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Sample records for matched-field processing stamp

  1. Adaptive and compressive matched field processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemba, Kay L; Hodgkiss, William S; Gerstoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Matched field processing is a generalized beamforming method that matches received array data to a dictionary of replica vectors in order to locate one or more sources. Its solution set is sparse since there are considerably fewer sources than replicas. Using compressive sensing (CS) implemented using basis pursuit, the matched field problem is reformulated as an underdetermined, convex optimization problem. CS estimates the unknown source amplitudes using the replica dictionary to best explain the data, subject to a row-sparsity constraint. This constraint selects the best matching replicas within the dictionary when using multiple observations and/or frequencies. For a single source, theory and simulations show that the performance of CS and the Bartlett processor are equivalent for any number of snapshots. Contrary to most adaptive processors, CS also can accommodate coherent sources. For a single and multiple incoherent sources, simulations indicate that CS offers modest localization performance improvement over the adaptive white noise constraint processor. SWellEx-96 experiment data results show comparable performance for both processors when localizing a weaker source in the presence of a stronger source. Moreover, CS often displays less ambiguity, demonstrating it is robust to data-replica mismatch.

  2. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  3. Robust adaptive matched field processing with sector eigenvector constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kunde; MA Yuanliang

    2006-01-01

    Standard adaptive beamforming or matched field processing requires accurate replica fields finely gridded over the search parameter space for localization with sidelobe control. This paper presents an Adaptive Matched Field Processing (AMFP) algo rithm, which aims at gaining robustness for the environmentai mismatch, and simultaneously reducing the real-time computational load. The new method integrates the merits of several AMFP beamformers with neighboring location constraints, environmental perturbation constraints and sector focusing constraints. The robustness and effectiveness of the suggested algorithm has been illustrated through the numerical simulation and the experimental Mediterranean benchmark shallow-water data.

  4. Robust adaptive matched field processing with environmental uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kunde; MA Yuanliang; ZHANG Zhongbing; ZOU Shixin

    2006-01-01

    The main challenges on detection and localization of quiet targets in littoral regions for passive sonar are the complicated acoustic propagation and the prevalence of loud ship interferences on the surface. Adaptive matched field processing can provide the ability to null surface interferences, but the mismatch between the computed and actual array steering vectors due to environment uncertainty, and the motion of both targets and interferences can result in loss of array gain significantly. To address the problem of environmental mismatch and target motion, a robust motion compensation algorithm and a system scheme for adaptive matched field processing have been developed. Both Numerical simulation and analysis of experimental data demonstrates that the robust AMFP scheme could suppress surface loud interferences and improve the detection performance for underwater weak moving targets in complex shallow water.

  5. Superresolution with Seismic Arrays using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D B; Kvaerna, T

    2010-03-24

    Scattering and refraction of seismic waves can be exploited with empirical matched field processing of array observations to distinguish sources separated by much less than the classical resolution limit. To describe this effect, we use the term 'superresolution', a term widely used in the optics and signal processing literature to denote systems that break the diffraction limit. We illustrate superresolution with Pn signals recorded by the ARCES array in northern Norway, using them to identify the origins with 98.2% accuracy of 549 explosions conducted by closely-spaced mines in northwest Russia. The mines are observed at 340-410 kilometers range and are separated by as little as 3 kilometers. When viewed from ARCES many are separated by just tenths of a degree in azimuth. This classification performance results from an adaptation to transient seismic signals of techniques developed in underwater acoustics for localization of continuous sound sources. Matched field processing is a potential competitor to frequency-wavenumber and waveform correlation methods currently used for event detection, classification and location. It operates by capturing the spatial structure of wavefields incident from a particular source in a series of narrow frequency bands. In the rich seismic scattering environment, closely-spaced sources far from the observing array nonetheless produce distinct wavefield amplitude and phase patterns across the small array aperture. With observations of repeating events, these patterns can be calibrated over a wide band of frequencies (e.g. 2.5-12.5 Hertz) for use in a power estimation technique similar to frequency-wavenumber analysis. The calibrations enable coherent processing at high frequencies at which wavefields normally are considered incoherent under a plane wave model.

  6. Data-driven matched field processing for Lamb wave structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Joel B; Moura, José M F

    2014-03-01

    Matched field processing is a model-based framework for localizing targets in complex propagation environments. In underwater acoustics, it has been extensively studied for improving localization performance in multimodal and multipath media. For guided wave structural health monitoring problems, matched field processing has not been widely applied but is an attractive option for damage localization due to equally complex propagation environments. Although effective, matched field processing is often challenging to implement because it requires accurate models of the propagation environment, and the optimization methods used to generate these models are often unreliable and computationally expensive. To address these obstacles, this paper introduces data-driven matched field processing, a framework to build models of multimodal propagation environments directly from measured data, and then use these models for localization. This paper presents the data-driven framework, analyzes its behavior under unmodeled multipath interference, and demonstrates its localization performance by distinguishing two nearby scatterers from experimental measurements of an aluminum plate. Compared with delay-based models that are commonly used in structural health monitoring, the data-driven matched field processing framework is shown to successfully localize two nearby scatterers with significantly smaller localization errors and finer resolutions.

  7. A Bayesian approach to matched field processing in uncertain ocean environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianlong; PAN Xiang

    2008-01-01

    An approach of Bayesian Matched Field Processing(MFP)was discussed in the uncertain ocean environment.In this approach,uncertainty knowledge is modeled and spatial and temporal data Received by the array are fully used.Therefore,a mechanism for MFP is found.which well combines model-based and data-driven methods of uncertain field processing.By theoretical derivation,simulation analysis and the validation of the experimental array data at sea,we find that(1)the basic components of Bayesian matched field processors are the corresponding sets of Bartlett matched field processor,MVDR(minimum variance distortionless response)matched field processor,etc.;(2)Bayesian MVDR/Bartlett MFP are the weighted sum of the MVDR/Bartlett MFP,where the weighted coefficients are the values of the a posteriori probability;(3)with the uncertain ocean environment,Bayesian MFP can more correctly locate the source than MVDR MFP or Bartlett MFP;(4)Bayesian MFP call better suppress sidelobes of the ambiguity surfaces.

  8. Applications of matched field processing to damage detection in composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippmann, Jeffery D.; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    There are many structures serving vital infrastructure, energy, and national security purposes. Inspecting the components and areas of the structure most prone to failure during maintenance operations by using non- destructive evaluation methods has been essential in avoiding costly, but preventable, catastrophic failures. In many cases, the inspections are performed by introducing acoustic, ultrasonic, or even thermographic waves into the structure and then evaluating the response. Sometimes the structure, or a component, is not accessible for active inspection methods. Because of this, there is a growing interest to use passive methods, such as using ambient noise, or sources of opportunity, to produce a passive impulse response function similar to the active approach. Several matched field processing techniques most notably used in oceanography and seismology applications are examined in more detail. While sparse array imaging in structures has been studied for years, all methods studied previously have used an active interrogation approach. Here, structural damage detection is studied by use of the reconstructed impulse response functions in ambient noise within sparse array imaging techniques, such as matched-field processing. This has been studied in experiments on a 9-m wind turbine blade.

  9. Optimal Nesting for Continuous Shape Stamping Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the optimal nesting problem for minimizing the scrap in continuous shape stamping processes. The shape sliding technique is used to propose a new approach, OVERLAP-and-ESCAPE, to solve the problem of continuously nesting shapes onto a metal coil of fixed or selectable width. The approach is used to construct the objective function of the mathematical model of the problem using the Simulated Annealing Algorithm to determine the globally minimal configurations for the nesting problems. Some representative cases are studied and the results are encouraging. An automatic nesting software package for manufacturing bicycle chain link blanks is also described.

  10. Improved Detection of Microearthquakes: Application of Matched Field Processing (MFP) to Traditional and Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, D. C.; Harris, D.; Goebel, M.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the microseismicity in both traditional and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and compare the temporal distribution of microseismic events to well fluid injection data. We apply the empirical and model-based Matched Field Processing (MFP) methods to continuous seismic data from the Salton Sea geothermal field and the DOE Newberry EGS site. MFP is a non-traditional event detection method that can identify more and smaller events than traditional detection methods alone. The empirical MFP method uses known catalog events as master templates to identify new microearthquakes while the model-based MFP method uses synthetic sources computed across a subsurface 3D grid as master templates. Salton Sea data between January 2008 and December 2011 was downloaded off the SCEDC website and high-quality master events were identified from the online catalog. We created empirical matched field steering vector calibrations for 7 three-component stations within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. The original Salton Sea earthquake catalog identified 4202 events. When we applied the empirical MFP technique to the same data, we identified 5005 additional events (~119% more events). We compare the results from this traditional geothermal area with results obtained from the Newberry EGS site, for which we have 8 three-component stations. The Newberry catalog originally identified 204 events in 3 months while the MFP technique identified 249 additional events (~122% more events). We will compare the results from using the empirical MFP method at the Newberry EGS site with results obtained from using model-based master templates. Additionally, we compare the number of events in the improved earthquake catalogs with available fluid injection data. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Application of Decision Tree Algorithm in Stamping Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying-chun; LI Da-yong; YIN Ji-long; PENG Ying-hong

    2005-01-01

    Various process parameters exert different effects in stamping process. In order to study the relationships among the process parameters of box stamping process, including the blank holder force, friction coefficient,depth of drawbead, offset and length of drawbead, the decision tree algorithm C4.5 was performed to generate the decision tree using the result data of the box stamping simulation. The design and improvement methods of the decision tree were presented. Potential and valuable rules were generated by traversing the decision tree, which plays an instructive role on the practical design. The rules show that the correct combination of blank holder force and setting of drawbead are the dominant contribution for controlling the cracking and wrinkling in box stamping process. In order to validate the rules, the stamping process for box was also performed. The experiment results show good agreement with the generated rules.

  12. Noise source localization using Matched Field Processing: wind turbines, mofettes and geysirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umlauft, Josefine; Flores Estrella, Hortencia; Christin Obermann, Anne; Korn, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Matched Field Processing (MFP) is a beamforming method, derived from ocean acoustics, that serves as a noise source localization and exploration tool in applied geophysics. Here, we present three case studies to explore the applicability of MFP in the presence of different source types, and using sensor arrays with different aperture and density. First, we show the localization of a single wind turbine (Saxony, Eastern Germany), which acts as a point source at the surface generating continuous vibrations due to the rotation of their blades. Using 30 vertical sensors (Reftek Texans) randomly distributed within an area of approximately 50 x 50 m2 around the wind turbine, we identified the turbine as the dominant noise source within the array. Therefore we verified that the MFP procedure gives useful results. The second test was performed in Hartouŝov (NW Bohemia, Czech Republic). This area is characterized by several natural degassing areas of mantle-originating fluids and CO2 (mofettes). Mofettes either appear as little sinks filled with bubbling groundwater or more extensive as vegetation anomalies. We located these mofettes, using the collapsing water bubbles as seismic noise source, and compared our results with CO2 flux values of the same field measured by Nickschick et al. (2015). The array consisted of 130 stations in total (30 Reftek Texans, 50 Omnirecs Data-Cubes3 and 50 Summit X-One channels) and covered an area of about 500 x 1000 m2. Additionally to MFP, we perfomed a polarization analysis of surface waves to characterize the wave field generated by the the degassing process. The last example is a geysering system in NE Java (Indonesia) which is called LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo). The geysir was surrounded by 5 stations (Trillium Compacts) arranged in a circle with about 1.5 km diameter. Here, we could successfully locate the surface position of the geysir as well as image its feeding channel to a depth of 100 m. This example shows the suitability of MFP

  13. Research on Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation of Stamping Process Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Tingwei; GAO Jun; ZHAO Guoqun

    2006-01-01

    Stamping process, which is widely used in automobile, aerospace, machine-building industries, and etc., is a creative process needing time and experiences. The lead time is mainly spent on stamping die design and manufacturing. As the basis of die design, process design is a non-linearity and creative process, which can be solved by using the fuzzy synthetic evaluation. In this paper, the potential of fuzzy synthetic evaluation for dealing with stamping process design was explored. The influencing factor set, factor weight set, evaluation set, single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix, and fuzzy synthetic evaluation scheme were studied. Finally, the washer part, considering forming equipment, part dimensions and other factors, was selected to testify the evaluation process.

  14. Modelling the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    The present thesis is devoted to numerical modelling of the deformation process of flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The purpose of those models is to be able to predict the deformation and stretch of the flexixble stamps in order to take that into account when designing the plan...... 2D silicon master used in the NIL process. Two different manufacturing processes are investigated; (i) Embossing of an electroplated nickel foil into a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) polymer resist on a double-curved surface, (ii) NIL of a flexible polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) stamps...... into a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resist. Challenges comprise several non-linear phenomena. First of all geometrical non-linearities arising from the inherent large strains and deformations during the process are modelled. Then, the constitutive behaviors of the nickel foil and the PTFE polymer during...... deformation are addressed. This is achieved by a general elasto-plastic description for the nickel foil and a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model for the PTFE material, in which the material parameters are found. Last, the contact conditions between the deforming stamp and the injection moulding tool insert...

  15. Improved Detection of Microearthquakes in Geothermal Areas - Applying Empirical Matched Field Processing to Traditional and EGS sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, D. C.; Wang, J.; Harris, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this project is to increase the amount of information that can be extracted from seismic data collected in EGS or traditional geothermal areas. To accomplish our objective, we develop a seismic imaging technique that can map seismicity from discrete microearthquake sources using the Matched Field Processing (MFP) method. We use data from the Salton Sea geothermal field available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center. Data between November 2009 and December 2010 was downloaded off the web and 231 high-quality master events were identified from the online catalog. This time period included two robust earthquake swarms. We created matched field steering vector calibrations for 7 three-component stations within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. The official earthquake catalog identified 1536 events. When we applied the empirical MFP technique to the same data, we identified 5357 events. We then compare the results from this traditional geothermal area with results obtained from an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) site. Finally, we compare the number of events in the improved earthquake catalogs with available fluid injection data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Stamping automotive parts with clinch nut process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałon, Paweł; Świntoniowski, Andrzej

    2013-12-01

    In this paper authors present joining by forming method for screws and nuts that is more and more used nowadays. They aim to show its basic advantages and problems that occurred during the conducted researches. They concerned both joining process as well as strength tests of a sheet and nuts junction. That process is very often carried out for UHSS and AHSS steels which usually contain decreased plastic properties and increased strength. It usually causes a problem to set up the self-clinching process. Currently, there are a few companies specialising only in this kind of processes, however correct designing of such tool requires taking into account many factors such as choose of joining method by forming and proper connector type.

  17. Experimental Validation for Hot Stamping Process by Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi Zamri, Mohd; Lim, Syh Kai; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demand for reduction in gas emissions, energy saving and producing safer vehicles has driven the development of Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) material. To strengthen UHSS material such as boron steel, it needed to undergo a process of hot stamping for heating at certain temperature and time. In this paper, Taguchi method is applied to determine the appropriate parameter of thickness, heating temperature and heating time to achieve optimum strength of boron steel. The experiment is conducted by using flat square shape of hot stamping tool with tensile dog bone as a blank product. Then, the value of tensile strength and hardness is measured as response. The results showed that the lower thickness, higher heating temperature and heating time give the higher strength and hardness for the final product. In conclusion, boron steel blank are able to achieve up to 1200 MPa tensile strength and 650 HV of hardness.

  18. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  19. Simulation of Matched Field Processing Localization Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Karhunen-Loève Expansion in Underwater Waveguide Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch problem has been one of important issues of matched field processing for underwater source detection. Experimental use of MFP has shown that robust range and depth localization is difficult to achieve. In many cases this is due to uncertainty in the environmental inputs required by acoustic propagation models. The paper presents that EMD (Empirical mode decomposition processing underwater acoustic signals is motivated because it is well suited for removing specific unwanted signal components that may vary spectrally. And the Karhunen-Loève expansion is applied on sample covariance matrix to gain a relatively uncorrupted signal. The EMD denoising scheme is combined with Karhunen-Loève expansion to improve underwater target localization performance of matched field processing (MFP. The robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method is tested by the benchmark cases numerical simulation when there had large environmental parameter uncertainties of the acoustic waveguide.

  20. Optimization of Stamp Forming Process for Thermoplastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Min Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the development of a two-dimensional stamping method for the manufacturing of fiber reinforced composites with thermoplastic matrix resins. Materials investigated are carbon fiber reinforced polyamide-6. Taguchi L16 orthogonal array is used in split-plot designs. The processing conditions include thermoforming temperature, mold temperature, pressure and time, required to establish high-quality parts. From the experimental results, we derive a set of best combination, A1 (90°, B2 (263C, C1 (105C, D1 (33 kg/cm2 and E2 (48 sec and carry out an estimated equation for the short-beam shear strength. The results have described the correlations between processing parameters and shear stress. Finally, for verifying the prediction ability of the estimated equation, the confirmation experiments are conducted. The confirmation test result is 48.67 kg/mm2, fall in the confidence interval. It shows that the prediction ability of estimated equation and the repetition of the experimental results has confirmed and accepted by the tests.

  1. Newly Designed Cr-Mn Alloyed Ultra-high Strength Steel without Boron Addition for Hot-stamping Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-hui ZHU; Hong-bing ZHOU; Qin-yi LI; Qi-wei CHEN; Hai-rong GU; Yong-gang LIU

    2015-01-01

    A newly designed hot-stamping steel alloyed by chromium (Cr)and manganese (Mn)without boron (B) addition was developed for automobile mass reduction.The experimental results showed the Cr-Mn alloyed steel could be quenched to full martensite microstructure when the cooling rate was higher than 1 4 ℃/s.Yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the experimental hot stamping part reached 1 1 8 0 MPa,1 6 4 5 MPa and 8.4%, respectively.The experimental hot stamping part possessed higher tensile strength and elongation,compared with conventional hot-stamping steel of 2 2 MnB5 .Furthermore,excellent processing flexibility would be obtained in this novel hot-stamping steel because of its lower critical cooling rate and phase transformation temperature.The design of the composition and investigations of microstructure,mechanical properties and hot-stamping processing were also studied.

  2. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  3. An Intelligent Master Model of Computer Aided Process Planning for Large Complicated Stampings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jinqiao; Wang Yilin; Li Zhigang

    2005-01-01

    Process planning for large complicated stampings is more complicated, illegible and multiform than that for common stampings.In this paper, an intelligent master model of computer aided process planning (CAPP) for large complicated stampings has been developed based on knowledge based engineering (KBE) and feature technology. This innovative model consists of knowledge base ( KB), process control structure (PCS), process information model (PIM), multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO), model link environment (MLE) and simulation engine (SE), to realize process planning, optimization, simulation and management integrated to complete intelligent CAPP system. In this model, KBE provides knowledge base, open architecture and knowledge reuse ability to deal with the multi-domain and multi-expression of process knowledge, and forms an integrated environment. With PIM,all the knowledge consisting of objects, constraints, experience and decision-makings is carried by object-oriented method dynamically for knowledge-reasoning. PCS makes dynamical knowledge modified and updated timely and accordingly. MLE provides sev eral methods to make CAPP system associated and integrated. SE provides a programmable mechanism to interpret simulation course and result. Meanwhile, collaborative optimization, one method of MDO, is imported to deal with the optimization distributed for multiple purposes. All these make CAPP system integrated and open to other systems, such as die design and manufacturing system.

  4. Matched Field Tomographic Inversion for Geoacoustic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    covariance matrix of the sampled models, and adjusts the annealing temperature adaptively to account for parameters with different sensitivities. The method...geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom, including sound speed profiles, densities , attenuations and sediment layer depths, have a significant effect on...sound propagation in shallow water . The long term goal of this work is to develop a new tomographic inversion method based on matched field processing of

  5. SU socket stamping processing method%SU插孔的冲压加工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗阳

    2013-01-01

    通过对SU插孔零件的工艺性分析,确定了用冲压方法来加工SU插孔的扁和小槽,并通过变形抗力F和冲裁力P的计算验证了冲压方法的可行性.加工工序分为切扁、撕口和切废料,介绍了切扁模、撕口模和切料模的设计以及模具的工作原理.生产实际证明,该冲压方法加工的SU插孔生产效率高,产品质量好.%By the process analysis of SU socket, it was confirmed to use stamping to make the socket's flat and small slot. Feasibility of the stamping process was tested by the calculating of deformation resistance F and blanking force P. The forming process was divided into flat cutting, tearing and waste blanking. Design and working principle of flat cutting mould, tearing mould and waste blanking mould was introduced. The production practice shows that SU sockets formed in the stamping method were in high production efficiency and good quality.

  6. Influence of Hard Tool Coatings on Process of Stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajec, Bostjan; Podgornik, Bojan; Bay, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    materials and possible hard coatings as alternative tool materials. For this purpose the blanking/punching process was first analyzed by a numerical model and based on the results four different tool materials and three hard coatings were included in the investigation and tested in a model test rig as well......Blanking/punching is a process which enables mass production of very demanding products, such as lamellas for electrical engines, generators and similar devices. Tool wear in the blanking/punching process has large influence on the product surface quality as well as on tool life. Improvement...... of tool life can be achieved by proper selection of tool materials and possible coatings. In mass production the tools are usually made of WC, which however, results in expensive tools and long time of delivery. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of different tool...

  7. Multi-objective optimization of stamping forming process of head using Pareto-based genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 卓芳; 黄磊; 罗艳

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the optimal process parameters of stamping forming, finite element analysis and optimization technique were integrated via transforming multi-objective issue into a single-objective issue. A Pareto-based genetic algorithm was applied to optimizing the head stamping forming process. In the proposed optimal model, fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying are a function of several factors, such as fillet radius, draw-bead position, blank size and blank-holding force. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between the objective functions and the variables in order to make objective functions varying minimized simultaneously. Firstly, the central composite experimental (CCD) with four factors and five levels was applied, and the experimental data based on the central composite experimental were acquired. Then, the response surface model (RSM) was set up and the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) show that it is reliable to predict the fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying functions by the response surface model. Finally, a Pareto-based genetic algorithm was used to find out a set of Pareto front, which makes fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying minimized integrally. A head stamping case indicates that the present method has higher precision and practicability compared with the“trial and error”procedure.

  8. Estimation of Thermal Contact Conductance between Blank and Tool Surface in Hot Stamping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Hanafiah Shaharudin, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    In hot stamping, the determination of the thermal contact conductance values between the blank and tool surface during the process is crucial for the purpose of simulating the blank rapid cooling inside the tool using finite element analysis (FEA). The thermal contact conductance value represents the coefficient of the heat transfer at the surface of two solid bodies in contact and is known to be influenced greatly by the applied pressure. In order to estimate the value and its dependency on applied pressure, the process of hot stamping was replicated and simplified into a process of compression of heated flat blank in between the tool at different applied pressure. The temperature of the blank and tool surface were measured by means of thermocouples installed inside the tool. Based on the measured temperature, the thermal contact conductance between the surfaces was calculated using Newton's cooling law equation. The calculated value was then used to simulate the blank cooling inside the tool using FEA commercial software. This paper describes an experimental approach to estimate the thermal contact conductance between a blank made of Boron Steel (USIBOR 1500) and tool made of Tool Steel (STAVAX). Its dependency on applied pressure is also studied and the experimental results were then compared with FEA simulations.

  9. Studies on the finite element simulation in sheet metal stamping processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying

    The sheet metal stamping process plays an important role in modern industry. With the ever-increasing demand for shape complexity, product quality and new materials, the traditional trial and error method for setting up a sheet metal stamping process is no longer efficient. As a result, the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) method has now been widely used. From a physical point of view, the formability and the quality of a product are influenced by several factors. The design of the product in the initial stage and the motion of the press during the production stage are two of these crucial factors. This thesis focuses on the numerical simulation for these two factors using FEM. Currently, there are a number of commercial FEM software systems available in the market. These software systems are based on an incremental FEM process that models the sheet metal stamping process in small incremental steps. Even though the incremental FEM is accurate, it is not suitable for the initial conceptual design for its needing of detailed design parameters and enormous calculation times. As a result, another type of FEM, called the inverse FEM method or one-step FEM method, has been proposed. While it is less accurate than that of the incremental method, this method requires much less computation and hence, has a great potential. However, it also faces a number of unsolved problems, which limits its application. This motivates the presented research. After the review of the basic theory of the inverse method, a new modified arc-length search method is proposed to find better initial solution. The methods to deal with the vertical walls are also discussed and presented. Then, a generalized multi-step inverse FEM method is proposed. It solves two key obstacles: the first one is to determine the initial solution of the intermediate three-dimensional configurations and the other is to control the movement of nodes so they could only slide on constraint surfaces during the search by

  10. Damage and Failure Analysis of AZ31 Alloy Sheet in Warm Stamping Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a combined experimental-numerical investigation on the failure of AZ31 Mg alloy sheet in the warm stamping process was carried out based on modified GTN damage model which integrated Yld2000 anisotropic yield criterion. The constitutive equations of material were implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for solver ABAQUS/Explicit and applied to the formability analysis of mobile phone shell. The morphology near the crack area was observed using SEM, and the anisotropic damage evolution at various temperatures was simulated. The distributions of plastic strain, damage evolution, thickness, and fracture initiation obtained from FE simulation were analyzed. The corresponding forming limit diagrams were worked out, and the comparison with the experimental data showed a good agreement.

  11. The reduction of irregularities in the use of “process fmea”: a study for a cold stamping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Estorilio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA is a requirement for ISO/TS 16949. However, researches show nonconformities in its use by automotive suppliers. The objective of this study is to identify these nonconformities, aiming to suggest methods for minimizing this problem. Therefore, questionnaires were applied in seven automotive suppliers and, for each one, ten FMEA`s were analysed. The research identified nonconformities in the use of FMEA for the stamping process and highlighted seven influencing factors. Based on this data, a strategy is suggested. A partially parameterised FMEA spreadsheet is suggested and tested in three suppliers, showing significant improvements.

  12. Using StaMPS to process RADARSAT images of Askja caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen, E.; Hooper, A. J.; Sigmundsson, F.; Pedersen, R.; Jaupart, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    We have used RADARSAT SLC images from the Canadian Space Agency to create complex interferograms from part of the northern volcanic zone in Iceland. The dataset covers the 2000-2009 period and is a valuable addition to the limited number of good interferometric image pairs available for the area during this time, due to problems with the ERS in 2000 and limited other coverage for part of the period. Here, the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) has been applied to RADARSAT data for the first time. This has enhanced the quality of the interferograms with respect to earlier processing using the Doris software package developed by the Delft Institute for Earth-Oriented Space Research (DEOS), Delft University of Technology. The StaMPS software was adapted for general use with RADARSAT data. Of our particular interest is the Askja caldera and its surroundings which are covered by the images. The Askja caldera has been gradually deflating since 1983 and InSAR images provide an excellent tool to monitor this deformation. In the last two years, previously undetected activity has been observed in the area. Since 2006 small magnitude lower-crustal earthquake swarms have been detected around the Askja caldera (Soosalu et al., 2009). Furthermore, 20 km to the east of Askja in the vicinity of the Upptyppingar mountain, intense persistent deep-seated seismic activity has been recorded since the beginning of 2007 (Jakobsdóttir et al. 2008). Both of these observations, even though very different in character, suggest magma movement at deep levels. The events may relate to recharging of the volcanic systems in the area, or alternatively to flow of magma away from the central part of the Askja system. Detailed monitoring of the area is therefore important. The time series of RADARSAT interferograms shows that Askja continues to subside into summer 2009, but further analysis can test if the rate of subsidence has slowed down in relation to the unrest in the area. We

  13. Flexible Stamp for Nanoimprint Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Theodor; Pedersen, Rasmus H.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a flexible silicon stamp for homogenous large area nanoimprint lithography (NIL) are presented. The flexible stamp is fabricated by bulk semiconductor micro machining of a 4-inch silicon wafer and consists of thick anchor like imprint areas connected...... by membranes. The bending stiffness difference between the imprint areas and the membranes ensures that the deformation of the stamp during the imprint process mainly takes place in the membranes, leaving the imprint structures unaffected. By this design the strong demand to the parallelism between stamp...

  14. Initiation of waves in the Belousov Zhaboyinsky system via the reaction-diffusion process of wet stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraja, C.; Park, Do Young; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Huh, Do Sung

    2007-06-01

    Periodic waves were studied via the process of wet stamping, in a heterogeneous media soaked in different solutions of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction system containing ferroin and malonic acid. The experiments were performed by making an initial contact of soaked polyacrylamide (PAA) gel with agarose stamp for a short period of time, and then placing the gel onto the glass plate after exposing both of its surfaces. This led to the development of propagating waves on the surface of the gel. The results show that patterns have a dependence on the concentration of individual species, which are represented in the form of bifurcation diagrams. The behavioral trend of this system is also compared with the current perspectives of the reaction diffusion system.

  15. Method for Real Time Matched Field Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-30

    forming the N x 1 steering vector SP for each eigenray p: 9 P P d =dp,osp = epSp (8) p=1 p=1 [0040] In Equation (8), the eigenray steering vector is...by Equation (4): dHx= epSp X= ep (sp x) . (10) =1 p=1 b p 10 [0044] In Equation (10), bp is the complex beamformer output resulting from application

  16. PROCESS AND UNCONVENTIONAL METHOD OF MARKING OR STAMPING OF HARD METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this work a new unconventional technological way of marking or stamping ofvery hard metals from tempered steel with help of explosives. Even this method is in experimental stage, it canbecame an object for study in another related domains.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.

    2011-05-01

    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  18. Investigation of the Hot-Stamping Process for Advanced High-Strength Steel Sheet by Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. S.; Xing, Z. W.; Bao, J.; Song, B. Y.

    2010-04-01

    Hot forming is a new way to manufacture complex-shaped components of advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) sheet with a minimum of spring-back. Numerical simulation is an effective way to examine the hot-forming process, particularly to determine thermal and thermo-mechanical characteristics and their dependencies on temperature, strain and strain rate. The flow behavior of the 22MnB5 AHSS is investigated through hot tensile tests. A 3D finite element (FE) model of hot-stamping process for the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] shaped part is built under the ABAQUS/Explicit environment based on the solutions of several key problems, such as treatment of contact between blank and tools, determination of material characteristics and meshing, etc. Numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the influence of blank holder force (BHF) and die gap on the hot-forming process for the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] shaped part. Numerical results show the FE model is effective in simulation of hot-forming process. Large BHF reduces the amount of spring-back and improves the contact of flange with tools while avoiding cracking of stamped part. Die gap has a considerable influence on the distribution of temperature on side walls; the larger the die gap, higher is the temperature on the sidewall of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] shaped part.

  19. Advanced constitutive modeling of AHSS sheets forapplication to springback prediction after U-draw double stamping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jisik; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Barlat, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of springback for a U-shaped channel using a double drawing process was investigated. In this test, the punch strokes of the 1st and 2nd stamping steps were controlled and each followed by unloading. The simulations were conducted using kinematic and distortional hardening models, which were implemented into a finite element (FE) code to describe the Bauschinger effect and its associated anisotropic hardening effects during strain path change. In addition to the usual mechanical characterization tests, in-plane compression- tension experiments were conducted on DP980 and TWIP980 to determine the constitutive parameters pertaining to load reversal. Experimental and FE simulated results of the channel shape were compared for both materials in order to understand the effect of anisotropic hardening under non-proportional loading on springback.

  20. Underwater Acoustic Matched Field Imaging Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huichen Yan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Matched field processing (MFP is an effective method for underwater target imaging and localizing, but its performance is not guaranteed due to the nonuniqueness and instability problems caused by the underdetermined essence of MFP. By exploiting the sparsity of the targets in an imaging area, this paper proposes a compressive sensing MFP (CS-MFP model from wave propagation theory by using randomly deployed sensors. In addition, the model’s recovery performance is investigated by exploring the lower bounds of the coherence parameter of the CS dictionary. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the robustness of CS-MFP with respect to the displacement of the sensors. Subsequently, a coherence-excluding coherence optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (CCOOMP algorithm is proposed to overcome the high coherent dictionary problem in special cases. Finally, some numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed CS-MFP method.

  1. 热成形钢防撞梁性能研究%Study on the Performance of the Crash Beam Making through Hot Stamping Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕嘉豪; 应苑松

    2016-01-01

    Study on the performance of the crash beam making through hot stamping process and study on the influence factors of the performance. Use the quasi static three point bending test and the high speed drop test to compare of the static bearing capacity and dynamic energy absorption performance of the crash beam making through hot stamping process and the traditional cold stamping process. Use the range analysis method to analyze the significant level and the optimal data of various influence factors. The maximum deformation resistance of the crash beam making through hot stamping process is 2~3 times of the crash beam making through the traditional cold stamping process. And the effect of energy absorption is 1.5~2.5 times. The maximum influence of performance is deformation temperature in the hot stamping process,then heating temperature and holding time. The crash beam making through hot stamping process has a good performance. So it can ensure the safety of occupants,achieve weight loss,reduce fuel consumption and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The deformation temperature is the most important factor need to be paid attenion to in the hot stamping process.%目的:研究热成形钢防撞梁的性能及其影响因素。方法使用准静态三点弯曲试验和高速落锤试验,对比了热成形钢防撞梁和传统冷冲压防撞梁的静态承载能力及动态抗冲击吸能性能,使用极差分析方法,分析了各个影响因素的显著水平及最优数据。结果热成形防撞梁的最大变形抗力是传统冷冲压防撞梁的2~3倍,吸能效果是其1.5~2.5倍。热成形工艺参数中,变形温度对热成形钢防撞梁性能的影响最大,其次是加热温度,再其次是保温时间。结论热成形钢防撞梁性能优异,在保证驾乘人员安全的同时,可以实现汽车减重、降低油耗、减少二氧化碳排放。为保证热成形钢防撞梁的性能,在热成形工艺过程中最需要注意的是变形温度。

  2. Fast thermal nanoimprint lithography by a stamp with integrated heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tormen, Massimo; Malureanu, Radu; Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup

    2008-01-01

    We propose fast nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) process based on the use of stamps with integrated heater. The latter consists of heavily ion implantation n-type doped silicon layer buried below the microstructured surface of the stamp. The stamp is heated by Joule effect, by 50 μs 25 Hz...

  3. Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kim, Wonbaek

    2009-03-01

    Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to milled using a stamp mill to liberate the various metallic components, and then the milled printed circuit boards were classified into fractions of 5.0mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size zig-zag classifier. The >5.0mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards.

  4. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudoux Mélanie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigue design and how they may be effectively taken into account in the automotive industry. Actually, the coupling between the stamping process and the fatigue design is under development at PSA Peugeot Citroën Company since several years. Such an analysis deals with some major topics: thickness variation, plastic hardening and deformation, and residual stress. All of these ingredients result in fatigue criteria evolutions: it is important to stress that the stamping process can have advantageous or disadvantageous consequences on the fatigue design. This is here highlighted on some examples, dealing with front and rear axles.

  5. Food Stamps: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Colin; And Others

    A voluminous body of literature exists on the topic of food stamps including the administration of the federal and state programs and the question of abuses and fraud. This bibliography describes a portion of that material in print. An introduction provides general information and a chronology of the food stamp program and comments on the place of…

  6. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  7. Performance comparison of several optimization algorithms in matched field inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Shixin; YANG Kunde; MA Yuanliang

    2004-01-01

    Optimization efficiencies and mechanisms of simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, differential evolution and downhill simplex differential evolution are compared and analyzed. Simulated annealing and genetic algorithm use a directed random process to search the parameter space for an optimal solution. They include the ability to avoid local minima, but as no gradient information is used, searches may be relatively inefficient. Differential evolution uses information from a distance and azimuth between individuals of a population to search the parameter space, the initial search is effective, but the search speed decreases quickly because differential information between the individuals of population vanishes. Local downhill simplex and global differential evolution methods are developed separately, and combined to produce a hybrid downhill simplex differential evolution algorithm. The hybrid algorithm is sensitive to gradients of the object function and search of the parameter space is effective. These algorithms are applied to the matched field inversion with synthetic data. Optimal values of the parameters, the final values of object function and inversion time is presented and compared.

  8. Stamps Detection and Classification Using Simple Features Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Forczmański

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses a problem of detection and classification of rubber stamp instances in scanned documents. A variety of methods from the field of image processing, pattern recognition, and some heuristic are utilized. Presented method works on typical stamps of different colors and shapes. For color images, color space transformation is applied in order to find potential color stamps. Monochrome stamps are detected through shape specific algorithms. Following feature extraction stage, identified candidates are subjected to classification task using a set of shape descriptors. Selected elementary properties form an ensemble of features which is rotation, scale, and translation invariant; hence this approach is document size and orientation independent. We perform two-tier classification in order to discriminate between stamps and no-stamps and then classify stamps in terms of their shape. The experiments carried out on a considerable set of real documents gathered from the Internet showed high potential of the proposed method.

  9. A stamped PEDOT:PSS-silicon nanowire hybrid solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiz, Syed Abdul; Nahhas, Ahmed Muhammad; Um, Han-Don; Jee, Sang-Won; Cho, Hyung Koun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2012-04-13

    A novel stamped hybrid solar cell was proposed using the stamping transfer technique by stamping an active PEDOT:PSS thin layer onto the top of silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Compared to a bulk-type counterpart that fully embeds SiNWs inside PEDOT:PSS, an increase in the photovoltaic efficiency was observed by a factor of ∼4.6, along with improvements in both electrical and optical responses for the stamped hybrid cell. Such improvements for hybrid cells was due to the formation of well-connected and linearly aligned active PEDOT:PSS channels at the top ends of the nanowires after the stamping process. These stamped channels facilitated not only to improve the charge transport, light absorption, but also to decrease the free carriers as well as exciton recombination losses for stamped hybrid solar cells.

  10. Single-layer versus two-layer stamps for reduced pressure thermal nanoimprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenheim, Marc; Dhima, Khalid; Wang, Si; Steinberg, Christian; Scheer, Hella-Christin

    2015-11-01

    Low-pressure imprint is interesting to avoid stamp deformation, stamp failure as well as polymer recovery. When large-area stamps are prepared with a stepping procedure, low pressure is required to optimize the stitching. However, with low-pressure imprint, conformal contact between stamp and substrate is critical. Admittedly, the imprint pressure required for conformal contact depends on the stamp material and its thickness. To get an idea to which extent the imprint pressure can be reduced with a flexible stamp, we compared different stamp materials and stamp architectures, single-layer stamps and two-layer stamps. The two-layer stamps are replica stamps, where the structures were replicated in a thin layer of OrmoStamp, fixed by a backplane. On the background of plate theory, we deduce the pressure reduction compared to a Si stamp by calculating the respective pressure ratio, independent from geometries. In addition, temperature-induced issues are addressed which are of relevance for a thermal imprint process. These issues are related to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the stamp and the substrate, and in case of a two-layer stamp, to the mismatch between the backplane material and the top layer. The latter results in temperature-induced stamp bending. On the basis of simple analytical calculations, the potential of single-layer stamps and two-layer stamps with respect to thermal imprint at reduced pressure is discussed and guidelines are provided to assess the imprint situation when replica stamps are used for imprint. The results demonstrate the attractiveness of two-layer stamps for reduced pressure nanoimprint, even in a temperature-based process.

  11. Expert System of Stamping Process Design Decision and Implementation%冲裁工艺设计决策专家系统及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佑生; 何洲平; 程光

    2001-01-01

    冲裁工艺设计是一种设计决策问题,有一定代表性,很需要采用专家系统技术求解.讨论冲裁工艺设计专家系统的实现技术,包括工艺方案选择和工步设计等问题的解决方案,面向对象的知识表示和推理机制、模糊知识表示与模糊推理技术的灵活应用、图形的自动识别处理与生成等.%Stamping process desigu is a design decision problem with representativeness. It is suitable to use expert system techniques to solve it.. The paper discusses the implementation techniques of stamping process design expert system, including the choice of process scheme and the solution of step design , object-oriented description of knowledge and reasoning mechanism, flexible application of fuzzy knowledge description and fuzzy reasoning, auto-recognition and treatment of graphs, etc.

  12. Stamp Detection in Color Document Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenkova, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost

    2011-01-01

    An automatic system for stamp segmentation and further verification is needed especially for environments like insurance companies where a huge volume of documents is processed daily. However, detection of a general stamp is not a trivial task as it can have different shapes and colors and......, moreover, it can be imprinted with a variable quality and rotation. Previous methods were restricted to detection of stamps of particular shapes or colors. The method presented in the paper includes segmentation of the image by color clustering and subsequent classification of candidate solutions...... by geometrical and color-related features. The approach allows for differentiation of stamps from other color objects in the document such as logos or texts. For the purpose of evaluation, a data set of 400 document images has been collected, annotated and made public. With the proposed method, recall of 83...

  13. Broadband matched-field inversion for shallow water environment parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kunde; MA Yuanliang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, broadband multi-frequencies matched-field inversion method is used to determine the environmental parameters in shallow water. According to different conditions, several broadband objective functions are presented. Using ASIAEX2001 experiment data and genetic algorithms, environmental parameters are obtained, especially in sediment.

  14. Stamping Process Analysis and Die Design of D21 Silicon Steel Chip%D21硅钢芯片冲压工艺分析及模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周梦瑜; 陈广娟

    2013-01-01

    变压器D21硅钢铁芯片采用冲压工艺生产.首先对其工艺进行了分析,确定了冲压方案.对产品进行了排样设计,计算了冲压力,确定了压力中心.然后,设计了单工序落料模具,完成了模具装配图.%D21 silicon steel chips for transformer are produced by stamping. First, its stamping process was analyzed and the scheme of the stamping process was determined. The product layout was designed, the punching pressure was calculated, the pressure center was determined. Then, the blanking die with single procedure was designed, the die assembly drawing was completed.

  15. Optimization of Process Parameters for Cracking Prevention of UHSS in Hot Stamping Based on Hammersley Sequence Sampling and Back Propagation Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Mixed Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menghan Wang∗,Zongmin Yue; Lie Meng

    2016-01-01

    In order to prevent cracking appeared in the work⁃piece during the hot stamping operation, this paper proposes a hybrid optimization method based on Hammersley sequence sampling ( HSS) , finite analysis, back⁃propagation ( BP ) neural network and genetic algorithm ( GA ) . The mechanical properties of high strength boron steel are characterized on the basis of uniaxial tensile test at elevated temperatures. The samples of process parameters are chosen via the HSS that encourages the exploration throughout the design space and hence achieves better discovery of possible global optimum in the solution space. Meanwhile, numerical simulation is carried out to predict the forming quality for the optimized design. A BP neural network model is developed to obtain the mathematical relationship between optimization goal and design variables, and genetic algorithm is used to optimize the process parameters. Finally, the results of numerical simulation are compared with those of production experiment to demonstrate that the optimization strategy proposed in the paper is feasible.

  16. Matched Field Detection of Microseismicity in a Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, D. C.; Harris, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The delineation of fractures in geothermal fields is an important aspect of reservoir management that often is attempted by mapping the distribution of microseismicity. Traditional methods of earthquake location frequently used for this purpose are labor-intensive, requiring phase-arrival picking and high-resolution location with a relative location routine such as hypoDD. Automatic picks often require assessment and correction by an analyst. Frequently, event superposition and poor signal-to-noise ratio limit the number of usable events to one-third or fewer of the detectable transients. In some applications smaller events may become so numerous that they come to resemble a continuous random process that is not amenable to location analysis suited to transient arrivals. We are exploring the application of matched field processing (MFP) to map emissions from a geothermal field. MFP is a technique developed in underwater sound to localize emissions from continuous sources such as submersibles. The technique resembles beamforming or FK analysis in that it focuses the wavefield emanating from a particular source location by matching, in the frequency domain, the phase and amplitude of waves incident across the observing aperture. It differs from beamforming and FK methods in that the phase and amplitude structure is not determined by a plane-wave model. Wavefield structure may be determined empirically, by measuring it from observations of reference events, or it may be developed by full-waveform synthetics computed through a velocity model of the medium. In this presentation, we explore the empirical approach. Our objective is to map all of the observable seismicity in a geothermal field, not just the larger events that are sufficiently distinct to permit accurate picks. Our approach would extend current techniques, using the larger events conventionally located as master events to define wavefield templates for mapping normally-discarded indistinct seismicity. Since

  17. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  18. Stamp in honour of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    1966-01-01

    21 February 1966. The Swiss post office issued a stamp in CERN's honour. This stamp showed the flags of the thirteen Member States at the time arranged in the geometrical outline of Switzerland against a background of a track photograph.

  19. Matched field noise suppression: Principle with application to towed hydrophone line array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Discrete noise source suppression in underwater acoustic channel has attracted great attention in recent years. The paper proposes a new principle for dealing with the problem. This new principle is called matched field noise suppression (MFNS). Based on a previous work of the authors group, a full understanding about how a discrete noise source shows effects on the performance of a towed hydrophone line array has been obtained. In light of that finding, MFNS is proposed, which explores and utilizes the characteristics of the noise transmission channel to achieve much greater suppression of the noise in comparison with existing approaches. MFNS combines the concept of matched field processing (MFP) and optimal sensor array processing (OSAP) together to suppress the discrete noise source and to maintain an optimal beam for receiving far-field wanted plane wave signals. A MFNS beam-former is deduced in constraint with signal plane-wave response being unit and noise matched field response being zero. A closed-form solution of the weight vector for the beam-former is given. Computer simulation results agree well to the theoretical analysis.

  20. Process Analysis and Design of Automatic Loading and Unloading Auxiliaries for Stamping Automotive Wheel%汽车车轮冲压工艺分析及自动上下料辅机设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙业荣; 张春雨; 孟令启

    2012-01-01

    The stamping production equipment of automotive wheel is very important in the process of automobile production, but its loading and unloading depend on manual operation, which make their process efficiency and product quality very low, production costs high and security poor. These traditional operation ways restrict the development of the automobile wheel stamping production line to the direction of automation and flexibility. Through analysis of the process of a large type of stamping production line and the stamping machine, its automatic loading and unloading auxiliary was designed.%汽车车轮冲压生产设备是汽车生产过程中的重要设备,一直以来采用人工完成上、下料工作,其生产效率低、生产成本高、安全性差.这些传统的操作方式,严重制约了生产线向自动化、柔性化方向的发展.通过对汽车车轮大型冲压生产线的工艺和冲压主机的分析,对其自动上、下料辅机进行了设计研究.

  1. Nanofabrication with molds & stamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron D. Gates

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of methods can be used to fabricate patterns with features having dimensions <100 nm. These techniques, however, can require specialized equipment and are often restricted to a cleanroom environment. Nanofabrication can be made accessible to multiple users by using elastomeric molds or stamps to transfer high-resolution patterns into other materials. These techniques are inexpensive and can transfer patterns into functional materials and onto a number of surfaces. This review describes recent advances in fabricating nanostructures using these techniques.

  2. Matched field localization based on CS-MUSIC algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangle; Tang, Ruichun; Peng, Linhui; Ji, Xiaopeng

    2016-04-01

    The problem caused by shortness or excessiveness of snapshots and by coherent sources in underwater acoustic positioning is considered. A matched field localization algorithm based on CS-MUSIC (Compressive Sensing Multiple Signal Classification) is proposed based on the sparse mathematical model of the underwater positioning. The signal matrix is calculated through the SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) of the observation matrix. The observation matrix in the sparse mathematical model is replaced by the signal matrix, and a new concise sparse mathematical model is obtained, which means not only the scale of the localization problem but also the noise level is reduced; then the new sparse mathematical model is solved by the CS-MUSIC algorithm which is a combination of CS (Compressive Sensing) method and MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) method. The algorithm proposed in this paper can overcome effectively the difficulties caused by correlated sources and shortness of snapshots, and it can also reduce the time complexity and noise level of the localization problem by using the SVD of the observation matrix when the number of snapshots is large, which will be proved in this paper.

  3. Special Stamps:Antarctic Scenery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In July 2002, the State Postal Bureau issued a set of three stamps, whose theme is Antarctic scenery.The first stamp depicts an iceberg. Antarctica is where 90 percent of the world’s ice exists. Each year countless icebergs float majestically through the sea, and are a magnificent scenic feature of Antarctica.

  4. 冲压汽车翼子板成型工艺分析%Process Analysis on Automotive Fender Stamping Forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同领

    2012-01-01

    During complex fender stamping forming process, a reasonable process route is the prerequisite to ensure qualified products and reduce production cost(scrap, rework and so on). Based on the fender structure, characteristics process analysis is carried out, formulation of blanking-drawing-trimming side trimming amt punching-punching, side punching, side flanging, side plastic-flanging, side flanging, shaping side shaping teehnology, program. At the same time, h~rming simulation is conducted. Amt a full analysis has been conducted on blank size and draw bead structure, which will affect forming quality. Results show that reasonable blank size, set of drawing force have an important influence on forming products.%在复杂的冲压翼子板成型过程中,合理的工艺排布是保证生产合格产品的前提,是降低生产成本的关键(零件报废、返修等),文章主要根据翼子板结构特点进行工艺分析,制定了落料一拉延一修边侧修边冲孔一冲孔侧冲孔侧翻边侧整形一翻边侧翻边整形侧整形工艺方案,同时进行了成型模拟分析,对影响成型质量的坯料尺寸及拉延筋结构进行充分的分析,结果表明,坯料尺寸的合理性和拉延筋力的大小设置对产品成型有着重要的影响。

  5. METAMORPHOSES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STAMP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAUS MADALINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's alignment to European standards is a difficult process with many legislative changes, with direct impact on taxpayers. The necessity of collecting substantial revenues to the State budget, which provide vital economic growth of the Romanian State, loses the substance when we are talking about taxes levied in relation to taxpayer. The environmental stamp, otherwise a controversial tax, represent for the State another way to earn revenue in advance, “as a loan", because in the end it's forced to repay the amounts concerned taxpayers, under the effect of a final and irrevocable court decision. The effects of the legislative changes bring every time complaints both from taxpayers, because they can demand repayment of the environmental stamp only during the period of prescription, as well as on the part of public servants who are grappling with a large volume of work, with the possibility of overcoming the term to handle requests. An equitable solution in solving these distortions would be the inclusion of the environmental stamp within the tax on means of transport, tax that is paid annually by vehicle owners. At the moment the level of the environmental stamp is calculated depending on the CO2 emissions, exhaust emissions and the age of the vehicle. Tax on means of transport is calculated based on engine capacity, an amount determined by CO2 emissions multiplying with each group of 200 cc or fraction on it. Therefore the unification of the two taxes would create a balance for all categories of vehicles.

  6. Recognition of unnatural variation patterns in metal-stamping process using artificial neural network and statistical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Norasulaini Abdul; Masood, Ibrahim; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Unnatural process variation (UPV) is vital in quality problem of a metalstamping process. It is a major contributor to a poor quality product. The sources of UPV usually found from special causes. Recently, there is still debated among researchers in finding an effective technique for on-line monitoring-diagnosis the sources of UPV. Control charts pattern recognition (CCPR) is the most investigated technique. The existing CCPR schemes were mainly developed using raw data-based artificial neural network (ANN) recognizer, whereby the process samples were mainly generated artificially using mathematical equations. This is because the real process samples were commonly confidential or not economically available. In this research, the statistical features - ANN recognizer was utilized as the control chart pattern recognizer, whereby process sample was taken directly from an actual manufacturing process. Based on dynamic data training, the proposed recognizer has resulted in better monitoring-diagnosis performance (Normal = 100%, Unnatural = 100%) compared to the raw data- ANN (Normal = 66.67%, Unnatural = 26.97%).

  7. An expert system for process planning of sheet metal parts produced on compound die for use in stamping industries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SACHIN SALUNKHE; DEEPAK PANGHAL; SHAILENDRA KUMAR; H M A HUSSEIN

    2016-08-01

    Process planning of sheet metal part is an important activity in the design of compound die. Traditional methods of carrying out this task are manual, tedious, time-consuming, error-prone and experiencebased. This paper describes the research work involved in the development of an expert system for process planning of sheet metal parts produced on compound die. The proposed system is organized in six modules. For development of system modules, domain knowledge acquired from various sources of knowledge acquisition is refined and then framed in form of ‘IF-Then’ variety of production rules. System modules are coded in AutoLISP language and user interface is created using visual basic (VB). The system is capable to automate various activities of process planning including blank modeling, blank nesting, determining punch force required, election of clearance between punch and die, identifying sheet metal operations, and determining proper sequence of operations for manufacturing the part. The proposed system can be implemented on a PC having VB and AutoCAD software, therefore its low cost of implementation makes it affordable even for small scale sheet metal industries.

  8. Prediction and Control of Wrinkle and Fracture for Stamping Regular Polygonal Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Jun-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the deformation characteristic of regular polygonal box stamped parts and the superfluous triangle material wrinkle model, the criterion of regular polygonal box stamped parts without wrinkle was deduced and used to predict and control the wrinkle limit. According to the fracture model, the criterion of regular polygonal box stamped parts without fracture was deduced and used to predict and control the fracture limit. Combining the criterion for stamping without wrinkle with that without fracture, the stamping criterion of regular polygonal box stamped parts was obtained to predict and control the stamping limit. Taken the stainless steel 0Cr18Ni9 (SUS304) sheet and the square box stamped part as examples, the limit diagram was given to predict and control the wrinkle, fracture and stamping limits. It is suitable for the deep drawing without flange, the deep drawing and stretching combined forming with flange and the rigid punch stretching of plane blank. The limit deep-drawing coefficient and the minimum deep-drawing coefficient can be determined, and the appropriate BHF (blank holder force) and the deep-drawing force can be chosen. These provide a reference for the technology planning, the die and mold design and the equipment determination, and a new criterion evaluating sheet stamping formability, which predicts and controls the stamping process, can be applied to the deep drawing under constant or variable BHF conditions.

  9. Investment Channels Stamp Markets in Turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ "Iwill close my store for a couple of weeks,"says a stamp trader at Beijing's Dazhongsi market,the largest stamp exchange center in Asia. The summer is traditionally a low season for the stamp market, but with the added popularity of the 2006 World Cup, the purchase of stamps has taken a back seat on most people's to-do lists.

  10. Stamping Robust Design Method and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Q. Lin; Jian Ai; Weigang Zhang; Shuhui Li

    2004-01-01

    The application of the robust design to stamping is discussed in the paper. The regression equation of the quality index and its influencing factors can be attained by using method of central composite design. Stamping computer simulation takes the place of real stamping experiments to fulfill the special experimental conditions. The real stamping experiments prove the correctness and the feasibility of the stamping robust design method-central composite design.

  11. An Optimization Study of Hot Stamping Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoo, Bonyoung; Umezu, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Yuko; Ma, Ninshu; Averill, Ron

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, 3-dimensional finite element analyses for hot-stamping processes of Audi B-pillar product are conducted using JSTAMP/NV and HEEDS. Special attention is paid to the optimization of simulation technology coupling with thermal-mechanical formulations. Numerical simulation based on FEM technology and optimization design using the hybrid adaptive SHERPA algorithm are applied to hot stamping operation to improve productivity. The robustness of the SHERPA algorithm is found through the results of the benchmark example. The SHERPA algorithm is shown to be far superior to the GA (Genetic Algorithm) in terms of efficiency, whose calculation time is about 7 times faster than that of the GA. The SHERPA algorithm could show high performance in a large scale problem having complicated design space and long calculation time.

  12. Stamp Verification for Automated Document Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenková, Barbora; van Beusekom, Joost; Shafait, Faisal

    Stamps, along with signatures, can be considered as the most widely used extrinsic security feature in paper documents. In contrast to signatures, however, for stamps little work has been done to automatically verify their authenticity. In this paper, an approach for verification of color stamps...... is presented. We focus on photocopied stamps as non-genuine stamps. Our previously presented stamp detection method is improved and extended to verify that the stamp is genuine and not a copy. Using a variety of features, a classifier is trained that allows successful separation between genuine stamps...... and copied stamps. Sensitivity and specificity of up to 95% could be obtained on a data set that is publicly available....

  13. Application of Modified Digital Halftoning Techniques to Data Hiding in Personalized Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsi-Chun Wang; Chi-Ming Lian; Pei-Chi Hsiao

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to embed information in personalized stamps by modified digital halftoning techniques. The displaced and deformed halftone dots are used to encode data in the personalized stamps. Hidden information can be retrieved by either an optical decoder or digital image processing techniques.The results show that personalized stamps with value-added features like data hiding or digital watermarking can be successfully implemented.

  14. 《冲压工艺与模具设计》课程项目化教学改革实践%Practice of Teching Reform of “Stamping Process and Die Design” Curriculum Project Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖亚慧

    2015-01-01

    吉林电子信息职业技术学院开展项目化教学改革,以能力为本位、以工作过程为导向,校企合作开发设计了《冲压工艺与模具设计》课程。以来源于生产实际的应用设计了五个学习项目,将冲压模具设计基础知识按照项目化、模块化进行重构。将学生分为项目组实施教学,将工作过程与教学过程有机结合。%Jilin Institute of Information Technology to carry out the project of electronic teaching reform, competency-based, work-process-oriented, school-enterprise cooperation in development and design of the“stamping process and die design”course. From the production to the actual application of the five learning design project, in accordance with the basics of stamping die design projects, modular reconstructed.

  15. Research of Stamp Forming Simulation Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xaio-ping; XU Lian

    2008-01-01

    We point out that the finite element method offers a greta functional improvement for analyzing the stamp forming process of an automobile panel. Using the finite element theory and the simulation method of sheet stamping forming, the element model of sheet forming is built based on software HyperMesh,and the simulation of the product's sheet forming process is analyzed based on software Dynaform. A series of simulation results are obtained. It is clear that the simulation results from the theoretical basis for the product's die design and are useful for selecting process parameters.

  16. Micromechanics-based modeling of stress–strain and fracture behavior of heat-treated boron steels for hot stamping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srithananan, P.; Kaewtatip, P.; Uthaisangsuk, V., E-mail: vitoon.uth@kmutt.ac.th

    2016-06-14

    In the automotive industry, hot stamped parts with tailored properties have shown advantageous safety performance. Such components are produced by applying different heat treatment conditions after forming for different zones in order to obtain various combinations of hard and soft microstructures. In this work, pure martensitic, pure bainitic, and three martensitic/bainitic phase microstructures were initially generated from the boron steel grade 22MnB5 by a two-step quenching procedure in which different holding times in the bainitic temperature range were varied. Increased phase fraction of bainite due to longer holding time led to decreased yield and tensile strength; however, elongation and resulting energy absorbability became significantly higher. To describe mechanical properties and failure behavior of hot stamped parts containing multiphase microstructures, influences of microstructure characteristics should be considered on the micro-scale. Using modeling, 2-D representative volume elements (RVE) were generated from observed real microstructures and flow curves of the individual single phases were defined, taking into account a dislocation theory based model and local chemical compositions. Then, effective stress–strain curves of the heat-treated boron steels were calculated by using the isostrain and non-isostrain methods and compared with tensile test results. Regarding fracture behavior, damage curves of fully martensitic and bainitic structures were determined by means of tensile tests of different notched samples and a hybrid digital image correlation (DIC)–finite element (FE) approach. 2-D RVE simulations of a martensite/bainite mixture were carried out under various states of stress, in which the obtained damage curves were individually applied for each phase. The predicted damage curve from RVE simulations for two-phase boron steel fairly agreed with experimental fracture strains. Moreover, correspondingly normalized Lode angle could be

  17. Stamp forming optimization for formability and crystallinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderwinkel, T. G.; Rietman, B.; Haanappel, S. P.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    The stamp forming process is well suited for high volume production of thermoplastic composite parts. The process can be characterized as highly non-isothermal as it involves local quench-cooling of a molten thermoplastic composite blank where it makes contact with colder tooling. The formability of the thermoplastic composite depends on the viscoelastic material behavior of the matrix material, which is sensitive to temperature and degree of crystallinity. An experimental study was performed to determine the effect of temperature and crystallinity on the storage modulus during cooling for a woven glass fiber polyamide-6 composite material. An increase of two decades in modulus was observed during crystallization. As this will significantly impede the blank formability, the onset of crystallization effectively governs the time available for forming. Besides the experimental work, a numerical model is developed to study the temperature and crystallinity throughout the stamp forming process. A process window can be determined by feeding the model with the experimentally obtained data on crystallization.

  18. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  19. DC-STAMP, the key fusion-mediating molecule in osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Dou, C E; Xu, Jianzhong; Dong, Shiwu

    2014-10-01

    As a member of the mononuclear phagocyte system, osteoclasts (OC) absorb the bone matrix and participate in bone modeling by keeping a balance with osteoblasts (OB) and stromal cells. Mature OC derive from the fusion of mononuclear osteoclasts (mOC) and the fusion is considered as the indispensable process for the osteoclastogenesis and absorbing activity of OC. DC-STAMP (dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein) has been validated playing a key role in the fusion of mOC. DC-STAMP is mainly expressed in OC, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). While DC-STAMP was discovered in DC, more attentions have been paid to DC-STAMP in OC in this decade. This review will mainly focus on the function of DC-STAMP in OC. Studies on DC-STAMP in DC may also provide new sight for the study of DC-STAMP in OC. Since the function of DC-STAMP is still poorly understood and few studies have been implemented for illustration, many issues are still unknown and need to be revealed. We will also discuss these questions in this review.

  20. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... to take this opportunity to comment on this IC. We may not conduct or sponsor and a person is not... buy a Federal migratory bird hunting and conservation stamp (Federal Duck Stamp) annually. The stamps... stamp images are also popular collector items. The Electronic Duck Stamp Act of 2005 (Pub. L. 109-266...

  1. Dependence of the critical current density on the first matching field density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obaidat, I.M. [Department of Physics, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain 17551 (United Arab Emirates)], E-mail: iobaidat@uaeu.ac.ae; Benkraouda, M.; Khawaja, U. Al [Department of Physics, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain 17551 (United Arab Emirates)

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to investigate the properties of the critical depinning force in high temperature superconductors at several vortex densities at the first matching field. The study was conducted on samples with periodic square arrays of vortices and pinning sites. The variables in the simulations were the vortex density, the pinning sites density, the temperature, the pinning strength, the size of pinning sites. The critical depinning force is found to decrease with temperature for all first matching field densities. The rate of this decrease was found to be slower as the pinning strength and size of pinning site gets larger. At low temperatures and for large pinning strengths, the critical depinning force was found to decrease with increasing the first matching field density. But very interesting results were obtained at moderate temperatures where the critical depinning force was found to increase as the first matching field density increases. The same behavior of the critical depinning force was found at low temperatures, for small pinning strengths. These unexpected results were attributed to a vortex structural phase transition from a disordered state to an ordered state.

  2. Expanding Coherent Array Processing to Larger Apertures Using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    University Press, Cambridge, UK. Harris, D.B. (1991). A waveform correlation method for identifying quarry explosions. Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 81...Identify Repeating Mine Blasts in Eastern Kazakhstan. Seism . Res. Lett., 79, 393–399. Prieto, G.A., Parker, R.L. & Vernon, F.L. (2009). A Fortran 90

  3. Time reversal, back propagation, matched field processors, correlation receivers, and the principles of radar/sonar signal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggeroer, Arthur

    2002-05-01

    Time reversal and backpropagation have been demonstrated in several experiments. Similarly, while matched field processing (MFP) differs in terms of implentation-experimental vs computed replicas-both have two common properties: (i) they are based on a single, spatially coherent signal; and (ii) the conjugate transpose of the Green's function and replica correlation are identical for self-adjoint systems. Hence, the principles for focusing and ambiguity plane properties of these processors are virtually identical to those for correlation receivers. The principles of optimal signal design for correlation receivers were the subject of much research for radar/sonar systems four decades ago and many of them seem to have been neglected in the analysis of time reversal, back propagation, and matched field processors. For example, time reversal from a point, a line array, or a random array of scatterers are duals of an impulse, a frequency modulated, and a pseudo-random noise signal, respectively. The equivalence and consequences of the time-bandwidth products for signals and array length wave number spread are demonstrated. The impact of sidelobes and multipath spread can be predicted. The generalizations of the important radar/sonar uncertainty principle, however, have yet been not demonstrated. This presentation reviews these optimal signal design principles and applies them to time reversal and MFP.

  4. Brief Discussion on Process Planning of Sheet Metal Stamping Workshop in Air Conditioning Industry%浅谈空调行业钣金冲压车间工艺规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文介绍了空调行业钣金冲压车间工艺规划的基本概念、流程,以及车间工艺布局、厂房建筑工艺设计等不同阶段工艺规划的基本内容。系统分析了厂区物流设计原则及设施规划原则,并对工艺规划过程中应注意的若干事项进行了归纳。%This paper introduces the basic concept and flow of process planning of sheet metal stamping workshop in air conditioning industry. And in view of the different phases of process planning, the basic content about process layout and workshop architecture technical design is described. The planning principle of logistics design in the field region and facilities planning is analyzed systematically. Then some problems of process planning which should be noticed are proposed.

  5. The STAMP Software for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Mendelssohn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of STAMP (Structural Time Series Analyser, Modeler and Predictor for modeling time series data using state-space methods with unobserved components. STAMP is a commercial, GUI-based program that runs on Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers as part of the larger OxMetrics System. STAMP can estimate a wide-variety of both univariate and multivariate state-space models, provides a wide array of diagnostics, and has a batch mode capability. The use of STAMP is illustrated for the Nile river data which is analyzed throughout this issue, as well as by modeling a variety of oceanographic and climate related data sets. The analyses of the oceanographic and climate data illustrate the breadth of models available in STAMP, and that state-space methods produce results that provide new insights into important scientific problems.

  6. Comparison between Laser and Stamping without Die (SWD for Micro Tapered Hole Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The forming of a micro tapered hole is based on nanosecond pulsed laser processing, which conforms to fast processing time and high throughput; however, the microhole quality should be improved. Micro stamping is a technology providing high precise size and speed. The greatest difficulty in forming a microhole by micro stamping is the precision alignment of the punch head to the lower die. In order to overcome the difficulty, we proposed a concept of stamping without die (SWD. Without a lower die, the tapered punch head was directly applied to the workpiece for micro stamping, and a thicker workpiece surrounding the punching area provides a better support to the stamping process. Thus, a successful forming of micro tapered holes is completed. The micro tapered hole depth is 300 μm, and the maximum ratio of inlet to outlet diameter is 18:1. In order to reduce the number of experiments, the finite element analysis software DEFORM-3D was used for forming analysis. The simulation forecast result was compared with the experimental processing, which was well validated. Under different experimental parameters of laser energy and defocusing distance, drilling results by two methods show that the microhole quality by stamping process is better than by laser processing.

  7. Investigation of Mesoscopic Damage Evolution Mechanism of High Strength Steel in Hot Stamping Process%热冲压成形过程细观损伤演化机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文权; 盈亮; 王丹彤; 鲁可心; 胡平

    2016-01-01

    基于 Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman(GTN)细观损伤模型,扩展其在平面应力、壳单元问题中的应力更新数值算法,研究高强度硼钢热冲压成形过程中板材内部的损伤演化行为。采用响应曲面中心复合试验设计和遗传优化算法,系统地阐述高温下GTN损伤参数的识别方法并获取了热成形高强度硼钢22MnB5在高温下(600~800℃)的损伤特征参数( f0, fN , fc, fF )。对耦合损伤的高强度钢板NAKJIMA凸模胀形热冲压过程进行有限元仿真预测,并与试验结果进行对比分析。结果表明:运用响应曲面法确定热冲压高温板材损伤参数的方法是可行的,同时采用GTN损伤模型可以准确模拟高强度钢板热冲压过程中的开裂行为。%Based on Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman(GTN) mesoscopic damage model, a stress update numerical algorithm is extended for plane stress and shell element. The damage evolution behavior of the high temperature metal sheet during hot stamping is studied. A detail method which combined response surface method based on central composite design and genetic optimization algorithm to identify the damage parameters of GTN model under elevated temperature is described. The damage parameters f0, fN , fc and fF of high strength steel 22MnB5 under different elevated temperatures(600-800 ℃) are identified through this method. Using these obtained parameters, the NAKAJIMA bulge forming test under elevated temperatures coupled with GTN mesoscopic damage model is simulated and the damage evolution of sheet is analyzed. The results show that the simulation results agree with the experimental conditions very well. It indicates that the GTN model can be used to predict the damage and failure of metal sheet under hot stamping process and the method to identify the damage parameter is available.

  8. Contact radius of stamps in reversible adhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A mechanics model is developed for the contact radius of stamps with pyramid tips in transfer printing.This is important to the realization of reversible control of adhesion,which has many important applications,such as climbing robots,medical tapes,and transfer printing of electronics.The contact radius is shown to scale linearly with the work of adhesion between the stamp and the contacting surface,and inversely with the plane-strain modulus of the stamp. It also depends on the cone angle and tip radiu...

  9. 27 CFR 479.163 - Reuse of stamps prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of stamps prohibited. 479.163 Section 479.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS... CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Distribution and Sale of Stamps § 479.163 Reuse of stamps prohibited. A stamp...

  10. Food Stamp Program Elderly Nutrition Demonstrations: Interim Report on Elderly Participation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Cody

    2004-01-01

    To raise participation in the Food Stamp Program by low-income elderly people, USDA implemented the Elderly Nutrition Demonstration in Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Maine, Michigan, and North Carolina in 2002. Each demonstration used one of three strategies to increase participation: (1) simplifying eligibility requirements for those applying for food stamps, (2) directly assisting applicants with completing the application process, and (3) offering applicants the option of receiving package...

  11. Usage and Recall of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK) by Food Stamp Applicants in 4 California Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate recall and usage of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK), a set of nutrition education materials designed for use in food stamp offices. Design: Client intercept exit surveys, an environmental scan, and individual observations of clients in the food stamp office. Setting: Four food stamp offices in California.…

  12. Special Stamps:Historical Relic Beacons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In May 2002, the State Postal Bureau issued a set of five stamps picturing historical relic beacons. They are the Mao Beacon, the Jiangxinyu Twin Beacon, the Huaniaoshan Beacon, the Laotieshan Beacon, and

  13. Time Stamps for Fixed-Point Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damian, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed-point approximat......Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed......-point approximation algorithm which maintains a single copy of intermediate results. We then prove the correctness of this algorithm....

  14. A history of tuberculosis on stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shampo, Marc A; Rosenow, Edward C

    2009-08-01

    Tuberculosis, only a few decades ago, was believed to be under control and decreasing in incidence, in both developed and developing countries. A number of scientists and physicians have contributed to the understanding of tuberculosis and have been honored on postage stamps by several countries around the world. This article contains brief histories of these individuals and depictions of the postage stamps commemorating them for their contributions to the better understanding of the disease.

  15. Direct stamping of silver nanoparticles toward residue-free thick electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiseok; Wubs, Kevin; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Kim, Woo Soo

    2012-06-01

    Direct stamping of functional materials has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of nano/micro patterns. However, there remain several challenging issues like the perfect removal of the residual layer and realization of high aspect ratio. We have demonstrated facile fabrication of flexible strain sensors that have microscale thick interdigitated capacitors with no residual layer by a simple direct stamping with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Polyurethane (PU) prepolymer was utilized as an adhesive layer to transfer AgNPs more efficiently during the separation step of the flexible stamp from directly stamped AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed residue-free transfer of microscale thick interdigitated electrodes onto two different flexible substrates (elastomeric and brittle) for the application to highly sensitive strain sensors.

  16. Direct stamping of silver nanoparticles toward residue-free thick electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiseok Kim, Kevin Wubs, Byeong-Soo Bae and Woo Soo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct stamping of functional materials has been developed for cost-effective and process-effective manufacturing of nano/micro patterns. However, there remain several challenging issues like the perfect removal of the residual layer and realization of high aspect ratio. We have demonstrated facile fabrication of flexible strain sensors that have microscale thick interdigitated capacitors with no residual layer by a simple direct stamping with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. Polyurethane (PU prepolymer was utilized as an adhesive layer to transfer AgNPs more efficiently during the separation step of the flexible stamp from directly stamped AgNPs. Scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed residue-free transfer of microscale thick interdigitated electrodes onto two different flexible substrates (elastomeric and brittle for the application to highly sensitive strain sensors.

  17. Numerical Effectiveness of the Simulation of an Automotive Body Part Stamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stadnicki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of advanced high-strength steel sheet (AHSS stamping processes by means of dedicated computer-aided engineering (CAE software requires the use of appropriate material models, the use of complex FEM models, and the use of advanced methods for solving nonlinear problems of their analysis. In practice, the engineering design of automotive body parts often leads to the formulation of problems, the solution of which requires ample computer resources and is very time-consuming. The paper describes a methodology to simulate stamping on the example of a car body part, with special attention being paid to the numerical efficiency of the FEM model and methods of solving it. The simulations of stamping of a sample stamped part—the automotive body part—in DynaForm and AutoForm programs are compared, focusing on the numerical effectiveness and consistency of the simulation results with the reality.

  18. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  19. 车身外覆盖件冲压工艺方案设计%Design of Stamping Process of Body Outer Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福香

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of automobile cover parts, from the product process analysis, scheme, process design principles and process design parameters, introduced the vehicle body outer panel process design points and related design documents, put forward some process prediction and control measures in the preliminary design.%针对汽车外覆盖件的特点,从制件工艺分析、方案确定、工艺设计原则以及工艺设计参数等工艺设计方面,详细的介绍了汽车车身外覆盖件工艺方案设计中的基本内容和设计要点,以及相关的工艺方案设计文件,并提出了在工艺方案前期设计中的一些工艺预测和控制措施。

  20. Stamps of New China: Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui-Special Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On June 25, 2004 the State Postal Bureau issued a set of four special stamps entitled “Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui - Xidi and Hongcun Villages.” The stamps depict two ancient villages in Yixian County, southern Anhui Province, which UNESCO added to the World Heritage List on November 30, 2000.

  1. Blank Design and Rapid Stamping Forming Process of Titanium Sheet Metal for Mandibular Prosthesis with the Three-dimensional Flexible Surface Structure%钛板下颌假体的柔性化三维曲面展开与快速冲压成形工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芩; 李涤尘; 乔莎; 刘亚雄; 贺健康; 王玲; 靳忠民

    2013-01-01

    The precise casting machining cycle is too long to develop customized titanium mandibular prosthesis; thus, a rapid stamping forming technique using a sheet titanium metal to form a flexible three-dimensional structure of mandibular prosthesis was developed in this study. The process design of the mandibular prosthesis to repair the chin defects with the large curvature change was to be designed and optimized through the finite element analysis of the feeding structure and the processing deformation of the titanium sheet metal. The additive manufacturing technology was applied to manufacture a set of stamping dies using the resin shells and the metal sand and resin composite filling. The mandibular prostheses by stamping forming process had the well quality of the surface and and the structure deformation with about 0.5 mm average offset, which proved that the sheet metal stamping forming process promised a new low cost and high efficient method to manufacture mandibular prosthesis with complex structure. An entire route of the sheet stamping forming process presented in this study is significant to the customized mandibular prosthesis application.%针对现有定制化钛合金下颌假体的精铸加工周期长的问题,提出了一种快速冲压成形具有柔性化三维结构的钛板下颌假体的方法。以曲率变化大的颏部缺损为对象,结合有限元分析确定钛板下料的最佳初始结构和冲压加工过程的变形条件,研究该类下颌假体的冲压成形工艺性结构设计和分析方法。基于增材制造及其快速模具的树脂壳体/金属树脂填料冲压模具具有高效、低成本的特点;所完成的三维下颌假体表面质量良好,结构尺寸平均偏移量为0.5 mm,证明柔性化结构的下颌假体可采用效率更高、成本更低的钣金冲压加工方法。提出了完整的冲压加工工艺路线,对下颌修复的实际应用具有一定的指导意义。

  2. 镀镍钢带冲压成形过程中的应变场研究%Study on the Strain Field of Stamping Process of Nickel Plated Steel Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓雷; 龙士国; 马增胜; 周猛

    2011-01-01

    用RG2000型微机控制电子万能试验机结合ARGUS板金成形网格应变测试系统对镀镍钢带进行了冲压成型试验,研究了镀镍钢带在不同压入深度下的应变分布.并用有限元软件ABAQUS对此过程进行了模拟验证.结果表明,杯形件底部区域应变变形不大,由圆角处开始逐渐增大,随着压入深度的增加,这种趋势越来越明显;实验和数值模拟同时证明镍镀层在凸模圆角处最易发生破坏,此处镀层厚度减薄率最大,约为11.08%.%Stamping forming was done on nickel plated steel strip by an RG2000 computer controlled electronic all purpose equipment combined with ARGUS optical forming analysis experimental system. The strain distribution under different punch penetrations was studied. And the finite element software ABAQUS was imported to simulate and verify this process. The results showed that small deformations at the bottom zone, high stretching at the sheet wall, these dilatation and contraction trends were more pronounced as the punch moved downwards. Both the experi-ment and numerical simulation proved that the most likely failure zone was around the punch radius and thinning ratio of the coating thickness here was the largest, up to 11.08%.

  3. An Unforgettable Stamp Of Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜永章

    1997-01-01

    【一位澳大利亚的女教师Mrs. Johnston,不远万里,来到中国的涪陵,在那里尽心尽力,一丝不苟地教英语。她已经走了,但是,她的学生没有忘记她,以看似平淡,却含深情:读似稚嫩,其实认真的语言记叙了Mrs. Johnston感人的事迹。从表面看.Mrs.Johnston 似乎没有干出什么惊天动地的伟业.其实.我们这个世界就是在千千万万个人的兢兢业业、默默无闻的工作中而变得越来越美好.读许多名人的传记.我们常常发现.许多名人的成长.常因遇见了一个好的老师.所以.美国的Dorine教授也写道:This student was lucky to have such a teacher!本文一个值得称道之处是:善捕细节。全文以a stamp为线索,一气呵成.标题(An Unforgettable stamp Of Mine)又提纲挈领·文章的可读性大大增强。美国的Dorine教授对此文的评价也不俗:This is another good description of a good Person who obviously Ioved her job and was sincerely interested iu her students.The organization is excellent.and the few errors are merely surface ones .although in at least one case there is some interference,ith comprehensibility.

  4. Die design and stamping process analysis for flexible conductive piece%弹性导电片的冲压工艺分析和模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠慧

    2011-01-01

    在对弹性导电片切口、冲孔、成形、冲裁和压弯等成形工艺分析的基础上,提出了该零件采用多工位级进模的冲压方案,并介绍了该零件的冲压成形工步和模具结构.实践表明,该模具结构灵活、可靠,并能保证产品质量,提高了生产率,降低了成本.%Based on the analysis of lancing, punching,forming, blanking and bending forming technologies of a flexible conductive piece, a process scheme of multi-station progressive die for the part was put forward, and the process step and die structure were introduced.The experience proves that the die structure is flexible and reliable, the quality of the product can be guaranteed, the production efficiency is improved, and the cost is lowed.

  5. Simulation about hot stamping of ultra-high strength steel on the basis of lightweight technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qiang; Ma Fangwu; Wang Xiaona; Yao Zaiqi; Song Wei; Zhao Fuquan; Ma Mingttu; Song Leifeng

    2012-01-01

    With the development of automobile lightweight, it is very necessary to apply the ultra-high strength steel parts manufactured by hot stamping, which offers the possibility to reduce the weight of automobiles and maintain the safety requirement. In order to complete hot stamping, it is important to design the structure of parts reasonably, which is related with reasonable matching of strength. The objective of this paper is to guide the design of parts manufactured by hot stamping and find the forming technical requirements of vehicle performance. Through experiments, the paper obtains the stress and strain curves at different deformation temperatures and strain rates. Based on experimental data, the constitutive relationship model is established which can reflect the deformation capacity of ultra-high strength steel during the process of hot stamping. Combined with finite element simulation results of hot stamping by commercial soft- ware AUTOFORM, transfer path of load and matching law of strength, the paper determines the design criteria and forming technical requirements of parts manufactured by hot stamping. At the same time, the impact performance of front cross member internal plate is taken into consideration.

  6. Cooling Systems Design in Hot Stamping Tools by a Thermal-Fluid-Mechanical Coupled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot stamping tools with cooling systems are the key facilities for hot stamping process of Ultrahigh strength steels (UHSS in automotive industry. Hot stamping tools have significant influence on the final microstructure and properties of the hot stamped parts. In serials production, the tools should be rapidly cooled by cooling water. Hence, design of hot stamping tools with cooling systems is important not only for workpieces of good quality but also for the tools with good cooling performance and long life. In this paper, a new multifield simulation method was proposed for the design of hot stamping tools with cooling system. The deformation of the tools was also analyzed by this method. Based on MpCCI (Mesh-based parallel Code Coupling Interface, thermal-fluid simulation and thermal-fluid-mechanical coupled simulation were performed. Subsequently, the geometrical parameters of the cooling system are investigated for the design. The results show that, both the distance between the ducts and the distance between the ducts and the tools loaded contour have significant influence on the quenching effect. And better quenching effect can be achieved with the shorter distance from the tool surface and with smaller distance between ducts. It is also shown that, thermal expansion is the main reason for deformation of the hot forming tools, which causes the distortion of the cooling ducts, and the stress concentration at corner of the ducts.

  7. A Matched Field Processing Framework for Coherent Detection Over Local and Regional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    An Autonomous System for Grouping Events in Developing Aftershock Sequence,” Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 101, 2011, pp. 764-774. Kim, K.-H. and Park, Y...The 20 January 2007 ML 4.8 Odaesan Earthquake and its Implications for Regional Tectonics in Korea,” Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 100, 2010, pp. 1395

  8. A Matched Field Processing Framework for Coherent Detection Over Local and Regional Networks (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    alternative temporally or spatially incoherent detectors would emerge as special cases of the proposed architecture . • The specific form of the...detector that emerges depends upon the details of correlation structure present in the signal data. The architecture was tested initially against events...January 2007 ML 4.8 Odaesan Earthquake and its Implications for Regional Tectonics in Korea, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 100: pp. 1395–1405. Ringdal, F

  9. Evolutions of Advanced Stamping CAE — Technology Adventures and Business Impact on Automotive Dies and Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuantao (C. T.)

    2005-08-01

    In the past decade, sheet metal forming and die development has been transformed to a science-based and technology-driven engineering and manufacturing enterprise from a tryout-based craft. Stamping CAE, especially the sheet metal forming simulation, as one of the core components in digital die making and digital stamping, has played a key role in this historical transition. The stamping simulation technology and its industrial applications have greatly impacted automotive sheet metal product design, die developments, die construction and tryout, and production stamping. The stamping CAE community has successfully resolved the traditional formability problems such as splits and wrinkles. The evolution of the stamping CAE technology and business demands opens even greater opportunities and challenges to stamping CAE community in the areas of (1) continuously improving simulation accuracy, drastically reducing simulation time-in-system, and improving operationalability (friendliness), (2) resolving those historically difficult-to-resolve problems such as dimensional quality problems (springback and twist) and surface quality problems (distortion and skid/impact lines), (3) resolving total manufacturability problems in line die operations including blanking, draw/redraw, trim/piercing, and flanging, and (4) overcoming new problems in forming new sheet materials with new forming techniques. In this article, the author first provides an overview of the stamping CAE technology adventures and achievements, and industrial applications in the past decade. Then the author presents a summary of increasing manufacturability needs from the formability to total quality and total manufacturability of sheet metal stampings. Finally, the paper outlines the new needs and trends for continuous improvements and innovations to meet increasing challenges in line die formability and quality requirements in automotive stamping.

  10. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Kyu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process.

  11. Nanoscale plasmonic stamp lithography on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenglin; Luber, Erik J; Huck, Lawrence A; Olsen, Brian C; Buriak, Jillian M

    2015-02-24

    Nanoscale lithography on silicon is of interest for applications ranging from computer chip design to tissue interfacing. Block copolymer-based self-assembly, also called directed self-assembly (DSA) within the semiconductor industry, can produce a variety of complex nanopatterns on silicon, but these polymeric films typically require transformation into functional materials. Here we demonstrate how gold nanopatterns, produced via block copolymer self-assembly, can be incorporated into an optically transparent flexible PDMS stamp, termed a plasmonic stamp, and used to directly functionalize silicon surfaces on a sub-100 nm scale. We propose that the high intensity electric fields that result from the localized surface plasmons of the gold nanoparticles in the plasmonic stamps upon illumination with low intensity green light, lead to generation of electron-hole pairs in the silicon that drive spatially localized hydrosilylation. This approach demonstrates how localized surface plasmons can be used to enable functionalization of technologically relevant surfaces with nanoscale control.

  12. FE Simulation Models for Hot Stamping an Automobile Component with Tailor-Welded High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bingtao; Wang, Qiaoling; Wei, Zhaohui; Meng, Xianju; Yuan, Zhengjun

    2016-05-01

    Ultra-high-strength in sheet metal parts can be achieved with hot stamping process. To improve the crash performance and save vehicle weight, it is necessary to produce components with tailored properties. The use of tailor-welded high-strength steel is a relatively new hot stamping process for saving weight and obtaining desired local stiffness and crash performance. The simulation of hot stamping boron steel, especially tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) stamping, is more complex and challenging. Information about thermal/mechanical properties of tools and sheet materials, heat transfer, and friction between the deforming material and the tools is required in detail. In this study, the boron-manganese steel B1500HS and high-strength low-alloy steel B340LA are tailor welded and hot stamped. In order to precisely simulate the hot stamping process, modeling and simulation of hot stamping tailor-welded high-strength steels, including phase transformation modeling, thermal modeling, and thermal-mechanical modeling, is investigated. Meanwhile, the welding zone of tailor-welded blanks should be sufficiently accurate to describe thermal, mechanical, and metallurgical parameters. FE simulation model using TWBs with the thickness combination of 1.6 mm boron steel and 1.2 mm low-alloy steel is established. In order to evaluate the mechanical properties of the hot stamped automotive component (mini b-pillar), hardness and microstructure at each region are investigated. The comparisons between simulated results and experimental observations show the reliability of thermo-mechanical and metallurgical modeling strategies of TWBs hot stamping process.

  13. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  14. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002 (Professional Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso; Daisy Ewell

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  15. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2003.

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Cunnyngham; Beth Brown

    2004-01-01

    Summarizes the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 21.3 million people received food stamps each month in 2003. A little more than half of all food stamp households contained children, and most of these households were headed by a single parent. About 18 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $195 per household. Compared with 2002, the number of pr...

  16. E-Commerce-Objected E-Stamp Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Boosting e-stamp's advantages are conduced to promote logistics to go forward and help postal departments to improve the quality of service, many other businesses add-valued can be developed in e-stamp systems. This paper analyzeds, designs e-commerce-objected e-stamp system, and discusseds crucial technologies involved in detail.

  17. UN to lssue Stamps of Chinese Children’s Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A set of stamps designed by Chinese children who took peace as their theme will be issued by the United Nations on October 25, 1996. This will be the first time the United Nations has used children’s paintings in its stamps. The paintings chosen are prize-winners of the Chinese national stamp-designing

  18. Teaching Hispanic Culture with Postage Stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessel, Frank

    1984-01-01

    Methods for using postage stamps to their greatest potential in any level Spanish class are outlined, with illustrations and examples provided. Among the subjects that can be addressed through this medium are economics, politics, anthropology, archaeology, history, language and literature, geography, and music. (MSE)

  19. Site Tamper and Material Plow Tool - STAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisen, Norman M.; Collins, Curtis L.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2012-01-01

    A non-actuated tool has been developed for preparing regolith for in situ measurement by smoothing uneven surfaces and excavating fresher subsurface material for planetary exploration. The STAMP tool contains two tools to prepare regolith for in situ measurement: a tamper to smooth uneven surfaces, and a blade to excavate fresher subsurface material.

  20. Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, Ruben B.A.; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-01-01

    Locally oxidized patterns on flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps for microcontact printing were used as a platform for the transfer of a hydrophilic fluorescent ink to a glass substrate. The contrast was found to be limited. These locally oxidized patterns were conversely used as barriers for the tra

  1. Audio signal analysis for tool wear monitoring in sheet metal stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhayaratne, Indivarie; Pereira, Michael P.; Xiang, Yong; Rolfe, Bernard F.

    2017-02-01

    Stamping tool wear can significantly degrade product quality, and hence, online tool condition monitoring is a timely need in many manufacturing industries. Even though a large amount of research has been conducted employing different sensor signals, there is still an unmet demand for a low-cost easy to set up condition monitoring system. Audio signal analysis is a simple method that has the potential to meet this demand, but has not been previously used for stamping process monitoring. Hence, this paper studies the existence and the significance of the correlation between emitted sound signals and the wear state of sheet metal stamping tools. The corrupting sources generated by the tooling of the stamping press and surrounding machinery have higher amplitudes compared to that of the sound emitted by the stamping operation itself. Therefore, a newly developed semi-blind signal extraction technique was employed as a pre-processing technique to mitigate the contribution of these corrupting sources. The spectral analysis results of the raw and extracted signals demonstrate a significant qualitative relationship between wear progression and the emitted sound signature. This study lays the basis for employing low-cost audio signal analysis in the development of a real-time industrial tool condition monitoring system.

  2. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 2 - The investigation of cake strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before the pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the cokemaking plant using cost efficient raw materials, but also increases oven throughput. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend and as a function of the stamping energy. In the first part of the paper, investigations on the stampability of coal blends were reported. In this paper, the development of a new strength test device for the systematic investigation of mechanical strength of coal compacts produced by stamping is described. Results from compressive strength tests indicate an elastic-plastic behaviour with failure by plastic fracture. Shear test results show similarity to the yield limit description in soil mechanics.

  3. Design considerations for HFQ® hot stamped aluminium structural panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HFQ is a deep drawing process for alloyed aluminium sheet that can be used to produce complex-stamped forms while maintaining the high-strength of 6xxx and 7xxx alloys. By adopting a strategy to design for HFQ at the platform level, designers can reduce part count (thereby reducing cost and weight, reduce gauge (thereby reducing weight, and improve part packaging. Two simple design examples are given to assist designers in evolving traditionally formed panel designs to HFQ formed solutions. Example features are used to illustrate the effect of geometry, thickness and strength on the final structural component.

  4. Numerical simulation of hot stamping of side impact beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yihui; Ma Mingtu; Fang Gang; Song Leifeng; Liu Qiang; Wang Xiaona; Zhou Dianwu

    2012-01-01

    Ls-DYNA software is adopted to conduct research of numerical simulation on hot stamping of side impact beam to calculate the temperature field distribution, stress field distribution, forming limit diagram (FLD) figure, etc. in the course of hot stamping so as to predict and analyze the formability of parts. ProCAST software is employed to conduct research of numerical simulation on solid quenching course concerning hot stamping to calculate temperature field distri- bution of tools and component of muhiple stamping cycles. The results obtained from numerical simulation can provide significant reference value to hot stamping part design, formability predication and tools cooling system design.

  5. INSTALLATION FOR LARGE SIZE STAMP HARDENING TRANINIG BY WATER-AIR MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Glazkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The BNTU has developed a technological process for large-size stamp hardening by means of a water-air mixture.  The  basic  requirements  imposed on an hardening  installation using  a  water-air mixture are the following: provision of smooth cooling of a part in order to achieve the required  hardness and structure; possibility of machining parts of various sizes; change of modes for machining parts of various grades of steel according to any hardness rate.The peculiar features of the given installation are: a presence of microprocessor control of water-air mixture supply, possibility of simultaneous machining of a stamp set (2 parts and position change of parts to be hardened in the process of thermal treatment.Installation for large-sized stamp hardening has been manufactured and introduced at theMinskplant of special tools and machining attachments.

  6. Numerical Validation of an Optimized Cooling System for Hot Stamping Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, A.; Abidin, M. A.; Ibrahim, M. S. N.; Senin, A.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical analysis of hot stamping process is very complex mainly due to thermomechanical processes involved. Many variables such as heat transfer coefficient, density, young modulus and other thermal parameters are temperature and pressure dependent. The paper presents results of CFD analysis on the near optimized cooling system of hot stamping die for automotive structural part. By using actual parameters obtained from the industry production line, this research is aimed at comparing the performance of actual cooling system with the results obtained by CFD simulation using commercial software. The die and blank were modelled as 3D volume mesh in a closed position thus ignoring blank history data prior to stamping operation. Temperature distribution representing hardness of the simulated final part is an agreement with the QA data of the actual part thus showing viability of this method to be used in cooling system design

  7. Trans-dimensional matched-field geoacoustic inversion with hierarchical error models and interacting Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E

    2012-10-01

    This paper develops a trans-dimensional approach to matched-field geoacoustic inversion, including interacting Markov chains to improve efficiency and an autoregressive model to account for correlated errors. The trans-dimensional approach and hierarchical seabed model allows inversion without assuming any particular parametrization by relaxing model specification to a range of plausible seabed models (e.g., in this case, the number of sediment layers is an unknown parameter). Data errors are addressed by sampling statistical error-distribution parameters, including correlated errors (covariance), by applying a hierarchical autoregressive error model. The well-known difficulty of low acceptance rates for trans-dimensional jumps is addressed with interacting Markov chains, resulting in a substantial increase in efficiency. The trans-dimensional seabed model and the hierarchical error model relax the degree of prior assumptions required in the inversion, resulting in substantially improved (more realistic) uncertainty estimates and a more automated algorithm. In particular, the approach gives seabed parameter uncertainty estimates that account for uncertainty due to prior model choice (layering and data error statistics). The approach is applied to data measured on a vertical array in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Can laboratory and pilot recycling trials predict adhesive removal in commercial recycling systems? : results from the USPS environmentally benign stamp project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Daniel Seiter; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Donald Donermeyer

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp laminates, i.e., face paper, adhesive and siliconized liner, that do not cause difficulties in recycling mills. The criterion for success, and the USPS definition of benignity, is the avoidance of process and product quality hardships when such PSA laminates are...

  9. Direct printing of silver nanoparticles by an agarose stamp on planar and patterned substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Yu-Chih; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan, E-mail: hong@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-06

    In this study, we have used an agarose stamp to conduct direct printing of silver nanoparticles, nanowires and nanoplates on both planar and structured substrates. Nanoparticle solution could be first coated on an agarose stamp, and then transferred to a planar substrate. Micro-patterns comprising metal nanoparticles could be printed on planar substrates without the formation of residual layers. Thus a three-dimensional metal microstructure could be easily fabricated. The patterning of electrodes by printing Ag nanowires directly on TiO{sub 2} was also demonstrated to fabricate resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices by all-solution-processing methods. By using a flat agarose stamp, the patterns printed on the microstructured substrates were quite different from those on the nanostructured substrates. On the microstructured substrates, direct printing could print silver nanoparticles onto the protrusion surface, and could print silver layers as thick as several microns, useful for high conductivity electrodes. On the substrates with nanostructures such as photonic crystals or nano-gratings, direct printing could transfer nanoparticles into the grooves or cavities only due to the contact of the agarose stamp with the groove or concavity surface. A new approach to fabricate metal wire grid polarizers was further demonstrated. A nanoporous agarose stamp has a good potential for printing using nanoparticle suspension.

  10. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  11. Development of Core Competencies for Paraprofessional Nutrition Educators Who Deliver Food Stamp Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan S.; Pearson, Meredith; Chipman, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to describe the process used for the development of core competencies for paraprofessional nutrition educators in Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE). The development process included the efforts of an expert panel of state and multicounty FSNE leaders to draft the core competencies and the validation of those…

  12. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  13. Effect of Quenching and Partitioning with Hot Stamping on Martensite Transformation and Mechanical Properties of AHSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Li, Guanzhong; Wang, Cunyu; Li, Xiaodong; Dong, Han

    2015-08-01

    Two-step quenching and partitioning treatment with hot stamping was applied to advanced high-strength steel (AHSS). The newly treated steel possesses a fine microstructure and typically curved micromorphology. The martensite start temperature of the newly treated steel is increased through the effect of plastic deformation on austenitic microstructure. However, the martensite volume fraction of this steel is deceased because of the enhanced stability of the untransformed austenite after plastic deformation. Consequently, the fraction of retained austenite is increased. The newly treated steel also shows excellent mechanical properties. The volume fraction of retained austenite reaches the highest value of 17.2% when hot stamping is performed at 750 °C. Hence, the steel displays favorable plasticity with an elongation of 14.5%. Moreover, the highest hardness value of 426 HV is obtained when hot stamping is performed at 650 °C. The newly developed process may be employed to develop a new generation of AHSSs.

  14. 匹配场声源定位的并行计算方法研究%Study on method of parallel computing in match field localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董姝敏; 刘洪波; 赵博; 梁国龙

    2012-01-01

    Through studying and analyzing the inherent parallelism which existed in algorithm of the match field sound source localization, frame of parallel computing algorithm had constructed in the match field localization in order to shorten the running time and accelerate the speed of localization algorithm effectively. Parallelization grid method was introduced in detail , which was applied to the match field localization algorithm. And parallel algorithm had been carried on the test and the corresponding analysis in the MPI parallel environment, in the way of interconnecting binuclear PC machines as the parallel computing hardware platform through fast internet, choosing Windows operate system and FORTRAN compiler, and using TCP/IP as the standard communication protocols. The study shows the proposed parallel algorithm running results are better,so questions of the load big computation and long time-consuming etc. Can be settled effectively to exploiting parallelization in matched field processing methods, in order to provide settle path for fast sound source localization.%为了达到有效缩短算法运行时间、加快定位速度的目的,研究并分析了匹配场声源定位算法中存在的固有并行性,构建了匹配场声源定位的并行计算算法框架.详细介绍了匹配场声源定位算法的网格法并行化方法;并以互连的双核PC机作为并行计算硬件平台,选用Windows操作系统、FORTRAN编译器,使用TCP/IP作为标准的通信协议,在MPI并行环境中对并行算法进行了测试和相应分析.研究表明,提出的并行算法运行效果较好,可以通过开发匹配场处理方法的并行性,有效解决信号匹配处理中遇到的计算量大、耗时长等问题,为实现快速声源定位提供解决途径.

  15. Transfer printing of 3D hierarchical gold structures using a sequentially imprinted polymer stamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR - Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore)], E-mail: hy-low@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2008-10-15

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures on polymeric materials are fabricated through a process referred to as sequential imprinting. In this work, the sequentially imprinted polystyrene film is used as a soft stamp to replicate hierarchical structures onto gold (Au) films, and the Au structures are then transferred to a substrate by transfer printing at an elevated temperature and pressure. Continuous and isolated 3D structures can be selectively fabricated with the assistance of thermo-mechanical deformation of the polymer stamp. Hierarchical Au structures are achieved without the need for a corresponding three-dimensionally patterned mold.

  16. Has your ancient stamp been regummed with synthetic glue? A FT-NIR and FT-Raman study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Remo; Oliveri, Paolo; Henry, Adrien; Duponchel, Ludovic; Lanteri, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The potential of FT-NIR and FT-Raman spectroscopies to characterise the gum applied on the backside of ancient stamps was investigated for the first time. This represents a very critical issue for the collectors' market, since gum conditions heavily influence stamp quotations, and fraudulent application of synthetic gum onto damaged stamp backsides to increase their desirability is a well-documented practice. Spectral data were processed by exploratory pattern recognition tools. In particular, application of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that both of the spectroscopic techniques provide information useful to characterise stamp gum. Examination of PCA loadings and their chemical interpretation confirmed the robustness of the outcomes. Fusion of FT-NIR and FT-Raman spectral data was performed, following both a low-level and a mid-level procedure. The results were critically compared with those obtained separately for the two spectroscopic techniques.

  17. Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ruben B A; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Reinhoudt, David N; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-07-27

    Locally oxidized patterns on flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps for microcontact printing were used as a platform for the transfer of a hydrophilic fluorescent ink to a glass substrate. The contrast was found to be limited. These locally oxidized patterns were conversely used as barriers for the transfer of hydrophobic n-octadecanethiol. In this case a good contrast was obtained, but the pattern was found to be susceptible to defects (cracks) in the barrier layer. Local stamp surface oxidation and subsequent modification with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane, for use as a barrier in the transfer of n-octadecanethiol, 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, and octanethiol, resulted in remarkably good contrast and stable patterns. The improved ink transfer control is ascribed to the reduction of undesired surface spreading and a superior mechanical stability of the stamp pattern. This new approach substantially expands the applicability of microcontact printing and provides a tool for the faithful reproduction of even extremely low filling ratio patterns.

  18. Thermal expansion and contraction of an elastomer stamp causes position-dependent polymer patterns in capillary force lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Youn Sang; Jeong, Unyong

    2011-12-01

    It is often observed that polymer patterns fabricated by capillary force lithography (CFL) are not identical, position-dependent even in one sample. The drawback has not been successfully explained so far. This paper reveals that the position-dependent pattern is mainly caused by the volume expansion and contraction of the elastomer stamp during heating and cooling in the CFL process. The stamp expands on a polymer liquid on heating, accumulating the polymer at one side-wall of each pattern of the stamp. And the stamp shrinks back to the initial position, accumulating the polymer at the opposite wall of the stamp pattern. For crystalline polymers, the morphology was mainly determined by the annealing temperature, that is, the degree of expansion. The position-dependence of the morphology was enhanced as the annealing temperature was increased. For amorphous polymers, the morphology was sensitive to cooling rate. Fast cooling led to a frozen morphology generated at the hot annealing temperature, while slow cooling produced an opposite morphology from the one at the annealing. The experimental results were theoretically explained by analyzing thermal expansion of the stamp and the shear stress exerted in the polymer layer. In the conclusion, we added our suggestions to avoid the nonuniformity in the polymer pattern by CFL process.

  19. New postage stamp design with tone gradation in Infraredesign technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of new steganographic methods in postage stamp printing technology with the goal of securing them against counterfeiting. Postage stamp designs are presented which contain double information in the visible and in the infrared spectrum area. New methods include printing with process printing inks that have a continuous response in the infrared area of the spectrum. The infrared Z image cannot be produced with conventional CMYK separation in such a way that the hidden picture does not show through when looking at the print. This is the reason for introducing CMYKIR separation, with mathematical relations that respect printing ink characteristics in the RGB to CMYKIR system conversion.A mathematical model with targeted separation characteristics is proposed, with seven independent variables. It has been created as the result of optimal regression model developed on the basis of colour tone measuring for the visual and infrared spectrum. A technological procedure has been elaborated for producing and printing based on such designs. It is possible to detect the infrared image with the help of a device – the infrared ZRGB camera. Counterfeiting is impossible due to the irreversible conversion of the CMYKIR separation into the RGB system applied in contemporary scanners or cameras.

  20. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity. Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes. The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way. The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  1. Impact of Electronic Signatures and Time Stamping for the Protection of Electronic Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article e495 valuates the impact of e-signatures and time stamping on electronic contracts and electronic documents for performing e-business opportunities and goals, and analyses e-signature application for business cases. Various electronic services, virtual shopping, electronic cash transactions are becoming increasingly popular as they allow users to quickly perform different actions, operations and functions. It is important not only for convenience, but also to ensure consumer data security and reliability. Security reasons are not enough for security transmitted data, since this method does not allow clarification of information about sender identity.Use of electronic signatures, electronic identities, checgs and ensures a very high level of data security in interchange data processes. E-signature allows e-business companies to transfer the company’s operation business processes and their application to the organization and management in the electronic environment, also automate internal and external compans processes, includinggon-going business processes.The object of paper is .-signature and time stamping application in the theoretical and practical way.The goal of this paper while evaluating and estimating the .-signature and time stamping application, i’s regulation and legal implementation worldwidesand in Lithuania—is to provideluseful recommendations for more efficient impact developing -commerce and -business in situations when -signature and time stamping is used for ensuring electronic contracs security.

  2. Impacting Mediators of Change for Physical Activity among Elderly Food Stamp Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Cheryl J.; Williams, Joel E.; Kemper, Karen A.; McGuire, Francis A.; Aybar-Damali, Begum

    2012-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team developed and pilot-tested a curriculum, delivered by trained lay educators, to increase self-efficacy for physical activity among elderly food stamp recipients. Curriculum development was guided by a comprehensive literature review. Process evaluation was used to revise the curriculum and to assess lay educator training…

  3. Fabrication of a silicon oxide stamp by edge lithography reinforced with silicon nitride for nanoimprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yiping; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, M.; de Boer, Meint J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of a stamp reinforced with silicon nitride is presented for its use in nanoimprint lithography. The fabrication process is based on edge lithography using conventional optical lithography and wet anisotropic etching of 110 silicon wafers. SiO2 nano-ridges of 20 nm in width were

  4. Failure Analysis of Warm Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in warm stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-numerical method. The aim was to predict formability of warm stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. Numerical results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in warm stamping experiments.

  5. Stamped coal cakes in cokemaking technology Part 1 - A parameter study on stampability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, F.; Rosenkranz, J.; Kuyumcu, H.Z. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Coking of coal blends using high volatile coals with poor caking properties to produce a high quality coke for blast furnace application can be achieved by compacting the whole coal blend before pyrolysis in the so called stamp charge operation. Using stamp charging not only improves the flexibility of the coke making plant using cost efficient raw materials, but oven throughput is also increased. Therefore, in recent years, densification of coals has been introduced even to coals with good carbonisation properties when heat recovery ovens are used. At the Department for Mechanical Process Engineering and Solids Processing of the Technical University Berlin, the two subprocesses, densification and strengthening during stamping, were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The research work aims on the development of an integrated mathematical model, allowing the calculation of cake density and strength of the coal cake for a given coal blend depending on the stamping energy. The first part of this paper defines the overall process objectives and presents results from systematic investigations of the effects of several coal properties on the so called stampability as the integral model parameter for compacting. Surface moisture, coal granulometry and mechanical properties have significant influence on the densification. The incorporation of these parameters into the model allows the differentiated calculation of the cake density.

  6. DNA microarray synthesis by using PDMS molecular stamp (II) -- Oligonucleotide on-chip synthesis using PDMS stamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the standard phosphoramidites chemistry protocol, two oligonucleotides synthetic routes were studied by contact stamping reactants to a modified glass slide. Route A was a contact coupling reaction, in which a nucleoside monomer was transferred and coupled to reactive groups (OH) on a substrate by spreading the nucleoside activated with tetrazole on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. Route B was a contact detritylation, in which one nucleoside was fixed on the desired synthesis regions where dimethoxytrityl (DMT) protecting groups on the 5′-hydroxyl of the support-bound nucleoside were removed by stamping trichloroacetic acid (TCA) distributed on features on a PDMS stamp. Experiments showed that the synthetic yield and the reaction speed of route A were higher than those of route B. It was shown that 20 mer oligonucleotide arrays immobilized on the glass slide were successfully synthesized using the PDMS stamps, and the coupling efficiency showed no difference between the PDMS stamping and the conventional synthesis methods.

  7. Determination of Proper Austenitization Temperatures for Hot Stamping of AISI 4140 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadian, Pedram; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Shakeri, Amid

    2014-04-01

    High strength steels are desirable materials for use in automobile bodies in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase the safety of car passengers, but steel grades with high strength commonly show poor formability. Recently, steels with controlled microstructures and compositions are used to gain adequate strength after hot stamping while maintaining good formability during processing. In this study, microstructure evolutions and changes in mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel sheets resulting from the hot stamping process at different austenitization temperatures were investigated. To determine the proper austenitization temperatures, the results were compared with those of the cold-worked and cold-worked plus quench-tempered specimens. Comparisons showed that the austenitization temperatures of 1000 and 1100 °C are proper for hot stamping of 3-mm-thick AISI 4140 steel sheets due to the resultant martensitic microstructure which led to the yield and ultimate tensile strength of 1.3 and 2.1 GPa, respectively. Such conditions resulted in more favorable simultaneous strength and elongation than those of hot-stamped conventional boron steels.

  8. Dynamics of two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qing-Bao [Department of Physics, Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China); Luo, Meng-Bo, E-mail: Luomengbo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-10-30

    We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field. Two kinds of depinning behaviors, a continuous depinning transition at weak pinning and a discontinuous one at strong pinning, are found. We show that the two different kinds of vortex depinning transitions can be identified in transport as a function of the pinning strength and temperature. Moreover, interstitial vortex state can be probed from the transport properties of vortices.

  9. Multicriteria shape design of a sheet contour in stamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima-Zahra Oujebbour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the hottest challenges in automotive industry is related to weight reduction in sheet metal forming processes, in order to produce a high quality metal part with minimal material cost. Stamping is the most widely used sheet metal forming process; but its implementation comes with several fabrication flaws such as springback and failure. A global and simple approach to circumvent these unwanted process drawbacks consists in optimizing the initial blank shape with innovative methods. The aim of this paper is to introduce an efficient methodology to deal with complex, computationally expensive multicriteria optimization problems. Our approach is based on the combination of methods to capture the Pareto Front, approximate criteria (to save computational costs and global optimizers. To illustrate the efficiency, we consider the stamping of an industrial workpiece as test-case. Our approach is applied to the springback and failure criteria. To optimize these two criteria, a global optimization algorithm was chosen. It is the Simulated Annealing algorithm hybridized with the Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation in order to gain in time and in precision. The multicriteria problems amounts to the capture of the Pareto Front associated to the two criteria. Normal Boundary Intersection and Normalized Normal Constraint Method are considered for generating a set of Pareto-optimal solutions with the characteristic of uniform distribution of front points. The computational results are compared to those obtained with the well-known Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II. The results show that our proposed approach is efficient to deal with the multicriteria shape optimization of highly non-linear mechanical systems.

  10. Study on the Forming Limit Nomogram of Tensile Stamping Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachang KANG; Haobin TIAN; Shihong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Based on plasticity theory and physical experiments, the quantitative relationships between elongation δ obtained by uniaxial tensile test and forming limits of tensile stamping operations are given, which mainly resolves the problem that forming limits can be derived from simple tensile test. The forming limit nomogram of tensile stamping operations is also established to apply to engineering.

  11. Design and Development on Intelligent Layout System of Stamping Blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjuan Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal layout of stamping blanks is a complicated problem under the control of multi-circumstances, and it cannot be best solved by any single algorithm. In order to solve this problem, the paper proposed a new kind of algorithm combining CHNN and genetic algorithm. It set up models for irregular parts, and these irregular parts were processed by using the surrounding rectangle methods and graphic composition. The paper used AutoCAD as a develop studio, and discussed CHNN and its mapping to layout and optimize the weight of CHNN by genetic algorithm. The kernel program adopted VB program language and developed the intelligent layout system. With the input of layout parts graphics and layout parameter, the system preprocessed graphics and gave layout results automatically. Sample analysis showed the results that the system had good man-machine interfaces, interactive features, high speed and quality retention of solution.

  12. Triboanalysis in Industry for PVD-coated Stamping Dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zdravecká

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of hard wear-resistant coatings is expanding into various sectors of industry to protect tools and other components from failure caused by wear and corrosion. However, in forming industry it is still rather an exception than a rule to find coated forming dies. This study has objectives to investigate wear behaviour of P/M Vanadis 6 ledeburitic steel with PVD-TiN and TiCN coatings. The tests were carried out in the laboratory and industrial process conditions. The obtained results under operating conditions show that the application of PVD coatings appears as a very effective method for increasing the lifetime and wear resistance of cold stamping dies.

  13. A novel time stamping technique for distributed data acquisition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, E T

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of a synchronizing technique for data acquisition systems, which can effectively use the normal, standard local area network cables to provide a time stamp, with a range up to 32 days, resolution of 10 ns, and synchronization within ± 5 ns. This system may be used to synchronize data being collected by independent heterogeneous data acquisition modules, that acquire events independently. Such distributed systems are generally designed with a tree-like structure or independent self-triggered acquisition boxes. These leaf edges are connected through branches to the root node, via non-bus based inter-connecting links. The present system has been tested with a set of self-triggered digital signal processing based data acquisition engines, having a 100 MHz analog to digital converter front end.

  14. Patterning of polymers: precise channel stamping by optimizing wetting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, Ralf; Kramer, Edward J; Lange, Frederick F [Mitsubishi Chemical Center for Advanced Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Channel stamping is a soft lithography technique that can be used to fabricate small structures of polymeric materials. This technique is cheap and easy but a considerable drawback is the fact that reproduction of the patterns of the stamp is often imprecise due to the wetting properties of liquid and stamp. In this paper, we report on experiments that reveal the parameters governing the behaviour of liquids in grooves and on edges. Optimizing these parameters leads to better-quality channel-stamped structures and enables the design of sophisticated structured polymeric materials, allowing channels as small as about 100 nm to be fabricated. Moreover, we show that it is even possible to build up a freestanding three-dimensional structure by stamping line patterns on top of each other.

  15. 拖拉机提升器前盖板冲压工艺性分析及产品设计改进%Tractor raiser before analysis, the cover plate stamping process to improve product design and process design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈牡丹

    2014-01-01

    对拖拉机提升器前盖板的产品设计进行工艺性分析,提高产品设计的合理性,并对改进后的产品进行工艺设计。实践证明,改进后的产品设计合理,工艺设计合理,能满足产品质量要求,现已批量生产。对同类零件的产品及工艺设计具有一定的参考作用。%the product design on the front cover of the tractor raiser, process analysis, improve the rationality of product design, and process design of improved products. Practice has proved, the rationality of improved product design, process design is reasonable, can meet the requirements of the product quality, now in volume production. It had a certain reference function of product and process design of similar parts.

  16. Authentication, Time-Stamping and Digital Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Judah

    1996-01-01

    Time and frequency data are often transmitted over public packet-switched networks, and the use of this mode of distribution is likely to increase in the near future as high-speed logical circuits transmitted via networks replace point-to-point physical circuits. ALthough these networks have many technical advantages, they are susceptible to evesdropping, spoofing, and the alteration of messages enroute using techniques that are relatively simple to implement and quite difficult to detect. I will discuss a number of solutions to these problems, including the authentication mechanism used in the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the more general technique of signing time-stamps using public key cryptography. This public key method can also be used to implement the digital analog of a Notary Public, and I will discuss how such a system could be realized on a public network such as the Internet.

  17. Teaching Chinese Culture and Language with Postage Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C. Leung

    2000-01-01

    @@ While several articles have long been published on using stamps to teach French,German, and Spanish, I have yet to see one relating to the teaching of Chinese. As a vehicle for communicating a country's current and past values (cultural, political, social, economic,linguistic), stamps can play an important role in the culture and language class -- if only because they stimulate interest and heighten motivation by projecting images of a country's culture,politics, and language. But there is much more: stamps could serve as focal points for a class discussion; they could shed light on government priorities; they could be the subject of cultural quizzes and exercises for language practice; they could be assigned as research subjects. They are, after all, official documents and authentic cultural artifacts themselves. This paper examines the ways in which stamps can serve the teaching of various aspects of culture and language. For the purpose of teaching Chinese, one could use stamps from China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau. Together, these stamps cover the full range of cultural domains: geography, archaeology,history and politics, language and literature, arts and architecture, science, patterns for daily living,symbolism, myths and culture heroes, etc. I will use these headings in my discussion. Unless otherwise stated, the stamps referred to below were issued in the People's Republic of China (with dates or official serial numbers in brackets).

  18. Experimental and Numerical Method for the Analysis of Warm Titanium Sheet Stamping of an Automotive Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fiorentino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Product design involves many aspects as geometry and material or mechanical requirements that have to be chosen on the base of the part requirements. Manufacturing process is the link between them representing a fundamental aspect of the product design process. Designers and technicians have a consolidated set of tools and knowledge based on long time experience, but the request of more new performing products characterized by more complex geometries or harder to form materials as Titanium alloys stimulated the use of numerical models. They allow us to study the product feasibility but they require reliable inputs for their development and validation. The present research focuses on sheet stamping processes and proposes a methodology that uses the Nakazima test to characterize the formability of the material and to develop and validate the model. In particular, the method is applied to cold (20°C and warm (300°C stamping of a complex automotive component made of CP Titanium. After characterizing the material and validating the model at the different temperatures, the stamping process is studied and results are compared. In particular, this approach allowed joining the experimental tests required to develop and validate the model, therefore reducing the resources required for the product design.

  19. ULSE-MAGNETIC STAMPING OF THIN-WALLED CYLINDRICAL DYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bondar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of pulse magnetic stamping technological operation is considered in the given article. The stress state of die – slug system is analyzed. Recommendations concerning the technological equipment condition are given.

  20. State waterfowl conservation stamp/print programs considerations for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An Alaska Waterfowl Conservation Stamp program has been proposed in several bills put before the legislature in 1983. The intent of this report is to present a brief...

  1. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 1998.

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  2. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  3. Facile stamp patterning method for superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Sungnam, E-mail: blueden@postech.ac.kr; Hwang, Woonbong, E-mail: whwang@postech.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-16

    Patterning techniques are essential to many research fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and micro-electromechanical systems. In this letter, we report a simple, fast, and low-cost superhydrophobic patterning method using a superhydrophilic template. The technique is based on the contact stamping of the surface during hydrophobic dip coating. Surface characteristics were measured using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis. The results showed that the hydrophilic template, which was contacted with the stamp, was not affected by the hydrophobic solution. The resolution study was conducted using a stripe shaped stamp. The patterned line was linearly proportional to the width of the stamp line with a constant narrowing effect. A surface with regions of four different types of wetting was fabricated to demonstrate the patterning performance.

  4. Superhydrophobic hierarchical structures produced through novel low-cost stamp fabrication and hot embossing of thermoplastic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Hee; Han, Sol Yi; Kim, Kwang; Kim, Wook Bae [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Dong [SNDENG Co., Ltd., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    We present a simple and cost-effective method to produce super hydrophobic surfaces in thermoplastic polymer substrates, which contain hierarchical micro/nano structures that resemble lotus leaves. The method involved the fabrication of an Al stamp through the sequential application of laser ablation and anodization to create micro- and nano-structures, respectively. The fabricated patterns on the Al stamp were replicated on the thermoplastic Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) film surfaces through a hot embossing technique. Static water contact angles were measured to evaluate the hydrophobicity of the patterned COC surfaces. The static water contact angle on the micro/nano hierarchical structured COC surface was measured to be 162.3 .deg. on average. The hot embossing process was repeated 31 times with a nano-structured Al stamp, and the replicated COC surfaces showed consistent water contact angles.

  5. Temperature distribution of boron-manganese sheet metal blank by induction heating in application for hot stamping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ya; Liu Peixing; Wang Zijian; Zhang Yisheng

    2014-01-01

    In order to speed up the production and save more energy in hot stamping process,the induction heating technology as a new effective heating method is considerable. Finite element (FE)-simulation and a se-ries of experiments are carried out to research the temperature homogenization of induction heating with the face inductor. It is found the edge effect has a notable influence on the temperature distribution. Results concer-ning the mechanical properties of the stamped part as well as surface characteristics will be presented and dis-cussed.

  6. Investigations on the Hot Stamping of AW-7921-T4 Alloy Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AW-7xxx alloys have been nowadays considered for greater light weighting potential in automotive industry due to its higher strength compared to AW-5xxx and AW-6xxx alloys. However, due to their lower formability the forming processes are still in development. This paper investigates one such forming process called hot stamping. The investigation started by carrying out hot tensile testing of an AW-7xxx alloy, that is, AW-7921 at temperatures between 350°C and 475°C, to measure the strength and formability. Formability was found to improve with increasing temperature and was sensitive to the strain rate. Dynamic recovery is considered as usual reason for the formability improvement. However, examining the precipitation states of the as-received condition and after hot stamping using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the dissolution of precipitates was also believed to contribute to this increase in formability. Following solution heat treatment there was no precipitation during cooling across the cooling rates investigated (5–10°C/s. Samples taken from parts hot stamped at 10 and 20 mm s−1 had similar yield strengths. A 3-step paint baking heat treatment yielded a higher postpaint baking strength than a single step treatment.

  7. Fabrication of Ni stamp with high aspect ratio, two-leveled, cylindrical microstructures using dry etching and electroplating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ritika Singh; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Hansen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    We describe a process for the fabrication of a Ni stamp that is applied to the microstructuring of polymers by hot embossing. The target devices are microcontainers that have a potential application in oral drug delivery. Each container is a 3D, cylindrical, high aspect ratio microstructure...

  8. Low temperature high density plasma nitriding of stainless steel molds for stamping of oxide glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a die for mold- and direct-stamping processes of optical oxide glasses. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical oxide-glass elements. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness over 1400 HV within its thickness of 50 μm without any formation of nitrides after plasma nitriding at 693 K for 14.4 ks. This plasma-nitrided mold was utilized for mold-stamping of two colored oxide glass plates at 833 K; these plates were successfully deformed and joined into a single glass plate by this stamping without adhesion or galling of oxide glasses onto the nitrided mold surface.

  9. Design and fabrication of Si-based photonic crystal stamps with electron beam lithography (EBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannesary, Reyhaneh; Bergmair, Iris; Zamiri, Saeid; Hingerl, Kurt; Hubbard, Graham; Abbott, Steven; Chen, Qin; Allsopp, Duncan

    2009-05-01

    The quest for mass replication has established technologies like nanoimprinting via hard stamps or PDMS stamps, where the stamps are usually produced via Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) for applications in the microelectronic industry. On the other hand, nanopatterning with self ordered structures1 or via holographic patterns provide the basis for large area imprints for applications for example, antireflection coatings based on biomimetic motheyes2. In this work we report on a technology for enabling the mass replication of custom-designed and e-beam lithographically prepared structures via establishing novel roll to roll nanoimprint processes for pattern transfer into UV curable pre-polymers. The new nano-fabrication technology is based on the concept of Disposal Master Technology (DMT) capable of patterning areas up to 1 x 1 m2 and is suitable for mass volume manufacturing of large area arrays of sub-wavelength photonic elements. As an example to show the potential of the application of the new nanoimprint technologies, we choose the fabrication of a photonic crystal (PhC) structure with integrated light coupling devices for low loss interconnection between PhC lightwave circuits and optical fibre systems. We present two methods for fabrication of nanoimprint lithography stamps in Si substrate. In the first method optimized electron beam lithography (EBL) and lift-off patterning of a 15-nm thick Cr mask, and then the pattern transfer into Si using reacting ion etching (RIE) with SF6 as etch gas. In the first method, we use 200nm of positive resist PMMA 950K for EBL exposure. In this method, resist thickness, exposure dose, development time and parameter for etching have been optimized and a photonic crystal of Si-rods in air was fabricated. In the second method lift-off has not been performed and metal mask has been used as master. The subsequent steps for fabricating the master will be presented in detail.

  10. Advanced stamp geometries and adhesiveless transfer printing modalities for use in deterministic materials assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Andrew

    Transfer printing has become a robust technique for assembling disparate classes of micro- and nanomaterials into spatially organized, functional arrangements in two and three-dimensional layouts. Such capabilities have made this assembly process invaluable in realizing novel or unusual forms of many high-performance systems, such as flexible electronics, three-dimensional optoelectronics, and bio-compatible or bio-integrated electronic devices. The focus of this thesis is to develop a collection of advanced transfer printing modalities that enable expansion in breadth and diversity of materials and formats that serve as either ink or substrate layers during assembly. Targeted modulation of adhesion at the stamp/nanomaterial interface provides a direct route for enhancing printing efficacy, particularly in 'dry' or adhesiveless systems where intimate contact between the substrate and transferred material is desired. This body of work progresses from several simple, passive techniques that demonstrate either strong or weak levels of stamp adhesion for retrieval and printing, respectively, to more active methods that utilize first dynamic adhesion switching and then ultimately fine control over stamp adhesive strength through the use of targeted mechanical loading. Several examples of assembled devices are discussed to demonstrate the broad utility of these protocols, as well as integration strategies for high throughput, massively parallel printing paradigms.

  11. Tribological behavior of a new green industrial lubricant for stamping operations - Application to Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteri, A.; Borgeot, M.; Roizard, X.; Lallemand, F.; Melot, J.-M.; Morand, L.

    2016-11-01

    Thanks to a fruitful collaboration between different academic and industrial research entities, a new green lubricant solution AFULudine has been developed for stamping operations in substitution to the usual mineral oils, with the idea and the wish to combine different essential properties such as a low environmental impact and ease-of-use according to the market needs and the more and more restrictive environmental legislation (e.g. REACH). Based on the Self-Assembled-Monolayer (SAM) principle and so, on a perfect control of the chemical reaction between the solution and the substrate (grafting of molecules onto the surface), AFULudine offers an efficient technical answer for improving stamping processes. The present study, focused on stainless steel stampings (comparison between a 441-1.4509 grade and a 304-1.4301 grade), investigates the performances of this new green industrial lubricant at different levels: from laboratory tests to industrial conditions through the production of hundreds of parts. Additional results coming from tests made on a rotational pin- on-disk tribometer will allow us to appreciate and retrieve more local information about the tribofilm creation during sliding. Moreover, the comparison with different mineral oils currently used at industrial scale, will strengthen the AFULudine performances. Indeed, this new solution usually outperforms a majority of such oils whatever their viscosity and their own composition: formulation, content of extreme pressure additives (Cl, S, P)...

  12. Stamping Formability of ZE10 Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ying; Li Yuanyuan; Li Wei

    2007-01-01

    ZE10 magnesium alloy sheets were prepared through ingot casting and the hot-rolling process. The mechanical properties, conical cup value (CCV), bore expanding performance, and limit drawing ratio (LDR) were investigated to examine the stamping formability of ZE10 alloy sheets, at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 ℃. The results showed that the tensile strength decreased, whereas, plasticity, drawing-bulging performance, bore expanding properties, and deep drawing performance increased markedly at elevated temperatures. The CCV specimens could be drawn into the conical die's underside cylindrical hole from the conical cliff, without cracking, and could have the minimum CCV at 200 and 250 ℃. In the bore-expanding test, the bore (Φ10 mm) could be expanded to the dimension of the punch (Φ25 mm) and the maximum bore-expanding ratio could be achieved at above 150 ℃. The limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.85 is acquired during the deep drawing test at 230 ℃ with the punch temperature of 20~ 50 ℃, the punch velocity of 50 mm·min-1, and the mixture of graphite and cylinder grease as lubricant.

  13. Polyurethane Molecular Stamps for the in situ Synthesis of DNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fabrication of polyurethane molecular stamps (PU stamps) based on polypropylene glycol (PPG) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI), using 3, 3(-dichloro-4, 4(-methylenedianiline (MOCA) as the crosslinker, is reported. It was shown from the contact angle measurement that PU stamps surface has good affinity with acetonitrile, guaranteeing the well distribution of DNA monomers on patterned stamps. Laser confocal fluorescence microscopy images of oligonucleotide arrays after hybridization confirmed polyurethane is an excellent material for molecular stamps when transferring polar chemicals and conducting reactions on interfaces by stamping.

  14. Fabrication of Silver Interdigitated Electrode by a Stamp Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan-Sen Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A stamp method was developed in this study to fabricate interdigitated electrodes (IDEs on glass substrate from a 37.5 wt% silver ink. This method is simple and fast. A small amount of silver ink was first dripped into an IDE-patterned sponge of a stamp and then one could stamp out the desired IDE pattern made of nanosized silver colloids on a glass substrate, which was subsequently sintered at 280°C for 10 minutes to obtain the final silver IDE. Our brief study showed that when a large stamping force was used, more ink would be stamped out in the beginning and it decreased after each usage. However, if the force was too small, there would not be sufficient ink for a complete IDE. There existed therefore an optimal force to fabricate IDEs with minimal changes from sample to sample. The average dimension of an IDE when the applied force was 102 gm was roughly 403 ± 20 µm in width and 1154 ± 153 nm in height, and the average final electrical resistivity was about 10×10-6 Ω-cm.

  15. 75 FR 15740 - Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc.: Norton, MA; Notice of Termination... of Valentine Tool and Stamping, Inc., Norton, Massachusetts. The petitioner has requested that...

  16. Embodiment and visual reproduction in the Neolithic: the case of stamped symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Skeates

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the cultural and conceptual dimensions of ceramic (and stone stamps found at Neolithic and Copper Age sites in Western Asia and Southern Europe, dating to between the eighth and third millennia BC. Based upon a recent study of their archaeological deposition contexts, their surviving forms and regional variations in their style, they are discussed here in terms of their biographies, their reciprocal relations with people, and their embeddedness in cultural processes. More specifically, they are interpreted with reference to a pair of key cultural processes that characterise the material culture of Neolithic Eurasia: embodiment and visual reproduction.

  17. 41 CFR 101-25.103-3 - Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Trading stamps or bonus... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.103-3 Trading stamps or bonus goods received from contractors. When contracts contain a price reduction clause, any method (such as trading stamps or...

  18. Differential expression and function of stamp family proteins in adipocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Sikkeland

    Full Text Available Six transmembrane protein of prostate (Stamp proteins play an important role in prostate cancer cell growth. Recently, we found that Stamp2 has a critical role in the integration of inflammatory and metabolic signals in adipose tissue where it is highly expressed and regulated by nutritional and metabolic cues. In this study, we show that all Stamp family members are differentially regulated during adipogenesis: whereas Stamp1 expression is significantly decreased upon differentiation, Stamp2 expression is increased. In contrast, Stamp3 expression is modestly changed in adipocytes compared to preadipocytes, and has a biphasic expression pattern during the course of differentiation. Suppression of Stamp1 or Stamp2 expression both led to inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation in concert with diminished expression of the key regulators of adipogenesis - CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/ebpα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ. Upon Stamp1 knockdown, mitotic clonal expansion was also inhibited. In contrast, Stamp2 knockdown did not affect mitotic clonal expansion, but resulted in a marked decrease in superoxide production that is known to affect adipogenesis. These results suggest that Stamp1 and Stamp2 play critical roles in adipogenesis, but through different mechanisms.

  19. 27 CFR 479.67 - Cancellation of stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Application to Make A Firearm § 479.67 Cancellation of stamp. The... genuineness from being readily determined. Exceptions to Tax on Making Firearms...

  20. Mortality at an automotive stamping and assembly complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R; Krebs, J; Mirer, F

    1994-10-01

    Mortality among workers with 2 or more years employment at an automotive stamping and assembly complex was analyzed using standardized mortality ratio (SMR), proportional mortality ratio (PMR), and mortality odds ratio (MOR) methods. The stamping plant all-cause SMR was considerably less than expected (for white men, SMR = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54, 0.79; for black men, SMR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.13), indicating a strong "healthy worker effect." However, six stomach cancer deaths produced an SMR of 4.4 (95% CI = 1.62, 9.6) and a PMR of 6.8 (95% CI = 2.5, 15). Based on small numbers of cases, stomach cancer risk increased with duration in stamping and tool and die departments where exposures included drawing compound and other metalworking fluids. Stamping plant lung cancer mortality was elevated among production welders (MOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.3), and increased with duration. Welding was performed on sheet metal sometimes coated with drawing compound, primer, or epoxy resin adhesive. As was observed for the stamping plant, the all-cause SMR for the two assembly plants was unusually low (for white men, SMR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.73; for black men, SMR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.75). The lung cancer SMR was not elevated but the MOR was (MOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.4) and increased with assembly plant duration (MOR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02, 3.1, at mean duration of cases). In the assembly plants, paint oven stack emissions had been reintroduced into the plant by the ventilation system.

  1. All-silica nanofluidic devices for DNA-analysis fabricated by imprint of sol-gel silica with silicon stamp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Letailleur, Alban A; Søndergård, Elin

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination of the imprin......We present a simple and cheap method for fabrication of silica nanofluidic devices for single-molecule studies. By imprinting sol-gel materials with a multi-level stamp comprising micro- and nanofeatures, channels of different depth are produced in a single process step. Calcination...... of the imprinted hybrid sol-gel material produces purely inorganic silica, which has very low autofluorescence and can be fusion bonded to a glass lid. Compared to top-down processing of fused silica or silicon substrates, imprint of sol-gel silica enables fabrication of high-quality nanofluidic devices without...

  2. Dating of seals produced with stamp-pad ink using gas chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao

    2014-09-01

    Seals are often placed on important documents, and determining the date when a seal was affixed can be important to assess the authenticity of a document. In this study, thirty-seven different brands of stamp-pad inks and three different types of paper were used to make diachronic samples of the seals. The volatile components of stamp-pad ink were determined, and the stamp-pad ink was classified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Calibration curves were created to show the relationship between the content of volatile stamp-pad ink components and the age of stamp-pad ink entries stored under natural aging, UV-induced aging, and heating aging conditions. The experimental results showed that GC was useful in the analysis of stamp-pad ink and applicable for determining the relative age of stamp-pad ink entries in some cases where the seal was placed on the document within 3 months.

  3. 汽车冲压分厂综合信息系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Integrated Management Information System in Auto Factory Stamping Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 陈静

    2011-01-01

    A set of integrated information system management was introduced in this article, which covers these functions such as detection, control, optimization, dispatch, and management, is built by adopting the hybrid network structure combined industrial Ethernet with industrial Field Bus,forming the management mode made up of field level, supervisory level and administration level, effectively solved the seamless integration problem between computers and apparatuses, completed the real-time supervision and control of field production status and the long-distance metering observation of energy consumption data on electricity, steam and gases, and achieved the real-time supervision of the entire productive process from production schedule to finished product entering warehouse, which provides a potent means to effective management, controlling cost of product, reducing energy consumption and E-office in the enterprises.%本文采用工业以太网与工业现场总线相结合的混合网络结构,构建一套覆盖全厂的集检测、控制、优化、调度和管理等功能于一体的综合信息管理系统,形成现场级、监控级和管理级的三级管理模式。有效地解决了计算机与仪表之间以及计算机之间的无缝集成问题,完成了现场生产情况和设备运行状态的实时监管以及远程电、汽、气等能耗数据的计量监测,实现了从计划排产到成品入库全部生产过程的实时监控,为企业的高效管理、控制产品成本、节能降耗与无纸化办公提供了有力手段。

  4. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.

  5. Efficacy of StaMPS technique for monitoring surface deformation in L'Aquila, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.; Dwivedi, R.; Narayan, A. B.; Dikshit, O.; Singh, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    This research work investigates the efficacy of the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (StaMPS) in measuring the surface deformation over the L'Aquila region, Italy just before an event of earthquake of magnitude Mw 6.3 by using seven descending Envisat C-Band ASAR images. The results show that the StaMPS technique successfully extracted sufficient number of Persistent Scatterers (PS) to derive a one dimensional (1D) time series displacement map which shows the deformation rates up to 59 mm/year in the satellite Line of Sight (LOS) direction and 50.8 mm/year in the direction opposite to the satellite LOS. Further, several deformation gradients are also observed from this map which indicate the occurrence of multiple crustal movement mechanism. Another dataset of 14 ASAR images is processed covering a time period before and after the earthquake in the study area to validate the results obtained by the previous dataset. We observed that the generated displacement map follows the deformation characteristics of the earlier displacement map in terms of magnitude and surface movement. We conclude that the generated displacement maps validate the presence of a normal fault mechanism with a tectonic process stretching in a NW-SE direction as predicted by earlier research studies.

  6. Importance of surface modification of a microcontact stamp for pattern fidelity of soluble organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hea-Lim; Lee, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Se-Um; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-01-01

    We described the effect of the ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp on the fidelity of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) patterns produced from a TIPS-PEN/polymer blend by selective contact evaporation (SCE). During the SCE process, the TIPS-PEN in contact with the nanoporous PDMS was absorbed into the PDMS stamp, leaving out the TIPS-PEN patterns, complementary to the PDMS patterns, in the noncontact regions. For the case of the untreated, hydrophobic PDMS surface, the TIPS-PEN patterns developed initially were shrunken and eventually disappeared after 24 h due to the steady absorption of the TIPS-PEN in time. In contrast, for the UVO-treated case, the TIPS-PEN patterns were found to maintain the initial shapes over the period of 24 h since the absorption of the TIPS-PEN was limited by the hydrophilic nature of the UVO-treated PDMS. The modified PDMS surface by the UVO for 30 min yielded the highest fidelity of the TIPS-PEN patterns in both height and width. The patterned TIPS-PEN layer by the SCE was implemented into an organic field-effect transistor to demonstrate the viability of the SCE combined with the UVO treatment for solution-processed organic electronic devices.

  7. Stereo Matching of Planar Curves Composed of Time Stamped Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuwen; Zhang Tianxu

    2006-01-01

    Matching features such as curve segments in stereo images play a very important role in scene reconstruction. In this paper, a stereo matching algorithm for the trajectories composed of time stamped points is proposed. Based on time stamped points, planar curve match measurements are given first, such as time constraint, cross-ratio invariant constraint and epipolar geometry constraint;then, a trajectory matching method is proposed based on epipolar geometry constraint and cross-ratio invariant constraint. In order to match the planar curve segments projected by perspective projection system, the curve start time and end time are selected first to prepare match candidates. Then, the epipolar equation is used to discard the unmatched curve segment candidates. At last, a cross ratio invariant constraint is used to find the most matched curve segments. If their match measurement is higher than the specialized threshold, a candidate with the least cross ratio difference is then selected as the match result; otherwise, no match is found. Unlike the conventional planar curve segments matching algorithm, this paper presents a weakly calibrated binocular stereo vision system which is based on wide baseline. The stamped points are obtained by targets detecting method of flying objects from image sequences.Due to wide baseline, there must exist the projection not in epipolar monotonic order or the curve segments located in very short distance and keeping the epipolar monotonic order. By using the method mentioned above, experiments are made to match planar curve segments not only in epipolar monotonic order but also not in epipolar monotonic order. The results show that the performance of our curve matching algorithm is effective for matching the arc-like planar trajectories composed of time stamped points.

  8. Miniaturised Spotter-Compatible Multicapillary Stamping Tool for Microarray Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Drobyshev, Alexei L.; Verkhodanov, Nikolai N; Zasedatelev, Alexander S.

    2007-01-01

    Novel microstamping tool for microarray printing is proposed. The tool is capable to spot up to 127 droplets of different solutions in single touch. It is easily compatible with commercially available microarray spotters. The tool is based on multichannel funnel with polypropylene capillaries inserted into its channels. Superior flexibility is achieved by ability to replace any printing capillary of the tool. As a practical implementation, hydrogel-based microarrays were stamped and successfu...

  9. Miniaturised Spotter-Compatible Multicapillary Stamping Tool for Microarray Printing

    CERN Document Server

    Drobyshev, A L; Zasedatelev, A S; Drobyshev, Alexei L; Verkhodanov, Nikolai N; Zasedatelev, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    Novel microstamping tool for microarray printing is proposed. The tool is capable to spot up to 127 droplets of different solutions in single touch. It is easily compatible with commercially available microarray spotters. The tool is based on multichannel funnel with polypropylene capillaries inserted into its channels. Superior flexibility is achieved by ability to replace any printing capillary of the tool. As a practical implementation, hydrogel-based microarrays were stamped and successfully applied to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance.

  10. Use of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist to Select an Intervention Designed to Increase the Offering of Promotional Stamps at Two Sites of a Restaurant Franchise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Wilder, David A.; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron; Miranti, Reylissa; Daratany, Kenneth; Salume, Gloria; Baranovsky, Greg; Rodriquez, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The performance diagnostic checklist (PDC) was administered to examine the variables influencing the offering of promotional stamps by employees at two sites of a restaurant franchise. PDC results suggested that a lack of appropriate antecedents, equipment and processes, and consequences were responsible for the deficits. Based on these results,…

  11. Application of Raman spectroscopy in forensic investigation of questioned documents involving stamp inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ali; Saha, Basudeb

    2013-09-01

    Stamp pad inks from different manufacturers across India have been analyzed to investigate the feasibility of Raman scattering as a tool for forensic analysis of questioned documents involving stamp inks. Nine different stamping inks were analyzed by both Raman spectroscopic and HPTLC methods. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods in classifying the investigated stamping inks based on their spectral pattern and HPTLC chromatogram. Raman scattering tool was able to determine the sequence of heterogeneous intersection strokes involving a blue stamp pad ink and other writing instruments, such as ballpoint pen ink (red and black), pencil and laser printer toner. However, this method was unable to resolve the exact sequencing for the intersection strokes involving investigated stamp ink and blue ballpoint ink or gel pen ink (all colors).

  12. Minerals on postage stamps: A mix of art, history, economics and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Most people would agree that minerals represent some of the most beautiful natural objects known to mankind, especially in the form of precious and semi-precious gemstones. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that they are often illustrated on stamps. Examples are the fine crystalline forms represented as coloured etchings in the French 1986 issue, and the stylized simplicity of the mineral stamps that were part of the Swiss Pro Patria series, issued annually between 1958 and 1961. I aim in this presentation to introduce the beautiful world of mineral illustrations on stamps. The talk cannot be comprehensive because of the very large number of minerals and stamps concerned, but it will introduce the range of minerals depicted on stamps, then look in some greater detail at several sets from France, Southern Africa and East Germany. Minerals become the subject of sets of stamps for many reasons. In many cases, it is part of an attempt by the particular national post office to depict the whole of the natural history of their country in stamp form - a statement of nationality and politics. The 1986 French issue was an example which followed sets of stamps that had already portrayed insects, flowers, trees and birds native to France. We also find that certain countries have produced several sets of stamps to mark the importance to their economy of mining particular minerals. Many African states depend upon minerals for much of their wealth and economic power, explaining why, for instance, Sierra Leone issued over 35 stamps on the subject of diamonds between 1965 and 1978, and why over 77% of mineral stamps come from countries with major mining interests. Countries with traditional links with the history of the study of geology and mining also produce mineral stamps. These are usually European countries with a long record of the study of the Earth, such as Germany and Switzerland. Curiously enough, though, despite its fine tradition of geological observation and research

  13. Measuring Asymmetry in Time-Stamped Phylogenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany L Dearlove

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that asymmetry in viral phylogenies may be indicative of heterogeneity in transmission, for example due to acute HIV infection or the presence of 'core groups' with higher contact rates. Hence, evidence of asymmetry may provide clues to underlying population structure, even when direct information on, for example, stage of infection or contact rates, are missing. However, current tests of phylogenetic asymmetry (a suffer from false positives when the tips of the phylogeny are sampled at different times and (b only test for global asymmetry, and hence suffer from false negatives when asymmetry is localised to part of a phylogeny. We present a simple permutation-based approach for testing for asymmetry in a phylogeny, where we compare the observed phylogeny with random phylogenies with the same sampling and coalescence times, to reduce the false positive rate. We also demonstrate how profiles of measures of asymmetry calculated over a range of evolutionary times in the phylogeny can be used to identify local asymmetry. In combination with different metrics of asymmetry, this combined approach offers detailed insights of how phylogenies reconstructed from real viral datasets may deviate from the simplistic assumptions of commonly used coalescent and birth-death process models.

  14. Microstructure prediction of high strength steel square-cup part in hot stamping%高强钢盒形件热冲压成形组织预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷呈喜; 崔俊佳; 邢忠文; 古田; 赵浩

    2012-01-01

    根据热冲压成形的工艺特点,分析热冲压成形过程中的组织转变过程,并选择了热冲压成形的组织转变模型.利用ABAQUS后处理二次开发,预测高强钢热冲压盒形件中马氏体的体积分数.通过热冲压试验和数值模拟,研究了压边力对热冲压盒形件微观组织的影响规律,并由热冲压盒形件的金相分析进行验证,试验结果与模拟结果基本吻合,证明所选模型对预测热冲压成形件的组织可行,而且有效.%According to the characteristic of hot-stamping process, the process of microstructure transformation was analyzed, and then the model of microstructure transformation in the hot-stamping process was chosen. The volume fraction of martensite was predicted in AHSS hot-stamping process by the secondary development of ABAQUS post-process. Besides, the effect of Blank Holder Force (BHF) on the microstructure of hot-stamping square-cup part was studied through the hot-stamping experiments and numerical simulation. Then the metallographic analysis of hot-stamping parts was carried out to verify the results of the nu-merical simulation. The results of experiments and numerical simulation agreed well, which indicated that using the model to pre-dict microstructures of hot-stamping parts was feasible and effective.

  15. DNA microarray synthesis by using PDMS molecular stamps (Ⅲ)-- Optimization for the reaction conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Optimization for the technological processes of fabricating oligonucleotide microarray by the molecular stamping method is studied in this note. Three factors that affect the pressing coupling reactions of the nucleosides are focused on: the stability of the chemical activities of the reaction solutions, the contamination of the remain of the reactive nucleotides among the different spots on the chip, and the influence of the capping reaction on the hybridization result. The experiments show that the acetonitrile solution of tetrazole and nucleoside monomer could maintain sufficient reactive activity for more than 10 h. An effective method has been used and proved to eliminate the residual reactive nucleosides on chip with small molecules containing hydroxyl group. Finally, the capping step-- a regular step in the conventional DNA chemical synthesis can be neglected in our on-chip DNA synthetic process, which would not affect its hybridization results.

  16. Analysis Of Die Design For The Stamping Of A Bathtub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojny M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents example results of numerical and photogrammetric analysis leading to identify the causes of cracking and wrinkling during bathtub W1200 production. The verification of tools for the stamping of bathtub W1200 was performed using finite element method and photogrammetric system ATOS Triple Scan. A series of industrial tests was conducted to identify the model parameters. The major and minor strain distributions obtained from the finite element simulations were used in conjunction with the forming limit diagram to predict the onset of fracture. In addition, the effects of blank holder pressure and friction on the occurrence of fracture and wrinkling were investigated.

  17. Elsa Baxter, head of the Swiss Post Office's Stamps and Philately Unit, presents to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, the Swiss commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    'I am delighted to offer you a special stamp which commemorates your Laboratory's fifty-year history and pays tribute to its achievements, its pioneering spirit and its perseverance' said Mrs Baxter to Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General.

  18. Single Time-Stamped Tries for Retroactive Call Subsumption

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Flavio

    2011-01-01

    Tabling is an evaluation strategy for Prolog programs that works by storing answers in a table space and then by using them in similar subgoals. Some tabling engines use call by subsumption, where it is determined that a subgoal will consume answers from a more general subgoal in order to reduce the search space and increase efficiency. We designed an extension, named Retroactive Call Subsumption (RCS), that implements call by subsumption independently of the call order, thus allowing a more general subgoal to force previous called subgoals to become answer consumers. For this extension, we propose a new table space design, the Single Time Stamped Trie (STST), that is organized to make answer sharing across subsumed/subsuming subgoals simple and efficient. In this paper, we present the new STST table space design and we discuss the main modifications made to the original Time Stamped Tries approach to non-retroactive call by subsumption. In experimental results, with programs that stress some deficiencies of ...

  19. Morpho peleides butterfly wing imprints as structural colour stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobl, Sigrid; Salvenmoser, Willi; Schwerte, Thorsten; Gebeshuber, Ille C; Schreiner, Manfred

    2016-02-02

    This study presents the replication of a color-causing nanostructure based on the upper laminae of numerous cover scales of Morpho peleides butterfly wings and obtained solely by imprinting their upper-wing surfaces. Our results indicate that a simple casting technique using a novel integrated release agent can obtain a large positive replica using negative imprints via Polyvinylsiloxane. The developed method is low-tech and high-yield and is thus substantially easier and less expensive than previous methods. The microstructures were investigated with light microscopy, the nanostructures with both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and the reflections with UV visible spectrometry. The influence of the release agent and the quality of the master stamp were determined by comparing measurements of the cover-scale sizes and their chromaticity values obtained by their images and with their positive imprints. The master stamp provided multiple positive replicas up to 3 cm(2) in just 1 h with structural coloration effects visible to the naked eye. Thus, the developed method proves the accuracy of the replicated nanostructure and its potential industrial application as a color-producing nanostamp.

  20. Stamping, Clapping and Chanting: An Ancient Learning Pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion M. Long

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review I explore the effect of temporal integration as a means of improving learning in schoolchildren. I focus first on theorists that have linked physical activity with a positive effect on children’s learning and second to psychological studies that have established the existence of innate temporal patterns. These findings are related to a model of temporal integration that I have developed from Croce’s writings on aesthetics (1900. From philosophy to neurology, I discuss recent neurological findings relating to timing and conclude that an organ of temporal integration, regulation and coordination operates in the brain with respect to physical, intuitive and higher cognitive function. I link recent findings in neurophysiology to notably similar findings in recent biomusicological studies. The finding that humans have an involuntary physical response to loud, low-frequency sounds are attributed to an innate legacy of proto-music and proto-dance behaviour among hominids. I develop the model of temporal integration further by examining the literature on stamping and clapping patterns of ancient traditional dances in relation to Husserl’s writings on theoretical succession. From philosophy to pedagogy, I summarise the review by proposing stamping, clapping and chanting as a means of achieving improved temporal integration.

  1. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  2. On Uniform Motion of a Periodic System of Absolutely Rigid Stamps, in the Hollow Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirjanyan H. A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Axissymetric stress state of the infinite hollow cylinder when on the inner surface of the cylinder acts a periodic system of uniformly moving circular stamps and the outer surface is free of loads or rigidly clamped is considered The behavior of the contact stresses, acting under the stamp, in dependence on the physical and geometrical parameters of the cylinder is studied.

  3. 75 FR 4911 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... requirements for the receipt of food stamps. The provisions of the final rule will simplify program... Families (TANF) cash assistance or Medicaid programs; replace the current, fixed standard deduction with a... receive transitional food stamp benefits when they cease to receive TANF cash assistance; and restore...

  4. Influence of preconsolidation on consolidation quality after stamp forming of C/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. Currently, expensive autoclave and press consolidation are used to preconsolidate blanks. This study investigates the influence of preconsolidation on final consolidation quality after stamp forming and explores the potential of alternative blank manufacturing methods that could reduce part costs. Blanks were manufactured using various blank manufacturing methods and subsequently were stamp formed. The consolidation quality both before and after stamp forming was compared, where the focus was on void content as the main measure for consolidation quality. The void content was characterized through thickness and density measurements, as well as by microscopy analysis. Results indicate that preconsolidation quality does have an influence on the final consolidation quality. This is due to the severe deconsolidation and limited reconsolidation during stamp forming. Nevertheless, the potential of automated fiber placement and ultrasonic spot welding as alternative blank manufacturing methods was demonstrated.

  5. Recognition of Time Stamps on Full-Disk Hα Images Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Huang, N.; Jing, J.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Fu, G.

    2016-12-01

    Observation and understanding of the physics of the 11-year solar activity cycle and 22-year magnetic cycle are among the most important research topics in solar physics. The solar cycle is responsible for magnetic field and particle fluctuation in the near-earth environment that have been found increasingly important in affecting the living of human beings in the modern era. A systematic study of large-scale solar activities, as made possible by our rich data archive, will further help us to understand the global-scale magnetic fields that are closely related to solar cycles. The long-time-span data archive includes both full-disk and high-resolution Hα images. Prior to the widely use of CCD cameras in 1990s, 35-mm films were the major media to store images. The research group at NJIT recently finished the digitization of film data obtained by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) covering the period of 1953 to 2000. The total volume of data exceeds 60 TB. To make this huge database scientific valuable, some processing and calibration are required. One of the most important steps is to read the time stamps on all of the 14 million images, which is almost impossible to be done manually. We implemented three different methods to recognize the time stamps automatically, including Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Classification Tree and TensorFlow. The latter two are known as machine learning algorithms which are very popular now a day in pattern recognition area. We will present some sample images and the results of clock recognition from all three methods.

  6. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-07-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful.

  7. Resistless Fabrication of Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL Stamps Using Nano-Stencil Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Brugger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the advances in nano-fabrication, alternative, cost-efficient lithography techniques need to be implemented. Two of the most promising are nanoimprint lithography (NIL and stencil lithography. We explore here the possibility of fabricating the stamp using stencil lithography, which has the potential for a cost reduction in some fabrication facilities. We show that the stamps reproduce the membrane aperture patterns within ±10 nm and we validate such stamps by using them to fabricate metallic nanowires down to 100 nm in size.

  8. Conical tungsten stamps for the replication of pore arrays in anodic aluminium oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClere, D J; Thompson, G E; Derby, B

    2009-06-17

    A tungsten master stamp has been generated by applying a novel procedure that includes two-step anodizing, followed by sequential anodizing and pore widening to develop nominally funnelled pores. These conical-shaped pores were filled with tungsten by sputter coating to manufacture a master stamp. Under a pressure of 65 MPa, the master stamp successfully embossed the surface of annealed and electropolished aluminium. The embossed surface was then used to control the position of pores created by anodizing under the conditions used to produce the original pore array.

  9. Determination of stamp deformation during imprinting on semi-spherical surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Matschuk, Maria; Pranov, Henrik

    with predictions provided by a geometrical model [1]. Simulated and experimental observations were in good accordance. Future work will include the application of current results to design nanostructured patterns forwhich the stamp deformation will be compensated to achieve more reliable surface characteristics....... characterized by analyzing the center-to-centerdistance of the pillars at several points across the spheres. From the measurements and the observed deviation of the distance of pillars, the stamp deformation was calculated. Finally, the experimentally determined deformation of the flexible stamp was compared...

  10. 波形未知的水声脉冲信号双阵元相关匹配场定位%Matched field localization using correlation of two-hydrophone underwater acoustic pulse signals with unknown waveform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焜; 方世良; 安良

    2013-01-01

    The correlation matched field localization method is proposed for underwater acoustic pulse signals of unknown emitted signal waveform based on two-hydrophone. Using the received signal of hydrophones and the ocean channel pulse response which can be calculated from an acoustic propagation model, the emitted signal for every grid location over search region can be estimated by employing the least squares solution in the time domain. The estimated signal is then convolved with the ocean channel pulse response for various trial source locations to generate the replica signal. Finally, the correlation matched field localization of the two-hydrophone for underwater acoustic pulse signals of unknown emitted signal waveform is realized by comparing the difference between the cross correlation of the received signal and the cross correlation of the replica signal to construct the ambiguity surface of localizer function. Two acoustic propagation models are used to test the proposed method for continuous wave (CW) pulse signal and linear frequency modulation (LFM) pulse signal, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed method is not restricted by the type of pulse signals and acoustic propagation model. It overcomes the problem of the high sidelobes of the traditional matched field processing due to lack of the number of hydrophones and provides high location accuracy.%针对波形未知的水声脉冲信号,提出一种基于双阵元的相关匹配场定位方法.通过水听器所接收到的信号和声场传播模型算得的海洋信道脉冲响应,对所划分的搜索网格区域采用时域最小二乘的方法获得每个网格点位置上发射信号的估计值.由估计出的发射信号与信道脉冲响应卷积产生相应的拷贝场信号;通过计算双阵元接收信号的相关函数与拷贝场信号的相关函数之间的误差,构造定位函数的模糊表面,实现双阵元对波形未知的水声脉冲

  11. Design of Servo Stamping Motion Considering Constraints of Different Orders and Actuation Capability%考虑混合阶次约束和驱动能力的伺服冲压运动设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄京; 郭为忠; 高峰

    2014-01-01

    The design of stamping motion is one of the key technologies to make the servo press performing stamping operation perfectly. An interpolation method considering constraints of different orders is proposed based on NURBS motion curve that any one or all constraints of position, velocity and acceleration can be defined at desired key points of the stamping motion in order to satisfy both accuracy and flexibility requirements. An algorithm is presented to generate the dwell section of stamping motion curve with given time span quickly. A reasonable solution is given to define the derivative magnitudes in construction of the interpolation equation to avoid stamping motion curve’s distortion. A method to amend proper velocity or acceleration constraint is proposed to improve the performance of stamping motion curve. Following above discussion, a general process of servo stamping motion design is proposed and an interactive stamping motion design software is developed considering constraints from metal forming operation and actuation capability of the servomotors. Finally, the proposed stamping motion design method is demonstrated by a forming case of automobile wing workpiece.%伺服冲压运动设计是伺服压力机实施伺服冲压作业的核心技术之一。提出NURBS运动曲线混合阶次插值方法,能任意给定冲压运动关键点上位置、速度或加速度中的一个或多个约束,以同时满足伺服冲压运动精确性和灵活性要求;提出快速生成给定时间的保压段冲压运动曲线算法;给出构造插值方程过程中合理设置切矢模长的取值方法,以避免运动曲线畸变;提出适当改变速度或加速度约束调节运动曲线性能的方法;在此基础上引入板料成形和伺服电动机驱动能力等约束,提出伺服冲压运动设计的一般流程,开发出交互式伺服冲压运动设计软件;以某型汽车翼子板拉深冲压运动设计为例进行了验证。

  12. Influence of preconsolidation on consolidation quality after stamp forming of C/PEEK composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slange, Tjitse; Warnet, Laurent; Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko; Chinesta, Francisco; Cueto, Elias; Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. Currently, expensive autoclave and press consolidation are used to preconsolidate blanks. This study investigates the influence of preconsolidation on

  13. Importance of surface modification of a micro-contact stamp for pattern fidelity of soluble organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hea-Lim; Lee, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Se-Um; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2015-08-01

    We described the effect of the ultraviolet ozone (UVO) treatment of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp on the fidelity of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) patterns produced from a TIPS-PEN/polymer blend by selective contact evaporation (SCE). During the SCE process, the TIPS-PEN in contact with the nanoporous PDMS was absorbed into the PDMS stamp, leaving out the TIPS-PEN patterns, complementary to the PDMS patterns, in the non-contact regions. For the case of the untreated, hydrophobic PDMS surface, the TIPS-PEN patterns developed initially were shrunken and eventually disappeared after 24 h due to the steady absorption of the TIPS-PEN in time. In contrast, for the UVO-treated case, the TIPS-PEN patterns were found to maintain the initial shapes over the period of 24 h since the absorption of the TIPS-PEN was limited by the hydrophilic nature of the UVO-treated PDMS. The modified PDMS surface by the UVO for 30 min yielded the highest fidelity of the TIPS-PEN patterns in both height and width. The patterned TIPS-PEN layer by the SCE was implemented into an organic field-effect transistor to demonstrate the viability of the SCE combined with the UVO treatment for solution-processed organic electronic devices.

  14. Surface modification of elastomeric stamps for microcontact printing of polar inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Veera Bhadraiah; Perl, Andras; Péter, Maria; Rozkiewicz, Dorota I; Engbers, Gerard; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Reinhoudt, David N; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2007-06-05

    Chemical modification of the surface of a stamp used for microcontact printing (microCP) is interesting for controling the surface properties, such as the hydrophilicity. To print polar inks, plasma polymerization of allylamine (PPAA) was employed to render the surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyolefin plastomers (POP), and Kraton elatomeric stamps hydrophilic for long periods of time. A thin PPAA film of about 5 nm was deposited on the stamps, which increased the hydrophilicity, and which remained stable for at least several months. These surface-modified stamps were used to transfer polar inks by microCP. The employed microCP schemes are as follows: (a) a second generation of dendritic ink having eight dialkyl sulfide end groups to fabricate patterns on gold substrates by positive microCP, (b) fluorescent guest molecules on beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) printboards on glass employing host-guest recognition, and (c) Lucifer Yellow ethylenediamine resulting in covalent patterning on an aldehyde-terminated glass surface. All experiments resulted in an excellent performance of all three PPAA-coated stamp materials to transfer the polar inks from the stamp surface to gold and glass substrates by microCP, even from aqueous solutions.

  15. Hot Stamping of Boron Steel Using Partition Heating for Tailored Properties: Experimental Trials and Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yanhong; Wang, Baoyu; Zhou, Jing; Huang, Xu; Li, Xuetao

    2017-08-01

    Hot-stamped components with tailored properties are becoming popular for their better performance in collision. In this article, an M-shaped part with varying properties was formed by hot stamping using partition heating. Different soaking temperatures induce different austenite fractions at the different regions of the blank, resulting in the partitioned microstructure and mechanical properties in a single part. In the high-temperature region, the average tensile strength and elongation are 1565 MPa and 8.65 pct, respectively, and the average tensile strength and elongation are 626 MPa and 24.37 pct, respectively, in the low-temperature region. A finite element model of hot stamping using partition heating was established based on the relationship of austenite fraction with heating temperature determined by the dilatometer test and the stress-strain curve of 22MnB5 with different austenite fractions acquired from the hot tensile test.The differences of temperature, thickness, and Vickers hardness in different zones of the M-shaped part during forming and quenching stages were analyzed. The effects of hot stamping parameters, such as stamping velocity and heating temperature, on the forming and mechanical properties of the tailored M-shaped part were investigated, providing theoretical guidance for the production of tailored hot-stamped components using partition heating.

  16. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  17. A Fully Automated and Robust Method to Incorporate Stamping Data in Crash, NVH and Durability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Hariharasudhan; Kanthadai, Narayan; Roy, Subir; Beauchesne, Erwan

    2011-08-01

    Crash, NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness), and durability analysis are commonly deployed in structural CAE analysis for mechanical design of components especially in the automotive industry. Components manufactured by stamping constitute a major portion of the automotive structure. In CAE analysis they are modeled at a nominal state with uniform thickness and no residual stresses and strains. However, in reality the stamped components have non-uniformly distributed thickness and residual stresses and strains resulting from stamping. It is essential to consider the stamping information in CAE analysis to accurately model the behavior of the sheet metal structures under different loading conditions. Especially with the current emphasis on weight reduction by replacing conventional steels with aluminum and advanced high strength steels it is imperative to avoid over design. Considering this growing need in industry, a highly automated and robust method has been integrated within Altair Hyperworks® to initialize sheet metal components in CAE models with stamping data. This paper demonstrates this new feature and the influence of stamping data for a full car frontal crash analysis.

  18. Insulation from basaltic stamp sand. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F. D.

    1981-04-01

    A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of basaltic sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local basaltic sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from basaltic stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a basalt fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a basalt fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of basaltic insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.

  19. Fabrication of a Ni nano-imprint stamp for an anti-reflective layer using an anodic aluminum oxide template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Mi; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Ra, Senug-Hyun; Suh, Su-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum anodizing can alter pore diameter, density distribution, periodicity and layer thickness in a controlled way. Because of this property, porous type anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a template for nano-structure fabrication. The alumina layer generated at a constant voltage increased the pore size from 120 nm to 205 nm according to an increasing process time from 60 min to 150 min. The resulting fabricated AAO templates had pore diameters at or less than 200 nm. Ni was sputtered as a conductive layer onto this AAO template and electroplated using DC and pulse power. Comparing these Ni stamps, those generated from electroplating using on/reverse/off pulsing had an ordered pillar array and maintained the AAO template morphology. This stamp was used for nano-imprinting on UV curable resin coated glass wafer. Surface observations via electron microscopy showed that the nano-imprinted patterned had the same shape as the AAO template. A soft mold was subsequently fabricated and nano-imprinted to form a moth-eye structure on the glass wafer. An analysis of the substrate transmittance using UV-VIS/NIR spectroscopy showed that the transmittance of the substrate with the moth-eye structure was 5% greater that the non-patterned substrate.

  20. Anisotropic and Mechanical Behavior of 22MnB5 in Hot Stamping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetta, A.; Bruschi, S.; Ghiotti, A.

    2007-04-01

    The hot stamping of quenchable High Strength Steels offers the possibility of weight reduction in structural components maintaining the safety requirements together with enhanced accuracy and formability of sheets. The proper design of this technology requires a deep understanding of material behavior during the entire process chain, in terms of microstructural evolution and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, in order to perform reliable FE simulations and obtain the desired characteristic on final parts. In particular, the analysis of technical-scientific literature shows that accurate data on material rheological behavior are difficult to find; while the lack of knowledge about anisotropic behavior at elevated temperatures is even more evident. To overcome these difficulties, a new experimental set-up was developed to reproduce the thermo-mechanical conditions of the industrial process and evaluate the influence of temperature and strain rate on 22MnB5 flow curves through uniaxial tensile tests; an optical strain measurement system was utilized to evaluate the effective strain after necking. From the same data, plastic anisotropy evolution was determined by means of a specially developed procedure. The influence of different cooling rates was taken into account and the rheological properties were correlated with microstructural changes occurring during deformation, previously evaluated through a dilatometric analysis performed in the same range of temperatures.

  1. Cracking Prediction in Hot Stamping of High-Strength Steel by a Temperature-Dependent Forming Limit Surface Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Cui, Junjia; Jiang, Kaiyong; Zhou, Guangtao

    2016-11-01

    Hot stamping of high-strength steel (HSS) can significantly improve ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of hot-stamped part and thus meet the increasing demands for weight reduction and safety standards in vehicles. However, the prediction of forming defect such as cracking in hot stamping using traditional forming limit curve (FLC) is still challenging. In this paper, to predict HSS BR1500HS cracking in hot stamping, a temperature-dependent forming limit surface (FLS) is developed by simulations combined with experiments of biaxial tension of the plate with a groove at different temperatures. Different from the FLC, the newly developed FLS in which temperature is included suits the hot stamping of HSS. Considering the interplay among phase transformation, stress and strain, a finite element (FE)-coupled thermo-mechanical model of the hot stamping is developed and implemented under ABAQUS/Explicit platform where the developed FLS is built-in to predict strain distributions and HSS BR1500HS cracking in the hot stamping. Finally, the developed FLS is used to evaluate hot formability of HSS BR1500HS by using a hot stamping experiment for forming a box-shaped part. Results confirm that the developed FLS can accurately predict HSS BR1500HS cracking occurrence in the hot stamping.

  2. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 and Hot-Stamp Boron Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Michael L.; Frederick, Alan; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

    2008-05-16

    Friction stir spot welds were made in two high-strength steels: DP780, and a hot-stamp-boron steel with tensile strength of 1500 MPa. The spot welds were made at either 800 or 1600 rpm using either of two polycrystalline boron nitride tools. One stir tool, BN77, had the relatively common pin-tool shape. The second tool, BN46, had a convex rather than a concave shoulder profile and a much wider and shorter pin. The tools were plunged to preprogrammed depths either at a continuous rate (1-step schedule) or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate. In all cases, the welds were completed in 4s. The range of lap-shear values were compared to values required for resistance spot welds on the same steels. The minimum value of 10.3 kN was exceeded for friction stir spot welding of DP780 using a 2-step schedule and either the BN77- or the BN46-type stir tool. The respective minimum value of 12 kN was also exceeded for the HSB steel using the 2-step process and the BN46 stir tool.

  3. Should Canadian health promoters support a food stamp-style program to address food insecurity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Elaine M; Little, Margaret H; Collins, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    Food insecurity is an urgent public health problem in Canada, affecting 4 million Canadians in 2012, including 1.15 million children, and associated with significant health concerns. With little political will to address this significant policy issue, it has been suggested that perhaps it is time for Canada to try a food stamp-style program. Such a program could reduce rates of food insecurity and improve the nutritional health of low-income Canadians. In this article, we explore the history of the US food stamp program; the key impetus of which was to support farmers and agricultural interests, not to look after the needs of people living in poverty. Though the US program has moved away from its roots, its history has had a lasting legacy, cementing an understanding of the problem as one of lack of food, not lack of income. While the contemporary food stamp program, now called Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), reduces rates of poverty and food insecurity, food insecurity rates in the USA are significantly higher than those in Canada, suggesting a food stamp-style program per se will not eliminate the problem of food insecurity. Moreover, a food stamp-style program is inherently paternalistic and would create harm by reducing the autonomy of participants and generating stigma, which in itself has adverse health effects. Consequently, it is ethically problematic for health promoters to advocate for such a program, even if it could improve diet quality.

  4. Effect of Microstructures on Yield Strength in Hot-Stamped Steel Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabata Shin-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For automotive structural parts, hot stamping is being increasingly used because of the need for both higher fuel efficiency and crashworthiness. The yield strength of hot-stamped steel sheet is lower than that of water-quenched steel sheet. The microstructure of hot-stamped low-carbon steel sheet comprises lath martensite and retained austenite. Due to the slow cooling rate below the martensite start temperature, the martensite formed by hot stamping is auto-tempered. To clarify the factor dominating the yield strength of the hot-stamped steel, the authors herein investigated the effect of microstructures on the yield strength with heat-treated specimens at various cooling rates and heating temperatures. Consequently, it was clarified that the yield strength of the auto-tempered low-carbon steel depends on grain, dislocation, solute carbon, carbide, and retained austenite. As far as the present experiment is concerned, the retained austenite is the most effective factor on the yield strength.

  5. Modeling the constitutive and frictional behavior of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the deformation on micro-scale of PTFE flexible stamps for nanoimprint lithography is modeled. This is achieved via a combination of proper models for the constitutive behavior as well as the frictional conditions between the deforming PTFE stamp and the steel tool. The model...... was verified through an experiment, where a PTFE sheet was deformed by a steel sphere mounted in a tensile test machine. Good agreement between simulations and experimental results is found, both regarding force–displacement and corresponding principal strain measurements. As expected, applying the correct...... frictional behavior between PTFE and steel on micro-scale is shown to be of major importance in order to accurately simulate the strain field in the deformed PTFE stamp. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  6. Imprints of the Neolithic mind – clay stamps from the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Naumov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence and unusual structure of clay stamps found in Neolithic settlements often give rise to multiple interpretations to define their character. The small dimensions and specific shape of the stamps suggests that these portable objects were important in the social relations and visual communication between members within the same community and, possibly, more distant communities. The definite patterns distinguishe their function in maintaining the visual traditions of the populations inhabiting southeastern Europe. They had an important role in building the Neolithic image modularity, so that they fitted into the comprehensive decorative structure of Neolithic iconography, and the patterns present on the stamps are related to several aspects of Neolithic material culture from the Balkans and Anatolia. This homogeneity of patterns indicates that they were actively included in the transposition of cognition into visual metaphors.

  7. STATE USE OF FUNDS TO INCREASE WORK SLOTS FOR FOOD STAMP RECIPIENTS: REPORT TO CONGRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Botsko, Christopher; Gabor, Vivian; Schreiber, Susan; Pachikara, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Since passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, most States have retargeted services in the Food Stamp Employment and Training (E&T) Program to able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWDs). The Balanced Budget Act more than doubled funding to States for USDA's Food Stamp E&T Program. The law requires States to send at least 80 percent of the funding on services that can fulfill the work requirement imposed by welfare reform legislation in 1996 on ABAWDs. ABAWDs must either work at least 2...

  8. Micropatterning of a stretchable conductive polymer using inkjet printing and agarose stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Hassager, Ole; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2007-01-01

    A highly conducting stretchable polymer material has been patterned using additive inkjet printing and by subtractive agarose stamping of a deactivation agent (hypochlorite). The material consisted of elastomeric polyurethane combined in an interpenetrating network with a conductive polymer, poly(3......,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The agarose stamping produced 50 μm wide conducting lines with high spatial fidelity. The deactivation agent was found to cause some degradation of the remaining conducting lines, as revealed by a stronger increase in resistance upon straining compared to the pristine polymer material...

  9. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  10. Internet-Based Training to Improve Preschool Playground Safety: Evaluation of the Stamp-in-Safety Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C.; Pennefather, Jordan; Marquez, Brion; Marquez, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Playground injuries result in over 200,000 US pediatric emergency department visits annually. One strategy to reduce injuries is improved adult supervision. The Stamp-in-Safety programme, which involves supervisors stamping rewards for children playing safely, has been demonstrated in preliminary classroom-based work to reduce child…

  11. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspectives--Overview: Can Food Stamps Do More To Improve Food Choices?

    OpenAIRE

    Guthrie, Joanne F.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Ver Ploeg, Michele; Frazao, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The increased food purchasing power offered by the Food Stamp Program can promote food security and improve the overall economic well-being of low-income households. Now, as Americans struggle with obesity and other diet-related health problems, there is interest in whether the program can be more effective in encouraging participants to make healthy food choices. ERS has compiled economic research to provide decisionmakers with information on the likely effects of various proposed strategies...

  12. Associations of Food Stamp Participation With Dietary Quality and Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W.; Hoffnagle, Elena E.; Jensen, Helen H.; Foerster, Susan B.; Nestle, Marion; Cheung, Lilian W.Y.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if obesity and dietary quality in low-income children differed by participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly the Food Stamp Program. METHODS: The study population included 5193 children aged 4 to 19 with household incomes ≤130% of the federal poverty level from the 1999–2008 NHANES. Diet was measured by using 24-hour recalls. RESULTS: Among low-income US children, 28% resided in households currently receiving SNAP benefits. After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, SNAP participation was not associated with a higher rate of childhood obesity (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71–1.74). Both SNAP participants and low-income nonparticipants were below national recommendations for whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, and potassium, while exceeding recommended limits for processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, saturated fat, and sodium. Zero percent of low-income children met at least 7 of 10 dietary recommendations. After multivariate adjustment, compared with nonparticipants, SNAP participants consumed 43% more sugar-sweetened beverages (95% CI: 8%–89%), 47% more high-fat dairy (95% CI: 7%, 101%), and 44% more processed meats (95% CI: 9%–91%), but 19% fewer nuts, seeds, and legumes (95% CI: –35% to 0%). In part due to these differences, intakes of calcium, iron, and folate were significantly higher among SNAP participants. Significant differences by SNAP participation were not evident in total energy, macronutrients, Healthy Eating Index 2005 scores, or Alternate Healthy Eating Index scores. CONCLUSIONS: The diets of low-income children are far from meeting national dietary recommendations. Policy changes should be considered to restructure SNAP to improve children’s health. PMID:23439902

  13. 75 FR 11937 - General Motors Company, Lordstown Stamping Plant, Warren, OH; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Company, Lordstown Stamping Plant, Warren, OH; Notice of Termination of Investigation Pursuant to Section 221 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, an investigation was initiated on September 28, 2009 in...

  14. Surface Modification of Elastomeric Stamps for Microcontact Printing of Polar Inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadhu, Veera Bhadraiah; Perl, András; Peter, Mária; Rozkiewicz, Dorota I.; Engbers, Gerard; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Reinhoudt, David N.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    Chemical modification of the surface of a stamp used for microcontact printing (uCP) is interesting for controling the surface properties, such as the hydrophilicity. To print polar inks, plasma polymerization of allylamine (PPAA) was employed to render the surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS),

  15. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  16. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  17. 75 FR 23565 - Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification Provisions of the Farm Security and Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, which was published on January 29, 2010 (75 FR 4912... / Tuesday, May 4, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 272 and 273 RIN 0584-AD30 Food Stamp Program: Eligibility and Certification...

  18. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, H., E-mail: baba@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ota, S.; Shimoura, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2015-03-21

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  19. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-03-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  20. Postage Stamps and Peace Education: The Nobel Peace Prize. Peace Education Miniprints No. 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Irwin

    This paper suggests how peace stamps can be used to further understanding of the movement for world peace. In this effort the Nobel Peace Prize, the most prestigious award in the world for peacemaking, is used as a focus. In the prizes from 1901 to the present, the Norwegian Nobel committees have recognized the major paths to peace. This variety…

  1. A rapid co-culture stamping device for studying intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Amin; Shemesh, Jonathan; Farbehi, Nona; Asadnia, Mohsen; Yeoh, Guan Heng; Harvey, Richard P.; Nordon, Robert E.; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of tissue development and repair depends on communication between neighbouring cells. Recent advances in cell micro-contact printing and microfluidics have facilitated the in-vitro study of homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interaction. Nonetheless, these techniques are still complicated to perform and as a result, are seldom used by biologists. We report here development of a temporarily sealed microfluidic stamping device which utilizes a novel valve design for patterning two adherent cell lines with well-defined interlacing configurations to study cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate post-stamping cell viability of >95%, the stamping of multiple adherent cell types, and the ability to control the seeded cell density. We also show viability, proliferation and migration of cultured cells, enabling analysis of co-culture boundary conditions on cell fate. We also developed an in-vitro model of endothelial and cardiac stem cell interactions, which are thought to regulate coronary repair after myocardial injury. The stamp is fabricated using microfabrication techniques, is operated with a lab pipettor and uses very low reagent volumes of 20 μl with cell injection efficiency of >70%. This easy-to-use device provides a general strategy for micro-patterning of multiple cell types and will be important for studying cell-cell interactions in a multitude of applications.

  2. THE QUALIMETRY OF LARGE-SIZED STAMPED-SHEET DETAILS GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Demchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualimetric method of the large-sized stamped-sheet details influence of geometric shape on the manufacture performance characteristics are given. The graphic model of shape classification and geometric shape factor definition algorithms for triangular and quadrangular shapes are proposed.

  3. 27 CFR 479.36 - The special tax stamp, receipt for special (occupational) taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The special tax stamp, receipt for special (occupational) taxes. 479.36 Section 479.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND...

  4. Honoring Avicenna, the great Persian physician on the world's postage stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2010-09-01

    Many nations are indebted to Avicenna (Ibn-Sina) for their scientific progressions and civilization. Many countries in the Middle East, Africa, and Europe have honored Avicenna, the great Persian scientist, by depicting his vignette on their postage stamps. The symbolic value of Avicenna has been chosen to commemorate scientific occasions, achievements and anniversaries, which represents the ultimate performance of conscious honoring.

  5. Studying the Solar System Can Be More than Just "Stamp Collecting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    While teaching his first-ever introductory college astronomy course, I heard a graduate student make the comment that compared to other areas of astronomy, studying the solar system is just "stamp collecting." Coverage of the solar system in an introductory college astronomy course certainly "could" consist mostly of showing…

  6. China to Stamp Inspection and Quarantine Marks on Export Foods from September 1, 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ) announced that as of September 1, 2007,shipping packages of export foods will be stamped with inspection and quarantine marks after the foods are inspected and quarantined in conformity with the entry-exit inspection and quarantine rules. Unstamped packages will be prohibited from export.

  7. 49 CFR 238.119 - Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General... than a private car, that is equipped with a rim-stamped straight-plate wheel if a brake shoe acts on... replacement wheel on a private car that operates in a passenger train if a brake shoe acts on the tread of...

  8. Food Stamp and School Lunch Programs Alleviate Food Insecurity in Rural America. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristin; Savage, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp and the National School Lunch Programs play a vital role in helping poor, rural Americans obtain a more nutritious diet and alleviate food insecurity and hunger. This fact sheet looks at the extent to which rural America depends on these programs and describes characteristics of beneficiaries of these federal nutrition assistance…

  9. Falling through the Social Safety Net: Food Stamp Use and Nonuse among Older Impoverished Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Redmond, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults are less likely than any other age group to use the federal Food Stamp Program. The personal and social costs of elderly diet insufficiency include disease exacerbation, depression, and increased hospitalization. In order to improve targeting and outreach efforts, this study identifies the characteristics of eligible older…

  10. Probing protein multidimensional conformational fluctuations by single-molecule multiparameter photon stamping spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Maolin; Lu, H Peter

    2014-10-16

    Conformational motions of proteins are highly dynamic and intrinsically complex. To capture the temporal and spatial complexity of conformational motions and further to understand their roles in protein functions, an attempt is made to probe multidimensional conformational dynamics of proteins besides the typical one-dimensional FRET coordinate or the projected conformational motions on the one-dimensional FRET coordinate. T4 lysozyme hinge-bending motions between two domains along α-helix have been probed by single-molecule FRET. Nevertheless, the domain motions of T4 lysozyme are rather complex involving multiple coupled nuclear coordinates and most likely contain motions besides hinge-bending. It is highly likely that the multiple dimensional protein conformational motions beyond the typical enzymatic hinged-bending motions have profound impact on overall enzymatic functions. In this report, we have developed a single-molecule multiparameter photon stamping spectroscopy integrating fluorescence anisotropy, FRET, and fluorescence lifetime. This spectroscopic approach enables simultaneous observations of both FRET-related site-to-site conformational dynamics and molecular rotational (or orientational) motions of individual Cy3-Cy5 labeled T4 lysozyme molecules. We have further observed wide-distributed rotational flexibility along orientation coordinates by recording fluorescence anisotropy and simultaneously identified multiple intermediate conformational states along FRET coordinate by monitoring time-dependent donor lifetime, presenting a whole picture of multidimensional conformational dynamics in the process of T4 lysozyme open-close hinge-bending enzymatic turnover motions under enzymatic reaction conditions. By analyzing the autocorrelation functions of both lifetime and anisotropy trajectories, we have also observed the dynamic and static inhomogeneity of T4 lysozyme multidimensional conformational fluctuation dynamics, providing a fundamental

  11. 论晚清厘金与印花税%On Lijin Tax and Stamp Duty in the Late Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华山

    2014-01-01

    reduction of Lijin tax in banning on opium-smoking.The stamp duty could not replace the Lijin tax but became an additional tax after Lijin tax.Therefore in the process of stamp duty imposition,it encountered widespread protest and boycott from local governments,officials,scholars and businessmen.The purpose of offsetting opium tax failed to a-chieve,and there came the trend of opposition in the high profile agitation.The stamp duty had no actual effect till the Qing emperor abdicated.

  12. A Thermo-Plastic-Martensite Transformation Coupled Constitutive Model for Hot Stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Zhu; WeiKang, Liang; Zhongxiang, Gui; Kai, Wang; Chao, Wang; Yilin, Wang; Yisheng, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled model based on the von Mises yield criterion and the associated plastic flow rule is developed to further improve the accuracy of numerical simulation during hot stamping. The constitutive model is implemented into the finite element program ABAQUS using user subroutine VUMAT. The martensite transformation, transformation-induced plasticity and volume expansion during the austenite-to-martensite transformation are included in the constitutive model. For this purpose, isothermal tensile tests are performed to obtain the flow stress, and non-isothermal tensile tests were carried out to validate the constitutive model. The non-isothermal tensile numerical simulation demonstrates that the thermo-plastic-martensite transformation coupled constitutive model provides a reasonable prediction of force-displacement curves upon loading, which is expected to be applied for modeling and simulation of hot stamping.

  13. Time Stamp Attack on Wide Area Monitoring System in Smart Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenghao; Li, Husheng; Pei, Changxing

    2011-01-01

    Security becomes an extremely important issue in smart grid. To maintain the steady operation for smart power grid, massive measurement devices must be allocated widely among the power grid. Previous studies are focused on false data injection attack to the smart grid system. In practice, false data injection attack is not easy to implement, since it is not easy to hack the power grid data communication system. In this paper, we demonstrate that a novel time stamp attack is a practical and dangerous attack scheme for smart grid. Since most of measurement devices are equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to provide the time information of measurements, it is highly probable to attack the measurement system by spoofing the GPS. By employing the real measurement data in North American Power Grid, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the time stamp attack on smart grid.

  14. Finite Element Modelling Full Vehicle Side Impact with Ultrahigh Strength Hot Stamped Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T.; Fourlaris, G.; Cafolla, J.

    2016-10-01

    "Hot stamped boron steel" 22MnB5 has been imperative in meeting the automotive industry's demand for materials exhibiting higher tensile strength in the final component. In this paper, the crash performance of three experimental grades developed for automotive hot stamping technologies, exhibiting wider tensile property ranges than 22MnB5, was validated by finite element modelling full vehicle side impact with the experimental material data applied to the B-pillar reinforcement. The superior anti-intrusive crash performance of grade 38MnB5 was demonstrated, with 11 mm less intrusion of the B-pillar reinforcement compared to 22MnB5. Moreover, the superior "impact-energy absorptive" crash performance of grade 15MnCr5 was demonstrated, with 0.15 kJ greater impact-energy absorption by the B-pillar reinforcement compared to 22MnB5.

  15. Validation of the stamping method for CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® pellets production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Maira G.; Rodrigues, Leticia L.C., E-mail: mgnunes@ipen.br, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The IPEN method for the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® production, developed and patented at the Dosimetric Materials Laboratory - LMD/IPEN in the earlier 1980's, is highly time-demanding, so that the use of the stamping method, already widely industrially applied, would enhance the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® pellets production. Thus, validating the stamping method, by comparing the dosimetric properties of a batch of pellets produced by each method, became a must. The stamped batch presents the same mean non-irradiated signals either after sintering or annealing while IPEN batch mean non-irradiated signals vary in 23%. The mean TL signal after irradiation was about 50 nC, but the standard deviation varies from 20% to 33% for IPEN batch and keeps in 10% for the stamped batch. 24 h after the irradiation, the TL signal decreased to about 35 nC, with no differences in IPEN batch standard deviation and a decrease to 5% in stamped batch standard deviation, for the five performed essays. Calibration curves present a linear behavior over the entire studied dose range and the same coefficients for both methods, however, the uncertainties in the coefficients determined to the calibration curve obtained with stamped pellets are significantly smaller, leading to a more precise dose determination. This results show that the stamping method produces more homogeneous batches, with pellets that maintain the dosimetric characteristics of the detectors produced by IPEN method, in such a way that the stamping method can substitute with advantages the IPEN method in the CaSO{sub 4}:RE + Teflon® dosimetric pellets production. (author)

  16. Stepwise cutting edge design and application example of stamping parts%冲压件分段冲切刃口设计及应用实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于位灵

    2012-01-01

    在分析、归纳级进冲压工艺中冲压件的分段冲切刃口设计原则的基础上,通过生产实践,对冲压件分段冲切刃口的连接方法进行了补充和完善.并通过分析典型实例,进一步说明如何合理地进行复杂轮廓分段、分段冲切顺序和冲切刃口断面设计.文中论述的设计原则,对冲压件分段冲切的工艺及其模具设计具有较好的实用参考价值.%Based on the analysis and induction of stepwise cutting edge design principles in stamping process, the step-wise cutting edge connection methods were added and perfected by means of production practice. And through the analysis of typical example, how to segment complex contour, design stepwise cutting sequence and edge section reasonably were showed The design principles, stepwise cutting edge process and die design of stamping parts discussed in this paper have a good practical reference value.

  17. Establishment of the Comprehensive Evaluation System of Cold Stamping Die Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-chun; GUO Sheng; RUAN Feng

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation system of die quality,a multiplayer hierarchical amendment index system according to the characteristics of cold stamping die production,an evaluation standard referring to the technique and design rules ofdies,and a scientific evaluation by using the multiplayer hierarchical and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation methods are presented in this paper.The applications show that the system can be used to evaluate the die quality objectively,fairly,and reasonably.

  18. Organic field-effect transistor circuits with electrode interconnections using reverse stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sangmoo; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Yun, Minseong; Dindar, Amir; Khan, Talha M.; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Kippelen, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    We discuss a non-vacuum low-cost reverse stamping method for the realization of circuits based on top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a bi-layer gate dielectric. This method allows for patterning of high-k inorganic dielectric films produced by atomic layer deposition and consequently of the bilayer gate dielectric layers used in our top-gate OFETs. We demonstrate the fabrication and operation of logic inverters and ring oscillators following this approach.

  19. An Application of time stamped proxy blind signature in e-voting

    OpenAIRE

    Suryakanta Panda; Santosh Kumar Sahu; Jagannath Mohapatra; Ramesh Kumar Mohapatra

    2013-01-01

    Voting is a way for a voter to make a decision or express an opinion or to choose a candidate. E-voting (Electronic Voting) refers to both the electronic means of casting a vote and the electronic means of counting and publishing that votes. The E - voting system has some specific advantages as compared to the traditional voting system. In this paper, a secure and efficient e-voting protocol is proposed which is based on the time stamped proxy blind signature.

  20. STAMP: A New Data Acquisition System For ESA's Large Space Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijt, H.; Popovitch, A.

    2004-08-01

    STAMP is an advanced data acquisition, analysis and presentation system for thermal testing. To meet the increasingly complex requirements for modern spacecraft testing, STAMP was designed to be a flexible system that supports thousands of sensors and hundreds of power supplies. A high-performance, feature-rich presentation system is used to manipulate and present the acquired data in real time. The system runs on cheap computer hardware and supports multiple users. STAMP is currently used with the Large Space Simulator at ESTEC (see Fig. 1) and several other test facilities. Key features are: powerful data presentation capabilities, including various table formats and graphs, alarm generation, equilibrium detection, and output to Excel; extensive formula system to manipulate acquired data; able to acquire data from many thousands of sensors of virtually any type, including thermocouples, thermistors, and digital lines; able to control hundreds of power supplies; able to interface with customer EGSE and spacecraft hardware; high degree of flexibility with respect to thermal test configuration.

  1. A Simple Method for Fabrication of Microstructures Using a PDMS Stamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple method to fabricate PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane microwell arrays on glass by using a PDMS stamp to study cell-to-cell adhesion. In the cell-to-cell study, a glass substrate is required since glass has better cell attachment. The microwell arrays are replicated from an SU-8 master mold, and then are transferred to a glass substrate by lifting the PDMS stamp, followed by oxygen plasma bonding of the PDMS stamp on the glass substrate. For the cell-to-cell adhesion, four different types of PDMS arrays (e.g., rectangle, bowtie, wide-rhombus, and rhombus were designed to vary the cell-to-cell contact length. The transfer success rates of the microwell arrays were measured as a function of both the contact area of the PDMS and the glass substrate and the different ratios between the base polymers and the curing agent. This method of generating the microwell arrays will enable a simple and robust construction of PDMS-based devices for various biological applications.

  2. 密封盖的聚氨酯橡胶冲裁成形复合模设计改进%Design Improvement for Closures of Polyurethane Rubber Stamping Forming Composite Modulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明清; 吴玉茵

    2012-01-01

    The closures stamping forming process analysis, design and analysis of common mold structure were carried out. The improvement methods for the production problems were proposed. The improved design of the mold, the same type of stamping parts for a reference were provided.%对密封盖冲裁成形工艺进行分析,设计常用的模具结构及分析工作过程,同时对生产中出现的问题,提出了改进措施.设计了改进后的模具,可为同类型零件的冲裁提供借鉴.

  3. The Application of Stamping Riveting Technology in Electrical Product%冲压铆接技术在电器产品中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高一浪; 吴文新

    2013-01-01

    本文阐述了电阻点焊生产时,需要对人员进行防护且能源消耗较大,不利于环保,焊接质量稳定性差等方面的不足。着重介绍了冲压铆接自动化程度高,铆接点精美一致,连接质量可靠且稳定,具有节能环保等方面的优势,以及替代电阻点焊的应用实例和对应的铆接模具,以期拓展冲压铆接技术的应用领域,不断提升电器产品的制造工艺水平。%This paper introduces that when adopting resistance spot welding, the workers should be on protective gear, and the great energy consumption goes against with the environment protection, and the welding quality isn't stable. Then it mainly introduces the stamping riveting technology, which has the advantages of high automaticity, exquisite riveting joint, reliable and stable quality, and energy saving and environmental protection. It also introduces the application examples of replacing resistance spot welding, and the corresponding riveted tooling. It is in order to expand the application range of stamping riveting technology, and promote the manufacturing process for electrical products.

  4. 热冲压模具冷却管道设计计算%Design & Calculation of Cooling Pipeline for Hot Stamping Dies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓抗; 展培培; 肖善超

    2015-01-01

    The paper takes a typical hot stamped component-B pillar of vehicles for example to calculate and determine the process parameters of the cooling pipeline of hot stamping dies on the basis of the analysis of actual production conditions and the basic principle of heat transfer. Under the precondition of keeping the distance between the cooling pipeline and die as same as possible and the distribution of the cooling pipeline on each side even, the cooing pipelines for convex and concave dies are designed in the way of multi-block jointing.%以典型热冲压件—汽车B柱为例,在对实际生产工况分析的基础上,基于传热学基本原理计算并确定热冲压模具冷却管道的工艺参数。在尽量保证冷却管道与模具型面距离一致以及各截面上冷却管道均布的前提下,采用多镶块拼接的方式分别设计出凸模、凹模的冷却管道。

  5. Do postage stamps versus pre-paid envelopes increase responses to patient mail surveys? A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Malcolm

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies largely from the market research field suggest that the inclusion of a stamped addressed envelope, rather than a pre-paid business reply, increases the response rate to mail surveys. The evidence that this is also the case regarding patient mail surveys is limited. Methods The aim of this study is to investigate whether stamped addressed envelopes increase response rates to patient mail surveys compared to pre-paid business reply envelopes and compare the relative costs. A sample of 477 initial non-responders to a mail survey of patients attending breast clinics in Greater Manchester between 1/10/2002 – 31/7/2003 were entered into the trial: 239 were randomly allocated to receive a stamped envelope and 238 to receive a pre-paid envelope in with their reminder surveys. Overall cost and per item returned were calculated. Results The response to the stamped envelope group was 31.8% (95% CI: 25.9% – 37.7% compared to 26.9% (21.3% – 32.5% for the pre-paid group. The difference (4.9% 95% CI: -3.3% – 13.1% is not significant at α = 0.05 (χ2 = 1.39; 2 tailed test, d.f. = 1; P = 0.239. The stamped envelopes were cheaper in terms of cost per returned item (£1.20 than the pre-paid envelopes (£1.67. However if the set up cost for the licence to use the pre-paid service is excluded, the cost of the stamped envelopes is more expensive than pre-paid returns (£1.20 versus £0.73. Conclusion Compared with pre-paid business replies, stamped envelopes did not produce a statistically significant increase in response rate to this patient survey. However, the response gain of the stamped strategy (4.9% is similar to that demonstrated in a Cochrane review (5.3% of strategies to increase response to general mail surveys. Further studies and meta analyses of patient responses to mail surveys via stamped versus pre-paid envelopes are needed with sufficient power to detect response gains of this magnitude in a patient population.

  6. Stamping failure analysis of advanced high strength steel sheet based on non-uniform local deformation through thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Yixi; He, Chunfeng

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon "Shear fracture" is often observed in the stretch-bending process of stamping over small radius with advanced high strength steels (AHSS). It occurs parallel to and near the die radius in the stretch-bending test. Since traditional Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) is unable to describe this type of failure, experimental and simulation works were constructed in this paper to investigate and predict the shear fracture. Fracture experiments were carried out through a stretch-bending test system, and failure mode was observed. There is no obviously thinning at the shear fracture surface. Further research shows that the initial crack of shear fracture occurs at the outer layer of specimen at die radius position. Finite element (FE) models were built for stretch-bending test with 3D element. The non-uniform local deformation through thickness corresponding to bending position was obtained and analyzed. Cockcroft & Latham fracture criterion is used. The outer layer of specimen at bending position reaches the critical fracture state firstly, which agrees well with experiments. Different fracture criteria are also compared and selected to determine this fracture. Results show that based on the non-uniform local deformation, the initial crack location of shear fracture at small radius can be effectively predicted by fracture criteria related to the maximum principle stress.

  7. Nowcasting and forecasting the monthly food stamps data in the US using online search data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantazzini, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We propose the use of Google online search data for nowcasting and forecasting the number of food stamps recipients. We perform a large out-of-sample forecasting exercise with almost 3000 competing models with forecast horizons up to 2 years ahead, and we show that models including Google search data statistically outperform the competing models at all considered horizons. These results hold also with several robustness checks, considering alternative keywords, a falsification test, different out-of-samples, directional accuracy and forecasts at the state-level.

  8. Design optimization of the tool structure for stamping an automotive part with the high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Choi, H. J.; Rho, J. D.; Kim, K. P.; Park, K. D.; Kwon, B. K.; Cho, C. H.; Kang, M. J.; Bae, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Optimum shape design of the tool structure is carried out in order to decrease the deformation and the stress from the large amount of stamping load with a simultaneous effect of weight reduction. Topology optimization is carried out to design the shape of the rib structure and Taguchi method is utilized to optimize the core shape. As a result of optimization, the weight of the rib and the core structures is reduced to 3.1% and the deformation and the stress of the rib and the core structures are decreased to 10.6% and 3.7% comparing to the initial design, respectively.

  9. An Application of time stamped proxy blind signature in e-voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakanta Panda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Voting is a way for a voter to make a decision or express an opinion or to choose a candidate. E-voting (Electronic Voting refers to both the electronic means of casting a vote and the electronic means of counting and publishing that votes. The E - voting system has some specific advantages as compared to the traditional voting system. In this paper, a secure and efficient e-voting protocol is proposed which is based on the time stamped proxy blind signature.

  10. Numerical Modeling for Springback Predictions by Considering the Variations of Elastic Modulus in Stamping Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunok; Kimchi, Menachem

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for predicting springback by considering the variations of elastic modulus on springback in stamping AHSS. Various stamping tests and finite-element method (FEM) simulation codes were used in this study. The cyclic loading-unloading tensile tests were conducted to determine the variations of elastic modulus for dual-phase (DP) 780 sheet steel. The biaxial bulge test was used to obtain plastic flow stress data. The non-linear reduction of elastic modulus for increasing the plastic strain was formulated by using the Yoshida model that was implemented in FEM simulations for springback. To understand the effects of material properties on springback, experiments were conducted with a simple geometry such as U-shape bending and the more complex geometry such as the curved flanging and S-rail stamping. Different measurement methods were used to confirm the final part geometry. Two different commercial FEM codes, LS-DYNA and DEFORM, were used to compare the experiments. The variable elastic modulus improved springback predictions in U-shape bending and curved flanging tests compared to FEM with the constant elastic modulus. However, in S-rail stamping tests, both FEM models with the isotropic hardening model showed limitations in predicting the sidewall curl of the S-rail part after springback. To consider the kinematic hardening and Bauschinger effects that result from material bending-unbending in S-rail stamping, the Yoshida model was used for FEM simulation of S-rail stamping and springback. The FEM predictions showed good improvement in correlating with experiments.

  11. Experimental Investigation About Stamping Behaviour of 3D Warp Interlock Composite Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Clément; Wang, Peng; Boussu, François; Soulat, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Forming of continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled prepregs can be performed at room temperature due to its similar textile structure. The "cool" forming stage is better controlled and more economical. The increase of temperature and the resin consolidation phases after the forming can be carried out under the isothermal condition thanks to a closed system. It can avoid the manufacturing defects easily experienced in the non-isothermal thermoforming, in particular the wrinkling [1]. Glass/Polypropylene commingled yarns have been woven inside different three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics and then formed using a double-curved shape stamping tool. The present study investigates the in-plane and through-thickness behaviour of the 3D warp interlock fibrous reinforcements during forming with a hemispherical punch. Experimental data allow analysing the forming behaviour in the warp and weft directions and on the influence of warp interlock architectures. The results point out that the layer to layer warp interlock preform has a better stamping behaviour, in particular no forming defects and good homogeneity in thickness.

  12. Virtual method for the determination of an optimum thermal design of hot stamping tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, W.; Koplenig, M.; Alb, M.; Graf, J.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a new virtual method for the optimised thermal design of hot stamping tools. It provides optimal positions of the tool's tempering ducts with respect to the average working temperature and its homogeneous distribution on the surface of a tool. It consists of a specific procedure for hot stamping tool design and a software framework in order to interconnect three domains: (I) a parametrised CAD tool model, (II) a linear thermal solver using a fast boundary element method and (III) an optimisation algorithm. This enables the automated set-up, simulation and optimisation of a duct topology. The boundary conditions for the simulations are derived from a reduced model of the thermal loading of the tool. The virtual method proposed is demonstrated on simplified tool segment geometries. The results are transferred to complex tool designs used in industry. For a selected use case, the number of ducts could be reduced by 50% through the application of the proposed method. These results are validated virtually based on an existing design. Hence, the new virtual method contributes to a CAE-driven tool design and a more efficient tool manufacturing.

  13. Method of Stamping Surface-Enhance Raman Spectroscopy for Label-Free, Multiplexed, Molecular Sensing and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Chuan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present disclosure relates the use of a stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates to produce a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique. A NPGD SERS substrate is stamped onto a surface containing one or more target molecules, followed by SERS measurement of the target molecules located between the surface and SERS substrate. The target molecules may be deposited on the surface, which may be a carrier substrate such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

  14. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vajedian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm

  15. The experimental verification of the condition of the magnetic material caused by different technological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Tumanski, S

    2000-01-01

    The changes of electrical steel parameters caused by different technological processes have been tested using the magnetovision method. The effects of cutting into the strips, stamping the shape, laser scribing, annealing, bending and stressing have been investigated.

  16. Ben Franklin, America’s Postage Stamp Star — on the Wane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brunet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an assessment of Ben Franklin’s evolving figure in U.S. postage stamps, focusing especially on the contrast between the 2006 tercentennial Franklin 4-stamp panel, a rather high-brow representation of Franklin as an intellectual, and his traditional image as a homely, common face. The singular history of U.S. postage stamps, with their innovative choice of historical figures as subject matter and their broader emphasis on commemoration, is briefly summarized. The evolution of the Franklin figure — the most common postal image, along with George Washington — is then detailed, showing how the traditional image prevailed until the 1950s, before being progressively displaced by a more cultural and, lately, intellectual image of the nation’s “electrizer”.Cet article vise à interpréter l’évolution de la figure de Benjamin Franklin dans les timbres-poste des Etats-Unis, en se fondant notamment sur le contraste entre le bloc de quatre timbres émis lors du tricentenaire en 2006, qui représente Franklin dans les différents métiers d’un intellectuel des Lumières, et son image traditionnelle d’Américain simple et moyen. On retrace tout d’abord l’histoire singulière des timbres américains, caractérisée par le choix innovant de figures historiques comme sujets et plus généralement par la prééminence de la fonction commémorative. Puis on étudie en détail l’évolution de la figure de Franklin — sujet le plus fréquent des timbres américains avec George Washington — en montrant que l’image traditionnelle s’est perpétuée jusqu’aux années 1950, avant de céder progressivement à une image plus culturelle et, récemment, plus intellectuelle.

  17. The Effect of Food Stamp Nutrition Education on the Food Insecurity of Low-Income Women Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Mason, April C.; Abbott, Angela R.; McCabe, George P.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE) in Indiana on participants' food insecurity and food insufficiency. Design: A single-blind randomized design. A randomized experimental group completed 5 FSNE lessons as an intervention between a pre- and posttest, whereas a control group completed a pre- and posttest…

  18. Modeling and simulation of stamp deflections in nanoimprint lithography: Exploiting backside grooves to enhance residual layer thickness uniformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Hayden; Smistrup, Kristian; Boning, Duane

    2011-01-01

    We describe a model for the compliance of a nanoimprint stamp etched with a grid of backside grooves. We integrate the model with a fast simulation technique that we have previously demonstrated, to show how etched grooves help reduce the systematic residual layer thickness (RLT) variations that ...

  19. PENGUKURAN NILAI OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS SEBAGAI DASAR USAHA PERBAIKAN PROSES MANUFAKTUR PADA LINI PRODUKSI (Studi Kasus pada Stamping Production Division Sebuah Industri Otomotif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Suhendra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is an effectiveness measurement method of equipment utilization in the implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The ability of identification in details toward main problem and the cause factors that makes the improvement efforts become more focused is the reason why this method applied comprehensively by all manufacturing companies around the world. Manufacturing process at Stamping Production Division an automotive isdustry still keeps some unrevealed problems. This condition makes the achievement of OEE figure below the target that means production equipments are not utilized optimally yet. The expression of main problem and the cause factors is needed before the company starts some improvement efforts. This research is started by understanding the equipment losses that existed in company. Then, measuring the achievement of OEE figure in one period and through the pareto analysis toward the measurement's results, the main problem and the cause factors are obtained and clearly depicted in cause-and-effect diagram. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE adalah metode pengukuran efektivitas penggunaan suatu peralatan. OEE dikenal sebagai salah satu aplikasi progam Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. Kemampuan mengidentifikasikan secara jelas akar permasalahan dan faktor penyebabnya sehingga membuat usaha perbaikan menjadi terfokus merupakan faktor utama metode ini diaplikasikan secara menyeluruh oleh banyak perusahaan didunia. Saat ini proses manufaktur di Stamping Production Division sebuah industri otomotif memiliki permasalahan yang belum terungkap jelas. Hal tersebut mengakibatkan penggunaan peralatan yang ada belum optimal. Pengungkapan akar masalah dan faktor penyebabnya diperlukan sebelum perusahaan melakukan usaha perbaikan. Penelitian ini dimulai dengan mengidentifikasi kerugian peralatan (Equipment Losses yang terjadi. Kemudian mengukur pencapaian nilai OEE

  20. 热冲压技术应用现状与发展前景%Present status and prospects of hot stamping press technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱久发

    2012-01-01

    With the development of weight reduction of automobile it is urgent for the au- tomobile manufacturing works to develop new processes that can reduce the parts weight while keep the performanee of the automobile unchanged. Blank hot forming is a new technology which is realized by heating the advanced high strength steel to austenitie phase, quick stamping, and quenching in die during press holding to meet the required cooling speed. By this new forming technology the phase of the parts can be changed to martensite and the strength of the parts will arrive at about 1 500 MPa. The present pa- per systematically describes the key equipments, key technology, advantage and disad- vantage of blank hot forming and the application status and foresees the trends of devel- opment of the hot stamping technology in the future.%随着汽车轻量化的发展,迫切需要在不降低汽车零部件性能的前提下,开发一些新工艺来减轻零件的重量。钢板热冲压是一种将先进高强度钢板加热到奥氏体温度后快速冲压,在保压阶段通过模具实现淬火并达到所需冷却速度,从而得到组织为马氏体、强度在1 500MPa左右的超高强度零件的新型成形技术。对钢板热冲压新技术的关键装备、核心技术和优缺点以及使用现状等做了系统介绍,并预测了热冲压技术的未来发展趋势。

  1. 结合相关反馈技术的冲压件检索方法%Similarity retrieval methodology of stamping parts with relevance feedback.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪梅; 丁伟文; 李爱平

    2011-01-01

    为了更好地检索出用户满意的冲压件实例,将相关反馈过程与模块加入冲压件实例检索系统.给出了基于向量空间的冲压件实例相似度计算公式与反馈迭代算法,分两个阶段考察新旧实例间的相似度,其结果由用户判断其相关性,采用Ide-regu-lar算法进行反馈运算,该步骤可以不断循环以逼近较为满意的实例.采用基于离差信息的权重更新算法,综合用户检索偏好和实例自身信息计算其组合权重.结果表明,所提出的反馈计算方法有利于提高冲压件检索准确度.%In order to seek the satisfactory stamping parts cases,relevance feedback process and module are added into the case tetrieval system. The calculation formula of stamping parts cases similarity degree and relevance feedback iterative method are presented. The results are calculated in a dual-step between the new part and old ones,arc judged by the users to define its relativity,and are taken into the feedback operation by means of Ide-regular algorithm. This course can be repeatedly circled to approach to a rather satisfied case. Deviation information is adopted into the weight update algorithm, which can combine the users' search preference and the self-information firom cases. The results show that this feedback means has high effectiveness in the similarity retrieval system.

  2. Spectral analysis of postage stamps and banknotes from the region of Rijeka in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelovica Badovinac, I., E-mail: ijelov@phy.uniri.h [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, N. [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Lofrumento, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dobrinic, J. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic of Zagreb, Av. V. Holjevca 15, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy induced using radioactive source have been applied to analyze two types of samples important for the history of Rijeka, Croatian port on the Adriatic Sea. In this paper we will present study of thirty-three original Hungarian postage stamps issued for Rijeka and overprinted with the word FIUME in 1918, after the World War I and the one-Lira banknotes (one original brown banknote and four trial prints: brown, blue, green and dark green) from Economy bank for Rijeka, Istria and Slovenian Littoral (1945-1947), the so-called Jugolire. This investigation was carried out to determine the differences between the original machine, original hand-made and fake overprints FIUME and to compare the pigments used on original banknote from circulation with the pigments on the trial prints.

  3. Development and testing of neutron pulse time stamping data acquisition system for neutron noise experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajeev [Reactor Physics Design Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Yakub Ali, M [Radio Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Degweker, S.B. [Theoretical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Vishwasrao, S.C. [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Jadhav, R.T. [Radio Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2015-01-11

    Statistical correlation techniques find applications in the analysis of zero power reactor noise and in passive neutron assay (PNA). A large number of apparently different techniques have been in use in these application areas and traditionally the electronics modules used for data acquisition and analysis is specific to the method used. In this paper we describe a data acquisition scheme developed by us, which is independent of the specific analysis method and can therefore be used for all of them. This is a neutron time stamping data acquisition system based on a timer card and an interface software to acquire and store the data in the required format. The system has been successfully tested with two statistically different types of neutron sources, namely a random Poisson source (Pu–Be) and a correlated source (a nuclear reactor)

  4. Construction of Time-Stamped Mobility Map for Path Tracking via Smith-Waterman Measurement Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Path tracking in wireless and mobile environments is a fundamental technology for ubiquitous location-based services (LBSs. In particular, it is very challenging to develop highly accurate and cost-efficient tracking systems applied to the anonymous areas where the floor plans are not available for security and privacy reasons. This paper proposes a novel path tracking approach for large Wi-Fi areas based on the time-stamped unlabeled mobility map which is constructed from Smith-Waterman received signal strength (RSS measurement matching. Instead of conventional location fingerprinting, we construct mobility map with the technique of dimension reduction from the raw measurement space into a low-dimensional embedded manifold. The feasibility of our proposed approach is verified by the real-world experiments in the HKUST campus Wi-Fi networks, sMobileNet. The experimental results prove that our approach is adaptive and capable of achieving an adequate precision level in path tracking.

  5. Using Worldfip for Synchronization and Time Stamping in the LHC Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, R; Sicard, Claude Henri

    2003-01-01

    Time is one of the key topics in the construction of particle accelerators for which very accurate synchronization and high resolution time stamping are required. Nowadays, accelerator control systems may profit of the same industrial components than automotive industries and oil refineries are using: PLCs and Fieldbuses. WorldFIP, one of the three fieldbuses that have been selected at CERN, is the only one that is intrinsically deterministic. Therefore, in addition to the general control and monitoring functions that any fieldbus may provide, its determinism brings in the unique capability of transmitting time related data for setting to the same value the clocks of the equipment. With the use of the GPS, any equipment located around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator may thus be exactly in phase with the Universal Time. Thanks to its judicious design, WorldFIP supports also many other very interesting features like Web or video transmission. Current developments around this powerful fieldbus will a...

  6. Discrimination between authentic and false tax stamps from liquor bottles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri, E-mail: fbgonzaga@inmetro.gov.br [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho [Chemical Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO), Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50, Xerém, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Deleon Nascimento [Technical–Scientific Police Superintendency, Criminalistic Institute Dr. Octávio Eduardo de Brito Alvarenga—IC-SPTC-SP, 05507-060 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work describes the preliminary application of a compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for falsification detection of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages. The new instrument was based on a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YLF microchip laser and a mini-spectrometer containing a Czerny–Turner polichromator coupled to a non-intensified, non-gated, and non-cooled 2048 pixel linear sensor array (200 to 850 nm spectral range). Twenty-three tax stamp samples were analyzed by firing laser pulses within two different regions of each sample: a hologram and a blank paper region. For each acquired spectrum, the emitted radiation was integrated for 3000 ms under the continuous application of laser pulses at 100 Hz (integration of 300 plasmas). Principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all emission spectra from the hologram or blank paper region revealed two well-defined groups of authentic and false samples. Moreover, for the hologram data, three subgroups of false samples were found. Additionally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was successfully applied for the detection of the false tax stamps using all emission spectra from hologram or blank paper region. The discrimination between the samples was mostly ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration in the samples. - Highlights: • Compact and low-cost laser-induced breakdown spectrometer • Analysis of tax stamps used in alcoholic beverages • Detection of false tax stamps using the LIBS spectra and chemometrics • Falsification detection ascribed to different levels of calcium concentration.

  7. Miniature personal electronic UVR dosimeter with erythema response and time-stamped readings in a wristwatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Personal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dosimetry is important because sunlight is the most important risk factor for skin cancer and a risk factor for some eye diseases and immunosuppression and related disorders. Integrating devices, such as polysulphone film dosimeters, are generally used. To measure the exact dose at specific times, we have developed a personal electronic UVR dosimeter that makes time-stamped measurements. It has a sensor with an erythema action spectrum response and a linear sensitivity (dose-response) with no offset. The sensor has cosine response, and the dosimeter can cope with environmental conditions such as rain, temperature and dirt. It can be programmed to measure with different time intervals and save the average of a specified number of measurements in the memory that can store 32 000 time-stamped measurements. It is small (36 x 28 x 13 mm), weighs 14 g and can work for 4 months without maintenance. It is worn on the wrist, is equipped with a watch showing the time and may thus be used in large-scale studies. The sensitivity can change by 10% due to temperature changes from -5 to 40 degrees C. The UVR dosimeter sensitivity is 0.09 standard erythema doses (SED)/h and the difference in total received dose during 7 days between a Solar Light 501 UV-Biometer (186 SED) and our UVR dosimeter was 3% and the median difference in daily total dose was 2.2%. The dosimeter provides unique possibilities. Examples of personal UVR measurements, data calculations and how they can be interpreted are given.

  8. The Improvement of Foil Paper Embossed Stamping Device for Soft Box Packing Machine ZB25%ZB25软盒包装机铝箔纸钢印装置改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃忠灵; 陶良华

    2012-01-01

    For the inconvenient operation,and time consuming phenomenon of the ZB25 packing machine ,when replace the embossed stamping device. Rational reconstruction of the semi-base of the foil embossed stamping device into two conveniently detachable assembly parts,that is slotted semi-circle seat and a movable seat. And design the special spanner,also on the movable seat error-proofed processing,the movable seat can be disassembly and assembly in short time,through the paper guide print window,to meet the convenient operation for the replacement of embossed stamping,also meet the requirements of the production process,so that to improve the production efficiency.%针对ZB25包装机铝箔纸钢印装置在更换钢印字码时操作不便、耗时过长的现象,合理地将原来铝箔纸钢印装置的半圆座改造成两个可方便拆卸的组合零件:开槽半圆座和活动座,并设计了专用扳手,同时还对活动座进行了防错处理,使用专用扳手利用打开刻痕轮组件门的间隙,通过下纸导板的打印窗口可以在很短的时间内拆装活动座,达到更换钢印时既操作便捷,又能满足生产工艺要求的目的,从而提高了生产效率.

  9. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Higher Cost of Food in Some Areas May Affect Food Stamp Households' Ability To Make Healthy Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Hopwood, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are likely to have inadequate food resources to support healthy food choices.

  10. Discriminator amplitude walk correction in gamma-ray coincidence experiments using list-mode time-stamping data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamzin, Murat K.; Valentine, John D.

    2003-06-01

    When pulse amplitude and time stamp are recorded in list-mode time-stamping data acquisition, it is possible to correct for the system amplitude walk, typically observed as the time pickoff dependence on pulse amplitude. In this study, a method of correcting for amplitude walk during post-acquisition analysis of such list mode data is developed and demonstrated. The method is demonstrated using a simple two-channel system and a photon source capable of producing coincidence events ( 22Na). Two leading-edge discriminators, vulnerable to the amplitude walk, were used to produce the time pickoffs. The resulting corrected data show an amplitude walk less than the detector timing resolution. The method developed can be used in list-mode data acquisition systems such as medical imaging scanners or Compton scatter cameras.

  11. OCLC-MARC Tape Processing: A Functional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce Cummings

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes structure of, and data in, the OCLC-MARC record in the form delivered via OCLC's Tape Subscription Service, and outlines important processing functions involved: "unreadable tapes," duplicate records and deduping, match processing, choice processing, locations processing, "automatic" and "input" stamps,…

  12. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Making Healthy Food Choices Easier: Ideas From Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Andrews, Margaret S.

    2007-01-01

    With obesity the most prevalent nutrition problem facing Americans at all economic levels, promoting diets that provide adequate nutrition without too many calories has become an important objective for the Food Stamp Program. Findings from behavioral economics suggest innovative, low-cost ways to improve the diet quality of food stamp participants without restricting their freedom of choice. Unlike more traditional economic interventions, such as changing prices or banning specific foods, th...

  13. Study on the resistance spot welding technology of 22MnMoB hot stamping quenched steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yi; Ma Mingtu; Hua Fuan; Zhang Junping; Song Leifeng; Jin Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the spot welding technology of a new kind of 22MnMoB hot stamping quenched steel sheet was systematically studied by power frequency spot welder. Through a series of technology and test exper-iments,we have obtained the optimal spot welding technological parameter condition. According to the results, the relations among spot welding technological parameter,welding nugget,mechanical property and fracture mode were discussed. The effects of all the welding parameters such as welding current,welding time and elec-trode force on the quality of joint can be boiled down to one thing-the diameter of welding nugget. The experi-mental results showed that welding nugget diameter determines the mechanical property of spot welding joint and the relation between welding nugget diameter and the mechanical property of joint presents a kind of linear mathematic representation. There are two typical fracture models of 22MnMoB hot stamping quenched steel sheet,i.e.,interfacial fracture and nugget pullout. Other than mild steel or normal high strength steel,in the shearing tensile test,hot stamping quenched steel has a great tendency to fail in interfacial mode due to the ef-fects of high strength matrix structure,welding soft zone and the porosity level of fusion zone.

  14. Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

  15. Stamping transfer of a quantum dot interlayer for organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ji Hye; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, Hyunmin; Park, Jong Hyeok; Park, O Ok

    2012-06-26

    An organophilic cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot (QD) interlayer was prepared on the active layer in organic solar cells by a stamping transfer method. The mother substrate composed of a UV-cured film on a polycarbonate film with strong solvent resistance makes it possible to spin-coat QDs on it and dry transfer onto an active layer without damaging the active layer. The QD interlayers have been optimized by controlling the concentration of the QD solution. The coverage of QD particles on the active layer was verified by TEM analysis and fluorescence images. After insertion of the QD interlayer between the active layer and metal cathode, the photovoltaic performances of the organic solar cell were clearly enhanced. By ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of CdSe QDs, it can be anticipated that the CdSe QD interlayer reduces charge recombination by blocking the holes moving to the cathode from the active layer and facilitating efficient collection of the electrons from the active layer to the cathode.

  16. Students Use "STAMP-OUT" Program to Advance Seniors' Knowledge of Drug Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Gabrielle; Torres, Elisa; Wahler, Robert G

    2016-12-01

    This program assessed the impact of student presentations on 30 seniors and sought to improve their knowledge of prescription drug misuse and abuse. The six pharmacy students used the ASCP Foundation's "STAMP Out Prescription Drug Misuse and Abuse Tool Kit." Information presented to senior audiences included descriptions of drug misuse and abuse and preventive measures to uphold medication safety. Students assessed seniors' prior knowledge about the topics through audience participation. Afterwards, a self-assessment quiz was given that examined participants' learning about safe medication practices. Before the presentation, only 36% of participants recognized the difference between prescription drug misuse and abuse. The self-assessment quiz results showed that following the three presentations, all 30 participants received perfect scores: The results showed an improvement in knowledge after attending the student presentations. This program demonstrates advancement of the pharmacy profession through educating seniors on proper medication use to prevent drug abuse and improve medication safety. OTC = Over-the-counter, UB SPPS: University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

  17. Optimization of Resistance Spot Weld Condition for Single Lap Joint of Hot Stamped 22MnB5 by Taking Heating Temperature and Heating Time into Consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Seok; Kim, Byung Min; Park, Geun Hwan [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Woo Seung [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, optimization of the process parameters of the resistance spot welding of a sheet of aluminum-coated boron alloyed steel, 22MnB5, used in hot stamping has been performed by a Taguchi method to increase the strength of the weld joint. The process parameters selected were current, electrode force, and weld time. The heating temperature and heating time of 22MnB5 are considered to be noise factors. It was known that the variation in the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer between the aluminum-coated layer and the substrate, which influences on the formation of nugget, was generated due to the difference of diffusion reaction according to heating conditions. From the results of spot weld experiment, the optimum weld condition was determined to be when the current, electrode force, and weld time were 8kA, 4kN, and 18 cycles, respectively. The result of a test performed to verify the optimized weld condition showed that the tensile strength of the weld joint was over 32kN, which is considerably higher than the required strength, i.e., 23kN.

  18. Study of mechanical properties on powdermetalurgy aluminium matrix composites fabricated by stamping or extrusion; Estudio de las propiedades mecanicas en materiales compuestos de matriz aluminio pulvimetalurgicos conformados mediante forja o extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquets, D.; Gomez, L.; Amigo, V.; Salvador-Moya, M. D.

    2005-07-01

    We have developed composite materials from AA6061 aluminium alloy powders used as matrix and ceramics powders of boron carbide, silicon carbide and boron nitride, used as reinforcements in 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% vol. by mechanical mixing and milling in planetary mill at 360 rpm vial velocity for 4 h followed of hot stamping and extrusion process on green compacts. Mechanical properties obtained from tensile tests are influenced by the heat treatment, reinforcement fractions and nature. Moreover, these mechanical characteristic are dependent from the processing route. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis revealed the microstructure of materials and let describe the tripartite relation; structure-processing-properties, of the developed materials. (Author) 20 refs.

  19. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective-Food Spending Patterns of Low-Income Households: Will Increasing Purchasing Power Result in Healthier Food Choices?

    OpenAIRE

    Frazao, Elizabeth; Andrews, Margaret S.; Smallwood, David M.; Prell, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp Program provides benefits that low-income households can use to purchase food in grocery stores. The rise in obesity has raised the question of whether food stamp participants would purchase more healthy foods, such as fruits and vegetables, if food stamp benefits were higher. This report examines household food spending patterns and how they differ across income levels to provide insight into how participants might change their food spending in response to additional income.

  20. Helium-hydrogen microplasma device (MPD) on postage-stamp-size plastic-quartz chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Karanassios, Vassili

    2009-10-01

    A new design of a miniaturized, atmospheric-pressure, low-power (e.g., battery-operated), self-igniting, planar-geometry microplasma device (MPD) for use with liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive MPD was a hybrid, three-substrate quartz-plastic-plastic structure and it was formed on chips with area the size of a small postage stamp. The substrates were chosen for rapid prototyping and for speedy device-geometry testing and evaluation. The approximately 700-microm (diameter) and 7-mm (long) He-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Operating conditions were found to be critical in sustaining stable microplasma on plastic substrates. Spectral interference from the electrode materials was not observed. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for introduction of microliter volumes of liquids into the MPD. The microplasma was operated from an inexpensive power supply. And, operation from a 14.4-V battery has been demonstrated. Microplasma background emission in the spectral range between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer is reported. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. Element-dependent precision was between 10-25% (the average was 15%) and detection limits ranged between 1.5 and 350 ng. The system was used for the determination of Na in diluted bottled-water samples.

  1. Multi-solution processes of small molecule for flexible white organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: ystsai@nfu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chittawanij, Apisit; Hong, Lin-Ann; Guo, Siou-Wei [Institute of Electro-optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Ching-Chiun [Department of Solid State Lighting Technology, Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan, ROC (China); Juang, Fuh-Shyang [Institute of Electro-optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lai, Shih-Hsiang [Department of Solid State Lighting Technology, Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yang-Ching [Institute of Electro-optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Yunlin 63201, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-04-01

    Most small molecule organic light emitting diode (SM-OLED) device structures are made in one layer using solution-based processing because the solution is usually a high dissolvent material that easily attacks the layer below it. We demonstrate a simple and reliable stamping technique for fabricating multi-solution process flexible white SM-OLEDs. The structure is anode/spin-hole injection layer/spin-emitting layer/stamping-electron transport layer/cathode. Poly(di-methyl silane) (PDMS) stamp is used for transferring electron transport layer. An intermediate ultraviolet-ozone surface treatment is introduced to temporarily modify the PDMS stamp surface. Then, the solution-based electron transport layer film can therefore be uniformly formed on top of the PDMS surface. After that the electron transport layer film on the PDMS stamp is transfer-printed onto the emitting layer with suitable heating and pressing. A solution-based processing is successfully established to efficiently fabricate flexible white SM-OLEDs. The SM-OLEDs were obtained at the current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, luminance of 1062 cd/m{sup 2}, current efficiency of 5.57 cd/A, and Commission internationale de l'éclairage coordinate of (0.32, 0.35). - Highlights: • All solution-processed small molecule materials (emitting layer, electron transport layer). • Poly(di-methylsilane) (PDMS) stamp is subsequently used for stamping transfer. • The flexible white SM-OLEDs are based on solution-processes with a low-cost method.

  2. Controlling Smectic Liquid Crystal Defect Patterns by Physical Stamping-Assisted Domain Separation and Their Use as Templates for Quantum Dot Cluster Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jong Min; Kim, Yun Ho; Lee, Tae Yong; Yoo, Hae-Wook; Kwon, Kiok; Jung, Woo-Bin; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2016-12-20

    Controlling the organization of self-assembling building blocks over a large area is crucial for lithographic tools based on the bottom-up approach. However, the fabrication of liquid crystal (LC) defect patterns with a particular ordering still remains a challenge because of the limited close-packed morphologies of LC defects. Here, we introduce a multiple-stamping domain separation method for the control of the dimensions and organization of LC defect structures. Prepatterns with various grid shapes on planar polyimide (PI) surfaces were fabricated by pressing a line-shaped stamp into the PI surfaces in two different directions, and then these surfaces were used to prepare LC defect structures confined to these grid domains. The dimensions of the LC defect structures, namely, the equilibrium diameter and the center to center spacing, are controlled by varying the line spacing of the stamps and the film thickness. A variety of arrangements of LC defects, including square, rhombic, hexagonal, and other oblique lattices, can be obtained by simply varying the stamping angle (Ω) between the first and second stamping directions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the resulting controllable LC defect arrays can be used as templates for generating various patterns of nanoparticle clusters by trapping quantum dots (QDs) within the cores of the LC defects.

  3. Design and implementation of a nanosecond time-stamping readout system-on-chip for photo-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvar, Shebli; Château, Frédéric; Le Provost, Hervé; Louis, Frédéric [CEA/Irfu/SEDI Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Manolopoulos, Konstantinos [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); Moudden, Yassir, E-mail: yassir.moudden@cea.fr [CEA/Irfu/SEDI Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vallage, Bertrand [CEA/Irfu/SPP Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zonca, Eric [CEA/Irfu/SEDI Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-21

    A readout system suitable for a large number of synchronized photo-detection units has been designed. Each unit embeds a specifically designed fully integrated communicating system based on Xilinx FPGA SoC technology. It runs the VxWorks real-time OS and a custom data acquisition software designed within the Ice middleware framework, resulting in a highly flexible, controllable and scalable distributed application. Clock distribution and delay calibration over customized fixed latency gigabit Ethernet links enable synchronous time-stamping of events with nanosecond precision. The implementation of this readout system on several data-collecting units as well as its performances are described.

  4. Note: Adhesive stamp electrodes using spider silk masks for electronic transport measurements of supra-micron sized samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, E.; Jobiliong, E.; Eugenio, P. M.; Brooks, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    A procedure for fabricating adhesive stamp electrodes based on gold coated adhesive tape used to measure electronic transport properties of supra-micron samples in the lateral range 10-100 μm and thickness >1 μm is described. The electrodes can be patterned with a ˜4 μm separation by metal deposition through a mask using Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk fibers. Ohmic contact is made by adhesive lamination of a sample onto the patterned electrodes. The performance of the electrodes with temperature and magnetic field is demonstrated for the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)2PF6 and single crystal graphite, respectively.

  5. 智能化激活高端冲压模具市场迎来黄金期%Market of Intelligent Controlled High-end Stamping Mould Will Face Gold Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道春

    2014-01-01

    The mould is the fundamental process equipment of industrial production. 75%of the rough machined parts and 50%of the fine machined parts have been formed by mould. Mould industry is an important domain of new and high technology industrialization. Intelligent control technology during stamping production develops very fast, and it is an on-line or intelligent controlled technology of stamping process which is developed on the basis of the existing material and process database. Based on the situation of the mold industry with intelligent control in China, the author thought that development of intelligent mould is the new direction of manufacturing industry of new and high technology. In this paper, the design principles and application of stamping machining is studied and the trend of intelligent control technology was also presented.%模具是工业生产的基础工艺装备,75%的粗加工工业产品零件、50%的精加工零件均由模具成型。模具工业是高新技术产业化的重要领域,冲压生产智能控制技术发展很快,它在材料、工艺一体化的基础上,依据已有材料和工艺数据库实现冲压加工过程的在线控制或智能控制。根据我国模具产业面临迅速崛起发展智能控制的良好契机,论述了发展智能模具是制造行业高新技术的新方向,研究了冲压机械加工的设计原则与应用,提出了智能化需求推动模具产业实现快速发展,同时指出了冲压机械加工控制技术的智能化趋势。

  6. SU-D-9A-03: STAMP: Simulator for Texture Analysis in MRI/PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, S; Vallieres, M; Levesque, I R.; El Naqa, I [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a convenient simulation platform to facilitate PET/MR image analysis with the prospect of gaining a better understanding of the influence of acquisition parameters on PET/MRI textural features. The simulation platform is demonstrated by showing textural variations of a representative case study using different image acquisition parameters. Methods: The simulation platform is composed of MRI simulators JEMRIS and SIMRI to achieve simulations of customized MRI sequences on sample tumor models. The PET simulator GATE is used to get 2D and 3D Monte Carlo acquisitions of voxelized PET sources using a phantom geometry and a customized scanner architecture. The platform incorporates a series of graphical user interfaces written in Matlab. Two GUIs are used to facilitate communication with the simulation executables installed on a computer cluster. A third GUI is used to collect and display the clinical and simulated images, as well as fused PET/MRI images, and perform computation of textural features.To illustrate the capabilities of this platform, one FDG-PET and T1-weighted (T1w) digitized tumor models were generated from clinical images of a soft-tissue sarcoma patient. Numerically simulated MR images were produced using 3 different echo times (TE) and 5 different repetition times (TR). PET 2D images were simulated using an OSEM algorithm with 1 to 32 iterations and a post-reconstruction Gaussian filter of 0, 2, 4 or 6 mm width. Results: STAMP was successfully used to produce numerically simulated FDG-PET and MRI images, and to calculate their corresponding textures. Three typical textures (GLCM-Contrast, GLSZM-ZSV and NGTDM-Coarseness) were found to vary by a range of 45% on average compared to reference scanning conditions in the case of FDG-PET, and by a range of 40% in the case of T1w MRI. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a Matlab-based simulation platform to facilitate PET/MRI texture image analysis for outcome prediction.

  7. Simulation of friction characteristics in sheet metal stamping forming%板料冲压成形过程摩擦特性数值仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑燕萍; 王列亮; 沈思琳

    2014-01-01

    In the sheet metal forming process, the friction force between the sheet and the die is extremely complex, and its rule is not understood well enough. Based on friction theory, the friction force is divided into 4 components:the shear stress on the adhesion area, the shear stress on the boundary lubrication area, the ploughing force caused by protuberance on the die, and the shear stress on the area with much lubrication. Automobile panel products with high quality shall have no quality defects of stamping forming, such as fracture, wrinkle, spring back and surface defect, and the material flow of product shall be uniform and the thickness changes also shall be uniform during the forming process. Therefore, this article proposes that stamping forming quality index which includes defect quality index and thickness variation uniformity quality index. As different types of automobile panel contain different materials and have different quality problems, the defect quality index of different panels will also be different. The automobile’s back plate reinforcement in this paper is complex internal covering parts, its main forming defect is fracture and wrinkle. So a novel criterion evaluating quality of sheet metal forming is developed. When the minimum thinning rate satisfies design requirements, the variance of each element thinning rate calculated in finite element simulation can be taken as evaluation index, and this index is inversely proportional to forming quality, in other words, the smaller evaluation index is, the more even sheet metal becomes, then the better forming we can obtain. In addition, the concept of equivalent friction coefficient is proposed, and the relationship between 4 components and friction force in FE simulation is built up;and then the accuracy of friction force in simulation is improved. Finally, numerical simulation and analysis about influence of friction and lubrication condition change on friction characteristics and forming quality

  8. Anisotropic Damage and Failure Analysis of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Thermal Stamping%镁合金板材温热冲压过程的各向异性损伤与失效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成钢; 陈章华; 臧勇

    2013-01-01

    以连续损伤力学理论为基础,采用有限元数值模拟与试验结果进行对比的方法对镁合金板材的温热冲压成形中材料的损伤破坏情况进行预测.通过将各向异性屈服准则与各向异性损伤理论编入商业有限元软件ABAQUS的用户材料子程序VUMAT,模拟得到镁合金板材冲压成形过程中损伤量的演化规律.以冲压手机壳为例,针对板材的特性,提出将各向异性损伤张量转化为壳单元局部坐标系内损伤矢量的方法,有效表达不同区域失效情况.数值模拟结果表明,板材在不同温度下预测的断裂与失效结果与实际板材冲压试验的结果一致.因此,采用的各向异性损伤计算方法可以有效预测冲压过程中镁合金板材因各向异性损伤导致断裂失效的现象.%Based on the frame work of the continuum damage mechanics,the prediction of damage evolution in a thermal stamping process of magnesium alloy sheet has been carried out by means of the finite element simulation,and the numerical results have been compared with the related experimental data.An anisotropic yield function for cold rolling sheet metals and an anisotropic damage theory are implemented into the ABAQUS user material subroutine VUMAT to predict the evolution of damage in the mentioned process.Taking a thermal stamping process of a phone shell for example,under the different working temperature,the overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of workpiece is proposed.Numerical results show that the prediction both of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data recorded in thermal stamping tests.It may be concluded that the proposed anisotropic damage model and the corresponding anisotropic yield function can be effectively incorporated into the finite element method(FEM) user material subroutine to predict the phenomenon of cracking during thermal

  9. Event for the launch of the Georges Charpak postage stamp | 26-27 February | Prévessin site

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    At the end of February, the French post office is releasing a new €0.70 stamp featuring an image of Georges Charpak. CERN is taking part in this event by hosting a temporary post office on the Prévessin site, which will sell the stamp with a special “first day” postmark before it goes on general sale.     Georges Charpak arrived at CERN in 1959 and, in the late 1960s, revolutionised particle detection technology by developing the multiwire proportional chamber. This technique brought particle detectors into the electronic era, setting physicists free from the laborious task of studying photographs one by one. In 1992, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention. Charpak chambers are still used today in the LHC detectors and have paved the way for the technology in numerous other modern detectors. In the 1990s, Charpak was involved in developing medical applications based on particle detection technology. He was als...

  10. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Viallet, B; Thibault, C; Ressier, L

    2011-09-30

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  11. AHP在车身冲焊产品供应商选择中的应用%The Supplier's Selection of AHP Application in Automotive Stamping and Welding Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婕; 刘晓

    2012-01-01

    The paper applies AHP into the field of supplier selection of Automotive stamping & welding parts. Describes how to use Excel to calculate and how to Design simple questionnaires. The paper constructs the supplier selection process, Establishes the system model with these four criterias: quality, service, technology and price.%文章将层次分析法应用于汽车车身冲焊产品供应商选择的决策中,介绍了用Excel进行层次分析法计算的函数公式编辑方法和简易问卷的设计方法。构造了供应商选择的流程,并以QSTP(质量、服务、技术、价格)四个评价指标建立供应商选择模型进行实例分析。

  12. 激光切割技术在冲压行业中的应用和发展趋势%Application and Development Trent of Laser Cutting Technology in Stamping Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊舟; 鲜光斌; 许小宝; 罗琳

    2012-01-01

    介绍了激光切割技术在冲压行业中的应用和发展趋势。激光切割技术的不断发展和应用,可能能替代部分修边冲孔模具和落料模具,生产效率高,能适用各种各样的车型,有利于降低整车开发过程中的成本。%Introduced application and development trent of laser cutting technology in stamping industry. Laser cutting technology development and application could replace part of trimming and punching die and blanking die, the production efficiency is high, can be applied to various kinds of vehicles, reduce the vehicle development process cost.

  13. Research on Stamp Investment and Diversification for Stock Investment-Based on the Research of Chinese and British Stamp Price Indexes%邮票投资与股票投资多元化问题研究--基于中国和英国的邮票价格指数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景东; 孙文婷; 冯玉英

    2013-01-01

    受英国SG100邮票价格指数启发,借鉴股票价格指数的建立方法,运用中国邮票互动网上提供的邮票收盘价和成交量计算出了中国邮票月度价格指数。在此基础上,将邮票价格指数的超额回报与股票价格指数的超额回报进行资本资产定价模型回归,结果显示中国邮票投资并不能为股票投资者提供多元化的可能,但英国邮票投资给中国股票投资者提供了多元化的可能,产生了超额收益,分散了风险。%We are inspired by British SG100 Stamp Price Index to build Chinese Stamp Price Index by ourselves. We make use of closing price and trading volume of stamps which are available online to calculate the monthly price indexes of Chi-nese stamps. The results of the Capital Asset Pricing Model regression of the monthly stamp index excess returns and the excess returns of stock indexes show that investing in Chinese stamp can’t provide portfolio diversification benefits for stock investors. Adding British stamps to Chinese stock portfolios can improve the investment performance of investors.

  14. 大型机器人冲压生产线多软件联合仿真%Multi-software Co-simulation for a Large Robotic Automatic Stamping Production Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱雪松; 肖超; 谭候金; 侯雨雷; 周玉林

    2016-01-01

    For the rapid design of large robotic automatic stamping production line,based on inter-face technology and multi-software co-simulation,a method was proposed to meet design require-ments,such as kinematics,dynamics,stiffness and so on.By Dynaform software,sheet metal form-ing process was simulated,and dynamic load curve was captured and loaded into virtual prototype to approximate real load.Key components were changed into flexible bodies by ANSYS and were impor-ted into ADAMS to replace corresponding rigid bodies and a rigid-flexible coupling virtual stamping production line was established.Processing vehicle side panels were taken as an example,and the mathematical models of kinematics and dynamics of main press in the stamping production line were established.The energy consumption index and safety- efficiency balance index were proposed to eval-uate the comprehensive performance of the system.The rigid-flexible coupling virtual prototype simu-lation results were compared with theoretical calculations and multi-body virtual prototype simulation results.The analysis results show that rigid-flexible model can improve the simulation accuracy,may be closer to the real process and possess theoretical direction significance for overall design of stam-ping production line,the key parameter selection,on-site installation and commissioning.%为快速设计研制大型机器人冲压生产线并满足运动学、动力学、刚度等方面的设计要求,提出基于接口技术的多软件联合仿真策略:利用Dynaform软件模拟板料冲压成形过程、捕获动态负载曲线,并加载到压机上用于逼近真实载荷;利用ANSYS软件对关键部件作柔性化处理并导入ADAMS中替换相应的刚体,建立刚柔耦合的冲压线虚拟样机.以加工汽车侧围板为例,建立冲压线中主压机的运动学和动力学数学模型,提出系统能耗指标和安全效率平衡系数两个综合性能评价指标.将刚柔耦合虚拟样机的仿真

  15. Welding of NPT-Stamped Vessel in Accordance with ASME Code%ASME规范NPT钢印取证容器的焊接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳

    2014-01-01

    Based on ASME Boiler&Pressure Vessel Code, the paper explains how to conduct welding operation on NPT-Stamped vessels that are certificated in accordance with ASME code.%结合ASME规范,介绍ASME NPT钢印取证容器焊接过程。

  16. Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

  17. Tuning stamp surface energy for soft lithography of polar molecules to fabricate bioactive small-molecule microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Amit; Shuster, Mitchell J; Cheunkar, Sarawut; Weiss, Paul S; Andrews, Anne M

    2011-05-23

    Soft-lithography-based techniques are widely used to fabricate microarrays. Here, the use of microcontact insertion printing is described, a soft-lithography method specifically developed for patterning at the dilute scales necessary for highly selective biorecognition. By carefully tuning the polar surface energy of polymeric stamps, problems associated with patterning hydrophilic tether molecules inserted into hydrophilic host self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are surmounted. Both prefunctionalized tethers and on-chip functionalization of SAMs patterned by microcontact insertion printing enable the fabrication of small-molecule microarrays. Substrates patterned with the neurotransmitter precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan selectively capture a number of different types of membrane-associated receptor proteins, which are native binding partners evolved to recognize free serotonin. These advances provide new avenues for chemically patterning small molecules and fabricating small molecule microarrays with highly specific molecular recognition capabilities. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Shear Fracture of Dual Phase AHSS in the Process of Stamping: Macroscopic Failure Mode and Micro-level Metallographical Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wurong; Wei, Xicheng; Yang, Jun; Shi, Gang

    2011-08-01

    Due to its excellent strength and formability combinations, dual phase (DP) steels offer the potential to improve the vehicle crashworthiness performance without increasing car body weight and have been increasingly used into new vehicles. However, a new type of crack mode termed as shear fracture is accompanied with the application of these high strength DP steel sheets. With the cup drawing experiment to identify the limit drawing ratio (LDR) of three DP AHSS with strength level from 600 MPa to 1000 MPa, the study compared and categorized the macroscopic failure mode of these three types of materials. The metallographical observation along the direction of crack was conducted for the DP steels to discover the micro-level propagation mechanism of the fracture.

  19. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates.

  20. 冲压、回弹及应变速率对双相钢成形件碰撞性能影响的模拟%Simulation about the Influence of Stamping, Springback and Strain Rate on Collision Performance of Dual-Phase Steel Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国明; 康永林; 吕超

    2011-01-01

    Based on cold rolled galvanized dual-phase steel sheet, collision analysis model of closed hat section beam was established on the basis of simulation analysis of U-beam stamping and springback. Mapping was used to transfer results of thickness, stress and strain of U-beam to impact structural component. Collision processes of closed hat section were analyzed by considering the influence of stamping, springback, strain rate and so on. The results show that the strain rate was higher in the process of collision and its influence was most apparent and should be specially considered in the definition of model. Due to the work hardening and thickness reduction in metal deformation, the stamping results affected simulative results of the collision process directly. Residual stress was weaker due to the stress released from the inside of the component after stamping. Therefore, greater external force was needed to produce the same degree of collision, and rigid wall reaction force considered springbaek was higher than that no considering.%针对冷轧镀锌双相钢板,在完成U型梁冲压成形及回弹模拟分析的基础上,建立了闭口帽型梁的碰撞分析模型;采用映射的方法完成了U型梁的厚度、应力、应变向碰撞结构件的结果传递;在考虑冲压成形、回弹及应变速率等的情况下,对帽型梁的碰撞过程进行了模拟分析。结果表明:在碰撞过程中,由于应变速率较高,它的影响最为明显,在模型的定义过程中需要着重考虑;因为金属变形过程的加工硬化和厚度减薄等因素的影响,冲压结果直接影响碰撞过程的模拟结果;冲压后因回弹使零件内部的应力得到释放,残余应力减小,因此导致碰撞过程中产生相同的变形需要更

  1. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  2. Numerical Study on the Flow Length in an Injection Molding Process with an External Air-Heating Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Trung Do

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an external gas-assisted mold temperature control combined with water cooling was applied to achieve rapid mold-surface temperature control for observing the melt flow length in the thin-wall injection molding process. Variable part-thickness values of 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, and 0.6 mm were used. Through a simulation and experiment, the injection molding process was achieved by using ABS and stamp insert temperatures ranging from 30 to 150 °C. In the simulation, when the stamp temperature was raised from 90 to 150 °C with part thickness of 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, and 0.6 mm, the melt flow length increased by approximately 25.0%, 19.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. When the stamp temperature was higher than the glass-transition temperature of ABS, the improvement in the melt flow length was clearer, especially in the thinner part. In the experiment, the positive effect of stamp temperature was demonstrated; however, the improvement in the melt flow length was slightly different compared with the simulation owing to the heat transfer between the hot stamp and the environment.

  3. Stamping Out Rubber-Stamp Collegiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past year, public colleges and universities across the country have been shrinking degree programs and terminating personnel--including tenured professors--in an effort to cope with budget cuts in higher education. The situation is not confined to a handful of mismanaged public institutions, as in the past. It is a national phenomenon and…

  4. Pre-oxidized and nitrided stainless steel alloy foil for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates. Part 2: Single-cell fuel cell evaluation of stamped plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toops, Todd J.; Brady, Michael P.; Tortorelli, Peter F.; Pihl, Josh A.; Estevez, Francisco; Connors, Daniel; Garzon, Fernando; Rockward, Tommy; Gervasio, Don; Mylan, William; Kosaraju, Sree Harsha

    Thermal (gas) nitridation of stainless steel alloys can yield low interfacial contact resistance (ICR), electrically conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride containing surface layers (Cr 2N, CrN, TiN, V 2N, VN, etc.) of interest for fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. This paper presents results of proton exchange membrane (PEM) single-cell fuel cell studies of stamped and pre-oxidized/nitrided developmental Fe-20Cr-4V weight percent (wt.%) and commercial type 2205 stainless steel alloy foils. The single-cell fuel cell behavior of the stamped and pre-oxidized/nitrided material was compared to as-stamped (no surface treatment) 904L, 2205, and Fe-20Cr-4V stainless steel alloy foils and machined graphite of similar flow field design. The best fuel cell behavior among the alloys was exhibited by the pre-oxidized/nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V, which exhibited ∼5-20% better peak power output than untreated Fe-20Cr-4V, 2205, and 904L metal stampings. Durability was assessed for pre-oxidized/nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V, 904L metal, and graphite plates by 1000+ h of cyclic single-cell fuel cell testing. All three materials showed good durability with no significant degradation in cell power output. Post-test analysis indicated no metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) occurred with the pre-oxidized and nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V or graphite plates, and only a minor amount of contamination with the 904L plates.

  5. New Materials and New Technology in Automotive Stamping Field%汽车冲压领域的新材料及新工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文奇

    2012-01-01

    Introduced the application of new materials & new technology in automotive body production of automotive stamping field, and analyzed technical bottleneck of several kinds of new materials & new technology application.%介绍了汽车冲压领域的新材料、新工艺在汽车车身中的应用情况,并分析了几类新材料、新工艺应用的技术瓶颈。

  6. Design of Safety Protection Device for Stamping Die%冲压模安全保护装置的结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了合理设计冲压模安全保护装置的结构,提高了其灵活性、有效性,真正地保护操作者的人身安全。%This paper introduced rational design of stamping die safety protection device mechanism.Improve its flexibility,validity,to protect the personal safety of the operator.

  7. Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

  8. Hydrogen-incorporated TiS2 ultrathin nanosheets with ultrahigh conductivity for stamp-transferrable electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenwen; Zhu, Xiaojiao; Feng, Jun; Wu, Changzheng; Hu, Shuanglin; Peng, Jing; Guo, Yuqiao; Peng, Lele; Zhao, Jiyin; Huang, Jianliu; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2013-04-03

    As a conceptually new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the ultrathin nanosheets as inorganic graphene analogues (IGAs) play an increasingly vital role in the new-generation electronics. However, the relatively low electrical conductivity of inorganic ultrathin nanosheets in current stage significantly hampered their conducting electrode applications in constructing nanodevices. We developed the unprecedentedly high electrical conductivity in inorganic ultrathin nanosheets. The hydric titanium disulfide (HTS) ultrathin nanosheets, as a new IGAs, exhibit the exclusively high electrical conductivity of 6.76 × 10(4) S/m at room temperature, which is superior to indium tin oxide (1.9 × 10(4) S/m), recording the best value in the solution assembled 2D thin films of both graphene (5.5 × 10(4) S/m) and inorganic graphene analogues (5.0 × 10(2) S/m). The modified hydrogen on S-Ti-S layers contributes additional electrons to the TiS2 layered frameworks, rendering the controllable electrical conductivity as well as the electron concentrations. Together with synergic advantages of the excellent mechanical flexibility, high stability, and stamp-transferrable properties, the HTS thin films show promising capability for being the next generation conducting electrode material in the nanodevice fields.

  9. ABC di corpi: alcuni alfabeti figurati del XVI secolo del Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Butera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fra le diverse tipologie di motivi ornamentali, gli alfabeti figurati costituiscono un vero e proprio genere a se stante, che attinge al repertorio iconografico del proprio tempo e lo riflette in composizioni dotate di grande fascino e originalità. Per la quantità, la qualità e l’eterogeneità degli esemplari custoditi, il Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna costituisce un caso più unico che raro in Italia, vantando alfabeti figurati che abbracciano ampi confini geografici e cronologici, spaziando dal tardo gotico al XIX secolo. Dopo una breve introduzione sulle vicende collezionistiche di un nucleo grafico così insolito e particolare, l’articolo si concentra su alcuni esemplari di alfabeti figurati del Cinquecento di area transalpina. Partendo dall’alfabeto dei bambini di Hans Weiditz (1521, costruito rispettando le più rigorose regole geometriche, codificate nei coevi trattati rinascimentali, ma anche riflesso del rinato gusto per i fregi all’antica con putti, si passa agli alfabeti di Peter Flötner (1534 e di Jost Amman (1567, dove le lettere sono integralmente costituite da corpi umani, forzati in complicate posture, talvolta persino licenziose. Questi esemplari rappresentano degli interessanti esperimenti calligrafici, dove l’uomo diviene concretamente l’unità di misura dei caratteri dell’alfabeto.

  10. Effect Analysis of Geometric Parameters on Stainless Steel Stamping Multistage Pump by Experimental Test and Numerical Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of stainless steel stamping multistage pump, quadratic regression orthogonal test, hydraulic design, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD are used to analyze the effect of pump geometric parameters. Sixteen impellers are designed based on the quadratic regression orthogonal test, which have three factors including impeller outlet slope, impeller blade outlet stagger angle, and impeller blade outlet width. Through quadratic regression equation, the function relationship between efficiency values and three factors is established. The optimal combination of geometric parameters is found through the analysis of the regression equation. To further study the influence of blade thickness on the performance of multistage pump, numerical simulations of multistage pump with different blade thicknesses are carried out. The influence law of blade thickness on pump performance is built from the external characteristics and internal flow field. In conclusion, with the increase of blade thickness, the best efficiency point of the pump shifts to the small flow rate direction, and the vortex regions inside the pump at rated flow gradually increase, which is the main reason that pump efficiency decreases along with the increase of the blade thickness at rated flow.

  11. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tribological behaviour of aluminium differed great from that of steel regardless of the counterpart material. Highly reactive aluminium had a strong tendency to solder with tool surfaces during dry sliding. However, the lubricity of gray cast irons can be significantly improved by Ni-BN and DLC coatings. The coefficient of friction reduced from about 0.5 for untreated cast irons to about 0.2 sliding against aluminium. Duplex treatment combining plasma nitrocarburising with low-friction coatings showed superior durability than both DLC and Ni-BN coatings.

  12. Study and Applications of Dynamic Resistance Profiles During Resistance Spot Welding of Coated Hot-Stamping Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighodaro, Osayande Lord-Rufus; Biro, Elliot; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2017-02-01

    This work compares the role of press hardened steel coating type (Al-Si and GA) on resistance spot welding by analyzing the dynamic resistance curves measured during the weld cycles of the respective materials. It was seen that the dynamic resistance profiles for GA- and Al-Si-coated steels are similar. But the GA specimens exhibited higher resistance than Al-Si-coated specimens in the as-received condition, while the Al-Si-coated specimens exhibited higher resistance after hot stamping. From the early stages of the dynamic resistance profiles, data were obtained and applied for computing the values of components of resistances associated with the different coatings since each coating exhibits characteristic value at the early stages. The results revealed that at the start of the welding cycle, the resistance of the electrode/sheet interface was significantly higher than that of the faying surface or the bulk resistance regardless of whether the steel was Al-Si- or GA-coated. The possible uses of these resistance values in studying welding current requirement and electrode tip life were discussed.

  13. Multiresolution processing for source detection and localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Feng; GONG Xianyi

    2003-01-01

    The conventional BF/MFP (beamforming/matched field processing) or BF/MFPbased on subspace are traditional array signal processing methods for source's detection andlocation, they are all belonging to singe-resolution processing. In fact, the array signal hasmultiresolution structure, which is worthy of exploiture and utilization to enhance the abilityof detection and location, especially to improve the robustness for BF/MFP. The time-spacemultiresolution modeling of multipath transmitted wave and the corresponding multiresolutionfocused processing are investigated, and it is shown from the analysis of actual sea-trial datathat the performance of MFP can be improved.

  14. Quality controls and security features for U.S. currency and postage stamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Max; Hess, James E.; Poulsen, Mark; Rankin, Ken; Curtis, David

    2000-04-01

    The US Bureau of Engraving and Printing produces over 9 billion Federal Reserve notes per year. Each note must maintain unfirm consistency for both security features and print quality. The quality control process necessary to assure the uniform nature of US currency requires a significant multi-tiered approach. Based on innovative optoelectronic techniques, individual security features are examined as a critical element during each phase of the production process. Print quality standards must also be strictly maintained and monitored to assure the uniformity of the most popular printed item in the world. This presentation describes the approach and some of the techniques developed and implemented in-house to carry out the necessary monitoring and control.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of a movable tool in the hydroforming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palumbo, Gianfranco; Tricarico, Luigi; Zhang, Shi-Hong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the production of stainless steel hemi-toroidal parts has been investigated using three different processes: the conventional stamping, the standard sheet hydroforming and the hydroforming adopting a movable die (MD) which can have a vertical stroke and whose shape completes the fe...

  16. Stress analysis of biomass fuel molding machine piston type stamping forming cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established the ram biomass straw machine as the analysis object in this paper,the molding machine cones of stress in the forming process of the analysis of the system. We used pottery instead of Wear-resistant cast iron for improving the performance of forming sleeve. The structure of the forming sleeve was analyzed with the mechanical module of a soft named Pro/engineer in this paper. The result indicated that the program was feasible. With the sensitivity analysis we identified the suitable angle for the sleeve.

  17. The effect of tooling deformation on process control in multistage metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havinga, Jos; van den Boogaard, Ton

    2016-10-01

    Forming of high-strength steels leads to high loads within the production process. In multistage metal forming, the loads in different process stages are transferred to the other stages through elastic deformation of the stamping press. This leads to interactions between process steps, affecting the process forces in each stage and the final geometry of the product. When force measurements are used for control of the metal forming process, it is important to understand these interactions. In his work, interactions within an industrial multistage forming process are investigated. Cutting, deepdrawing, forging and bending steps are performed in the production process. Several test runs of a few thousand products each were performed to gather information about the process. Statistical methods are used to analyze the measurements. Based on the cross-correlation between the force measurements of different stages, it can be shown that the interactions between the process steps are caused by elastic deformation of the tooling and the stamping press.

  18. Constitutive Modeling of High-Temperature Flow Behavior of an Nb Micro-alloyed Hot Stamping Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiqi; Feng, Ding; Huang, Yunhua; Wei, Shizhong; Mohrbacher, Hardy; Zhang, Yue

    2016-03-01

    The thermal deformation behavior and constitutive models of an Nb micro-alloyed 22MnB5 steel were investigated by conducting isothermal uniaxial tensile tests at the temperature range of 873-1223 K with strain rates of 0.1-10 s-1. The results indicated that the investigated steel showed typical work hardening and dynamic recovery behavior during hot deformation, and the flow stress decreased with a decrease in strain rate and/or an increase in temperature. On the basis of the experimental data, the modified Johnson-Cook (modified JC), modified Norton-Hoff (modified NH), and Arrhenius-type (AT) constitutive models were established for the subject steel. However, the flow stress values predicted by these three models revealed some remarkable deviations from the experimental values for certain experimental conditions. Therefore, a new combined modified Norton-Hoff and Arrhenius-type constitutive model (combined modified NH-AT model), which accurately reflected both the work hardening and dynamic recovery behavior of the subject steel, was developed by introducing the modified parameter k ɛ. Furthermore, the accuracy of these constitutive models was assessed by the correlation coefficient, the average absolute relative error, and the root mean square error, which indicated that the flow stress values computed by the combined modified NH-AT model were highly consistent with the experimental values (R = 0.998, AARE = 1.63%, RMSE = 3.85 MPa). The result confirmed that the combined modified NH-AT model was suitable for the studied Nb micro-alloyed hot stamping steel. Additionally, the practicability of the new model was also verified using finite element simulations in ANSYS/LS-DYNA, and the results confirmed that the new model was practical and highly accurate.

  19. Effects of Manufacturing Process in Crash Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šašek J.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an impact of a manufacturing, which can significantly change real parts behavior. The influence of technology process is neglected in regular simulations. However, advanced finite elements solvers make possible to involve themanufacturing process in final simulations. It brings distortions and initial distribution of stress and strain into simulations. The possibilities are demonstrated on a crash simulation of a simple box-beam, where stamping and welding processes and spring-back are considered. All mentioned operations are performed in Virtual Performance Solution. The effects of manufacturing process are discussed with a respect to common simulation practice at the end of the paper.

  20. Optimization of a Classical Stamping Progression by Modal Correction of Anisotropy Ears

    CERN Document Server

    Ledoux, Y; Samper, Serge; 10.1115/1.2769730

    2010-01-01

    This work is a development from the Inetforsmep European project. We proposed to realize a global optimization of a deep drawing industrial progression (made of several stages) for a cup manufacture. The objectives of the process were the thickness decrease and the geometrical parameters (especially the height). This paper improves on this previous work in the aim of mastering the contour error. From the optimal configuration, we expect to cut down the amount of the needed material and the number of forming operations. Our action is focused on the appearance of unexpected undulations (ears) located on the rim of the cups during forming due to a nonuniform crystallographic texture. Those undulations can cause a significant amount of scraps, productivity loss, and cost during manufacture. In this paper, this phenomenon causes the use of four forming operations for the cup manufacture. The aim is to cut down from four to two forming stages by defining an optimal blank (size and shape). The advantage is to reduce...

  1. Stamp Collecting Bamboo Bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Bamboo is used for construction materials. papermaking, household implements, crafts and as ornamental plants. Records about the use of bamboo can be found in inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells dating

  2. Time Synchronization/Stamping Method with Visible Light Communication and Energy Harvesting Methods for Wireless Sensor Network Inside Ariane 5 Vehicle Equipment Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesuma, Hendra; Niederkleine, Kris; Schmale, Sebastian; Ahobala, Tejas; Paul, Steffen; Sebald, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    In this work we design and implement efficient time synchronization/stamping method for Wireless Sensor Network inside the Vehicle Equipment Bay (VEB) of the ARIANE 5. The sensor nodes in the network do not require real time clock (RTC) hardware to store and stamp each measurement data performed by the sensors. There will be only the measurement sequence information, previous time (clock) information, measurement data and its related data protocol information sent back to the Access Point (AP). This lead to less data transmission, less energy and less time required by the sensor nodes to operate and also leads to longer battery life time. The Visible Light Communication (VLC) is used, to provide energy, to synchronize time and to deliver the commands to the sensor nodes in the network. By employing star network topology, a part of solar cell as receiver, the conventional receiver (RF/Infrared) is neglected to reduce amount of hardware and energy consumption. The infrared transmitter on the sensor node is deployed to minimize the electromagnetic interference in the launcher and does not require a complicated circuit in comparison to a RF transmitter.

  3. Research and manufacture of HSHP series high speed hot stamping hydraulic press%高速热冲压液压机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张星

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of research and manufacture of HSHP series high speed hot stamping hydraulic press has been pointed out in the text.The general design scheme of the press has been defined.The hydraulic principle and application of this kind of hydraulic press has been described in detail.The success of research and manufacture of press can provide high-performance equipment to the research of hot stamping technique in and out of China.The production efficiency of the press has been improved and the energy cost has been reduced,which has gained the satisfaction of the customers in and out of China.%提出了研制高速热冲压液压机的必要性,确定了高速热冲压液压机的总体设计方案,详述了此类液压机的液压原理及其应用.该产品的研制成功,给国内热冲压成形工艺的研究提供了高性能的设备,同时提高了液压机的生产效率,降低了液压机的能耗,得到了国内外广大客户的认可.

  4. [Inequities in access to food stamps and meal vouchers in Brazil: an analysis of the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2016-03-01

    Food stamps and meal vouchers can determine workers' dietary choices. The study aimed to assess the coverage of these benefits in Brazil and their distribution according to the beneficiaries' socio-demographic and regional characteristics, using data from the Brazilian Household Budgets Survey, 2008-2009. Eligibility criteria were having an occupation and a private or government job, including domestic or temporary work in rural areas. Only 3.2% of eligible individuals reported receiving such benefits. Highest coverage rates were verified with the Southeast region, urban areas, male gender, employment in the private sector, and monthly earnings > five times the minimum wage. The mean monthly amount of such benefits was R$ 177.20 (US$ 100 at the 2009 exchange rate). After adjusting for other variables, the highest amounts were associated with male gender, higher salaries, the Northeast and Central regions, and employment in the public sector. This first analysis of the national coverage of food stamps and meal vouchers showed that a large share of Brazilian workers lack access or have unequal access to such benefits.

  5. 6.25m 捣固焦炉配煤结构研究%Study on coal blending structure for 6. 25m stamp-charging battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明

    2014-01-01

    通过开展各单种煤煤质分析、结焦性能及配合煤细度研究,结合40kg 试验焦炉数据和1750m3钒钛高炉对焦炭质量的要求,进行了6.25m 捣固焦炉工业论证试验,提出了适用于钒钛高炉冶炼用焦炭经济性配煤结构,充分发挥了捣固炼焦优势。%With the study on each individual coal quality,coking characteristic and coal fineness,and with reference the data obtained from 40kg pilot coke oven battery and quality requirement to coke of 1 750m3 vanadium-titanium blast furnace,6. 25m stamp-charging coke oven battery is undergone in-dustrial demonstrating test. An optimum and economic coal blending structure for vanadium-titanium blast furnace is proposed,which can fully play the advantage of stamp-charging coke oven battery.

  6. 上出件冲模外翻式接盘结构设计%Design of automatic reclaiming device for upper ejector stamping die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨程; 赵升吨; 章建军

    2011-01-01

    在对上出件冲模结构特点进行分析的基础上,提出了出件结构应满足的要求,在对连杆结构进行简单改进后设计了外翻式出件结构,该结构利用冲床滑块的动力自动运行,并能适应不同的模具高度.利用Pro/E对结构的运动进行了仿真,证明了外翻式出件结构的有效性.%Based on analysis of the characteristics of upper ejector stamping die, the features of reclaiming device were pointed out. A kind of automatic reclaiming device based on the connecting rod was designed. Sliding block of the press was taken as power source of the device, which can be used in different die height The motion simulation was carried out in Pro/Engineering, which shows the validity of the reclaiming device in upper ejector stamping die.

  7. 烟用接装纸烫印面积比的两种计算方法%Two Methods for Calculating Stamping Area Ratio of Tipping Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩云辉; 韩磊; 翟玉俊; 叶长文; 马永峰

    2012-01-01

    Photoshop software and I mage J software were used to calculate the stamping area ratio on tipping paper, and the accuracy, repeatability and application range of the two methods were compared. The results showed that: 1) For most kinds of tipping paper, the stamping area ratio could be calculated accurately by either of the two methods with an error of less than 0.62% in addition to low cost and good repeatability; 2) Photoshop method was more accurate and widely available, while ImageJ method was more efficient.%为准确测定烟用接装纸烫印区域的面积比例,采用Photoshop软件和ImageJ软件进行计算,并探讨了两种方法的准确性、重复性和适用范围.结果表明,对于绝大多数接装纸,两种方法都能准确地计算出烫印面积比,方法误差小于0.62%,且成本低、重复性好.通过比较发现,Photoshop法计算更准确,适用范围更广;而ImageJ法计算更快捷.

  8. High speed stamping thermal analysis of automotive covering parts and tis application in synchronous engineering%汽车覆盖件高速冲压热分析及其在同步工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志氏; 覃开宇; 何述平; 陈立军; 赵凌云

    2012-01-01

    从板料成形时热效应方面出发,推导了板料高速冲压时温升的理论计算公式,研究了高速冲压成形时板料内部的温度分布云图,结合高速冲压生产时出现的产品缺陷与模具失效分析,提出一种基于热分析的同步工程分析方法,为汽车覆盖件高速冲压生产技术研究奠定理论基础。%From the thermal effects when sheet metal forming,deduce calculation of theoretic for temperature raising in high speed stamping,research the temperature distribution cloud for sheet metal interior in high speed stamp modeling,combine the product defects and mold failure analysis appears in high speed stamp production.Put forward synchronous engineering analysis method based on thermal analysis,provide theoritical foundation for production technology research of automotive covering parts high speed stamping.

  9. INFLUENCE OF THE THERMAL PROCESS STAGE ON THE SIZE OF VALID GRAIN OF CONSTRUCTIONAL CARBURIZED STEEL GRADE 20CHN3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Rudenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies of the kinetics of changes in actual grains during technological process at different stages of the manufacture of parts with the use of a universal metallographic etchant to identify borders of valid grains in rolling and stamping in carburizing layers and core parts made of alloy structure steel grades are presented.

  10. 奥巴马特色鲜明的精兵战略%Obama Puts His Stamp On Strategy For A Leaner Military

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabeth Bumiller; Thom Shanker; 李凤芹

    2012-01-01

    President Obama has for the first time put his own stamp on an all-encompassing2 American military policy by turning from the grinding3 ground wars that he inherited from the Bush administration and refocusing on what he described as a smaller, more agile4 force across Asia, the Pacific and the Middle East.In an unusual appearance at the Pentagon briefing room on Thursday, Mr. Obama outlined a new national defense strategy driven by three realities: the *winding down5 0f a decade of war in Iraq and Afghanistan, a fiscal crisis demanding hundreds of billions of dollars in Pentagon budget cuts and a rising threat from China and Iran.

  11. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS model: a pollen production model for regional emission and transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Duhl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A pollen model that simulates the timing and production of wind-dispersed allergenic pollen by terrestrial, temperate vegetation has been developed to quantify how pollen occurrence may be affected by climate change and to investigate how pollen can interact with anthropogenic pollutants to affect human health. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS model is driven by local meteorological conditions and is designed to be sensitive to climate shifts, as well as flexible with respect to the vegetation species and plant functional types (trees, grasses, etc. represented and the climate zones simulated. The initial focus for the model is the simulation of the pollen emission potential of important allergenic tree and grass species that typically flower between March–June in Southern California (S. CA, which is characterized by moderate Mediterranean and oceanic climate zones as well as regions of arid desert and arid steppe. Vegetation cover and species composition data are obtained from numerous datasets and a database of allergenic vegetation species, their pollen production potential and relative allergenicities has been developed. For the selected allergenic species and spring-early summer simulation period, temperature is the main driver controlling the timing of pollen release, while precipitation (and temperature, for some species controls the magnitude of pollen produced. The model provides species-specific pollen potential maps for each day of the simulation period; these are then used by a pollen transport model to simulate ambient pollen concentrations as described in a companion paper (Zhang et al., 2013a, which also presents model evaluation results for the S. CA model domain. The STaMPS model was also used to quantify the possible impact of climate change on pollen season under the IPCC SRES A1B scenario as simulated by the ECHAM5 global climate model. Current (1995–2004 and future (2045–2054

  12. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model: a pollen production model for regional emission and transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhl, T. R.; Zhang, R.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.; Zhang, Y.; Salathé, E.

    2013-04-01

    A pollen model that simulates the timing and production of wind-dispersed allergenic pollen by terrestrial, temperate vegetation has been developed to quantify how pollen occurrence may be affected by climate change and to investigate how pollen can interact with anthropogenic pollutants to affect human health. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model is driven by local meteorological conditions and is designed to be sensitive to climate shifts, as well as flexible with respect to the vegetation species and plant functional types (trees, grasses, etc.) represented and the climate zones simulated. The initial focus for the model is the simulation of the pollen emission potential of important allergenic tree and grass species that typically flower between March-June in Southern California (S. CA), which is characterized by moderate Mediterranean and oceanic climate zones as well as regions of arid desert and arid steppe. Vegetation cover and species composition data are obtained from numerous datasets and a database of allergenic vegetation species, their pollen production potential and relative allergenicities has been developed. For the selected allergenic species and spring-early summer simulation period, temperature is the main driver controlling the timing of pollen release, while precipitation (and temperature, for some species) controls the magnitude of pollen produced. The model provides species-specific pollen potential maps for each day of the simulation period; these are then used by a pollen transport model to simulate ambient pollen concentrations as described in a companion paper (Zhang et al., 2013a), which also presents model evaluation results for the S. CA model domain. The STaMPS model was also used to quantify the possible impact of climate change on pollen season under the IPCC SRES A1B scenario as simulated by the ECHAM5 global climate model. Current (1995-2004) and future (2045-2054) meteorological conditions

  13. A new approach for improved time and position measurements for TOF-PET: Time-stamping of the photo-electrons using analogue SiPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Doroud, K

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) of the 511 keV gammas brings an important reduction of statistical noise in the PET image, with higher precision time measurements producing clearer images. The common method of coupling a photodetector to scintillating crystals is to have two matching matrices, with a one-to-one coupling between the crystal and the photodetector. We propose a new geometry based on analogue strip SiPMs reading out a scintillator cut into slabs. This technique allows the time stamping of individual photo-electrons and extracts the best time resolution using a specific algorithm. Here we present the results from the first ‘slab module’ test.

  14. The design of a nanolithographic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Matthew Steven

    This research delineates the design of a nanolithographic process for nanometer scale surface patterning. The process involves the combination of serial atomic force microscope (AFM) based nanolithography with the parallel patterning capabilities of soft lithography. The union of these two techniques provides for a unique approach to nanoscale patterning that establishes a research knowledge base and tools for future research and prototyping. To successfully design this process a number of separate research investigations were undertaken. A custom 3-axis AFM with feedback control on three positioning axes of nanometer precision was designed in order to execute nanolithographic research. This AFM system integrates a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) environment to allow for the direct synthesis of nanostructures and patterns using a virtual design interface. This AFM instrument was leveraged primarily to study anodization nanolithography (ANL), a nanoscale patterning technique used to generate local surface oxide layers on metals and semiconductors. Defining research focused on the automated generation of complex oxide nanoscale patterns as directed by CAD/CAM design as well as the implementation of tip-sample current feedback control during ANL to increase oxide uniformity. Concurrently, research was conducted concerning soft lithography, primarily in microcontact printing (muCP), and pertinent experimental and analytic techniques and procedures were investigated. Due to the masking abilities of the resulting oxide patterns from ANL, the results of AFM based patterning experiments are coupled with micromachining techniques to create higher aspect ratio structures at the nanoscale. These relief structures are used as master pattern molds for polymeric stamp formation to reproduce the original in a parallel fashion using muCP stamp formation and patterning. This new method of master fabrication provides for a useful alternative to

  15. 机织复合材料双球型冲压的有限元模拟%Forming Simulation of Textile Composite Stamping on Double Dome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zia-Ur-Rehman; 彭雄奇; 石少卿; 丁纺纺

    2011-01-01

    The paper presented a fully continuum mechanics-based approach for stamping simulation of textile fiber reinforced composites by using finite element (FE) method. A non-orthogonal constitutive model was used to represent the anisotropic mechanical behavior of textile composites under large shear deformation during stamping. Simulation was performed on a balanced plain weave composite over a benchmark double dome device. A user material subroutine UMAT for the woven composite was developed for commercial FE package ABAQUS/Standard to implement the algorithm.The main advantage of this approach lies in its ease execution whilst computationally effective. Simulation results show good agreement with experimental output in terms of a number of parameters selected for comparison.%利用基于连续介质力学的有限元法对机织复合材料织物的冲压过程进行了模拟仿真.一个非正交本构模型被用来描述机织复合材料在大变形下由于经纱和纬纱之间角度变化所引起的非线性各向异性材料行为.利用双球形基准冲压模拟装置对平纹机织复合材料进行常温下的冲压成形模拟仿真,编写了ABAQUS/Standard中的用户材料子程序来描述机织复合材料的材料属性.模拟结果与实验结果对比表明,机织复合材料冲压成形模拟分析结果与实验结果具有良好的一致性.

  16. Iterative process control and sensor evaluation for deep drawing tools with integrated piezoelectric actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bäume Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the design-driven increase in complexity of forming car body parts, it becomes more difficult to ensure a stable forming process. Piezoelectric actuators can influence the material flow of stamping parts effectively. In this article the implementation of piezoelectric actuators in a large scale sheet metal forming tool of a car manufacturer is described. Additionally, it is shown that part quality can be assessed with the help of triangulation laser sensors, which are mounted on the blankholder. The resulting flange draw-in signals were processed and used to adopt the applying actuator force iteratively to reduce the occurrence of cracks. It was shown that process control helped to improve the quality of the stamping parts significantly.

  17. Investigation of Design and Manufacture in Hot Stamping Tools with Conformal Cooling Channels Based on Simulation and 3D-printing Technology%基于数值模拟和3D打印的热冲压模具随形水道设计制造研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺斌; 李显达; 胡平; 司阳磊; 盈亮; 张向奎

    2016-01-01

    To against the uneven cooling of traditional hot stamping tool with opposite deep-hole drilling cooling system, a new design method of hot stamping tool with conformal cooling channels is put forward, which is based on multi-field couplings in heat transfer theory and simulated by Star-ccm+. By taking the insert of a B-pillar tool on the self-developed rainbow electric car as the research object and comparing the cooling effects of traditional hole drilling and some newly proposed cooling designs, a new optimization strategy for B-pillar tool insert with longitudinal conformal cooling channel arrangement is applied and the temperature distribution of work surface before and after optimization has been analyzed. Hot stamping tool with conformal cooling channels is fabricated by means of combining 3D printing technique of precoated sand with traditional sand casting. This hot stamping tool with optimized longitudinal conformal design overcome the cooling limitations of parallel conformal designs, such as maximum temperature of work surface decreases by 47.4%, average temperature decreases by 40.9% and temperature uniformity improves by 1.8%. According to the design process of longitudinal conformal cooling channel, the parameters of channel shape and location such asR, H, rare set as optimization variables and the surface temperature field will serve as the optimization object. The optimization result shows that the maximum temperature of work surface decreases by 49.8%, and the average temperature decreases by 46.8%, and the temperature standard deviation decreases by 67.5%, while the temperature uniformity increases by 1.9%. It is found that this hot stamping tool with conformal cooling channels upgrades production efficiency and prolongs service life-span, furthermore, the uniformity of mechanical properties of hot stamping parts is improved.%针对传统热冲压模具深孔对钻冷却系统冷却不均的现象,基于热冲压过程的多场耦合传热理

  18. LS-DYNA Simulation of Hemispherical-punch Stamping Process Using an Efficient Algorithm for Continuum Damage Based Elastoplastic Constitutive Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajegheh, Nima; Abedrabbo, Nader; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2005-08-01

    An efficient integration algorithm for continuum damage based elastoplastic constitutive equations is implemented in LS-DYNA. The isotropic damage parameter is defined as the ratio of the damaged surface area over the total cross section area of the representative volume element. This parameter is incorporated into the integration algorithm as an internal variable. The developed damage model is then implemented in the FEM code LS-DYNA as user material subroutine (UMAT). Pure stretch experiments of a hemispherical punch are carried out for copper sheets and the results are compared against the predictions of the implemented damage model. Evaluation of damage parameters is carried out and the optimized values that correctly predicted the failure in the sheet are reported. Prediction of failure in the numerical analysis is performed through element deletion using the critical damage value. The set of failure parameters which accurately predict the failure behavior in copper sheets compared to experimental data is reported as well.

  19. Thermoforming Process of Stampings made of Ultrahigh Strength Steel Sheet%超高强度钢板冲压件热成形工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单忠德; 徐虹

    2009-01-01

    热成形技术是近年来出现的一项专门用于生产汽车高强度钢板冲压件的先进制造技术。本文介绍了该技术的原理,讨论了材料、工艺参数、模具等热成形工艺的主要影响因素,完成了汽车典型件热成形工艺试验试制,获得了合格的成形件。检测结果表明,成形件的微观组织为理想的条状马氏体,其抗拉强度、硬度等性能指标满足生产要求。

  20. 薄层色谱法鉴定原子印油印文盖印形成时间%Identifying stamping time of atomic seal ink on paper by thin layer chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌燕; 潘自勤; 祁堃; 荣静月; 陈浩

    2012-01-01

    建立了用薄层色谱法鉴定原子印油印文盖印形成时间的新方法.详细研究了萃取剂、反应时间、反应温度等的影响,建立了萃取动力学曲线.在优化条件下,盖印时间在36个月内的新鲜原子印油印文,萃取速率值与盖印时间的线性方程为y=-0.0166x+0.7025(R2=0.9554),检测下线为3个月.用该方法对10余种原子印文盖印形成时间进行了鉴定,均有同样结果.%A novel method for identifying the stamping time of atomic seal ink on paper by thin layer chromato-graph was established. The influences of extractants, reaction time and reaction temperature were studied, and the dynamic extraction curves were plotted. Under the optimized conditions, the linear regression equation of the extraction rate and stamping time is y = 0. 166x + 0. 7025 (R2 = 0. 9554) for atomic seal ink stamped within 36 months with the lower detection limit of 3 months. The method has been used for identifying stamping times of more than 10 atomic seal ink of different brands and the similar results have been obtained.

  1. 浅谈6.25m捣固焦炉推焦车的电气控制%Introduction to Electric Control System of 6.25 m Stamp-charging Coke Oven Pusher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武海虹

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the 6 .25 m stamping coke oven pusher ,including electrical structure ,speed control mode ,program structure diagram ,operation mode and automatic positioning system .%详细介绍了6.25 m捣固焦炉设备之推焦车的电气结构、调速方式、程序框图、操作方式及自动定位系统。

  2. Nature of Surface Changes in Stamping Tools of Gray and Ductile Cast Iron During Gas and Plasma Nitrocarburizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roliński, E.; Konieczny, A.; Sharp, G.

    2009-11-01

    Two cast irons, pearlitic-ferritic gray and ferritic ductile, were plasma and gas nitrocarburized at the same temperature and for the same processing time to produce a compound zone of about 10-14 μm thick. It was demonstrated that both processes caused changes in the surface roughness of the irons, and the most dramatic increase of roughness was observed after gas nitrocarburizing of the gray cast iron. It was shown that the primary reason that the results were not the same is the difference in the nitriding mechanism. Significant penetration of the surface voids and imperfections between the graphite particles and the metallic matrix by ammonia molecules led to the formation of a locally thicker compound zone and a bulging of the metallic matrix above the surface. This phenomenon did not occur in the plasma process and as a result the surface changes were much smaller than in the gas process.

  3. QuikForm: Intelligent deformation processing of structural alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, R.J.; Wellman, G.W.

    1994-09-01

    There currently exists a critical need for tools to enhance the industrial competitiveness and agility of US industries involved in deformation processing of structural alloys. In response to this need, Sandia National Laboratories has embarked upon the QuikForm Initiative. The goal of this program is the development of computer-based tools to facilitate the design of deformation processing operations. The authors are currently focusing their efforts on the definition/development of a comprehensive system for the design of sheet metal stamping operations. The overall structure of the proposed QuikForm system is presented, and the focus of their thrust in each technical area is discussed.

  4. Application of delay nitrogen spring system in stamping dies for automobiles%延时氮气弹簧在汽车冲模中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝顺

    2015-01-01

    The working principle of delay nitrogen spring system and its application in stamping dies for automobiles were presented in details. The local impact of nitrogen spring on the part in the return stroke of machine tool slider is effectively controlled, in which the nitrogen spring does not springback or has just a little springback and delayed return. The application protects the product and extends the die service life.%详细介绍了延时氮气弹簧系统的工作原理及在汽车冲模中的应用,机床滑块回程时氮气弹簧对制件的局部冲击进行有效控制,使氮气弹簧不回弹或者微小回弹,延时回程,具有保护制件及延长模具使用寿命的作用。

  5. Use of Raman microscopy and band-target entropy minimization analysis to identify dyes in a commercial stamp. Implications for authentication and counterfeit detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Effendi; Garland, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Raman microscopy was used in mapping mode to collect more than 1000 spectra in a 100 microm x 100 microm area from a commercial stamp. Band-target entropy minimization (BTEM) was then employed to unmix the mixture spectra in order to extract the pure component spectra of the samples. Three pure component spectral patterns with good signal-to-noise ratios were recovered, and their spatial distributions were determined. The three pure component spectral patterns were then identified as copper phthalocyanine blue, calcite-like material, and yellow organic dye material by comparison to known spectral libraries. The present investigation, consisting of (1) advanced curve resolution (blind-source separation) followed by (2) spectral data base matching, readily suggests extensions to authenticity and counterfeit studies of other types of commercial objects. The presence or absence of specific observable components form the basis for assessment. The present spectral analysis (BTEM) is applicable to highly overlapping spectral information. Since a priori information such as the number of components present and spectral libraries are not needed in BTEM, and since minor signals arising from trace components can be reconstructed, this analysis offers a robust approach to a wide variety of material problems involving authenticity and counterfeit issues.

  6. Knowledge Based Cloud FE simulation - data-driven material characterization guidelines for the hot stamping of aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ailing; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jun; El Fakir, Omer; Masen, Marc; Wang, Liliang

    2016-08-01

    The Knowledge Based Cloud FEA (KBC-FEA) simulation technique allows multiobjective FE simulations to be conducted on a cloud-computing environment, which effectively reduces computation time and expands the capability of FE simulation software. In this paper, a novel functional module was developed for the data mining of experimentally verified FE simulation results for metal forming processes obtained from KBC-FE. Through this functional module, the thermo-mechanical characteristics of a metal forming process were deduced, enabling a systematic and data-driven guideline for mechanical property characterization to be developed, which will directly guide the material tests for a metal forming process towards the most efficient and effective scheme. Successful application of this data-driven guideline would reduce the efforts for material characterization, leading to the development of more accurate material models, which in turn enhance the accuracy of FE simulations.

  7. Fabrication of TiO2/PU Superhydrophobic Film by Nanoparticle Assisted Cast Micromolding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zheng, Jianyong; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Lotus-like surfaces have attracted great attentions in recent years for their wide applications in water repellency, anti-fog and self-cleaning. This paper introduced a novel process, nanoparticle assisted cast micromolding, to create polymer film with superhydrophobic surface. Briefly, waterborne polyurethane (WPU) sol and nano TiO2/WPU sol were each cast onto the featured surfaces of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps replicated from fresh lotus leaves. After being dried and peeled off from the stamps, PU and TiO2/WPU replica films were created respectively. To the former, only high hydrophobic property was observed with static water contact angle (WCA) at 142.5 degrees. While to the later, superhydrophobic property was obtained with WCA more than 150 degrees and slide angle less than 3 degrees. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed that the PU replica film only had the micro-papillas and the TiO2/PU replica film not only had micro papillas but also had a large number of nano structures distributed on and between the micro-papillas. Such nano and micro hierarchical structures were very similar with those on the natural lotus leaf surface, thus was the main reason for causing superhydrophobic property. Although an elastic PDMS stamp from lotus leaf was used in herein process, hard molds may also be used in theory. This study supplied an alternative technique for large scale production of polymeric films with superhydrophobic.

  8. Chemical free device fabrication of two dimensional van der Waals materials based transistors by using one-off stamping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Tack, E-mail: 023273@kist.re.kr, E-mail: stunalren@gmail.com [Center of Opto-Electronic Materials and Devices, Post-Silicon Semiconductor Institute Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Kook [Department of Nanomaterials and Nano Science, Korea University of Science and Technology (KUST), Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Materials and Life Science Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Do Kyung, E-mail: dkhwang@kist.re.kr [Center of Opto-Electronic Materials and Devices, Post-Silicon Semiconductor Institute Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials and Nano Science, Korea University of Science and Technology (KUST), Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-20

    We report on a chemical free one-off imprinting method to fabricate two dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdWs) materials based transistors. Such one-off imprinting technique is the simplest and effective way to prevent unintentional chemical reaction or damage of 2D vdWs active channel during device fabrication process. 2D MoS{sub 2} nanosheets based transistors with a hexagonal-boron-nitride (h-BN) passivation layer, prepared by one-off imprinting, show negligible variations of transfer characteristics after chemical vapor deposition process. In addition, this method enables the fabrication of all 2D MoS{sub 2} transistors consisting of h-BN gate insulator, and graphene source/drain and gate electrodes without any chemical damage.

  9. Step by step control of a deep drawing process with piezo-electric actuators in serial operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bäume Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the design-driven increase in complexity of forming car body parts, it becomes more difficult to ensure a stable forming process. Piezoelectric actuators can influence the material flow of stamping parts effectively. In this article the implementation of piezoelectric actuators in a large scale sheet metal forming tool of a car manufacturer is described. Additionally, it is shown that part quality can be assessed with the help of triangulation laser sensors, which are mounted on the blankholder. The resulting flange draw-in signals were used to reduce the occurrence of wrinkling or the rate of cracking. It was shown that process control improved the quality of the stamping parts significantly.

  10. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  11. Sunburn related to UV radiation exposure, age, sex, occupation, and sun bed use based on time-stamped personal dosimetry and sun behavior diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Sandby-Møller, Jane; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2005-04-01

    To assess when sunburn occurs and who experiences sunburn by personal UV dosimetry and diaries. Open prospective observational study. University hospital. A convenience sample of 340 Danish volunteers: children, adolescents, indoor workers, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners (age range, 4-68 years). Subjects recorded sunburn and sun-exposure behavior in diaries and carried personal, electronic, wristwatch UV radiation (UVR) dosimeters that measured time-stamped UVR doses continuously for a median of 119 days covering 346 sun-years (1 sun-year equals 1 subject participating during 1 summer half-year). A typical sunburn day was a day off work (91%; odds ratio, 4.1) with risk behavior (sunbathing/exposing shoulders) (79%; odds ratio, 15.9) in May, June, or July (90%) for 6.4 exposure hours (interquartile range, 5-7.7 hours), of which 2.8 hours fell between noon and 3 pm. Subjects had a median of 1 sunburn per sun-year; adolescents, sun worshippers, and indoor workers had more than children, golfers, and gardeners (Ppersons had more risk-behavior days and lower skin type (Ppersons. The median UVR doses received were significantly higher on sunburn days than on nonsunburn days with risk behavior (P<.01). There was a significant correlation between sunburn size and severity; sunburn and sunscreen use; and sunburn and sun-bed use (P<.01 for all 3 comparisons). Sunburn was highly correlated with risk behavior. Reduction of risk-behavior days and/or exposure hours around noon can reduce sunburn. Sunburn was not found during breaks on normal full-time indoor work or school days.

  12. Topology optimization of high strength steel stamping die in consideration of offset load%考虑模具偏载的高强度钢板冲压模具拓扑优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐栋恺; 汤禹成; 陈军

    2009-01-01

    高强度钢板在车身上的广泛应用使得冲压模具受力恶劣,在模具设计时往往会凭借经验人为放大安全系数以保证模具安全,造成模具整体质量增加,间接造成其制造成本和使用成本上升.为了解决上述问题,以LS-DYNA和Hyperworks作为研究平台,提出了一种以降低质量为目的的模具结构优化方法,实现阶梯形底面盒形件拉深模具的压边圈总质量下降28%,并通过物理试验对优化结果进行了验证.研究表明,拓扑优化技术是减轻冲压模具质量的有效方法.%The forced states of stamping die became much worse because of the extensive ap-plication of high-strength steel (HSS) in rehicles. According to the situation, engineers ten-ded to enlarge the safety factor to guarantee the normal operation of stamping die, howev-er, this method had increased the overall die weight directly and raised the manufacturing and operation costs indirectly. In order to solve the problem mentioned above, a die struc-ture optimization method was developed to reduce die weight by LS-DYNA and Hyper-works. By this method, the blank holder of a drawing die for a step-like bottomed box had realized weight reduction by 28%, and the optimized results had been verified by experi-ments. This research showed that topology optimization technology was an effective way to reduce the weight of stamping die.

  13. ANALYSIS OF RUBBER FORMING PROCESS OF FIRE BARRIER FROM TITANIUM CP2 ALLOY FOR AW 139 HELICOPTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Krakowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents conditions of forming products from titanium sheets by means of rubber stamping method. After introducing the issues connected with these elements manufacturing for aviation industry, considering standards and legal regulations, technological problems occurring during forming deep stiffening ribs. The results in the characteristic curvatures and distortion in the final products were generated in the process heterogeneous internal stress state. The Authors aimed at explaining and presenting of solutions limiting occurrence of chosen shape faults, which disqualify these products application in aviation industry. The proposed solutions significantly reduced the incidence of these unfavorable phenomena. The modified method of rubber stamping of firewall from titanium alloy CP-2 sheet was successfully implemented in manufacturing conditions of PZL Swidnik.

  14. 基于Gurson模型的镁合金板材温热冲压成形研究%Thermal stamping formability of magnesium alloy sheet based on the Gurson model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞泽; 陈章华; 臧勇

    2014-01-01

    在Gurson损伤模型的基础上,采用有限元数值模拟与温热冲压实验相结合的方法,对镁合金板材温热冲压成形过程中的材料损伤过程进行了预测。考虑了板材的塑性各向异性行为,通过用户自定义材料子程序VUMAT将损伤模型嵌入到有限元软件ABAQUS/Explicit中。采用单轴拉伸试验数据与有限元数值模拟结果进行迭代,确定了Gurson模型所需要的材料参数。使用ABAQUS模拟得到了镁合金板材温热冲压过程中微孔洞的演变及分布规律。通过扫描电子显微镜,对不同温度下的AZ31镁合金板材由孔洞增长和聚合引起的内部损伤演化进行了观察分析。研究结果表明,板材中微孔洞的分布与实验数据相吻合,说明本文所提出的方法可以应用于金属板材温热冲压成形性能预测。%Based on the Gurson damage model, the thermal stamping formability of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet was predicted by employing finite element simulation and thermal stamping test. Taking the plastic anisotropic behavior of the AZ31 sheet into account, the Gurson damage model was implemented in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit by using the user material sub-routine VUMAT. Parameters employed in the Gurson damage model were determined through uniaxial tensile test and numerical itera-tive computation. The evolvement and distribution of micro voids in the AZ31 sheet during thermal stamping were simulated by using ABAQUS. The internal damage evolution due to micro void growth and coalescence developed at different temperatures in the AZ31 sheet was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The predicted micro void distribution agrees well with experimental data. There-fore, this result indicates that the presented approach can be employed to predict the thermal stamping formability of metal sheet.

  15. 简易模具制作冷冲压成形钣金件工艺分析%Technology analysis of cold stamping metal sheet for simple mould manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高悦花; 王云刚

    2012-01-01

    论述了简易模具的设计结构、工作原理以及制作。并对简易模具制作冷冲压成形钣金件的工艺性和对经济的低成本成形模具的需要进行了分析。%Briefly introduce the design structure,working pricinple and manufacture of simple mould.Analyse the technology of cold stamping metal sheet for simple mould manufacture and economic low cost forming mould.

  16. "Green Food" Stamp Ensures Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    AT a shop in Shanghai, a middle-aged woman said she shops there regularly because she could find "Green Food" all the time. An elderly man with white hair and a ruddy complexion is also a regular customer at this shop. "Green Food is great! You can set your mind at rest when you eat it, because it is not polluted," he said.

  17. On the Use of the ISBAS Acronym in InSAR Applications. Comment on Vajedian, S.; Motagh, M.; Nilfouroushan, F. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 8323–8347

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sowter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vajedian et al. [1] present an improved method for the derivation of deformation parameters using satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR data. The method is a modification of the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS method as implemented in the StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers software. The modification includes many steps including the filtering of the differential interferograms, integration with GPS data and advanced phase unwrapping “to overcome a lot of short- and long-wavelength artifacts that are clearly visible in StaMPS results” (cf. [1], p. 8331. The authors refer to this new approach as the Improved SBAS, or ISBAS, method. [...

  18. A Non-Destructive Study of Printing Materials of an Imperial China Green Engraved Coiling Dragon Stamp%清代绿色蟠龙邮票印刷材料无损分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘清; 季金鑫; 姚娜; 王纪刚; 周文华; 周忠; 施继龙

    2016-01-01

    利用超景深三维视频显微镜,激光显微共聚焦拉曼光谱仪和扫描电镜-能谱仪对一张清代绿色蟠龙邮票样品的纸张,油墨等印刷材料进行无损分析。结果表明,该样票采用手工雕刻凹版印刷,所用承印物为长纤维机制纸,未经过涂布,无水印,背胶;纸张填料中含有 Al,Si 等元素,推断纸张填料可能是高岭土(Al2 O3·2SiO2·2H2 O)之类的物质。绿色油墨包含了蓝色普鲁士蓝(Prussian Blue,Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3·14-16 H2 O)和黄色铬酸铅[Lead(Ⅱ)chromate,PbCrO4]颜料,根据印刷色彩学色料减色和色光加色理论分析,邮票样品呈现的绿色是由蓝色颜料普鲁士蓝和黄色颜料铬酸铅混合呈色的结果;油墨填料中含有 Na,Mg, S,Cl,K,Ca,V,Zn,Ba等元素,推断油墨填料为MgCO3,CaCO3,BaSO4等物质。上述三项技术联用,在邮票等纸质品的无损分析中具有广阔的应用前景。%Non-destructive measurement methods including video microscopy (VM),Raman spectrometer (RS),and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS)were employed to analyze the printing materials of a green curled-up dragon stamp sample from the late Qing Dynasty in terms of the paper and ink.The results indicated that the plate-making process of the sample belonged to handcrafted gravure while the slender and dense paper fiber with no coating,water-mark,or gumming.Elements of Al and Si were inspected in fillers of paper,therefore,it could be inferred that kaolin (Al2 O3 · 2SiO2·2H2O)wasthefillerofpaper.GreeninkwasmadeupofbluepigmentPrussianBlue(Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3·14-16H2O)and yellow pigment Lead(II)chromate(PbCrO4 ).According to theories of additive color and subtractive color,ink presented green color due to the effect of Prussian blue and Lead chromate mixed together.Elements of Na,Mg,S,Cl,K,Ca,V,Zn and Ba were measured from fillers of the ink and it could be inferred that MgCO3 ,BaSO4 ,CaCO3 and other substances might be con-tained in ink

  19. Forming process and design of forming die for left and right arm of hinge%铰链左右臂零件成形工艺与模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田博; 陈西凤; 刘汉雄

    2014-01-01

    The original stamping process scheme for the left and right arm of a car front-klappe hinge was introduced. In order to reduce the production cost, the original stamping process and forming die structure were improved. The improved die structure and working process were stated.%介绍了某轿车机盖铰链左右臂原冲压成形工艺方案,为减少生产成本,对原冲压成形工艺和成形模结构进行改进,叙述了改进工艺后的模具结构与模具工作过程,采用改进后的工艺,降低了零件生产成本,提高了生产效率。

  20. Effects of Process Parameters on Replication Accuracy of Microinjection Molded Cyclic Olefins Copolymers Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsuan-Liang; Chen, Chun-Sheng; Lee, Ruey-Tsung; Chen, Shia-Chung; Chien, Rean-Der; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Hwang, Jiun-Ren

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of various processing parameters of microinjection molding on the replication accuracy of the micro featured fluidic platform used for DNA/RNA tests are investigated. LIGA-like processes were utilized to prepare a silicon-based SU-8 photoresist, followed by electroforming to make a Ni-Co-based stamp. A cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) was used as the injection molding material. The molding parameters associated with the replication accuracy of micro channel parts were investigated. It was found that for microinjection molded devices, the replication accuracies of the imprint width and depth increase with increasing of mold temperature, melt temperature, injection velocity, and packing pressure.

  1. Sol-gel materials for optofluidics - process and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm

    2011-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis is concerned with the use of sol-gel materials in optofluidic applications and the physics of DNA molecules in nanoconfinement. The bottom-up formation of solid material, which is provided by the sol-gel process, enables control of the chemical composition and porosity...... of the material. At early stages of gelation, thin gel coatings can be structured by nanoimprint lithography, and purely inorganic silica materials can be obtained by subsequent thermal annealing. The sol-gel process thus constitutes a unique method for nanofabrication of silica materials of special properties....... In this work, sol-gel silica is introduced as a new material class for the fabrication of lab-on-a-chip devices for DNA analysis. An imprint process with a rigid, non-permeable stamp was developed, which enabled fabrication of micro- and nanofluidic silica channels in a single process step without use of any...

  2. Digital Springback Measurement for Stamping Parts Based on Binocular Stereo Vision Measuring Technique%基于双目立体视觉测量技术的冲压件数字化回弹测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路平; 刘斌; 黄常标; 林俊义; 徐正兴; 刘晓辉

    2013-01-01

    针对采用常规检具测量冲压件回弹量存在精度低、费用高、周期长等问题,提出数字化回弹测量方法.研制了基于光栅投影的双目立体视觉测量装置,应用该装置采集获取实际冲压件产品的三维点云数据;采用三步法将点云数据与产品的CAD设计模型匹配对齐,计算点云相对于设计模型在最佳匹配位置的法向偏差量,从而获得回弹量数值.生产实际中的应用表明:所研制的测量装置和数字化回弹测量系统通用性强,能实现对复杂、大型冲压件快速、灵活、精确的三维回弹测量.%To make up the deficiencies such as low accuracy, high cost and long cycle in measuring the springback of stamping parts by using traditional tools, a digital method for measuring the spring-back is proposed in the paper. A binocular stereo vision measuring equipment based on the grating projection method is devised and 3D point cloud data of actual stamping parts is acquired by applying this equipment. The point cloud data and CAD design model are matched and aligned through three steps method. The value of the springback is obtained by calculating the normal deviation distance of point cloud relative to the design model in the best matching position. Practical applications show that the measuring equipment and the digital springback measurement system developed have characteristic of strong generality, and they are able to measure the springback of complex and large stamping parts fast, flexibly and accurately.

  3. Nutrition and Human Needs--1972. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate. Ninety-Second Congress, Second Session. Part 3B--Unused Food Assistance Funds: Food Stamps; Administration Witnesses. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 7 and 22, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs are organized in four parts, the contents of which are as follows. The first part concerns "Unused food assistance funds and food stamps," with opening statements by Senators Percy and McGovern, followed by the presentations of other witnesses. The focus of this section…

  4. Robust Design of Sheet Metal Forming Process Based on Kriging Metamodel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanmin

    2011-08-01

    Nowadays, sheet metal forming processes design is not a trivial task due to the complex issues to be taken into account (conflicting design goals, complex shapes forming and so on). Optimization methods have also been widely applied in sheet metal forming. Therefore, proper design methods to reduce time and costs have to be developed mostly based on computer aided procedures. At the same time, the existence of variations during manufacturing processes significantly may influence final product quality, rendering non-robust optimal solutions. In this paper, a small size of design of experiments is conducted to investigate how a stochastic behavior of noise factors affects drawing quality. The finite element software (LS_DYNA) is used to simulate the complex sheet metal stamping processes. The Kriging metamodel is adopted to map the relation between input process parameters and part quality. Robust design models for sheet metal forming process integrate adaptive importance sampling with Kriging model, in order to minimize impact of the variations and achieve reliable process parameters. In the adaptive sample, an improved criterion is used to provide direction in which additional training samples can be added to better the Kriging model. Nonlinear functions as test functions and a square stamping example (NUMISHEET'93) are employed to verify the proposed method. Final results indicate application feasibility of the aforesaid method proposed for multi-response robust design.

  5. CORRELATION PROCESSING OF DIGITAL OPTICAL IMAGES FOR SOLVING CRIMINALISTIC PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Kozlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation processing of optical digital images of expert research objects is promising to improve the quality, reliability and representativeness of the research. The development of computer algorithms for expert investigations by using correlation analysis methods for solving such problems of criminology, as a comparison of color-tone image parameters impressions of seals and stamps, and measurement of the rifling profile trace of the barrel on the bullet is the purpose of the work. A method and software application for measurement of linear, angular and altitude characteristics of the profile (micro relief of the rifling traces of the barrel on the bullet for judicial-ballistic tests is developed. Experimental results testify to a high overall performance of the developed program application and confirm demanded accuracy of spent measurements. Technique and specialized program application for the comparison of color-tone image parameters impressions of seals and stamps, reflecting degree and character of painting substance distribution in strokes has been developed. It improves presentation and objectivity of tests, and also allows to reduce their carrying out terms. The technique of expert interpretation of correlation analysis results has been offered. Reliability of the received results has been confirmed by experimental researches and has been checked up by means of other methods.

  6. Design of stamping die for the flanging, hole flanging and pressing convex hull of top cover plate%顶罩板翻边翻孔压凸包模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍国柱

    2014-01-01

    The structure of a stamping die for the flanging, hole flanging and pressing con-vex hull of a top cover plate was stated. The key point is the stripping of materials after the inward flanging.%介绍了顶罩板翻边翻孔压凸包模的结构,模具解决了顶罩板的边内翻后卸料问题。实践证明,模具结构设计合理,使用寿命长,满足零件批量生产要求,对同类模具的设计有一定参考作用。

  7. Reason for the black smoke discharged from the chimney of stamp-charging battery and improvement%捣固焦炉烟囱冒黑烟的原因及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞民

    2014-01-01

    分析了捣固焦炉烟囱冒黑烟的原因和主要影响因素,通过优化捣固操作、缩小煤箱宽度和改进配煤结构等措施,推焦电流由150~170A 降低到105~120A,杜绝了焦炉烟囱冒黑烟现象。%The reasons and main influencing factors for the black smoke discharged from the chimney of stamp-charging battery,and corresponding measures such as optimizing operation,narrow the coal bunker and adjusting coal blending structure and so on are taken. As a result,the pushing current is reduced to 105 ~ 120A from 150 ~ 170A,and no black smoke is discharged from the chimney any more.

  8. Optimizing safety control of the traveling of charging car for stamp-charge battery%捣固焦炉装煤车走行安全控制优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于黎黎

    2014-01-01

    针对攀钢3#、4#捣固焦炉装煤车和推焦机的走行系统,分析了现用的防碰撞方法和装置的局限性,提出了使用FK-ULS型激光防碰撞报警器实现装煤车与推焦机走行时的防碰撞解决方案,提高了装煤车、推焦机的走行安全性。%Regarding to the traveling system of charging car and pushing car for stamp -charge battery No.3 and No.4 in PanSteel,the limitation of existing anticollision method and device is analyzed .An anticollision solution using FK-ULS type laser anticollision alarm is proposed , which improves the traveling safety of charging car and pushing car .

  9. Construction about on Practical Design of Stamping Mould of Trimming-piercing Die%浅谈冲压件修边冲孔模之实用设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许伯勇; 曾小虎

    2011-01-01

    本文对冲压件修边冲孔模的材料选用、导向装置、定位装置、限位装置、卸料装置、废料排出、安装定位及模具标识等方面进行了详尽的分析介绍。%This paper mainly introduces the stamping mould of piercing and curing die,from the select of mould material to guiding mechanism,fixing set,limit device,material ejector setting,the disposition of wastes,installation and positioning,mould signs and etc..At last,this paper tries to make an analysis in detail.

  10. Verification of human actions in SBO sequences with LOCA stamps in Westinghouse PWRs; Verificacion de las actuaciones humanas en secuencias de SBO con LOCA de sellos en reactores PWR Westinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Mena Rosell, L.; Jimenez Varas, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Fukushima accident has shown the need for tools and methodologies able to analyze human activities and / or capabilities of portable systems that has given the Spanish plants as a result of the stress tests . In this work we have applied the methodology of integrated safety analysis developed by the CSN , to SBO sequences with LOCA stamp. The aim is to show a methodology for testing the performances of the Emergency Operating Procedures and Guides Severe Accident Management. The simulations were performed with the tool SCAIS coupled to MAAP . The results show that there are human activities that may be beneficial in certain sequences but harmful in others. This type of problem is already known and referred to in the GGAS . However, FSR shows a practical way to check human actions cannot be obtained with other methods.

  11. El sello y registro real en Panamá: la Real Audiencia y Cancillería en el siglo XVI (The royal stamp and record in Panamá: Royal Audience and Chancellery in the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ángeles Sanz García-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente estudio pretende analizar la historia del sello y registro regio en una realidad espacio-temporal concreta, esto es, como elemento fundamental en la constitución de la Audiencia y Cancillería de Panamá durante el siglo XVI. El protagonista central de esta investigación va a ser el sello en sí mismo, abordando todo lo que pudo afectarle en el seno de esta Audiencia y Cancillería, desde su apertura y remisión a las Indias, hasta su custodia, pasando por el análisis de aquellas personas que fueron responsables del mismo y de los efectos que su uso o simple presencia supusieron en lugares tan apartados. El objetivo último es conocer la función y el uso que, este importante medio de validación documental, tuvo en el gobierno de tan lejanas tierras y en la representación de la monarquía.Abstract: The present study tries to analyze royal stamp and record space-time specific, namely, as a key element in the Audience and Chancellery constitution of Panamá during the sixteenth century. The main character is going to be the stamp itself, approaching everything that could impact within this Audience and Chancellery, since opening and dispatch to Indies, to custody, going through review those who were responsible for it and the effects about their use or simple presence which amounted in places as far apart. The ultimate goal is to understand the role and use this important means of document validation had in the government from so remote lands and the representation of monarchy.

  12. El sello y registro real en Panamá: la Real Audiencia y Cancillería en el siglo XVI (The royal stamp and record in Panamá: Royal Audience and Chancellery in the sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz García-Muñoz, Mª Ángeles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente estudio pretende analizar la historia del sello y registro regio en una realidad espacio-temporal concreta, esto es, como elemento fundamental en la constitución de la Audiencia y Cancillería de Panamá durante el siglo XVI. El protagonista central de esta investigación va a ser el sello en sí mismo, abordando todo lo que pudo afectarle en el seno de esta Audiencia y Cancillería, desde su apertura y remisión a las Indias, hasta su custodia, pasando por el análisis de aquellas personas que fueron responsables del mismo y de los efectos que su uso o simple presencia supusieron en lugares tan apartados. El objetivo último es conocer la función y el uso que, este importante medio de validación documental, tuvo en el gobierno de tan lejanas tierras y en la representación de la monarquía. Abstract: The present study tries to analyze royal stamp and record space-time specific, namely, as a key element in the Audience and Chancellery constitution of Panamá during the sixteenth century. The main character is going to be the stamp itself, approaching everything that could impact within this Audience and Chancellery, since opening and dispatch to Indies, to custody, going through review those who were responsible for it and the effects about their use or simple presence which amounted in places as far apart. The ultimate goal is to understand the role and use this important means of document validation had in the government from so remote lands and the representation of monarchy.

  13. Reinar sobre el papel: sellos de placa de Juana I de Castilla durante la primera regencia de Fernando el Católico (Reigning on paper: stamps plate Joanna of Castile during the first regency of Ferdinand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sánchez, Antonio José

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo versa sobre los usos y valores del sello real en los inicios del reinado de Juana I, período de interregno de gran interés desde el punto de vista sigilográfico. Se analiza de qué forma la estrategia política adoptada por el bando fernandino en su lucha por controlar el poder se vio reflejada en sus prácticas sigilográficas y cómo el sello se convirtió en un importante recurso de propaganda. Además, se estudia el sello real insertándolo en su contexto histórico y diplomático, estudiando su papel dentro de las estrategias documentales del partido de Fernando el Católico y su relación con otros elementos del discurso diplomático. Abstact: This article is about the uses and values of the royal seal in periods of interregnum. Specifically focuses on the early reign of Joanna I, moment of great interest from the point of view stamp, because raised to the death of Elizabeth I succession problems were reflected in the form and utilization the royal seal. It analizarde the politics strategy adopted by the fernandino side in their struggle to control the power was reflected in their practices stamps seal an important resource propaganda. In addition, the royal seal insert in its historical context and diplomatic, studying its role in the documentary strategies party Fernando Catholic and its relationship with other elements of diplomatic discourse.

  14. Influence of Manufacturing Processes and Microstructures on the Performance and Manufacturability of Advanced High Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-01

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are performance-based steel grades and their global material properties can be achieved with various steel chemistries and manufacturing processes, leading to various microstructures. In this paper, we investigate the influence of supplier variation and resulting microstructure difference on the overall mechanical properties as well as local formability behaviors of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). For this purpose, we first examined the basic material properties and the transformation kinetics of TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) 800 steels from three different suppliers under different testing temperatures. The experimental results show that there is a significant supplier (i.e., manufacturing process) dependency of the TRIP 800 steel mechanical and microstructure properties. Next, we examined the local formability of two commercial Dual Phase (DP) 980 steels during stamping process. The two commercial DP 980 steels also exhibit noticeably different formability during stamping process in the sense that one of them shows severe tendency for shear fracture. Microstructure-based finite element analyses are carried out next to simulate the localized deformation process with the two DP 980 microstructures, and the results suggest that the possible reason for the difference in formability lies in the morphology of the hard martensite phase in the DP microstructure.

  15. Processing Color in Astronomical Imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Arcand, Kimberly K; Rector, Travis; Levay, Zoltan G; DePasquale, Joseph; Smarr, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Every year, hundreds of images from telescopes on the ground and in space are released to the public, making their way into popular culture through everything from computer screens to postage stamps. These images span the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to infrared light to X-rays and gamma rays, a majority of which is undetectable to the human eye without technology. Once these data are collected, one or more specialists must process the data to create an image. Therefore, the creation of astronomical imagery involves a series of choices. How do these choices affect the comprehension of the science behind the images? What is the best way to represent data to a non-expert? Should these choices be based on aesthetics, scientific veracity, or is it possible to satisfy both? This paper reviews just one choice out of the many made by astronomical image processors: color. The choice of color is one of the most fundamental when creating an image taken with modern telescopes. We briefly explore the ...

  16. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Janos [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra, VA (Italy); Dufour, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Holzleitner, Ludwig [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Huszti, Joseph [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Looman, Marc [Consulenze Tecniche-Cocquio Trevisago (Italy); Marin Ferrer, Montserrat [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Lambert, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.peerani@jrc.it; Rackham, Jamie [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom); Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve [N-1, Safeguards Science and Technology Group, LANL-Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weber, Anne-Laure [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Wilson, Mark [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-11

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of 'virtual instruments.' These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will

  17. Solution processed aluminum paper for flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Moon; Lee, Ha Beom; Jung, Dae Soo; Yun, Jung-Yeul; Ko, Seung Hwan; Park, Seung Bin

    2012-09-11

    As an alternative to vacuum deposition, preparation of highly conductive papers with aluminum (Al) features is successfully achieved by the solution process consisting of Al precursor ink (AlH(3){O(C(4)H(9))(2)}) and low temperature stamping process performed at 110 °C without any serious hydroxylation and oxidation problems. Al features formed on several kinds of paper substrates (calendar, magazine, and inkjet printing paper substrates) are less than ~60 nm thick, and their electrical conductivities were found to be as good as thermally evaporated Al film or even better (≤2 Ω/□). Strong adhesion of Al features to paper substrates and their excellent flexibility are also experimentally confirmed by TEM observation and mechanical tests, such as tape and bending tests. The solution processed Al features on paper substrates show different electrical and mechanical performance depending on the paper type, and inkjet printing paper is found to be the best substrate with high and stable electrical and mechanical properties. The Al conductive papers produced by the solution process may be applicable in disposal paper electronics.

  18. The Drawing Process and the Die for the Pipe Cap%管帽拉伸工艺及模具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡治钰

    2001-01-01

    In view of the technical requirement of the pipe cap part and through trial manufacture, a reasonable stamping process was determined. And the corresponding drawing die was designed. The application of the die is of good result, and the manufactured parts reached the designed requirement of the drawing.%针对管帽零件的技术要求,通过试制确定了合理的冲压工艺方案,设计了相应的拉伸模,应用效果良好,制件质量达到了图纸设计要求。

  19. Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

  20. 古代服装十二章纹的文化精神与美学蕴涵%The cultural spirit and aesthetic implication of the twelve-stamp pattern of ancient Chinese clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰宇

    2011-01-01

    The restrictive functions of political factors and cultural perceptions are investigated on the clothing design in Chinese clothing development. Based on historical evidence and theoretical reasoning, combined with Chinese culture and traditional aesthetic concepts, the origin and development of the twelve-stamp pattern are illustrated. It is concluded that the patterns of traditional Chinese clothing are the combination of the concept of patriarchal clan system and cultural and aesthetic factors.%讨论中国服装发展中政治因素和文化观念对服装设计和制作所起的制约作用,以史料论证和理论逻辑推理的方法,结合中国文化和美学传统观念,论述十二章纹图案的历史成因与发展,得出中国服装图案是以宗法礼制观念为主导,文化与美学因素客观显现的结论.

  1. Direct stamp of technology or origin on the genotypic and phenotypic variation of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae population in a natural model of boiled grape juice fermentation into traditional Msalais wine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Wang, Guan-Qiong; Xue, Ju-Lan; Gou, Dong-Qi; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2017-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains worldwide show genetic and phenotypic diversity and their population substructures are greatly affected by their technological application or geographical origins. Msalais is a traditional wine obtained via a unique method of spontaneous fermentation of local boiled grape juice in Southern Xinjiang. We analyzed 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais fermentation. These strains were highly diverse with respect to the interdelta region and 24 phenotypic traits, with apparent differentiation according to strain origins and technologies used to produce Msalais. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains from traditional workshops was higher than in strains from modern plants. These local strains had different origin- or technology-specific fermentative characteristics. Strains growing in large-scale fermentation tanks tolerated high temperature, whereas strains from traditional workshops tolerated high alcohol content (16%) and low temperature (13°C). Almost all the strains were characterized by the highest fermenting vigor, with weak H2S production and no histamine, cadaverine, phenethylamine and tryptamine production. Majority of strains had pronounced autolytic activity with high β-glucosidase and polygalacturonase activity and alcohol production. Our study reveals a direct stamp of technology or origin on genotypic and phenotypic variation of an indigenous S. cerevisiae population. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 冲压精密成形技术的发展与应用%Development and Appliance of Precision Stamping Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德勤

    2011-01-01

    结合目前冲压精密成型的技术发展特点,分析了行业发展中存在的问题与技术差距,提出了从工艺技术的完善、提高材料冲压性能、模具设计与制造技术、润滑技术等方面全面挺升精密冲压加工水平,促进冲压成形质量的提高.%Referring to the development status of precise punch forming technology in China nowadays, analyzed the existing problems and technological gap, and proposed that improving of precise punch forming technology would be developed from bettering punching process, increasing the punching capacity of metals, raising the technique of mould design and manufacturing, enhencing the lubrication in processing, etc. this will increase the quality of punching process.

  3. FEM Analysis of Tube Preforming and Hydroforming Process for an Automotive Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The tube hydroforming technology is used today in the mass production of lightweight components for the automotive industries due to its advantages over conventional stamping methods. A typical tube hydroforming process is usually a multiple forming operation process. The tube preforming and hydroforming process of an automobile subframe were analyzed by finite element method (FEM), and a parametric study was also carried out to obtain the effect of the forming parameters such as the die closing, the internal pressure and the axial feeding. The simulation results were also compared with industrial products in respect to the thickness distribution of some typical and key cross-sections. The study indicates that the internal pressure and the axial feeding should be set correctly and the multiple forming operations of tube hydroforming process can be simulated well by using the explicit code Ls-Dyna.

  4. A visibilidade e representação social das religiões nos selos postais brasileiros (The visibility and social representations of religions in Brazil postage stamps.DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n25p233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andres Salcedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisa a forma com a qual o selo postal brasileiro contribuiu para a construção de representações da religião católica em relação a outras práticas religiosas. Foi considerado, para isso, a concepção deste artefato enquanto media, texto semiótico e sua estreita relação com o discurso religioso. O corpus é composto por selos postais comemorativos brasileiros emitidos durante o século XX. A sua identificação e análise foi feita a partir do catálogo RHM. Entre o ano de 1900 e 2000, os Correios emitiram 2354 selos postais do tipo comemorativo. A partir da observação e identificação de recorrências religiosas foram compilados 222 selos postais comemorativos. O estudo correlacionou a recorrente temática religiosa com o contexto histórico brasileiro, considerando o declínio do catolicismo como maioria religiosa no país e às representações das práticas religiosas nas mídias. A conclusão indica a influência da Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil, junto ao Ministério das Comunicações e dos Correios do Brasil, consagrando e enaltecendo a visibilidade de personalidades, eventos e a práxis católica, como um discurso único e superior às demais práticas religiosas. Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Abstract This paper analyses the way in which postal Brazilian stamps have contributed to the construction of representations of the catholic religion regarding other religious practices. In this sense, the conception of these stamps was taken into account as media, semioptical texts in close relation with the religious speech. The corpus is composed by postal commemorative Brazilian stamps issued during the twentieth century. The identification and analyzes of the stamps were made through RHM catalogue.  Between the year of 1900 and 2000, the Brazilian post offices issued 2.354 commemorative postage

  5. Mechanics-driven patterning of CVD graphene for roll-based manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Jang, Bongkyun; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Kyung-Shik; Lee, Seung-Mo; Lee, Hak-Joo; Han, Seung Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Graphene is considered as a promising material for flexible and transparent electrodes due to its outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Efforts to mass-produce graphene electrodes led to the development of roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene growth and transfer, and the only remaining obstacle to the mass-production of CVD graphene electrodes is a cost-effective patterning technique that is compatible with the roll-to-roll manufacturing. Herein, we propose a mechanics-driven technique for patterning graphene synthesized on copper foil (commonly used in roll-to-roll manufacturing). The copper foil is exposed to high temperature for a prolonged period during the CVD growth of graphene, and thus can result in recrystallization and grain growth of the copper foil and thereby reducing to the yield strength. This softening behavior of the copper was carefully controlled to allow simple stamp patterning of the graphene. The strength of the underlying substrate was controlled for the accuracy of the residual patterns. The proposed stamp patterning technique is mask-less and photoresist-free, and can be performed at room temperature without high-energy sources such as lasers or plasma. To demonstrate the capability of this process to produce a continuous electrode, a transparent in-plane supercapacitor was fabricated using the proposed patterning technique.

  6. Preparation of Stampings Process of Brand New Model of Jiefang Truck%解放载货车全新车型冲压件工艺准备过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治富; 李凤华

    2008-01-01

    一个项目能否成功,关键在于项目的整体策划,计划的制定、管理与控制,团队的作用等。通过总结一汽解放某车型冲压件准备过程的管理方法.技术运用,以及在此过程中与日本富士、意大利FONTANA公司等国外企业的技术交流,阐述了当前解放J6载货车冲压件准备的流程、方法、先进技术应用等,供广大业内人士参考。

  7. Multi-station stamping process analysis of extension plate for auto left-right rear fender%左右后翼子板延伸板多工位冲压工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左治江; 文亮; 李智勤; 章志远; 杜文龙; 李继祥

    2015-01-01

    多工位冲压生产效率高、综合成本低,是汽车零部件批量生产的一项重要技术.本文针对汽车后翼子板延伸板零件,分析了其形状特征,规划了其整体工艺.为了提高材料利用率,降低加工成本,采用连续模落料与多工位成形的组合工艺.经过分析及有关计算,确定在2500t多工位压力机上生产的四道工序为:压筋+拉延(OP20)、折弯+翻边(OP30)、冲孔(OP40)、冲孔+翻孔+分离(OP50),为后续的模具设计和干涉分析打下了良好基础.

  8. FEM and experiment analyses of stamping process for AHSS part%DP600高强钢零件冲压成形有限元仿真及试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁可山; 曹猛; 蒋浩民; 陈新平; 苏海波; 张东卫

    2010-01-01

    性能稳定的高强度钢板供应,是保证汽车厂避免冲压成形开裂缺陷,提高生产稳定性的重要环节.该文以使用DP600高强钢的横梁减震器后桥零件为例,采用有限元仿真和网格试验的方法分析变形特征,以及主要力学性能参数对冲压成形的影响,提出了保证零件成形钢板的关键性能指标及控制范围.研究结果表明,横梁减震器外板零件高应变区域的变形方式为平面应变-拉延变形,稳定冲压所需的关键性能参数及控制范围为,屈强比σs/σb≤0.68,材料硬化指数n≥0.15,断裂延伸率δ≥25%.

  9. Effect of tempering treatment process on mechanical properties of hot-stamping AHSS alloy%回火工艺对热成形AHSS力学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常颖; 盈亮; 靳菲; 李树娟; 赵坤民; 胡平

    2013-01-01

    热成形22MnB5高强钢板在提高其强度的同时,塑性及韧性急剧降低.基于强度、塑性和韧性指标,通过拉伸力学性能测试、Kahn撕裂实验等方法,获得硼钢淬火前后的基本力学参数,研究其在不同回火温度条件下的断裂韧性特征,获得了其力学性能变化规律.结果表明:回火温度在100 ~ 200℃范围内时,其单位面积裂纹扩展能(UPE)和撕裂强度(TS)随着回火温度的升高而增大;回火温度在200~ 350℃范围内时,单位面积裂纹扩展能和撕裂强度随着回火温度的升高而降低.合理的回火处理工艺可显著改善热成形硼钢的力学性能.

  10. Enhanced surface patterning of chalcogenide glass via imprinting process using a buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Byeong Kyou; Choi, Duk-Yong; Chung, Woon Jin; Choi, Yong Gyu

    2017-09-01

    In an effort to enhance transcriptability of quasi-three-dimensional patterns present in silicon stamp onto the surface of 'bulk' chalcogenide glass, a buffer layer was introduced during the replication process via imprinting. Dissimilar patterns with diverse depths along the surface normal direction were imprinted with or without the buffer layer, and the resulting patterns on the glass surface were compared with regard to the transcription quality in both the lateral and vertical directions. After assessing the processing conditions appropriate for imprinting bulk As2S3 glass especially in terms of temperature and duration, candidate materials suitable for the buffer layer were screened: Commercially available polydimethylsiloxane was then chosen, and impact of this buffer layer was elucidated. The imprinted patterns turned out to become more uniform over large surface areas when the buffer layer was inserted. This finding confirmed that the use of buffer layer conspicuously enhanced the transcriptability of imprinting process for bulk chalcogenide glass.

  11. Process visibility analysis in ambulatory care: a simulation study with RFID data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chin; Padman, Rema

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare is primarily delivered in the ambulatory care setting worldwide. The high variability in service delivery encountered in this environment negatively impacts process efficiency and patient satisfaction. In this study, we analyze care delivery process in ambulatory care using time and location stamped data collected via Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled badges worn by patients, clinicians, and staff as they complete each clinic visit. With the objective of improving process visibility and minimizing patient waiting time, we examine this data to delineate the major components of waiting time and use simulation modeling to evaluate the impact of possible interventions. Results indicate that as a prevalent strategy, different appointment scheduling rules can only reduce patient waiting time in the waiting room. Surprisingly, waiting time in the exam room is unchanged, requiring new approaches to improve care coordination that address this delay. The results also highlight the value of RFID technology and the challenges in deploying them to improve service delivery.

  12. Precision evaluation of 3D optical measuring system for forgings & stampings and its dies%锻压制件及其模具的三维光学测量系统精度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德海; 梁晋; 郭成

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: VDI2614/2634 is a kind of common method of precision evaluation for 3D optical measuring systems.In order to formulate a national standard named Measurement Specification of Optical 3D Geometry for Forgings & Stampings and Its Dies,a new evaluation method for optical measuring system imposed on forgings/stampings is proposed and the testing project is also drafted.With the evaluation,each group measuring value is considered as a single subsystem,and the minmax-difference,mean difference and the mean square value of each group are calculated.Then,the ratio of the mean difference to the measurement mean value is defined as the system-relatively error of subsystem and the ratio of the minmax difference to the measurement mean value is defined as the accidence-relatively error of the subsystem.In consideration of the relatively error and weights completely,the system errors and accident errors of the measurement system are calculated.For the reunification of evaluation standard,the concept and the calculation method comprised of standardized system precision,standard accidental precision and standardized precision are put forward.The XJTUOM optical measuring system developed by ourselves has been evaluated by the proposed approach,then the standard preci-sion of 0.89 is obtained,which provides a reference for formulating national standards.%VDI2614/2634是三维光学测量系统精度评价的通用方法.为制订国标,提出了一种应用于锻压制件的光学测量系统精度评价新方法,并制定了测量方案.以每组为一个子系统,分别计算出每组的极差、平均差和标准差,然后定义平均差和测量平均值的比值为子系统的系统相对误差,定义极差和测量平均值的比值为子系统的偶然相对误差.综合考虑各子系统的相对误差和权重,计算出测量系统的系统精度和偶然精度.为统一评价标准,提出了标准系统精度、标准偶然精度和标准精度的概念和计算

  13. Efficient Inference of Gaussian-Process-Modulated Renewal Processes with Application to Medical Event Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    The episodic, irregular and asynchronous nature of medical data render them difficult substrates for standard machine learning algorithms. We would like to abstract away this difficulty for the class of time-stamped categorical variables (or events) by modeling them as a renewal process and inferring a probability density over non-parametric longitudinal intensity functions that modulate the process. Several methods exist for inferring such a density over intensity functions, but either their constraints prevent their use with our potentially bursty event streams, or their time complexity renders their use intractable on our long-duration observations of high-resolution events, or both. In this paper we present a new efficient and flexible inference method that uses direct numeric integration and smooth interpolation over Gaussian processes. We demonstrate that our direct method is up to twice as accurate and two orders of magnitude more efficient than the best existing method (thinning). Importantly, our direct method can infer intensity functions over the full range of bursty to memoryless to regular events, which thinning and many other methods cannot do. Finally, we apply the method to clinical event data and demonstrate a simple example application facilitated by the abstraction.

  14. Model-based processing for underwater acoustic arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Edmund J

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents a unified approach to model-based processing for underwater acoustic arrays. The use of physical models in passive array processing is not a new idea, but it has been used on a case-by-case basis, and as such, lacks any unifying structure. This work views all such processing methods as estimation procedures, which then can be unified by treating them all as a form of joint estimation based on a Kalman-type recursive processor, which can be recursive either in space or time, depending on the application. This is done for three reasons. First, the Kalman filter provides a natural framework for the inclusion of physical models in a processing scheme. Second, it allows poorly known model parameters to be jointly estimated along with the quantities of interest. This is important, since in certain areas of array processing already in use, such as those based on matched-field processing, the so-called mismatch problem either degrades performance or, indeed, prevents any solution at all. Third...

  15. THE USE OF RANDOM FOREST CLASSIFICATION AND K-MEANS CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR DETECTING TIME STAMPED SIGNATURES IN THE ACTIVE NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalanaban Ethala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In day to day information security infrastructure, intrusion detection is indispensible. Signature based intrusion detection system mechanisms are often available in detecting many types of attacks. But this mechanism alone is not sufficient in many cases. Another intrusion detection method viz K-means is employed for clustering and classifying the unlabelled data. IDS is a special embedded device or relied software package which process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network (WLAN (Wi-Fi, Wimax and LAN ((Ethernet, FDDI, ADSL, Token ring based and analysing them for sign of possible incident which are violations or forthcoming threats of violations of computer security policies or standard security policies (i.e., DMA acts. We proposed a new methodology for detecting intrusions by means of clustering and classification algorithms. There we used correlation clustering and K-means clustering algorithm for clustering and random forest algorithm for classification. This type of extension establishes a layer which refines the escalated alerts using signature-based correlation. In this study, signature based intrusion detection system with optimised algorithm for better prediction of intrusions has been addressed. Results are presented and discussed.

  16. High index glass thin film processing for photonics and photovoltaic (PV) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuu, Okechukwu Anthony

    To favorably compete with fossil-fuel technology, the greatest challenge for thin film solar-cells is to improve efficiency and reduce material cost. Thickness scaling to thin film reduces material cost but affects the light absorption in the cells; therefore a concept that traps incident photons and increases its optical path length is needed to boost absorption in thin film solar cells. One approach is the integration of low symmetric gratings (LSG), using high index material, on either the front-side or backside of 30 um thin c-Si cells. In this study, Multicomponent TeO2--Bi2O 3--ZnO (TBZ) glass thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering under different oxygen flow rates. The influences of oxygen flow rate on the structural and optical properties of the resulting thin films were investigated. The structural origin of the optical property variation was studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that TBZ glass thin film is a suitable material for front side LSG material photovoltaic and photonics applications due to their amorphous nature, high refractive index (n > 2), broad band optical transparency window, low processing temperature. We developed a simple maskless method to pattern sputtered tellurite based glass thin films using unconventional agarose hydrogel mediated wet etching. Conventional wet etching process, while claiming low cost and high throughput, suffers from reproducibility and pattern fidelity issues due to the isotropic nature of wet chemical etching when applied to glasses and polymers. This method overcomes these challenges by using an agarose hydrogel stamp to mediate a conformal etching process. In our maskless method, agarose hydrogel stamps are patterned following a standard soft lithography and replica molding process from micropatterned masters and soaked in a chemical etchant. The micro-scale features on the stamp are

  17. 6m顶装焦炉改为捣固焦炉相关配套机械的改造%Relevant Mechanical Revamping for the 6m Top-charged Coke Oven after being Upgraded into a Stamp-charged Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乃鑫

    2011-01-01

    介绍了6m顶装焦炉改为捣固焦炉炼焦后,对推焦车、拦焦车、装煤车进行的改造;并介绍了新增加的设备,包括捣固装煤车、30锤固定捣固机、摇动给料机.改为捣固焦炉后,增大了炼焦煤料的可选范围,降低了炼焦成本,焦炭产量由110万t/a提高到130万t/a.改造后配套的6m捣固焦炉设备具有技术水平先进,劳动生产率较高,综合生产成本低,环境污染小,且全部国产化等特点.%Introduced in this paper are the relevant mechanical revamping on the pushing car, coke guiding car and charging car, and also the additional equipment involved (e.g. Stamping/charging car, 30 hammer fixed stamping machine and the reciprocating feeders) after the 6m top-charged coke oven had been upgraded into a stamp-charged coke oven. After such a revamping, the selection of the feed coal range could be extended, and the coking cost could be reduced, as the weakly caking coal and less high-quality coking coal could be used. Meanwhile, the coke production capacity rose from 1 100 OOOt/a to 1 300 OOOt/a. The revamped battery is now advanced in technology, high in labor productivity, low in comprehensive production cost, less in adverse environmental impact, last but not least, the localization rate could be up to 100%.

  18. Two Wrongs Do Not Make a Right: Flaws in Alternatives to Fee-for-Service Payment Plans Do Not Mean Fee-for-Service Is a Good Solution to Rising Prices; Comment on “Fee-for-Service Payment - An Evil Practice That Must Be Stamped Out?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Koppel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Professor Naoki Ikegami’s “Fee-for-service payment – an evil practice that must be stamped out” summarizes many of the failings of alternatives to fee-for-service (FFS payment systems. His article also offers several suggestions for improving FFS systems. However, even powerful arguments against many of the alternatives to FFS, does not make a convincing argument for FFS systems. In addition, there are significant misunderstandings in Professor Ikegami’s presentation of and use of United States payment methods, the role of private vs. public insurance systems, and the increasing role of “accountable care organizations.”

  19. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  20. Volume Stamping on Hydraulic Presses (Selected Portions),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-02

    equipment. Appears need in the criation of tho presses cf even groater efforts/forces than being in the industry . In thq USA are published the s...PAGE 1 IT Fi 0 pesbyt, e ~t frE -00 ffim-l-a , Page- 35.- F--:!.n L vi ceatrt the cr-J .*a contrut icndssig o poerli/tic stmigfahrseil .,-tr /euir-isc...the sate time, that also ir t e USA , were created thq prrssqE with effort/force 30000 and 75000 T. TIs ccnstruction cf these oress-s oreceded

  1. Document Stamps of the Tibet Gaxag Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    DocumentStampsoftheTibetGaxagGovernment¥LIRONGHUAandYEYUSHUNThedesignofofficialdocumentstampsmostoftenrevealstronglocalflavor...

  2. From Gold Stars to Green Stamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Anna L.

    1971-01-01

    The director of the National Education Association's Division of Educational Technology examines the idea of accountability in education. The article is adapted from a speech delivered before an instructional conference of the Michigan Education Association, October 16, 1970. (LS)

  3. PEMPHIGUS: A DISEASE STAMPED IN THE SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bicalho Matias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pemphigus are autoimmune blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. The blisters characteristics of pemphigus tend to break, causing painful erosions that easily bleed. This study aimed to identify the experiences involved in the triggering of pemphigus and how patients face the illness and treatment. Material and Methods: The study included 31 patients diagnosed with pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris, under a standardized pulsetherapy treatment. Data collection was through semi-structured interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a qualitative approach. Results: During the journey in search of the phenomenon, were defined two thematic categories, subdivided into eleven subcategories. Months before the triggering of the illness, patients experienced feelings of losses, familiar conflicts and concerns; also showed an experience permeated by heartache and disappointments. After the first signs of pemphigus, patients experienced a long journey until the correct diagnose; worsening of the lesions after the communication of the diagnosis; feelings of isolation, shame and prejudgment; interruptions of the future plans; lack of information about the disease and treatment; difficult adherence to the pulsetherapy and the appearance of new lesions or worse by stressful events. Discussion: It might be observed that the disease is not just a biological deviation, but also a social deviance, which explicit the need to adapt to the new reality of the disease and face the isolation, prejudgment and shame of living with a stigmatizing disease.

  4. Comparative Numerical Analysis of Sheet Formed into a V-Shaped Die Using Conventional and Electromagnetic Forming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative and numerical study on the formability of a sheet formed into a V-shaped die using a conventional stamping operation and an electromagnetic forming (EMF process was performed. To evaluate the damage evolution and failure prediction using a finite-element method (FEM, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman plasticity material model was employed in the numerical simulation. The impact of the sheet with the die generates a complex stress state during the EMF process. Damage suppression due to the tool-sheet interaction may be one of the main factors contributing to the increased formability in the EMF process compared to the conventional forming operation. In addition, a high level of kinetic energy produces high strain-rate constitutive and inertial effects, which delay the onset of necking and may also be responsible for the increased formability using EMF.

  5. Springback Compensation Process for High Strength Steel Automotive Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onhon, M. Fatih

    2016-08-01

    This paper is about an advanced stamping simulation methodology used in automotive industry to shorten total die manufacturing times in a new vehicle project by means of benefiting leading edge virtual try-out technology.

  6. Learning craft skills. Exploring preschoolers' craft making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virpi Yliverronen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore a preschooler craft-making process in which 18 preschool novices cut pieces for fabric bags and designed and printed patterns to decorate the bags. Through the task, children were familiarised with a small-scale holistic craft process. The intention was to determine how preschoolers perceived, verbalised and interpreted the craft-making process and how children used bodily expressions when explaining a learned craft skill. The present study relies on the videographic method: two preschool groups’ stamp printing activities were recorded, and each child was interviewed individually. Children’s embodied expressions were particularly in focus in video analysis. The results reveal that all the children were able to sufficiently explain the making phase, however, some children compensated for missing words using bodily and facial expressions and gestures when talking about making. The results showed that children worked logically, and the skill learning phases of perceiving, making, and interpretation were revealed from their learning.

  7. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  8. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  9. 上颌窦底水囊冲压内提升同期种植修复单牙缺失36例临床观察%Clinical observation of the dental implantation using water sac stamping technique in maxillary sinus floor lifting in the repair of single-tooth loss in 36 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁晔; 康林; 陆钰; 胡芳芳; 吴海珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effects of the dental implantation using water sac stamping technique in maxillary sinus floor lifting in the repair of single-tooth loss. Methods:Thirty-six teeth were implanted in 36 patients with single-tooth loss complicated with 3. 0 to 7. 0 mm of height of alveolar crest in edentulous area using the flapless dental implantation combined with water sac stamping technique. All patients were regularly followed up after the surgery. The stability of the implant and condition of peri-implant tissues were observed. Results:During the 1-year period of following up,all implants were stable,no inflammation of the sinus were found. The soft tissue around the implants were healthy,the combination of dental implant and bone is good,and the height of maxillary sinus lifting bone is stabile. Conclusions:The short-term clinical effects of the dental implantation using water sac stamping technique in maxillary sinus floor lifting is ideal.%目的::评价水囊冲压技术在上颌窦内提升同期种植修复单牙缺失的临床应用疗效。方法:选择满足适应证的36例上颌后牙单牙缺失患者,其缺牙区牙槽嵴高度在3.0~7.0 mm,采用微创不翻瓣结合水囊冲压技术,共植入种植牙36颗。术后定期复诊、随访,观察种植牙稳定性和牙周组织状况。结果:随访1年未发现种植牙松动或上颌窦炎症,牙周组织健康,种植牙骨结合良好,上颌窦提升骨高度稳定。结论:水囊冲压技术在上颌窦内提升同期种植牙中的应用短期临床效果较为理想。

  10. Process Design of Aluminum Tailor Heat Treated Blanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrimanidis, Alexander; Lechner, Michael; Degner, Julia; Wortberg, Daniel; Merklein, Marion

    2015-12-09

    In many industrials field, especially in the automotive sector, there is a trend toward lightweight constructions in order to reduce the weight and thereby the CO₂ and NOx emissions of the products. An auspicious approach within this context is the substitution of conventional deep drawing steel by precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys. However, based on the low formability, the application for complex stamping parts is challenging. Therefore, at the Institute of Manufacturing Technology, an innovative technology to enhance the forming limit of these lightweight materials was invented. The key idea of the so-called Tailor Heat Treated Blanks (THTB) is optimization of the mechanical properties by local heat treatment before the forming operation. An accurate description of material properties is crucial to predict the forming behavior of tailor heat treated blanks by simulation. Therefore, within in this research project, a holistic approach for the design of the THTB process in dependency of the main influencing parameters is presented and discussed in detail. The capability of the approach for the process development of complex forming operations is demonstrated by a comparison of local blank thickness of a tailgate with the corresponding results from simulation.

  11. Process Design of Aluminum Tailor Heat Treated Blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kahrimanidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many industrials field, especially in the automotive sector, there is a trend toward lightweight constructions in order to reduce the weight and thereby the CO2 and NOx emissions of the products. An auspicious approach within this context is the substitution of conventional deep drawing steel by precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys. However, based on the low formability, the application for complex stamping parts is challenging. Therefore, at the Institute of Manufacturing Technology, an innovative technology to enhance the forming limit of these lightweight materials was invented. The key idea of the so-called Tailor Heat Treated Blanks (THTB is optimization of the mechanical properties by local heat treatment before the forming operation. An accurate description of material properties is crucial to predict the forming behavior of tailor heat treated blanks by simulation. Therefore, within in this research project, a holistic approach for the design of the THTB process in dependency of the main influencing parameters is presented and discussed in detail. The capability of the approach for the process development of complex forming operations is demonstrated by a comparison of local blank thickness of a tailgate with the corresponding results from simulation.

  12. Knowledge Based Cloud FE Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Du; Yuan, Xi; Gao, Haoxiang; Wang, Ailing; Liu, Jun; El Fakir, Omer; Politis, Denis J; Wang, Liliang; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-12-13

    The use of Finite Element (FE) simulation software to adequately predict the outcome of sheet metal forming processes is crucial to enhancing the efficiency and lowering the development time of such processes, whilst reducing costs involved in trial-and-error prototyping. Recent focus on the substitution of steel components with aluminum alloy alternatives in the automotive and aerospace sectors has increased the need to simulate the forming behavior of such alloys for ever more complex component geometries. However these alloys, and in particular their high strength variants, exhibit limited formability at room temperature, and high temperature manufacturing technologies have been developed to form them. Consequently, advanced constitutive models are required to reflect the associated temperature and strain rate effects. Simulating such behavior is computationally very expensive using conventional FE simulation techniques. This paper presents a novel Knowledge Based Cloud FE (KBC-FE) simulation technique that combines advanced material and friction models with conventional FE simulations in an efficient manner thus enhancing the capability of commercial simulation software packages. The application of these methods is demonstrated through two example case studies, namely: the prediction of a material's forming limit under hot stamping conditions, and the tool life prediction under multi-cycle loading conditions.

  13. Iterative Strategies for Aftershock Classification in Automatic Seismic Processing Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod; Harris, David B.; Dodge, Douglas A.

    2016-04-01

    Aftershock sequences following very large earthquakes present enormous challenges to near-realtime generation of seismic bulletins. The increase in analyst resources needed to relocate an inflated number of events is compounded by failures of phase association algorithms and a significant deterioration in the quality of underlying fully automatic event bulletins. Current processing pipelines were designed a generation ago and, due to computational limitations of the time, are usually limited to single passes over the raw data. With current processing capability, multiple passes over the data are feasible. Processing the raw data at each station currently generates parametric data streams which are then scanned by a phase association algorithm to form event hypotheses. We consider the scenario where a large earthquake has occurred and propose to define a region of likely aftershock activity in which events are detected and accurately located using a separate specially targeted semi-automatic process. This effort may focus on so-called pattern detectors, but here we demonstrate a more general grid search algorithm which may cover wider source regions without requiring waveform similarity. Given many well-located aftershocks within our source region, we may remove all associated phases from the original detection lists prior to a new iteration of the phase association algorithm. We provide a proof-of-concept example for the 2015 Gorkha sequence, Nepal, recorded on seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System. Even with very conservative conditions for defining event hypotheses within the aftershock source region, we can automatically remove over half of the original detections which could have been generated by Nepal earthquakes and reduce the likelihood of false associations and spurious event hypotheses. Further reductions in the number of detections in the parametric data streams are likely using correlation and subspace detectors and/or empirical matched

  14. Meat Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  15. Primary Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Carre, P.; Kamm, B.; Schoenicke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Primary processing of oil-containing material involves pre-treatment processes, oil recovery processes and the extraction and valorisation of valuable compounds from waste streams. Pre-treatment processes, e.g. thermal, enzymatic, electrical and radio frequency, have an important effect on the oil r

  16. Elektrokemiske Processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals.......Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals....

  17. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  18. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  19. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...... revisions of chapters from the previous edition, adds three new chapters, and presents extensive study questions. • Presents new modeling tools for the design and operation of sewer networks • Establishes sewer processes as a key element in preserving water quality • Includes greatly expanded coverage...... of odor formation and prediction • Details the WATS sewer process model • Highlights the importance of aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic processes Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, provides a basis for up-to-date understanding and modeling of sewer...

  20. An Empirical Study on the Psychological Intervention of Rubber Stamp Art Therapy on Left-behind Children: A Case Study on Jinzhai "Guest-Greeting Pine" Primary School of Anhui%橡皮章艺术治疗对留守儿童心理干预的实证研究——以安徽金寨县野迎客松冶小学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘伊人; 常鹏乾

    2015-01-01

    With Jinzhai "Guest-Greeting Pine" Hope Primary School of Anhui as the experimental school, through the teaching of rubber stamp carving method and accompanying with left-be-hind children in their rubber stamp creation activities, supple-mented by such forms as investigation, interview and letter, psy-chological diagnosis and testing and artistic psychological analy-sis were carried out, in order to implement psychological inter-ventions on left-behind children and improve their psychological health.%本研究以安徽省金寨县"迎客松"希望小学作为试点,通过教授橡皮章艺术雕刻法并陪伴留守儿童进行橡皮章艺术创作活动,辅以量表调查、访谈、书信等形式,开展心理健康诊断测验和艺术心理分析,对留守儿童进行心理干预,以期改善留守儿童心理健康状况.

  1. Experimental and Simulation Studies on Cold Welding Sealing Process of Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Chen, Shengle; Huang, Jinlong; Yan, Yuying; Zeng, Zhixin

    2017-03-01

    Sealing quality strongly affects heat pipe performance, but few studies focus on the process of heat pipe sealing. Cold welding sealing technology based on a stamping process is applied for heat pipe sealing. The bonding mechanism of the cold welding sealing process (CWSP) is investigated and compared with the experimental results obtained from the bonding interface analysis. An orthogonal experiment is conducted to observe the effects of various parameters, including the sealing gap, sealing length, sealing diameter, and sealing velocity on bonding strength. A method with the utilization of saturated vapor pressure inside a copper tube is proposed to evaluate bonding strength. A corresponding finite element model is developed to investigate the effects of sealing gap and sealing velocity on plastic deformation during the cold welding process. Effects of various parameters on the bonding strength are determined and it is found that the sealing gap is the most critical factor and that the sealing velocity contributes the least effect. The best parameter combination (A 1 B 3 C 1 D 3, with a 0.5 mm sealing gap, 6 mm sealing length, 3.8 mm sealing diameter, and 50 mm/s sealing velocity) is derived within the experimental parameters. Plastic deformation results derived from the finite element model are consistent with those from the experiment. The instruction for the CWSP of heat pipes and the design of sealing dies of heat pipes are provided.

  2. A New Process Monitoring Method Based on Waveform Signal by Using Recurrence Plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring is an important research problem in numerous areas. This paper proposes a novel process monitoring scheme by integrating the recurrence plot (RP method and the control chart technique. Recently, the RP method has emerged as an effective tool to analyze waveform signals. However, unlike the existing RP methods that employ recurrence quantification analysis (RQA to quantify the recurrence plot by a few summary statistics; we propose new concepts of template recurrence plots and continuous-scale recurrence plots to characterize the waveform signals. A new feature extraction method is developed based on continuous-scale recurrence plot. Then, a monitoring statistic based on the top-  approach is constructed from the continuous-scale recurrence plot. Finally, a bootstrap control chart is built to detect the signal changes based on the constructed monitoring statistics. The comprehensive simulation studies show that the proposed monitoring scheme outperforms other RQA-based control charts. In addition, a real case study of progressive stamping processes is implemented to further evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme for process monitoring.

  3. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  4. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    advantages and challenges of agile processes in mobile software and web businesses are identified. The applicability of these agile processes is discussed in re- gards to design educations and product development in the domain of Industrial Design and is briefly seen in relation to the concept of dromology......Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...

  5. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  6. A Photo Storm Report Mobile Application, Processing/Distribution System, and AWIPS-II Display Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, S. P.; Bikos, D.; Szoke, E.; Miller, S. D.; Brummer, R.; Lindsey, D. T.; Hillger, D.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones equipped with digital cameras and the ability to post images and information to the Internet in real-time has significantly improved the ability to report events almost instantaneously. In the context of severe weather reports, a representative digital image conveys significantly more information than a simple text or phone relayed report to a weather forecaster issuing severe weather warnings. It also allows the forecaster to reasonably discern the validity and quality of a storm report. Posting geo-located, time stamped storm report photographs utilizing a mobile phone application to NWS social media weather forecast office pages has generated recent positive feedback from forecasters. Building upon this feedback, this discussion advances the concept, development, and implementation of a formalized Photo Storm Report (PSR) mobile application, processing and distribution system and Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS-II) plug-in display software.The PSR system would be composed of three core components: i) a mobile phone application, ii) a processing and distribution software and hardware system, and iii) AWIPS-II data, exchange and visualization plug-in software. i) The mobile phone application would allow web-registered users to send geo-location, view direction, and time stamped PSRs along with severe weather type and comments to the processing and distribution servers. ii) The servers would receive PSRs, convert images and information to NWS network bandwidth manageable sizes in an AWIPS-II data format, distribute them on the NWS data communications network, and archive the original PSRs for possible future research datasets. iii) The AWIPS-II data and exchange plug-ins would archive PSRs, and the visualization plug-in would display PSR locations, times and directions by hour, similar to surface observations. Hovering on individual PSRs would reveal photo thumbnails and clicking on them would display the

  7. An integrated approach to the design of tube hydroforming processes: artificial intelligence, numerical analysis and experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, R.; Filice, L.; Umbrello, D.; Micari, F.

    2004-06-01

    In the last years, the growing role of process flexibility in modern mechanical industries has driven a rising interest in optimisation of process/product design through innovative techniques. Moreover, the development of niche productions, which are characterised by low production volumes and small batches leads to the need of more flexible and rapid forming technologies. In this way, a great research effort is performed towards the study of new stamping processes: among them hydro forming finds a large interest in automotive industry since it allows to significantly reduce tooling costs and also to avoid some secondary operations. Different studies are available in the technical literature concerning the fundamentals of tube hydro forming processes as well as the industrial application of such operations. As process design issues are concerned, in the paper, the authors propose the integration of different tools, namely artificial intelligence techniques, numerical simulations and experimental knowledge to carry out tube hydro forming design. A fuzzy system was integrated with a FEM code for process simulation obtaining a sort of closed loop control system to be utilised in the process design phase. An experimental validation of the design procedure was developed as well proving the effectiveness of the proposed approach in order to obtain defect free components both as geometrical features and ductile fractures are concerned.

  8. Image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der F.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Blanken, H.M.; Vries de, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L

    2007-01-01

    The field of image processing addresses handling and analysis of images for many purposes using a large number of techniques and methods. The applications of image processing range from enhancement of the visibility of cer- tain organs in medical images to object recognition for handling by industri

  9. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  10. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... behavior. This generalization is often driven by the representation language and very crude assumptions about completeness. As a result, parts of the model are “overfitting” (allow only for what has actually been observed) while other parts may be “underfitting” (allowfor much more behavior without strong...

  11. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...

  12. The Approval and Jurisdiction about Illegal Actions of Entering or Leaving China with Forged Immigration Inspection Stamps of Other Countries on Chinese Passports%对持用加盖伪假外国验讫章的中国护照非法出入境行为的认定和管辖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玲

    2012-01-01

    针对成都边防口岸2010年年底至今出现的中国内地居民持用加盖伪假外国验讫章的中国护照非法出入境行为高发的现象,在对二十几起案例进行调研的基础上,就在办理此类案件过程中涉及到的处罚的法律依据、处罚证据的认定以及处罚的管辖等问题提出了浅薄之见。%Against many cases that some Chinese citizens illegally use Chinese passports with forged foreign immigra- tion inspection stamps when entering or leaving China from the end of 201 l up to now, and based on a lot of surveys and researches, this paper puts forward some ideas about the approval of evidence, the law rationale and jurisdiction of penalties.

  13. Grants Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  14. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    Processing proteases are proteases which proteolytically activate proteins and peptides into their biologically active form. Processing proteases play an important role in biotechnology as tools in protein fusion technology. Fusion strategies where helper proteins or peptide tags are fused...... to the protein of interest are an elaborate method to optimize expression or purification systems. It is however critical that fusion proteins can be removed and processing proteases can facilitate this in a highly specific manner. The commonly used proteases all have substrate specificities to the N...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  15. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  16. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...... microbial and chemical processes and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied for the design, operation, and the maintenance of wastewater collection systems. The authors add chemical and microbial dimensions to the design and management of sewer networks with an overall aim of improved sustainability...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...

  17. Manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Jay; Brower, David; Levine, Stan; Walker, Ray; Wooten, John

    1991-01-01

    The following issues are covered: process development frequently lags behind material development, high fabrication costs, flex joints (bellows) - a continuing program, SRM fabrication-induced defects, and in-space assembly will require simplified design.

  18. A full-process chain assessment for nanoimprint technology on 200-mm industrial platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssedre, Hubert; Landis, Stefan; Thanner, Christine; Laure, Maria; Khan, Jonas; Bos, Sandra; Eibelhuber, Martin; Chouiki, Mustapha; May, Michael; Brianceau, Pierre; Pollet, Olivier; Hazart, Jerome; Laviron, Cyrille; Pain, Laurent; Wimplinger, Markus

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the maturity of the wafer-scale NanoImprint lithography (NIL) process, laboratory of electronic and communication technology (LETI) and EV Group (EVG) launched the Imprint Nanopatterning Solution Platform for Industrial Assessment program (INSPIRE), which aims at building a nanoimprint solution platform for industrial assessment and provide a unique open ecosystem for the standardization of the nanoimprint process. This program enabled to gather EVG know-how for the tool manufacturing and its long expertise in bonding activities, and the established methods and advanced microelectronic environment. Presented as an upstream phase, metrology and defectivity were performed on dedicated assessment designs to address critical dimension uniformity (CDU) at wafer scale for a large number of imprints, defectivity on imprints and masters, and alignment capabilities of the nanoimprint HERCULES® platform of EVG. We demonstrate that the critical points are the anti-sticking layer for the defectivity, the CD shrinkage for the CDU, and the stiffness of the soft stamp for the overlay uniformity. Thus, we bring to light the actual capabilities of the HERCULES® platform, and open the discussions on the opportunities for this technology with the possible improvements for the process.

  19. In process...

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xin

    1999-01-01

    Architecture is a wonderful world. As a student of architecture, time and time again I am inpressed by its powerful imagines. The more I study and learn, however, the more I question. What is the truth beyond those fantastic imagines? What is the nuture of Architecture? Is there any basic way or process to approach the work of Architecture? With these questions, I begin my thesis project and the process of looking for answers. MArch

  20. In process...

    OpenAIRE

    LI Xin

    2000-01-01

    Architecture is a wonderful world. As a student of architecture, time and time again I am inpressed by its powerful imagines. The more I study and learn, however, the more I question. What is the truth beyond those fantastic imagines? What is the nuture of Architecture? Is there any basic way or process to approach the work of Architecture? With these questions, I begin my thesis project and the process of looking for answers.

  1. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  2. Investigations on the influence of the shape factor and friction in compression processes of cylindrical billets of AA 6082-T6 aluminum alloy by numerical and experimental techniques; Investigaciones sobre la influencia del factor de forma y del rozamiento en procesos de compresion de piezas cilindricas de aleacion de aluminio AA 6082-T6 mediante tecnicas numericas y experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, M. M.; Camacho, A. M.; Bernal, C.; Sebastian, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    The material characterization under similar load conditions to those applied during manufacturing is important in order to analyse Bulk Forming Compression Processes from a more realistic point of view. Open die forging of AA 6082-T6 aluminum alloy has been analysed by using experimental techniques and Finite Elements Method (FEM). The influence of the work piece geometry on the effects that friction produces in typical process variables such as applied forces, contact pressures and stresses and strains in work pieces has been analysed by FEM simulation. It has been shown that higher shape factors of the initial work piece geometry are recommended in such a way that friction effect is minimised. These results are interesting in order to decrease the required energy of the process and the tool wear, and could be used in further analysis of stamping processes. (Author)

  3. Macdonald processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Macdonald processes are probability measures on sequences of partitions defined in terms of nonnegative specializations of the Macdonald symmetric functions and two Macdonald parameters q,t in [0,1). We prove several results about these processes, which include the following. (1) We explicitly evaluate expectations of a rich family of observables for these processes. (2) In the case t=0, we find a Fredholm determinant formula for a q-Laplace transform of the distribution of the last part of the Macdonald-random partition. (3) We introduce Markov dynamics that preserve the class of Macdonald processes and lead to new "integrable" 2d and 1d interacting particle systems. (4) In a large time limit transition, and as q goes to 1, the particles of these systems crystallize on a lattice, and fluctuations around the lattice converge to O'Connell's Whittaker process that describe semi-discrete Brownian directed polymers. (5) This yields a Fredholm determinant for the Laplace transform of the polymer partition function...

  4. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  5. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  6. Optical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    34perceptron" (F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics ), workers in the neural network field have been seeking to understand how neural networks can perform...Moscow). 13. F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics , (Spartan, 1962). 14. W. Stoner "Incoherent optical processing via spatially offset pupil

  7. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  8. Processing Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2015-01-01

    I propose that the course of development in first and second language acquisition is shaped by two types of processing pressures--internal efficiency-related factors relevant to easing the burden on working memory and external input-related factors such as frequency of occurrence. In an attempt to document the role of internal factors, I consider…

  9. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali;

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning and compu...

  10. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  11. espida Process

    OpenAIRE

    Currall, James; McKinney, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Embedded in the work of espida is a process that ensures projects align themselves with the strategic aims of the funders they wish to receive resources from. It details the relationship the funder and fundee have and how outcomes of the work feedback into the organisational objectives.

  12. On the Choosing of Mold in View of the Stamping Property of the Mold%浅谈从模具的冲压特性来选择模具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢

    2012-01-01

    In the fierce competition in the market,the time that a product is put on the market is often the key to decide whether it can capture market share.And the mold is a kind of high quality,high efficiency production tool,and it plays an important role in the development of new products.How to correctly select the processing methods and types of mold in accordance with the art characteristics of the product components is often encountered in each of our designers.Under the prem ise ensuring quality,trying to reduce turnover and clamping process has already become the development direction of our design and manufacturing.In the process,reducing a processing process is a turnover less,and the risk of knocking is also reduced;eliminating a single setup is an increase of production efficiency and reducing a clamping error is to improve the machining accuracy.So a proper choice,can not only ensure product quality,but also improve production efficiency,enabling businesses to achieve higher economic benefits.%在目前激烈的市场竞争中,产品投入市场的迟早,往往是决定产品占领市场份额的关键。而模具是一种高质量、高效率的生产工具,它在新产品开发中扮演着重要的角色。如何根据产品零部件的工艺特性来正确地选择加工方法和模具种类,是我们每个设计人员经常遇到的问题。如在确保质量的前提下,尽量减少周转、装夹工序,已是我们设计制造的发展方向。在工件加工时,减少一道加工工序就减少了一次周转,降低了磕碰的概率;省去了一次装夹校正,增加了生产效率,减少了一项装夹误差,提高了加工精度。因此选择适当,既能保证产品质量,又能提高生产效率,从而使企业获得更高的经济效益。

  13. Finite element simulations of laminated composite forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thije, ten René Hermanus Willem

    2007-01-01

    Continuous Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs) combine strength and stiffness of fibres with the design flexibility of polymeric matrix materials. Fast production methods like thermo-folding, diaphragm forming or stamping can produce large numbers of CFRP components in a cost efficient way. Pre-consol

  14. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... However, failure to provide an SSN will result in the denial of food stamp benefits to each individual... psychologist certifying that the individual (in the physician's/psychologist's opinion) is unable to purchase... State agency's request) in accordance with the provisions of § 273.2(f)(1)(viii). (xi) Students. If...

  15. Discrete neurochemical coding of distinguishable motivational processes: insights from nucleus accumbens control of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A; Kelley, Ann E

    2007-04-01

    The idea that nucleus accumbens (Acb) dopamine transmission contributes to the neural mediation of reward, at least in a general sense, has achieved wide acceptance. Nevertheless, debate remains over the precise nature of dopamine's role in reward and even over the nature of reward itself. In the present article, evidence is reviewed from studies of food intake, feeding microstructure, instrumental responding for food reinforcement, and dopamine efflux associated with feeding, which suggests that reward processing in the Acb is best understood as an interaction among distinct processes coded by discrete neurotransmitter systems. In agreement with several theories of Acb dopamine function, it is proposed here that allocation of motor effort in seeking food or food-associated conditioned stimuli can be dissociated from computations relevant to the hedonic evaluation of food during the consummatory act. The former appears to depend upon Acb dopamine transmission and the latter upon striatal opioid peptide release. Moreover, dopamine transmission may play a role in 'stamping in' associations between motor acts and goal attainment and perhaps also neural representations corresponding to rewarding outcomes. Finally, evidence is reviewed that amino acid transmission specifically in the Acb shell acts as a central 'circuit breaker' to flexibly enable or terminate the consummatory act, via descending connections to hypothalamic feeding control systems. The heuristic framework outlined above may help explain why dopamine-compromising manipulations that strongly diminish instrumental goal-seeking behaviors leave consummatory activity relatively unaffected.

  16. Flexible FETs using ultrathin Si microwires embedded in solution processed dielectric and metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.; Yogeswaran, N.; Taube, W.; Lorenzelli, L.; Dahiya, R.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a novel manufacturing route for obtaining high performance bendable field effect transistors (FET) by embedding silicon (Si) microwires (2.5 μm thick) in layers of solution-processed dielectric and metallic layers. The objective of this study is to explore heterogeneous integration of Si with polymers and to exploit the benefits of both microelectronics and printing technologies. Arrays of Si microwires are developed on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers and transfer printed to polyimide (PI) substrate through a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) carrier stamp. Following the transfer printing of Si microwires, two different processing steps were developed to obtain top gate top contact and back gate top contact FETs. Electrical characterizations indicate devices having mobility as high as 117.5 cm2 V-1 s-1. The fabricated devices were also modeled using SILVACO Atlas. Simulation results show a trend in the electrical response similar to that of experimental results. In addition, a cyclic test was performed to demonstrate the reliability and mechanical robustness of the Si μ-wires on flexible substrates.

  17. Production of high strength hollow shafts using tool hardening and Q-P process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masek Bohuslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation opens new opportunities in the field of processing hollow semi-products, as it offers the potential for manufacturing complex-shaped structural parts with enhanced properties. This introduces a manufacturing route comprising the following steps: internal high pressure forming, hot stamping and thermomechanical Q&P processing. In this manufacturing route, the demonstration product, a tube–shaped stock, is first austenitized. It is then expanded in a closed die by internal pressure of nitrogen until the material touches the die wall. As a result, it cools down quickly and martensite begins to form. At a temperature above the Mf, the cooling is interrupted and the workpiece is transferred to a furnace and tempered. The furnace temperature is below the Ms temperature. Within several minutes, a mixed microstructure forms, consisting of martensite and stabilized retained austenite. Thanks to this microstructure, the material exhibits a favourable combination of high strength and adequate ductility. Martensite imparts sufficient strength to the material whereas the retained austenite provides ductility. At a carbon level of approximately 0.4 % and with a simple Si-Mn-Cr-based chemistry, strengths of 2000 MPa and A5 mm elongations of 15% can be achieved.

  18. Photobiomodulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI on biosystems. There is little research on PBM dynamics although its phenomena and mechanism have been widely studied. The PBM was discussed from dynamic viewpoint in this paper. It was found that the primary process of cellular PBM might be the key process of cellular PBM so that the transition rate of cellular molecules can be extended to discuss the dose relationship of PBM. There may be a dose zone in which low intensity LI (LIL at different doses has biological effects similar to each other, so that biological information model of PBM might hold. LIL may self-adaptively modulate a chronic stress until it becomes successful.

  19. Boolean process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵应骅; 李忠诚; 赵著行

    1997-01-01

    Boolean algebra successfully describes the logical behavior of a digital circuit, and has been widely used in electronic circuit design and test With the development of high speed VLSIs it is a drawback for Boolean algebra to be unable to describe circuit timing behavior. Therefore a Boolean process is defined as a family of Boolean van ables relevant to the time parameter t. A real-valued sample of a Boolean process is a waveform. Waveform functions can be manipulated formally by using mathematical tools. The distance, difference and limit of a waveform polynomial are defined, and a sufficient and necessary condition of the limit existence is presented. Based on this, the concept of sensitization is redefined precisely to demonstrate the potential and wide application possibility The new definition is very different from the traditional one, and has an impact on determining the sensitizable paths with maximum or minimum length, and false paths, and then designing and testing high performance circuits

  20. Purification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, A.

    1981-02-17

    A process for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from gases or liquid hydrocarbons, comprises contacting the gas or liquid hydrocarbon with an aqueous alkaline solution, preferably having a pH value of 8 to 10, comprising (A) an anthraquinone disulphonic acid or a water-soluble sulphonamide thereof (B) a compound of a metal which can exist in at least two valency states and (C) a sequestering agent.

  1. 证券交易印花税与市场质量——来自中国证券市场的实证分析%Securities Transaction Stamp Tax and Market Quality: Evidence from the China Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦峰; 黄登仕; 魏宇

    2012-01-01

    在证券市场监管中,证券交易印花税一直被视为一种重要的调节方式,但已有研究对证券交易印花税调整如何导致市场质量的改变并没有一致意见,我国证券市场次近两次印花税调整(一降一升),恰好提供了探讨这个问题的“自然实验”机会。通过事件研究法,发现印花税上调后,市场的流动性减少,市场的波动性增加,市场的价格发现过程延迟,市场质量整体变差;印花税下调后,市场的流动性增加,市场的定价效率提升,市场的波动性却加大,市场质量指标变化呈现不一致性。由于事件研究法存在计量缺陷,进一步使用对比分析和回归分析控制成交量和价格水平等内生变量的影响,证实印花税下调整体改善了市场质量。证券交易印花税与市场质量呈负相关关系,税率上调的影响大于税率下调的影响,降低印花税赋税水平符合市场微观结构的内在要求。%In the securities market regulation, Securities Transaction Tax (STT) has been seen as an important way of regulating, but there is no consensus in the literature on whether an increase or decrease in Securities Transaction Stamp Tax rate results in an improvement or deterioration in market quality. The recent two changes of Securities Transaction Stamp Taxes in China securities market provide us with a unique opportunity to test empirically the impact of a tax rate change on market quality. Through event study methodology, we find that market quality is decreasing in higher STT rate, while market Volatility is increasing in lower STT rate. We argue that previous event studies of the effect of STT have been econometrically flawed, propose a regression procedure to correct this flaw, and show that this procedure can reverse the result of an event study. There was a negative correlation between STT and market quality, and the impact of tax rate increase is greater

  2. Ceramic Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  3. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    -terminal of the scissile bond, leaving C-terminal fusions to have non-native C-termini after processing. A solution yielding native C-termini would allow novel expression and purification systems for therapeutic proteins and peptides.The peptidyl-Lys metallopeptidase (LysN) of the fungus Armillaria mellea (Am) is one...... suitable to leave native C-termini.During this study the substrate specificity of LysN was profiled with a synthetic fluorogenic peptide library which allowed for kinetic characterization. A novel profiling method using encoded beads was proposed to efficiently profile human Renin. Recombinant expression...

  4. Hydrocarbon processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.G.; Seddon, D.

    1989-06-28

    A process for the catalytic conversion of synthesis-gas into a product which comprises naphtha, kerosene and distillate is characterized in that the catalyst is a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst also containing a zeolite, the naphtha fraction contains 60% or less linear paraffins and the kerosene and distillated fractions contain more linear paraffins and olefins than found in the naphtha fraction. Reduction of the relative amount of straight chain material in the naphtha fraction increases the octane number and so enhances the quality of the gasoline product, while the high quality of the kerosene and distillate fractions is maintained.

  5. Heterogeneous catalysis through microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruell, Jason M.; Sheriff, Bonnie A.; Rozkiewicz, D.I.; Dichtel, William R.; Rohde, Rosemary D.; Reinhoudt, David; Stoddart, Fraser; Heath, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Minting a Stamp: The preparation of copper metal-coated elastomeric stamps and their use in catalyzing the Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction heterogeneously through microcontact printing is described. This StampCat process is compared to other conventional surface-functionalization te

  6. Optical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The technical contributions were as follows: (1) Optical parallel 2-D neighborhood processor and optical processor assessment technique; (2) High accuracy with moderately accurate components and optical fredkin gate architectures; (3) Integrated optical threshold computing, pipelined polynomial processor, and all optical analog/digital converter; (4) Adaptive optical associative memory model with attention; (5) Effectiveness of parallelism and connectivity in optical computers; (6) Optical systolic array processing using an integrated acoustooptic module; (7) Optical threshold elements and networks, holographic threshold processors, adaptive matched spatial filtering, and coherence theory in optical computing; (8) Time-varying optical processing for sub-pixel targets, optical Kalman filtering, and adaptive matched filtering; (9) Optical degrees of freedom, ultra short optical pulses, number representations, content-addressable-memory processors, and integrated optical Givens rotation devices; (10) Optical J-K flip flop analysis and interfacing for optical computers; (11) Matrix multiplication algorithms and limits of incoherent optical computers; (12) Architecture for machine vision with sensor fusion, pattern recognition functions, and neural net implementations; (13) Optical computing algorithms, architectures, and components; and (14) Dynamic optical interconnections, advantages and architectures.

  7. A Big Data and Learning Analytics Approach to Process-Level Feedback in Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaric, Martin; Boutis, Kathy; Beckstead, Jason; Pusic, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Collecting and analyzing large amounts of process data for the purposes of education can be considered a big data/learning analytics (BD/LA) approach to improving learning. However, in the education of health care professionals, the application of BD/LA is limited to date. The authors discuss the potential advantages of the BD/LA approach for the process of learning via cognitive simulations. Using the lens of a cognitive model of radiograph interpretation with four phases (orientation, searching/scanning, feature detection, and decision making), they reanalyzed process data from a cognitive simulation of pediatric ankle radiography where 46 practitioners from three expertise levels classified 234 cases online. To illustrate the big data component, they highlight the data available in a digital environment (time-stamped, click-level process data). Learning analytics were illustrated using algorithmic computer-enabled approaches to process-level feedback.For each phase, the authors were able to identify examples of potentially useful BD/LA measures. For orientation, the trackable behavior of re-reviewing the clinical history was associated with increased diagnostic accuracy. For searching/scanning, evidence of skipping views was associated with an increased false-negative rate. For feature detection, heat maps overlaid on the radiograph can provide a metacognitive visualization of common novice errors. For decision making, the measured influence of sequence effects can reflect susceptibility to bias, whereas computer-generated path maps can provide insights into learners' diagnostic strategies.In conclusion, the augmented collection and dynamic analysis of learning process data within a cognitive simulation can improve feedback and prompt more precise reflection on a novice clinician's skill development.

  8. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  9. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  10. Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  11. MAGNETIC PULSED PROCESSING OF METALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES OF MODERNITY – A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Batygin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is dedicated to the brief review of the main achievements of the advanced technologies with usage of the energy of the pulsed magnetic fields. Originality. The new suggestions are represented. They are based on the results of development of the new scientific direction in area of the magnetic pulsed processing of thin-walled sheet metals when a penetration of the acting fields is quite significant. The known traditional approaches based on the skin-effect in electrodynamics and were successfully implemented. Methodology of the analysis consist of careful theoretical and practical experiments review and its future development. Results of the research based on the existing experimental approbation were presented visually with the description followed The known approaches to solution actual production problems based on the skin-effect in electrodynamics are described. Practical value. The first of practical propositions is related to stamping of the drawing the printed circuit boards on the cooper foil with thickness about ~50 mkm. This operation is realizing by the forces of magnetic pressure directly without any supplements introduction. The second consists in usage the magnetic pulsed attraction for external removing the dents in the car body. This operation does not demand disassembling of elemental base and allows preserving the paint of coverings. Both of these technologies could to minimize the working time, to decries the volume of the waste products and to make the manufacturing existed much cheaper.

  12. Optimization of industrial robot's transmission path in hot stamping production line%热冲压生产线中工业机器人输送路径的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峥; 张宜生; 刘会强

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the deformation characteristics of spun pans with noncircular cross-section, the simulation of spinning process of conical parts with pentagonal cross-section was carried out with software MSC. Marc. The distributions of thickness thinning ratio along the circumference and generatrix directions were obtained. The influence of cross-section shape of workpiece on thickness thinning ratio was obtained by comparing the thickness thinning ratio of several spun parts with pentagonal and circular cross-sections. The results show that the distribution of thickness thinning ratio along the circumferential direction is related to the contour curvature closely, the bigger of the curvature, the larger of the thickness reduction, and vice-versa.%以工业机器人为载体的冷热料混合输送系统,是高强度钢热成形生产线中的关键环节之一.为了最大程度减少热坯料输送过程的温度散失,必须保证热料输送过程的平稳性和快速性.以高强度钢板热冲压成形数字化生产线的研究为背景,以六自由度关节型工业机器人的运动学模型为基础,在分析其运动特性的基础上,寻找到一种优化的输送路径的方法,并对新、旧方案的模拟及实测结果进行对比分析,发现使用优化方案后,在将热料输送时间由原先的2.7s降低到1.8s的同时还降低了运动加速度,从而充分证明了新方案的优越性和适应性.

  13. Effect of quaternary ammonium salts in the process of extracting oil filled rubber from latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, much attention is paid to the improvement of production technology of synthetic rubber. Much attention is given to rubber is produced by emulsion polymerization. This is due to the fact that rubbers produced by emulsion polymerization have a number of positive characteristics, and are widely used in the tire and rubber industry, in composite formulations for various purposes. In recent years, the technology of production of synthetic rubbers are widely used quaternary ammonium salts which are produced on an industrial scale. Application low and high molecular weight quaternary ammonium salts to reduce pollution of environ-mental protection, exclude the use of mineral salts without significant changes in the process flowsheet. It is found that quaternary ammonium salts react with the components of the emulsion system to form insoluble complexes, which are captured produced rubber crumb. However, Applications, quaternary salts in the manufacture of oil-filled rubber in the literature sources have not been given due attention. The study presents the results of research on the effect of the concentration of a coagulating agent, tempera tours and concentration of the dispersed phase in the process of coagulation of latex in the preparation of oil-filled rubber stamps SCS-30 ARKM-15. The concentration of the coagulating agent does not significantly affect the process of separation of the rubber from the latex. The process of isolation rubber latex is advantageously carried out at a reduced temperature. The concentration of the dispersed phase also provides material effect on the coagulation process. The lead researches mouthestablished that produced rubber, rubber compounds and vulcanizates based on these indicators correspond to their requirements.

  14. Dynamic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingshirn, C.

    . Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ≤ 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ∗ with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ∗. The quantity T 2 ∗ can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

  15. Springback Compensation in Cold Forming Process for High Strength Steel / Kompensacja sprężynowania w procesie formowania stali na zimno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałon P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Process of metal forming in automotive parts construction becomes more and more demanding due to tightened up tolerance and trials to realize very complex and in many cases unworkable design in mass production. Moreover it is required to cut and limit costs of die production and simultaneously keep high quality. Furthermore, construction elements are more often produced from materials which belong to High Strength Steel or Ultra High Strength Steel. Application of this kind of materials considerably reduces construction mass due to high durability. Nevertheless, it results in appearance of springback effect. Springback value depends mainly on used material as well as part geometry and in extreme cases deviation value from target part might reach in some areas high level. Reduction of implementation time, development of metal components and greater restrictions about designing and producing stamping tools generate extra costs. Designing of dies requires using of appropriate Finite Element Method software to make them more economic and less time-consuming. Therefore analysis of forming process alone is not enough to be taken into account. During the design process it is needed to include the die compensation to reach optimized blank sheet. Prediction of springback effect by tryout method and then correction of deviation is difficult arduous and painstaking. Virtual compensation methods make it possible to receive precise result in a short time. This way gives a huge economic advantage eliminating useless milling and allows to produce of die just in time. Optimization process can relate to individual operation as well as take into consideration intermediate stages in the final result, at the same time increasing the accuracy. Die compensation with software application was experimentally verified by prototype die. Quality requirements regarding products of sheet stamping process are very high due to the technologies of automatic assembly of formed

  16. Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  17. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  18. 通电时间对热冲压高强钢点焊接头性能及失效方式的影响%Influence of welding time on performance and failure mode of hot stamping boron high strength steel spot-welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树君; 郝素锋; 于洋; 白立来

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of large resistivity, high peak temperature in welding thermal cycle, fast rising rate of temperature and uneven local cooling rate determined the heterogeneity in resistance spot-welded joints of hot stamping boron high strength steel, which resulted in three different failure modes of the joints. The effects of welding time on microhard-ness, bearing performance, failure modes of the resultant joints were studied, and the failure mechanism was investigated. The results show that the capacities of bearing and energy absorption between 400 ms and 600 ms of welding time were equivalent, and the nugget pull-out could not be the standard for evaluating the quality of joints. The welding defects, stress concentration and local toughness deterioration in HAZ were three main factors that affected the failure of the joints.%热冲压硼钢电阻率大、焊接热循环升温速度快、峰值温度高、局部冷却速率的不均匀,决定了点焊接头性能差别极大.点焊接头在剪切载荷作用下有界面断裂、焊核拔出和部分焊核拔出三种失效方式.以1.6mm厚的热冲压硼钢为对象,研究不同通电时间对接头显微硬度、承载性能、失效方式的影响规律,分析失效的形成原因和失效机理.结果表明,上述三种失效方式承载能力和破坏吸能力相差不大,焊核拔出并不能作为评判高强钢点焊接头质量好坏的标准.焊接缺陷、承载时的高度应力集中以及热影响区局部韧性恶化是影响热冲压高强钢点焊接头失效方式的三大主要因素.

  19. 复合材料用机织物非正交本构模型的半球形冲压成型验证%Validation of a non-orthogonal constitutive model for woven composite fabrics via hemispherical stamping simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁纺纺; 彭雄奇

    2011-01-01

    A non-orthogonal constitutive model, previously developed by the authors to characterize the anisotropic material behavior of woven composite fabrics under large deformation, which results from the angle change between warp and weft yarns, was validated by a hemispherical stamping simulation of a square plain woven composite fabric at room temperature. As a comparison, the forming is simulated by using a corresponding orthotropic constitutive model. The simulation results show that the non-orthogonal constitutive model brings out almost the same boundary profile as that in the experiment and shear angles are in the experimental standard deviation range. While quite large discrepancy is found in the case with orthogonal constitutive model. The proposed non-orthogonal model is better than the orthogonal model in characterizing the anisotropic material behavior of woven composites under large shear deformation.%为了描述复合材料用机织物在大变形下由于经纱和纬纱之间角度变化所引起的非线性各向异性材料行为,前期工作中建立了一个非正交本构模型.利用半球形冲头对复合材料用平纹机织物进行冲压模拟,并将非正交本构模型和正交本构模型的模拟结果与实验结果进行对比,对非正交本构模型进行验证,以充分说明该模型的有效性和正确性.结果表明:采用非正交本构模型模拟的复合材料用平纹机织物变形后的边界轮廓与实验结果基本一致,并且剪切角都在实验结果的误差范围内;而采用正交本构模型,复合材料用机织物变形后的边界轮廓和剪切角与实验结果相差较大.研究表明,与正交本构模型相比非正交本构模型能更好地描述复合材料用机织物在大变形下的材料属性.

  20. Construindo devoções: as estampas de santos na criação religiosa e na pesquisa histórica – o caso da Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado / Building devotions: the stamps of saints in religious creation and historical research – the case of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Aquino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is intended to discuss the specificities, the uses and potential of prints of Catholicsaints in historical research, particularly in the construction of the devotion to Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado de Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. In recent decades, especially in the 1970s, central points in the production of historical knowledge have been transformed, mainly, by the eruption of new conceptions of time and source. In this context, religious history, showing significant growth and renewal, has expanded its objects and, indeed, its sources, enhancing the traditional iconography in its modern format extensions, as in the case of the prints of saints. The meanings and uses of these stamps must be sought in the interaction with determined devotional practice marked by the temporal, spatial and social situations of a specific historical context, through the confluence of the perspectives of social history of art, anthropology, sociology, and cultural semiotics, adjusted to the specifically historical way of producing knowledge.Pretende-se discutir as especificidades, os usos e as potencialidades das estampas de santos católicos na pesquisa histórica, em particular, na construção da devoção a Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Vagão Queimado de Ourinhos-SP. Nas últimas décadas, sobretudo nos anos 1970, pontos centrais da produção do conhecimento histórico foram transformados, principalmente, pela irrupção de novas concepções de tempo e de fonte. Nesse contexto a história religiosa, em expressivo crescimento e renovação, expandiu seus objetos e, com efeito, suas fontes, valorizando a tradicional iconografia em suas extensões de formato moderno, como no caso das estampas dos santos. Os sentidos e os usos dessas estampas devem ser buscados na interação com determinada prática devocional marcada pelas situações temporais, espaciais e sociais de um específico contexto histórico a partir da confluência de