WorldWideScience

Sample records for material symbolic relational

  1. TERRITORIES, TERRITORIALITIES AND IDENTITIES: MATERIAL RELATIONS, SYMBOLIC, AND OF GENDER IN THE COUNTRYSIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Aparecida Pires de

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The territory is understood as an appropriate space, delimitated by power relations, and constituted by material and symbolic relations which provide elements to the territorialities development and for forming men and women identities. In the territory of familiar production, the sexual division of labor and of spaces causes the 'invisibility' of women's work in the productive sphere, fact that influences on the construction of the rural women’s identity. However, women exercise their territorialities in both spaces and their productive and reproductive activities are fundamental to the family's livingness and permanence in the countryside. In this sense, it proposes to analyze the territorialities and the territorial identity of the subjects of the countryside and ascertain how this discussion contributes to the recognition of rural woman's identity. To the development of this research, have been taken theoretical research about: territory, territoriality, identity, gender and domestic space.

  2. Symbol Recognition using Spatial Relations

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Santosh; Lamiroy, Bart; Wendling, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a method for symbol recognition based on the spatio-structural description of a 'vocabulary' of extracted visual elementary parts. It is applied to symbols in electrical wiring diagrams. The method consists of first identifying vocabulary elements into different groups based on their types (e.g., circle, corner ). We then compute spatial relations between the possible pairs of labelled vocabulary types which are further used as a basis for bui...

  3. Symbolic Communication: Reading Material Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Shay

    1993-01-01

    Presents a multipart exercise developed to facilitate a semiotic approach for teachers of journalism courses concerned with feature writing and photography, in advertising copywriting classes, and for public relations projects involved with image development. Notes that the lessons for each sequence are based upon a process of discovery through a…

  4. A STUDY OF SYMBOLIC RELATIONS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI BALAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an anthropological, exploratory study of the microsocial world of public transport. Our research focuses on the symbolic relations that are being established (verbally or nonverbally between urban transport travellers that do not know each other and the consequences these relations create. Modern urban configuration forces large numbers of individuals to share public space every day. When this space becomes restrictive, symbolic relations and interpersonal behaviors such as territoriality and personal space management become clearer. Due to overcrowding, public transport is the scene of one of the most restrictive public spaces in a city. The challenge was to observe and interpret daily, casual behaviors through a sociological and psychological scheme, following the methodological tradition established by Erving Goffman and the other symbolic interactionists. Finally, our study generates a number of hypotheses and explanatory models for common practices and behaviors in trams and metros regarded from a symbolic perspective.

  5. Victimisation and Relations of Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    the ways we understand and classify behavioural, emotional and cognitive processes, such as gendered practices, to social fields of practice, and points to the consequences of not doing so. In order to develop the analysis of concrete difficulties victims experience Bourdieu’s concept will be supplemented......In Denmark and most Western countries the study of “psychological reactions” to trauma has been dominated by the diagnosis Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The concept is also being widely imported by other countries, as well as integrated in folk-psychological discourses. Yet the use of the concept...... has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects...

  6. Materiality, Symbolicity, and the Rhetoric of Order: "Dialectical Biologism" as Motive in Burke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engnell, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Considers how the work of Kenneth Burke has recently been critiqued for its lack of attention to the role of non-symbolic motivation in rhetoric. Describes Burke's contributions as a "dialectical biologism" that sets forth a system of five symbolic/material dialectics that undergird all rhetorical appeal. Suggests that the most effective…

  7. Application of symbolic computations to the constitutive modeling of structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Tan, H. Q.; Dong, X.

    1990-01-01

    In applications involving elevated temperatures, the derivation of mathematical expressions (constitutive equations) describing the material behavior can be quite time consuming, involved and error-prone. Therefore intelligent application of symbolic systems to faciliate this tedious process can be of significant benefit. Presented here is a problem oriented, self contained symbolic expert system, named SDICE, which is capable of efficiently deriving potential based constitutive models in analytical form. This package, running under DOE MACSYMA, has the following features: (1) potential differentiation (chain rule), (2) tensor computations (utilizing index notation) including both algebraic and calculus; (3) efficient solution of sparse systems of equations; (4) automatic expression substitution and simplification; (5) back substitution of invariant and tensorial relations; (6) the ability to form the Jacobian and Hessian matrix; and (7) a relational data base. Limited aspects of invariant theory were also incorporated into SDICE due to the utilization of potentials as a starting point and the desire for these potentials to be frame invariant (objective). The uniqueness of SDICE resides in its ability to manipulate expressions in a general yet pre-defined order and simplify expressions so as to limit expression growth. Results are displayed, when applicable, utilizing index notation. SDICE was designed to aid and complement the human constitutive model developer. A number of examples are utilized to illustrate the various features contained within SDICE. It is expected that this symbolic package can and will provide a significant incentive to the development of new constitutive theories.

  8. Consumers’ perception of symbols and health claims as health-related label messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrillo, E.; Fiszman, S.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    The package is the first contact between the food and the consumer and an excellent vehicle for communication with the consumer. Visual cues (symbols) on the package can be used to communicate health-related information. Although EU legislation provides for the use of symbols, there could......’s appeal and convincingness in two countries, one Mediterranean (Spain) and the other Scandinavian (Denmark). Four symbols were employed in the study: (1) heart-plus-stethoscope, (2) olives (a symbol often used in Spain but not so much in Denmark), and two not directly linked to food products: (3) active...... of the symbols perceived by the participants was similar in both countries but the culture influenced the connotations attached to the symbols. In addition, the symbols on the packaging were found to be more important than the verbal information....

  9. Symbolic manipulation methods in general relativity and fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.

    1976-03-01

    Algebraic manipulation by computer, or automatic symbol manipulation (ASM) has not been used much in theoretical physics, especially if one compares it with numerical methods. Three examples of the use of ASM as a tool in theoretical physics are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  11. The Material and Symbolic Value of Renaissance Lace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else de F. Albuquerque

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Camalaú, in the Paraiban Cariri, is known for its production of renaissance lace. This activity is of great economic importance in the region, evidenced by, among other things, the quantity of women who work in the lace production. Data from the Banco do Nordeste (Northeastern Bank report four thousand women dedicated simultaneously to family farming and crafts. Because of factors such as lack of public policies for family farms, land tenure concentration and the worsening of conditions for the reproduction of agriculture in drought periods, craft production has increased in the region. Observation shows that men have a relevant participation in lace production, even though it is considered a women’s activity. This article examines craftwork as an income source, wrought with meanings from gender relations, emphasizing that the activity is of men and women whose daily activities link work, child socialization and play.

  12. The role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hieke, Sophie; Cascanette, Tamara; Pravst, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are a convenient tool when it comes to the marketing of foods and they should, in theory, support consumers in making informed food choices, ideally in choosing healthier food products. However, not much is known about their actual impact on consumer behaviour. CLYMBOL...... (“The Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”) is an EU-funded project aiming to study how health claims and symbols influence consumer understanding, purchase and consumption behaviour. During a 4-year period, a wide range of research studies have been conducted across Europe......, in order to analyse European consumer behaviour in the context of health claims and symbols. Results of the studies will provide a basis for recommendations for stakeholders such as policy makers, the food industry and consumer and patient organisations....

  13. Symbols, spaces and materiality: a transmission-based approach to Aegean Bronze Age ritual.

    OpenAIRE

    Briault, C.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis explores the transmission of ritual practices in the second millennium BC Aegean. In contrast to previous approaches, which often overlook gaps in the diachronic record, emphasising continuity in cult practice over very long timescales, it is argued here that through charting the spatial and temporal distributions of three broad material types (cult symbols, spaces and objects), it is possible to document the spread of cult practice over time and space, and, crucially, to monitor ...

  14. Interpreting Definitions of Public Relations: Self Assessment and a Symbolic Interactionism-Based Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joye C.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews several popular definitions of public relations; explicates the shared elements and assumptions inherent in these definitions. Presents an alternative conceptualization of public relations based upon Herbert Blumer's symbolic interactionism. Looks to stimulate questioning and self assessment and to introduce alternative goals, ideas, and…

  15. The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, S.; Kuljanic, N.; Wills, J.M.; Pravst, I.; Kaur, A.; Raats, M.M.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Verbeke, W.; Grunert, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and

  16. The use of multi representative learning materials: definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic, and practice in analyzing students’ concept understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningsih, E.; Wulandari, C.; Supartono; Kasmui; Alighiri, D.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to compose learning material which contains definitive macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic to analyze students’ conceptual understanding in acid-base learning materials. This research was conducted in eleven grade, natural science class, senior high school 1 (SMAN 1) Karangtengah, Demak province, Indonesia as the low level of students’ conceptual understanding and the high level of students’ misconception. The data collecting technique is by test to assess the cognitive aspect, questionnaire to assess students’ responses to multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and observation to assess students’ macroscopic aspects. Three validators validate the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic). The results of the research show that the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopes, symbolic) being used is valid in the average score 62 of 75. The data is analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method. The results of the research show that 72.934 % students understand, 7.977 % less understand, 8.831 % do not understand, and 10.256 % misconception. In comparison, the second experiment class shows 54.970 % students understand, 5.263% less understand, 11.988 % do not understand, 27.777 % misconception. In conclusion, the application of multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic) can be used to analyze the students’ understanding of acid-base materials.

  17. Age-related differences in warning symbol comprehension and training effectiveness: effects of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, M F; Horrey, W J; Wogalter, M S; Powell, W R

    2011-10-01

    Age-related changes in selective attention, inhibitory efficiency, and the ability to form new associations suggest that older adults may have greater difficulty with more complex and less comprehensible symbols. We examined comprehension of symbols varying in terms of ratings of familiarity, complexity, and comprehensibility, by younger (aged 18-35) and older (aged 55-70) adults. It was found that older adults have greater difficulty than younger adults in comprehending warning symbols and that accident scenario training improves comprehension. Regression analyses indicated that familiarity and comprehensibility were important in determining performance on the pre-training comprehension test by both younger and older adults. However, training eliminated the effects of stimulus characteristics for younger adults, while older adults' comprehension continued to be significantly influenced by comprehensibility. We suggest that symbol design incorporates cues to knowledge to facilitate the linkage between new knowledge (i.e. the warning symbol) and relevant knowledge in long-term memory. Statement of Relevance: Symbol characteristics play an important role in age-related differences in warning symbol comprehension. To optimise comprehension by older adults, symbols should have a clear relationship with areal-world referent. Alternatively, symbol design could incorporate cues to knowledge to facilitate the linkage between new knowledge and relevant knowledge in long-term memory.

  18. Unpacking symbolic number comparison and its relation with arithmetic in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Lyons, Ian M; De Smedt, Bert; Reynvoet, Bert

    2017-08-01

    Symbolic number - or digit - comparison has been a central tool in the domain of numerical cognition for decades. More recently, individual differences in performance on this task have been shown to robustly relate to individual differences in more complex math processing - a result that has been replicated across many different age groups. In this study, we 'unpack' the underlying components of digit comparison (i.e. digit identification, digit to number-word matching, digit ordering and general comparison) in a sample of adults. In a first experiment, we showed that digit comparison performance was most strongly related to digit ordering ability - i.e., the ability to judge whether symbolic numbers are in numerical order. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that the relation between digit comparison and arithmetic was partly mediated by digit ordering and fully mediated when non-numerical (letter) ordering was also entered into the model. In a second experiment, we examined whether a general order working memory component could account for the relation between digit comparison and arithmetic. It could not. Instead, results were more consistent with the notion that fluent access and activation of long-term stored associations between numbers explains the relation between arithmetic and both digit comparison and digit ordering tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hippocampal spatial mechanisms relate to the development of arithmetic symbol processing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Romain; Epinat-Duclos, Justine; Léone, Jessica; Fayol, Michel; Thevenot, Catherine; Prado, Jérôme

    2017-06-13

    Understanding the meaning of abstract mathematical symbols is a cornerstone of arithmetic learning in children. Studies have long focused on the role of spatial intuitions in the processing of numerals. However, it has been argued that such intuitions may also underlie symbols that convey fundamental arithmetic concepts, such as arithmetic operators. In the present cross-sectional study, we used fMRI to investigate how and when associations between arithmetic operators and brain regions processing spatial information emerge in children from 3 rd to 10 th grade. We found that the mere perception of a '+' sign elicited grade-related increases of spatial activity in the right hippocampus. That is, merely perceiving '+' signs - without any operands - elicited enhanced hippocampal activity after around 7 th grade (12-13 years old). In these children, hippocampal activity in response to a '+' sign was further correlated with the degree to which calculation performance was facilitated by the preview of that sign before an addition problem, an effect termed operator-priming. Grade-related increases of hippocampal spatial activity were operation-specific because they were not observed with '×' signs, which might evoke rote retrieval rather than numerical manipulation. Our study raises the possibility that hippocampal spatial mechanisms help build associations between some arithmetic operators and space throughout age and/or education. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Cluster initiatives are a popular instrument of public policy everywhere in the world. This development acknowledges that the organisational units that create added value are not isolated individual businesses, but networks of actors. Our research has the objective to better understand value...... creation of single firms embedded in clusters in terms of overlapping value adding webs of single firms. The main focus of the paper is on how to describe and operationalise and how to manage social and symbolic capital in clusters. The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks...... raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources on the cluster level. Empirically...

  1. Eye-movement patterns during nonsymbolic and symbolic numerical magnitude comparison and their relation to math calculation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Wilkey, Eric D; Yeo, Darren J

    2017-05-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the processing of nonsymbolic (e.g. sets of dots) and symbolic (e.g. Arabic digits) numerical magnitudes serves as a foundation for the development of math competence. Performance on magnitude comparison tasks is thought to reflect the precision of a shared cognitive representation, as evidence by the presence of a numerical ratio effect for both formats. However, little is known regarding how visuo-perceptual processes are related to the numerical ratio effect, whether they are shared across numerical formats, and whether they relate to math competence independently of performance outcomes. The present study investigates these questions in a sample of typically developing adults. Our results reveal a pattern of associations between eye-movement measures, but not their ratio effects, across formats. This suggests that ratio-specific visuo-perceptual processing during magnitude processing is different across nonsymbolic and symbolic formats. Furthermore, eye movements are related to math performance only during symbolic comparison, supporting a growing body of literature suggesting symbolic number processing is more strongly related to math outcomes than nonsymbolic magnitude processing. Finally, eye-movement patterns, specifically fixation dwell time, continue to be negatively related to math performance after controlling for task performance (i.e. error rate and reaction time) and domain general cognitive abilities (IQ), suggesting that fluent visual processing of Arabic digits plays a unique and important role in linking symbolic number processing to formal math abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-related slowing of digit symbol substitution revisited: what do longitudinal age changes reflect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    A previous investigation reported that cross-sectional age differences in Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) test performance reflect declines in perceptual processing speed. Support for the tenability of the processing speed hypothesis requires examining whether longitudinal age-related change in DSS performance is largely mediated by changes in speed. The present study used data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine patterns and predictors of longitudinal change in DSS for 512 older adults (M(age) = 68.37 years, SD = 7.43). On the basis of multilevel modeling, baseline DSS performance was poorer for older participants and men, with longitudinal declines more pronounced with increasing age and decreasing speed. In contrast to the present cross-sectional findings, statistical control of change trajectories in perceptual speed using the same data did not substantially attenuate age changes. These discrepancies suggest different sources of variance may underlie cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal age changes for DSS.

  3. Relations between parents' interactive style in dyadic and triadic play and toddlers' symbolic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, M; Feldman, R; Namdari-Weinbaum, I; Spitzer, S; Tyano, S

    2005-10-01

    Play has a major role in the evaluation and treatment of young children referred to mental health clinicians. The present study examined parental correlates of preschoolers' symbolic play during dyadic and triadic play interactions. Boys' play contained more aggressive themes, and girls' contained more nurturing themes. Mothers displayed more caring themes during play with both sons and daughters, and fathers displayed more repair and construction themes. Mothers' and fathers' facilitative- creative interaction style in dyadic play predicted the level of the child's symbolic play. Co-parenting style marked by cooperation and autonomy predicted symbolic play during a triadic family session. Child intelligence predicted symbolic play beyond the parent's style during triadic but not dyadic interactions. The findings have implications for early intervention directed at increasing symbolic play in young children.

  4. Contextualizing symbol, symbolizing context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang

    2017-08-01

    When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.

  5. The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour: Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, S; Kuljanic, N; Wills, J M; Pravst, I; Kaur, A; Raats, M M; van Trijp, H C M; Verbeke, W; Grunert, K G

    2015-03-01

    Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. The objective of the European Union-funded project R ole of health-related   CLaims   and   sYMBOLs   in consumer behaviour (CLYMBOL) is to determine how health-related information provided through claims and symbols, in their context, can affect consumer understanding, purchase and consumption. To do this, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods are being used, including product sampling, sorting studies ( i.e. how consumers categorise claims and symbols according to concepts such as familiarity and relevance), cross-country surveys, eye-tracking ( i.e. what consumers look at and for how long), laboratory and in-store experiments, structured interviews, as well as analysis of population panel data. EU Member States differ with regard to their history of use and regulation of health claims and symbols prior to the harmonisation of 2006. Findings to date indicate the need for more structured and harmonised research on the effects of health claims and symbols on consumer behaviour, particularly taking into account country-wide differences and individual characteristics such as motivation and ability to process health-related information. Based on the studies within CLYMBOL, implications and recommendations for stakeholders such as policymakers will be provided.

  6. Symbolism and ritual practices related to hunting in Maya communities from central Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Estrada, Erin I J; Mariaca, Ramón; Bello, Eduardo

    2015-09-29

    Some Mayan peasant-hunters across the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico still carry out a hunting ritual -Loojil Ts'oon, Loj Ts'oon or Carbine Ceremony- in which they renew the divine permission for hunting in order to continue deserving the gift of prey after a period of hunt. Thus they are granted access to game by the gods and the Lords of the Animals, particularly the spirit/evil-wind call. This paper focuses on the acts within the Loojil Ts'oon -which is performed in the X-Pichil community and surrounding area- that make it unique among the hunting rituals performed in other parts of the Peninsula. The Loojil Ts'oon hunting ritual was observed and registered in audiovisual format in two different occasions in X-Pichil (Friday 04/29/2011 and Friday 07/29/2011). Afterwards, we delivered digital videodisks (DVD) to hunters and their families and to the j-men (the magic-medic-ritual specialist) who participated in these ceremonies. This delivery produced confidence among participants to talk more openly and in-depth about the Loojil Ts'oon, revealing symbolic, psychological, and material details previously unknown to outsiders. Qualitative information was obtained through the ethnographic method using techniques such as participant observation and guided tours. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to obtain complementary information. On one hand, we describe the preparation and cleansing of the "Sip soup", as well as its parading and distribution -delivery to the spirit/evil-wind Sip- on the streets of the community (highlingting the role of the rooster as a counter-gift). On the other hand, the cleansing of the jaws (of deer: Odocoileus virginianus, Mazama spp.; and peccaries: Tayassuidae) and their return to the Lords of Animals in the hills so that they may give these animals new life. By performing the Loojil Ts'oon, the act of killing an animal is legitimized. The kill transforms into an exchange to perpetuate life, in which gods and Lords of animals grant

  7. The role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, Sophie; Cascanette, Tamara; Pravst, Igor; Kaur, Asha; Trijp, Van Hans; Verbeke, Wim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2016-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are a convenient tool when it comes to the marketing of foods and they should, in theory, support consumers in making informed food choices, ideally in choosing healthier food products. However, not much is known about their actual impact on consumer behaviour. CLYMBOL

  8. The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour: Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results

    OpenAIRE

    Hieke, S; Kuljanic, N; Wills, J M; Pravst, I; Kaur, A; Raats, M M; van Trijp, H C M; Verbeke, W; Grunert, K G

    2015-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. The objective of the European Union-funded project R ole of health-related?CLaims?and?sYMBOLs?in consumer behaviour (CLYMBOL) is to determine how health-relat...

  9. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  10. The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour: Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, S; Kuljanic, N; Wills, J M; Pravst, I; Kaur, A; Raats, M M; van Trijp, H C M; Verbeke, W; Grunert, K G

    2015-01-01

    Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. The objective of the European Union-funded project Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour (CLYMBOL) is to determine how health-related information provided through claims and symbols, in their context, can affect consumer understanding, purchase and consumption. To do this, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods are being used, including product sampling, sorting studies (i.e. how consumers categorise claims and symbols according to concepts such as familiarity and relevance), cross-country surveys, eye-tracking (i.e. what consumers look at and for how long), laboratory and in-store experiments, structured interviews, as well as analysis of population panel data. EU Member States differ with regard to their history of use and regulation of health claims and symbols prior to the harmonisation of 2006. Findings to date indicate the need for more structured and harmonised research on the effects of health claims and symbols on consumer behaviour, particularly taking into account country-wide differences and individual characteristics such as motivation and ability to process health-related information. Based on the studies within CLYMBOL, implications and recommendations for stakeholders such as policymakers will be provided. PMID:25750587

  11. Lisbon Symbol Database (LSD): Subjective norms for 600 symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Marília; Rodrigues, David; Silva, Rita R; Garrido, Margarida V

    2016-12-01

    This article presents subjective rating norms for a new set of 600 symbols, depicting various contents (e.g., transportation, technology, and leisure activities) that can be used by researchers in different fields. Symbols were evaluated for aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. The normative data were obtained from 388 participants, and no gender differences were found. Descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) for each symbol in each dimension are presented. Overall, the dimensions were highly correlated. Additionally, participants were asked to briefly describe the meaning of each symbol. The results indicate that the present symbol set is varied, allowing for the selection of exemplars with different levels on the seven examined dimensions. This set of symbols constitutes a tool with potential for research in different areas. The database with all of the symbols is available as supplemental materials.

  12. The Symbolic Life of the Moleskine Notebook: Material Goods as a Tableau for Writing Identity Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Cydney

    2017-01-01

    Writing is considered a sacred act and the writer a sacred cultural figure. People use objects when trying to access this desired identity. How a person approaches and uses an object is intimately connected to family, sense of self, writing history, relation to peers, media connections, social awareness, and life story. Hence, turning to objects…

  13. The mathematics of xenology: di-cographs, symbolic ultrametrics, 2-structures and tree-representable systems of binary relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Marc; Stadler, Peter F; Wieseke, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    The concepts of orthology, paralogy, and xenology play a key role in molecular evolution. Orthology and paralogy distinguish whether a pair of genes originated by speciation or duplication. The corresponding binary relations on a set of genes form complementary cographs. Allowing more than two types of ancestral event types leads to symmetric symbolic ultrametrics. Horizontal gene transfer, which leads to xenologous gene pairs, however, is inherent asymmetric since one offspring copy "jumps" into another genome, while the other continues to be inherited vertically. We therefore explore here the mathematical structure of the non-symmetric generalization of symbolic ultrametrics. Our main results tie non-symmetric ultrametrics together with di-cographs (the directed generalization of cographs), so-called uniformly non-prime ([Formula: see text]) 2-structures, and hierarchical structures on the set of strong modules. This yields a characterization of relation structures that can be explained in terms of trees and types of ancestral events. This framework accommodates a horizontal-transfer relation in terms of an ancestral event and thus, is slightly different from the the most commonly used definition of xenology. As a first step towards a practical use, we present a simple polynomial-time recognition algorithm of [Formula: see text] 2-structures and investigate the computational complexity of several types of editing problems for [Formula: see text] 2-structures. We show, finally that these NP-complete problems can be solved exactly as Integer Linear Programs.

  14. The use of digital diplomacy as a tool for symbolic violence: Framing analysis of Russian–Turkish relations on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherzod Arapov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Symbols are primarily used by diplomatic actors to better project the core ideas behind certain political initiatives. Author defines symbolic violence as a practice, manifested in deliberate action of a given diplomatic actor to damage his adversary’s reputation, status and dignity through a certain set of actions, such as linguistic violence (e.g., insult, intimidation, disobeying diplomatic tact and so forth. This study aims to examine whether it is possible to establish how a change in practice (in the example of Russia–Turkey relations before and after the downing of the Russian fighter plane Su-24 originates, utilising an alternative practice – theoretical toolkit – contradictory framing of the past. To achieve this, the author examines what potentially might cause a change in practice in the Russia–Turkish case and to what extent the potential of social media can be harnessed by governments to shape public opinion and influence diplomatic actors’ international reputation. The methodology employed was based on previous practice and framing studies that have perfected the tools necessary for the detection and analysis of frames. In this research, these tools were employed on 140-character-long tweets. Identifying general themes was achieved through thematic analysis, the method for identifying, analyzing and reporting on patterns, or themes, within data corpus. The paper mentions that both Russia and Turkey attempted to narrate each other’s behaviour through framing one another on Twitter focusing on the legitimacy and morality of each other’s policies to limit the opponent’s ability to carry out the latter’s foreign political prerogatives. Moreover, as the Twitter analysis of the Russian and Turkish framing of one another showed, governments can and do harness the potential of using images and words as the weapons of symbolic violence when they attempt to impose their own narration on a given event or situation.

  15. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  16. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A... visa symbol to show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law Immediate...

  17. Symbol phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hongo, Syozo; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We have developed Japanese phantoms in two procedures for computation of organ doses exposed to internal and/or external radiation sources. One method is to make mathematical phantoms on the basis of ORNL mathematical phantoms. Parameters to specify organs of Japanese mathematical phantom are determined by interpolations of the ORNL data, which define the organs of Caucasian males and females of various ages, i.e. new born, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and adult, with survey data for Japanese physiques. Another procedure is to build 'symbol phantoms' for the Japanese public. The concept and its method of the symbol phantom enables us to make a phantom for an individual when we have all of his transversal section images obtained by a medical imaging device like MRI, and thus we may achieve more realistic phantoms for Japanese public than the mathematical phantoms. Both studies are in progress in NIRS. (author)

  18. Hesitating progress - the slow development toward algebraic symbolization in abbacus- and related manuscripts, c.1300 to c.1550

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    From the early fourteenth century onward, some Italian Abbacus manuscripts begin to use particular abbreviations for algebraic operations and objects and, to be distinguished from that, examples of symbolic operation. The algebraic abbreviations and symbolic operations we find in German Rechenmei...

  19. Symbolic behavior in regular classrooms. A specification of symbolic and non-symbolic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBillinger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Students’ capabilities to use symbolic information in classroom setting could be expected to influence their possibilities to be active and participating. The development of strategies for teachers to compensate for reduced capability need specific operational definition of symbolic behavior. Fifty-three students, aged 11 to 13 years old, 29 boys and 24 girls, from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school participated in the current study. After a short training sequence 25 students (47% were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic, and 28 students (53% were not (non-symbolic, based on their follow-up test performances. Symbolic and non-symbolic differed significantly on post test performances (p. < .05. Surprisingly, non-symbolic behavior deteriorated their performance, while symbolic enhanced their performance (p. < .05. The results indicate that the operational definition used in the present study may be useful in further studies relating the capability to show symbolic behavior and students’ activity and participation in classroom settings.

  20. Degenerate T coefficients and their relation to Wigner's 3j symbols and the D function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, G.I.; Smorodinskij, Ya.A.

    1977-01-01

    On basis of various representations of the T coefficients and using limiting procedures, var//uios degenerate cases are studied for these coefficients and their relation This enables one to find relations between the hypergeometric function 4 F 3 (....1) and the functions 3 F 2 (...1) and 2 F 1 (...1/2)

  1. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  2. Scientific applications of symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, A.C.

    1976-02-01

    The use of symbolic computation systems for problem solving in scientific research is reviewed. The nature of the field is described, and particular examples are considered from celestial mechanics, quantum electrodynamics and general relativity. Symbolic integration and some more recent applications of algebra systems are also discussed [fr

  3. Communication in Symbolic Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Kranjc, Simona

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed records of Slovene children's speech from a linguistic point of view and established differences in communication patterns with regard to the children's ages and the type of symbolic play. Found a shift in play from make-believe with regard to objects to roleplay related to social context. The older the child, the more language functions…

  4. Perceptual symbols of creativity: Coldness elicits referential, warmth elicits relational creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijzerman, H.; Leung, A.K.y.; Ong, L.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the cognitive and social psychological science has revealed the pervading relation between body and mind. Physical warmth leads people to perceive others as psychological closer to them and to be more generous towards others. More recently, physical warmth has also been implicated in the

  5. Widening Participation in Sport-Related Studies in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study of Symbolic Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundvall, Suzanne; Meckbach, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on widening participation in higher education and the low recruitment of students from diverse backgrounds within sport-related programs. The purpose of the study has been to describe and increase the understanding of how the preconditions and premises for choosing to study "sport" appear to students from diverse…

  6. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  7. Can symbols be ‘promoted’ or ‘demoted’?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane and the other-worldly (sacred. The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.

  8. Subrepresentation semirings and an analog of 6j-symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Namhee; Sage, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    Let V be a complex representation of the compact group G. The subrepresentation semiring associated to V is the set of subrepresentations of the algebra of linear endomorphisms of V with operations induced by the matrix operations. The study of these semirings has been motivated by recent advances in materials science, in which the search for microstructure-independent exact relations for physical properties of composites has been reduced to the study of these semirings for the rotation group SO(3). In this case, the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings can be described explicitly in terms of the 6j-symbols familiar from the quantum theory of angular momentum. In this paper, we investigate subrepresentation semirings for the class of quasisimply reducible groups defined by Mackey ['Multiplicity free representations of finite groups', Pac. J. Math. 8, 503 (1958)]. We introduce a new class of symbols called twisted 6j-symbols for these groups, and we explicitly calculate the structure constants for subrepresentation semirings in terms of these symbols. Moreover, we show that these symbols satisfy analog of the standard properties of classical 6j-symbols

  9. Specification for symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Malaysia Standard specification specifies a symbol recommended for use only to signify the actual or potential presence of ionizing radiation (#betta#, α, #betta# only) and to identify objects, devices, materials or combinations of materials which emit such radiation. (author)

  10. Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Linda Kay

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that

  11. Nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Marina; Khristich, Dmitrii

    2018-03-01

    A general approach to constructing of nonlinear variants of connection between stresses and strains in anisotropic materials with different types of symmetry of properties is considered. This approach is based on the concept of elastic proper subspaces of anisotropic materials introduced in the mechanics of solids by J. Rychlewski and on the particular postulate of isotropy proposed by A. A. Il’yushin. The generalization of the particular postulate on the case of nonlinear anisotropic materials is formulated. Systems of invariants of deformations as lengths of projections of the strain vector into proper subspaces are developed. Some variants of nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic materials are offered. The analysis of these relations from the point of view of their satisfaction to general and limit forms of generalization of partial isotropy postulate on anisotropic materials is performed. The relations for particular cases of anisotropy are written.

  12. Nuclear reactors; graphical symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This standard contains graphical symbols that reveal the type of nuclear reactor and is used to design graphical and technical presentations. Distinguishing features for nuclear reactors are laid down in graphical symbols. (orig.) [de

  13. Anthropologists as symbols: Geertz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bošković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clifford Geertz (1926-2006 was certainly one of the most influential anthropologists in the last decades of the 20th century, even though some of his former students (like Rabinow in Slyomovics 2010 claim that he was not very accessible as a person, and that sometimes he did not even care for his students. Somewhat paradoxically, Geertz´s influence on anthropology and related disciplines remained notable even after his death. This paper analyzes interest in aspects of his work over the last decade, as an indicator of transforming a personality into a global cultural symbol.

  14. Use of language in symbolic play of toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Knap, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to determine which materials encourage language development during symbolic play, how often do children in the first age group engage in symbolic play, and how can the teacher influence speech development during this activity. The theoretical part defines play, focusing on symbolic play. It also describes the role of the preschool teacher during play and explores the speech of younger children during symbolic play. The empirical part of the thesis examines whic...

  15. The symbol grounding problem revisited: a thorough evaluation of the ANS mapping account and the proposal of an alternative account based on symbol-symbol associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Reynvoet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of studies in the domain of numerical cognition have been published demonstrating a robust association between numerical symbol processing and individual differences in mathematics achievement. Because numerical symbols are so important for mathematics achievement, many researchers want to provide an answer on the ‘symbol grounding problem’, i.e., how does a symbol acquires its numerical meaning? The most popular account, the ANS mapping account, assumes that a symbol acquires its numerical meaning by being mapped on a non-verbal and Approximate Number System (ANS. Here, we critically evaluate four arguments that are supposed to support this account, i.e., (1 there is an evolutionary system for approximate number processing, (2 non-symbolic and symbolic number processing show the same behavioral effects, (3 non-symbolic and symbolic numbers activate the same brain regions which are also involved in more advanced calculation and (4 non-symbolic comparison is related to the performance on symbolic mathematics achievement tasks. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that all of these arguments and consequently also the mapping account are questionable. Next we explored less popular alternative, where small numerical symbols are initially mapped on a precise representation and then, in combination with increasing knowledge of the counting list result in an independent and exact symbolic system based on order relations between symbols. We evaluate this account by reviewing evidence on order judgement tasks following the same four arguments. Although further research is necessary, the available evidence so far suggests that this symbol-symbol association account should be considered as a worthy alternative of how symbols acquire their meaning.

  16. The Symbol Grounding Problem Revisited: A Thorough Evaluation of the ANS Mapping Account and the Proposal of an Alternative Account Based on Symbol-Symbol Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynvoet, Bert; Sasanguie, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a lot of studies in the domain of numerical cognition have been published demonstrating a robust association between numerical symbol processing and individual differences in mathematics achievement. Because numerical symbols are so important for mathematics achievement, many researchers want to provide an answer on the 'symbol grounding problem,' i.e., how does a symbol acquires its numerical meaning? The most popular account, the approximate number system ( ANS ) mapping account , assumes that a symbol acquires its numerical meaning by being mapped on a non-verbal and ANS. Here, we critically evaluate four arguments that are supposed to support this account, i.e., (1) there is an evolutionary system for approximate number processing, (2) non-symbolic and symbolic number processing show the same behavioral effects, (3) non-symbolic and symbolic numbers activate the same brain regions which are also involved in more advanced calculation and (4) non-symbolic comparison is related to the performance on symbolic mathematics achievement tasks. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that all of these arguments and consequently also the mapping account are questionable. Next we explored less popular alternative, where small numerical symbols are initially mapped on a precise representation and then, in combination with increasing knowledge of the counting list result in an independent and exact symbolic system based on order relations between symbols. We evaluate this account by reviewing evidence on order judgment tasks following the same four arguments. Although further research is necessary, the available evidence so far suggests that this symbol-symbol association account should be considered as a worthy alternative of how symbols acquire their meaning.

  17. Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.

  18. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  19. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Rhyne, W.R.; Simmons, J.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  20. El papel del Derecho en el cambio material y simbólico del paisaje colombiano 1850-1930* The role of Law in the material and symbolic change of the Colombian landscape 1850-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Palacio

    2008-06-01

    tendeu a construir uma espécie de monismo jurídico sobre a pluralidade de ordens jurídicas herdadas da colônia e das primeiras décadas republicanas. Deste modo, questionam-se tanto as visões baseadas no direito formalista e positivo, como as posições da sociologia jurídica, que consideram tão somente um abismo entre a realidade social e a jurídica. Sublinha-se o papel simbólico, mais que ideológico, do direito na transformação ambiental mas, por sua vez, reconhece as transformações materiais então engendradas no projeto de direito baseado no predomínio da propriedade privada como Direito absoluto.This article entangles several aspects of the transformation of the Colombian landscape in both, its material and symbolic faces, since the middle of the nineteenth until the third decade of the twentieth century. Consequently, it describes, and analyses the legal system, particularly those aspects related to the private and the public property of land. It argues first, about the importance of the Civil Code to understand the whole nineteenth century project; and second, about "waste lands" (baldíos: public lands without legal proprietors which are of crucial interest to understand the whole process. It thinks about Law, not simply as a written norm, but in its environmental interaction. It also goes beyond the apparent chasm posed by sociology of Law as "law in books and law in action". It concludes that the dualistic "Law of the State" tended - unfolded as private and public Law - to monopolize the legal phenomenon engendering symbolic and material changes of a landscape that was territorially fragmented and heterogeneously appropriated.

  1. Composing the Symbolic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sacco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An excerpt from Sergei M. Eisenstein's memoirs describing a night visit to the museum of Chichén Itzá in Mexico is set forth as a real life example reflecting, both from a visual and theoretical perspective, the architecture of Aby Warburg's Bilderatlas Mnemosyne and his concept of Denkraum. Drawing upon Warburg's own writings and F. T. Vischer's theory of symbol, the paper looks at Eisenstein's experience at the museum as highlighting the dynamic relation between man's religious/magical and scientific/rational psychic poles, and the in-between space of thought inherent to the concept of Denkraum and visually represented by the empty dark intervals separating the images in the Bilderatlas. Adding significance to its argumentation, the paper also hints at an affinity between Eisenstein's film montaging and Warburg's image assembling criteria.

  2. Children’s Non-symbolic, Symbolic Addition and Their Mapping Capacity at 4–7 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of non-symbolic and symbolic addition capacities in children and the mapping ability between these two. We assessed 106 4- to 7-year-old children and found that 4-year-olds were able to do non-symbolic addition but not symbolic addition. Five-year-olds and older were able to do symbolic addition and their performance in symbolic addition exceeded non-symbolic addition in grade 1 (approximate age 7. These results suggested non-symbolic addition ability emerges earlier and is less affected by formal mathematical education than symbolic addition. Meanwhile, we tested children’s bi-directional mapping ability using a novel task and found that children were able to map between symbolic and non-symbolic representations of number at age 5. Their ability in mapping non-symbolic to symbolic number became more proficient in grade 1 (approximate age 7. This suggests children at age 7 have developed a relatively mature symbolic representation system.

  3. 'demoted'?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. ... of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. .... from a psychological perspective, understands symbols as a.

  4. Two cultures - one symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Shostak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the question of similarities in the approach to the multilevel symbolism in Slav and Native American cultures. Ambivalent symbol of the snake is analyzed in the frame of mythological thinking. At the end the author comes to the conclusion that elements of mythological thinking are still present in everyday life and influence human behavior levels

  5. Social comparison, personal relative deprivation, and materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Callan, Mitchell J; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J

    2017-06-01

    Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism. In Study 4, participants who learned that they had less (vs. similar) discretionary income than people like them reported a stronger desire for more money relative to donating more to charity. In Study 5, during a windfall-spending task, participants higher in PRD spent more on things they wanted relative to other spending categories (e.g., paying off debts). © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  6. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  7. Culture as a Moving Symbolic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Lívia Mathias

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the notion of culture as a symbolic moving border. Departing from both, Boesch's (1991) concept of culture as a symbolic field of action, and Herbst's (1995) co-genetic logic, I will discuss the dynamics of self-other relationships in terms of their potentiality as sources of movement in culture. A brief analysis of an empirical material is given in illustrative character of the ideas here exposed.

  8. The Water Symbolism in the Poem “Memento Mori” by Eminescu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Golovanova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The item is devoted to the research of a philosophical poem by M. Eminescu “Memento mori” in connection with the related artistic and philosophic phenomena of the national and European literatures. The article analyses the sociohonic poem “Memento mori” which depicts the cyclicity of the human civilizations. The nascence of any civilization has in its origin one of the basic elements, among which Water is paid particularly attention to. These elements (Earth, Water, Fire bearing material genesis combined with the Spirit are giving birt h to the civilization. In the poem “Panorama of Futility” extremely diverse appears the imaging of water symbols. In this case water, river, sea are integral part of Greece genesis. The image of Water stands for the symbol of eternity. As another symbolic embodiment for Water river and stream appear often in the work. A symbol of time flowing into eternity in the poem is the river Danube.

  9. Graphic Symbol Recognition using Graph Based Signature and Bayesian Network Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman, Muhammad Muzzamil; Brouard, Thierry; Ramel, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for recognition of complex graphic symbols in technical documents. Graphic symbol recognition is a well known challenge in the field of document image analysis and is at heart of most graphic recognition systems. Our method uses structural approach for symbol representation and statistical classifier for symbol recognition. In our system we represent symbols by their graph based signatures: a graphic symbol is vectorized and is converted to an attributed relational g...

  10. Noncoherent Symbol Synchronization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods for establishing symbol synchronization (sync) in digital communication receivers assume that carrier sync has already been established, i.e., the problem is addressed at the baseband level assuming that a 'perfect' estimate of carrier phase is available. We refer to this approach as coherent symbol sync. Since, for NRZ signaling, a suppressed carrier sync loop such as an I-Q Costas loop includes integrate-and-dump (I and D) filters in its in-phase (1) and quadrature (Q) arms, the traditional approach is to first track the carrier in the absence of symbol sync information, then feed back the symbol sync estimate to these filters, and then iterate between the two to a desirable operating level In this paper, we revisit the symbol sync problem by examining methods for obtaining such sync in the absence of carrier phase information, i.e., so-called noncoherent symbol sync loops. We compare the performance of these loops with that of a well-known coherent symbol sync loop and examine the conditions under which one is preferable over the other.

  11. Symbolic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechester, A.B.; White, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamic processes exhibit many complicated patterns of evolution. How can all these patterns be recognized using only output (observational, experimental) data without prior knowledge of the equations of motion? The powerful method for doing this is based on symbolic dynamics: (1) Present output data in symbolic form (trial language). (2) Topological and metric entropies are constructed. (3) Develop algorithms for computer optimization of entropies. (4) By maximizing entropies, find the most appropriate symbolic language for the purpose of pattern recognition. (5) Test this method using a variety of dynamical models from nonlinear science. The authors are in the process of applying this method for analysis of MHD fluctuations in tokamaks

  12. The symbolism of zombie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine BOUDOU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show why the zombie can be presented as a justifiable object of search for the symbolic communication. The zombie exists as symbol because the word the leading to a qualification became of current usage, what allows a widened communication. The diversity of the interpretations that he makes possible testifies of its ambivalence. That he is defined as a symbol or as a metaphor we shall see that, far from being that a lasted fad, the zombie is rich in different senses.

  13. [Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]∞ bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

    2013-12-01

    In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]∞-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]∞-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ∞ error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]∞-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]∞ metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]∞ error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates.

  14. Formalising Symbolic Interactionism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooy, W.

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic interactionism is generally known as a theory typically linked with a qualitative methodology. Recent developments in quantitative social network analysis, however, can analyze processes theorized within this theoretical tradition. Thick description can be complemented with statistical

  15. Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Equivalence Tasks: The Influence of Symbols on Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students often experience difficulty with attaching meaning to mathematics symbols. Many students react to symbols, such as the equal sign, as a command to "do something" or "write an answer" without reflecting upon the proper relational meaning of the equal sign. One method for assessing equal-sign understanding is through…

  16. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...

  17. Bruce Springsteen as a Symbol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The article explores how Bruce Springsteen and his music function as a symbol. The article first presents the Jungian theory of symbols and of music as symbol. The central argument of the article is that, by functioning symbolically, Springsteen has the potential to influence the psyche of his au...

  18. Improvements in or relating to refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckett, J.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for the production of a refractory material which includes heating an intermediate material containing carbon to cause a thermally induced reaction involving carbon in the intermediate material, wherein the intermediate material has been produced by heating a shaped gel precipitated gel, and the carbon in the intermediate material for participating in the thermally induced reaction has been produced from a gelling agent, or a derivative thereof, incorporated in the gel during gel precipitation. As examples, the refractory material may comprise uranium/plutonium oxide, or uranium/plutonium carbide, or thorium/uranium carbide, or tungsten carbide, or tungsten carbide/cobalt metal. (author)

  19. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... - could be exposed to sexualised violence. Another example is that therapy and other forms of help do not draw on critical perspectives on gender conditions. Rather, frequently and in essencialising approaches to concepts of femininity and masculinity, they individualise or over...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  20. Symbol generators with program control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, V.M.; Tomik, J.

    1974-01-01

    Methods of constructing symbol generators are described which ensure a program variation of symbol shape and setup. The symbols are formed on the basis of a point microraster. A symbol description code contains information on a symbol shape, with one digit corresponding to each microraster element. For a microraster discrete by-pass the description code is transformed into succession of illuminating pulses by means of a shift register

  1. Symbolic Number Comparison Is Not Processed by the Analog Number System: Different Symbolic and Non-symbolic Numerical Distance and Size Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Krajcsi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSWe test whether symbolic number comparison is handled by an analog noisy system.Analog system model has systematic biases in describing symbolic number comparison.This suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by different systems.Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by the Analog Number System (ANS working according to Weber's law. It was proposed that in a number comparison task the numerical distance and size effects reflect a ratio-based performance which is the sign of the ANS activation. However, increasing number of findings and alternative models propose that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers might be processed by different representations. Importantly, alternative explanations may offer similar predictions to the ANS prediction, therefore, former evidence usually utilizing only the goodness of fit of the ANS prediction is not sufficient to support the ANS account. To test the ANS model more rigorously, a more extensive test is offered here. Several properties of the ANS predictions for the error rates, reaction times, and diffusion model drift rates were systematically analyzed in both non-symbolic dot comparison and symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison tasks. It was consistently found that while the ANS model's prediction is relatively good for the non-symbolic dot comparison, its prediction is poorer and systematically biased for the symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison. We conclude that only non-symbolic comparison is supported by the ANS, and symbolic number comparisons are processed by other representation.

  2. Symbolism and Advertising in Pop Art

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The premise of the written work on the subject of Symbolism and Advertising in Pop Art is to reveal that the thread of symbolism, in advertisement and other forms of media, whether it be ancient or contemporary, has been an intrinsic part of all artworks to date and that historically, movements in socio-economic structures of societies and their relative consumerism have been a catalyst in the direction of representational art works. I will first approach the conce...

  3. Multiple symbol differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  4. Lower digit symbol substitution score in the oldest old is related to magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor imaging of the white matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay eVenkatraman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Slowing information processing is common among community-dwelling elderly and it predicts greater mortality and disability risk. Slowing information processing is related to brain macro-structural abnormalities. Specifically, greater global atrophy and greater small vessel disease of the white matter have been associated to slower processing speed. However, community-dwelling elderly with such macro-structural abnormalities can maintain processing speed. The roles of brain micro-structure for slow processing in very old adults living in the community is uncertain, as epidemiological studies relating these brain markers to cognition and in the context of other health characteristics are sparse. Hypothesis: Information processing is cross-sectionally associated with white matter micro-structure independent of overt macro-structural abnormalities and also independent of health related characteristics. Methods: Imaging indices of micro-structure (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI, and magnetization transfer imaging, MTI, macro-structure (white matter hyperintensities, gray matter volume, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST and health characteristics were measured in 272 elderly (mean age 83 years old, 43% men, 40% Black living in the community. Results: The DTI- and MTI-indices of micro-structure from the normal appearing white matter and not from the normal appearing gray matter were associated with DSST score independent of white matter hyperintensities and gray matter volumes. Associations were also independent of age, race, gender, mini-mental score, systolic blood pressure, prevalent myocardial infarction. Interpretation: DTI and MTI indices of normal appearing white matter are indicators of information processing speed in this cohort of very old adults living in the community. Since processing slowing is a potent index of mortality and disability, these indices may serve as biomarkers in prevention or treatment trials of disability.

  5. Parties, rituals and symbolisms in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Valencia Aguirre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing school parties from interaction spaces and principals’ narratives in six schools in the state of Jalisco. A party is a ritual where participants share symbols related to imaginary –hence the importance of conducting an analysis for understanding institutions as a symbolic framework. A core argument is that established actors are configured from symbolic practices in the institutional space (schools. The repetition of these practices awash with symbolism leads to daily rituals or micro rituals that are ratified in institutions. Methodologically, interviews and non-participant observation in school interaction spaces were used. Based on the findings, it may be stated that the nuclear family, rooted in the Christian image in which authority is a central point, becomes a fundamental factor in shaping institutional life as well as the imaginary linked to school parties.

  6. Cross-spectrum symbol synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallister, R. D.; Simon, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    A popular method of symbol synchronization exploits one aspect of generalized harmonic analysis, normally referred to as the cross-spectrum. Utilizing nonlinear techniques, the input symbol energy is effectively concentrated onto multiples of the symbol clock frequency, facilitating application of conventional phase lock synchronization techniques. A general treatment of the cross-spectrum technique is developed and shown to be applicable across a broad class of symbol modulation formats. An important specific symbol synchronization application is then treated, focusing the general development to provide both insight and quantitative measure of the performance impact associated with variation in these key synchronization parameters: symbol modulation format, symbol transition probability, symbol energy to noise density ratio, and symbol rate to filter bandwidth ratio.

  7. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  8. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  9. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  10. What’s the problem with symbolic religious establishment? The alienation and symbolic equality accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter I examine two possible reasons, which are prominent but often not systematically discussed in the literature, for thinking even purely symbolic establishment problematic. These are considerations of alienation and symbolic equality. I am only concerned with ways in which establish...... establishment might be normatively problematic even if it does not infringe on religious freedom and does not involve material injustices in other respects....

  11. Layered zeolite materials and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Maheshwari, Sudeep; Bates, Frank S; Koros, William J

    2013-08-06

    A novel oxide material (MIN-I) comprising YO.sub.2; and X.sub.2O.sub.3, wherein Y is a tetravalent element and X is a trivalent element, wherein X/Y=O or Y/X=30 to 100 is provided. Surprisingly, MIN-I can be reversibly deswollen. MIN-I can further be combined with a polymer to produce a nanocomposite, depolymerized to produce predominantly fully exfoliated layers (MIN-2), and pillared to produce a pillared oxide material (MIN-3), analogous to MCM-36. The materials are useful in a wide range of applications, such as catalysts, thin films, membranes, and coatings.

  12. Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, H.E.; Griess, J.C.

    1981-07-01

    The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction

  13. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  14. Basic ionizing radiation symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A description is given of the standard symbol for ionizing radiation and of the conditions under which it should not be used. The Arabic equivalent of some English technical terms in this subject is given in one page. 1 ref., 1 fig

  15. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here,

  16. The impact of symbolic and non-symbolic quantity on spatial learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    Full Text Available An implicit mapping of number to space via a "mental number line" occurs automatically in adulthood. Here, we systematically explore the influence of differing representations of quantity (no quantity, non-symbolic magnitudes, and symbolic numbers and directional flow of stimuli (random flow, left-to-right, or right-to-left on learning and attention via a match-to-sample working memory task. When recalling a cognitively demanding string of spatial locations, subjects performed best when information was presented right-to-left. When non-symbolic or symbolic numerical arrays were embedded in these spatial locations, and mental number line congruency prompted, this effect was attenuated and in some cases reversed. In particular, low-performing female participants who viewed increasing non-symbolic number arrays paired with the spatial locations exhibited better recall for left-to-right directional flow information relative to right-to-left, and better processing for the left side of space relative to the right side of space. The presence of symbolic number during spatial learning enhanced recall to a greater degree than non-symbolic number--especially for female participants, and especially when cognitive load is high--and this difference was independent of directional flow of information. We conclude that quantity representations have the potential to scaffold spatial memory, but this potential is subtle, and mediated by the nature of the quantity and the gender and performance level of the learner.

  17. Flexible energetic materials and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaps, Ronald J.

    2018-03-06

    Energetic compositions and methods of forming components from the compositions are provided. In one embodiment, a composition includes aluminum, molybdenum trioxide, potassium perchlorate, and a binder. In one embodiment, the binder may include a silicone material. The materials may be mixed with a solvent, such as xylene, de-aired, shaped and cured to provide a self-supporting structure. In one embodiment, one or more reinforcement members may be added to provide additional strength to the structure. For example, a weave or mat of carbon fiber material may be added to the mixture prior to curing. In one embodiment, blade casting techniques may be used to form a structure. In another embodiment, a structure may be formed using 3-dimensional printing techniques.

  18. Numerical and symbolic scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art and results and also includes articles pointing to future developments. Most of the articles center around the theme of linear partial differential equations. Major aspects are fast solvers in elastoplasticity, symbolic analysis for boundary problems, symbolic treatment of operators, computer algebra, and finite element methods, a symbolic approach to finite difference schemes, cylindrical algebraic decomposition and local Fourier analysis, and white noise analysis for stochastic partial differential equations. Further numerical-symbolic topics range from

  19. Basic symbol for ionizing radiations (second revision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Includes a detailed description of basic symbol for ionizing radiations to be used to prevent about the presence, or possibility of presence, of ionizing radiations (X-ray, gamma radiation, particles, electrons, neutrons and protons), as well as to identify radioactive devices and materials

  20. Penal symbolism in Serbia in the first half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Miljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explores a scarce and unusual phenomenon for the 19th century Serbia, of the emphasized nexus between crime and penalty. The author marks that special, symbolical relation of penalty, on the one hand, and sanction on the other, as 'penal symbolism'. This term refers to penalization which reflects the ties between crime and punishment by copying crime in terms of modus or place of execution, or by 'punishing' those body parts which partook in committing a crime. The author classifies the examples of preserved judgments and legislations containing penal symbolism to those referring to modus or place of execution of death penalty, those which are examples of penal symbolism related to other sanctions, and those which are examples of the symbolic talion. The author raises the questions of the origin of this phenomenon, as well as of its justification, and aims at providing answers by reconstructing legal and social framework of Serbia in the first half of the 19th century. With this objective in mind, she discusses the development of Criminal Law and its basic features, as well as the development of judiciary, the systematic institutionalization of the network of criminal courts, and, especially, the composition thereof. In the conclusion, the author rejects the possibility that penal symbolism is a product of legal transplantation or that of the continuity of Serbian medieval law. She asserts that the scarcity of material criminal law sources led to judging by 'justice and fairness', and that those facts created conditions for the primitive sense of justice to find its way into judgments and legislations as penal symbolism.

  1. HMD symbol stabilization concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1995-05-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. Symbol stabilization is a key issue for HMDs. In current equipment, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. A set of standardized coordinate transformations are necessary for the development of HMD symbology and the control laws. Part of the problem is there is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A candidate set of coordinate definitions is proposed to address this issue.

  2. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  3. Formalising Symbolic Interactionism

    OpenAIRE

    de Nooy, W.

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic interactionism is generally known as a theory typically linked with a qualitative methodology. Recent developments in quantitative social network analysis, however, can analyze processes theorized within this theoretical tradition. Thick description can be complemented with statistical analyses of network structure and dynamics, expanding the scope and detail of results. This paper argues that social network analysis can bridge the divide between qualitative and quantitative analysis...

  4. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  5. Automatic Generation of Symbolic Model for Parameterized Synchronous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wen Xu

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of making the verification of parameterized system more general and easier, in this paper, a new and intuitive language PSL (Parameterized-system Specification Language) is proposed to specify a class of parameterized synchronous systems. From a PSL script, an automatic method is proposed to generate a constraint-based symbolic model. The model can concisely symbolically represent the collections of global states by counting the number of processes in a given state. Moreover, a theorem has been proved that there is a simulation relation between the original system and its symbolic model. Since the abstract and symbolic techniques are exploited in the symbolic model, state-explosion problem in traditional verification methods is efficiently avoided. Based on the proposed symbolic model, a reachability analysis procedure is implemented using ANSI C++ on UNIX platform. Thus, a complete tool for verifying the parameterized synchronous systems is obtained and tested for some cases. The experimental results show that the method is satisfactory.

  6. Aviation Career Awareness Program [and Related Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    The learning packet focuses on general aviation and is to be used in career awareness programs at the elementary level. It includes a document which presents a group of units on general aviation and its related careers. The units include the following: (1) aircraft manufacturing, (2) instruments and controls, (3) how airplanes fly, (4) flight…

  7. Instructional Materials in Consumer Education: Interpersonal Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    The seven interpersonal relations units in the consumer education guide are: Expressing Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction with Consumer Goods and Services, What to Do in Case of a Financial Crisis, Bridging the Generation Gap, Rebellion, Emotions, Discovering Myself, and Dual Role (homemaker/wage earner). Grade levels of the units, are…

  8. Imagining and Remembering City: Memory, Space and Symbolism of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Rogač Mijatović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary “runaway world”, cities are becoming the main reference point of social life, change and development. The author discusses the complex process of articulating city identity and memory, as well as the meanings that arise in the interaction of memory, space and symbols of the city, within urban symbolism and cultural memory approach. What are the strategies of activating the cultural memory through multiple symbol bearers of the city, both tangible and intangible? The case study of the city of Belgrade indicates how the narratives related to memory and symbol bearers can be used in fostering culturally sustainable development of the city.

  9. Constitutive relations for nuclear reactor core materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaverl, F. Jr.; Lee, D.

    1978-01-01

    A strain rate dependent constitutive equation is proposed which is capable of describing inelastic deformation behavior of anisotropic metals, such as Zircaloys, under complex loading conditions. The salient features of the constitutive equations are that they describe history dependent inelastic deformation behaviour of anisotropic metals under three-dimensional stress states in the presence of fast neutron flux. It is shown that the general form of the constitutive relations is consistent with experimental observations made under both unirradiated and irradiated conditions. The utility of the model is demonstrated by examining the analytical results obtained for a segment of tubing undergoing different loading histories in a reactor. (Auth.)

  10. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  11. Symbols and schemas in emotional eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    . Particularly the aspects of security and pleasure are suggested to be important motivators for emotional eating. How these symbolic meanings relate to eating as a regulatory device for emotions is explained by a schema- theoretical approach distinguishing between automatic adaptation mechanisms and strategic......Emotional eating behaviour has been of interest to psychologists exclusively as a disorder. However, evidence suggests that it is a common aspect of normal food habits, initiated by both positive and negative emotions in order to regulate these. T behaviour thus serves to regain or preserve...... the psycho-mental homeostasis. To explain this phenomenon it is first shown which symbolic meanings are associated with eating and foods. The numerous connotations can be grouped into four basic dimensions: Security and pleasure as self-oriented, and status and prestige as socially oriented emotional symbols...

  12. Second International workshop Geometry and Symbolic Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Paweł; Geometry and its Applications

    2014-01-01

    This volume has been divided into two parts: Geometry and Applications. The geometry portion of the book relates primarily to geometric flows, laminations, integral formulae, geometry of vector fields on Lie groups, and osculation; the articles in the applications portion concern some particular problems of the theory of dynamical systems, including mathematical problems of liquid flows and a study of cycles for non-dynamical systems. This Work is based on the second international workshop entitled "Geometry and Symbolic Computations," held on May 15-18, 2013 at the University of Haifa and is dedicated to modeling (using symbolic calculations) in differential geometry and its applications in fields such as computer science, tomography, and mechanics. It is intended to create a forum for students and researchers in pure and applied geometry to promote discussion of modern state-of-the-art in geometric modeling using symbolic programs such as Maple™ and Mathematica®, as well as presentation of new results. ...

  13. Handwriting generates variable visual output to facilitate symbol learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X; James, Karin H

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  15. Mathematical symbol hypothesis recognition with rejection option

    OpenAIRE

    Julca-Aguilar , Frank; Hirata , Nina ,; Viard-Gaudin , Christian; Mouchère , Harold; Medjkoune , Sofiane

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the context of handwritten mathematical expressions recognition, a first step consist on grouping strokes (segmentation) to form symbol hypotheses: groups of strokes that might represent a symbol. Then, the symbol recognition step needs to cope with the identification of wrong segmented symbols (false hypotheses). However, previous works on symbol recognition consider only correctly segmented symbols. In this work, we focus on the problem of mathematical symbol reco...

  16. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  17. Individual differences in children's materialism: the role of peer relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Dittmar, Helga

    2008-01-01

    Associations between materialism and peer relations are likely to exist in elementary school children but have not been studied previously. The first two studies introduce a new Perceived Peer Group Pressures (PPGP) Scale suitable for this age group, demonstrating that perceived pressure regarding peer culture (norms for behavioral, attitudinal, and material characteristics) can be reliably measured and that it is connected to children's responses to hypothetical peer pressure vignettes. Studies 3 and 4 evaluate the main theoretical model of associations between peer relations and materialism. Study 3 supports the hypothesis that peer rejection is related to higher perceived peer culture pressure, which in turn is associated with greater materialism. Study 4 confirms that the endorsement of social motives for materialism mediates the relationship between perceived peer pressure and materialism.

  18. Shanahan on symbolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago.

  19. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply......Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...

  20. Casa de parto: simbologia e princípios assistenciais Casa de parto: simbología y principios de asistencia Birth center: symbols and assistance -related principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A primeira Casa de Parto vinculada ao Programa Saúde da Família possui simbologia específica. Objetivou-se identificar os símbolos que permeiam as idéias, crenças, valores e práticas e os princípios que orientam a assistência prestada na Casa de Parto. O método de pesquisa foi a etnografia e a história oral temática, o recurso empregado para entrevistar enfermeiras obstétricas da Casa. Resultados: A Casa possui o valor simbólico da inovação da assistência ao parto e o cuidado humanizado à gestante é o princípio que norteia as práticas. Considerações finais: A simbologia da Casa e as práticas de cuidado desenvolvidas constituem referência às demais Casas de parto em proposição no Brasil e devem ser conhecidas pelas enfermeiras obstétricas.La primera Casa de Parto vinculada al Programa de Salud de la Familia posee simbología específica. El Objetivo de esta encuesta es identificar los símbolos que atraviesan las ideas, creencias, valores y prácticas así como los principios que orientan la asistencia de la casa de parto. El método de la encuesta fue la etnografía y la historia oral temática fue el recurso usado para entrevistar a enfermeras obstétricas de esta Casa. Resultados: La Casa posee el valor simbólico de la innovación de la asistencia al parto y el cuidado humanizado es el principio que orienta las prácticas de enfermería. Consideraciones finales: La simbología de la Casa y las prácticas de asistencia al parto desarrolladas en esta casa constituyen referencia de las demás casas de parto en Brasil y las deben conocer las enfermeras obstétricas.The first Birth Center of the Family Health Program has specific symbols. The purpose was the identification of symbols that permeate the ideas, beliefs, values, practices, and principles that guide the assistance given at the Birth Center. Ethnography was the research method; thematic oral history was the resource employed to interview obstetric nurses in

  1. Farm Water Supply and Sanitation--Pipe, Plumbing, Skills and Symbols. Student Materials. V.A. III. V-D-1, V-D-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by individuals enrolled in vocational agricultural classes, these student materials deal with farm water supply, sanitation, and plumbing skills. Topics covered in the unit are maintaining the farm water supply; repairing faucets and valves, leaks in pipes and storage tanks, and water closets; clearing clogged drains and traps;…

  2. General Symbol Machines: The First Stage in the Evolution of Symbolic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Dickins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans uniquely form stimulus equivalence (SE classes of abstract and unrelated stimuli, i.e. if taught to match A with B and B with C, they will spontaneously match B with A, and C with B, (the relation of symmetry, and A with C (transitivity. Other species do not do this. The SE ability is possibly the consequence of a specific selection event in the Homo lineage. SE is of interest because it appears to demonstrate a facility that is core to symbolic behavior. Linguistic symbols, for example, are arbitrarily and symmetrically related to their referent such that the term banana has no resemblance to bananas but when processed can be used to discriminate bananas. Equally when bananas are perceived the term banana is readily produced. This relation is arguably the defining mark of symbolic representation. In this paper I shall detail the SE phenomenon and argue that it is evidence for a cognitive device that I term a General Symbol Machine (GSM. The GSM not only sets the background condition for subsequent linguistic evolution but also for other symbolic behaviors such as mathematical reasoning. In so doing the GSM is not particularly domain-specific. The apparent domain-specificity of, for example, natural language is a consequence of other computational developments. This introduces complexity to evolutionary arguments about cognitive architecture.

  3. Radiation resistance of InP-related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Eiji; Kurita, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Masamichi; Ando, Koshi; Vargas-Aburto, C.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation effects of 1-MeV electrons on InP-related materials such as InP, InGaP and InGaAsP have been examined in comparison with those of GaAs. Superior radiation-resistance of InP-related materials and their devices compared to GaAs has been found in terms of minority-carrier diffusion length and properties of devices such as solar cells and light-emitting devices. Moreover, minority-carrier injection-enhanced annealing of radiation-induced defects in InP-related materials has also been observed. (author)

  4. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Kant

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recursive parity game solving algorithm by Zielonka for symbolic parity games. We use Multi-valued Decision Diagrams (MDDs to represent sets and relations, thus enabling the tools to deal with very large systems. The transition relation is partitioned based on the structure of the specification, which allows for efficient manipulation of the MDDs. We performed two case studies on modular specifications, that demonstrate that the new method has better time and memory performance than existing PBES based tools and can be faster (but slightly less memory efficient than the symbolic model checker NuSMV.

  5. Issues related to the inter-utility transfer of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    An option that utilities have for obtaining material is to procure the desired item(s) from another utility. There are several reasons utilities choose another utility as the procurement source including item obsolescence, prohibitive cost on the commercial market, and excessive lead time. This document provides information on the technical, quality, and commercial issues which utilities may need to address when selling material to or procuring material from other utilities. This report provides suggested approaches for each of the following technical and quality issues: Design considerations; item acceptability considerations; original supplier considerations; commercial grade item dedication considerations; reportability considerations; packaging, shipping, and storage considerations; documentation considerations; receipt inspection considerations. The information is provided primarily for the inter-utility transfer of safety-related material. Several of the topics, however, may also apply to the transfer of non-safety-related material. The report also provides considerations on commercial issues which may be addressed during the inter-utility transfer of materials

  6. Symbolic Time Separation of Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amon, Tod; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    We extend the TSE~\\cite{Hulgaard95} timing analysis algorithm into the symbolic domain, that is, we allow symbolic variables to be used to specify unknown parameters of the model (essentially, unknown delays) and verification algorithms which are capable of identifying not just failure or success...

  7. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad reza Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this

  8. Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

  9. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  10. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret S.; Pettine, Warren W.; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A.; Lee, Daeyeol

    2014-01-01

    Weber’s law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0–25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

  11. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  12. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  13. The dilemma of the symbols: analogies between philosophy, biology and artificial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes some analogies going from Artificial Life questions about the symbol-matter connection to Artificial Intelligence questions about symbol-grounding. It focuses on the notion of the interpretability of syntax and how the symbols are integrated in a unity ("binding problem"). Utilizing the DNA code as a model, this paper discusses how syntactic features could be defined as high-grade characteristics of the non syntactic relations in a material-dynamic structure, by using an emergentist approach. This topic furnishes the ground for a confutation of J. Searle's statement that syntax is observer-relative, as he wrote in his book "Mind: A Brief Introduction". Moreover the evolving discussion also modifies the classic symbol-processing doctrine in the mind which Searle attacks as a strong AL argument, that life could be implemented in a computational mode. Lastly, this paper furnishes a new way of support for the autonomous systems thesis in Artificial Life and Artificial Intelligence, using, inter alia, the "adaptive resonance theory" (ART).

  14. Assessment of symbolic function in Mexican preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Jiménez Barreto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of symbolic function is an important psychological formation of pre-school age and reflects the possibility of the child to use signs and symbols in a conscious way. Assessment of symbolic function can be used as one of preparation for school indicators. The objective of the present study is to characterize the level of symbolic function development in Mexican pre-school children. 59 children were included in the study. The ages of the children were between 5 and 6 years and all of them belonged to sub-urban pre-school institution. All 59 children participated in this study for the first time. Our assessment consisted of specific tasks with symbolic means on materialized, perceptive and verbal levels. Each child was tested individually. Results showed an insufficient development of the symbolic function in all evaluated children. More than 78% of the children showed difficulties during performance in the tasks of assessment; their drawings were undifferentiated and had few essential characteristics. The obtained results show the necessity to implement developmental strategies in order to guarantee the formation of the ability of constant conscious sage of symbolic means at the end of pre-school age.

  15. Social Symbolic Work in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    ‘the good organisation’ may offer a supportive organisational framework for social symbolic work, thus promoting regional development in peripheral and poorly developed regions. Exploring what qualifies as a ‘good organisation’, the paper identifies three key elements: management, motivation......This paper reports on a research project that explores social symbolic work. The social symbolic work in question seeks to introduce education in entrepreneurship into the school curriculum in a remote part of Greenland – in order to contribute to regional development. The paper investigates how...

  16. Proportional Symbol Mapping in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Tanimura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of spatial data on a map aids not only in data exploration but also in communication to impart spatial conception or ideas to others. Although recent carto-graphic functions in R are rapidly becoming richer, proportional symbol mapping, which is one of the common mapping approaches, has not been packaged thus far. Based on the theories of proportional symbol mapping developed in cartography, the authors developed some functions for proportional symbol mapping using R, including mathematical and perceptual scaling. An example of these functions demonstrated the new expressive power and options available in R, particularly for the visualization of conceptual point data.

  17. Symbolic mathematical computing: orbital dynamics and application to accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fateman, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-assisted symbolic mathematical computation has become increasingly useful in applied mathematics. A brief introduction to such capabilitites and some examples related to orbital dynamics and accelerator physics are presented. (author)

  18. Comparison of shrinkage related properties of various patch repair materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Fitrianto, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    A patch repair material has been developed in the form of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)-mortar. The performance and durability of this material are governed by its compatibility with the concrete being repaired. One of the compatibility issue that should be tackled is the dimensional compatibility as a result of differential shrinkage between the repair material and the concrete substrate. This research aims to evaluate such shrinkage related properties of UPR-mortar and to compare with those of other patch repair materials. The investigation includes the following aspects: free shrinkage, resistance to delamination and cracking. The results indicate that UPR-mortar poses a lower free shrinkage, lower risk of both delamination and cracking tendency in comparison to other repair materials.

  19. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  20. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  1. Applications of symbolic algebraic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Hearn, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a survey of applications of systems for symbomic algebraic computation. In most successful applications, calculations that can be taken to a given order by hand are then extended one or two more orders by computer. Furthermore, with a few notable exceptins, these applications also involve numerical computation in some way. Therefore the authors emphasize the interface between symbolic and numerical computation, including: 1. Computations with both symbolic and numerical phases. 2. Data involving both the unpredictible size and shape that typify symbolic computation and the (usually inexact) numerical values that characterize numerical computation. 3. Applications of one field to the other. It is concluded that the fields of symbolic and numerical computation can advance most fruitfully in harmony rather than in competition. (Auth.)

  2. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  3. Case Study: Students’ Symbolic Manipulation in Calculus Among UTHM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Maselan; Sufahani, Suliadi; Ahmad, Wan N. A. W.; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Che-Him, Norziha

    2018-04-01

    Words are symbols representing certain aspects of mathematics. The main purpose of this study is to gain insight into students’ symbolic manipulation in calculus among UTHM students. This study make use the various methods in collecting data which are documentation, pilot study, written test and follow up individual interviews. Hence, the results analyzed and interpreted based on action-process-object-schema framework which is based on Piaget’s ideas of reflective abstraction, the concept of relational and instrumental understanding and the zone of proximal development idea. The students’ reply in the interview session is analyzed and then the overall performance is discussed briefly to relate with the students flexibility in symbolic manipulation in linking to the graphical idea, the students interpretation towards different symbolic structure in calculus and the problem that related to overgeneralization in their calculus problems solving.

  4. Symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, L. D.; Mceliece, R. J.; Van Tilborg, H. C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Alternate symbol inversion is sometimes applied to the output of convolutional encoders to guarantee sufficient richness of symbol transition for the receiver symbol synchronizer. A bound is given for the length of the transition-free symbol stream in such systems, and those convolutional codes are characterized in which arbitrarily long transition free runs occur.

  5. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination symbols. 29.1008 Section 29.1008..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1008 Combination symbols. A color or group symbol used with another symbol to form the third factor of a grademark to denote a particular side or characteristic of the...

  6. SYSTEMATIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF SYMBOLIC APPROACHES IN URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULAKH I. V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The low level of expression and personalization of mass architecture of the second half of the twentieth century connected with the spread of industrial technology and even to a greater extent with mechanistic traditionally functional relation to the average person as, abstract consumer architecture. The condition out of the critical situation is focusing on matters aesthetic, artistic understanding and harmonious image creation environment. The problem of increasing architectural and artistic level of architectural and urban planning solutions to overcome the monotony of planning and development, creating aesthetically expressive urban environment does not lose relevance over the past decades. Understanding and acceptance of enigma and dynamic development of cities encourage architects to find new design techniques that are able to provide in the future a reasonable possibility of forming artistic and aesthetic image of the modern city. Purpose. Define and systematize the principles of symbolization architectural and planning images; propose methods symbolism in the architectural planning of image of the urban environment. Conclusion based on analysis of the enhanced concept symbolizing the image of Architecture and Planning, the place, role and symbolization trends at all levels of the urban environment - planning, three-dimensional and improvement of urban areas; first identified the main stages and levels of symbolization (analohyzatsyya, schematization and alehoryzatsiya, their features and characteristics, formulated the basic principles of symbolization architectural and planning of image, namely the principles of communication between figurative analogies, transformation of subsequent circuits, switching allegorical groupings and metamorfizm ultimate goal – symbol birth .

  7. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  8. A relation to describe rate-dependent material failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, B

    1989-01-13

    The simple relation OmegaOmega-alpha = 0, where Omega is a measurable quantity such as strain and A and alpha are empirical constants, describes the behavior of materials in terminal stages of failure under conditions of approximately constant stress and temperature. Applicable to metals and alloys, ice, concrete, polymers, rock, and soil, the relation may be extended to conditions of variable and multiaxial stress and may be used to predict time to failure.

  9. A Study in Historical Materialism and International Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical materialism as a discourse assumes that the economic determines the political and other dimensions of society. Nigeria had set specific conditions for renewed relations with apartheid South Africa. These were yet to be met and the intensity that characterised Nigeria's pursuance of an aggressive anti-apartheid ...

  10. EU external relations law : text, cases and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vooren, Bart; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2014-01-01

    This major new textbook for students in European law uses a text, cases and materials approach to explore the law, politics, policy and practice of EU external relations, and navigates the complex questions at the interface of these areas. The subject is explored by explaining major constitutional

  11. Symbols of a cosmic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  12. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...... sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...... violence. It deconstructs the dualisation of gender in gendered phenomena that contribute to the dualising/blaming controversies concerning responsibility and guilt common in discourses, activism and research pertaining to this field. Furthermore the use of the concept makes it possible to do so without...

  13. Symbolic analysis of spatio-temporal systems: The measurement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.; Tang, Xianzhu; Tracy, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of measuring physical quantities using time-series observations. The approach taken is to validate theoretical models which are derived heuristically or from first principles. The fitting of parameters in such models constitutes the measurement. This is a basic problem in measurement science and a wide array of tools are available. However, an important gap in the present toolkit exists when the system of interest, and hence the models used, exhibit chaotic or turbulent behavior. The development of reliable schemes for analyzing such signals is necessary before one can claim to have a quantitative understanding of the underlying physics. In experimental situations, the number of independently measured time-series is limited, but the number of dynamical degrees of freedom can be large. In addition, the signals of interest will typically be embedded in a noisy background. In the symbol statistics approach, the time-series is coarse-grained and converted into a long, symbol stream. The probability of occurrence of various symbol sequences of fixed length constitutes the symbol statistics. These statistics contain a wealth of information about the underlying dynamics and, as we shall discuss, can be used to validate models. Previously, we have applied this symbolic approach to low dimensional systems with great success. The symbol statistics are robust up to noise/signal ∼20%. At higher noise levels the symbol statistics are biased, but in a relatively simple manner. By including the noise characteristics into the model, we were able to use the symbol statistics to measure parameters even when signal/noise is ∼ O(1). More recently, we have extended the symbolic approach to spatio-temporal systems. We have considered both coupled-map lattices and the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. This equation arises generically near the onset of instabilities

  14. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  15. Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.; Scheler, R.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

  16. SymPy: symbolic computing in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meurer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SymPy is an open source computer algebra system written in pure Python. It is built with a focus on extensibility and ease of use, through both interactive and programmatic applications. These characteristics have led SymPy to become a popular symbolic library for the scientific Python ecosystem. This paper presents the architecture of SymPy, a description of its features, and a discussion of select submodules. The supplementary material provide additional examples and further outline details of the architecture and features of SymPy.

  17. Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1988-03-01

    Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

  18. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air...

  19. The mathematica guidebook for symbolics

    CERN Document Server

    Trott, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Mathematica is today's most advanced technical computing system. It features a rich programming environment, two-and three-dimensional graphics capabilities and hundreds of sophisticated, powerful programming and mathematical functions using state-of-the-art algorithms. Combined with a user-friendly interface, and a complete mathematical typesetting system, Mathematica offers an intuitive easy-to-handle environment of great power and utility. "The Mathematica GuideBook for Symbolics" (code and text fully tailored for Mathematica 5.1) deals with Mathematica's symbolic mathematical capabilities. Structural and mathematical operations on single and systems of polynomials are fundamental to many symbolic calculations and they are covered in considerable detail. The solution of equations and differential equations, as well as the classical calculus operations (differentiation, integration, summation, series expansion, limits) are exhaustively treated. Generalized functions and their uses are discussed. In addition...

  20. On the Symbolic Verification of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how to analyze a timed system symbolically. That is, given a symbolic representation of a set of (timed) states (as an expression), we describe how to determine an expression that represents the set of states that can be reached either by firing a discrete transition...... or by advancing time. These operations are used to determine the set of reachable states symbolically. We also show how to symbolically determine the set of states that can reach a given set of states (i.e., a backwards step), thus making it possible to verify TCTL-formulae symbolically. The analysis is fully...... symbolic in the sense that both the discrete and the continuous part of the state space are represented symbolically. Furthermore, both the synchronous and asynchronous concurrent composition of timed systems can be performed symbolically. The symbolic representations are given as formulae expressed...

  1. Symbolic Dynamics of Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J. W.; Dickens, P. M.

    2003-12-01

    Symbolic dynamics1 is the study of sequences of symbols belonging to a discrete set of elements, the most commmon example being a sequence of ones and zeroes. Often the set of symbols is derived from a timeseries of a continuous variable through the introduction of a partition function--a process called symbolization. Symbolic dynamics has been used widely in the physical sciences; a geophysical example being the application of C1 and C2 complexity2 to hourly precipitation station data3. The C1 and C2 complexities are computed by examining subsequences--or words--of fixed length L in the limit of large values of L. Recent advances in information theory have led to techniques focused on the growth rate of the Shannon entropy and its asymptotic behavior in the limit of long words--levels of entropy convergence4. The result is a set of measures one can use to quantify the amount of memory stored in the sequence, whether or not an observer is able to synchronize to the sequence, and with what confidence it may be predicted. These techniques may also be used to uncover periodic behavior in the sequence. We are currently applying complexity theory and levels of entropy convergence to gridpoint timeseries from the NCAR/NCEP 50-year reanalysis5. Topics to be discussed include: a brief introduction to symbolic dynamics; a description of the partition function/symbolization strategy; a discussion of C1 and C2 complexity and entropy convergence rates and their utility; and example applications of these techniques to NCAR/NCEP 50-reanalyses gridpoint timeseries, resulting in maps of C1 and C2 complexities and entropy convergence rates. Finally, we will discuss how these results may be used to validate climate models. 1{Hao, Bai-Lin, Elementary Symbolic Dynamics and Chaos in Dissipative Systems, Wold Scientific, Singapore (1989)} 2{d'Alessandro, G. and Politi, A., Phys. Rev. Lett., 64, 1609-1612 (1990).} 3{Elsner, J. and Tsonis, A., J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 400-405 (1993).} 4

  2. The backfilling and sealing of radioactive waste repositories. V. 1. Text - Reference - List of symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report is in two volumes: Volume 1 contains the main text, the references and a list of symbols, and Volume 2, all the figues, tables and appendices. In Volume 1, backfilling and sealing is considered in relation to the geological, physical and chemical environments. There follows a detailed evaluation of the role and performance of the backfilling and sealing system in terms of thermal, hydraulic, chemical buffering, radionuclide retention, mechanical properties and behaviour as well as longevity. The results of the listing, screening and classification of a comprehensive range of candidate backfill materials are summarized. The different candidate materials are examined

  3. The united fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A. V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The United Fund of materials about Chernobyl-related issues was created in Russian-Belarusian Information Center on the Problems of the Consequences of the Catastrophe at Chernobyl NPP branch RSRUE 'Institute of Radiology' Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus. It contains accumulated during the post-Chernobyl period systematized maps, scientific and practical, educational, documentary, journalistic, artistic, photographic and other information. (authors)

  4. Reciprocal relations of transport coefficients in simple materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, L.

    1977-01-01

    The cross effects of viscosity and heat conduction in anisotropic simple materials (solids or liquids) are given in the linear regime, using our dissipation function theory introduced recently. Depending on whether the temperature gradient or the heat flux is used in the dissipation function, we show that two different but unambiguous reciprocal relations between the transport coefficients follow. These are compared and contrasted with the confusing predictions from the Onsager theory, and to the results of rational thermodynamics. The uncertain experimental situation in regard to these reciprocal relations is discussed. Experimental tests are strongly urged. (orig.) [de

  5. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  6. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    describes as it prioritises is discussed with reference to robotting and surveillance. In general, the symbolic power of mathematics and formal languages is summarised through the observations: that mathematics treats parts and properties as autonomous, that it dismembers what it addresses and destroys...

  7. Awareness and use of the Heart Symbol by Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Helakorpi, Satu; Olli, Mari; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-03-01

    To study the awareness of the Heart Symbol in different age and educational groups, and changes in the awareness over a 9-year period. In addition, the reported use of products with the symbol was examined. A series of annual cross-sectional postal surveys on Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population. A random sample (n 5000 per annum) from the Finnish population aged 15-64 years, drawn from the National Population Register, received a questionnaire. Men and women (n 29 378) participating in the surveys in 2000-2009. At the early 2000s, 48 % of men and 73 % of women reported to be familiar with the symbol. The corresponding rates were 66 % for men and 91 % for women in 2009. The reported use of products with the symbol increased from 29 % to 52 % in men and from 40 % to 72 % in women. In men, the awareness did not vary by age, whereas older women (45-64 years) were less likely to be aware of the symbol compared with younger women (25-34 years). Men and women with the highest education were best aware of the symbol and more likely to use the products in the early 2000s. The educational differences diminished or disappeared during the study period. The majority of Finnish adults are familiar with the Heart Symbol, and the reported use of such products increased in all age and educational groups, especially among the less educated. The symbol may work as an effective measure to diminish nutrition-related health inequalities.

  8. Symbol Synchronization for Diffusion-Based Molecular Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Vahid; Ahmadzadeh, Arman; Schober, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Symbol synchronization refers to the estimation of the start of a symbol interval and is needed for reliable detection. In this paper, we develop several symbol synchronization schemes for molecular communication (MC) systems where we consider some practical challenges, which have not been addressed in the literature yet. In particular, we take into account that in MC systems, the transmitter may not be equipped with an internal clock and may not be able to emit molecules with a fixed release frequency. Such restrictions hold for practical nanotransmitters, e.g., modified cells, where the lengths of the symbol intervals may vary due to the inherent randomness in the availability of food and energy for molecule generation, the process for molecule production, and the release process. To address this issue, we develop two synchronization-detection frameworks which both employ two types of molecule. In the first framework, one type of molecule is used for symbol synchronization and the other one is used for data detection, whereas in the second framework, both types of molecule are used for joint symbol synchronization and data detection. For both frameworks, we first derive the optimal maximum likelihood (ML) symbol synchronization schemes as performance upper bounds. Since ML synchronization entails high complexity, for each framework, we also propose three low-complexity suboptimal schemes, namely a linear filter-based scheme, a peak observation-based scheme, and a threshold-trigger scheme, which are suitable for MC systems with limited computational capabilities. Furthermore, we study the relative complexity and the constraints associated with the proposed schemes and the impact of the insertion and deletion errors that arise due to imperfect synchronization. Our simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization schemes and suggest that the end-to-end performance of MC systems significantly depends on the accuracy of the symbol

  9. PHILOSOPHEME OF SYMBOL AND CONCEPT OF THE MEANING: PHILOSOPHICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Kretov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to find out the meaning of the symbolic nature of the philosophical and anthropological knowledge deployment, as well as symbolic forms of correlation between artificial and natural in the consciousness of human identity and their fixation in the language and also in the forms and structures of culture. The research is based on the methodology of historical and philosophical analysis in synchronic and diachronic aspects, principles of hermeneutic understanding and reconstruction and phenomenological descriptions. Scientific novelty is represented by the postulating such predications of symbolic structures of language and consciousness as multipanorama and transfinite, justification of the ontological status of symbol and symbolism. The symbolic functioning character of language metaphor in scientific discourse and especially the symbolic dimension of semantic field of language and culture, as well as their symbolic association was fixed. The author proves the thesis about the symbolic nature of a holistic, means forming, philosophical knowledge of man, and the relation between the underlying symbolic and metaphorical structures of language and the mechanisms of consciousness, which finds its expression, in particular, in the language of science. The symbolic design that transmits the philosophical aspects of meaning that go beyond definition and formal-logic descriptions is used. In the comparison of the concepts of spiral dynamics, memetics and autopoiesis the existence of a specific symbolic dimension of the semantic field of language, culture and consciousness is postulated. Conclusions of the article define the role of symbol and symbolic and metaphorical constructions and structures of language in forming the discourse of modern philosophical anthropology, which would include the whole thesaurus of language and culture.

  10. Symbol signing design for older drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness of symbol traffic signs for young, middle-aged and elderly drivers. Daytime legibility distance and comprehension of 85 symbols in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) were measured. Legibilit...

  11. Front of package symbols as a tool to promote healthier food choices in Slovenia: Accompanying explanatory claim can considerably influence the consumer's preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Miklavec, K; Pravst, I; Raats, Monique; Pohar, J

    2016-01-01

    Many nutrition and/or health symbols were introduced in different countries in the past years and Slovenia is no exception. The objective of our study was to examine familiarity with and perception of the Protective Food symbol (PF symbol) in Slovenia and to investigate consumers' associations related to the symbol, and the influence of symbols' appearance on their preferences. The study was conducted through online questionnaire with incorporated word-association tasks and conjoint analysis;...

  12. 40 CFR 1051.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1051.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: °—degrees. ASTM—American Society for Testing and Materials. ATV—all-terrain vehicle. cc—cubic centimeters. CFR—Code of...

  13. 40 CFR 1060.805 - What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1060.805 What symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations does this part use? The following symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: °degree. ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials. CCelsius. CFRCode of Federal Regulations...

  14. Investigating a Link between Pre-Calculus Students' Uses of Graphing Calculators and Their Understanding of Mathematical Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Rachael H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined ways in which students make use of a graphing calculator and how use relates to comfort and understanding with mathematical symbols. Analysis involved examining students' words and actions in problem solving to identify evidence of algebraic insight. Findings suggest that some symbols and symbolic structures had strong…

  15. Consumers recall and recognition for brand symbols

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Hasan, Syed Akif; Osman, Ms. Amber

    2012-01-01

    Brand Symbols are important for any brand in helping consumers to remember one’s brand at the point of purchase. In advertising different ways are used to grab attention in consumers’ mind and majorly it’s through brand recall and recognition. This research captivates the Brand Symbol concept and determines whether symbols play an important role in creating a differential impact with other brands. Secondly, it also answers that whether brand symbol is the cause of creating positive associatio...

  16. The Analysis of Mythological Symbols in Shahnameh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    موسی پرنیان

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing symbols of Shahnameh requires an understanding of the context and condition of creation and emergence of symbol, myth and epic. Symbol has a relationship with consciousness and unconsciousness of man and constitutes the language of mythologies, legends, and epics. Thus the language of mythological and epic works is symbolic. The main theme in Iranian mythologies is the dual nature of creation, and during the passage from myth to epic the conflict between the two forces of good and evil appear in various aspects of existence. Some characters that represent symbolic and coded concepts more than other elements can be considered as symbols of the evolution of gods to kings and against them there are devilish kings as symbols of drought (Apush. The other symbolic elements analyzed in this study are: epic-romance stories, imaginary creatures, symbolic dreams of kings and heroes, symbolic numbers, symbolic patterns of flags, the symbolism of water, fire and charisma The findings of the study illustrate that people, more than other elements, are the constitutive elements of mythological symbols, and the tension between these human elements depicts the mutual conflict between good and evil in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. Like other elements, symbolic characters (especially kings are of symbolic value and constitute a part of constructing elements of mythological symbols in Shahname. Moreover their reputation is dependent on the extent of their benefit from “God charisma“ as the most pivotal element of their personality. Kings like Afrasiab and Zahak, due to lack of it, are the most disreputable kings. On the other hand, Fereidoon and Kaikhosro are on the top of the most reputable kings because of continuous benefit from that. This study has been conducted on the basis of library resources and has applied a descriptive-analytic method.

  17. q-entropy for symbolic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yun; Pesin, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    For symbolic dynamical systems we use the Carathéodory construction as described in (Pesin 1997 Dimension Theory in Dynamical Systems, ConTemporary Views and Applications (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)) to introduce the notions of q-topological and q-metric entropies. We describe some basic properties of these entropies and in particular, discuss relations between q-metric entropy and local metric entropy. Both q-topological and q-metric entropies are new invariants respectively under homeomorphisms and metric isomorphisms of dynamical systems. (paper)

  18. Symbol recognition with kernel density matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Kun

    2006-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to similarity assessment for graphic symbols. Symbols are represented as 2D kernel densities and their similarity is measured by the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Symbol orientation is found by gradient-based angle searching or independent component analysis. Experimental results show the outstanding performance of this approach in various situations.

  19. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  20. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light brown...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.1007 Section 29.1007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange...

  5. Symbol-String Sensitivity and Children's Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammer, Kristen; Lavis, Ruth; Hansen, Peter; Cornelissen, Piers L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study of primary school children, a novel "symbol-string" task is used to assess sensitivity to the position of briefly presented non-alphabetic but letter-like symbols. The results demonstrate that sensitivity in the symbol-string task explains a unique proportion of the variability in children's contextual reading accuracy. Moreover,…

  6. Model, Materialism, and Immanent Utopia in Relational Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    ), is crucial for the understanding of contemporary, socially and politically oriented fine art of the mid-1990 and onwards and its challenge of established aesthetic conceptions within art as well as theory. The concept of model is a reoccurring figure in RA and connects to a widespread "lab" (laboratory......  This paper seeks to contribute to the development of socio-aesthetics by analysing the notion of model established in the discourse of relational art--that is of course with special reference to French art critic Nicolas Bourriad's theoretical writings. His seminal book, Relational Aesthetics (RA......) metaphor where social reality is staged and facilitated in order to document and present its development. At the same time however, the notion of model is difficult to dissociate from Bourriaud's materialism which draws on such different figures as the late Althusser, Lucretius, and Deleuze and which...

  7. Hidden Identification on Parts: Magnetic Machine-Readable Matrix Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Jones, Clyde S.; Roxby, Donald L.; Teed, James D.; Shih, William C. L.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Knisely, Craig

    2005-01-01

    All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like. In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils (25 m) of paint (5 or 6 layers). This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.

  8. Reciprocity Laws for the Higher Tame Symbol and the Witt Symbol on an Algebraic Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Syder, Kirsty

    2013-01-01

    Parshin's higher Witt pairing on an arithmetic surface can be combined with the higher tame pairing to form a symbol taking values in the absolute abelian Galois group of the function field. We prove reciprocity laws for this symbol using techniques of Morrow for the Witt symbol and Romo for the higher tame symbol.

  9. Symbolic aesthetics in steel structural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Abdul-Mun'em Khuraibet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic expression and its orders are important for steel structures forming. Steel structures are a compilation of structural elements, where its shapes have standard dimensions and pre-fabricated. As the steel construction systems not only aim to achieve the functional requirements for users, but must also have the symbolic aesthetics which provides visually and cognitive expression for viewers. In this sense the research interested in expressional aesthetics in these systems and highlights the importance of attention as structural items. Therefore the visual items which related with steel structures contain some of the most powerful forms of modern architecture, steel structures with a glass cladding, agility and accuracy in manufacture of structural elements as visual items, structural interest in the forms of spaces which have long span systems or in high buildings are different forms of expression and influence. So the research focuses on the study of those expressive patterns related with the steel construction properties, including the advantages of these systems at the level of strength and firmness, flexibility and economy as well as aesthetic and expression. Accordingly, the research problem concentrated on educational shortage in the study of the structural steel system aspects concerning constructional characteristic, expressive and aesthetic features, and how to deal with them as a language bearing the symbols and meanings which have clear structural style, because it the best ways to make those systems as communication means with users, by premise that the use of expressional symbol in steel construction increases the aesthetic value. Therefore the research aims to reveal the most structural and expressive patterns by analysis the expressional means and steel structural aesthetics.

  10. Alternate symbol inversion for improved symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Smith, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Inverting alternate symbols of the encoder output of a convolutionally coded system provides sufficient density of symbol transitions to guarantee adequate symbol synchronizer performance, a guarantee otherwise lacking. Although alternate symbol inversion may increase or decrease the average transition density, depending on the data source model, it produces a maximum number of contiguous symbols without transition for a particular class of convolutional codes, independent of the data source model. Further, this maximum is sufficiently small to guarantee acceptable symbol synchronizer performance for typical applications. Subsequent inversion of alternate detected symbols permits proper decoding.

  11. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-09-19

    Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Book Review: EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Butler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

  13. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic...... execution tree that characterizes the execution paths covered during symbolic execution. The new extension can be tailored to the needs of subsequent analyses/processing facilities, and we demonstrate this by presenting SPF-Visualizer, which is a tool for customizable visualization of the symbolic execution...

  14. VULTURES: EXEGESIS OF A SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Andreoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the different cultures and historical periods, vultures have been considered both impure or sacred. But, since they usually do not prey upon living animals, their symbolic dimension, associated to the idea of purification, is present in many myths, religions, burial praxis of ancient populations and remains in some religions today.In the ancient Mediterranean civilizations, they have been carved in some of the most ancient bas-reliefs of the history by stone age people; were sacred to Egyptians, who even took them as symbol of gods; in the classical times they were supposed to be all feminine and breed by parthenogenesis, and therefore appreciated by some early Christian authors, who came to comparing them even to the Virgin Mary; they have been studied and described by ancient scientists, naturalists, philosophers, playwrights; involved in many of the most enduring Greek and Roman myths and legends; many parts of their body were considered as a medicine or even a talisman for happiness; and they were so proverbial for Romans to become even one of the symbols of the founding of Rome itself.But they were also so fragile that perfumes, myrrh and pomegranates were supposed to be lethal for them ….

  15. THE “TREE OF LIFE” SYMBOL IN JEWELLERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOR-STANCIU Silviu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available History and tradition play a very important role in the development of a society. Designed objects were and are adorned with signs and symbols holding various messages and aesthetic particularities. These objects have the ability of spreading emotions through their shape, material, finishing or graphic and are made using different materials, techniques and technologies. By particularising a sign one must take into account its orientation towards certain objects regarding the significance, the culture and the historical period. The sacred geometry, a sum of shapes with religious and cultural values, can be analysed from a scientific, philosophical, aesthetic and mystic point of view. The origin, the nature and the relationship between these shapes are considered to be determined by the surrounding universe. The symbol is an intermediary which favours the communication from the visible reality to the invisible, non-figurative one. One of the shapes with a symbol value, frequently used, is the tree of life. The tree of life is a symbol dating from the Neolithic, but still applied nowadays. Bearing information and witness of the history of a civilisation, the “Tree of life” symbol inspired the artisans and artists from different cultures, being graphically readapted, both due to the technology development, as well as to the society’s maturation. The present paper presents the evolution of the “tree of life” sign, the manner in which it followed the history and civilisation flow, the diversity of objects adorned with it through various working techniques, as well as its evolution through new interpretations in the jewellery design applications. The paper presents the experiment of making a silver pendant with the “Tree of life” symbol, reinterpreted and made using a 3D program.

  16. Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Selegue

    2011-11-17

    During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

  17. Ionizing-radiation warning - Supplementary symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the symbol to warn of the presence of a dangerous level of ionizing radiation from a high-level sealed radioactive source that can cause death or serious injury if handled carelessly. This symbol is not intended to replace the basic ionizing radiation symbol [ISO 361, ISO 7010:2003, Table 1 (Reference number W003)], but to supplement it by providing further information on the danger associated with the source and the necessity for untrained or uninformed members of the public to stay away from it. This symbol is recommended for use with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 1, 2, and 3 sealed radioactive sources. These sources are defined by the IAEA as having the ability to cause death or serious injuries. The paper informs about scope, shape, proportions and colour of the symbol, and application of the symbol. An annex provides the technical specifications of the symbol

  18. Drop it and run! [New symbol warns of radiation dangers and aims to save lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, L.

    2007-01-01

    The black-and-yellow trefoil symbol - long the accepted label for denoting radioactive material - is getting a companion. And it's hoped that the new symbol will alert more people to the potential dangers of large sources of ionizing radiation and save lives. Unlike some signs of danger - like the commonly used skull-and-crossbones icon that seems to scream out both 'poison' and 'pirates' the trefoil symbol has little recognition beyond the nuclear community. This was learned from a five-year IAEA-led study to evaluate the best symbol to convey radiation danger. The vast majority of respondents tested in an eleven-country survey had no idea what the symbol meant nor had any knowledge of radiation. In fact, only 6% of those questioned in India, Brazil and Kenya could recognize the trefoil symbol for what it was. What resulted was a recommendation to design a universal system of labelling large radioactive sources. In 2001, IAEA Member States approved the new warning symbol project. The assignment was daunting. How to come up with a symbol that would be universally understood regardless of education, cultural orientation or age? The IAEA has recommended that the symbol be used on IAEA category 1, 2 and 3 sealed radiation sources (dangerous sources that can cause death or serious injury). The symbol was published in February 2007 by the ISO as (Supplementary Ionizing Radiation Warning Symbol : ISO 21482). The next challenge will be to publicize the new symbol within the industry and to obtain consistent implementation on large radioactive source

  19. Materials comprising polydienes and hydrophilic polymers and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W [Knoxville, TN; Deng, Suxiang [Knoxville, TN; Mauritz, Kenneth A [Hattiesburg, MS; Hassan, Mohammad K [Hattiesburg, MS; Gido, Samuel P [Hadley, MA

    2011-11-22

    Materials prepared from polydienes, such as poly(cyclohexadiene), and hydrophilic polymers, such as poly(alkylene oxide), are described. Methods of making the materials and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization are also provided. The materials can be crosslinked and sulfonated, and can include copolymers and polymer blends.

  20. The Influence of Symbols and Equations on Understanding Mathematical Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students with mathematics difficulty demonstrate lower mathematics performance than typical-performing peers. One contributing factor to lower mathematics performance may be misunderstanding of mathematics symbols. In several studies related to the equal sign (=), students who received explicit instruction on the relational definition (i.e.,…

  1. Symbolic convergence and the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brossmann, Brent

    2010-01-01

    This article documents that the hydrogen economy continues to attract significant attention among politicians, the media, and some academics. We believe that an explanation lies in the way that the hydrogen economy fulfills psychological and cultural needs related to a future world where energy is abundant, cheap, and pollution-free, a 'fantasy' that manifests itself with the idea that society can continue to operate without limits imposed by population growth and the destruction of the environment. The article begins by explaining its research methodology consisting of two literature reviews, research interviews of energy experts, and the application of symbolic convergence theory, a general communications theory about the construction of rhetorical fantasies. We then identify a host of socio-technical challenges to explain why the creation of a hydrogen economy would present immense (and possibly intractable) obstacles, an argument supplemented by our research interviews. Next, we employ symbolic convergence theory to identify five prevalent fantasy themes and rhetorical visions-independence, patriotism, progress, democratization, and inevitability-in academic and public discussions in favor of the hydrogen economy. We conclude by offering implications for scholarship relating to energy policy more broadly.

  2. Relation of historical quarrying, material utilization and performance on buildings in Eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Pirinen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Finland might seem to have lower stone heritage compared to other southern European countries, but it has been the main exporter of dimension stone to the majestic buildings that made St.Petersburg a recognized cultural heritage. In Finland, though, the stone seems undervalued. The only dramatic and predominant stone buildings are those of agencies and administrations located in the towns, where the stone has been used to impress and symbolize value. Romantic style used massive bossy stone in building's full height and created fine traditional carvings. Otherwise the communities have mainly built settlements in contact with the nature, with materials easily available and of low cost, following architectonical trends of the periods and producing interesting stone details. During the past years, research has been conducted on historical buildings interconnecting scientific and artistic approach to evaluate material durability and cultural relevance of the artifacts. Generally until mid 20th century the stone has been traditionally used massive for basements and walls. The materials still present good mechanical characteristics and most often the weathering level after hundreds of years of exposure had reached only the first millimeters from the curst. Instead the old methodology for deposit exploitation has left visible signs on the buildings. Some examples are visible from Kuopio. The exploitation of small, easy-to-reach surface deposits, even if planned by local experts, has affected quality and appearance of historical buildings. As an example the excavation of shallow quarries where also weathered crop was kept as a product has characterized the basement of the Niirala school that presents change in colors due to original material more than to weathering on site. Fissuring is also visible on a couple of blocks while marks on the rocks depict the old excavation method. Most often the deposits had been in the vicinities, frequently hidden by further construction

  3. Heart Rate Fragmentation: A Symbolic Dynamical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena D. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently introduced the concept of heart rate fragmentation along with a set of metrics for its quantification. The term was coined to refer to an increase in the percentage of changes in heart rate acceleration sign, a dynamical marker of a type of anomalous variability. The effort was motivated by the observation that fragmentation, which is consistent with the breakdown of the neuroautonomic-electrophysiologic control system of the sino-atrial node, could confound traditional short-term analysis of heart rate variability.Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (1 introduce a symbolic dynamical approach to the problem of quantifying heart rate fragmentation; (2 evaluate how the distribution of the different dynamical patterns (“words” varied with the participants' age in a group of healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; and (3 quantify the differences in the fragmentation patterns between the two sample populations.Methods: The symbolic dynamical method employed here was based on a ternary map of the increment NN interval time series and on the analysis of the relative frequency of symbolic sequences (words with a pre-defined set of features. We analyzed annotated, open-access Holter databases of healthy subjects and patients with CAD, provided by the University of Rochester Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW.Results: The degree of fragmentation was significantly higher in older individuals than in their younger counterparts. However, the fragmentation patterns were different in the two sample populations. In healthy subjects, older age was significantly associated with a higher percentage of transitions from acceleration/deceleration to zero acceleration and vice versa (termed “soft” inflection points. In patients with CAD, older age was also significantly associated with higher percentages of frank reversals in heart rate acceleration (transitions from acceleration to

  4. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  5. Persian Gardens: Meanings, Symbolism, and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahmoudi Farahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings intertwined with it. In this sense, the architecture and design are the interface for transferring meaning and identity to the nation and future generations. Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society. This paper aims to investigate the patterns of design and architecture in Persian gardens and the meanings intertwined with their patterns and significant elements such as water and trees. Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society. This paper seeks to explore Persian gardens in terms of their geometric structure, irrigation system, network construction and pavilions alongside design qualities such as hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony. In the second stage, the paper investigates the fundamental symbols and their philosophy in the creation of Persian gardens and in relation to the architecture and design.

  6. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  7. Symbolic computation in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a prototype environment for decision analysis implemented on the PC using an object-oriented LISP. A unique feature of this environment is the extensive use of symbolic computation and object oriented programming. Models, e.g. contaminant transport and uptake, are built with the environment, itself recognizing new parameters, uncertainties and functions as they first appear and can be modified at any time with the appropriate changes propagated throughout the environment. The environment automatically generates and executes a complete interactive input sequence during the model construction. In addition to a primary decision criterion, secondary criteria or constraints may be used to define any decision

  8. Treatment, material, care, and patient-related factors in contact lens-related dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Padmapriya; Sinnott, Loraine T; Nichols, Jason J

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of general contact lens and material characteristics, care solutions, treatment, and patient-related factors on contact lens-related dry eye. The data were derived from the Contact Lens and Dry Eye Study, designed as a cross-sectional and nested case-control study including 360 subjects. In separate statistical models, logistic regression was used to examine general contact lens characteristics, specific hydrogel lens materials, care solutions, and patient-related factors associated with dry eye status (controlled for age, gender, and current treatments). Several factors were significantly associated with dry eye, including treatment factors such as a recent contact lens refitting (odds ratios [OR] = 5.75, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 2.14 to 15.46) and use of artificial tears/rewetting drops (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.16), in addition, currently worn materials including Food and Drug Administration (FDA) group II (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14 to 6.19) and IV (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.08 to 3.24). Significant patient-related factors included decreased overall satisfaction (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.08 to 5.88,), dry eye in the absence of contact lens wear (OR = 6.54, 95% CI = 2.57 to 16.62), reduced daily lens wear duration (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.26), and reduced ability to wear lenses as long as desired (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.30 to 4.54). Care solutions were not associated with contact lens-related dry eye. The strong association of common treatment factors with dry eye status in contact lens wearers suggests that these treatments are not entirely effective. The use of high water content materials was strongly related to dry eye in lens wearers, whereas care solutions were not. Contact lens-related dry eye was also associated with several patient-related factors such as greater ocular discomfort (without lenses), dissatisfaction, and inability to wear lenses for desired durations.

  9. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Yu Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. The Symbolic Dimension of Gender Violence: an introductory discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Gomes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to support a positive campaign against gender violence, or violence against women, by offering an introductory account of its symbolism. First, I set out the case for taking gender and masculinity to be the keys to understanding the symbolism of violence in the conetxt of gender relations. I then use that analysis to bring into focus those cases of violence which are otherwise hidden or unrecognised. Lastly, I offer suggestions as to how the debate may be continued.

  11. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, M.S.; Viti, L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus–based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  12. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning.

  13. Wavelet characterization of Hörmander symbol class Sm ρ, δ Sm ρ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... non-regular symbol operators, we establish sharp 2-continuity which is better than Calderón and Vaillancourt's result, and establish L p ( 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞ ) continuity which is new and sharp. Our new idea is to analyse the symbol operators in phase space with relative wavelets, and to establish the kernel distribution property ...

  14. Country Differences in the History of Use of Health Claims and Symbols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Fernandez, Laura; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Stancu, Violeta; Raats, Monique; Egan, Bernadette; Brown, Kerry; Trijp, van Hans; Kleef, van Ellen; Herpen, van Erica; Gröppel-Klein, Andrea; Leick, Stephanie; Pfeifer, Katja; Verbeke, Wim; Hoefkens, Christine; Smed, Sinne; Jansen, Léon; Laser-Reuterswärd, Anita; Korošec, Živa; Pravst, Igor; Kušar, Anita; Klopčič, Marija; Pohar, Jure; Gracia, Azucena; Magistris, Tiziana; Grunert, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Health-related claims and symbols are intended as aids to help consumers make informed and healthier food choices but they can also stimulate the food industry to develop food that goes hand in hand with a healthier lifestyle. In order to better understand the role that health claims and symbols

  15. Country differences in the history of use of health claims and symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Fernandez, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Health-related claims and symbols are intended as aids to help consumers make informed and healthier food choices but they can also stimulate the food industry to develop food that goes hand in hand with a healthier lifestyle. In order to better understand the role that health claims and symbols...... currently have and in the future potentially can have, the objective of the CLYMBOL project (“Role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour”, Grant no 311963) is to investigate consumers’ understanding of health claims and symbols, and how they affect purchasing and consumption [1......]. As part of this endeavour, it is important to understand the history of use of claims and symbols in Europe. What have consumers been exposed to and how were these health-related messages used and discussed among the public? In this study, we interviewed key stakeholders across Europe about how health...

  16. Symbolic trephinations and population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Szathmáry

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The sample examined consists of 19 skulls with symbolic trephinations and 86 skulls without trepanations dated from the X century. Skulls were all excavated in the Great Hungarian Plain in the Carpathian Basin, which was occupied by the Hungarian conquerors at the end of the IX century. The variations of 12 cranial dimensions of the trephined skulls were investigated and compared to the skulls without trepanations after performing a discriminant analysis. The classification results evince that the variability of non-trephined skulls shows a more homogeneous and a more characteristic picture of their own group than the trephined samples, which corresponds to the notion, formed by archaeological evidence and written historical sources, of a both ethnically and socially differing population of the Hungarian conquerors. According to historical research, a part of the population was of Finno-Ugric origin, while the military leading layer of society can be brought into connection with Turkic ethnic groups. All the same, individuals dug up with rich grave furniture and supposed to belong to this upper stratum of society are primarily characterized by the custom of symbolic trephination, and, as our results demonstrate, craniologically they seem to be more heterogeneous.

  17. [Symbolism on "natural" in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga Soares Carvalho, Maria Claudia; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2011-01-01

    The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary and ecologic crisis of the planet, against the large-scale industrialization and fast urbanization, defined as depredation factors of basic living conditions. The exchanges happen in a symbolic game connected with the global economic game, in which social actors make bets, illusio, according to particular intentions in concrete action. There is a chance to reformulate the rules of the game in the "game", although with a precarious balance of forces, in which the weaker side loses, an agent may have the possibility of not reproducing the pressures of globalized feeding, which is far from what might seem supernatural.

  18. Symbolic dynamics of noisy chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchfield, J P; Packard, N H

    1983-05-01

    One model of randomness observed in physical systems is that low-dimensional deterministic chaotic attractors underly the observations. A phenomenological theory of chaotic dynamics requires an accounting of the information flow fromthe observed system to the observer, the amount of information available in observations, and just how this information affects predictions of the system's future behavior. In an effort to develop such a description, the information theory of highly discretized observations of random behavior is discussed. Metric entropy and topological entropy are well-defined invariant measures of such an attractor's level of chaos, and are computable using symbolic dynamics. Real physical systems that display low dimensional dynamics are, however, inevitably coupled to high-dimensional randomness, e.g. thermal noise. We investigate the effects of such fluctuations coupled to deterministic chaotic systems, in particular, the metric entropy's response to the fluctuations. It is found that the entropy increases with a power law in the noise level, and that the convergence of the entropy and the effect of fluctuations can be cast as a scaling theory. It is also argued that in addition to the metric entropy, there is a second scaling invariant quantity that characterizes a deterministic system with added fluctuations: I/sub 0/, the maximum average information obtainable about the initial condition that produces a particular sequence of measurements (or symbols). 46 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  19. Honorary authorship and symbolic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2017-03-01

    This paper invokes the conceptual framework of Bourdieu to analyse the mechanisms, which help to maintain inappropriate authorship practices and the functions these practices may serve. Bourdieu's social theory with its emphasis on mechanisms of domination can be applied to the academic field, too, where competition is omnipresent, control mechanisms of authorship are loose, and the result of performance assessment can be a matter of symbolic life and death for the researchers. This results in a problem of game-theoretic nature, where researchers' behaviour will be determined more by the logic of competition, than by individual character or motives. From this follows that changing this practice requires institutionalized mechanisms, and change cannot be expected from simply appealing to researchers' individual conscience. The article aims at showing that academic capital (administrative power, seniority) is translated into honorary authorship. With little control, undetected honorary authorship gives the appearance of possessing intellectual capital (scientific merit). In this way a dominant position is made to be seen as natural result of intellectual ability or scientific merit, which makes it more acceptable to those in dominated positions. The final conclusion of this paper is that undemocratic authorship decisions and authorship based performance assessment together are a form of symbolic violence.

  20. Concise encyclopedia of semiconducting materials and related technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, S M

    1992-01-01

    The development of electronic materials and particularly advances in semiconductor technology have played a central role in the electronics revolution by allowing the production of increasingly cheap and powerful computing equipment and advanced telecommunications devices. This Concise Encyclopedia, which incorporates relevant articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering as well as newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the materials aspects of semiconductors and the technologies important in solid-state electronics. Growth of bulk crystals and epitaxial layer

  1. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    OpenAIRE

    Munyangeyo, Théophile

    2012-01-01

    The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although th...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated VF—greenish...

  3. Information decomposition method to analyze symbolical sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkov, E.V.; Korotkova, M.A.; Kudryashov, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The information decomposition (ID) method to analyze symbolical sequences is presented. This method allows us to reveal a latent periodicity of any symbolical sequence. The ID method is shown to have advantages in comparison with application of the Fourier transformation, the wavelet transform and the dynamic programming method to look for latent periodicity. Examples of the latent periods for poetic texts, DNA sequences and amino acids are presented. Possible origin of a latent periodicity for different symbolical sequences is discussed

  4. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  5. Neural Correlates of Symbolic Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussolin, Christophe; De Volder, Anne; Grandin, Cecile; Schlogel, Xavier; Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3-6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9-11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The two…

  6. Symbolic Reachability for Process Algebras with Recursive Data Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Fitzgerald, J.S.; Haxthausen, A.E.; Yenigun, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a symbolic reachability algorithm for process algebras with recursive data types. Like the various saturation based algorithms of Ciardo et al, the algorithm is based on partitioning of the transition relation into events whose influence is local. As new features, our

  7. Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

  8. Many-Body Theory of Pyrochlore Iridates and Related Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runzhi

    In this thesis we focus on two problems. First we propose a numerical method for generating optimized Wannier functions with desired properties. Second we perform the state of the art density functional plus dynamical mean-field calculations in pyrochlore iridates, to investigate the physics induced by the cooperation of spin-orbit coupling and electron correlation. We begin with the introduction for maximally localized Wannier functions and other related extensions. Then we describe the current research in the field of spin-orbit coupling and its interplay with correlation effects, followed by a brief introduction of the `hot' materials of iridates. Before the end of the introduction, we discuss the numerical methods employed in our work, including the density functional theory; dynamical mean-field theory and its combination with the exact diagonalization impurity solver. Then we propose our approach for constructing an optimized set of Wannier functions, which is a generalization of the functionality of the classic maximal localization method put forward by Marzari and Vanderbilt. Our work is motivated by the requirement of the effective description of the local subspace of the Hamiltonian by the beyond density functional theory methods. In extensions of density functional theory such as dynamical mean-field theory, one may want highly accurate description of particular local orbitals, including correct centers and symmetries; while the basis for the remaining degrees of freedom is unimportant. Therefore, we develop the selectively localized Wannier function approach which allows for a greater localization in the selected subset of Wannier functions and at the same time allows us to fix the centers and ensure the point symmetries. Applications in real materials are presented to demonstrate the power of our approach. Next we move to the investigation of pyrochlore iridates, focussing on the metal-insulator transition and material dependence in these compounds. We

  9. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  10. Application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation software in solving applied mechanics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Lang; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    As its name implies, symbolic and algebraic manipulation is an operational tool which not only can retain symbols throughout computations but also can express results in terms of symbols. This report starts with a history of symbolic and algebraic manipulators and a review of the literatures. With the help of selected examples, the capabilities of symbolic and algebraic manipulators are demonstrated. These applications to problems of applied mechanics are then presented. They are the application of automatic formulation to applied mechanics problems, application to a materially nonlinear problem (rigid-plastic ring compression) by finite element method (FEM) and application to plate problems by FEM. The advantages and difficulties, contributions, education, and perspectives of symbolic and algebraic manipulation are discussed. It is well known that there exist some fundamental difficulties in symbolic and algebraic manipulation, such as internal swelling and mathematical limitation. A remedy for these difficulties is proposed, and the three applications mentioned are solved successfully. For example, the closed from solution of stiffness matrix of four-node isoparametrical quadrilateral element for 2-D elasticity problem was not available before. Due to the work presented, the automatic construction of it becomes feasible. In addition, a new advantage of the application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation found is believed to be crucial in improving the efficiency of program execution in the future. This will substantially shorten the response time of a system. It is very significant for certain systems, such as missile and high speed aircraft systems, in which time plays an important role.

  11. Readability of Online Patient Education Materials Related to IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnteggart, Gregory E; Naeem, Muhammad; Skierkowski, Dorothy; Baird, Grayson L; Ahn, Sun H; Soares, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    To assess the readability of online patient education materials (OPEM) related to common diseases treated by and procedures performed by interventional radiology (IR). The following websites were chosen based on their average Google search return for each IR OPEM content area examined in this study: Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), National Library of Medicine, RadiologyInfo, Mayo Clinic, WebMD, and Wikipedia. IR OPEM content area was assessed for the following: peripheral arterial disease, central venous catheter, varicocele, uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and deep vein thrombosis. The following algorithms were used to estimate and compare readability levels: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formula, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Coleman-Liau Index. Data were analyzed using general mixed modeling. On average, online sources that required beyond high school grade-level readability were Wikipedia (15.0), SIR (14.2), and RadiologyInfo (12.4); sources that required high school grade-level readability were CIRSE (11.3), Mayo Clinic (11.0), WebMD (10.6), and National Library of Medicine (9.0). On average, OPEM on uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, varicocele, and peripheral arterial disease required the highest level of readability (12.5, 12.3, 12.3, and 12.2, respectively). The IR OPEM assessed in this study were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level and the health literacy level of the average American adult. Many patients in the general public may not have the ability to read and understand health information in IR OPEM. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  13. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  14. International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (22nd) (IPRM) held on 31 May-4 Jun 2010, at Takamatsu Symbol Tower, Kagawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    Bergman. M. J. Choc . M. T. Bulsara, E. A. Fitzgerald. D. Smith. D. Clark. R. Thompson, C. Drazek. N. Daval. L. Benaissa, F. Augendre, "A high...architectures on a single-chip in order to optimize components with different optical properties. The execution of this integration strategy has...Chris Choc , and Charles H. Fields, "IF-sampling fourth-order bandpass AS modulator for digital receiver applications", IEEE Journal of Solid

  15. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A.; Sanches, Matias P.

    2001-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  16. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  17. Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikorr, W.

    1986-01-01

    By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Data science and symbolic AI: Synergies, challenges and opportunities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-06-02

    Symbolic approaches to artificial intelligence represent things within a domain of knowledge through physical symbols, combine symbols into symbol expressions, and manipulate symbols and symbol expressions through inference processes. While a large part of Data Science relies on statistics and applies statistical approaches to artificial intelligence, there is an increasing potential for successfully applying symbolic approaches as well. Symbolic representations and symbolic inference are close to human cognitive representations and therefore comprehensible and interpretable; they are widely used to represent data and metadata, and their specific semantic content must be taken into account for analysis of such information; and human communication largely relies on symbols, making symbolic representations a crucial part in the analysis of natural language. Here we discuss the role symbolic representations and inference can play in Data Science, highlight the research challenges from the perspective of the data scientist, and argue that symbolic methods should become a crucial component of the data scientists’ toolbox.

  19. Data science and symbolic AI: Synergies, challenges and opportunities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Queralt-Rosinach, Nú ria

    2017-01-01

    Symbolic approaches to artificial intelligence represent things within a domain of knowledge through physical symbols, combine symbols into symbol expressions, and manipulate symbols and symbol expressions through inference processes. While a large part of Data Science relies on statistics and applies statistical approaches to artificial intelligence, there is an increasing potential for successfully applying symbolic approaches as well. Symbolic representations and symbolic inference are close to human cognitive representations and therefore comprehensible and interpretable; they are widely used to represent data and metadata, and their specific semantic content must be taken into account for analysis of such information; and human communication largely relies on symbols, making symbolic representations a crucial part in the analysis of natural language. Here we discuss the role symbolic representations and inference can play in Data Science, highlight the research challenges from the perspective of the data scientist, and argue that symbolic methods should become a crucial component of the data scientists’ toolbox.

  20. Logic-Symbolic and Alphabetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dair Aily Franco de Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to recoup the ideas and the proposal of H. Furth (1973, pointing it as another option to try to work with the children’s difficulties in the alphabetization process. The author considers the substitution of “schools of the language” for “schools of the thought”, that is, to substitute the option of the teacher in the reading-writing education, in its traditional form, of how to transform graphical signals into sonorous and vice-versa, for that one of the thought consolidation, feeding the intellect in development of the child by exercises of “symbolic logic”. For theoretical basing, we still present some aspects of the psychogenetic theory, as well as other works carried through more recently on the subject, that even so “transvestite” (disguised with new clothing, still find their beddings in the J. Piaget’s basis.

  1. [Determining visual acuity with LH symbols and Landolt rings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, M; Becker, R

    1999-08-01

    Lea (LH) symbols seem to be favourable for visual acuity assessment in childhood. The symbols of the LH test are well standardized and applicable to preschool children. We compared the visual acuity determined by LH single symbols (LH) and the acuity measured with the Landolt-C (LC). 138 cooperative subjects aged 7 to 91 years were examined. Their visual acuity was either normal or reduced due to various etiologies. Their refractive error was corrected. The monocular LH and LC were determined by a 3/4 criterion (study 1). In 19 healthy subjects aged 21 to 58 years, acuity was reduced stepwise by 5 different calibrated occlusives (study 2). A Lighthouse single symbol book (LH symbols) was used at a distance of 3 m. LC was determined at a distance of 5 m. The luminance of the test field was 180-200 cd/m2. The right eye of each patient and the amblyopic eye of the squinting patients was taken for statistical evaluation. The strabismic patients' interocular differences of LC and LH were compared. Within study 1, LC ranged from 0.02 to 2.0 and LH from 0.03 to 2.5. LH overestimated LC by 1.4 lines on an average (t-test p 1 line, 85.7% resp. 90% of the strabismic amblyopic patients with an interocular LC difference > 1 resp > 2 lines were detected. In study 2, LC ranged from 0.1 to 1.6, LH from 0.12 to 2.0. The mean difference LH-LC was 1.3 lines. The regression equation was lgLH = 0.91 lgLC + 0.08 (r = 0.95). LH symbols allow a reliable measurement of recognition acuity. Due to the design of the symbols, they are excellently suitable for application to preschool children. Age related normal values should be established. The systematic difference between the LC acuity and the LH acuity measured with the Lighthouse LH single symbol book by 1.4 lines has to be considered.

  2. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed in...

  3. The Rhetoric of Disenchantment through Symbolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyangeyo, Théophile

    2012-01-01

    The symbolism of "flowers" has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an…

  4. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  5. NMR-CT image and symbol phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Syozo; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We have developed Japanese phantoms in two procedures. One is described as a mathematical expression. Another is 'symbol phantoms' in 3 dimensional picture-elements, each of which symbolize an organ name. The concept and the algorithm of the symbol phantom enables us to make a phantom for a individual in terms of all his transversal section images. We got 85 transversal section images of head and trunk parts, and those of 40 legs parts by using NMR-CT. We have made the individual phantom for computation of organ doses. The transversal section images were not so clear to identify all organs needed to dose estimation that we had to do hand-editing the shapes of organs with viewing a typical section images: we could not yet make symbol phantom in a automatic editing. Symbols were coded to be visual cords as ASCII characters. After we got the symbol phantom of the first stage, we can edit it easily using a word-processor. Symbol phantom could describe more freely the shape of organs than mathematical phantom. Symbol phantom has several advantages to be an individual phantom, but the only difficult point is how to determine its end-point as a reference man when we apply the method to build the reference man. (author)

  6. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP means...

  7. An FMRI-compatible Symbol Search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Spencer W; Clark, Uraina S; Xu, Xiaomeng; Riskin-Jones, Hannah H; Hawkshead, Brittany E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Labbe, Donald; Jerskey, Beth A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants' performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test-retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; pSymbol Search (r=.717; pSymbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance.

  8. Deficient symbol processing in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepper, Max; Steuwe, Carolin; Beblo, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Boedeker, Sebastian; Thomas, Christine; Markowitsch, Hans J; Driessen, Martin; Sammer, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Symbols and signs have been suggested to improve the orientation of patients suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there are hardly any studies that confirm whether AD patients benefit from signs or symbols and which symbol characteristics might improve or impede their symbol comprehension. To address these issues, 30 AD patients and 30 matched healthy controls performed a symbol processing task (SPT) with 4 different item categories. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was run to identify impact of different item categories on performance accuracy in both the experimental groups. Moreover, SPT scores were correlated with neuropsychological test scores in a broad range of other cognitive domains. Finally, diagnostic accuracy of the SPT was calculated by a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Results revealed a global symbol processing dysfunction in AD that was associated with semantic memory and executive deficits. Moreover, AD patients showed a disproportional performance decline at SPT items with visual distraction. Finally, the SPT total score showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between AD patients and healthy controls. The present findings suggest that specific symbol features impede symbol processing in AD and argue for a diagnostic benefit of the SPT in neuropsychological assessment.

  9. History of international symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The year 1996 marks the 50th anniversary of the radiation warning symbol as we currently know it. It was (except the colours used) doodled out at the University of California, Berkeley, sometime in 1946 by a small group of people. The key guy responsible was Nelson Garden, then the head of the Health Chemistry Group, at the Radiation Laboratory. The radiation warning symbol should not be confused with the civil defence symbol (circle divided into six equal sections, three of these being black and three yellow), designed to identify fallout shelters. The basic radiation symbol was eventually internationally standardized by ISO code: 361-1975 (E). Variations of this symbol are frequently used in logotypes radiation protection organizations or associations. Particularly nice are those of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) and Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) that combines traditional Croatian motives with high technology. However, apart from speculations, there is no definite answer why did the Berkeley people chose this particular symbol. Whatever the reason was, it was very good choice because the ionizing radiation symbol is simple, readily identifiable, i.e., not similar to other warning symbols, and discernible at a large distance. (author)

  10. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate symbol(s) on areas, such as wildlife management areas and fishing access facilities, acquired..., losses and damages arising out of any allegedly unauthorized use of any patent, process, idea, method or... and also from any claims, suits, losses and damages arising out of alleged defects in the articles or...

  11. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally

  12. Self-symbols as implicit motivators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.W.; Wennekers, A.M.; Bijlstra, G.; Jongenelen, M.M.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The present research explored the nonconscious motivational influence of self-symbols. In line with recent findings on the motivational influence of positive affect, we hypothesized that positive affect associated with self-symbols may boost motivation. In Study I people drank more of a beverage

  13. Self-symbols as implicit motivators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.W.; Wennekers, A.M.; Bijlstra, G.; Jongenelen, M.M.; van Knippenberg, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present research explored the nonconscious motivational influence of self-symbols. In line with recent findings on the motivational influence of positive affect, we hypothesized that positive affect associated with self-symbols may boost motivation. In Study 1 people drank more of a beverage

  14. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  15. Democracy and the Symbolic Constitution of Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindahl, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, this paper argues that the continuities and discontinuities characterizing the passage from medieval politics to modern democracy can best be understood by reference to political power's symbolic structure. For the one, political power,

  16. Symbolic initiative and its application to computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellerman, L

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews the role of symbolic initiative in mathematics and then defines a sense in which computers compute mathematical functions. This allows a clarification of the semantics of computer and communication data. Turing's view of machine intelligence is examined in terms of its use of symbolic initiative. 12 references.

  17. The Symbolic Meaning of Legal Subjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessers, D.; van Klink, B.; van Beers, B.; Poort, L.

    2016-01-01

    The legitimacy of the law is not to be found, as is often claimed, in procedural justice, but in the core function of the law: the symbolic insertion of every new generation into the community of legal subjects. This symbolic function is most ambitiously expressed in the Universal Declaration of

  18. Self-organisation of symbolic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Information is encountered in two different appearances, in native form by arbitrary physical structures, or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters or the like. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information from structural information is referred to as a ritualisation transition. Occurring at some stage in evolutionary history, ritualisation transitions have in common that after the crossover, arbitrary symbols are issued and recognised by information-processing devices, by transmitters and receivers in the sense of Shannon's communication theory. Symbolic information-processing systems exhibit the fundamental code symmetry whose key features, such as largely lossless copying or persistence under hostile conditions, may elucidate the reasons for the repeated successful occurrence of ritualisation phenomena in evolution history. Ritualisation examples are briefly reviewed such as the origin of life, the appearance of human languages, the establishment of emergent social categories such as money, or the development of digital computers. In addition to their role as carriers of symbolic information, symbols are physical structures which also represent structural information. For a thermodynamic description of symbols and their arrangements, it appears reasonable to distinguish between Boltzmann entropy, Clausius entropy and Pauling entropy. Thermodynamic properties of symbols imply that their lifetimes are limited by the 2nd law.

  19. Issues related to the use of genetic material and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, E; Jacobs, L A

    2000-04-01

    To review issues regarding the use of genetic materials and information. Professional literature, regional and federal legislation. An analysis is provided of the relationship among advances in genetic technology, use of genetic material and information, and the development of laws that protect the interests of donors, researchers, and insurers. Rapid technological achievements have generated complex questions that are difficult to answer. The Human Genome Project began and the scientific discoveries were put to use before adequate professional and public debate on the ethical, legal, social, and clinical issues. The term "proper use" of genetic material and information is not defined consistently. An incomplete patchwork of protective state and federal legislation exists. Many complicated issues surround the use and potential misuse of genetic material and information. Rapidly advancing technology in genetics makes it difficult for regulations that protect individuals and families to keep pace. Oncology nurses need to recognize their role as change agents, understand genetic technology, and advocate for patients by participating in the debate on the proper use and prevention of misuse of genetic material and information.

  20. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  1. Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, Matt G.

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

  2. Symbolic math for computation of radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, Vitisha; Datta, D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation transport calculations for shielding studies in the field of accelerator technology often involve intensive numerical computations. Traditionally, radiation transport equation is solved using finite difference scheme or advanced finite element method with respect to specific initial and boundary conditions suitable for the geometry of the problem. All these computations need CPU intensive computer codes for accurate calculation of scalar and angular fluxes. Computation using symbols of the analytical expression representing the transport equation as objects is an enhanced numerical technique in which the computation is completely algorithm and data oriented. Algorithm on the basis of symbolic math architecture is developed using Symbolic math toolbox of MATLAB software. Present paper describes the symbolic math algorithm and its application as a case study in which shielding calculation of rectangular slab geometry is studied for a line source of specific activity. Study of application of symbolic math in this domain evolves a new paradigm compared to the existing computer code such as DORT. (author)

  3. Exact computation of the 9-j symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shantao; Chiu Jingnan

    1992-01-01

    A useful algebraic formula for the 9-j symbol has been rewritten for convenient use on a computer. A simple FORTRAN program for the exact computation of 9-j symbols has been written for the VAX with VMS version V5,4-1 according to this formula. The results agree with the approximate values in existing literature. Some specific values of 9-j symbols needed for the intensity and alignments of three-photon nonresonant transitions are tabulated. Approximate 9-j symbol values beyond the limitation of the computer can also be computed by this program. The computer code of the exact computation of 3-j, 6-j and 9-j symbols are available through electronic mail upon request. (orig.)

  4. Symbol in Point View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. R. Yousefi

    Full Text Available Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry; its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this complex world

  5. CONSUMPTION AS A SOCIAL STATUS SYMBOL IN STRUCTURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Naydenov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the basic theoretical concepts of the political economy of the sign (structuralism, postmodernity and their development in the theory of power based on the work by J. Baudrillard ‘For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign’. The study is focused on consumption as the person’s social status symbol, it compares and contrasts basic concepts of structuralism and neo-liberalism.According to structuralism social structure is reproduced through the reproduction of objects/signs. It is important that not only things or money but mathematical formulas, linguistic constructions and people can act as signs. Structuralism views consumption as a person’s social status symbol. Respectively, exchange is viewed as the exchange of symbols.  The society needs the diversity of signs and manipulating the signs is one of the modern society’s illnesses.Liberalism is a social movement, which confronts the person’s enslavement by communal ties and limitations within the limits of property and in the aspects where the individual is helpless in front of the society. Neoliberalism proclaims the liberal model of an individual, who is primarily concerned with their belonging to their society and the struggle between the signs is significant. Assigning a certain value to the symbol is typical both for structuralism and neo-modernism.The authors find it necessary to raise the symbolic diversity of the Russian society trough increasing the forms of consumption. At the same time we should not forget that the society is based on material production.

  6. SYMBOL AND LOGO. THE WAY IN WHICH YOUNG PEOPLE IN KRAKOW PERCEIVE SYMBOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbols are essential elements of each culture. Thanks to them the meaning is created and tradition is kept alive. Advertising and marketing specialist quite often use the meanings of the symbols to create trademarks. In this way specialists refer to the assotiations rooted in the tradition.In my article I am trying to answer following questions: Has logo become symbol? Has logo taken over all the function of the symbol? Can we tell the difference between the meaning of the advertisement and the cultural meaning? I also want to find out, what people understand through the meaning of the symbol. Therfore I have conducted the survey among the high school students and the customers of three banks of Krakow. My researches have shown that most young people find it difficult to define the meaning of the symbol. Moreover high school students cannot show the difference between the symbol and the trade mark.

  7. Tritium-related materials problems in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pressing materials problems that must be solved before tritium can be used to produce energy economically in fusion reactors are discussed. The following topics are discussed: (1) breeding tritium, (2) recovering bred tritium, (3) containing tritium, (4) fuel recycling, and (5) laser-fusion fueling

  8. Systems and methods for producing biofuels and related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschine, Susan; Warnick, Thomas A.

    2010-03-23

    Clostridium phytofermentans cells (American Type Culture Collection 700394.sup.T) and all other strains of the species can ferment materials such as biomass into useful products and coproducts, such as ethanol, hydrogen and organic acids. Compositions that include Clostridium phytofermentans are also disclosed.

  9. What should Marxism materialism propose to International Relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egni Malo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To argue for the acknowledgment of the importance of historical materialism today when the cold-war and communism have for more than two decades ceased to exist it might create the perception of appearing dejected. Yet such a task which we attempt to take in this work is possible, if only because of the way that our actuality has depicted itself. One can argue for example that the significance of historical materialism as an elucidating method was never reliant on the success of the authoritarian regimes of communism that gave it a face of their own, any more than has traditional conservatism been dependent on social Darwinism, racist or/and aggressive regimes. Beyond this indication we argue of the possibility that historical materialism can be recognised as explanatory system, as one that in derivation and maturity has as its focus of analysis and particularly lays emphasis on what more than ever before governs our social world today, capitalism. The cold war proved the ground or rather the fit for concealing the social and economic divide and made that division namely in competing strategic interest: with the failure of communism and the freeing of historical materialism itself, IR might as well accept the degree to which socio-economic issues determined its agenda and policy of the west.

  10. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [Multilevel and Quadrature Amplitude Shift Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    Much has been said in the literature regarding the problem of establishing symbol synchronization in binary baseband digital communication systems. By comparison, the literature contains little information relating to the extraction of symbol sync from multilevel baseband data. With the recent interest in multilevel amplitude-shift keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems becomes paramount. This paper presents a technique for extracting symbol sync from a MASK or QASK signal which has been transmitted over an infinite-bandwidth white Gaussian noise channel. The scheme is essentially a generalization of the data transition tracking loop (DTTL) which has heretofore been used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop is analyzed in terms of its mean-squared symbol sync jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  11. Symbols and Sexual Perversion of Laura Wingfield in Tennesse Willimas’s The Glass Menagerie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retnowati Retnowati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Glass Menagerie, a play written by Tennessee Williams, is full of symbols in which some of them refer to the sexual perversion in the character of the play such as Laura Wingfield. The research applied library research by taking data from the script of the play, then analysed based on the two theories, those were the theory of symbol and psychological theory called sexual perversions. The symbols in this play was analyzed, especially those related to Laura Wingfield. There were symbols like the glass collection, glass unicorn, blue roses, fire escape and Jim O’Connor which explained the sexual perversion of Laura Wingfield. These symbols were clues to understand the psycological problems suffered by Laura. It can be concluded that The cause of the strange sexual desire is because of her being abnormal because she is crippled and suffers from pleurosis. 

  12. On Modeling Affect in Audio with Non-Linear Symbolic Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Mouawad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of semantic information from complex signals is a task concerned with connecting humans’ perceptions and/or intentions with the signals content. In the case of audio signals, complex perceptions are appraised in a listener’s mind, that trigger affective responses that may be relevant for well-being and survival. In this paper we are interested in the broader question of relations between uncertainty in data as measured using various information criteria and emotions, and we propose a novel method that combines nonlinear dynamics analysis with a method of adaptive time series symbolization that finds the meaningful audio structure in terms of symbolized recurrence properties. In a first phase we obtain symbolic recurrence quantification measures from symbolic recurrence plots, without the need to reconstruct the phase space with embedding. Then we estimate symbolic dynamical invariants from symbolized time series, after embedding. The invariants are: correlation dimension, correlation entropy and Lyapunov exponent. Through their application for the logistic map, we show that our measures are in agreement with known methods from literature. We further show that one symbolic recurrence measure, namely the symbolic Shannon entropy, correlates positively with the positive Lyapunov exponents. Finally we evaluate the performance of our measures in emotion recognition through the implementation of classification tasks for different types of audio signals, and show that in some cases, they perform better than state-of-the-art methods that rely on low-level acoustic features.

  13. A Research on Maximum Symbolic Entropy from Intrinsic Mode Function and Its Application in Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofei Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical mode decomposition (EMD is a self-adaptive analysis method for nonlinear and nonstationary signals. It has been widely applied to machinery fault diagnosis and structural damage detection. A novel feature, maximum symbolic entropy of intrinsic mode function based on EMD, is proposed to enhance the ability of recognition of EMD in this paper. First, a signal is decomposed into a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs based on the local characteristic time scale of the signal, and then IMFs are transformed into a serious of symbolic sequence with different parameters. Second, it can be found that the entropies of symbolic IMFs are quite different. However, there is always a maximum value for a certain symbolic IMF. Third, take the maximum symbolic entropy as features to describe IMFs from a signal. Finally, the proposed features are applied to evaluate the effect of maximum symbolic entropy in fault diagnosis of rolling bearing, and then the maximum symbolic entropy is compared with other standard time analysis features in a contrast experiment. Although maximum symbolic entropy is only a time domain feature, it can reveal the signal characteristic information accurately. It can also be used in other fields related to EMD method.

  14. The Relative Impact of Aligning Tier 2 Intervention Materials with Classroom Core Reading Materials in Grades K-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Herrera, Sarah; Dombek, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial in 55 low-performing schools across Florida compared 2 early literacy interventions--1 using stand-alone materials and 1 using materials embedded in the existing core reading/language arts program. A total of 3,447 students who were below the 30th percentile in vocabulary and reading-related skills participated in…

  15. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  16. Symbolic Computation, Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Mourad

    2001-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the conference "Symbolic Computation, Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics" held at the Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, from November 11 to 13, 1999. The main emphasis of the conference was Com­ puter Algebra (i. e. symbolic computation) and how it related to the fields of Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics. A subject that is common to all of these fields is q-series. We brought together those who do symbolic computation with q-series and those who need q-series in­ cluding workers in Physics and Combinatorics. The goal of the conference was to inform mathematicians and physicists who use q-series of the latest developments in the field of q-series and especially how symbolic computa­ tion has aided these developments. Over 60 people were invited to participate in the conference. We ended up having 45 participants at the conference, including six one hour plenary speakers and 28 half hour speakers. T...

  17. The rod and the serpent: history's ultimate healing symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Learney, Robert; Granderath, Frank A; Antoniou, Athanasios I

    2011-01-01

    The snake has served as a medical emblem for more than 2400 years, since its association with the ancient Greek god of medicine and healing, Asclepius, in the 4th century BC. Its symbolic background can be traced further back to the worship of gods of earth's blossom in ancient Egypt and earth-related deities of the archaic period of Greek antiquity. It is featured entwined around a staff of knowledge and wisdom in most anaglyphs depicting Asclepius. The snake was impressed in the Old and the New Testament as well as in the Christian tradition as a symbol of sin, rejuvenation, death, resurrection, asthenia, and therapy. It is postulated that the double-snake motif was reintroduced by Renaissance philosophers as a medical emblem due to the symbolic connections of Hermes with deliverance and redemption. However, its use during the last two centuries seems to lack substantial historical background. The historical, mythological, and traditional retrospection of the snake's symbolism validates its appropriateness in the health-care field.

  18. Bibliography of published material related to the Soviet PNE Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, G.P.; Nordyke, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Scientists in the Soviet Union have published many papers that provide details about the Soviet program for the peaceful use of nuclear explosions. Over the years much of this material has been gathered at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory into what has become a sizeable collection. The bibliography of 334 references provides a useful record of the material available in that collection. The bibliography is divided into three main parts. Part I lists articles alphabetically. In Part II, the same articles are arranged by subject; many of them are included under more than one subject category. Part III is a list of important collections of papers. These collections provide many of the articles listed in Parts I and II

  19. SOLVING THE HAMILTONIAN CYCLE PROBLEM USING SYMBOLIC DETERMINANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ejov, V.; Filar, J. A.; Lucas, S. K.; Nelson, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    In this note we show how the Hamiltonian Cycle problem can be reduced to solving a system of polynomial equations related to the adjacency matrix of a graph. This system of equations can be solved using the method of Gröbner bases, but we also show how a symbolic determinant related to the adjacency matrix can be used to directly decide whether a graph has a Hamiltonian cycle.

  20. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Munyangeyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although the flower symbolism has social connotations, it is mainly associated with economic references. As flowers are an essential precursor to fruits, they are inevitably a source of expectations and hence foster a set of hopes and dreams, which can ultimately lead to excitement or disappointment.Through a discourse analysis based on factional narratives, this article explores the parameters through which the symbolism of bifaceted meaning of flowers fictionalises a space that refers to the social reality. This association between the fictional world and social reference has highlighted that writing can profoundly be a means of representing social events through the rhetoric of symbolism. Through a sociological reading approach, this paper aims to analyse how the symbolism of flowers informs the rhetoric of disenchantment that can foster a content-based pedagogy in language learning where silencing practices engender imagery to exercise the freedom of expression.

  1. Symbol synchronization for the TDRSS decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, would cause an error in almost every R/S symbol since even a - 1-bit sync slip shifts every bit in each 8-bit symbol by one position, therby confusing the mapping betweeen 8-bit sequences and symbols. The error correcting capability of the R/S code would be exceeded. Possible ways to correcting this condition include: (1) designing the R/S decoder to recognize the overload and shifting the output sequence of the inner decoder to establish a different sync state; (2) using the characteristics of the inner decoder to establish symbol synchronization for the outer code, with or without a deinterleaver and an interleaver; and (3) modifying the encoder to alternate periodically between two sets of generators.

  2. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  3. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Relation between physicomechanical properties and diffusion phenomena in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicaise, E.

    1984-06-01

    One of the procedures for storing low and medium activity nuclear waste consists of coating the contaminated material in a thermosetting resin. The drums thus constitued are stored in concreted underground trenches, then covered with cement, bitumen or clayey soil. Although the risk of water circulation is low, this element represents on the one hand the major cause of natural deterioration of the polymer, and on the other hand the most likely vehicle for conveying the radioactive ions confined in the drums. It is for this reason that the study of the behaviour of polyester or epoxide-based macromolecular materials with regard to water constitutes the first stage of this work. The second part of the thesis is directed towards the study of compound materials. Indeed, the charges are represented in the first case by the nuclear waste itself; in the second case, they are introduced into the polymer beforehand, on the one hand to reduce costs, and on the other hand to give the mixture suitable mechanical and rheological properties. In this study, three types of mineral charge are added in an epoxide resin: glass balls surface-treated or not, and sand. Various techniques are implemented in order to assess and characterize the interfacial adhesion, in the different systems. The strongest polymer-charge bonds are sought in order to resist natural deterioration. Finally, the object of the confinement process, is to avoid dispersion of low and medium activity substances ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co, 106 Ru..) in the environment. The final stage of this work therefore consists in assessing the barrier qualities of pure or charged polymers with regard to radioactive ion diffusion. We will show in particular that the use of fine resin membranes enables the diffusion coefficient of the 137 Cs to be calculated [fr

  5. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  6. Designing and evaluating symbols for electronic displays of navigation information : symbol stereotypes and symbol-feature rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-30

    There is currently no common symbology standard for the electronic display of navigation information. The wide range of display technology and the different functions these displays support makes it difficult to design symbols that are easily recogni...

  7. Democratisation of AAC Symbol Choices Using Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draffan, E A; Wald, Mike; Zeinoun, Nadine; Banes, David

    2017-01-01

    The use of an online voting system has been developed to enable democratic choices of newly designed symbols to support speech, language and literacy skills in a localisation situation. The system works for those using and supporting Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) symbols on electronic systems by the provision of simplified scales of acceptance and adapted grids. The methodology and results highlighted the importance of user participation at the outset and concrete examples of symbol adaptations that were found necessary to ensure higher levels of user satisfaction. Design changes included appropriate local dress codes, linguistic nuances, social settings, the built environment and religious sensitivities.

  8. The standardization of data relational mode in the materials database for nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinxuan

    1996-01-01

    A relational database needs standard data relation ships. The data relation ships include hierarchical structures and repeat set records. Code database is created and the relational database is created between spare parts and materials and properties of the materials. The data relation ships which are not standard are eliminated and all the relation modes are made to meet the demands of the 3NF (Third Norm Form)

  9. The role of long-term memory in digit-symbol test performance in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, R; Kaufman, A

    2009-03-01

    The psychological functions assessed by substitution tests, and the age-related performance decline, are not well understood. Here several aspects of long-term memory were manipulated across younger and older adults. A 45-page Digit-Symbol test was employed. Each page contained a 9-item digit symbol code-table and 9 response items. There were 9 study conditions with each condition deployed across 5 pages, or trials, of the test. The conditions were formed by crossing two within-subjects factors, each with 3 levels. The first factor, Digit Order, pertained to having the code table digits in numerical order vs. a pseudo-random order fixed across trials vs. a pseudo-random order that varied across trials. The second factor, Symbol Pairing, pertained to having a fixed digit-symbol pairing across trials vs. having a varying digit-symbol pairing across trials vs. having a novel set of 9 symbols introduced on each of the 5 trials. Including the additional factor, Age, resulted in a 2 x 3 x 3 mixed randomised block design. The older group was slowed, F(1, 22) = 17.267, p Symbol-Order interaction indicated that use of novel symbols disadvantaged only the older participants, F(1, 44) = 6.577, p = .014. While there was no evidence that incidental paired-associate learning or spatial memory affect digit-symbol performance, symbol familiarity may be important to digit symbol test completion in older adults. The benefit of ordinally arranged digits in the coding table highlights a fundamental process difference between Digit-Symbol and Symbol-Digit test formats.

  10. Material Factors in Relation to Development Time in Liquid-Penetrant Inspection. Part 1. Material Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In technical publications and European Standards the development time (i.e. time of getting out of penetrant from a discontinuity to the material surface in penetration testing is specified within the range of 10-30 minutes. In practice, however, it is seen , that it is closely connected

  11. Children’s Mapping between Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Numerical Magnitudes and Its Association with Timed and Untimed Tests of Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The ability to map between non-symbolic numerical magnitudes and Arabic numerals has been put forward as a key factor in children’s mathematical development. This mapping ability has been mainly examined indirectly by looking at children’s performance on a symbolic magnitude comparison task. The present study investigated mapping in a more direct way by using a task in which children had to choose which of two choice quantities (Arabic digits or dot arrays) matched the target quantity (dot array or Arabic digit), thereby focusing on small quantities ranging from 1 to 9. We aimed to determine the development of mapping over time and its relation to mathematics achievement. Participants were 36 first graders (M = 6 years 8 months) and 46 third graders (M = 8 years 8 months) who all completed mapping tasks, symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks and standardized timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement. Findings revealed that children are able to map between non-symbolic and symbolic representations and that this mapping ability develops over time. Moreover, we found that children’s mapping ability is related to timed and untimed measures of mathematics achievement, over and above the variance accounted for by their numerical magnitude comparison skills. PMID:24699664

  12. Helping children express grief through symbolic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R M

    1984-12-01

    Communication barriers erected by grieving children delay problem resolution. Use of the expressive arts--music, art, and body movement--in symbolic communication helps them to express overwhelming feelings and cope with trauma and stress.

  13. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  14. Multi-core symbolic bisimulation minimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Tom van; Pol, Jaco van de

    2017-01-01

    We introduce parallel symbolic algorithms for bisimulation minimisation, to combat the combinatorial state space explosion along three different paths. Bisimulation minimisation reduces a transition system to the smallest system with equivalent behaviour. We consider strong and branching

  15. Three Alternative Symbol-Lock Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Mazen M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Shah, Biren N.

    1993-01-01

    Three symbol-lock detectors proposed as alternatives in advanced receivers processing non-return-to-zero binary data signals. Two perform operations similar to those of older square-law and absolute-value types. However, integrals computed during nonoverlapping symbol periods and, therefore, only one integrator needed in each such detector. Proposed detectors simpler, but performances worse because noises in overlapping samples correlated, whereas noises in nonoverlapping samples not correlated. Third detector is signal-power-estimator type. Signal integrated during successive half symbol cycles, and therefore only one integrator needed. Half-cycle integrals multiplied to eliminate effect of symbol polarity, and products accumulated during M-cycle observation period to smooth out estimate of signal power. If estimated signal power exceeds threshold, delta, then lock declared.

  16. Meanings of Consumption and Abandonment: Understanding Smoking Cessation Symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Carvalho Suarez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology to collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

  17. Symbolic and non symbolic numerical representation in adults with and without developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Tamar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question whether Developmental Dyscalculia (DD; a deficit in the ability to process numerical information is the result of deficiencies in the non symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., a group of dots or in the symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., Arabic numerals has been debated in scientific literature. It is accepted that the non symbolic system is divided into two different ranges, the subitizing range (i.e., quantities from 1-4 which is processed automatically and quickly, and the counting range (i.e., quantities larger than 4 which is an attention demanding procedure and is therefore processed serially and slowly. However, so far no study has tested the automaticity of symbolic and non symbolic representation in DD participants separately for the subitizing and the counting ranges. Methods DD and control participants undergo a novel version of the Stroop task, i.e., the Enumeration Stroop. They were presented with a random series of between one and nine written digits, and were asked to name either the relevant written digit (in the symbolic task or the relevant quantity of digits (in the non symbolic task while ignoring the irrelevant aspect. Result DD participants, unlike the control group, didn't show any congruency effect in the subitizing range of the non symbolic task. Conclusion These findings suggest that DD may be impaired in the ability to process symbolic numerical information or in the ability to automatically associate the two systems (i.e., the symbolic vs. the non symbolic. Additionally DD have deficiencies in the non symbolic counting range.

  18. Symbolic and non symbolic numerical representation in adults with and without developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Tamar; Rubinsten, Orly

    2012-11-28

    The question whether Developmental Dyscalculia (DD; a deficit in the ability to process numerical information) is the result of deficiencies in the non symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., a group of dots) or in the symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., Arabic numerals) has been debated in scientific literature. It is accepted that the non symbolic system is divided into two different ranges, the subitizing range (i.e., quantities from 1-4) which is processed automatically and quickly, and the counting range (i.e., quantities larger than 4) which is an attention demanding procedure and is therefore processed serially and slowly. However, so far no study has tested the automaticity of symbolic and non symbolic representation in DD participants separately for the subitizing and the counting ranges. DD and control participants undergo a novel version of the Stroop task, i.e., the Enumeration Stroop. They were presented with a random series of between one and nine written digits, and were asked to name either the relevant written digit (in the symbolic task) or the relevant quantity of digits (in the non symbolic task) while ignoring the irrelevant aspect. DD participants, unlike the control group, didn't show any congruency effect in the subitizing range of the non symbolic task. These findings suggest that DD may be impaired in the ability to process symbolic numerical information or in the ability to automatically associate the two systems (i.e., the symbolic vs. the non symbolic). Additionally DD have deficiencies in the non symbolic counting range.

  19. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang

    1969-01-01

    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  20. Multi-core symbolic bisimulation minimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Tom van; Pol, Jaco van de

    2017-01-01

    We introduce parallel symbolic algorithms for bisimulation minimisation, to combat the combinatorial state space explosion along three different paths. Bisimulation minimisation reduces a transition system to the smallest system with equivalent behaviour. We consider strong and branching bisimilarity for interactive Markov chains, which combine labelled transition systems and continuous-time Markov chains. Large state spaces can be represented concisely by symbolic techniques, based on binary...

  1. Symbolic dynamics and description of complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Bailin.

    1992-10-01

    Symbolic dynamics provides a general framework to describe complexity of dynamical behaviour. After a discussion of the state of the filed special emphasis will be made on the role of transfer matrix (the Stefan matrix) both in deriving the grammar from known symbolic dynamics and in extracting the rules from experimental data. The block structure of the Stefan matrix may serve as another indicator of complexity of the associated dynamics. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs

  2. SISGR: Defect Studies of CZTSSe & Related Thin Film Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpulla, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The research objectives of this project centered around investigations of the basic properties of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 especially the electronic defects in the bulk, at the interface with heterojunction partners used in solar cells, and at the polycrystalline grain boundaries. In the course of the project we addressed many specific sub-areas in 17 peer reviewed publications listed at the end of this report (2 more are also in preparation). The impact of this research is to generate basic but critical materials knowledge about this emerging alloy system that may be capable of photovoltaic efficiency on par with CdTe and CIGS but at lower cost and having the benefit of avoiding constraints on scale-up from rare and expensive elements using earth abundant elements. In the final phase of this project, Prof. Scarpulla worked with Dr. Kirstin Alberi at NREL and rigorously solved a theoretical problem that is general across all semiconductors – the prediction of point defect concentrations in the presence of excess carriers.

  3. [On the notes of the Xinkan Huangdimingtangjiujing (see text for symbol) in the possession of the National Diet Library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Yosuke

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the notes of Xinkan huangdimingtangjiujing which are in the possession of the National Diet Library, particularly referring to those notes which include "master said", or "master's theory". Some of those are found in the answers from Manase Dosan (see text for symbol) to Hata Soha (see text for symbol) collected in the Kotei meido kyukyo hushin shosho (see text for symbol) which is the record of the question and answer letters between Manase Dosan and Hata Soha. This research indicates that this volume has a close relation to the acupuncture research of Dosan's or Soha's school. And it indicates that the "master" in the Notes of Xinkan huangdimingtangjiujing refers to Dosan. Acupuncture research has been flourishing since the Edo era and has compiled a lot of volumes on acupuncture. This volume contains some pioneering pieces of this research done in the Azuchi Momoyama era by Dosan and Soha, and is a precious material, showing that some of the state of affairs of the research done in that age still remains today.

  4. Sarawak Bamboo Craft: Symbolism and Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mohd Zaihidee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human beings and their environment has stirred reactions between nature and the development of mind and actions that can be discussed using interdisciplinary approaches such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and history, in understanding human thinking and behavior. A psychological approach is intended to evaluate the individual choices and needs in society. A sociological approach details the various patterns in the social organization. An anthropological approach is tied with culture and belief to fulfil human needs which are based on their habitat, while a historical approach looks at the development which is related to the past. Dimensions of experiences, order and logic, selective elaboration and expressions are used to analyze the bamboo craft of Iban, Melanau and Bidayuh societies in Sarawak long-houses. The existence of constitutive, moral, expressive and cognitive symbols has been interpreted based on a theoretical framework that has been developed by Langer Art Theory, Parsons Social Theory and Kaplan Culture Theory. The values and meaning formed are interpreted to understand matters related to the lives of villagers and the finding suggests that bamboo craft expresses the multi-ethnic mind and character in the socio-culture of long- houses in Sarawak.

  5. New Map Symbol System for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Silvia T.

    2018-05-01

    In the last 10 years Bulgaria was frequently affected by natural and man-made disasters that caused considerable losses. According to the Bulgarian Disaster Management Act (2006) disaster management should be planned at local, regional and national level. Disaster protection is based on plans that include maps such as hazard maps, maps for protection, maps for evacuation planning, etc. Decision-making and cooperation between two or more neighboring municipalities or regions in crisis situation are still rendered difficult because the maps included in the plans differ in scale, colors, map symbols and cartographic design. To improve decision-making process in case of emergency and to reduce the number of human loss and property damages disaster management plans at local and regional level should be supported by detailed thematic maps created in accordance with uniform contents, map symbol system and design. The paper proposes a new symbol system for disaster management that includes a four level hierarchical classification of objects and phenomena according to their type and origin. All objects and phenomena of this classification are divided into five categories: disasters; infrastructure; protection services and infrastructure for protection; affected people and affected infrastructure; operational sites and activities. The symbols of these categories are shown with different background colors and shapes so that they are identifiable. All the symbols have simple but associative design. The new symbol system is used in the design of a series of maps for disaster management at local and regional level.

  6. Symbolic Game Semantics for Model Checking Program Families

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Program families can produce a (potentially huge) number of related programs from a common code base. Many such programs are safety critical. However, most verification techniques are designed to work on the level of single programs, and thus are too costly to apply to the entire program family. In this paper, we propose an efficient game semantics based approach for verifying open program families, i.e. program families with free (undefined) identifiers. We use symbolic representation of alg...

  7. Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Wang, D.G.; Rahman, K.

    1991-11-01

    The original goal of this study was to try and understand the relationship between the thermal and mechanical properties of particulate flows. Two situations were examined. The first is a study of the effects of simple shear flows, as a embryonic flow type on the apparent thermal conductivity and apparent viscosity of a dry granular flow. The second study involved fluidized beds. The original idea was to try and relate the heat transfer behavior of a fluidized bed to the particle pressure,'' the forces by only the particle phase of the two-phase mixture. (VC)

  8. Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Wang, D.G.; Rahman, K.

    1991-11-01

    The original goal of this study was to try and understand the relationship between the thermal and mechanical properties of particulate flows. Two situations were examined. The first is a study of the effects of simple shear flows, as a embryonic flow type on the apparent thermal conductivity and apparent viscosity of a dry granular flow. The second study involved fluidized beds. The original idea was to try and relate the heat transfer behavior of a fluidized bed to the ``particle pressure,`` the forces by only the particle phase of the two-phase mixture. (VC)

  9. The Scientific Import of Symbols in Human Knowledge | Agbanusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbolism, being the use of symbols to represent ideas, it is generally believed that symbolism is restricted to the Arts, especially logic and literature. However, recent developments have shown that symbolism can be an interesting companion and, in fact, a necessary complement, of science. This work X-Rays the ...

  10. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of symbol. 264.11 Section... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a facsimile...

  11. 7 CFR 97.900 - Form of official identification symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol. 97.900 Section... symbol. The symbol set forth in Figure 1, containing the words “Plant Variety Protection Office” and “U.S. Department of Agriculture,” shall be the official identification symbol of the Plant Variety Protection...

  12. Swelling, stiffness, and stress in gel material - as related to moisture sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented by which estimates can be made on swelling, bulk modulus, and internal stresses in gel materials as related to water sorption. Porous gel materials are considered as gel materials made porous by capillary pores large enough not to create capillary condensation and capillary...

  13. 6j symbols for the modular double, quantum hyperbolic geometry, and supersymmetric gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teschner, J.; Vartanov, G.S.

    2012-02-15

    We revisit the definition of the 6j-symbols from the modular double of U{sub q}(sl(2,R)), referred to as b-6j symbols. Our new results are (i) the identification of particularly natural normalization conditions, and (ii) new integral representations for this object. This is used to briefly discuss possible applications to quantum hyperbolic geometry, and to the study of certain supersymmetric gauge theories. We show, in particular, that the b-6j symbol has leading semiclassical asymptotics given by the volume of a non-ideal tetrahedron. We furthermore observe a close relation with the problem to quantize natural Darboux coordinates for moduli spaces of flat connections on Riemann surfaces related to the Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Our new integral representations finally indicate a possible interpretation of the b-6j symbols as partition functions of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. (orig.)

  14. 6j symbols for the modular double, quantum hyperbolic geometry, and supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teschner, J.; Vartanov, G.S.

    2012-02-01

    We revisit the definition of the 6j-symbols from the modular double of U q (sl(2,R)), referred to as b-6j symbols. Our new results are (i) the identification of particularly natural normalization conditions, and (ii) new integral representations for this object. This is used to briefly discuss possible applications to quantum hyperbolic geometry, and to the study of certain supersymmetric gauge theories. We show, in particular, that the b-6j symbol has leading semiclassical asymptotics given by the volume of a non-ideal tetrahedron. We furthermore observe a close relation with the problem to quantize natural Darboux coordinates for moduli spaces of flat connections on Riemann surfaces related to the Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Our new integral representations finally indicate a possible interpretation of the b-6j symbols as partition functions of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. (orig.)

  15. Symbolic Interactionism in Sociology of Education Textbooks in Mainland China: Coverage, Perspective and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuan

    2008-01-01

    17 textbooks are examined for the quantity and quality of their material pertaining to ideas in the symbolic interaction tradition. Most of the textbooks fail to discuss at least some of the ideas in this tradition. In the 5 exceptions, the texts only include material from the Chicago school of this tradition with only a little inclusive…

  16. A Scalable Distribution Network Risk Evaluation Framework via Symbolic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jian; Liu, Kaipei; Tan, Tianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of electric power distribution network risks must address the problems of incomplete information and changing dynamics. A risk evaluation framework should be adaptable to a specific situation and an evolving understanding of risk. Methods This study investigates the use of symbolic dynamics to abstract raw data. After introducing symbolic dynamics operators, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Kullback-Leibler relative entropy are used to quantitatively evaluate relationships between risk sub-factors and main factors. For layered risk indicators, where the factors are categorized into four main factors – device, structure, load and special operation – a merging algorithm using operators to calculate the risk factors is discussed. Finally, an example from the Sanya Power Company is given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusion Distribution networks are exposed and can be affected by many things. The topology and the operating mode of a distribution network are dynamic, so the faults and their consequences are probabilistic. PMID:25789859

  17. Symbolic violence among adolescents in affective dating relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Borges Bittar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Understanding how adolescents signify their affective relationships and situations of conflict/violence within the dating context. Method A qualitative research with an empirical group comprised of adolescents from a state/public school, using focus group techniques and interviews. The analysis was performed through the interpretation of meanings method based on the hermeneutic-dialectical perspective. Results A total of 19 adolescents participated in the study. Two central theme categories emerged: “Meanings of adolescents’ affective relationships” and “From the (deconstruction of symbolic violence to the expression of other forms of violence”. Conclusion The results show that it is possible to understand situations from affective adolescent relationships in which the legitimation of symbolic violence against women is identified. We believe that acting on the origin of violence at the beginning of adolescents’ relationships is the best way to fight or minimize it, aiming for democratizing gender relations and preventing conjugal violence.

  18. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Mona; Khan, Mohammad Asif; Maddouri, Omar; Kinjo, Akira R; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge. Results: We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Our method combines symbolic methods, in particular knowledge representation using symbolic logic and automated reasoning, with neural networks to generate embeddings of nodes that encode for related information within knowledge graphs. Through the use of symbolic logic, these embeddings contain both explicit and implicit information. We apply these embeddings to the prediction of edges in the knowledge graph representing problems of function prediction, finding candidate genes of diseases, protein-protein interactions, or drug target relations, and demonstrate performance that matches and sometimes outperforms traditional approaches based on manually crafted features. Our method can be applied to any biological knowledge graph, and will thereby open up the increasing amount of Semantic Web based knowledge bases in biology to use in machine learning and data analytics. https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/walking-rdf-and-owl. robert.hoehndorf@kaust.edu.sa. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Mona

    2017-04-21

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge.We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Our method combines symbolic methods, in particular knowledge representation using symbolic logic and automated reasoning, with neural networks to generate embeddings of nodes that encode for related information within knowledge graphs. Through the use of symbolic logic, these embeddings contain both explicit and implicit information. We apply these embeddings to the prediction of edges in the knowledge graph representing problems of function prediction, finding candidate genes of diseases, protein-protein interactions, or drug target relations, and demonstrate performance that matches and sometimes outperforms traditional approaches based on manually crafted features. Our method can be applied to any biological knowledge graph, and will thereby open up the increasing amount of SemanticWeb based knowledge bases in biology to use in machine learning and data analytics.https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/walking-rdf-and-owl.robert.hoehndorf@kaust.edu.sa.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cañizares, Danilka; Reigosa Crespo, Vivian; González Alemañy, Eduardo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a general deficit in magnitude representations or a specific deficit in the connection of symbolic representations with the corresponding analogous magnitudes. DD was diagnosed using a timed arithmetic task. The experimental magnitude comparison tasks were presented in non-symbolic and symbolic formats. DD and typically developing (TD) children showed similar numerical distance and size congruity effects. However, DD children performed significantly slower in the symbolic task. These results are consistent with the access deficit hypothesis, according to which DD children's deficits are caused by difficulties accessing magnitude information from numerical symbols rather than in processing numerosities per se.

  1. On the symbolism of the white coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2014-12-01

    The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry.

  2. Symbolic dynamics of the Lorenz equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Hai-ping; Hao Bailin.

    1994-07-01

    The Lorenz equations are investigated in a wide range of parameters by using the method of symbolic dynamics. First, the systematics of stable periodic orbits in the Lorenz equations is compared with that of the one-dimensional cubic map, which shares the same discrete symmetry with the Lorenz model. The systematics is then ''corrected'' in such a way as to encompass all the known periodic windows of the Lorenz equations with only one exception. Second, in order to justify the above approach and to understand the exceptions, another 1D map with a discontinuity is extracted from an extension of the geometric Lorenz attractor and its symbolic dynamics is constructed. All this has to be done in light of symbolic dynamics of two-dimensional maps. Finally, symbolic dynamics for the actual Poincare return map of the Lorenz equations is constructed in a heuristic way. New periodic windows of the Lorenz equations and their parameters can be predicted from this symbolic dynamics in combination with the 1D cubic map. The extended geometric 2D Lorenz map and the 1D antisymmetric map with a discontinuity describe the topological aspects of the Lorenz equations to high accuracy. (author). 44 refs, 17 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Symbolic manipulation techniques for vibration analysis of laminated elliptic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C. M.; Noor, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    A computational scheme is presented for the free vibration analysis of laminated composite elliptic plates. The scheme is based on Hamilton's principle, the Rayleigh-Ritz technique and symmetry considerations and is implemented with the aid of the MACSYMA symbolic manipulation system. The MACYSMA system, through differentiation, integration, and simplification of analytic expressions, produces highly-efficient FORTRAN code for the evaluation of the stiffness and mass coefficients. Multiple use is made of this code to obtain not only the frequencies and mode shapes of the plate, but also the derivatives of the frequencies with respect to various material and geometric parameters.

  4. Anomalous diffusion in a symbolic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; Mendes, R S; Santoro, P A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate some statistical properties of symbolic sequences generated by a numerical procedure in which the symbols are repeated following the power-law probability density. In this analysis, we consider that the sum of n symbols represents the position of a particle in erratic movement. This approach reveals a rich diffusive scenario characterized by non-Gaussian distribution and, depending on the power-law exponent or the procedure used to build the walker, we may have superdiffusion, subdiffusion or usual diffusion. Additionally, we use the continuous-time random walk framework to compare the analytic results with the numerical data, thereby finding good agreement. Because of its simplicity and flexibility, this model can be a candidate for describing real systems governed by power-law probability densities.

  5. Multiscale Symbolic Phase Transfer Entropy in Financial Time Series Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Lin, Aijing; Shang, Pengjian

    We address the challenge of classifying financial time series via a newly proposed multiscale symbolic phase transfer entropy (MSPTE). Using MSPTE method, we succeed to quantify the strength and direction of information flow between financial systems and classify financial time series, which are the stock indices from Europe, America and China during the period from 2006 to 2016 and the stocks of banking, aviation industry and pharmacy during the period from 2007 to 2016, simultaneously. The MSPTE analysis shows that the value of symbolic phase transfer entropy (SPTE) among stocks decreases with the increasing scale factor. It is demonstrated that MSPTE method can well divide stocks into groups by areas and industries. In addition, it can be concluded that the MSPTE analysis quantify the similarity among the stock markets. The symbolic phase transfer entropy (SPTE) between the two stocks from the same area is far less than the SPTE between stocks from different areas. The results also indicate that four stocks from America and Europe have relatively high degree of similarity and the stocks of banking and pharmaceutical industry have higher similarity for CA. It is worth mentioning that the pharmaceutical industry has weaker particular market mechanism than banking and aviation industry.

  6. The integration of emotional and symbolic components in multimodal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eMehu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human multimodal communication can be said to serve two main purposes: information transfer and social influence. In this paper, I argue that different components of multimodal signals play different roles in the processes of information transfer and social influence. Although the symbolic components of communication (e.g. verbal and denotative signals are well suited to transfer conceptual information, emotional components (e.g. nonverbal signals that are difficult to manipulate voluntarily likely take a function that is closer to social influence. I suggest that emotion should be considered a property of communicative signals, rather than an entity that is transferred as content by nonverbal signals. In this view, the effect of emotional processes on communication serve to change the quality of social signals to make them more efficient at producing responses in perceivers, whereas symbolic components increase the signals’ efficiency at interacting with the cognitive processes dedicated to the assessment of relevance. The interaction between symbolic and emotional components will be discussed in relation to the need for perceivers to evaluate the reliability of multimodal signals.

  7. The integration of emotional and symbolic components in multimodal communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehu, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Human multimodal communication can be said to serve two main purposes: information transfer and social influence. In this paper, I argue that different components of multimodal signals play different roles in the processes of information transfer and social influence. Although the symbolic components of communication (e.g., verbal and denotative signals) are well suited to transfer conceptual information, emotional components (e.g., non-verbal signals that are difficult to manipulate voluntarily) likely take a function that is closer to social influence. I suggest that emotion should be considered a property of communicative signals, rather than an entity that is transferred as content by non-verbal signals. In this view, the effect of emotional processes on communication serve to change the quality of social signals to make them more efficient at producing responses in perceivers, whereas symbolic components increase the signals’ efficiency at interacting with the cognitive processes dedicated to the assessment of relevance. The interaction between symbolic and emotional components will be discussed in relation to the need for perceivers to evaluate the reliability of multimodal signals. PMID:26217280

  8. Trails of meaning construction: Symbolic artifacts engage the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylén, Kristian; Philipsen, Johanne Stege; Roepstorff, Andreas; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Symbolic artifacts present a challenge to theories of neurocognitive processing due to their hybrid nature: they are at the same time physical objects and vehicles of intangible social meanings. While their physical properties can be read of their perceptual appearance, the meaning of symbolic artifacts depends on the perceiver's interpretative attitude and embeddedness in cultural practices. In this study, participants built models of LEGO bricks to illustrate their understanding of abstract concepts. They were then scanned with fMRI while presented to photographs of their own and others' models. When participants attended to the meaning of the models in contrast to their bare physical properties, we observed activations in mPFC and TPJ, areas often associated with social cognition, and IFG, possibly related to semantics. When contrasting own and others' models, we also found activations in precuneus, an area associated with autobiographical memory and agency, while looking at one's own collective models yielded interaction effects in rostral ACC, right IFG and left Insula. Interestingly, variability in the insula was predicted by individual differences in participants' feeling of relatedness to their fellow group members during LEGO construction activity. Our findings support a view of symbolic artifacts as neuro-cognitive trails of human social interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain potentials predict learning, transmission and modification of an artificial symbolic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumaca, Massimo; Baggio, G.

    2016-01-01

    capacity account for aspects of ‘variation’ observed in symbolic behavior and symbolic systems. We addressed this issue in the domain of auditory processing.We conducted a combined behavioral and EEG study on 2 successive days. On day 1, participants listened to standard and deviant five-tone sequences...... introduces neurophysiological methods into research on cultural transmission and evolution, and relates aspects of variation in symbolic systems to individual differences in neural information processing.......It has recently been argued that symbolic systems evolve while they are being transmitted across generations of learners, gradually adapting to the relevant brain structures and processes. In the context of this hypothesis, little is known on whether individual differences in neural processing...

  10. Sacred Symbols in Dimitrie Gavrilean’s Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Adrian Gavrilean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This year, on the 12th of July, there are four years since the passing away of the painter Dimitrie Gavrilean who, ,”through the unique impresion of his originality, early became an emblem of the school of painting of Iasi.” Born in Voroneţ, in 1942, Dimitrie Gavrilean attended ”Nicolae Grigorescu” Academy of Arts of Bucharest, being an eminent disciple of the master Corneliu Baba. The work in the creation workshop was combined with the vocation of teacher at the Faculty of Visual Arts and Design within ”G. Enescu” University of Arts of Iaşi, being a rector of this institution in the period 2000-2004. In the contemporary plastic landscape, the artistic work of the painter Dimitrie Gavrilean (1942-2012 from Iaşi occupies a special place. It mirrors the utmost of the autochthonous rural imaginary, the Romanian fundamental myths, the ancestral myths as well as the recently Christianized ones. His vision is specific to the Romanian Christianity and the Byzantine iconography. The language of Gavrilean’s paintings is one of symbols, by excellence. As Emil Staco rightfully observed, the entire work of art of master Gavrilean is ”a work of art of the symbols, of the metaphors rooted in the spirituality of the Romanian village of Bukovina, in the frescoes of Voroneţ and Humor Monasteries.” On the one hand, the painter did not content himself with illustrating only the ancestral mythical world by means of symbols with universal valences, but he got actively involved in the Christian valorization of mythical symbols. On the other hand, by integrating sacred symbols (the dove, the cock, winged characters, the wise old man, the architecture-church, the sun, Voroneţ blue of the Christian iconography of Byzantine tradition in paintings not necessarily religious, Dimitrie Gavrilean pushed his work of art to the border between sacred and profane, proving an extraordinary capacity of spiritualizing matter as well as of materializing the

  11. Relative Density of Backfilled Soil Material around Monopiles for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The relative density of backfilled soil material around offshore monopiles is assessed through experimental testing in the Large Wave Channel (GWK) of the Coastal Research Centre (FZK) in Hannover. The relative density of the backfill material was found to vary between 65 and 80 %. The dependency...... of the relative density of backfill on the maximum pile bending moment is assessed through three-dimensional numerical modeling of a monopile foundation located at the offshore wind farm at Horns Reef, Denmark....

  12. Symbolic comparisons of objects on color attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A; te Linde, J

    1980-11-01

    Symbolic comparisons of object brightness and color were investigated in two experiments using words and outline drawings as stimuli. Both experiments yielded orderly symbolic distance effects. Contrary to prediction, no reliable picture advantages emerged. For color comparison, individual differences in word fluency and color memory predicted decision time with word stimuli. These results contrast sharply with those of previous comparison studies involving concrete dimensions. The results are discussed in terms of dual-coding theory and the role of verbal mechanisms in memory for object color.

  13. Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.

  14. Swedish students' interpretations of food symbols and their perceptions of healthy eating. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicklas; Persson Osowski, Christine; Mattsson Sydner, Ylva; Fjellström, Christina

    2014-11-01

    This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an "inauthenticity discourse" where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Taste of Inequality: Food’s Symbolic Value across the Socioeconomic Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Fielding-Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars commonly account for dietary disparities across socioeconomic status (SES using structural explanations that highlight differences in individuals' wealth, income, or location. These explanations emphasize food’s material value. But food also carries symbolic value. This article shows how food's symbolic value helps drive dietary disparities. In-depth interviews with 160 parents and adolescents and 80 hours of observations with four families demonstrate how a family's socioeconomic position in part shapes the meanings that parents attach to food. These differing meanings contribute to distinct feeding strategies across the socioeconomic spectrum: whereas low-SES parents use food to buffer against deprivation, high-SES parents provision food to fulfill classed values around health and parenting. The findings suggest that an understanding of how families' material circumstances shape food's symbolic value is critical to fully account for dietary differences across SES.

  16. THE A (H1N1 INFLUENZA. SYMBOLIC DIMENSIONS OF A PANDEMIC ARTEFACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés G. Seguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to present the symbolic features that are exposed by the concept of artefact in the context of a pandemic alarm, such as the A (H1N1 influenza. The symbolic qualities entailed by the notion of artefact are well-known within the Social Sciences: Sociology, Anthropology, Archaeology, and Linguistics. The artefact is basically not an object, but an action aimed at designing, simulating or creating a simile by means of material, technological or linguistic structures. The purpose of the present work is to unveil the symbolic dimensions that are activated by the A (H1N1 influenza as a Pandemic Artefact: a the assumption of separating information from matter; b the need for a material support to enable the exchange; c the sociological reflexivity of the artefact and its agency; d the arbitrariness of its social use, that detaches it from the design as intention.

  17. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  18. Multiple symbol partially coherent detection of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Divsalar, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that by using the known (or estimated) value of carrier tracking loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the decision metric, it is possible to improve the error probability performance of a partially coherent multiple phase-shift-keying (MPSK) system relative to that corresponding to the commonly used ideal coherent decision rule. Using a maximum-likeihood approach, an optimum decision metric is derived and shown to take the form of a weighted sum of the ideal coherent decision metric (i.e., correlation) and the noncoherent decision metric which is optimum for differential detection of MPSK. The performance of a receiver based on this optimum decision rule is derived and shown to provide continued improvement with increasing length of observation interval (data symbol sequence length). Unfortunately, increasing the observation length does not eliminate the error floor associated with the finite loop SNR. Nevertheless, in the limit of infinite observation length, the average error probability performance approaches the algebraic sum of the error floor and the performance of ideal coherent detection, i.e., at any error probability above the error floor, there is no degradation due to the partial coherence. It is shown that this limiting behavior is virtually achievable with practical size observation lengths. Furthermore, the performance is quite insensitive to mismatch between the estimate of loop SNR (e.g., obtained from measurement) fed to the decision metric and its true value. These results may be of use in low-cost Earth-orbiting or deep-space missions employing coded modulations.

  19. Uncertainty relations and topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, E; Calixto, M

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty relations are studied for a characterization of topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials isostructural with graphene. We show that the relative or Kullback–Leibler entropy in position and momentum spaces, and the standard variance-based uncertainty relation give sharp signatures of topological phase transitions in these systems. (paper)

  20. Evaluating the Environmental Dimension of Material Efficiency Strategies Relating to the Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Walker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Material efficiency is a key element of new thinking to address the challenges of reducing impacts on the environment and of resource scarcity, whilst at the same time meeting service and functionality demands on materials. Directly related to material efficiency is the concept of the Circular Economy, which is based on the principle of optimising the utility embodied in materials and products through the life-cycle. Although materials such as steel, on account of high recycling rates at end-of-life, are amongst the most ‘circular’ of manufactured materials, significant opportunities for greater material efficiency exist, which are yet to be widely implemented. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is commonly used to assess the environmental benefits of recovering and recycling materials through the manufacturing supply chain and at end-of-life. Using an example taken from renewable energy generation, this paper explores the correlation between product circularity and the environmental case for strategies designed to improve material efficiency. An LCA-based methodology for accounting for the recovery and reuse of materials from the supply chain and at end-of-life is used as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint benefits of five material efficiency scenarios. The results are compared with a number of proposed material circularity indicators. Two conclusions from this exercise are that (i LCA methodologies based around end-of-life approaches are well placed for quantifying the environmental benefits of material efficiency and circular economy strategies and (ii when applying indicators relating to the circularity of materials these should also be supported by LCA-based studies.

  1. Young Children's Judgments About the Relative Size of Shared Portions: The Role of Material Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Rachel E.; Beal, Carole R.

    2004-01-01

    3 experiments were conducted to assess young (5-7 years) children's ability to judge the relative amount that a character would receive if sharing a material with 1 friend (halves) or 2 friends (thirds). Materials included items that appeared in 3 forms: continuous, discrete, and composite. In the first 2 experiments, performance was best with…

  2. Bioeconomy, Moral Friction and Symbolic Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    several competing agendas are at play and to understand the effects, we therefore need to investigate empirically what emerges through this friction between competing governmental ambitions. My discussion is based on studies of tissue exchange in Europe and seeks to integrate theories of symbolic law...

  3. Sigref - A Symbolic Bisimulation Tool Box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmer, Ralf; Herbstritt, Marc; Hermanns, Holger; Strampp, Kelley; Becker, Bernd; Graf, Susanne; Zhang, Wenhui

    2006-01-01

    We present a uniform signature-based approach to compute the most popular bisimulations. Our approach is implemented symbolically using BDDs, which enables the handling of very large transition systems. Signatures for the bisimulations are built up from a few generic building blocks, which naturally

  4. Two Pieces of Wood: Symbols of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon Shockley; McKerrow, K. Kelly

    For 2 years, at least 2 days a week were spent by a researcher in observing, through the actions of the principal, the dynamics of cultural and ideologic conflict and the process of social control in an elementary school. This personal account analyzes the principal's use of corporal punishment, symbolized by the paddle, and positive…

  5. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  6. Driving Symbolic Consumption through Imagined Vertical Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostinelli, Massimiliano; Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David

    Drawing on theories of embodied cognition and compensatory consumption, we provide evidence that merely imagining oneself moving upward or downward affects preference for symbolic products. Altogether, two studies show that magining taking an elevator down, as opposed to up, decreases self...

  7. The asymptotic expansion method via symbolic computation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Juan F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for implementing a perturbation method based on an asymptotic expansion of the solution to a second-order differential equation. We also introduce a new symbolic computation system which works with the so-called modified quasipolynomials, as well as an implementation of the algorithm on it.

  8. The Asymptotic Expansion Method via Symbolic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for implementing a perturbation method based on an asymptotic expansion of the solution to a second-order differential equation. We also introduce a new symbolic computation system which works with the so-called modified quasipolynomials, as well as an implementation of the algorithm on it.

  9. Categorical Design Departure and Symbolic Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    by showing how product form design can impact the selection of dominant technological designs within industries by enhancing the symbolic attributes of products. A longitudinal case study was carried out of the establishment of a new dominant technological architecture in the hearing aid industry...

  10. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  11. Strengthening National Identity through National Symbols and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africans vacillate in their national identity and remain largely attached to their racial and ethnic group identities. The aim of this article is to illustrate the manner in which a sense of understanding, familiarity and pride with regard to national symbols and thus to national identity can be attained. The objective is that the ...

  12. Symbolic generation of finite difference formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, H.; Pereyra, V.

    1978-01-01

    Tables of coefficients for high order accurate, compact approximations to the first ten derivatives on and at the midpoints of uniform nets are presented. The exact rational weights are generated and tested by means of symbolic manipulation implemented through MACSYMA. These weights are required in the application of deferred corrections to new methods for solving higher order two point boundary value problems

  13. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    , especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones, we generalize the standard notions of regular-language and automata representations...

  14. Multiple-Symbol Differential Detection Of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple-symbol differential detection proposed for reception of radio-frequency signals modulated by mutliple-phase-shift keying (MPSK). Offers advantage of less complexity in not requiring equipment to acquire and track carrier signal. Performance approaches that of ideal coherent detection. Applicable to coded as well as uncoded MPSK, and to other forms of modulation.

  15. Berezin symbols and Borel summability | Garayev | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We prove in terms of so-called Berezin symbols some theorems for Borel summability method for sequences and series of complex numbers. Namely, we characterize the Borel convergent sequences and series; prove regularity of Borel summability method, and prove a new Tauberian type theorem for Borel summability.

  16. Television and Children: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Thomas P.; Cardwell, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01

    Contends that the effect of television can best be understood as part of the overall attempts by social scientists to understand the effects of the mass media. Argues that symbolic interactionism is the most viable theory for bringing together the pure and the applied aspects of this issue. (LLL)

  17. Symbolic Interactionism and Social Action Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrione, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    An explanation and elaboration of existing theory on interaction, this article describes a point of convergence between Parsons' Voluntaristic Theory of Action and Blumer's conceptualization of Symbolic Interactionism and develops specific problems of divergence in these normative and interpretive models of interaction. (JC)

  18. Symbolic approximate time-optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazo, Manuel; Tabuada, Paulo

    There is an increasing demand for controller design techniques capable of addressing the complex requirements of today's embedded applications. This demand has sparked the interest in symbolic control where lower complexity models of control systems are used to cater for complex specifications given

  19. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We

  20. Mythology, Weltanschauung , symbolic universe and states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. Compared to secular worldviews, religious worldviews may be described as ASCs. Thanks to our globalised modern societies, ...

  1. Symbolic Computing in Probabilistic and Stochastic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Marcin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim is to present recent developments in applications of symbolic computing in probabilistic and stochastic analysis, and this is done using the example of the well-known MAPLE system. The key theoretical methods discussed are (i analytical derivations, (ii the classical Monte-Carlo simulation approach, (iii the stochastic perturbation technique, as well as (iv some semi-analytical approaches. It is demonstrated in particular how to engage the basic symbolic tools implemented in any system to derive the basic equations for the stochastic perturbation technique and how to make an efficient implementation of the semi-analytical methods using an automatic differentiation and integration provided by the computer algebra program itself. The second important illustration is probabilistic extension of the finite element and finite difference methods coded in MAPLE, showing how to solve boundary value problems with random parameters in the environment of symbolic computing. The response function method belongs to the third group, where interference of classical deterministic software with the non-linear fitting numerical techniques available in various symbolic environments is displayed. We recover in this context the probabilistic structural response in engineering systems and show how to solve partial differential equations including Gaussian randomness in their coefficients.

  2. Special quasirandom structures for gadolinia-doped ceria and related materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao; Chroneos, Alexander I.; Jiang, Chao; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    cells describing 9% and 12% gadolinia doped ceria. These SQS cells are transferable and can be used to model related materials such as yttria stabilized zirconia. To demonstrate the applicability of the method we use density functional theory

  3. Are Competitive Materialism and Female Employment Related to International Homicide Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Don Soo

    2017-04-01

    The institutional anomie theory is a proposal that states competitive materialism, an intense cultural pressure for economic success at any costs, and increased female employment may be related to a high homicide rate. The current work tested this proposition by utilizing homicide data collected from 45 developed and developing countries. Regression results did not support the proposition. Competitive materialism and female employment were not significantly related to the cross-national variation of homicide rates.

  4. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism’s overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  5. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  6. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  7. The projected relative index of consequence equivalence of transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandakumar, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    The need exists for defining a unit risk factor to enable analysis to make a proper decision when faced with many options relating to the transport of radioactive materials between sites. A method is discussed for deriving such a factor with reference to the collective dose receivable due to the transport of radioactive material incidental to the production of one GWe.a of nuclear power. This quantity would enable the analyst to determine the projected relative index of consequence equivalence (PRICE) for the transport of various types of radioactive materials. (author)

  8. Lower life satisfaction related to materialism in children frequently exposed to advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opree, Suzanna J; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2012-09-01

    Research among adults suggests that materialism and life satisfaction negatively influence each other, causing a downward spiral. So far, cross-sectional research among children has indicated that materialistic children are less happy, but causality remains uncertain. This study adds to the literature by investigating the longitudinal relation between materialism and life satisfaction. We also investigated whether their relation depended on children's level of exposure to advertising. A sample of 466 children (aged 8-11; 55% girls) participated in a 2-wave online survey with a 1-year interval. We asked children questions about material possessions, life satisfaction, and advertising. We used structural equation modeling to study the relationship between these variables. For the children in our sample, no effect of materialism on life satisfaction was observed. However, life satisfaction did have a negative effect on materialism. Exposure to advertising facilitated this effect: We only found an effect of life satisfaction on materialism for children who were frequently exposed to advertising. Among 8- to 11-year-old children, life satisfaction leads to decreased materialism and not the other way around. However, this effect only holds for children who are frequently exposed to television advertising. It is plausible that the material values portrayed in advertising teach children that material possessions are a way to cope with decreased life satisfaction. It is important to reduce this effect, because findings among adults suggest that materialistic children may become less happy later in life. Various intervention strategies are discussed.

  9. The Scientific Import of Symbols in Human Knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    symbolism is restricted to the Arts, especially logic and literature. However ... scholars are aware of this great epistemological base and potentiality of symbols and ... Similarly, in the traditional African setting, the theory of demonology, by.

  10. Impression management as symbolic capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Nielsen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    in Germany and LinkedIn in Denmark. We summarize those differences and relate them to different cultural contexts and impression management practices. Our sample consists of Danish Higher Executives (HEs)/managers (e.g., CEOs) and companies that have profiles on both SNS, thus reaching out to both the German......Social Network Sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in the European business world, especially with respect to cross-cultural impression management. Departing from the Bourdieusian concept of “capital,” this paper analyzes the differences in the use of two popular business SNS: XING...... and the Danish markets. It is apparent that even business experts operating in both markets could better adapt to the standards and possibilities offered by the German SNS with respect to impression management. We introduce a set of recommendations to foster SNS-related and culture-sensitive impression...

  11. Representations for implicit constitutive relations describing non-dissipative response of isotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulnath, C.; Saravanan, U.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    A methodology for obtaining implicit constitutive representations involving the Cauchy stress and the Hencky strain for isotropic materials undergoing a non-dissipative process is developed. Using this methodology, a general constitutive representation for a subclass of implicit models relating the Cauchy stress and the Hencky strain is obtained for an isotropic material with no internal constraints. It is shown that even for this subclass, unlike classical Green elasticity, one has to specify three potentials to relate the Cauchy stress and the Hencky strain. Then, a procedure to obtain implicit constitutive representations for isotropic materials with internal constraints is presented. As an illustration, it is shown that for incompressible materials the Cauchy stress and the Hencky strain could be related through a single potential. Finally, constitutive approximations are obtained when the displacement gradient is small.

  12. How the relative permittivity of solar cell materials influences solar cell performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Huss-Hansen, Mathias K.; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    of the materials permittivity on the physics and performance of the solar cell by means of numerical simulation supported by analytical relations. We demonstrate that, depending on the specific solar cell configuration and materials properties, there are scenarios where the relative permittivity has a major......The relative permittivity of the materials constituting heterojunction solar cells is usually not considered as a design parameter when searching for novel combinations of heterojunction materials. In this work, we investigate the validity of such an approach. Specifically, we show the effect...... the heterojunction partner has a high permittivity, solar cells are consistently more robust against several non-idealities that are especially likely to occur in early-stage development, when the device is not yet optimized....

  13. Readability of Spine-Related Patient Education Materials From Leading Orthopedic Academic Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Justine H; Yi, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional analysis of online spine-related patient education materials from leading academic centers. To assess the readability levels of spine surgery-related patient education materials available on the websites of academic orthopedic surgery departments. The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular resource for patient education. Yet many previous studies have found that Internet-based orthopedic-related patient education materials from subspecialty societies are written at a level too difficult for the average American; however, no prior study has assessed the readability of spine surgery-related patient educational materials from leading academic centers. All spine surgery-related articles from the online patient education libraries of the top five US News & World Report-ranked orthopedic institutions were assessed for readability using the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. Mean readability levels of articles amongst the five academic institutions and articles were compared. We also determined the number of articles with readability levels at or below the recommended sixth- or eight-grade levels. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of readability assessment were assessed. A total of 122 articles were reviewed. The mean overall FK grade level was 11.4; the difference in mean FK grade level between each department varied significantly (range, 9.3-13.4; P Online patient education materials related to spine from academic orthopedic centers are written at a level too high for the average patient, consistent with spine surgery-related patient education materials provided by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and spine subspecialty societies. This study highlights the potential difficulties patients might have in reading and comprehending the information in publicly available education materials related to spine. N/A.

  14. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik [National Nuclear Management and Control Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material.

  15. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik

    2005-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  16. Analysing the Effectiveness of the Personality Symbols/Icons

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, İpek

    2012-01-01

    Personality symbol can cover all the identifications of the brand. It can be the face or the soul of the company. Their effect on the brand image is huge. The research focuses on calculating the roles and effectives of the personality symbols. It aims to bring in suggestions for developing a successful personality symbols and lists advantages and disadvantages of different types of personality symbols. It does a detailed copy testing. Apart from conducting focus groups to analyse how the targ...

  17. The Polish LGBT movement : symbolic conflict and stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Mossakowski, Tomek

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the political activities of the LGBT movement in Poland as it seeks to increase its position on the socio-political landscape and ultimately rid itself of stigma. Using ethnographic data collection at a non-governmental organisation in Warsaw, it discusses the use of symbols and the accumulation of what Bourdieu called symbolic capital. It draws heavily on the theory of Harrison's symbolic conflict and Schwimmer's notions of symbolic and direct competition, while bringing...

  18. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol... impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and specimens is shown in Figure 50.10-25(b...

  19. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD; Rita Schreiber RN, DNS

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interac...

  20. Research study on highly functional carbon related materials; Tansokei kokino zairyo no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The study results on highly functional carbon related materials are reported as a part of the leading research in fiscal 1996. Synthesis of these novel materials is outlined, and R & D results on the following materials are described: diamond, hetero-diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon, carbyne, fullerences, carbon nitride and chemically modified carbon materials. Their issues, future possibility and market in 2010 are also described. The markets are predicted of such electronic materials as electronic emitter, sensor, solid device and heat sink, such optical materials as X-ray lithography, and such chemical materials as electrode and catalyst. Promising characteristics of light-weight and high-hardness machine materials are presented, and some issues such as material synthesis, and intensive machining and application technologies are described. The future markets are predicted of their applications to tools, dies, information equipment, glass, automobiles, aircraft, spacecraft and industrial machines. Problems and their break through techniques of these novel materials are also presented. 220 refs., 68 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. The mind in the object-Psychological valuation of materialized human expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzbauer, Robert; King, Dan; Basu, Shankha

    2015-08-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 144(4) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (see record 2015-33206-002). In the article the labels on the X-axis of Figure 1 "Remove Variance" and "Preserve Variance" should be switched.] Symbolic material objects such as art or certain artifacts (e.g., fine pottery, jewelry) share one common element: The combination of generating an expression, and the materialization of this expression in the object. This explains why people place a much greater value on handmade over machine-made objects, and originals over duplicates. We show that this mechanism occurs when a material object's symbolic property is salient and when the creator (artist or craftsman) is perceived to have agency control over the 1-to-1 materialized expression in the object. Coactivation of these 2 factors causes the object to be perceived as having high value because it is seen as the embodied representation of the creator's unique personal expression. In 6 experiments, subjects rated objects in various object categories, which varied on the type of object property (symbolic, functional, aesthetic), the production procedure (handmade, machine-made, analog, digital) and the origin of the symbolic information (person or software). The studies showed that the proposed mechanism applies to symbolic, but not to functional or aesthetic material objects. Furthermore, they show that this specific form of symbolic object valuation could not be explained by various other related psychological theories (e.g., uniqueness, scarcity, physical touching, creative performance). Our research provides a universal framework that identifies a core mechanism for explaining judgments of value for one of our most uniquely human symbolic object categories. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. An Example of Inquiry in Linear Algebra: The Roles of Symbolizing and Brokering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Michelle; Wawro, Megan; Rasmussen, Chris

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address practical questions such as: How do symbols appear and evolve in an inquiry-oriented classroom? How can an instructor connect students with traditional notation and vocabulary without undermining their sense of ownership of the material? We tender an example from linear algebra that highlights the roles of the instructor…

  3. Computer-Aided Authoring of Programmed Instruction for Teaching Symbol Recognition. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braby, Richard; And Others

    This description of AUTHOR, a computer program for the automated authoring of programmed texts designed to teach symbol recognition, includes discussions of the learning strategies incorporated in the design of the instructional materials, hardware description and the algorithm for the software, and current and future developments. Appendices…

  4. Ring-shaped functions and Wigner 6j-symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardoyan, L.G.; Erevanskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Erevan

    2006-01-01

    The explicit expression for the ring-shaped matrix connecting the ring-shaped functions relating to different values of the axial parameter is obtained. The connection of this matrix with Wigner 6j-symbols is found out. The motion of quantum particle in the ring-shaped model with the zero priming potential is investigated. The bases of this model, which are factored in spherical cylindrical coordinates, are obtained. The formula generalizing the Rayleigh expansion of a plane wave with respect to spherical waves in the ring-shaped model is deduced [ru

  5. Direct and converse theorems the elements of symbolic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gradshtein, I S; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1963-01-01

    Direct and Converse Theorems: The Elements of Symbolic Logic, Third Edition explains the logical relations between direct, converse, inverse, and inverse converse theorems, as well as the concept of necessary and sufficient conditions. This book consists of two chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the question of negation. Connected with the question of the negation of a proposition are interrelations of the direct and converse and also of the direct and inverse theorems; the interrelations of necessary and sufficient conditions; and the definition of the locus of a point. The second chap

  6. CONSTRUCTING ORGANIZATIONAL DISCOURSE. A SYMBOLIC ACTION IN IMPROVING WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra GALBIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionism, a postmodern approach with epistemological assumptions, brings new resources for organizational interventions. A key element in organizational development, the discourse plays an important role in fashioning the future of this. This article presents the organizational discourse as a symbolic action in which discourse influence behavior of members and reinforces mindsets. Discourse shapes the relations between individuals, and creates mental frames. Create change by changing the discourse generates fresh new possibilities and innovative forms to look at a situation. Constructing a positive organizational discourse offers a great potential for social change and address challenges and advances thinking in the organizational field.

  7. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  8. 7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbols. 91.102... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Designation of Approved Symbols for Identification of Commodities Officially Tested By AMS § 91.102 Form of official identification symbols. Two...

  9. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Symbol required; exceptions. 1302.03 Section 1302... REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.03 Symbol required; exceptions. (a) Each commercial container of... § 1308.31 of this chapter) shall have printed on the label the symbol designating the schedule in which...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this appendix, the trefoil symbol required for RADIOACTIVE labels and placards and required to be...

  11. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... symbols. 232.306 Section 232.306 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be in... words or letters in the English language rather than representative symbols, except that HTML documents...

  12. Different ritual symbols in Igbo traditional religion and their functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbols change in their value and functions and as a result of the changes in cultural appreciation. The change in the emphasis on the role of symbolism in general is partly consequence of cultural intellectual, social and economic transformation. All our actions are symbolic and we cannot do without interacting with each ...

  13. 40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and symbols. 60.581 Section... Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols. (a) All terms used in this subpart, not defined... solvent vapors emitted from the flexible vinyl or urethane rotogravure printing line. (b) All symbols used...

  14. Visual Symbolism in Contemporary Theatre Directing in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This difference is cropped from the director's perception, conception, imaginative and creative impetus. Visual symbolism in the theatre as a medium traverse forms, textures, symbols, lines, lighting, circles and balance in creating an everlasting theatre experience. Visual symbolism is influenced by style, concept, forms, ...

  15. 32 CFR 310.42 - Reports control symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports control symbol. 310.42 Section 310.42... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Reports § 310.42 Reports control symbol. Any report established by this subpart in support of the Privacy Program shall be assigned Report Control Symbol DD-COMP(A)1379. ...

  16. The Creative Identity: Creative Behavior from the Symbolic Interactionist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the motivation of certain creative behaviors from the perspective of symbolic interactionism. The fundamental tenets of symbolic interactionism are described and the mechanics of symbolic interactionist-based, role-identity theory are explained. Ways that the theory can be applied to the motivation of creative behavior are…

  17. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are as...

  18. Front of package symbols as a tool to promote healthier food choices in Slovenia: Accompanying explanatory claim can considerably influence the consumer's preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklavec, Krista; Pravst, Igor; Raats, Monique M; Pohar, Jure

    2016-12-01

    Many nutrition and/or health symbols were introduced in different countries in the past years and Slovenia is no exception. The objective of our study was to examine familiarity with and perception of the Protective Food symbol (PF symbol) in Slovenia and to investigate consumers' associations related to the symbol, and the influence of symbols' appearance on their preferences. The study was conducted through online questionnaire with incorporated word-association tasks and conjoint analysis; GfK consumer panel and social media (Facebook) were used for recruitment of Slovenian adults (n=1050; 534 men, 516 women). The majority (78%) of the participants reported they had previously seen the PF symbol, and 64% declared familiarity with it. Familiarity was verified using a word-association task in which we analysed the nature of the symbol's description, distinguishing the description of symbol's visual appearance or its meaning. In this task, 73% of the participants described the symbol's meaning with reference to health or a healthy lifestyle, confirming their familiarity with it. Women and those responsible for grocery shopping were significantly more familiar with the symbol. The impact of the symbol's appearance on consumers' preferences was investigated using conjoint analysis consisting of two attributes - three different symbols found on foods in Slovenia (PF symbol, Choices Programme symbol and Keyhole symbol), and accompanying worded claims. Although worded claims had less relative importance (29.5%) than the symbols (70.5%), we show that careful choice of the wording can affect consumers' preferences considerably. The lowest part-worth utility was observed without an accompanying claim, and the highest for the claim directly communicating health ("Protects your health"). The fact that most participants are well familiar with the PF symbol indicates the symbol's potential to promote healthier food choices, which could be further improved by an accompanying

  19. Readability evaluation of Internet-based patient education materials related to the anesthesiology field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Jung, Michael; Mccaffery, Kirsten J; McCarthy, Robert J; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of the current investigation was to assess the readability of Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology. We hypothesized that the majority of patient education materials would not be written according to current recommended readability grade level. Online patient education materials describing procedures, risks, and management of anesthesia-related topics were identified using the search engine Google (available at www.google.com) using the terms anesthesia, anesthesiology, anesthesia risks, and anesthesia care. Cross-sectional evaluation. None. Assessments of content readability were performed using validated instruments (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formulae, the Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, the New Dale-Chall Test, the Fry graph, and the Flesch Reading Ease score). Ninety-six Web sites containing Internet patient education materials (IPEMs) were evaluated. The median (interquartile range) readability grade level for all evaluated IPEMs was 13.5 (12.0-14.6). All the evaluated documents were classified at a greater readability level than the current recommended readability grade, P Internet-based patient education materials related to the field of anesthesiology are currently written far above the recommended readability grade level. High complexity of written education materials likely limits access of information to millions of American patients. Redesign of online content of Web sites that provide patient education material regarding anesthesia could be an important step in improving access to information for patients with poor health literacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

  1. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  2. Progress in 3D Printing of Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Yao, Yonggang; Dai, Jiaqi; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-03-01

    The additive-manufacturing (AM) technique, known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has attracted much attention in industry and academia in recent years. 3D printing has been developed for a variety of applications. Printable inks are the most important component for 3D printing, and are related to the materials, the printing method, and the structures of the final 3D-printed products. Carbon materials, due to their good chemical stability and versatile nanostructure, have been widely used in 3D printing for different applications. Good inks are mainly based on volatile solutions having carbon materials as fillers such as graphene oxide (GO), carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon blacks, and solvent, as well as polymers and other additives. Studies of carbon materials in 3D printing, especially GO-based materials, have been extensively reported for energy-related applications. In these circumstances, understanding the very recent developments of 3D-printed carbon materials and their extended applications to address energy-related challenges and bring new concepts for material designs are becoming urgent and important. Here, recent developments in 3D printing of emerging devices for energy-related applications are reviewed, including energy-storage applications, electronic circuits, and thermal-energy applications at high temperature. To close, a conclusion and outlook are provided, pointing out future designs and developments of 3D-printing technology based on carbon materials for energy-related applications and beyond. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A symbolic methodology to improve disassembly process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Blyler, Leslie; Tieman, Lisa; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Millions of end-of-life electronic components are retired annually due to the proliferation of new models and their rapid obsolescence. The recovery of resources such as plastics from these goods requires their disassembly. The time required for each disassembly and its associated cost is defined by the operator's familiarity with the product design and its complexity. Since model proliferation serves to complicate an operator's learning curve, it is worthwhile to investigate the benefits to be gained in a disassembly operator's preplanning process. Effective disassembly process design demands the application of green engineering principles, such as those developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A), which include regard for product complexity, structural commonality, separation energy, material value, and waste prevention. This paper introduces the concept of design symbolsto help the operator more efficiently survey product complexity with respect to location and number of fasteners to remove a structure that is common to all electronics: the housing. With a sample of 71 different computers, printers, and monitors, we demonstrate that appropriate symbols reduce the total disassembly planning time by 13.2 min. Such an improvement could well make efficient the separation of plastic that would otherwise be destined for waste-to-energy or landfill. The symbolic methodology presented may also improve Design for Recycling and Design for Maintenance and Support.

  5. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

  6. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia F; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  7. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Felicitas Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS, which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  8. Topical issues of psychological research materials on matters related to extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekerazh T.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.

  9. Loopholes of laws and regulations related to redevelopment of former sites of radioactive material control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We found loopholes of laws and regulations for supervising radioactive materials. It is not obliged to measure the soil radioactivity of the sites that were formerly used as scientific or engineering institutes, or hospitals with a radioactive material control area. If the former institutes or hospitals made studies with radioactive materials before the enforcement of the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to isotopes and its detailed regulations, it is concluded that there was the period when the radioactive materials were not under management. If it is found that the radioactive materials were applied at the former site before the enforcement of the related laws and regulations, the radioactivity in the soil of the redeveloped area should be examined, which should be obliged by some laws or regulations. (author)

  10. Accelerators - instruments and symbols for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1985-01-01

    I examine the cult of accelerator physics, describe the laws which govern its development, compare and contrast it with other similar cults in the past, and search for its driving force. It is a story of sheer power. Not only of grand projects whose scale dwarfs everything we have imagined, whose funds deplete federal treasuries and whose real estate transcends national boundaries, but also of the very symbols of human power, directly connected to the destiny of our race

  11. A Bayesian classifier for symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat , Sabine; Tabbone , Salvatore; Nourrissier , Patrick

    2007-01-01

    URL : http://www.buyans.com/POL/UploadedFile/134_9977.pdf; International audience; We present in this paper an original adaptation of Bayesian networks to symbol recognition problem. More precisely, a descriptor combination method, which enables to improve significantly the recognition rate compared to the recognition rates obtained by each descriptor, is presented. In this perspective, we use a simple Bayesian classifier, called naive Bayes. In fact, probabilistic graphical models, more spec...

  12. DYNAMICS OF SYMBOLS AS TRANSCULTURAL POETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Vagner de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reflecting on the poetic possibilities of productions that take the encounter of cultures as compositional element to discuss issues beyond the limits of literature and culture. Thus, we sought to demonstrate the dynamics of cross-cultural symbolic systems through the political play A Revolta da Casa dos Ídolos (1978 by Pepetela in order to propose new understandings of the social reality in contemporary Angola.

  13. Digital Materials Related to Food Science and Cooking Methods for Preparing Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    沼田, 貴美子; 渡邉, 美奈; ヌマタ, キミコ; ワタナベ, ミナ; Numata, Kimiko; Watanabe, Mina

    2009-01-01

    We studied methods that were effective for teaching cooking to elementary school pupils using home economics materials. The subject was "Iritamago (scrambled eggs)". We researched the relationship between cookery science and experimental methods of making Iritamago. The various differences in condition and texture of Iritamago were compared among the different cooking utensils, conditions, and preparations of eggs. We created digital materials related to cookery science and the cooking method...

  14. Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2017-08-24

    Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization. Sound symbolism also provides a mechanism by which words' forms can have nonarbitrary, iconic relationships with their meanings. Although various proposals have been put forth for how phonetic features (both acoustic and articulatory) come to be associated with stimuli, there is as yet no generally agreed-upon explanation. We review five proposals: statistical co-occurrence between phonetic features and associated stimuli in the environment, a shared property among phonetic features and stimuli; neural factors; species-general, evolved associations; and patterns extracted from language. We identify a number of outstanding questions that need to be addressed on this topic and suggest next steps for the field.

  15. Modeling oil production based on symbolic regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangfei; Li, Xianneng; Wang, Jianliang; Lian, Lian; Ma, Tieju

    2015-01-01

    Numerous models have been proposed to forecast the future trends of oil production and almost all of them are based on some predefined assumptions with various uncertainties. In this study, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses symbolic regression to model oil production. We validate our approach on both synthetic and real data, and the results prove that symbolic regression could effectively identify the true models beneath the oil production data and also make reliable predictions. Symbolic regression indicates that world oil production will peak in 2021, which broadly agrees with other techniques used by researchers. Our results also show that the rate of decline after the peak is almost half the rate of increase before the peak, and it takes nearly 12 years to drop 4% from the peak. These predictions are more optimistic than those in several other reports, and the smoother decline will provide the world, especially the developing countries, with more time to orchestrate mitigation plans. -- Highlights: •A data-driven approach has been shown to be effective at modeling the oil production. •The Hubbert model could be discovered automatically from data. •The peak of world oil production is predicted to appear in 2021. •The decline rate after peak is half of the increase rate before peak. •Oil production projected to decline 4% post-peak

  16. Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R

    2017-06-01

    The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Three-Fold Embedding: Farm Development in Relation to Its Socio-Material Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Methorst

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding heterogeneity in farm development strategies is important in order to design effective policies and support programs to increase the sustainability of agriculture in relation to its socio-material context. Using a unique case study of 102 dairy farmers in The Netherlands, all operating in a highly similar socio-material context, this paper studies the differences in the relation of farms with the socio-material context. To this end, the concept of three-fold embedding is developed and tested using the ideal-typical characteristics of three patterns of farm development that were identified in the case study: (1 maximising total milk production; (2 optimising milk production using mainly on-farm resources; and (3 diversified on-farm production. Three-fold embedding was conceptualised in relation to the following dimensions: (1 value chain relations; (2 socio-cultural relations; and (3 natural resource relations, while using a scale ranging from a Close to a Stretched set of relations. The concept of three-fold embedding proves to be useful to identify in a non-normative and non-binary manner meaningful differences between patterns of farm development. These differences relate to differences in opportunity identification and strategic decision-making. The concept supports a relational perspective in studying farm strategy development using a sociology of entrepreneurship approach.

  18. MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to

  19. 'Low-activation' fusion materials development and related nuclear data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cierjacks, S.

    1990-01-01

    So-called ''low-activation'' materials are presently considered as an important means of improving the safety characteristics of future DT fusion reactors. Essential benefits are expected in various problem areas ranging from operation considerations to aspects of decommissioning and waste disposal. Present programs on ''low-activation'' materials development depend strongly on reliable activity calculations for a wide range of technologically important materials. The related nuclear data requirements and important needs for more and improved nuclear data are discussed. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Surface deterioration of dental materials after simulated toothbrushing in relation to brushing time and load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, S D; Forjanic, M; Ohmiti, K; Rousson, V

    2010-04-01

    (1) To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and gloss after simulated toothbrushing of 9 composite materials and 2 ceramic materials in relation to brushing time and load in vitro; (2) to assess the relationship between surface gloss and surface roughness. Eight flat specimens of composite materials (microfilled: Adoro, Filtek Supreme, Heliomolar; microhybrid: Four Seasons, Tetric EvoCeram; hybrid: Compoglass F, Targis, Tetric Ceram; macrohybrid: Grandio), two ceramic materials (IPS d.SIGN and IPS Empress polished) were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions and optimally polished with up to 4000 grit SiC. The specimens were subjected to a toothbrushing (TB) simulation device (Willytec) with rotating movements, toothpaste slurry and at three different loads (100g/250g/350g). At hourly intervals from 1h to 10h TB, mean surface roughness Ra was measured with an optical sensor and the surface gloss (Gl) with a glossmeter. Statistical analysis was performed for log-transformed Ra data applying two-way ANOVA to evaluate the interaction between load and material and load and brushing time. There was a significant interaction between material and load as well as between load and brushing time (pgloss was the parameter which discriminated best between the materials, followed by mean surface roughness Ra. There was a strong correlation between surface gloss and surface roughness for all the materials except the ceramics. The evaluation of the deterioration curves of individual specimens revealed a more or less synchronous course suspecting hinting specific external conditions and not showing the true variability in relation to the tested material. The surface roughness and gloss of dental materials changes with brushing time and load and thus results in different material rankings. Apart from Grandio, the hybrid composite resins were more prone to surface changes than microfilled composites. The deterioration potential of a composite material can be

  1. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofizadeh, A.; Li, Y.; Song, B.; Huang, Y.; Mostofizadeh, A.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nano technology which is called carbon-related nano materials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nano materials. Carbon nano materials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nano materials such as zero-dimensional carbon nano materials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nano diamond, and onion-like carbons), one-dimensional carbon nano materials (including carbon nano fibers and carbon nano tubes), and two-dimensional carbon nano materials (including graphene and carbon nano walls) are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nano materials.

  2. Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

    1989-01-01

    A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.

  3. A test of the symbol interdependency hypothesis with both concrete and abstract stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lori

    2018-01-01

    In Experiment 1, the symbol interdependency hypothesis was tested with both concrete and abstract stimuli. Symbolic (i.e., semantic neighbourhood distance) and embodied (i.e., iconicity) factors were manipulated in two tasks—one that tapped symbolic relations (i.e., semantic relatedness judgment) and another that tapped embodied relations (i.e., iconicity judgment). Results supported the symbol interdependency hypothesis in that the symbolic factor was recruited for the semantic relatedness task and the embodied factor was recruited for the iconicity task. Across tasks, and especially in the iconicity task, abstract stimuli resulted in shorter RTs. This finding was in contrast to the concreteness effect where concrete words result in shorter RTs. Experiment 2 followed up on this finding by replicating the iconicity task from Experiment 1 in an ERP paradigm. Behavioural results continued to show a reverse concreteness effect with shorter RTs for abstract stimuli. However, ERP results paralleled the N400 and anterior N700 concreteness effects found in the literature, with more negative amplitudes for concrete stimuli. PMID:29590121

  4. A test of the symbol interdependency hypothesis with both concrete and abstract stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Simritpal Kaur; Buchanan, Lori

    2018-01-01

    In Experiment 1, the symbol interdependency hypothesis was tested with both concrete and abstract stimuli. Symbolic (i.e., semantic neighbourhood distance) and embodied (i.e., iconicity) factors were manipulated in two tasks-one that tapped symbolic relations (i.e., semantic relatedness judgment) and another that tapped embodied relations (i.e., iconicity judgment). Results supported the symbol interdependency hypothesis in that the symbolic factor was recruited for the semantic relatedness task and the embodied factor was recruited for the iconicity task. Across tasks, and especially in the iconicity task, abstract stimuli resulted in shorter RTs. This finding was in contrast to the concreteness effect where concrete words result in shorter RTs. Experiment 2 followed up on this finding by replicating the iconicity task from Experiment 1 in an ERP paradigm. Behavioural results continued to show a reverse concreteness effect with shorter RTs for abstract stimuli. However, ERP results paralleled the N400 and anterior N700 concreteness effects found in the literature, with more negative amplitudes for concrete stimuli.

  5. The power of symbolic capital in patient and public involvement in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Louise; Boylan, Anne-Marie; Snow, Rosamund; Staniszewska, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    Policy-makers and health research funders increasingly require researchers to demonstrate that they have involved patients in the design and conduct of research. However, the extent to which patients and public have the power to get involved on an equal footing is dependent on their economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital. To explore power relations in patient and public involvement (PPI) in research, particularly how patients may wield symbolic capital to develop a more equal relationship. Narrative interviews with a maximum variation sample of 38 people involved as patients, carers or public in health research, analysed thematically. Symbolic capital may be demonstrated in a range of ways (sometimes alongside or in the absence of other forms of capital): illness experience, technical illness knowledge and the challenging outsider. Symbolic capital is unstable and dependent on others for recognition and legitimacy. Nonetheless, participants identify a gradual shift in power relations over time. Research into PPI has been conceptually and theoretically poor, limiting our understanding of its mechanisms and wider contextual elements. Our findings demonstrate the importance of reflecting on the forms of power and capital wielded by the health research community, and of acknowledging the way in which PPI is challenging the status quo. As one of the first papers to conceptualize how different forms of symbolic capital operate and their critical role in challenging the balance of power, our findings may help researchers better plan their PPI activities and reflect on their own power. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Changing Role of Sound-Symbolism for Small Versus Large Vocabularies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, James; Monaghan, Padraic; Walker, Peter

    2017-12-12

    Natural language contains many examples of sound-symbolism, where the form of the word carries information about its meaning. Such systematicity is more prevalent in the words children acquire first, but arbitrariness dominates during later vocabulary development. Furthermore, systematicity appears to promote learning category distinctions, which may become more important as the vocabulary grows. In this study, we tested the relative costs and benefits of sound-symbolism for word learning as vocabulary size varies. Participants learned form-meaning mappings for words which were either congruent or incongruent with regard to sound-symbolic relations. For the smaller vocabulary, sound-symbolism facilitated learning individual words, whereas for larger vocabularies sound-symbolism supported learning category distinctions. The changing properties of form-meaning mappings according to vocabulary size may reflect the different ways in which language is learned at different stages of development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  7. Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Appold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.

  8. Symbolic Machine Learning: A Different Answer to the Problem of the Acquisition of Lexical Knowledge from Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Sébillot

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available One relevant way to structure the domain of lexical knowledge (e.g. relations between lexical units acquisition from corpora is to oppose numerical versus symbolic techniques. Numerical approaches of acquisition exploit the frequential aspect of data, have been widely used, and produce portable systems, but poor explanations of their results. Symbolic approaches exploit the structural aspect of data. Among them, the symbolic machine learning (ML techniques can infer efficient and expressive patterns of a target relation from examples of elements that verify this relation. These methods are however far less known, and the aim of this paper is to point out their interest through the description of one precise experiment. To remove their supervised characteristic, and instead of opposing them to numerical approaches, we finally show that it is possible to combine one symbolic ML technique to one numerical one, and keep advantages of both (meaningful patterns, efficient extraction, portability.

  9. Sex som symbol : Analys om hur sex skildras i musikvideos, det dolda budskapet och vilken betydelse det har.

    OpenAIRE

    Ljung, Tove

    2017-01-01

    My purpose in this essay is to analyse sexual messages and symbolism in music videos. Sexual contact can be depicted in various ways, like symbols of something hidden, not only how men and women relate to each other through a sexual act. I’ve demarcated the study into two music videos: Rammsteins Pussy, and Tommy Chashs Surf, based on the videos controversial reputation from the public. My question at issue is how sexual messages depicture and how symbolism indicates. The study is based on a ...

  10. Convergences and Divergences between Gaston Bachelard’s Winged Rationalism and Ernst Cassirer’s Symbolic Idealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article establishes a hermeneutical dialogue between the convergences and divergences of Cassirer’s symbolic idealism and Bachelard’s winged rationalism. First, on the basis of bio-bibliographical evidence, it reconstructs the context of vital signification in which the authors’ respective ideas are rooted; secondly, it identifies the fundamental parallelisms between them; and, finally, it provides examples of Bachelardian terminology that resembles that of contemporary symbolic hermeneutics. This results in a broader understanding Cassirer’s analyses of indirect and interpretive thought regarding the relations between man and culture, as well as of the role of the symbol in the shift form nature to culture.

  11. Connecting Symbolic Integrals to Physical Meaning in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nathaniel R.

    This dissertation presents a series of studies pertaining to introductory physics students' abilities to derive physical meaning from symbolic integrals (e.g., the integral of vdt) and their components, namely differentials and differential products (e.g., dt and vdt, respectively). Our studies focus on physical meaning in the form of interpretations (e.g., "the total displacement of an object") and units (e.g., "meters"). Our first pair of studies independently attempted to identify introductory-level mechanics students' common conceptual difficulties with and unproductive interpretations of physics integrals and their components, as well as to estimate the frequencies of these difficulties. Our results confirmed some previously-observed incorrect interpretations, such as the notion that differentials are physically meaningless; however, we also uncovered two new conceptualizations of differentials, the "rate" (differentials are "rates" or "derivatives") and "instantaneous value" (differentials are values of physical variables "at an instant") interpretations, which were exhibited by more than half of our participants at least once. Our next study used linear regression analysis to estimate the strengths of the inter-connections between the abilities to derive physical meaning from each of differentials, differential products, and integrals in both first- and second-semester, calculus-based introductory physics. As part of this study, we also developed a highly reliable, multiple choice assessment designed to measure students' abilities to connect symbolic differentials, differential products, and integrals with their physical interpretations and units. Findings from this study were consistent with statistical mediation via differential products. In particular, students' abilities to extract physical meaning from differentials were seen to be strongly related to their abilities to derive physical meaning from differential products, and similarly differential

  12. Symbolic Violence and Masculine Domination in the Colombian Cinematographic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Muñoz Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an approach to the notion of symbolic violence in Pierre Bourdieu, specifically focused on structural violence against women. This review is based on Bourdieu’s key text Masculine Domination. This concept is related to the objective and subjective variants that have (re produced and perpetuated a patriarchal system dominated by symbolic domination and binary opposites under the objective schema of male dominance, which has additionally generated the multiplication and constant production of violent enunciations regarding the feminine. These enunciations have been part of a patriarchal discourse that generates gender representations that make women invisible, re-subordinated and stereotyped: such is the case of the cinematic discourse. During the last decade in Colombia, for example, public discourses have reflected its social and political passage, including the location of the feminine subject in a subordinate position. The enunciation of the feminine image might be cause or effect, or both, of the institutional construction of certain gender stereotypes and, in turn, of the permanent establishment of a symbolic violence that links openly to the structural violence that is carried out every day in the country against women. The films selected for the analysis of cinematographic texts discussed in this article were reviewed taking into account the number of spectators by year, according to data from Proimágenes Colombia; the three chosen texts were from films which grossed the most in the year of release. Similarly, their selection was linked to the main participation of the female role inside the argumentative body in each film. The texts treated in this article are from the films Sin tetas no hay paraíso (No Paradise without Tits- 2010, of the director Gustavo Bolivar; Rosario Tijeras (Rosario Scissors -2005, of the director Emilio Maillé, and El arriero ( The Mule Driver -2009, of the director Guillermo Calle. From

  13. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran MinhHai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1 estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2 symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically.

  14. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  15. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically.

  16. PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pays, M.F.; Le Courtois, T.

    1997-11-01

    This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during 'lifetime'); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author)

  17. PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pays, M.F.; Le Courtois, T

    1997-11-01

    This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during `lifetime`); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author) 2 refs.

  18. The generalized Cauchy relation: a probe for local structure in materials with isotropic symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bactavatchalou, R [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Alnot, P [Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I (France); Bailer, J [Universite du Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Kolle, M [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Mueller, U [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Philipp, M [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Possart, W [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Rouxel, D [Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I (France); Sanctuary, R [Universite du Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Tschoepe, A [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Vergnat, Ch [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Wetzel, B [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe TU Kaiserslautern 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Krueger, J K [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg)

    2006-05-15

    The elastic properties of the isotropic state of condensed matter are given by the elastic constants ell and c44. In the liquid state the static shear stiffness c44 vanishes whereas at sufficient high probe frequencies a dynamic shear stiffness may appear. In that latter case the question about the existence of a Cauchy relation appears. It will be shown that a pure Cauchy relation can appear only under special conditions which are rarely fulfilled. For all investigated materials, including ceramics, liquids and glasses, a linear relation between ell and c44 called generalized Cauchy relation is observed, which, surprisingly, follows a linear transformation.

  19. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et......Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive...... the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...

  20. Materials-Related Aspects of Thermochemical Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pitz-Paal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical multistep water- and CO2-splitting processes are promising options to face future energy problems. Particularly, the possible incorporation of solar power makes these processes sustainable and environmentally attractive since only water, CO2 and solar power are used; the concentrated solar energy is converted into storable and transportable fuels. One of the major barriers to technological success is the identification of suitable active materials like catalysts and redox materials exhibiting satisfactory durability, reactivity and efficiencies. Moreover, materials play an important role in the construction of key components and for the implementation in commercial solar plants. The most promising thermochemical water- and CO2-splitting processes are being described and discussed with respect to further development and future potential. The main materials-related challenges of those processes are being analyzed. Technical approaches and development progress in terms of solving them are addressed and assessed in this review.

  1. Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo

    1999-01-01

    Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

  2. Competence-Based, Research-Related Lab Courses for Materials Modeling: The Case of Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhammer, Karl Sebastian; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2017-01-01

    We are hereby presenting a didactic concept for an advanced lab course that focuses on the design of donor materials for organic solar cells. Its research-related and competence-based approach qualifies the students to independently and creatively apply computational methods and to profoundly and critically discuss the results obtained. The high…

  3. Three-fold embedding : farm developement in relation to its socio-material context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.; Roep, D.; Verstegen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding heterogeneity in farm development strategies is important in order to design effective policies and support programs to increase the sustainability of agriculture in relation to its socio-material context. Using a unique case study of 102 dairy farmers in The Netherlands, all operating

  4. The role of absorbent building materials in moderating changes of relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Tim

    The problem studied in this work is, how porous, absorbent materials surroundning or placed in a room influence the relative humidity of the room. This is of interest in designing precautions and machinery to monitor the indoor climate in museums and dwelling rooms. - A novel technique for the in...

  5. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  6. On the derivative of the stress-strain relation in a no-tension material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padovani, C.; Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2017), s. 1606-1618 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : no-tension material * stress-strain relation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http:// journals .sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1081286515571786

  7. Clutter-free Visualization of Large Point Symbols at Multiple Scales by Offset Quadtrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the cartographic problems in map mash-up applications in the Web 2.0 context, this paper studies a clutter-free technique for visualizing large symbols on Web maps. Basically, a quadtree is used to select one symbol in each grid cell at each zoom level. To resolve the symbol overlaps between neighboring quad-grids, multiple offsets are applied to the quadtree and a voting strategy is used to compute the significant level of symbols for their selection at multiple scales. The method is able to resolve spatial conflicts without explicit conflict detection, thus enabling a highly efficient processing. Also the resulting map forms a visual hierarchy of semantic importance. We discuss issues such as the relative importance, symbol-to-grid size ratio, and effective offset schemes, and propose two extensions to make better use of the free space available on the map. Experiments were carried out to validate the technique,which demonstrates its robustness and efficiency (a non-optimal implementation leads to a sub-second processing for datasets of a 105 magnitude.

  8. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  9. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and

  10. Communication and Symbolic Capitalism. Rethinking Marxist Communication Theory in the Light of the Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pleios

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Communication is examined in the realm of Marxist theory not as an autonomous social field, but as a component in the total social structure. It is argued that there was a shift from the initial Marxist idea of forms of communication as relations of production to communication as part of the superstructure, and that this view has prevailed in Marxist theory for a long period of time. In the work of later Marxists, we can spot a re-connection of communication with the capitalist mode of production, but not with the process of structuration and changing of relations of  production. In my view, first we must connect these modifications in Marxist theory with the changes in the capitalist mode of production itself and secondly we must seek the role of communication primarily in the production process.  We stress that at the end of the 19th century there was a shift from extensive to intensive forms of surplus value which was tightly interconnected with the mass (enlarged consumption of symbolic commodities and commodities – symbols as stimulus for the intensive production. In this way capitalism was transformed to symbolic capitalism. In the ‘60s, the symbolic logic of enlarged consumption led to the need for diverse and flexible production and therefore to the deep information – symbolic changes in technology and social organization of the labour. Thus the logic of consumption became logic of production. This made possible on one hand the shrinkage of the enlarged consumption and on the other the high productivity of the economic systems. This was the rise of a new, deep symbolic capitalism, which made possible the social change without seizing the power. Therefore, the recent developments in the capitalist mode of production takes us back to the primary Marxist notion of communication forms as relations of production and make possible to change the laters by changing the first.

  11. The snake as the symbol of medicine, toxicology and toxinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutsaki, I A; Haniotakis, S; Tsatsakis, A M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the meaning and the roots of the snake's usage as a symbol of medicine, the medical profession, toxicology and toxinology by examining mythological, archeological data and a variety of texts from the ancient Greek world. The snake figure was associated with Asclepios, the ancient Greek God of medicine, and possessed benevolent properties. It was believed to be able to cure a patient or a wounded person just by touch. The snake is also connected with pharmacology and antisepsis, as snakes possess an antivenom against their own poison. The snake is related to sciences associated with poison and death, such as toxicology and toxinology, and it also implies a metaphysical idea. It is connected with the underworld, not only because it crawls on the ground, but because it can bring death, connecting the upper with the underground world. The ability of the snake to shed its skin has been associated with the circle of life, and the renaissance spirit also, ever since early Hellenic antiquity. Consequently, as a symbol of the modern medical profession, toxicology and toxinology, the snake twisted around a stick or the snake beside a pharmapeutic cup, which also implies the use of medicines or even poison, has its roots in the ancient Mediterranean area as proven by the archeological data combined with literary references. Its benevolent as well as its poisonous properties could be paralleled by the similar properties of medicines.

  12. Metaphor, symbolic play, and logical thought in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, J A

    1997-11-01

    Development of the ability to understand diverse types of metaphor was examined in terms of play context (symbolic vs. constructive-object play), Piagetian operational level (preoperational vs. concrete-operational), and medium of presentation (pictures vs. words). Forty 4-year-olds and 80 6-year-olds (40 preoperational, 40 concrete-operational) were presented with six different types of metaphorical relationships (color, shape, physiognomic, cross-modal, psychological-physical, and taxonomic matches) in both pictures and words in a match-to-sample design. Results indicated that (a) constructive-object play, rather than symbolic play, facilitated the understanding of perceptual and taxonomic metaphor, suggesting differences in early styles of metaphoric usage; (b) despite previous findings, the study failed to replicate a relationship between operativity and metaphoric understanding; and (c) younger children did significantly better in the pictorial medium, suggesting a picture-superiority effect for more perceptible metaphorical relations (perceptual and physiognomic), whereas older children showed a word-superiority effect for more conceptual metaphors (psychological-physical and taxonomic).

  13. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca E; Bartley, Mel; Pikhart, Hynek; Stafford, Mai; Cable, Noriko

    2014-03-23

    An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n=10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent-child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0-16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter's Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect=33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health.

  14. Symbolic reasoning about myocardial scintigrams in PROLOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, S.; Itti, R.; Benjelloun, L.

    1986-01-01

    PROLOG (PROgramming in LOGic) is the declarative programming language at the heart of the Japanese fifth-generation computer project. It is proposed that PROLOG is a suitable tool for symbolic image processing, once standard preprocessing has been done. In the present application, the problem of prediction of coronary anatomy from myocardial scintigrams is addressed. Uncertainty is dealt with by a combination of fuzzy-set theoretic and probabilistic reasoning. Heuristic classification rules are based on clinical experience and on a set of 247 myocardial scintigrams with their corresponding coronary angiograms. (orig.)

  15. MIMESIS OR THE FRUITION OF SYMBOLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Feron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mimesis seems to be coextensive to history of philosophy, and its re-visitation – from the perspective of a critical anthropology – should lead to the deconstruction of certain myths that structure metaphysics since Plato; among others, the stigma of the reproduction of a legitimate origin. Considering the work of Hans Blumenberg, this paper considers the possibility of an anthropology developed from the perspective of a symbolical dynamics that, from organic to imaginary, from unconscious to analytics of intellect, allows modern reason to understand its own exercise as a play, beyond any kind of anguish.

  16. Information measures and uncertainty of particular symbols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2011), s. 144-163 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR GA402/08/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Information source * Information measure * Uncertainty modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/mares-information measures and uncertainty of particular symbols.pdf

  17. On the Symbolism of Thomas Mann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily M. Tolmatchoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay discusses Thomas Mann’s symbolism and its parameters as well as Mann’s interpretation of the crisis of European spiritual values. Тhe author examines the role of Nietzsche in Mann’s heritage as well as interconnections between Mann and Wilde, Mann and Gide. Buddenbrooks is interpreted as a novel about the end of the German Renaissance; duality of the modern artist is shown on the example of “Tonio Kröger” while the paradoxes of his eroticism are analyzed on the example of “Der Tod in Venedig.”

  18. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  19. Symbolic Block Decomposition In Hexahedral Mesh Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Adamek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexahedral mesh generation for three-dimensional solid objects is often done in stages. Usually an object is first subdivided into simple-shaped subregions, which then are filled withhexahedral finite elements. This article presents an automatic subdividing method of polyhedron with planar faces. The subdivision is based on medial surface, axes and nodes of a solid.The main emphasis is put on creating a topology of subregions. Obtaining such a topologyinvolves defining a graph structure OMG which contains necessary information about medialsurface topology and object topology, followed by simple symbolic processing on it.

  20. [Symbolic meanings of patients with chronic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luz Angélica; Price, Yocelyn; Gambini, Liliana; Stefanelli, Maguida Costa

    2003-12-01

    The investigation presents three cultural universes of those suffering from arterial hypertension, diabetes and arthrosis, describing the different dimensions and interpreting their meaning. The ethnographic method was utilized, using the ethnographic interview and participant observation and for the interpretation, the symbolic interactionism and other authors. Convergences in the dimensions arise in which the three diseases are perceived: the loss of well-being and social support, fear of disability and death. perception of the family and accepting the chronicity, interest in alternative medicine. The informants of this study perceive nursing care with ambiguity.

  1. Symbolic reasoning about myocardial scintigrams in PROLOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S; Itti, R; Benjelloun, L

    1986-06-01

    PROLOG (PROgramming in LOGic) is the declarative programming language at the heart of the Japanese fifth-generation computer project. It is proposed that PROLOG is a suitable tool for symbolic image processing, once standard preprocessing has been done. In the present application, the problem of prediction of coronary anatomy from myocardial scintigrams is addressed. Uncertainty is dealt with by a combination of fuzzy-set theoretic and probabilistic reasoning. Heuristic classification rules are based on clinical experience and on a set of 247 myocardial scintigrams with their corresponding coronary angiograms.

  2. The IAEA inventory databases related to radioactive material entering the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.C.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter (LC 1972) have requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for developing and maintaining the inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides entering the marine environment from different sources can be assessed and compared. Five anthropogenic sources of radionuclides entering the marine environment can be identified. These sources are: radioactive waste disposal at sea; accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material; discharge of low level liquid effluents from land-based nuclear facilities; the fallout from nuclear weapons testing; and accidental releases from land-based nuclear facilities. The first two of these sources are most closely related to the objective of the LC 1972 and its request to the IAEA. This paper deals with the Agency's work on developing a database on radioactive material entering the marine environment from these two sources. The database has the acronym RAMEM (RAdioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment). It includes two modules: inventory of radioactive waste disposal at sea and inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material

  3. Aristotle's Theory of Deviance and Contemporary Symbolic Interactionist Scholarship: Learning from the Past, Extending the Present, and Engaging the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, Robert

    Although his work has been largely overlooked by symbolic interactionists and other students of deviance, Aristotle (c384-322BCE) addresses community life, activity, agency, and persuasive interchange in ways that not only are remarkably consistent with contemporary symbolic interactionist approaches to deviance, but that also conceptually inform present day theories of deviance and provide valuable transhistorical comparison points for subsequent analysis. Following (1) a brief overview of an interactionist approach to the study of deviance, attention is given to (2) classical Greek conceptions of good and evil (especially as these are articulated by Plato) before turning more directly to (3) Aristotle's notions of wrongdoing as this is reflected in his considerations of community, morality, agency, and culpability. While informed by Aristotle's considerations of causality (as addressed in Physics and Metaphysics ), this statement builds most centrally on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Rhetoric . Striving for a broader understanding of deviance as a humanly engaged feature of community life, the paper briefly compares Aristotle's "theory of deviance" with Prus and Grills (2003) interactionist analysis of deviance. The paper (4) concludes with an assessment of the relative contributions of contemporary interactionist scholarship and Aristotle's materials for the study of deviance as a community-engaged process.

  4. Brain activity associated with translation from a visual to a symbolic representation in algebra and geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Waisman, Ilana; Shaul, Shelley; Leikin, Roza

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a small part of a larger interdisciplinary study that investigates brain activity (using event related potential methodology) of male adolescents when solving mathematical problems of different types. The study design links mathematics education research with neurocognitive studies. In this paper we performed a comparative analysis of brain activity associated with the translation from visual to symbolic representations of mathematical objects in algebra and geometry. Algebraic tasks require translation from graphical to symbolic representation of a function, whereas tasks in geometry require translation from a drawing of a geometric figure to a symbolic representation of its property. The findings demonstrate that electrical activity associated with the performance of geometrical tasks is stronger than that associated with solving algebraic tasks. Additionally, we found different scalp topography of the brain activity associated with algebraic and geometric tasks. Based on these results, we argue that problem solving in algebra and geometry is associated with different patterns of brain activity.

  5. The image of psychology programs: the value of the instrumental-symbolic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip; De Soete, Britt; Libbrecht, Nele; Schollaert, Eveline; Baligant, Dimphna

    2014-01-01

    As competition for funding and students intensifies, it becomes increasingly important for psychology programs to have an image that is attractive and makes them stand out from other programs. The current study uses the instrumental-symbolic framework from the marketing domain to determine the image of different master's programs in psychology and examines how these image dimensions relate to student attraction and competitor differentiation. The samples consist of both potential students (N = 114) and current students (N = 68) of three psychology programs at a Belgian university: industrial and organizational psychology, clinical psychology, and experimental psychology. The results demonstrate that both instrumental attributes (e.g., interpersonal activities) and symbolic trait inferences (e.g., sincerity) are key components of the image of psychology programs and predict attractiveness as well as differentiation. In addition, symbolic image dimensions seem more important for current students of psychology programs than for potential students.

  6. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  7. Experimental Measurement of Relative Permeability Functions for Fuel Cell GDL Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex-situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented. Significant departure from the generally assumed cubic function of saturation is observed. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  8. Comparison of relative INAA and k0-INAA using soil and sediment reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacimovic, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the results obtained by the relative INAA and k 0 -INAA methods for the same input parameters (sample mass, nuclear data, net peak area for the same gamma line and the same measurement and same cooling and measurement times). In total eight environmental soil and sediment reference materials (RM) or certified reference materials (CRM) from different producers were analysed. In this work only the recommended or certified values were considered, allowing comparison of the two methods for 30 elements. The results point out that k 0 -INAA possesses superior qualities compared to relative INAA, being insensitive to flux gradients, and independent of recommended/certified values in RMs/CRMs, often used as standards in relative INAA. (author)

  9. An investigation of developmental changes in interpretation and construction of graphic AAC symbol sequences through systematic combination of input and output modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann; Morford, Jill P

    2014-09-01

    While research on spoken language has a long tradition of studying and contrasting language production and comprehension, the study of graphic symbol communication has focused more on production than comprehension. As a result, the relationships between the ability to construct and to interpret graphic symbol sequences are not well understood. This study explored the use of graphic symbol sequences in children without disabilities aged 3;0 to 6;11 (years; months) (n=111). Children took part in nine tasks that systematically varied input and output modalities (speech, action, and graphic symbols). Results show that in 3- and 4-year-olds, attributing meaning to a sequence of symbols was particularly difficult even when the children knew the meaning of each symbol in the sequence. Similarly, while even 3- and 4-year-olds could produce a graphic symbol sequence following a model, transposing a spoken sentence into a graphic sequence was more difficult for them. Representing an action with graphic symbols was difficult even for 5-year-olds. Finally, the ability to comprehend graphic-symbol sequences preceded the ability to produce them. These developmental patterns, as well as memory-related variables, should be taken into account in choosing intervention strategies with young children who use AAC.

  10. Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.

    1995-01-01

    Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current

  11. Carbon footprints and legitimation strategies: Symbolism or action?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrasky, S. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    The term 'carbon footprint' is now firmly entrenched in the common vernacular where it tends to function ideographically, representing a range of concerns about environmental impacts and degradation. Political and consumer concern about the related issues of carbon emissions, climate change and global warming has been heightened by a number of factors. It is often claimed that, along with the US, Australia has one of the heaviest carbon footprints. However, according to KPMG's (2008) survey results only 32 per cent of the Australian companies included in its survey report specifically on their carbon footprints. Nonetheless, KPMG (2007) reports that around 85 per cent of the 500 largest listed Australian companies do report on the related issues of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Motivations for making such disclosures can vary widely but legitimacy theory has been used extensively to explain environmental disclosure decisions in the context of maintaining an implicit social contract between the company and its stakeholders. While, prima facie, increased levels of voluntary disclosures may be a constructive outcome there is the associated risk that, in pursuit of legitimation, such disclosure can actually 'thicken' the corporate veil. This can occur because organizational action to maintain the social contact can be both symbolic and behavioral. That is, the disclosure response might be calculated to create a positive impression of the firm's activities with no associated change in operations (symbolism) or it might convey a message about how operational changes have been effected that are more consistent with societal expectations. This study examines the disclosure strategies of large Australian companies in light of the heightened societal awareness and concern about issues related to carbon footprints. This first aim is to determine whether, consistent with a general need for legitimation, companies are addressing

  12. The erotic evidence as cultural consumption symbolic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Serrano Barquín

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The desires, pleasures and emotions that relate to female sexuality and eroticism have been repressed as an expression of male power. Under this perspective, this paper presents some results of an investigation in which college students were interviewed in the city of Toluca, is seen discussing sexuality that specifically address physical aspects and their experiences are very different and inequitable between men and women. Young people often link sexuality with concepts such as reproduction, intimacy, warmth, love and pleasure. Also, the theme reflects certain connotations of morality and immorality, sin and danger, as well as imposition of power relations, domination and other stereotypes. Thus, from the interviews and cultural consumption is perceived sexuality and erotic also involves symbolic violence.

  13. Symbol interval optimization for molecular communication with drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Eckford, Andrew W; Chae, Chan-Byoung

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a symbol interval optimization algorithm in molecular communication with drift. Proper symbol intervals are important in practical communication systems since information needs to be sent as fast as possible with low error rates. There is a trade-off, however, between symbol intervals and inter-symbol interference (ISI) from Brownian motion. Thus, we find proper symbol interval values considering the ISI inside two kinds of blood vessels, and also suggest no ISI system for strong drift models. Finally, an isomer-based molecule shift keying (IMoSK) is applied to calculate achievable data transmission rates (achievable rates, hereafter). Normalized achievable rates are also obtained and compared in one-symbol ISI and no ISI systems.

  14. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interactionism to grounded theory research. In this article we discuss the symbolic interactionist concepts of mind, self, and society, and their applicability in grounded theorizing. Our purpose is to highlight foundational concepts of symbolic interactionism and their centrality in the processes of conducting grounded theory research.

  15. ORNAMENTAL ART AND SYMBOLISM: ACTIVATORS OF HISTORICAL REGENERATION FOR KAZAKHSTAN’S LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmaral Ardasher Yussupova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of symbolism in contemporary architecture is increasingly gaining momentum, especially so in the Eastern countries currently undergoing rapid economic development. Sociologically, this phenomenon can be related to a desire to manifest a vast wealth of national art and respond to the globalisation and unification of world culture. Taking this tendency as a prompt, this study explores different ways of implementing symbolic ornaments in landscape architecture. Traditionally architecture has been defined through and judged against culturally acceptable criteria that set the norm for appropriate form and expression. Yet, technical advances have altered this process and contributed to a certain level of oblivion of traditional architectural form. Thus, the meaning of many Kazakh ornaments has been lost through time. On one hand, this paper collects historical information on the semiotics of Kazakh ornaments and on the other hand, it conducts field studies focusing on the cultural tradition of the native people in Eurasia. The study introduces the use of symbolism in landscape architecture as an aspiration for luck and prosperity which then dictates the quality of the landscape compositions. The findings show that the use of symbolic ornamentation in architecture is not bound to specific geographic areas but rather motivated by broader underlying principles. Through analytical exploration of different cultures and their use of symbols in architecture, this study identifies four main categories of architectural symbolism relating to floral, zoomorphic, geometric and cosmogonic patterns. Each nation then recognises its own identity in the semiotics of those patterns and incorporates them in the urban realm as part of its cultural legacy.

  16. The primal scene and symbol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedecken, Dietmut

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the meaning of the primal scene for symbol formation by exploring its way of processing in a child's play. The author questions the notion that a sadomasochistic way of processing is the only possible one. A model of an alternative mode of processing is being presented. It is suggested that both ways of processing intertwine in the "fabric of life" (D. Laub). Two clinical vignettes, one from an analytic child psychotherapy and the other from the analysis of a 30 year-old female patient, illustrate how the primal scene is being played out in the form of a terzet. The author explores whether the sadomasochistic way of processing actually precedes the "primal scene as a terzet". She discusses if it could even be regarded as a precondition for the formation of the latter or, alternatively, if the "combined parent-figure" gives rise to ways of processing. The question is being left open. Finally, it is shown how both modes of experiencing the primal scene underlie the discoursive and presentative symbol formation, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  17. Symbolic interactionism and the concept of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alex; Martin, Peter J

    2005-06-01

    Symbolic interactionism is often represented as a perspective which is limited by its restriction to 'micro' aspects of social organization. As such, it is allegedly unable to adequately conceptualize 'macro' phenomena such as social structure, patterns of inequality, and power. Such a view is routinely presented in undergraduate textbooks. This paper contests such a view through a consideration of the concept of power. We argue that the interactionist research tradition does show a fundamental concern with power phenomena, and that a reconsideration of the concept is timely in light of theoretical developments in sociology more generally. An increasing concern with the analysis of culture, the continuing influence of Foucault, the development of feminist perspectives, and the emerging consensus around neo-Weberian thought have all contributed to a renewal of interest in themes long ago explored by interactionists. As examples we suggest that interactionist studies in the fields of deviance and education have been concerned above all with the authoritative imposition of consequential identities, i.e., with the social processes through which power is enacted and institutionalized in real situations. Such developments have led some to argue that interactionism has now been incorporated into the mainstream of sociology. We conclude, however, by arguing that such a view runs the risk of granting to orthodox sociological thought a legitimacy which is analytically unwarranted, and which fails to recognize the alternative theoretical and philosophical foundations of symbolic interactionist thought.

  18. Challenging convention: symbolic interactionism and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Not very much is written in the literature about decisions made by researchers and the justifications on method as a result of a particular clinical problem, together with an appropriate and congruent theoretical perspective, particularly for Glaserian grounded theory. I contend the utilisation of symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective to inform and guide the evolving research process and analysis of data when using classic or Glaserian grounded theory (GT) method, is not always appropriate. Within this article I offer an analysis of the key issues to be addressed when contemplating the use of Glaserian GT and the utilisation of an appropriate theoretical perspective, rather than accepting convention of symbolic interactionism (SI). The analysis became imperative in a study I conducted that sought to explore the concerns, adaptive behaviours, psychosocial processes and relevant interactions over a 12-month period, among newly diagnosed persons with end stage renal disease, dependent on haemodialysis in the home environment for survival. The reality of perception was central to the end product in the study. Human ethics approval was granted by six committees within New South Wales Health Department and one from a university.

  19. SEARCH FOR WORKERS AS SYMBOLIC CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yurevich Alasheev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The labour market is seen as a field of symbolic exchange where the main actors are employers and job applicants, whereas the objects of exchange are workplaces and professional competence of employees. The analysis is based on the observed behavioural practices and verbal expressions. An attempt has been made to consider the area of interaction between employers and jobseekers as a field of symbolic production and consumption and to describe methods of construction and perception of representations in the labour market. The analysis of several interviews has revealed significant characteristics of the image of an employee, the employer’s expectations and the specificity of perception of a job applicant.Search and recruitment is a communication process which forms an image of the profession. The use of various search channels imposes restrictions on the construction of the image of a required worker by the employer and determines the specificity of perception of the vacancy by job applicants.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-3

  20. Symbolism and rationality in the politics of psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Psychoactive substances take on many symbolic meanings, and thus the politics of psychoactive substances has featured symbolic elements, or value-based rationality, alongside and often dominating instrumental rationality. Drawing particularly on the work of Joseph Gusfield and Nordic scholars, the chapter considers the symbolic dimension in the politics of substance use, even in Nordic countries celebrated for their societal commitment to knowledge-based policymaking, and its effects on the interplay of science and policy.

  1. The name of the son. Fatherhood, motherhood and symbolic competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tania Zittoun conceptions on uses of cultural elements as symbolic resources for psychological development are presented. Such uses of symbolic resources are examined through a study of the procedure of choosing first names during the transition to parenthood. The notion of symbolic competencies, as the abilities to use cultural elements as resources for thinking, action and a healthy development, is discussed. 

  2. Multiple-Symbol, Partially Coherent Detection of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

    1994-01-01

    Proposed method of reception of multiple-phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) radio signals involves multiple-symbol, partially coherent detection. Instead of attempting to determine phase of transmitted signal during each symbol period as in coherent detection, receiver acquires signal data during multiple-symbol observation interval, then produces maximum-likelihood-sequence estimate of phases transmitted during interval. Combination of coherent-reception and incoherent-reception decision rules are used.

  3. Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

  4. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 70 years, various actors have dramatically reconfigured the Las Vegas Strip in many forms. I claim that behind the Strip's "reinventions" lies a process of symbolic destruction. Since resorts distinguish themselves symbolically, each new round of capital accumulation relies on the destruction of symbolic capital of existing resorts. A new resort either ups the language within a paradigm, or causes a paradigm shift, which devalues the previous resorts even further. This is why, i...

  5. SYMBOLIC LANDSCAPE OF CONSCIOUSNESS: MAN BETWEEN REPRESENTATIONALISM, FUNCTIONALISM AND RELATIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Kretov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study is to clarify the changed interpretation of symbol in the context of the ontological turn in cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology and their correlation with the functioning of the semantic field of culture, and in particular with religious symbols. The paper also considers an epistemological-ideological positions of representationalism, functionalism and relativism with respect to philosopheme of symbol. Methodology. The authors implemented theoretical and conceptual analysis in synchronic and diachronic aspects, the methodology of comparative consideration of the character within the analytical and existential paradigms in the 20th century philosophy. Originality. The work presents the study of correlation between aspect consideration of the nature and specific character in representationalism, functionalism and relativism within the philosophical projects of the cognitive position. The authors substantiated the position of symbol ontologization in the contemporary cultural and philosophical anthropology and the importance of convergence of the symbol concept and philosopheme with the concepts of an object and a thing. They fixed the value of the ontological turn in cultural anthropology for philosophical anthropology. The authors specifically examined the correlation between the declared symbol interpretation, project of object-oriented ontology and the modern philosophy of science. They substantiated ontological concept of symbolic landscape of modern philosophical anthropology, social philosophy and philosophy of mind. The symbol and religious symbolism have the significant importance for human identity, the symbol is considered to be the tool of human’s self-knowledge. Conclusions. The paper outlines the specific character of existence of symbol philosopheme in communicative field of modern man, the social media space, in particular the role of religious symbols for the construction of

  6. Transportation safety aspects of ore and related material - inconsistencies in current exemption values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.; Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F.; Cook, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA's system for exemption of material from the transport regulations is based on the fundamental principle that exemption values should be commensurate with the risk posed by the material, as represented by effective dose and skin dose. Important departures from that principle as well as inconsistencies between exemption values for different radionuclides have resulted from special provisions for natural materials that depend on their intended use, and from exposure scenarios and other assumptions and rules used in the derivation of exemption values. This paper examines the sources and extent of inconsistencies in exemption values for transport, particularly as they relate to naturally occurring radionuclides, and suggests ways to achieve greater internal consistency in exemption values as well as greater consistency with the fundamental principle underlying the current system

  7. Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shigeru [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the `ITER Materials R and D Data Bank` has been built up, with the use of Excel{sup TM} spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

  8. Symmetric group: Algebraic formulas for some S/sub f/ 6j symbols and S/sub f/containsS/sub f/1 x S/sub f/2 3jm symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, R.W.; Dirl, R.

    1986-01-01

    Explicit rank-dependent expressions have been obtained for some symmetric group (S/sub f/) 6j symbols and some S/sub f/containsS/sub f/ 1 x S/sub f/ 2 3jm symbols using Butler's recursion method. A key point in deriving these results is the use of the reduced notation introduced by Murnaghan to label irreps. Various symmetries of the 6j and 3jm symbols have been imposed. These include the complex conjugation, permutation, and transpose conjugation. We incorporate a new symmetry that arises from the occurrence of the two isomorphic direct product groups S/sub f/ 1 x S/sub f/ 2 and S/sub f/ 2 x S/sub f/ 1 as subgroups of S/sub f/. In relation to the tables of 6j and 3jm symbols presented, a discussion is given of the symmetric group-unitary group duality

  9. Prisoner Fasting as Symbolic Speech: The Ultimate Speech-Action Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.

    The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…

  10. Some Learning Problems Concerning the Use of Symbolic Language in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lozano, Silvia Ragout; Cardenas, Marta

    2002-01-01

    Draws the attention of teachers of basic university physics courses to student problems concerning the interpretation of the symbolic language used in physics. Reports specific difficulties found in the first physics course related to different kinds of statements expressed in the mathematical language. (Contains 15 references.) (Author/YDS)

  11. A Pilot Evaluation of Using Symbol-Based Information in Police Custody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sarah; Sherwood, Gina

    2016-01-01

    At least 20-30% of offenders within the criminal justice system (CJS) have learning disabilities or difficulties. This creates significant challenges in relation to meeting their information needs about rights, entitlements, processes and procedures. We report a pilot project where widgit Symbols were used to create more accessible information…

  12. Cross-Sensory Correspondences and Symbolism in Spoken and Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight,…

  13. Cheminoes: A Didactic Game to Learn Chemical Relationships between Valence, Atomic Number, and Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis F.; Hincapié, Gina; Alzate, María Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Cheminoes is a didactic game that enables the meaningful learning of some relations between concepts such as chemical element, valence, atomic number, and chemical symbol for the first 36 chemical elements of the periodic system. Among the students who have played the game, their opinions of the activity were positive, considering the game to be a…

  14. Exploring the Development of Symbolic Function of Consciousness: A Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov A.M.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes studying method which developed the symbolic function mind. It is defined as a functional unit providing the solution of problems by understanding and expression of the reality of the subject-subject relationship using symbols. The symbol understood as a cultural form of presen- tation of subjective reality, mediating the relationship and interaction between two or more subjects. The symbol consists of sense-perception of form and meaning, expressing a subjective reality. The structure of the symbolic function includes the following components: generation and implementation plan, the transformation of symbolic forms, the awareness of the antinomic character, character interpretation. Investigation techiques was developed in accordance with the principles of construction of experimental-genetic method. Empirical criteria for evaluating the level of its development was based on the structure of the symbolic function, and developed a system of assistance for the realization of symbolic meaning. The method allows determine the dynamics and conditions for the development of the symbolic function, its genetic makeup, as well as the form and content of cooperation with con- temporaries.

  15. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading. AECDauxiliary.... cylcylinder. disp.displacement. ECAEmission Control Area. EEZExclusive Economic Zone. EPAEnvironmental...

  16. Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex backgrounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

  17. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, lightning, etc... or abstract (geometrical shape, number, pace, ideas, etc.... The use of numbers as symbols is as old as language itself, but one that precedes writing, which symbolize numbers (that is, where the reality behind the external characters. The sheer numbers and their symbolism in ancient Greece and is closely associated with the philosophy and mathematics (namely arithmetic. They summarize their view of the world and everything around them. This paper draws attention to the symbolism of the numbers that were in ancient Greece.

  18. Symbolics in control design: prospects and research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The symbolic processor is targeted as a novel basic service in computer aided control system design. Basic symbolic tools are exemplified. A design process model is formulated for control design, with subsets manipulator, tools, target and goals. It is argued, that symbolic processing will give...... substantial contributions to future design environments, as it provides flexibility of representation not possible with traditional numerics. Based on the design process, views on research issues in the incorporation of symbolic processing into traditional numerical design environments are given...

  19. Tamga-Shaped Symbols on Ceramics from the Sites of Otrar Oasis of the Pre-Arabic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baipakov Karl M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers tamga-shaped symbols from excavations at Pshakshitobe, Besinshitobe and Kuyuk-Mardan settlements in Southern Kazakhstan. Tamga symbols on ceramics are represented by various types. They are distinguished by clearly defined application techniques. A vast majority of symbols are based on absolutely straight lines with generally rounded ends. A comparison of tamga-shaped symbols with pasted ornaments frequently encountered in the material culture of Kanguy tribes in the basin of the Syrdaria allows to consider the former as Kanguy. Perhaps, some of them were subsequently used by the local rulers of Chach and Khwarezm. Counterparts of the symbols in questions have been discovered in materials from Achaemenid Iran, ancient Khwarezm and Sarmatiya of 1st –3rd centuries A.D., and the Middle Syrdaria region of 1st – 8th centuries A.D. Further identification and study of tamgas on the ceramics from Otrar oasis with the involvement of materials from excavations will probably allow to draw more substantiated conclusions with respect to their dating and attribution.

  20. A relation to predict the failure of materials and potential application to volcanic eruptions and landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shengwang; Liu, Chao; Lu, Chunsheng; Elsworth, Derek

    2016-06-16

    A theoretical explanation of a time-to-failure relation is presented, with this relationship then used to describe the failure of materials. This provides the potential to predict timing (tf - t) immediately before failure by extrapolating the trajectory as it asymptotes to zero with no need to fit unknown exponents as previously proposed in critical power law behaviors. This generalized relation is verified by comparison with approaches to criticality for volcanic eruptions and creep failure. A new relation based on changes with stress is proposed as an alternative expression of Voight's relation, which is widely used to describe the accelerating precursory signals before material failure and broadly applied to volcanic eruptions, landslides and other phenomena. The new generalized relation reduces to Voight's relation if stress is limited to increase at a constant rate with time. This implies that the time-derivatives in Voight's analysis may be a subset of a more general expression connecting stress derivatives, and thus provides a potential method for forecasting these events.