    Countering the flight character of astronautical flight vehicle, two experimental methods of load bearing capacity were summarized, in order to obtain the structural load bearing capacity under different flight temperature and different flight duration. It was able to express the high temperature load bearing capacity of the material in the process of heat transfer, reducing the weight of structural heat resistance.%针对航天飞行器飞行特点,本文给出两种基于破坏时间的承载能力试验方法,可以获得结构在不同飞行温度和时间下的承载能力.能够充分发挥材料在传热过程中的高温承载能力,降低结构防热质量.

  1. Non-Conformitity in raw material: Quality problems and environmental impacts in a dairy processor in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ruelis Fabbro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management has been discussed by researchers and practitioners along recent years. Relations between quality and environmental issues have been treated, since quality problems interfere on environmental impacts. In dairy system, according to a report on dairy cleaner production by FIESP (2008, processors are concerned especially with rational use of water, energy saving techniques and equipment, use of less toxic raw materials, recycling, water and effluent treatment. Some studies have highlighted the importance of agriculture (milk producers when it comes to environmental problems along the chain, giving less relevance to dairy processing, packaging, consume phase and waste management. Thus, milk reception control in dairy companies is an important stage for environmental management. Considering the importance of coordination among agents, the aim of this paper was to analyze processor conduct concerning raw material non-conformity, linking quality and environmental issues. This qualitative research was accomplished through a study in a dairy plant in Paraná, which processes200,000 liters of milk per day and sells products nationally. The company works with 1,500 milk suppliers on average. Legal requirements are followed along the process, and ISO 1400 implementation in the company is in progress. According to interviews with quality supervisor and industrial manager, one of the most important critical point is milk reception, and a number of non-conformities are controlled. The presence of antibiotics is the most relevant of them, since it results in material rejection. Other problems, such as acidity and cryoscopy, are less critical, since it is possible to direct input to co-products. Interviewees informed that a low amount of milk is contaminated with antibiotics (about 1% of total input. Concerning antibiotic contamination, intensive training and constant visits have been developed with producers, especially to inform them

  2. 75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... shielding, building materials, and soil debris from Unit 3. The waste would be transported by truck from...). The engineered features include an engineered cover, liners and leachate monitoring systems. Because... material, gravel and other metal, wood and soil debris generated during dismantlement activities located...

  3. Animation of environmental assessment at sinking of vessel transporting radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, N.; Ozaki, S. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.); Noguchi, K.; Nakashima, K.; Suzuki, H.

    1993-01-01

    This report evaluated the concentration of radioactive materials in the sea and simulated the behavior of nuclides in the sea. Animation was used to depict the results of the simulation. We considered the hypothetical case of a ship that sank in a Japanese bay while transporting radioactive materials. (J.P.N.).

  4. IT Data Mining Tool Uses in Aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Gilena A.; Freeman, Kenneth; Jones, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Data mining has a broad spectrum of uses throughout the realms of aerospace and information technology. Each of these areas has useful methods for processing, distributing, and storing its corresponding data. This paper focuses on ways to leverage the data mining tools and resources used in NASA's information technology area to meet the similar data mining needs of aviation and aerospace domains. This paper details the searching, alerting, reporting, and application functionalities of the Splunk system, used by NASA's Security Operations Center (SOC), and their potential shared solutions to address aircraft and spacecraft flight and ground systems data mining requirements. This paper also touches on capacity and security requirements when addressing sizeable amounts of data across a large data infrastructure.

  5. Multiscale Modeling, Simulation and Visualization and Their Potential for Future Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Training Workshop on Multiscale Modeling, Simulation and Visualization and Their Potential for Future Aerospace Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 5 - 6, 2002. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University's Center for Advanced Engineering Environments and NASA. Workshop attendees were from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to give overviews of the diverse activities in hierarchical approach to material modeling from continuum to atomistics; applications of multiscale modeling to advanced and improved material synthesis; defects, dislocations, and material deformation; fracture and friction; thin-film growth; characterization at nano and micro scales; and, verification and validation of numerical simulations, and to identify their potential for future aerospace systems.

  6. Nonlinear modeling of an aerospace object dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, I. E.; Davydov, E. I.

    2017-01-01

    Here are presented the scientific results, obtained by motion modeling of complicated technical systems of aerospace equipment with consideration of nonlinearities. Computerized panel that allows to measure mutual influence of the system's motion and stabilization device with consideration of its real characteristics has been developed. Analysis of motion stability of a system in general has been carried out and time relationships of the system's motion taking in account nonlinearities are presented.

  7. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE DELIVERY OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS USED FOR BUILDING MATERIALS PRODUCTION TO THE CITY OF ZAGREB AND THE ZAGREB COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Novak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral raw material transport directly affects a product’s unit price and exhaust gases amounts. Transportation length is proportional to raw material price; its low price enables short transportation distances only. Taking into account stone aggregates delivered to Zagreb, the consequence of exploitation fields closure in the Zagreb area, particularly within the Medvednica Nature Park, we tried to answer the question of the impact of transport distances on the greenhouse gas emissions. Certain models will present environmental impact of the stone aggregate transportation and of nearby city quarries. The generally accepted public opinion on the closure of nearby city quarries as the best solution to environmental pollution will have to be reviewed. Mining works are predestined by mineral resources sites and limited by real possibilities and intentions of the community, therefore the experts, i.e. miners, geologists and other geoscientists, should be actively involved in spatial planning. During the years of intensive construction, millions of tons have been delivered from distances up to 100 km. The question arises whether some more rational solutions could be generated by more appropriate spatial planning? (the paper is published in Croatian

  8. Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Ravi; Saxena, Abhinav; Kramer, Frank; Augustin, Mike; Schroeder, John B.; Goebel, Kai; Shao, Ginger; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a "real-world" example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.

  9. En-Gendering the Material in Environmental Education Research: Reassembling Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to explore new and emerging possibilities for conceptualizing qualitative research that might be appropriate for questions those interested in gender issues in environmental education might have. Using two examples, I suggest the application of concepts, framed theoretically and methodologically. Concepts of…

  10. Nesting material as environmental enrichment has no adverse effects on behavior and physiology of laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeWeerd, HA; VanLoo, PLP; VanZutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value; Weerd, H.A. van de; Loo, P.L.P. van; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    1997-01-01

    Environmental enrichment may improve the quality of life of captive animals by altering the environment of animals so that they are able to perform more of the behavior that is within the range of the animal's species specific repertoire. When enrichment is introduced into an animal's environment, i

  11. En-Gendering the Material in Environmental Education Research: Reassembling Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to explore new and emerging possibilities for conceptualizing qualitative research that might be appropriate for questions those interested in gender issues in environmental education might have. Using two examples, I suggest the application of concepts, framed theoretically and methodologically. Concepts of…

  12. Environmental Fate and Transport of a New Energetic Material, CL-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    5 m, 99% pure), kaolinite, and mont -verse environmental consequences of widespread usage morillonite K10 were obtained from Aldrich Chemicals (St.of... Salamanca , S.J.C., von Hobe, M., Powell, A.K. and Richardson, D.J. (1999) Dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction by Clostridium beijerinckii isolated from

  13. Element concentrations in candidate biological and environmental reference materials by k[sub 0]-standardized INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M.C. (LNETI, Inst. de Ciencias e Engenharia Nucleares, Dept. de Energia e Engenharia Nucleares, Sacavem (Portugal))

    1993-01-01

    k[sub 0]-Based Neutron Activation Analysis (k[sub 0]INAA) was used to analyze the candidate reference materials Apple Leaves and Peach Leaves, and Oriental Tobacco Leaves and Virginia Tobacco Leaves. Concentration values for 27 elements were measured. The accuracy was ascertained by analysis of two certified reference materials. NIST 1572 Citrus Leaves and 1573 Tomato Leaves. The homogeneity test of the IAEA Evernia prunastri candidate reference material in aliquots [>=] 100 mg is extended to the elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce and Th. (orig.).

  14. Aerospace devices for magnetic replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Roy

    1993-05-01

    Retained persistent magnetic field has been studied and improved in the superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 (Y123). During the study, trapped magnetic field, B(t), has been increased by over a factor of 10(exp 5). Methods used to improve magnetic field trapping were principally: (1) the adoption of the Melt Texturing process to increase grain size; (2) the addition of excess Y to disperse deposits of Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) and again increase grain size; (3) irradiation with high energy particles including 1H+, 3He++, 4He++, and fission fragments; and (4) utilizing temperatures below 77 K has also been quantified as a way to increase trapped field. In addition, in our study of B(t), we have found laws governing creep, activation, temperature dependence, creep vs. current flow, etc. In the range 20 K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 65 K, and for B less than 10 Tesla, a simple empirical relationship was found: B(trap) (T2) = B(trap) (T1) ((Tc - T2)/(Tc - T1))squared where Tc is the critical temperature. The highest experimental trapped field was B(trap) = 3.96 Tesla, at 65 K. We believe this to be the highest persistent field ever produced, by any method. A two component model of the persistent currents has been developed. This accurately reproduces the data, using as parameters only the magnitude of a constant surface current, J(s), and a constant volume current J(v). The model successfully predicts B(t) (xyz) for the case of maximum trapped field, for all samples observed. It has also been extended to describe the unsaturated case either zero field cooled, or field cooled. Loss of strap with time has been studied for the critical state (Bt,max), and non critical state (Bt less than Bt,max), for times from a few minutes to a few months, for unirradiated material, for irradiation by 1H+, 3He++, 4He++, high z projectiles, and neutrons, and for all materials used in the overall study. We conclude that: (1) multi Tesla trapped fields are attained; (2) fields over 10 T are

  15. An overview of integrated flywheel technology for aerospace application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, C. R.; Groom, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    Space missions ranging from small scientific satellites to large manned spacecraft have, for many years, utilized systems of spinning flywheels to maintain vehicle attitude. These systems have included momentum and reaction wheels as well as control moment gyros. Extension of that technology to satisfy the additional tasks associated with energy storage has also been pursued. The combining of control and energy storage features into one system has been examined by NASA for space applications and demonstrated in the laboratory. The impact of technology advances in such areas as composite material rotors, magnetic suspensions, motor/generators, and electronics have prompted a re-evaluation of the viability of the flywheel storage system concept for aerospace applications. This paper summarizes the results of this re-examination and identifies shortfalls in the various technology areas.

  16. Evaluation of Li/CF(x)Cells For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Panasonic commercialized LiICF(x) cell technology in the 1970's. This technology was a promising primary battery for Aerospace applications such as: Exploration missions, Launch vehicles, Tools and more. This technology offers Wide operation temperature range, Low self-discharge and High specific energy CF(x) cathode material has a theoretical specific energy of 2260 Wh/Kg. Specific energy however achieved as of now is only 10% of theoretical value unless used at a very low rate of C/1000. Research both at Government Labs and Industries is currently in progress to improve the performance. This viewgraph presentation describes the cells, and reviews the results of some of the research using tables and charts.

  17. Progress in patch repair of aerospace composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiguo; Zhang, Weifang; Tang, Qingyun

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid application of the composite structure in the aerospace industry, more load-bearing structures and components are used with composites instead of conventional engineering materials. However, the composite structures are inevitably suffered damages in the complex environment, the composites structures repair become more important in the airplane maintenance. This paper describes the composites patch repair progress. Firstly, the flaws and damages concerned to composite structures are concluded, and also the repair principles are presented. Secondly, the advantages and disadvantages for different repair methods are analyzed, as well as the different bonded repair and their applicability to different structures is discussed. According the recent research in theory and experiment, the scarf repair effects under different parameters are analyzed. Finally, the failure mechanisms of repair structure are discussed, and some prospects are put forward.

  18. National Aerospace Plane Integrated Fuselage/Cryotank Risk Reduction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, K. E.

    1993-06-01

    The principal objectives and results of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Integrated Risk Reduction program are briefly reviewed. The program demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight advanced composite materials for single-stage-to-orbit hypersonic flight vehicle applications. A series of combined load simulation tests (thermal, mechanical, and cryogenic) demonstrated proof of concept performance for an all unlined composite cryogenic fuel tank with flat end bulkheads and a high-temperature thin-shell advanced composite fuselage. Temperatures of the fuselage were as high as 1300 F, with 100 percent bending and shear loads applied to the tank while filled with 850 gallons of cryogenic fluid hydrogen (-425 F). Leak rates measured on and around the cryotank shell and bulkheads were well below acceptable levels.

  19. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmentally DurableThermal Control Material Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase II proposal will develop next generation products for Thermal Control Material Systems (TCMS) an adhesives based on the next generation...

  20. Leakage correction estimate for electret ion chamber dielectric material used for long-term environmental gamma monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David F; Paulus, L R

    2008-05-01

    The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality INL Oversight Program (DEQ-INL) operates an environmental gamma radiation detection network consisting of a series of high-pressure ion chambers to provide real-time ambient radiation measurements and a series of passive environmental electret ion chambers to increase coverage area and measure cumulative dose over a calendar quarter. DEQ-INL has identified a consistent over-response of approximately 40% by the electret ion chambers with respect to co-located high-pressure ion chambers since 1998. DEQ-INL conducted a series of three investigations to quantify this over-response. The over-response is likely attributable to a number of factors, including inherent voltage loss by the electret material not due to ionization within the chamber. One aspect of the investigation verified the manufacturer's calibration factor used to convert decrease in voltage to exposure. Additional investigations were performed that identified an average electret voltage loss of 0.2 V d(-1). When this voltage correction was applied to historical environmental data, electret ion chamber response was within 10% of the co-located high-pressure ion chamber response.

  1. Review of the progress in preparing nano TiO2: an important environmental engineering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; He, Yiming; Lai, Qinghua; Fan, Maohong

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 nanomaterial is promising with its high potential and outstanding performance in photocatalytic environmental applications, such as CO2 conversion, water treatment, and air quality control. For many of these applications, the particle size, crystal structure and phase, porosity, and surface area influence the activity of TiO2 dramatically. TiO2 nanomaterials with special structures and morphologies, such as nanospheres, nanowires, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanoflowers are thus synthesized due to their desired characteristics. With an emphasis on the different morphologies of TiO2 and the influence factors in the synthesis, this review summarizes fourteen TiO2 preparation methods, such as the sol-gel method, solvothermal method, and reverse micelle method. The TiO2 formation mechanisms, the advantages and disadvantages of the preparation methods, and the photocatalytic environmental application examples are proposed as well.

  2. Polyester-based (bio)degradable polymers as environmentally friendly materials for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

    2014-12-29

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields.

  3. Polyester-Based (Biodegradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rydz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (biodegradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (biodegradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields.

  4. Second life of electric vehicle batteries: relation between materials degradation and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz; Aguesse, Frédéric; Iturrondobeitia, Amaia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric vehicle is one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable transportation. However, the battery, which is one of the most important components, is the main contributor to environmental impact and faces recycling issues. In order to reduce the carbon footprint and to minimize the overall recycling processes, this paper introduces the concept of re-use of electric vehicle batteries, analyzing some possible second-life applications. Methods First, the boundari...

  5. Convergent spray process for environmentally friendly coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Conventional spray application processes have poor transfer efficiencies, resulting in an exorbitant loss in materials, solvents, and time. Also, with ever tightening Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and Occupational Safety and Health Administration requirements, the low transfer efficiencies have a significant impact on the quantities of materials and solvents that are released into the environment. High solids spray processes are also limited by material viscosities, thus requiring many passes over the surface to achieve a thickness in the 0.125 -inch range. This results in high application costs and a negative impact on the environment. Until recently, requirements for a 100 percent solid sprayable, environmentally friendly, lightweight thermal protection system that can be applied in a thick (greater than 0.125 inch) single-pass operation exceeded the capability of existing systems. Such coatings must be applied by hand lay-up techniques, especially for thermal and/or fire protection systems. The current formulation of these coatings has presented many problems such as worker safety, environmental hazards, waste, high cost, and application constraints. A system which can apply coatings without using hazardous materials would alleviate many of these problems. Potential applications include the aerospace thermal protective specialty coatings, chemical and petroleum industries that require fire-protection coatings that resist impact, chemicals, and weather. These markets can be penetrated by offering customized coatings applied by automated processes that are environmentally friendly.

  6. Assessment of the effects of the Japanese shift to lead-free solders and its impact on material substitution and environmental emissions by a dynamic material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Masaaki; Tsunemi, Kiyotaka

    2012-11-01

    Lead-free electronics has been extensively studied, whereas their adoption by society and their impact on material substitution and environmental emissions are not well understood. Through a material flow analysis (MFA), this paper explores the life cycle flows for solder-containing metals in Japan, which leads the world in the shift to lead-free solders in electronics. The results indicate that the shift has been progressing rapidly for a decade, and that substitutes for lead in solders, which include silver and copper, are still in the early life cycle stages. The results also show, however, that such substitution slows down during the late life cycle stages owing to long electronic product lifespans. This deceleration of material substitution in the solder life cycle may not only preclude a reduction in lead emissions to air but also accelerate an increase in silver emissions to air and water. As an effective measure against ongoing lead emissions, our scenario analysis suggests an aggressive recycling program for printed circuit boards that utilizes an existing recycling scheme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. NASA Engineering Safety Center NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group 2007 Proactive Task Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) chartered the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to bring forth and address critical battery-related performance/manufacturing issues for NASA and the aerospace community. A suite of tasks identifying and addressing issues related to Ni-H2 and Li-ion battery chemistries was submitted and selected for implementation. The current NESC funded are: (1) Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries (2) Binding Procurement (3) NASA Lithium-Ion Battery Guidelines (3a) Li-Ion Performance Assessment (3b) Li-Ion Guidelines Document (3b-i) Assessment of Applicability of Pouch Cells for Aerospace Missions (3b-ii) High Voltage Risk Assessment (3b-iii) Safe Charge Rates for Li-Ion Cells (4) Availability of Source Material for Li-Ion Cells (5) NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop This presentation provides a brief overview of the tasks in the 2007 plan and serves as an introduction to more detailed discussions on each of the specific tasks.

  8. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  9. Maritime Transport of Environmentally Damaging Materials - A Balance Between Absolute Freedom and Strict Prohibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaqal S. Al-Ajmi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to balance the rights of free navigation in all of its forms whether in the high seas or in the territorial waters of other States by resorting to the right of innocent passage and right of transit passage, which is enjoyable by all States and the obligation to protect the environment from any damaging materials as imposed upon all States at the same time, when such damaging materials are shipped from one State to another via seas or oceans. According to this study, which presented many evidence from international law and regional and even national practice, the obligation to protect the environment supersedes the right of free navigation, therefore restricting the right to ship or transport materials that could cause damage to the environment.

  10. Molecular Environmental Science Using Synchrotron Radiation: Chemistry and Physics of Waste Form Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, Dennis W.

    2011-04-21

    Production of defense-related nuclear materials has generated large volumes of complex chemical wastes containing a mixture of radionuclides. The disposition of these wastes requires conversion of the liquid and solid-phase components into durable, solid forms suitable for long-term immobilization. Specially formulated glass compositions and ceramics such as pyrochlores and apatites are the main candidates for these wastes. An important consideration linked to the durability of waste-form materials is the local structure around the waste components. Equally important is the local structure of constituents of the glass and ceramic host matrix. Knowledge of the structure in the waste-form host matrices is essential, prior to and subsequent to waste incorporation, to evaluate and develop improved waste-form compositions based on scientific considerations. This project used the soft-x-ray synchrotron-radiation-based technique of near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) as a unique method for investigating oxidation states and structures of low-Z elemental constituents forming the backbones of glass and ceramic host matrices for waste-form materials. In addition, light metal ions in ceramic hosts, such as titanium, are also ideal for investigation by NEXAFS in the soft-x-ray region. Thus, one of the main objectives was to understand outstanding issues in waste-form science via NEXAFS investigations and to translate this understanding into better waste-form materials, followed by eventual capability to investigate “real” waste-form materials by the same methodology. We conducted several detailed structural investigations of both pyrochlore ceramic and borosilicate-glass materials during the project and developed improved capabilities at Beamline 6.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to perform the studies.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 38: Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) and the communication of technical information in aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Daniel J.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of computers as a medium for communication (CMC) used by aerospace engineers and scientists to obtain and/or provide technical information related to research and development activities. The data were obtained from a questionnaire survey that yielded 1006 mail responses. In addition to communication media, the research also investigates degrees of task uncertainty, environmental complexity, and other relevant variables that can affect aerospace workers' information-seeking strategies. While findings indicate that many individuals report CMC is an important function in their communication patterns, the research indicates that CMC is used less often and deemed less valuable than other more conventional media, such as paper documents, group meetings, telephone and face-to-face conversations. Fewer than one third of the individuals in the survey account for nearly eighty percent of the reported CMC use, and another twenty percent indicate they do not use the medium at all, its availability notwithstanding. These preliminary findings suggest that CMC is not as pervasive a communication medium among aerospace workers as the researcher expect a priori. The reasons underlying the reported media use are not yet fully known, and this suggests that continuing research in this area may be valuable.

  12. Interrupted innovation : innovation system dynamics in latecomer aerospace industries

    OpenAIRE

    Vertesy, D.; Szirmai, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role of sectoral innovation systems in the emergence and catch-up of aerospace industries in latecomer economies. We argue that the aerospace sector is characterized by a process of interrupted innovation. Competitive pressures and the cyclical nature of the industry not only require shifts in the direction of innovation and changes in the production system, but also periodical restructuring of the whole sectoral system of innovation. Aerospace manufacturing requi...

  13. Production of materials with alumina and ashes from incineration of chromium tanned leather shavings: environmental and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basegio, T; Haas, C; Pokorny, A; Bernardes, A M; Bergmann, C P

    2006-09-21

    The leather tannery industry produces a significant amount of solid and hazardous wastes. Chromium-containing wastes like tanned shavings used to be incinerated in order to recover energy. The incineration process generates ashes that must be disposed of. This paper is a report on the results of the evaluation of technological properties and environmental compatibility of products made of alumina and ashes from incinerated chrome tanned shavings. The raw materials, tannery ashes and alumina were mixed together in different proportions. The ceramic bodies were molded using a hydraulic press and fired with a heating rate of 100 K/h until 1400 degrees C for 4 h in a muffle furnace. The ceramic specimens were characterized regarding physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Leaching tests, according to Brazilian, German and Dutch regulations, were performed on ceramic bodies containing different additions of ash. Results show that the ceramic materials produced are acceptable for refractory applications.

  14. Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluations (ESTE): Verification of Microbial Resistant Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an ESTE project summary brief. Many of the finished interior surfaces of homes and buildings are composed of materials that are prone to mold growth. These surfaces include gypsum board, wood flooring, insulation, and components of the heating and air conditioning system...

  15. Use of natural and biobased materials for controlled-release of urea in water: Environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urea pearls were encapsulated in cloisite-based matrices using different natural materials (lignin, beeswax and latex) to control the release of urea over time. It was found that all cloisite-based fertilizer tablets showed better release profiles than neat urea tablets. The best release profile was...

  16. Computational Modeling of Flow Control Systems for Aerospace Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop computational methods for designing active flow control systems on aerospace vehicles with the primary objective of...

  17. High Performing, Low Temperature Operating, Long Lifetime, Aerospace Lubricants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to synthesize, characterize, and test new ionic liquids and formulations as lubricants for aerospace applications. The...

  18. High Performing, Low Temperature Operating, Long Lifetime, Aerospace Lubricants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to synthesize, characterize, and test new ionic liquids and formulations as lubricants for aerospace applications. The...

  19. Evaluation of chemical conversion material (protective coating) exposed to space environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of an operational Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) system and shows the application of such a system on a space environmental test. Thin films of aluminum and tantalum were deposited on diamond substrates. These films were anodized and preexposure characterization spectra obtained using RBS and total hemispherical reflectance. The samples were exposed to energetic protons then postexposure characterization spectra was obtained using the same techniques. Conclusions based on the comparison of preexposure and postexposure spectra are presented. RBS comparison spectra show no change in the metal/metal oxide interface, while the comparison reflectance data indicate change. Explanations for this reflectance change are presented in this report.

  20. Synthesis of environmentally responsive organic materials by application of ion track holes in polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Hideki; Yoshida, Masaru; Asano, Masaharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Katakai, Ryoichi; Spohr, R.; Vetter, J.

    1997-03-01

    Polymer films were irradiated by heavy ion beams and etched by a concentrated alkali solution to produce particle track membranes (PTMs). Then the PTMs were chemically modified by grafting such monomers as amino acid group containing methacryloyl and N-isopropylacrylamide the polymers of which are known as environmentally responsive hydrogels. The size of pores of the modified PTMs under different temperatures in water was followed by electron microscopy. The pore was controlled from an open state to a completely closed state by changing temperature. The conductivity through the membrane was measured by changing the temperature of the cell. (author)