WorldWideScience

Sample records for matched healthy controls

  1. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  2. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  3. Female fibromyalgia patients: lower resting metabolic rates than matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John C; Yellin, Jackie; Honeyman-Lowe, Gina

    2006-07-01

    Many features of fibromyalgia and hypothyroidism are virtually the same, and thyroid hormone treatment trials have reduced or eliminated fibromyalgia symptoms. These findings led the authors to test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia patients are hypometabolic compared to matched controls. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance for 15 fibromyalgia patients and 15 healthy matched controls. Measured resting metabolic rate (mRMR) was compared to percentages of predicted RMR (pRMR) by fat-free weight (FFW) (Sterling-Passmore: SP) and by sex, age, height, and weight (Harris-Benedict: HB). Patients had a lower mRMR (4,306.31+/-1077.66 kJ vs 5,411.59+/-695.95 kJ, p=0.0028) and lower percentages of pRMRs (SP: -28.42+/-15.82% vs -6.83+/-12.55%, pBMI) best accounted for variability in controls' RMRs, age and fat weight (FW) did for patients. In the patient group, TSH level accounted for 28% of the variance in pain distribution, and free T3 (FT3) accounted for 30% of the variance in pressure-pain threshold. Patients had lower mRMR and percentages of pRMRs. The lower RMRs were not due to calorie restriction or low FFW. Patients' normal FFW argues against low physical activity as the mechanism. TSH, FT4, and FT3 levels did not correlate with RMRs in either group. This does not rule out inadequate thyroid hormone regulation because studies show these laboratory values do not reliably predict RMR.

  4. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadri Zeeshan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35, gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25, pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66 and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family

  5. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  7. Responses of sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls were measured for the purpose of estimating the responsibility of the sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure. In preliminary experiment, it was confirmed that cold air exposure of the whole body was more suitable than one-hand immersion in cold water. In the main experiment, 195 subjects were examined. Sixty-five subjects had vibration syndrome with vibration-induced white finger (VWF + group) and 65 subjects had vibration syndrome without VWF (VWF- group) and 65 controls had no symptoms (control group). In the three groups, plasma norepinephrine levels increased during cold air exposure of whole body at 7 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees C. Blood pressure increased and skin temperature decreased during cold exposure. Percent increase of norepinephrine in the VWF+ group was the highest while that in VWF- group followed and that in the control group was the lowest. This whole-body response of the sympathetic nervous system to cold conditions reflected the VWF which are characteristic symptoms of vibration syndrome. Excluding the effects of shivering and a cold feeling under cold conditions, it was confirmed that the sympathetic nervous system in vibration syndrome is activated more than in the controls. These results suggest that vibration exposure to hand and arm affects the sympathetic nervous system.

  8. Sexual dysfunction is more than twice as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Lotte; Eidemak, Inge; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare sexual dysfunction in Danish female predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 with age-matched healthy women in Denmark. METHODS: Twenty-seven adult female predialysis patients (CKD stage 4-5 ~ creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min) without.......1, respectively, p = 0.180). CONCLUSION: Sexual dysfunction was found to be more than two times as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients with CKD stage 4-5 compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls, and this result emphasizes the need for attention towards sexual function in the treatment...... diagnosed depression and 54 randomly assigned healthy female controls completed the questionnaires Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the Major Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Predialysis patients reported lower Female Sexual Function Index scores compared to the controls (14...

  9. [Motor skills and safety of patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury : Comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudovici-Krug, Dana; Benkenstein, Monique; Derlien, Steffen; Best, Norman

    2018-06-01

    Do patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury show differences in motor skills and safety in comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects? Prospective controlled cross-sectional study. Inclusion of 17 patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury (mean 1.5 years postsurgery) and 23 healthy, active subjects of comparable age (fitness studio). Measurement instruments: motor test procedures and questionnaires. Comparison of patients and control subjects by routine daily motor function: patients  0.05), fear of falling: patients > controls (p = 0.003) and physical activity: patients motor deficits in activities of daily life between the patients and controls, only tendencies; however, the patients showed definite limitations with an increased fear of falling and a reduced physical activity compared with the healthy control group. The resulting differences should be positively influenced by appropriate enhancement of training or participation in sports courses. The aim is to achieve a similar quality of life by a perception of safety and trust in one's own motor skills.

  10. Heart rate autonomic regulation system at rest and during paced breathing among patients with CRPS as compared to age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartur, Gadi; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Raphaely-Beer, Noa; Peleg, Sara; Katz-Leurer, Michal

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the autonomic nerve heart rate regulation system at rest and its immediate response to paced breathing among patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as compared with age-matched healthy controls. Quasiexperimental. Outpatient clinic. Ten patients with CRPS and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. Participants underwent Holter ECG (NorthEast Monitoring, Inc., Maynard, MA, USA) recording during rest and biofeedback-paced breathing session. Heart rate variability (HRV), time, and frequency measures were assessed. HRV and time domain values were significantly lower at rest among patients with CRPS as compared with controls. A significant association was noted between pain rank and HRV frequency measures at rest and during paced breathing; although both groups reduced breathing rate significantly during paced breathing, HRV time domain parameters increased only among the control group. The increased heart rate and decreased HRV at rest in patients with CRPS suggest a general autonomic imbalance. The inability of the patients to increase HRV time domain values during paced breathing may suggest that these patients have sustained stress response with minimal changeability in response to slow-paced breathing stimuli. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sensorimotor control of tracking movements at various speeds for stroke patients as well as age-matched and young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Ao

    Full Text Available There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s. The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE, normalized integrated jerk (NIJ and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS, were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01, and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging.

  12. Video game addiction in emerging adulthood: Cross-sectional evidence of pathology in video game addicts as compared to matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura; Coyne, Sarah M

    2018-01-01

    The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS) is a widely used measure of video game addiction, a pathology affecting a small percentage of all people who play video games. Emerging adult males are significantly more likely to be video game addicts. Few researchers have examined how people who qualify as video game addicts based on the IGDS compared to matched controls based on age, gender, race, and marital status. The current study compared IGDS video game addicts to matched non-addicts in terms of their mental, physical, social-emotional health using self-report, survey methods. Addicts had poorer mental health and cognitive functioning including poorer impulse control and ADHD symptoms compared to controls. Additionally, addicts displayed increased emotional difficulties including increased depression and anxiety, felt more socially isolated, and were more likely to display internet pornography pathological use symptoms. Female video game addicts were at unique risk for negative outcomes. The sample for this study was undergraduate college students and self-report measures were used. Participants who met the IGDS criteria for video game addiction displayed poorer emotional, physical, mental, and social health, adding to the growing evidence that video game addictions are a valid phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (Pcontrols controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging. PMID:26030289

  14. Young adults perinatally infected with HIV perform more poorly on measures of executive functioning and motor speed than ethnically matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willen, Elizabeth J; Cuadra, Anai; Arheart, Kristopher L; Post, M J D; Govind, Varan

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal HIV is associated with significant neurocognitive morbidities, but few studies have examined cognitive impact of early HIV infection on patients surviving to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive outcomes among a cohort of perinatally infected young adults. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 with perinatal infection were recruited for this cross-sectional study along with similarly aged healthy controls. Participants completed an MRI and brief neuropsychological assessment battery. Multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education was completed to detect differences between the HIV+ and control groups. Multivariable linear regression was performed to assess HIV-associated factors potentially impacting neuropsychological findings among the HIV+ group. Twenty-nine HIV+ young adults and 13 healthy controls were included in the study. After adjusting for age and sociodemographic variables, the HIV+ group scored lower on attention/working memory (Digit Span (p = .008) and Letter-Number Sequencing (p = .038)), set-shifting (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 4 (p = .026) and motor speed (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 5 (p = .003)). For the HIV+ group, nadir CD4 was associated with better Letter-Number Sequencing score (p = .029) and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy was associated with better performance on Category Fluency (p = .040). After controlling for sociodemographic variables, executive dysfunction persists among young adults with perinatal HIV infection in comparison to controls. Future studies to further elucidate the impact of executive dysfunction on independent living and functional outcomes are indicated.

  15. Equilibrium and matching under price controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers a one-to-one matching with contracts model in the presence of price controls. This set-up contains two important streams in the matching literature, those with and those without monetary transfers, as special cases and allows for intermediate cases with some restrictions on the

  16. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  17. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  18. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents--a matched case-control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmet, Ann; Deforche, Benedicte; Hublet, Anne; Tanghe, Ann; Stremersch, Evi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-03-05

    Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents' risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age=15.32±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age=15.30±1.73). Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs.

  19. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  20. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  1. Meals described as healthy or unhealthy match public health education in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Booth, David A

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general public aim to lower the incidence of nutrition-related diseases by influencing habitual food choices. Yet little is known about how well the guidelines are matched by the actual practices that people regard as healthy or unhealthy. In the present study, British residents were asked in a cognitive interview to write a description of an occasion when either they ate in an unhealthy way or the eating was healthy. The reported foods and drinks, as well as sort of occasion, location, people present and time of day, were categorised by verbal and semantic similarities. The number of mentions of terms in each category was then contrasted between groups in exact probability tests. Perceived unhealthy and healthy eating occasions differed reliably in the sorts of foods and the contexts reported. There was also full agreement with the national guidelines on eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, eating small amounts of foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar, drinking plenty of water, and cutting down on alcohol. There was a tendency to regard choices of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods as healthy. Reported healthy and unhealthy eating did not differ in incidences of meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein or of dairy foods and milk. These results indicate that operationally clear recommendations by health professionals are well understood in this culture but members of the public do not make clear distinctions in the case of foods that can be included in moderate amounts in a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional health status of adults with tetralogy of Fallot: matched comparison with healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel; Veldtman, Gruschen; Hickey, Edward J; Bradley, Timothy; Gengsakul, Aungkana; Webb, Gary D; Williams, William G; McCrindle, Brian W

    2012-07-01

    Survival prospects for adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are now excellent. Attention should therefore shift to assessing and improving functional health status and quality of life. We aimed to assess late functional health status of adults surviving TOF repair by matched comparison to their healthy siblings. All 1,693 TOF repairs performed at our institution between 1946 and 1990 were reviewed. A matched comparison was undertaken whereby presumed survivors and their healthy sibling were contacted and asked to complete the Ontario Health Survey 1990 and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Both questionnaires were completed by 224 adult survivors and their sibling closest in age. Adults with repaired TOF had lower scores for self-perceived general health status (p health as good or excellent (p health (p = 0.001) than their siblings. However, patients reported similar satisfaction with their lives, similar levels of social participation and support, and were as likely to be in long-term partnerships. Worse physical and mental health scores were associated with older age at surgery and at time of questionnaire completion and recent requirement for noncardiac medication. Although reporting lower functional health status then their siblings, quality of life and life satisfaction for adults who underwent surgery for TOF during childhood is comparable to that of their siblings without heart defects. Follow-up of younger adults is required to understand current health outcomes attributable to improvements in the management of TOF. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sparsely-Packetized Predictive Control by Orthogonal Matching Pursuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahara, Masaaki; Quevedo, Daniel; Østergaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We study packetized predictive control, known to be robust against packet dropouts in networked systems. To obtain sparse packets for rate-limited networks, we design control packets via an ℓ0 optimization, which can be eectively solved by orthogonal matching pursuit. Our formulation ensures...

  4. Multidimensional analysis of food-allergic children and adolescents' self-concept: A comparison with a healthy matched sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, Laura; Baldi, Ileana; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Bonaguro, Roberta; Toniolo, Alice; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated self-concept in food-allergic youths and matched healthy controls. Global and domain-specific self-concepts were assessed in 154 participants (9-19 years) using the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale. Statistical analysis assessed differences between the two samples and effects of asthma, dermatitis, age, and gender among patients. Significant differences were found for Total Scale score and for Competence and Physical scores. Patients showed clinically problematic self-concepts in Global, Competence, and Family domains. Age was found to be associated with the Total score. Health professionals should consider food-allergic patients' personality development. Further studies could examine disease-specific consequences and interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to walking down a traffic-polluted road compared with walking in a traffic-free area in participants aged 60 years and older with chronic lung or heart disease and age-matched healthy controls: a randomised, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Rudy; Gong, Jicheng; Barratt, Benjamin; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Ernst, Sabine; Kelly, Frank J; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Collins, Peter; Cullinan, Paul; Chung, Kian Fan

    2018-01-27

    Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults. In this randomised, crossover study, we recruited men and women aged 60 years and older with angiographically proven stable ischaemic heart disease or stage 2 Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD who had been clinically stable for 6 months, and age-matched healthy volunteers. Individuals with ischaemic heart disease or COPD were recruited from existing databases or outpatient respiratory and cardiology clinics at the Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and age-matched healthy volunteers using advertising and existing databases. All participants had abstained from smoking for at least 12 months and medications were taken as recommended by participants' doctors during the study. Participants were randomly assigned by drawing numbered disks at random from a bag to do a 2 h walk either along a commercial street in London (Oxford Street) or in an urban park (Hyde Park). Baseline measurements of participants were taken before the walk in the hospital laboratory. During each walk session, black carbon, particulate matter (PM) concentrations, ultrafine particles, and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations were measured. Between October, 2012, and June, 2014, we screened 135 participants, of whom 40 healthy volunteers, 40 individuals with COPD, and 39 with ischaemic heart disease were recruited. Concentrations of black carbon, NO 2 , PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and ultrafine particles

  6. Controlled neural network application in track-match problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baginyan, S.A.; Ososkov, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Track-match problem of high energy physics (HEP) data handling is formulated in terms of incidence matrices. The corresponding Hopfield neural network is developed to solve this type of constraint satisfaction problems (CSP). A special concept of the controlled neural network is proposed as a basis of an algorithm for the effective CSP solution. Results of comparable calculations show the very high performance of this algorithm against conventional search procedures. 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  7. Quality of life in Arab Muslim cancer survivors following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: comparison with matched healthy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaloul, Fawwaz; Brockopp, Dorothy Y; Andrykowski, Michael A; Hall, Lynne A; Al Nusairat, Taghreed S

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if quality of life (QOL) among Arab Muslim hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors differs from that of a healthy matched comparison group and to examine the relationships of demographic and medical variables and perceived social support with post-HSCT QOL. HSCT survivors (n = 63) were recruited from the King Hussein Cancer Center outpatient clinic. A matched (age, gender, education), healthy comparison group (n = 63) was recruited through public advertisements. Participants completed the EORTC-30 QOL scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. Differences were found between the Arab Muslim HSCT survivor and healthy comparison groups for physical functioning (p Western HSCT survivors in the social and emotional QOL domains. Given growing numbers of Arab and Muslim cancer survivors in the USA and other Western countries, future research is warranted.

  8. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous hydrophthalmic eyes assessed by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation in comparison with age-matched healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložánek, Martin; Ošmera, Jakub; Ležatková, Pavlína; Sedláčková, Petra; Filouš, Aleš

    2012-12-01

    To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children with age-matched healthy controls using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). Twenty hydrophthalmic eyes of 20 patients with the mean age of 10.64 ± 3.02 years being treated for congenital or infantile glaucoma were included in the analysis. Evaluation of RNFL thickness measured by GDxVCC in standard Temporal-Superior-Nasal-Inferior-Temporal (TSNIT) parameters was performed. The results were compared to TSNIT values of an age-matched control group of 120 healthy children published recently as referential values. The correlation between horizontal corneal diameter and RNFL thickness in hydrophthalmic eyes was also investigated. The mean ± SD values in TSNIT Average, Superior Average, Inferior Average and TSNIT SD in hydrophthalmic eyes were 52.3 ± 11.4, 59.7 ± 17.1, 62.0 ± 15.6 and 20.0 ± 7.8 μm, respectively. All these values were significantly lower compared to referential TSNIT parameters of age-matched healthy eyes (p = 0.021, p = 0.001, p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively). A substantial number of hydrophthalmic eyes laid below the level of 5% probability of normality in respective TSNIT parameters: 30% of the eyes in TSNIT average, 50% of the eyes in superior average, 30% of the eyes in inferior average and 45% of the eyes in TSNIT SD. No significant correlation between enlarged corneal diameter and RNFL thickness was found. The mean values of all standard TSNIT parameters assessed using GDxVCC in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children were significantly lower in comparison with referential values of healthy age-matched children. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  9. Beam control and matching for the transport of intense beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Bernal, S.; Godlove, T.; Huo, Y.; Kishek, R.A.; Haber, I.; Quinn, B.; Walter, M.; Zou, Y.; Reiser, M.; O'Shea, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The transport of intense beams for heavy-ion inertial fusion demands tight control of beam characteristics from the source to the target. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), which uses a low-energy (10 keV), high-current electron beam to model the transport physics of a future recirculator driver, employs real-time beam characterization and control in order to optimize beam quality throughout the strong focusing lattice. We describe the main components and operation of the diagnostics/control system in UMER. It employs phosphor screens, real-time image analysis, quadrupole scans and electronic skew correctors. The procedure is not only indispensable for optimum transport over a long distance, but also provides important insights into the beam physics involved. We discuss control/optimization issues related to beam steering, quadrupole rotation errors and rms envelope matching

  10. Participation in Heart-Healthy Behaviors: A Secondary Analysis of the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; De Jong, Marla J; Berra, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association created Go Red Heart Match, a free and secure online program that enables women to connect with each other to fight heart disease either personally or as a caregiver for someone with heart disease. Through these connections, participants have an opportunity to develop a personal, private, and supportive relationship with other women; share common experiences; and motivate and encourage each other to follow a heart-healthy lifestyle. The aims of this study were to describe the demographic characteristics of the Go Red Heart Match responders and to determine whether participation in the program prompted participants to engage in heart-healthy behaviors. A secondary analysis of data collected as part of a needs assessment survey from the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match was conducted. A total of 117 (35%) of the 334 invited women completed the survey. Most responders were female, married, and college educated. A total of 105 (90%) responders were diagnosed with a type of heart disease or stroke and 77 (73%) responders had undergone treatment. As a result of participating in the program, 75% of the responders reported the following improvements in heart-healthy behaviors: eating a more heart-healthy diet (54%), exercising more frequently (53%), losing weight (47%), and quitting smoking (10%). Responders who had a diagnosis of heart attack (n = 48) were more likely (P = .003) to quit smoking than were those with other diagnoses (n = 69). Notably, 48% of responders reported encouraging someone else in their life to speak to their doctor about their risk for heart disease. Most women who participated in Heart Match reported engaging in new heart-healthy behaviors. The findings support expanding the existing program in a more diverse population as a potentially important way to reach women and encourage cardiovascular disease risk reduction for those with heart disease and stroke.

  11. MODELING CONTROLLED ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC DRIVES WITH MATCHING REDUCERS AND TRANSFORMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Petrushin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Working out of mathematical models of the speed-controlled induction electric drives ensuring joint consideration of transformers, motors and loadings, and also matching reducers and transformers, both in static, and in dynamic regimes for the analysis of their operating characteristics. Methodology. At mathematical modelling are considered functional, mass, dimensional and cost indexes of reducers and transformers that allows observing engineering and economic aspects of speed-controlled induction electric drives. The mathematical models used for examination of the transitive electromagnetic and electromechanical processes, are grounded on systems of nonlinear differential equations with nonlinear coefficients (parameters of equivalent circuits of motors, varying in each operating point, including owing to appearances of saturation of magnetic system and current displacement in a winding of a rotor of an induction motor. For the purpose of raise of level of adequacy of models a magnetic circuit iron, additional and mechanical losses are considered. Results. Modelling of the several speed-controlled induction electric drives, different by components, but working on a loading equal on character, magnitude and a demanded control range is executed. At use of characteristic families including mechanical, at various parameters of regulating on which performances of the load mechanism are superimposed, the adjusting characteristics representing dependences of a modification of electrical, energy and thermal magnitudes from an angular speed of motors are gained. Originality. The offered complex models of speed-controlled induction electric drives with matching reducers and transformers, give the chance to realize well-founded sampling of components of drives. They also can be used as the design models by working out of speed-controlled induction motors. Practical value. Operating characteristics of various speed-controlled induction electric

  12. Stable schizophrenia patients learn equally well as age-matched controls and better than elderly controls in two sensorimotor rotary pursuit tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picker, L.J. De; Cornelis, C.; Hulstijn, W.; Dumont, G.J.H.; Fransen, E.; Timmers, M.; Janssens, L.; Morrens, M.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the

  13. Body-image, quality of life and psychological distress: a comparison between kidney transplant patients and a matching healthy sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Yaron; Geller, Shulamit; Levy, Sigal; Sidi, Yael; Aharoni, Shiri

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the uniqueness of the condition of kidney transplant recipients in comparison to a sample of matching healthy peers in relation to body-image dissatisfaction and identification, quality of life and psychological distress. Participants were 45 kidney transplant recipients who were under follow-up care at a Transplant Unit of a major Medical Center, and a sample of 45 matching healthy peers. Measures were taken using self-report questionnaires [Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIIQ), Body Identification Questionnaire (BIQ), Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and the SF-12]. The major findings were the following: (i) kidney transplant recipients reported lower levels of quality of life and higher levels of PsD when compared to their healthy peers; (ii) no difference in body-image dissatisfaction was found between the two studied groups; (iii) significant correlations between body-image dissatisfaction quality of life and PsD were found only in the kidney transplant recipients. The kidney transplantation condition has a moderating effect in the association between body-image dissatisfaction PsD but not in the association between body-image dissatisfaction and quality of life; (iv) kidney transplant recipients experienced higher levels of body identification than did their healthy peers. Taken together, these findings highlight the unique condition of kidney transplant recipients, as well as the function that body-image plays within the self.

  14. Comparison of personality beliefs between depressed patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucens, Bengu; Kuru, Erkan; Safak, Yasir; Karadere, Mehmet Emrah; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-11-01

    According to the cognitive model, the common mechanism underlying all psychological disorders is distorted or dysfunctional thoughts that affect mood and behaviors. Dysfunctional thoughts predispose an individual to depression and are among the processes that form the basis of personality traits. Elucidating the personality beliefs associated with depression and dysfunctional thoughts is important to understanding and treating depression. The aim of the present study is to determine whether depressed patients exhibited pathological personality beliefs compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we investigated which personality beliefs were more common among such depressed patients. A total of 70 patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry at Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) and diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria were included in the study. Additionally, 70 healthy controls matched for age, marital status, and education were included in the study. The Sociodemographic Data Form and Personality Belief Questionnaire-Short form (PBQ-SF) were administered to the participants. A comparison of the depression group with the healthy controls revealed higher scores in dependent, passive-aggressive, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, histrionic, paranoid, borderline, and avoidant personality subscales in the depressive group. These results suggest that personality beliefs at the pathological level are more common in depressive patients and that the detection of these beliefs would be useful for predicting the prognosis of the disease and determining appropriate treatment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of posture and balance in cancer survivors and age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Abigail C; Repka, Chris P; Heise, Gary D; Challis, John H; Smith, Jeremy D

    2017-12-01

    The combination of peripheral neuropathy and other treatment-associated side effects is likely related to an increased incidence of falls in cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences in postural stability between healthy age-matched controls and cancer survivors. Quiet standing under four conditions (eyes open/closed, rigid/compliant surface) was assessed in 34 cancer survivors (2 males, 32 females; age: 54(13) yrs., height: 1.62(0.07) m; mass: 78.5(19.5) kg) and 34 age-matched controls (5 males, 29 females; age: 54(15) yrs.; height: 1.62(0.08) m; mass: 72.8(21.1) kg). Center of pressure data were collected for 30s and the trajectories were analyzed (100Hz). Three-factor (group*surface*vision) mixed model MANOVAs with repeated measures were used to determine the effect of vision and surface on postural steadiness between groups. Cancer survivors exhibited larger mediolateral root-mean square distance and velocity of the center of pressure, as well as increased 95% confidence ellipse area (Ppostural steadiness when compared with age-matched controls. For cancer survivors undergoing rehabilitation focused on existing balance deficits, a small subset of the center of pressure measures presented here can be used to track progress throughout the intervention and potentially mitigate fall risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tactile acuity and lumbopelvic motor control in patients with back pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luomajoki, H; Moseley, G L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary lumbopelvic control is compromised in patients with back pain. Loss of proprioceptive acuity is one contributor to decreased control. Several reasons for decreased proprioceptive acuity have been proposed, but the integrity of cortical body maps has been overlooked. We investigated whether tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to lumbopelvic control in people with back pain. Forty-five patients with back pain and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Tactile acuity at the back was assessed using two-point discrimination (TPD) threshold in vertical and horizontal directions. Voluntary motor control was assessed using an established battery of clinical tests. Patients performed worse on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks than healthy controls did (p<0.001). TPD threshold was larger in patients (mean (SD)=61 (13) mm) than in healthy controls (44 (10) mm). Moreover, larger TPD threshold was positively related to worse performance on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks (Pearson's r=0.49; p<0.001). Tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to voluntary lumbopelvic control. This relationship raises the possibility that the former contributes to the latter, in which case training tactile acuity may aid recovery and assist in achieving normal motor performance after back injury.

  17. The Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design By Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form....... By regarding the nominal control system as the desired model, an augmented control system is constructed through the model-matching formulation, such that the current robust control techniques can be usedto synthesize these dynamical modules. One extension of this method with respect to the performance...... recovery besides the functionality recovery is also discussed under this framework. Comparing with the conventional control mixer method, the proposed method considers the recon gured system's stability, performance and robustness simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated by a case study...

  18. Cognitive impairment in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder--a matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antepohl, Wolfram; Kiviloog, Liisa; Andersson, Jan; Gerdle, Björn

    2003-01-01

    To verify the occurrence of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) and to provide a more detailed description of the impairment's character and context. Thirty (30) patients with chronic WAD and 30 matched healthy controls completed a cognitive test battery. Four computerised tests were used: a) two different types of cognitive tasks (reaction time vs. working memory) and b) two types of information processing (verbal vs. spatial). Before testing and after every randomised subtest, subjects rated their pain level on a visual analogue scale. A worse overall performance among patients with WAD and, specifically, worse results concerning working memory tasks were found. Post-hoc testing revealed a statistically significant difference concerning the single variable "verbal reaction time". Pain intensity among patients increased significantly during testing. Pain intensity after the subtest for verbal mental reaction time (independent of test sequence) was significantly correlated with results in this subtest, the more pain, the more time was needed. Compared to healthy controls, patients performed worse overall. Concerning verbal reaction time, the impairment was correlated with pain intensity. The findings support the hypothesis that pain might be one important factor leading to cognitive impairment in patients with chronic WAD.

  19. Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A novel control mixer method for recon¯gurable control designs is developed. The proposed method extends the matrix-form of the conventional control mixer concept into a LTI dynamic system-form. The H_inf control technique is employed for these dynamic module designs after an augmented control...... system is constructed through a model-matching strategy. The stability, performance and robustness of the reconfigured system can be guaranteed when some conditions are satisfied. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a robot system subjected to failures is used to demonstrate...

  20.  Female fibromyalgia patients have the same ability to improve aerobic fitness as healthy sedentary controls

    OpenAIRE

    Hafstad, Arild

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several cross-sectional studies have reported lower aerobic fitness among fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to healthy controls. At present it is unknown whether the inferior aerobic fitness is a cause or a consequence of the illness. Objective: To examine if female FM patients have the same ability to enhance their aerobic fitness as healthy sedentary controls matched on age and BMI. A second objective was to investigate whether the FM patients experience an increase in pre...

  1. Fluidic control of reactor flow—Pressure drop matching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 6A (2009), s. 817-832 ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * matching of fluidic devices * dissipance Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.223, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

  2. Chimpanzee responding during matching to sample: control by exclusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2002-01-01

    Three chimpanzees performed a computerized matching-to-sample task in which samples were photographs of items and comparison stimuli were geometric symbols called lexigrams. In Experiment 1, samples were either defined (i.e., they represented items that were associated already with a specific lexigram label by the chimpanzees) or undefined (i.e., they did not have an already learned association with a specific lexigram). On each trial, the foil (incorrect) comparison could be either a defined...

  3. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  4. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. METHODS:Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. RESULTS:In general, no differences were found between speed......-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant...... correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. CONCLUSION:In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest...

  5. Contact Heat Evoked Potentials (CHEPs) in Patients with Mild-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease and Matched Control-A Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Madsen, Caspar Skau; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies have found that patients with Alzheimer's disease report pain of less intensity and with a lower affective response, which has been thought to be due to altered pain processing. The authors wished to examine the cerebral processing of non-painful and painful stimuli...... threshold and heat pain threshold. Somatosensory evoked potentials, amplitude, and latency were within normal range and similar for the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the processing of non-painful and painful stimuli is preserved in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease....... using somatosensory evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in healthy elderly controls. DESIGN: Case-control study SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Twenty outpatients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease and in 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...

  6. Screening for autoantibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and a matched control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Høyer-Madsen, M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1990-01-01

    Primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS) is a non-articular rheumatic condition characterized by chronic muscular pain. We have performed screening for autoantibodies in 20 women with PFS and in 19 age-matched healthy women. Fifty-five percent of the PFS patients had anti-smooth muscle antibodies and 40...

  7. Greater Glycaemic Response to an Oral Glucose Load in Healthy, Lean, Active and Young Chinese Adults Compared to Matched Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Simper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are ethnic differences recorded in glycaemic response and rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM between Chinese and Caucasian populations. Whether these differences are evident in matched healthy, lean, active, young adults is unclear. This study compares the postprandial glycaemic response of a group of Chinese participants (n = 49 with a group of similar Caucasians, (n = 48 aged 23.8 (±4.35 years, body mass index (BMI 22.7 (±2.6 kg/m2, healthy (free from non-communicable disease, and lean (body fat % 23.28% (±5.04. Participants undertook an oral glucose tolerance test to identify any significant differences in postprandial blood glucose response. Body fat percentage, body mass, age, physical activity, baseline glucose and HbA1c did not significantly differ between groups. Data from food frequency questionnaires indicated that the Chinese participants consumed less starchy foods, candy and “other” sweets and sugary drinks, and more rice than the Caucasians (all p ≤ 0.001, but not a greater overall intake of carbohydrates or any other macronutrient (all p > 0.05. The two groups’ postprandial blood glucose responses and 2-h incremental area under the curve values (iAUC—156.67 (74.12 mmol/L 120 min for Caucasians versus 214.03 (77.49 mmol/L 120 min for Chinese—indicate significant differences (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively between groups. Findings suggest that the difference between the two groups’ iAUC values do not relate to obvious lifestyle factors. The Chinese group were eating the least sugary and starchy food but had the highest iAUC. It is argued that the Chinese group in this investigation have the most favourable BMI, body fat percentage, and body mass, yet “poorest” glycaemic response.

  8. Non food-related risk factors of campylobacteriosis in Canada: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ravel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. Methods This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada. Eighty-five cases were individually matched by age and season to 170 controls. Results Through conditional logistic regression, risk factors were found only among water-related factors (drinking untreated water, using tap filter, drinking water from well and swimming in natural water, whereas drinking bottled water was protective. Among the 32 non-water related factors explored, 12 were surprisingly ‘protective’ factors without relevant explanation for that effect (for example gardening, attending a barbecue, eating food from a fast-food restaurant, suggesting that human infection by Campylobacter may be more frequently acquired at home than outside the home. Conclusions This study confirms and quantifies the importance of the waterborne transmission of campylobacteriosis. People are encouraged to drink only treated water and to avoid the ingestion of natural water as much as possible while swimming or playing in water. Globally, general hygiene and proper food handling and cooking practices at home should continue to be encouraged.

  9. Vision-based adaptive cruise control using pattern matching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kanjee, R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available input generated by the control system does not directly induce a traction force on the car tires. In an electric vehicle, the throttle position is processed by the engine controller and is mapped proportionally to the motor’s angular velocity. For our... simulation, this mapping was obtained from the manufacturer’s datasheet of the electric motor controller being used in the hybrid car. The manufacturer also supplies a speed-torque curve. An approximate equation was obtained using a linear curve fitting...

  10. Symptom Profiles in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Abdominal Pain Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Nurko, Samuel; Saps, Miguel; Saeed, Shehzad A; Bendo, Cristiane B; Patel, Ashish S; Dark, Chelsea Vaughan; Zacur, George M; Pohl, John F

    2015-09-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of gastrointestinal symptoms are recommended to determine treatment effects for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (FAP). Study objectives were to compare the symptom profiles of pediatric patients with IBS or FAP with healthy controls and with each other using the PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry Scales, and to establish clinical interpretability of PRO scale scores through identification of minimal important difference (MID) scores. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 154 pediatric patients and 161 parents (162 families; IBS n = 46, FAP n = 119). Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, stomach discomfort when eating, food and drink limits, trouble swallowing, heartburn and reflux, nausea and vomiting, gas and bloating, constipation, blood in poop, and diarrhea were administered along with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales. A matched sample of 447 families with healthy children completed the scales. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales distinguished between patients with IBS or FAP compared with healthy controls (P 1.50) for symptoms indicative of IBS or FAP, demonstrating a broad multidimensional gastrointestinal symptom profile and clinical interpretability with MID scores for individual PRO scales. Patients with IBS manifested more symptoms of constipation, gas and bloating, and diarrhea than patients with FAP. Patients with IBS or FAP manifested a broad gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls with large differences, indicating the critical need for more effective interventions to bring patient functioning within the range of healthy functioning.

  11. Impact of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Abreu, Laurinda; Tuimil, José Luis; Leicht, Anthony Scott

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a soccer match on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) in soccer referees. Sixteen Spanish regional and third division referees (11 males: 26 ± 7 years, 74.4 ± 4.1 kg, 178 ± 3 cm, Yo-Yo IR1 ~600-1,560 m; 5 females: 22 ± 3 years, 59.3 ± 4.8 kg, 158 ± 8 cm, Yo-Yo IR1 ~200-520 m) participated with 24-h HR recordings measured with a Polar RS800 during a rest and a match day. Autonomic control of HR was assessed from HR variability (HRV) analysis. Inclusion of a soccer match (92.5% spent at >75% maximum HR) reduced pre-match (12:00-17:00 hours; small to moderate), post-match (19:00-00:00 hours; moderate to almost perfect), and night-time (00:00-05:00 hours; small to moderate) HRV. Various moderate-to-large correlations were detected between resting HRV and the rest-to-match day difference in HRV. The rest-to-match day differences of low and high-frequency bands ratio (LF/HF) and HR in the post-match period were moderately correlated with time spent at different exercise intensities. Yo-Yo IR1 performance was highly correlated with jump capacity and peak lactate, but not with any HRV parameter. These results suggest that a greater resting HRV may allow referees to tolerate stresses during a match day with referees who spent more time at higher intensities during matches exhibiting a greater LF/HF increment in the post-match period. The relationship between match activities, [Formula: see text] and HR recovery kinetics in referees and team sport athletes of different competitive levels remains to be clarified.

  12. Patients suffering from restless legs syndrome have low internal locus of control and poor psychological functioning compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disturbing sensorimotor disorder negatively influencing both sleep and psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess RLS patients with respect to locus of control, sleep-related personality traits, quality of life, and sleep as compared to healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients (18 females and 20 males; mean age: 56.06 years) diagnosed with RLS and an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 42) were recruited. Participants completed a series of questionnaires related to locus of control, personality traits, quality of life, and sleep. Compared to healthy controls, RLS patients had a lower internal locus of control, unfavourable sleep-related personality traits such as low self-confidence and higher mental arousal, poorer quality of life, and more depressive symptoms. Sleep was also affected. Multiple regression analyses showed that a low internal and a high external locus of control were predicted by RLS. The pattern of results suggests that RLS is associated with a low locus of control, negative personality traits, and poor quality of life as compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. In vivo kinematics of healthy male knees during squat and golf swing using image-matching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koji; Hamai, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Ikebe, Satoru; Shimoto, Takeshi; Hara, Daisuke; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Higaki, Hidehiko; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-03-01

    Participation in specific activities requires complex ranges of knee movements and activity-dependent kinematics. The purpose of this study was to investigate dynamic knee kinematics during squat and golf swing using image-matching techniques. Five healthy males performed squats and golf swings under periodic X-ray images at 10 frames per second. We analyzed the in vivo three-dimensional kinematic parameters of subjects' knees, namely the tibiofemoral flexion angle, anteroposterior (AP) translation, and internal-external rotation, using serial X-ray images and computed tomography-derived, digitally reconstructed radiographs. During squat from 0° to 140° of flexion, the femur moved about 25 mm posteriorly and rotated 19° externally relative to the tibia. Screw-home movement near extension, bicondylar rollback between 20° and 120° of flexion, and medial pivot motion at further flexion were observed. During golf swing, the leading and trailing knees (the left and right knees respectively in the right-handed golfer) showed approximately five millimeters and four millimeters of AP translation with 18° and 26° of axial rotation, respectively. A central pivot motion from set-up to top of the backswing, lateral pivot motion from top to ball impact, and medial pivot motion from impact to the end of follow-through were observed. The medial pivot motion was not always recognized during both activities, but a large range of axial rotation with bilateral condylar AP translations occurs during golf swing. This finding has important implications regarding the amount of acceptable AP translation and axial rotation at low flexion in replaced knees. IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Canine diabetes mellitus risk factors: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Alan Gomes; de Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz Carvalho; Vivian, Itatiele Farias; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; González, Félix Hilário Díaz

    2017-10-01

    Different subtypes of canine diabetes mellitus (CDM) have been described based on their aetiopathogenesis. Therefore, manifold risk factors may be involved in CDM development. This study aims to investigate canine diabetes mellitus risk factors. Owners of 110 diabetic dogs and 136 healthy controls matched by breed, sex, and age were interviewed concerning aspects related to diet, weight, physical activity, oral health, reproductive history, pancreatitis, and exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. Two multivariate multivariable statistical models were created: The UMod included males and females without variables related to oestrous cycle, while the FMod included only females with all analysed variables. In the UMod, "Not exclusively commercial diet" (OR 4.86, 95%CI 2.2-10.7, Pdiet" (OR 4.14, 95%CI 1.3-12.7, P=0.01), "Table scraps abuse" (OR 3.62, 95%CI 1.1-12.2, P=0.03), "Overweight" (OR 3.91, 95%CI 1.2-12.6, P=0.02), and "Dioestrus" (OR 5.53, 95%CI 1.9-16.3, P=0.002) were statistically significant. The findings in this study support feeding not exclusively balanced commercial dog food, overweight, treats abuse, and diestrus, as main CDM risk factors. Moreover, those results give subside for preventive care studies against CDM development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of human adipose derived stem cells in scleroderma in comparison to sex and age matched normal controls: implications for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michelle; Ryan, Caroline M; Pathan, Omar; Abraham, David; Denton, Christopher P; Butler, Peter E M

    2017-02-07

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are emerging as an alternative stem cell source for cell-based therapies. Recent data suggest that autologous ADSC-enriched micrografting improves the effects of facial involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We have extensively characterised ADSCs from SSc patients and compared their phenotype and function to healthy age- and sex-matched control ADSCs. ADSCs were isolated and characterised from a cohort of six SSc patients (ADSC-SSc) and were compared to six healthy age- and sex-matched controls (ADSC-N). Cell surface phenotype lineage commitment was explored by flow cytometric analysis of mesenchymal and hematopoietic markers and by the capacity to differentiate to chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Functional activities of ADSCs were assessed by biochemical and cellular assays for proliferation, metabolism, adhesion, morphology, migration, and invasion. Upon characterization of ADSC-SSc, we found that there was no alteration in the phenotype or surface antigen expression compared to healthy matched control ADSCs. We found that the differentiation capacity of ADSC-SSc was equivalent to that of ADSC-N, and that ADSC-SSc did not display any morphological or adhesive abnormalities. We found that the proliferation rate and metabolic activity of ADSC-SSc was reduced (p < 0.01). We found that the migration and invasion capacity of ADSC-SSc was reduced (p < 0.01) compared to healthy matched control ADSCs. This study provides important findings that can differentially characterise ADSCs from SSc patients. Results indicate that the surface phenotype and differentiation capacity of ADSCs from SSc patients are identical to healthy matched ADSCs. While the findings indicate that the proliferation and migration capacity of ADSC-SSc is reduced, ADSC-SSc are capable of ex-vivo culture and expansion. These findings encourage further investigation into the understanding by which ADSCs can impact upon tissue fibrosis.

  16. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  17. Symptoms of infectious diseases in immunocompromised travelers: a prospective study with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaten, Gijs G; Geskus, Ronald B; Kint, Joan A; Roukens, Anna H E; Sonder, Gerard J; van den Hoek, Anneke

    2011-01-01

    Immunocompromised travelers to developing countries are thought to have symptomatic infectious diseases more often and longer than non-immunocompromised travelers. Evidence for this is lacking. This study evaluates whether immunocompromised short-term travelers are at increased risk of diseases. A prospective study was performed between October 2003 and May 2010 among adult travelers using immunosuppressive agents (ISA) and travelers with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with their non-immunocompromised travel companions serving as matched controls with comparable exposure to infection. Data on symptoms of infectious diseases were recorded by using a structured diary. Among 75 ISA, the incidence of travel-related diarrhea was 0.76 per person-month, and the number of symptomatic days 1.32 per month. For their 75 controls, figures were 0.66 and 1.50, respectively (p > 0.05). Among 71 IBD, the incidence was 1.19, and the number of symptomatic days was 2.48. For their 71 controls, figures were 0.73 and 1.31, respectively (p > 0.05). These differences also existed before travel. ISA had significantly more and longer travel-related signs of skin infection and IBD suffered more and longer from vomiting. As for other symptoms, no significant travel-related differences were found. Only 21% of immunocompromised travelers suffering from diarrhea used their stand-by antibiotics. ISA and IBD did not have symptomatic infectious diseases more often or longer than non-immunocompromised travelers, except for signs of travel-related skin infection among ISA. Routine prescription of stand-by antibiotics for these immunocompromised travelers to areas with good health facilities is probably not more useful than for healthy travelers. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  18. Comparison of T wave alternans in patients with cardiomyopathy and healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hira, A.; Khan, M. A.; Hayat, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare T wave alternans in patients with cardiomyopathy and healthy controls. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology Rawalpindi, from Feb 2016 to Aug 2016. Material and Methods: Sixty patients with cardiomyopathy (any type) along with sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were recruited through non-probability purposive sampling. Patients with diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure, bundle branch block, systemic arterial hypertension and ongoing antiarrhythmic therapy were excluded from the study. DMS 300-4L Holters were used to obtain ambulatory ECG recordings. Cardio Scan premier 12 lux software was used for analysis of T wave alternans. Results: Total one twenty subjects were enrolled in the study. Cardiomyopathic patients with positive T wave alternans were 13 (21.7 percent) out of 60, while only 4 (6.7 percent) out of 60 healthy controls demonstrated positive T wave alternans. There was significant variation in frequency of patients with positive T wave alternans as compared to healthy controls with p-value of 0.02. In cases the mean value of T wave alternans was 55.10 µv ± 33.58 while 39.45 µv ± 13.53 in controls. The difference in mean value of T wave alternans between cases and controls was significant with p-value of 0.001. Conclusion: The frequency of patients with cardiomyopathy having positive T wave alternans was significantly higher as compared to the healthy controls. (author)

  19. Preserved learning during the Symbol Digit Substitution Test in patients with schizophrenia, age-matched controls and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCornelis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol-digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N=30 were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N=30 and healthy elderly volunteers (N=30 during the Symbol Digit Subsstitution Test (SDST. The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time. The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7. Symbol-digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning.Results: The repetition of the same symbol-digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing.Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed were found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the interpretation of task

  20. Cycling before and after Exhaustion Differently Affects Cardiac Autonomic Control during Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During cycling before (PRE and after exhaustion (POST different modes of autonomic cardiac control might occur due to different interoceptive input and altered influences from higher brain centers. We hypothesized that heart rate variability (HRV is significantly affected by an interaction of the experimental period (PRE vs. POST and exercise intensity (HIGH vs. LOW; HIGH = HR > HR at the lactate threshold (HRLT, LOW = HR ≤ HRLT despite identical average HR.Methods: Fifty healthy volunteers completed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion. Workload started with 30 W at a constant pedaling rate (60 revolutions · min−1 and was gradually increased by 30 W · 5 min−1. Five adjacent 60 s inter-beat (R-R interval segments from the immediate recovery period (POST 1–5 at 30 W and 60 rpm were each matched with their HR-corresponding 60 s-segments during the cycle test (PRE 1–5. An analysis of covariance was carried out with one repeated-measures factor (PRE vs. POST exhaustion, one between-subject factor (HIGH vs. LOW intensity and respiration rate as covariate to test for significant effects (p < 0.050 on the natural log-transformed root mean square of successive differences between adjacent R-R intervals (lnRMSSD60s.Results: LnRMSSD60s was significantly affected by the interaction of experimental period × intensity [F(1, 242 = 30.233, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.111]. LnRMSSD60s was higher during PRE compared to POST at LOW intensity (1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6 ms; p < 0.001. In contrast, at HIGH intensity lnRMSSD60s was lower during PRE compared to POST (1.0 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4 ms; p < 0.001.Conclusion: Identical net HR during cycling can result from distinct autonomic modulation patterns. Results suggest a pronounced sympathetic-parasympathetic coactivation immediately after the cessation of peak workload compared to HR-matched cycling before exhaustion at HIGH intensity. On the opposite, at LOW intensity cycling, a stronger coactivational

  1. Chlamydiae in febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and age-matched controls, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular pathogens causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Chlamydiaceae are established agents of community- and zoonotically acquired respiratory tract infections, and emerging pathogens among the Chlamydia-related bacteria have been implicated in airway infections. The role of both in airway infections in Africa is underexplored. We performed a case -control study on the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related emerging pathogens in children with febrile respiratory tract infections in West Africa, Ghana. Using a pan-Chlamydiales broad-range real-time PCR, we detected chlamydial DNA in 11 (1.9% of 572 hospitalized febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and in 24 (4.3% of 560 asymptomatic age-matched controls (p 0.03. Chlamydiaceae were found to be common among both symptomatic and healthy Ghanaian children, with Chlamydia pneumoniae being the most prevalent species. Parachlamydiaceae were detected in two children without symptoms but not in the symptomatic group. We identified neither Chlamydia psittaci nor Simkania negevensis but a member of a new chlamydial family that shared 90.2% sequence identity with the 16S rRNA gene of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia pecorum. In addition, we found a new Chlamydia-related species that belonged to a novel family sharing 91.3% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia. The prevalence and spectrum of chlamydial species differed from previous results obtained from children of other geographic regions and our study indicates that both, Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria, are not clearly linked to clinical symptoms in Ghanaian children. Keywords: Children, Chlamydia, Chlamydia-related bacteria, febrile respiratory tract infection, Ghana

  2. Comparison between exercise performance in asthmatic children and healthy controls--Physical Activity Questionnaire application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rita; Melo, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Daniel; Coelho, Janine; Carvalho, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The PAQ questionnaire (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen) is a self-administered 7-day recall validated questionnaire that measures physical activity levels in young people. A final activity score is obtained (1 indicates low and 5 indicates high physical activity level). Our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the level of physical activity of children with controlled allergic disease and healthy children. We used the PAQ questionnaire with a group of asthmatic children attending hospital outpatient clinic and a group of healthy children matched for age. 155 children with allergic disease (median age of 11 years; 63% males) and 158 healthy controls (median age of 10 years; 46% males) answered the questionnaire. There were no differences in the overall level of physical activity, estimated by PAQ score, between allergic and healthy children (2,40±0,7 vs 2,48±0,62; p=0,32). Performance in physical education classes and after school sports activity was found to be different between the study groups; healthy children were more active (p=0,011) and did more sports between 6 and 10 pm (p=0,036). No other statistically significant differences were found between the study groups. Despite the fact that a majority of the parents of allergic children stated that their child's disease was a barrier to physical activity, in our study there seems to be no difference between the level of physical activity of controlled asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Stable schizophrenia patients learn equally well as age-matched controls and better than elderly controls in two sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia J. De Picker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the Rotary Pursuit: Circle Pursuit (true motor learning and Figure Pursuit (motor and sequence learning.Method: In the Circle Pursuit a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial Figure Pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7 to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S, 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C and 30 elderly participants (>65y; E and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target was used to assess performance.Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in Circle and Figure Pursuit tasks (Ematched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study.

  4. Memory and phonological awareness in children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy compared to a matched control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Ellen; Connolly, Anne M; Berroya, Anna; McIntyre, Jenny; Christie, Jane; Taylor, Alan; Bleasel, Andrew F; Lawson, John A; Bye, Ann M E

    2007-06-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy have normal intelligence and language ability. However, difficulties in verbal and visual memory and aspects of phonological awareness were found compared to normative data. To address the methodological limitations related to the use of normative data, we compared the same cohort of children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy to a matched control group. Controls (n=40) matched on age and gender to the Benign Rolandic Epilepsy cohort underwent neuropsychological assessment. The life functioning of the control group was assessed using a modified version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). The study confirmed the previous findings of memory and phonological awareness difficulties. In addition, the children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy had significantly lower IQ scores than the matched control group. Paired sample t-tests showed that on 8 of 11 QOLCE scales, children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy were rated by parents as having poorer life functioning compared to matched controls, including lower parental ratings on the subscales of memory and language. Benign Rolandic Epilepsy has an excellent seizure prognosis, but this study further emphasizes potential cognitive difficulties. Using an age and gender matched control group, the previous findings of memory and phonological awareness difficulties were validated. These problems in cognition were also identified by parents of children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy as problematic and impacting upon the child's quality of life.

  5. Comparison of lateral abdominal muscle thickness between weightlifters and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitilertpisan, Patraporn; Pirunsan, Ubon; Puangmali, Aatit; Ratanapinunchai, Jonjin; Kiatwattanacharoen, Suchart; Neamin, Hudsaleark; Laskin, James J

    2011-11-01

    To compare lateral abdominal muscle thickness between weightlifters and matched controls. A case control study design. University laboratory. 16 female Thai national weightlifters and 16 matched controls participated in this study. Ultrasound imaging with a 12-MHz linear array was used to measure the resting thickness of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and total thickness (Total) of lateral abdominal muscle (LAM) on the right side of abdominal wall. The absolute muscle thickness and the relative contribution of each muscle to the total thickness were determined. Weightlifters had significantly thicker absolute TrA and IO muscles than matched controls (p routine Olympic style weight training among female weightlifters appears to result in preferential hypertrophy or adaptation of the IO muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients with Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia are associated with many osteopathies like osteoporosis. Methods. This observational study was carried out to compare the bone mineral density (BMD in transfusion dependent thalassemics with that of healthy controls. Thirty-two thalassemia patients, aged 2–18 years, and 32 age and sex matched controls were studied. The bone mineral concentration (BMC and BMD were assessed at lumbar spine, distal radius, and neck of femur. Biochemical parameters like serum calcium and vitamin D levels were also assessed. Results. The BMC of neck of femur was significantly low in cases in comparison to controls. We also observed significantly lower BMD at the lumbar spine in cases in comparison to controls. A significantly positive correlation was observed between serum calcium levels and BMD at neck of femur. Conclusion. Hence, low serum calcium may be used as a predictor of low BMD especially in populations where incidence of hypovitaminosis D is very high.

  7. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field.

  8. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincks, John; Christensen, Lars Ejsing; Rehnquist, Mette Voigt; Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    To improve walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of walking. This study examined strategies in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. In general, no differences were found between speed-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest that mildly disabled persons with MS used similar kinetic strategies as healthy controls to increase walking speed.

  9. Airflow limitation in people living with HIV and matched uninfected controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Lundgren, Jens; Afzal, Shoaib

    2018-01-01

    -matched controls from the Copenhagen General Population Study were included. Lung function was assessed using FEV1 and FVC, while airflow limitation was defined by the lower limit of normal (LLN) of FEV1/FVC and by FEV1/FVClinear regression models were used......INTRODUCTION: Whether HIV influences pulmonary function remains controversial. We assessed dynamic pulmonary function in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and uninfected controls. METHODS: A total of 1098 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen Co-morbidity in HIV infection study and 12 161 age-matched and sex...

  10. Vitamin D status in psychotic disorder patients and healthy controls--The influence of ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerhus, Mari; Berg, Akiah Ottesen; Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Holvik, Kristin; Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Weibell, Melissa Authen; Bjella, Thomas Doug; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2015-12-15

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with psychotic disorders and could be due to unknown disease mechanisms or contingent factors. However most studies are performed in chronic patients and have often failed to address the influence of ethnicity on vitamin D levels in clinical samples. We investigated serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25 OH D) in first episode patients compared to patients with multi episodes and healthy controls; with a specific focus on differences between visible ethnic minorities and participants from the majority population. A total of 284 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. First episode patients with a DSM-IV psychotic disorder were matched on age, gender and ethnicity to participants from a multi episode patient sample (1:1) and healthy controls (1:2). We did not find any differences between either patient groups or the healthy controls, but participants from visible ethnic minorities had significantly lower S-25 OH D than participants from the majority population. This implies that S-25 OH D should be routinely measured in persons from visible ethnic minorities since low levels are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consensus of satellite cluster flight using an energy-matching optimal control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianjun; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Bo

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an optimal control method for consensus of satellite cluster flight under a kind of energy matching condition. Firstly, the relation between energy matching and satellite periodically bounded relative motion is analyzed, and the satellite energy matching principle is applied to configure the initial conditions. Then, period-delayed errors are adopted as state variables to establish the period-delayed errors dynamics models of a single satellite and the cluster. Next a novel satellite cluster feedback control protocol with coupling gain is designed, so that the satellite cluster periodically bounded relative motion consensus problem (period-delayed errors state consensus problem) is transformed to the stability of a set of matrices with the same low dimension. Based on the consensus region theory in the research of multi-agent system consensus issues, the coupling gain can be obtained to satisfy the requirement of consensus region and decouple the satellite cluster information topology and the feedback control gain matrix, which can be determined by Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal method. This method can realize the consensus of satellite cluster period-delayed errors, leading to the consistency of semi-major axes (SMA) and the energy-matching of satellite cluster. Then satellites can emerge the global coordinative cluster behavior. Finally the feasibility and effectiveness of the present energy-matching optimal consensus for satellite cluster flight is verified through numerical simulations.

  12. Psychosocial Health of Disease-Free Breast Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-cancer Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Lee, Moo Hyun; Kong, Sun-Young; Lee, Eun Sook

    2018-04-05

    The present study investigated the psychosocial health of disease-free breast cancer survivors who receive health examinations compared to matched non-cancer controls in a community setting. We used baseline data from the Health Examinee cohort, which is composed of subjects participating in health. The disease-free breast cancer survivors were defined as those who were ≥2 years from initial diagnosis of breast cancer who had completed treatment. Females without a history of cancer were randomly selected at 1:4 ratio by 5-year age groups, education, and household income as a comparison group. We analyzed results from the Psychosocial Well-being Index-Short Form (PWI-SF) as a psychosocial health measurement. A total of 347 survivors of breast cancer and 1,388 matched controls were included. Total scores on the PWI-SF were lower in breast cancer survivors than matched non-cancer controls (p=0.006), suggesting a lower level of psychosocial stress in breast cancer survivors. In comparison to the control group, prevalence of drinking, smoking and obesity were lower, while exercising for ≥150 min/wk was higher in breast cancer survivors (p psychosocial health status compared to matched non-cancer controls.

  13. Welfare costs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and their partners compared with matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    collected from population-based registers in the period from 1998 to 2009. A total of 25,547 Danish patients with a diagnosis of RA and 15,660 of their partners were identified and compared with 101,755 randomly selected age- and gender-matched controls and 62,681 control partners. The direct and indirect...... costs were calculated for patients and their partners and compared to matched controls. These included inpatient and outpatient treatment, medication, income from employment and social transfer payments. Patients with RA had statistically significantly more inpatient and outpatient costs than control...... subjects, i.e., treatment (€346 vs. €211), hospitalization (€1261 vs. €778), and medication use (€654 vs. €393). The costs associated with the patients were present 11 years before diagnosis of RA (€1592) compared with control subjects (€1172). Furthermore, income from employment was lower for patients...

  14. Effectiveness of oral polio vaccination against paralytic poliomyelitis: a matched case-control study in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Webeck, Jenna; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Birungi, Julianne; Nurbile, Yassin; Ehrhardt, Derek; Shukla, Hemant; Chatterjee, Anirban; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    After the last case of type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) was reported in 2007, Somalia experienced another outbreak of WPV1 (189 cases) in 2013. We conducted a retrospective, matched case-control study to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of oral polio vaccine (OPV). We retrieved information from the Somalia Surveillance Database. A case was defined as any case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with virological confirmation of WPV1. We selected two groups of controls for each case: non-polio AFP cases ("NPAFP controls") matched to WPV1 cases by age, date of onset of paralysis and region; and asymptomatic "neighborhood controls," matched by age. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated the VE of OPV as (1-odds ratio)×100. We matched 99 WPV cases with 99 NPAFP controls and 134 WPV1 cases with 268 neighborhood controls. Using NPAFP controls, the overall VE was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37-86), 59% (2-83) among 1-3 dose recipients, 77% (95% CI, 46-91) among ≥4 dose recipients. In neighborhood controls, the overall VE was 95% (95% CI, 84-98), 92% (72-98) among 1-3 dose recipients, and 97% (89-99) among ≥4 dose recipients. When the analysis was limited to cases and controls ≤24 months old, the overall VE in NPAFP and neighborhood controls was 95% (95% CI, 65-99) and 97% (95% CI, 76-100), respectively. Among individuals who were fully vaccinated with OPV, vaccination was effective at preventing WPV1 in Somalia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of stage-matched intervention for smoking cessation in cardiac out-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia S C; Leung, Doris Y P; Wong, David C N; Lau, Chu-Pak; Wong, Vivian T; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a stage-matched smoking cessation counselling intervention for smokers who had cardiac diseases. A total of 1860 Chinese cardiac patients who smoked at least one cigarette in the past 7 days and aged 18 years or above recruited from cardiac out-patient clinics in Hong Kong hospitals were allocated randomly to an intervention group or control group. The intervention group (n = 938) received counselling matched with their stage of readiness to quit by trained counsellors at baseline, 1 week and 1 month. The control group (n = 922) received brief counselling on healthy diet at baseline. The primary outcomes were self-reported 7-day and 30-day point prevalence (PP) of tobacco abstinence at 12 months after baseline. The secondary outcome measures included biochemically validated abstinence at 12-month follow-up, self-reported 7-day and 30-day PP abstinence and reduction of cigarette consumption by 50% at 3 and 6 months. By intention-to-treat analysis, the intervention and control groups showed no significant difference in self-reported 7-day PP abstinence (intervention: 26.5% versus control: 25.5%; P = 0.60) and 30-day PP (intervention: 25.4% versus control: 24.2%; P = 0.55), biochemically validated abstinence (intervention: 6.6% versus control: 4.9%; P = 0.14) and overall quit attempts of least 24 hours (intervention: 40.3% versus control: 34.3%; P = 0.007) at the 12-month follow-up, adjusted for the baseline stage of readiness to quit smoking. An intervention, based on the Stages of Change model, to promote smoking cessation in cardiac patients in China failed to find any long-term benefit. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Heel ulcers - Pressure ulcers or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease? An exploratory matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, Heidi; Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and determine the feasibility of conducting a statistically powered matched case control study. Evidence indicates a relationship between chronic leg ulcers and vascular disease. The relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and vascular disease is less well established. A matched case control study. Data were collected between March 2014 and January 2015. 15 patients identified as having a grade 2, 3 or 4 pressure ulcer of the heel were compared with 15 matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel. The primary clinical outcome measure was the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), where an ABPI 1.3 was considered clinically indicative of PAD. The primary feasibility outcome measure was the rate of recruitment. Eighty seven patients were reported as having foot and heel ulcers; 36 of whom were identified as having pressure ulcers of the heel, 15 (42%) of whom were recruited to the study. Patients presenting with pressure ulcers of the heel were significantly more likely to simultaneously have previously undiagnosed PAD compared with age, gender and ethnicity matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel (odds ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval 1.99-60.57). The formation of pressure ulcers of the heel could, in some patients, be related to the presence of PAD rather than a consequence of poor quality care. Healthcare professionals should assess the patient to exclude or confirm PAD. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... ethyl alcohol, hydrated oxide of ethyl, or spirit of wine, commonly produced by the fermentation or... benefit of the Tribe. (j) ``Tribe'' means the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians of... and wine shall be purchased from distributors licensed by the Michigan Liquor Control Commission. (f...

  18. Varieties of Stimulus Control in Matching-to-Sample: A Kernel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Lanny; Garruto, Michelle; Watanabe, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Conditional discrimination or matching-to-sample procedures have been used to study a wide range of complex psychological phenomena with infrahuman and human subjects. In most studies, the percentage of trials in which a subject selects the comparison stimulus that is related to the sample stimulus is used to index the control exerted by the…

  19. Sexual function and hormone profile in young adult men with idiopathic gynecomastia: Comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sir, Emin; Üçer, Oktay; Aksoy, Alper; Güngör, Melike; Ceylan, Yasin

    2016-01-22

    To compare sexual function and hormone profile in male patients with gynecomastia with matched controls. Forty-seven male subjects with gynecomastia and thirty healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, DHEA-SO4, LH and total PSA were measured in the patients and controls. Sexual function of the patients and controls were evaluated using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The hormone values and IIEF scores of the patients were statistically compared with the controls'. The mean of age, body mass index, right and left testicular volume in the patient and control group were similar. The mean FSH and free T3 values of the patients were significantly lower than the controls (p = 0.007 and p = 0.03, respectively). The mean of the other hormone values in the both groups were found to be statistically similar (p > 0.05). The mean ±SD of total IIEF scores in the patient and control group were 60.14 ± 8.78 and 65.24 ± 5.52, respectively (p = 0.007). Although the mean IIEF-erectile function, orgasmic function and intercourse satisfaction scores in the patient group were significantly lower than the control group (p gynecomastia were similar with the controls. However, gynecomastia adversely affected male sexual function.

  20. Reduced mRNA expression of PTGDS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    was measured in 37 rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repeated measurements of PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression were obtained in various affective states during 6-12 months...... and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Adjusted for age and gender, PTGDS mRNA expression was down-regulated in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients in a euthymic, depressive, and manic/hypomanic state compared with healthy control subjects. No difference in PTGDS m...

  1. Episodic memory and executive functioning in currently depressed patients compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2015-01-01

    At present, little is still known about the link between depression, memory and executive functioning. This study examined whether there are memory-related impairments in depressed patients and whether the size of such deficits depends on the age group and on specific types of cognitive measures. Memory performances of 215 clinically depressed patients were compared to the data of a matched control sample. Regression analyses were performed to determine the extent to which executive dysfunctions contributed to episodic memory impairments. When compared with healthy controls, significantly lower episodic memory and executive functioning performances were found for depressed patients of all age groups. Effect sizes appeared to vary across different memory and executive functioning measures. The extent to which executive dysfunctions could explain episodic memory impairments varied depending on the type of measure examined. These findings emphasise the need to consider memory-related functioning of depressed patients in the context of therapeutic treatments.

  2. Community integration outcomes of people with spinal cord injury and multiple matched controls: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Libby; Enticott, Joanne; Farnworth, Louise; McDonald, Rachael; Migliorini, Christine; Willer, Barry

    2017-06-01

    Australia's National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) is designed to influence home, social and economic participation for Scheme participants. Given the major disability reform underway, this pilot study aimed to: (i) examine community integration outcomes of people with spinal cord injury (SCI); (ii) compare findings with multiple matched controls and (iii) consider findings within the context of Australia's NDIS. Setting: Victoria, Australia. Matched analysis (people with and without SCI). Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ). n = 40 adults with SCI (M age = 52.8 years; 61% male; 77% traumatic SCI). Matched analyses from each SCI subject aged integration (ρ = 0.02). Relative risk of low home integration was significant in the SCI cohort (conditional RR (95% CI) = 3.1 (1.5-6.3), ρ = 0.001). Relative risk of low CIQ total, social integration and productivity scores did not reach significance. This cohort of SCI participants was less integrated into home and productive occupations than matched norms, holding implications for planning and allocation of supports to influence outcomes within an NDIS. Further research is necessary to understand community integration outcomes in larger matched samples. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Emotions Control among Substance Abusers and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J Bagyan Kouleh Marz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare Alexithymia and emotional control among substance abusers and healthy people. Method: The research design was causal-comparative research design which is categorized as descriptive research method. The population included of all people who were referred to addiction treatment centers in Noor-Abad city (Delfan. The participants of the study comprised of 50 addicts under treatment and 50 healthy participants who were matched based on age, education level, social-economical status, and number of children selected by available sampling method. The alexithymia (TAS-20 and emotions control scales administered among both groups. Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference between addicts and non-addicts groups in terms of alexithymia and emotional control. In addition, difficulty in identifying of feelings, depression, anxiety and anger were the most important predictors of addiction severity. Conclusion: These results show that any difficulty in expressing emotions and disability in controlling of negative emotions (anger, depression, and anxiety are risk factors for substance abuse.

  4. Preserved Learning during the Symbol-Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Morrens, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit-symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol-digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol-Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol-digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. The repetition of the same symbol-digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the interpretation of task scores for processing speed. Equal

  5. Control of force during rapid visuomotor force-matching tasks can be described by discrete time PID control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Jakob Lund; Feeney, Daniel F; Almuklass, Awad M; Enoka, Roger M

    2017-08-01

    Force trajectories during isometric force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions vary substantially across individuals. In this study, we investigated if this variability can be explained by discrete time proportional, integral, derivative (PID) control algorithms with varying model parameters. To this end, we analyzed the pinch force trajectories of 24 subjects performing two rapid force-matching tasks with visual feedback. Both tasks involved isometric contractions to a target force of 10% maximal voluntary contraction. One task involved a single action (pinch) and the other required a double action (concurrent pinch and wrist extension). 50,000 force trajectories were simulated with a computational neuromuscular model whose input was determined by a PID controller with different PID gains and frequencies at which the controller adjusted muscle commands. The goal was to find the best match between each experimental force trajectory and all simulated trajectories. It was possible to identify one realization of the PID controller that matched the experimental force produced during each task for most subjects (average index of similarity: 0.87 ± 0.12; 1 = perfect similarity). The similarities for both tasks were significantly greater than that would be expected by chance (single action: p = 0.01; double action: p = 0.04). Furthermore, the identified control frequencies in the simulated PID controller with the greatest similarities decreased as task difficulty increased (single action: 4.0 ± 1.8 Hz; double action: 3.1 ± 1.3 Hz). Overall, the results indicate that discrete time PID controllers are realistic models for the neural control of force in rapid force-matching tasks involving isometric contractions.

  6. Maternal obesity in singleton versus twin gestations: a population-based matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Natasa

    2015-04-01

    To examine the impact of pre-pregnancy obesity on adverse outcomes in twin compared to singleton pregnancies. Dichorionic twin gestations with maternal body mass index >30 were matched to three singleton controls. Both obese groups were matched (1:3) with non-obese controls. Rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, cesarean section, and preterm birth were compared. One hundred eighty-nine dichorionic twin pregnancies in obese mothers were matched to 567 twin pregnancies in non-obese mothers, and to 567 singleton pregnancies in obese mothers. The latter were matched to 1701 non-obese mothers with singletons. Preeclampsia was more common in obese mothers with both twins and singletons (odds ratio (OR) 3.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.18-7.16 and OR 6.53, 95% CI 3.75-11.4, respectively) as was gestational diabetes (OR 4.35, 95% CI 2.18-8.69; OR 5.53 95% CI 3.60-8.50). Obese mothers with singletons were more likely to deliver abdominally, but the cesarean rates were obesity independent in twins. Obese mothers were more likely to deliver at Obesity-attributable adverse outcomes are lower in twins compared to singletons. Obesity increases the risk of preterm birth regardless of plurality.

  7. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  8. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control.We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ.Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  9. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  10. Postural adjustments in young ballet dancers compared to age matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iunes, Denise H; Elias, Iara F; Carvalho, Leonardo C; Dionísio, Valdeci C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use photogrammetry to evaluate the posture of ballet practitioners compared to an age-matched control group. One hundred and eleven 7- to 24-year-old female volunteers were evaluated and were divided into two groups: the ballet practising group (n = 52) and the control group (n = 59), divided into three subgroups according to age and years of ballet experience. Dancers with 1-3 years experience compared to controls of the same age shows alterations in External Rotation Angle (P ballet experience, the Navicular Angle Left is smaller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of pain sensitivity in patients with deep bite and sex- and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pai...... of gender-related differences in somatosensory sensitivity and for the first time indicate that subjects with deep bite may be more sensitive to glutamate-evoked pain and thermal stimuli.......AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pain...

  12. Determinants of unwanted pregnancies in India using matched case-control designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Priyanka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, while the total fertility rate has been declined from 3.39 in 1992–93 to 2.68 in 2005–06, the prevalence of unintended pregnancy is still stagnant over the same period. A review of existing literature shows that within the country, there are variations in fertility preferences between different regions. Also there is a strong argument that the availability of a health facility at the village level plays an important role in reshaping the fertility behavior of women. Keeping in mind the fact that there is no information at the village level (which is the lowest geographical boundary in the recent round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, the specific objective of this study is to examine the impact of individual and household level variables on unwanted pregnancies without controlling the village level variation. Further, once the village level variation (i.e. unobserved variation has been controlled, it is necessary to study whether there has been any alteration in the contribution of factors from earlier results of without adjusting the village level variation. Methods This paper attempts to examine the associated factors of unwanted pregnancies, without matching the village and after matching the village, by using the matched case–control design. Nationwide data from India’s latest NFHS-3 conducted during 2005–06 was used for the present study. Frequency and pair wise matching has been applied in the present paper and conditional logistic regression analysis was used to work out the models and to find out the factors associated with unwanted pregnancies. Results A major finding of this study was that 1:3 case–control study (without matching the village shows that women belonging to non Hindu/Muslim religion, Scheduled Tribe, women who have experienced child loss and if the previous birth interval is 24 through 36 months were significant predictors of unwanted pregnancy. However, this

  13. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  14. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Katarzyna Bobak

    Full Text Available Photographic identity documents (IDs are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs, on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  15. Registration of FA and T1-weighted MRI data of healthy human brain based on template matching and normalized cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milos; Peter, Roman; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Jan, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach for three-dimensional registration of MR fractional anisotropy images with T1-weighted anatomy images of human brain. From the clinical point of view, this accurate coregistration allows precise detection of nerve fibers that is essential in neuroscience. A template matching algorithm combined with normalized cross-correlation was used for this registration task. To show the suitability of the proposed method, it was compared with the normalized mutual information-based B-spline registration provided by the Elastix software library, considered a reference method. We also propose a general framework for the evaluation of robustness and reliability of both registration methods. Both registration methods were tested by four evaluation criteria on a dataset consisting of 74 healthy subjects. The template matching algorithm has shown more reliable results than the reference method in registration of the MR fractional anisotropy and T1 anatomy image data. Significant differences were observed in the regions splenium of corpus callosum and genu of corpus callosum, considered very important areas of brain connectivity. We demonstrate that, in this registration task, the currently used mutual information-based parametric registration can be replaced by more accurate local template matching utilizing the normalized cross-correlation similarity measure.

  16. Solving the border control problem: evidence of enhanced face matching in individuals with extraordinary face recognition skills.

    OpenAIRE

    Bobak, Anna K.; Dowsett, A.; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called ?super recognisers? (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the ?Glasgow Face Matching Test?, and some case-by-ca...

  17. Matching Automatic Gain Control Across Devices in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugen, Lidwien C E; Chalupper, Josef; Snik, Ad F M; Opstal, A John van; Mens, Lucas H M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve bimodal benefit in listeners using a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in contralateral ears, by matching the time constants and the number of compression channels of the automatic gain control (AGC) of the HA to the CI. Equivalent AGC was hypothesized to support a balanced loudness for dynamically changing signals like speech and improve bimodal benefit for speech understanding in quiet and with noise presented from the side(s) at 90 degree. Fifteen subjects participated in the study, all using the same Advanced Bionics Harmony CI processor and HA (Phonak Naida S IX UP). In a 3-visit crossover design with 4 weeks between sessions, performance was measured using a HA with a standard AGC (syllabic multichannel compression with 1 ms attack time and 50 ms release time) or an AGC that was adjusted to match that of the CI processor (dual AGC broadband compression, 3 and 240 msec attack time, 80 and 1500 msec release time). In all devices, the AGC was activated above the threshold of 63 dB SPL. The authors balanced loudness across the devices for soft and loud input sounds in 3 frequency bands (0 to 548, 548 to 1000, and >1000 Hz). Speech understanding was tested in free field in quiet and in noise for three spatial speaker configurations, with target speech always presented from the front. Single-talker noise was either presented from the CI side or the HA side, or uncorrelated stationary speech-weighted noise or single-talker noise was presented from both sides. Questionnaires were administered to assess differences in perception between the two bimodal fittings. Significant bimodal benefit over the CI alone was only found for the AGC-matched HA for the speech tests with single-talker noise. Compared with the standard HA, matched AGC characteristics significantly improved speech understanding in single-talker noise by 1.9 dB when noise was presented from the HA side. AGC matching increased bimodal benefit

  18. Poorer cognitive performance in perinatally HIV-infected children versus healthy socioeconomically matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Sophie; ter Stege, Jacqueline A.; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Schmand, Ben; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2015-01-01

    Despite the declining incidence of severe neurological complications such as HIV encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is still associated with a range of cognitive problems. Although most HIV-infected children in industrialized countries are immigrants with a

  19. Poorer cognitive performance in perinatally HIV-infected children versus healthy socioeconomically matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, S.; ter Stege, J.A.; Geurtsen, G.J.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Reiss, P.; Schmand, B.; Pajkrt, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the declining incidence of severe neurological complications such as HIV encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is still associated with a range of cognitive problems. Although most HIV-infected children in industrialized countries are immigrants

  20. Effect of alpha amylase on early childhood caries: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, Farzad; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Fazlollahifar, Samira; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Poorolajal, Jalal; Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Department of Pathology, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: There are a few studies addressing the relationship between salivary alpha-amylase and dental caries. This study was implemented in order to investigate the effect of salivary alpha-amylase level on early childhood caries (ECC).Materials and Methods: In this matched case-control study, which was carried out from November 2011 to March 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, mean levels of salivary alpha-amylase of 84 ECC-active cases were compared to that of 84 ECC-free controls u...

  1. Changes in cytokine and chemokine expression distinguish dysthymic disorder from major depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Shen; Yen, Che-Hung; Chen, Chun-Yen; Huang, San-Yuan; Liang, Chih-Sung

    2017-02-01

    An important area of uncertainty is the inflammatory degree to which depression occurring as part of dysthymic disorder may differ from major depression. Using a 27-plex cytokine assay, we analyzed the serum of 12 patients with dysthymic disorder, 12 with major depression, and an age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched control group of 20 healthy volunteers. We observed that patients with dysthymic disorder exhibited aberrant cytokine and chemokine expression compared with healthy controls and patients with major depression. The levels of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 highly predicted dysthymic disorder. Network analyses revealed that in patients with dysthymic disorder, the vertices were more sparsely connected and adopted a more hub-like architecture, and the connections from neighboring vertices of interleukin 2 and eotaxin-1 increased. After treatment with the same antidepressant, there was no difference between dysthymic disorder and major depression regarding any of the cytokines or chemokines analyzed. For dysthymic disorder, changes in the levels of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α correlated with depression improvement. The findings suggest that the cytokine milieu in dysthymic disorder differs either at the level of individual expression or in network patterns. Moreover, chemokines play an important role in driving the pathophysiology of dysthymic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New Power Sharing Control for Inverter-Dominated Microgrid Based on Impedance Match Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Herong; Wang, Deyu; Shen, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Power flow control is one of the most important issues for operating the inverter-dominated autonomous microgrid. A technical challenge is how to achieve the accurate active/reactive power sharing of inverters. P-F and Q-V droop control schemes have been widely used for power sharing in the past decades. But they suffer from the poor power sharing in the presence of unequal line impedance. In order to solve the problem, a comprehensive analysis of the power droop control is presented, and a new droop control based on the impedance match concept is proposed in this paper. In addition, the design guidelines of control coefficients and virtual impedance are provided. Finally, the performance evaluation is carried out, and the evaluation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24453910

  3. New power sharing control for inverter-dominated microgrid based on impedance match concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Herong; Wang, Deyu; Shen, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Power flow control is one of the most important issues for operating the inverter-dominated autonomous microgrid. A technical challenge is how to achieve the accurate active/reactive power sharing of inverters. P-F and Q-V droop control schemes have been widely used for power sharing in the past decades. But they suffer from the poor power sharing in the presence of unequal line impedance. In order to solve the problem, a comprehensive analysis of the power droop control is presented, and a new droop control based on the impedance match concept is proposed in this paper. In addition, the design guidelines of control coefficients and virtual impedance are provided. Finally, the performance evaluation is carried out, and the evaluation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. HEPTech Academia – Industry Matching Event on Control Systems for Accelerators and Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Anastasios Charitonidis (FP/KT), on behalf of the organizing committee

    2013-01-01

    The HEPTech AIME (Academia – Industry Matching Event) on Controls for accelerators and detectors will take place from 2 to 3 December in Athens, Greece.   The HEPTech network invites you to Demokritos NCSR to participate in an event that aims to bring together Academia and Industry to share ideas and potential applications of Controls Technology. The event will provide an overview of current Controls Systems for large scale projects including the LHC, the CMS and ATLAS detectors, medical accelerator facilities and contributions from companies active in these fields. CERN Computer Centre. The programme will also address some of the challenges faced by future High Energy Physics projects in the controls area and provide a glimpse into the future requirements of research infrastructures such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), and the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI), while exploring different possible approaches to the commercialisation of controls technology. The event ...

  5. Transanal pullthrough for Hirschsprung disease: matched case-control comparison of Soave and Swenson techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Ahmed; Haricharan, Ramanath N; Gamarnik, Julie; Langer, Jacob C

    2014-05-01

    Both the Swenson and the Soave procedures have been adapted to a transanal approach. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes following the transanal Swenson and Soave procedures using a matched case control analysis. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all transanal Soave and Swenson pullthroughs done at 2 tertiary care children's hospitals between 2000 and 2010. Patients were matched for gestational age, mean weight at time of the operation, level of aganglionosis, and presence of co-morbidities. Student's t-test and chi-squared analysis were performed. Fifty-four patients (Soave 27, Swenson 27) had adequate data for matching and analysis. Mean follow-up was 4±1.6 years and 3.2 ±2.7 years for the Soave and Swenson groups, respectively. No significant differences in mean operating time (Soave:191±55, Swenson:167±61 min, p=0.6), overall hospital stay (6±4 vs 7.8±5 days, p=0.7), and number with intra-operative complications (3 vs 4, p=1.0), post-operative obstructive symptoms (6 vs 9, p=0.5), enterocolitis episodes (4 vs 4, p=1.0), or fecal incontinence (0 vs 2, p=0.4) were noted. After controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences in the short and intermediate term outcome between transanal Soave and transanal Swenson pullthrough procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Halo control, beam matching, and new dynamical variables for beam distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.; Parsa, Z.

    1997-01-01

    We present the status of our work on physics models that relate release to the understanding and control of beam halo, which is a cause of particle loss in high power ion linear accelerators. We can minimize these particle losses, even in the presence of nonlinearities, by ensuring the beam is matched to high order. Our goal is to determine new dynamical variables that enable us to more directly solve for the evolution of the halo. We considered moments and several new variables, using a Lie-Poisson formulation whenever possible. Using symbolic techniques, we computed high-order matches and mode invariants (analogs of moment invariants) in the new variables. A promising new development developments is that of the variables we call weighted moments, which allow us to compute high-order nonlinear effects (like halos) while making use of well-developed existing results and computational techniques developed for studying first order effects. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Differences in sedentary time and physical activity between female patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls : the al-Ándalus project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Estévez-López, Fernando; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Mota, Jorge; Silva, Pedro; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the levels of objectively measured time spent in sedentary activities (sedentary time) and physical activities in female patients with fibromyalgia and compare them with the levels in age-matched healthy control women. METHODS: The study comprised 413 female patients with

  8. Cyclists Have Greater Chondromalacia Index Than Age-Matched Controls at the Time of Hip Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Austin V; Howse, Elizabeth A; Mannava, Sandeep; Stubbs, Allston J

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical symptoms and intraoperative pathology associated with hip pain in the cyclist compared with a matched hip arthroscopy surgical group. In an institutional review board-approved study, we retrospectively reviewed a prospective database of 1,200 consecutive hip arthroscopy patients from 2008 to 2015. Adult patients were identified who reported cycling as a major component of their activity. Patients were age, gender, and body mass index matched to a control, noncycling group. Pain symptoms, preoperative examinations, radiographic and operative findings were compared. Primary outcome variables included the femoral and acetabular Outerbridge chondromalacia grade. Additional outcome measurements included the involved area and the chondromalacia index (CMI; the product of the Outerbridge chondromalacia grade and surface area [mm 2  × severity]). A total of 167 noncyclists were matched to the cycling group (n = 16). Cyclists had significantly greater femoral head chondromalacia grade (2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-2.5] v 1.4 [95% CI, 1.3-1.6], P = .043), femoral head chondromalacia area (242 mm 2 [95% CI, 191-293 mm 2 ] v 128 mm 2 [95% CI, 113-141 mm 2 ], P chondromalacia than a matched group of noncyclists. Cycling activity positively correlated with the presence of femoral chondromalacia with clinically significant gait alterations. These data support the hypothesis that cyclists with hip pain have more chondral pathology than a similar group of other patients with hip pain. Ultimately, cyclists with hip pain should be identified as higher risk for more advanced chondral damage. Level III, case-control study, therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  10. Comparison of injury rates between cadets with limb length inequalities and matched control subjects over 1 year of military training and athletic participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Donald Lee; Moore, Josef H; Slivka, Erin M; Hatler, Brian S

    2006-06-01

    To compare lower-limb overuse injury and low back pain incidence among cadets with and without limb length inequality (LLI) over 1 year of military training and athletic participation. A total of 1,100 cadets were screened for LLIs; 126 of 1,100 were identified to have a LLI of > 0.5 cm and were assigned a matched control cadet. Injury rates, numbers of visits to sick call, and numbers of days spent on medical excusal during a 1-year period were then compared for the 252 cadets. There was no difference in prevalence of injury between the groups and no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the groups in injury rates, visits to sick call, or number of days spent on medical excusal. These findings do not support any increased incidence of injuries in a young, healthy, athletic, military population with mild LLIs, compared with matched control subjects without LLIs, over 1 year.

  11. Venous and autonomic function in formerly pre-eclamptic women and BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, Wieteke M; van Drongelen, Joris; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Scholten, Ralph R

    2018-03-25

    Pre-pregnancy reduced plasma volume increases the risk on subsequent pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Reduced plasma volume is thought to reflect venous reserve capacity, especially when venous vasculature is constricted and sympathetic tone is elevated. As obesity might affect these variables and also relates to pre-eclampsia, increased body weight may underlie these observations. We hypothesized that the relationship between reduced venous reserve and preeclampsia is independent of body mass index (BMI). We compared the non-pregnant venous reserve capacity in 30 formerly pre-eclamptic women, equally divided in 3 BMI-classes (BMI 19.5-24.9, BMI 25-29.9, BMI ≥30) to 30 controls. Cases and controls were matched for BMI, age and parity. The venous reserve capacity was quantified by assessing plasma volume and venous compliance. The autonomic nervous system regulating the venous capacitance was evaluated with heart rate variability analysis in resting supine position and during positive head-up tilt (HUT). Formerly pre-eclamptic women had in supine position lower plasma volume than controls (1339 ± 79 vs 1547 ± 139 ml/m 2 (pBMI-matched controls, reduced venous reserve capacity. This is reflected by lower plasma volume and venous compliance, the autonomic balance is shifted towards sympathetic dominance and lower baroreceptor sensitivity. This suggests that not BMI, but underlying reduced venous reserve relates to pre-eclampsia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  13. Body composition differences between adults with multiple sclerosis and BMI-matched controls without MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Brooks C; Young, Hui-Ju; Motl, Robert W

    2018-04-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many health conditions related to overweight and obesity, but little is known about how body composition among those with MS compares to those without MS at the same weight. To compare differences in whole body and regional body composition between persons with and without MS matched for sex and body mass index (BMI). Persons with MS (n = 51) and non-MS controls (n = 51) matched for sex and BMI. Total mass, lean mass, fat mass, and percent body fat (%BF) of total body and arm, leg, and trunk segments were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Men with MS had significantly less whole body lean mass (mean difference: 9933.5 ± 3123.1 g, p MS counterparts. Further, men with MS had significantly lower lean mass in the arm (p = 0.02) and leg (p MS. Men with MS had significantly higher %BF in all three regions (p MS. There were no differences between women with and without MS. We observed significant differences in whole body and regional body composition between BMI-matched men with and without MS. Additional research is needed to further explore differences in body composition, adipose distribution, and the impact of these differences on the health and function of men with MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A matched case-control study of risk factors for neonatal tetanus in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Syed

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have identified various risk factors for neonatal tetanus (NNT in rural areas of Pakistan. The present matched case control study was conducted to further evaluate these risk factors in an urban setting. Aim: The study was carried out to identify risk factors for NNT in Karachi. Materials and Methods: Patients of NNT (n = 125 diagnosed from January 1998 to February 2001 were recruited through a surveillance system of Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI. Two neighbourhood controls (n = 250 were matched for each case for gender and date of birth of the case. Statistical Analysis: Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of factors associated with NNT. Results: The final multivariable model identified subsequent application of substances on the umbilical cord (adjusted matched odds ratio [adj. mOR] = 5.1 [2.7-9.7], home delivery (adj. mOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1- 3.1 and illiterate mother (adj. mOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0- 2.0 as risk factors for NNT after adjusting for other variables in the model. Population attributable risk per cent (PAR % for subsequent cord application was 69% and PAR % for home delivery was 31%. Conclusion: Health planners, while formulating control strategies through immunization programmes should also take into account the impact of post-delivery practices, such as 'subsequent cord application' along with pre-delivery practices. Health awareness regarding appropriate post-delivery practices should be promoted and counselling of pregnant women for giving preference to health care setting for delivery is also crucial.

  15. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela; Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  16. The response of social anxiety disorder patients to threat scenarios differs from that of healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.V. Mesquita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of social anxiety disorder (SAD patients to threat scenarios. First-choice responses to 12 scenarios describing conspecific threatening situations and mean scores of defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions were compared between 87 SAD patients free of medication and 87 matched healthy controls (HC. A significant gender difference in the first-choice responses was identified for seven scenarios among HCs but only for two scenarios among SAD patients. A significantly higher proportion of SAD patients chose "freezing" in response to "Bush" and "Noise" scenarios, whereas the most frequent response by HCs to these scenarios was "check out". SAD males chose "run away" and "yell" more often than healthy men in response to the scenarios "Park" and "Elevator", respectively. There was a positive correlation between the severity of symptoms and both defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions. Factorial analysis confirmed the gradient of defensive reactions derived from animal studies. SAD patients chose more urgent defensive responses to threat scenarios, seeming to perceive them as more dangerous than HCs and tending to move away from the source of threat. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the physiopathology of anxiety disorders involves brain structures responsible for defensive behaviors.

  17. Psychophysiology of duration estimation in experienced mindfulness meditators and matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eOtten

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that bodily signals and interoception are strongly related to our sense of time. Mindfulness meditators train to be aware of their body states and therefore could be more accurate at interval timing. In this study, n = 22 experienced mindfulness meditators and n = 22 matched controls performed both, an acoustic and a visual duration reproduction task of 8 s, 14s and 20s intervals, while heart rate and skin conductance were continuously assessed. In addition, participants accomplished a heart-beat perception task and two selective attention tasks. Results revealed no differences between meditators and controls with respect to performance in duration reproduction or attentional capacities. Additionally no group difference in heart beat perception scores was found. Across all subjects, correlational analyses revealed several associations between performance in the duration reproduction tasks and psychophysiological changes, the latter being also related to heart beat perception scores. Furthermore, former findings of linearly increasing cardiac periods and decreasing skin conductance levels during the auditory duration estimation task (Meissner and Wittmann, 2011 could be replicated, and these changes could also be observed during a visual duration reproduction task. In contrast to our earlier findings, the heart-beat perception test was not related with timing performance. Overall, although experienced meditators did not differ from matched controls with respect to duration reproduction and interoceptive awareness, this study adds significantly to the emerging view that time perception is related to autonomic regulation and awareness of body states.

  18. Sister chromatid exchange in children of Seventh-Day Adventists and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, R; Waksvik, H; Fønnebø, V

    1991-03-01

    The low risk of cancer in Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) has been suggested to be due to genetic selection. To investigate this claim we examined the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes in 16 SDA children in Tromsø, all aged 0.5-8 years and 16 controls matched for sex and age. In 12 of 16 pairs, the SDA children had a lower SCE frequency than the controls. The mean difference was 4.06 (95% confidence interval -17.02-8.89, P = 0.51). There was no sex difference, and no correlation between age and SCE frequency. The genetic starting point with regard to SCE frequency seems to be the same for SDA children and controls.

  19. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  20. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Simon

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17 and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females. We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri. These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  1. Tests on a mock-up of the feedback controlled matching options of the ITER ICRH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grine, D.; Vervier, M.; Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P.

    2009-01-01

    Automatic control of the matching of the ITER ICRH antenna array on a reference load is presently developed and tested for optimization on a low-powered scaled (1:5) mock-up. Resilience to fast load variations is obtained either by 4 Conjugate-T (CT) or 4 quadrature hybrid circuits, the latter being the reference option. The main results are (i) for the CT option: successful implementation of the simultaneous feedback control of 11 actuators for the matching of the 4 CT and for the control of the array toroidal phasing; (ii) for the hybrid option: the matching and the array current control via feedback control of the decouplers and double stub tuners. This system is being progressively implemented and the simultaneous control of matching and antenna current has already been successfully tested on half of the array for heating and current drive phasings.

  2. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression......BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  3. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  4. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O?Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ? 2.8?years; weight, 48.1 ? 14.1?kg; height, 1.51 ? 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ? 2.9?years; weight, 43.6 ? 10?kg; height, 1.51 ? 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite? system while their plantar pressure was being recorded....

  5. Comparison of serum lead level in oral opium addicts with healthy control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hossein; Sayadi, Ahmad Reza; Tashakori, Mahnaz; Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Soltanpoor, Narges; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmood

    2009-11-01

    Drug abuse and its consequences are major health problems in Middle-East countries such as Iran. Salesmen and smugglers may add lead to opium during the process of opium preparation to increase the weight of opium for more profit. Several reports have found lead poisoning symptoms in opium addicted patients and there are many nonspecific symptoms mimicking lead poisoning in opium addicted patients. As far as the literature review is concerned, there is no comparative study about blood lead level (BLL) in addicted patients with healthy controls. Therefore, it seems evaluation of blood lead level in opium addicted patients to be important. In this study, the BLL of forty-four subjects in two patient and control groups was evaluated. The patient group (22 subjects) was comprised of patients who used oral opium. Control group (22 subjects) was matched with the patient group for age and sex, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria with a mean age of 38.8+/-6.7. For blood lead assay, 3 mL of whole blood was obtained from both groups by venipuncture and BLL was assessed immediately using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The BLL in patient group had a range of 7.2 to 69.9 g/dL with a mean of 21.9+/-13.2. In the healthy control group, BLL was between 4.1 to 17.4 g/dL with a mean of 8.6+/-3.5. The mean difference of both groups (t=4.56) was statistically significant (Popium ingested (r=0.65, Popium ingestion in the patient group. It would be concluded that opium addicts have an elevated BLL compared to healthy controls. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium addicted people especially with non-specific symptoms. In this regard, a similar investigation with a larger sample size of opium addicted patients (including both oral and inhaled) and a control group is suggested to confirm the findings of this research.

  6. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P.; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P.; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T.; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C.; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Kapczinski, Flávio; Rosa, Adriane R.; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychologic...

  7. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Dubray, Claude; Pereira, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467) was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature), and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g) or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P memory initial thinking time were decreased ( P =0.04). All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect ( P body temperature did not change. This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance and antinociception are independent of APAP effect on thermogenesis. We suggest that cognitive performance mirrors the analgesic rather than thermic cascade of events, with possibly a central role for serotonergic and cannabinoid systems that need to be explored further in the context of pain and cognition.

  8. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3-4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points-baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study.

  9. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eLampit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years were assigned to either (a 20 hours of CCT, or (b 20 hours of computerized arithmetic training (active control by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of six weeks, 3-4 one-hour sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-minute paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points – baseline, after 10 hours and after 20 hours of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F=7.033, df=1.745; 73.273, p=0.003 with a significant interaction at both the 10-hour (Relative Cohen’s effect size = 0.38, p=0.014 and 20-hour time points (Relative Cohen’s effect size = 0.40, p=0.003. No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners’ Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study.

  10. Occurrence of plant sensitivity among patients of photodermatoses: A control-matched study of 156 cases from New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Hemanta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodermatitis is an abnormal response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR. The photoallergic contact dermatitis caused by plant allergens is a serious cause of morbidity in India. Airborne contact dermatitis is the classical presentation of plant-induced dermatosis, which may become difficult to differentiate from chronic actinic dermatitis in chronic cases. The rapid growth of parthenium weed in India and its ill effects on the population make it important to detect all cases of parthenium sensitivity, which in some cases might simulate photodermatitis. Aims: This study aims to detect the occurrence of plant sensitivity and photosensitivity in idiopathic-acquired photodermatoses, airborne contact dermatitis and general population taken as controls. Methods: One hundred and fifty six consecutive patients suffering from polymorphic light eruption (PMLE, chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD were enrolled in the study over a period of three years (June 2004 to May 2007. An equal number of age and sex matched healthy subjects were enrolled in the study as controls. All the patients were subjected to detailed history taking, clinical examination and histopathological examination for diagnosis. Patch and photopatch testing were perfomed in all the patients and healthy controls for detection of allergic and photoallergic reactions to parthenium, xanthium and chrysanthemum plant antigens and control antigens. Results: Out of 156 patients enrolled in the study, 78 (50% had CAD, 67 (42.9% had PMLE and 11 (7.05% had ABCD. The occurrence of parthenium/xanthium allergy and photoallergy, either to parthenium or both was most commonly found in ABCD (72.7%, followed by CAD (32%. In PMLE 4.5% cases showed photoallergy. Only 1.9% in the control group showed sensitivity to parthenium and xanthium. Conclusion: This study indicates that parthenium (and possibly xanthium may act as important environmental factors in the

  11. The matching quality of experimental and control interventions in blinded pharmacological randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Wei, Maoling; Hilden, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    to systematically identify and analyse studies of matching quality in drug trials. Our primary objective was to assess the proportion of studies that concluded that the matching was inadequate; our secondary objective was to describe mechanisms for inadequate matching. Methods: Systematic review. We searched Pub...... published before 1977. The studies differed considerably with regard to design, methodology and analysis. Sixteen of the 36 studies (44 %) concluded inadequate matching. When we adapted high or low thresholds for inadequate matching, the number of trials with inadequate matching was reduced to 12 (33...

  12. High prevalence of jumper's knee and sonographic changes in Swedish elite junior volleyball players compared to matched controls

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslen, K; Gyulai, C; Soderman, K; Alfredson, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Jumper's knee is a common and troublesome condition among senior volleyball players, but its prevalence among elite junior players compared to matched non-sports active controls is not known.

  13. Gaussian mixed model in support of semiglobal matching leveraged by ground control points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Zheng, Shunyi; Li, Chang; Li, Yingsong; Gui, Li

    2017-04-01

    Semiglobal matching (SGM) has been widely applied in large aerial images because of its good tradeoff between complexity and robustness. The concept of ground control points (GCPs) is adopted to make SGM more robust. We model the effect of GCPs as two data terms for stereo matching between high-resolution aerial epipolar images in an iterative scheme. One term based on GCPs is formulated by Gaussian mixture model, which strengths the relation between GCPs and the pixels to be estimated and encodes some degree of consistency between them with respect to disparity values. Another term depends on pixel-wise confidence, and we further design a confidence updating equation based on three rules. With this confidence-based term, the assignment of disparity can be heuristically selected among disparity search ranges during the iteration process. Several iterations are sufficient to bring out satisfactory results according to our experiments. Experimental results validate that the proposed method outperforms surface reconstruction, which is a representative variant of SGM and behaves excellently on aerial images.

  14. An Adaptive Impedance Matching Network with Closed Loop Control Algorithm for Inductive Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake; Gong, Chen

    2017-08-01

    For an inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) system, maintaining a reasonable power transfer efficiency and a stable output power are two most challenging design issues, especially when coil distance varies. To solve these issues, this paper presents a novel adaptive impedance matching network (IMN) for IWPT system. In our adaptive IMN IWPT system, the IMN is automatically reconfigured to keep matching with the coils and to adjust the output power adapting to coil distance variation. A closed loop control algorithm is used to change the capacitors continually, which can compensate mismatches and adjust output power simultaneously. The proposed adaptive IMN IWPT system is working at 125 kHz for 2 W power delivered to load. Comparing with the series resonant IWPT system and fixed IMN IWPT system, the power transfer efficiency of our system increases up to 31.79% and 60% when the coupling coefficient varies in a large range from 0.05 to 0.8 for 2 W output power.

  15. An Adaptive Impedance Matching Network with Closed Loop Control Algorithm for Inductive Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake

    2017-01-01

    For an inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) system, maintaining a reasonable power transfer efficiency and a stable output power are two most challenging design issues, especially when coil distance varies. To solve these issues, this paper presents a novel adaptive impedance matching network (IMN) for IWPT system. In our adaptive IMN IWPT system, the IMN is automatically reconfigured to keep matching with the coils and to adjust the output power adapting to coil distance variation. A closed loop control algorithm is used to change the capacitors continually, which can compensate mismatches and adjust output power simultaneously. The proposed adaptive IMN IWPT system is working at 125 kHz for 2 W power delivered to load. Comparing with the series resonant IWPT system and fixed IMN IWPT system, the power transfer efficiency of our system increases up to 31.79% and 60% when the coupling coefficient varies in a large range from 0.05 to 0.8 for 2 W output power. PMID:28763011

  16. Improving excellence in scoliosis rehabilitation: a controlled study of matched pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H-R; Klein, R

    2006-01-01

    Physiotherapy programmes so far mainly address the lateral deformity of scoliosis, a few aim at the correction of rotation and only very few address the sagittal profile. Meanwhile, there is evidence that correction forces applied in the sagittal plane are also able to correct the scoliotic deformity in the coronal and frontal planes. So it should be possible to improve excellence in scoliosis rehabilitation by the implementation of exercises to correct the sagittal deformity in scoliosis patients. An exercise programme (physio-logic exercises) aiming at a physiologic sagittal profile was developed to add to the programme applied at the centre or to replace certain exercises or exercising positions. To test the hypothesis that physio-logic exercises improve the outcome of Scoliosis Intensive Rehabilitation (SIR), the following study design was chosen: Prospective controlled trial of pairs of patients with idiopathic scoliosis matched by sex, age, Cobb angle and curve pattern. There were 18 patients in the treatment group (SIR + physio-logic exercises) and 18 patients in the control group (SIR only), all in matched pairs. Average Cobb angle in the treatment group was 34.5 degrees (SD 7.8) Cobb angle in the control group was 31.6 degrees (SD 5.8). Age in the treatment group was at average 15.3 years (SD 1.1) and in the control group 14.7 years (SD 1.3). Thirteen of the 18 patients in either group had a brace. Outcome parameter: average lateral deviation (mm), average surface rotation ( degrees ) and maximum Kyphosis angle ( degrees ) as evaluated with the help of surface topography (Formetric-system). Lateral deviation (mm) decreased significantly after the performance of the physio-logic programme and highly significantly in the physio-logic ADL posture; however, it was not significant after completion of the whole rehabilitation programme (2.3 vs 0.3 mm in the controls). Surface rotation improved at average 1.2 degrees in the treatment group and 0.8 degrees in the

  17. Filaggrin gene mutations and the distribution of filaggrin in oral mucosa of patients with oral lichen planus and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K R; Johansen, J D; Reibel, J; Zachariae, C; Rosing, K; Pedersen, A M L

    2017-05-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the skin and oral mucosa. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs), like oral contact reactions, may resemble oral lichen planus (OLP) both clinically and histopathologically. As OLP and OLL are hyperkeratotic diseases and filaggrin is essential to keratinization, the distribution of filaggrin may be altered in these lesions. To investigate whether patients with OLP/OLL have (i) altered distribution of filaggrin in the oral mucosa; (ii) a higher incidence of mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG); (iii) active dermatoses, apart from cutaneous LP, than healthy controls; and (iv) patients with OLP/OLL and a defect in the FLG have more widespread oral lesions and report more symptoms than OLP/OLL patients without a concomitant defect in the FLG. Forty-nine Caucasian patients (42 women and 7 men, mean age 61.0 ± 10.3 years), with symptomatic OLP, OLL or stomatitis, and 29 matched healthy controls underwent a clinical oral and dermatological examination, oral mucosal biopsy and filaggrin genotyping (testing for R2447X, R501X, 2282del4). Smear tests for Candida spp. were performed in all patients to exclude oral candidiasis. Immunohistochemistry were performed using poly- and monoclonal filaggrin antibodies. The immunoreactivity for filaggrin was significantly more intense in the oral mucosa in the patients with OLP/OLL compared with healthy controls (P = 0.000025). No difference was noted in the incidence of defects in the FLG and active dermatoses between patients and healthy controls. No difference was noted in extension and number of symptoms reported by patients with OLP/OLL with or without a concomitant defect in the FLG. OLP/OLL is associated with an altered distribution of filaggrin in the oral mucosa independently of defects in the FLG. Patients with OLP/OLL did not display more active dermatoses other than cutaneous LP when compared to healthy controls. © 2016 European Academy of

  18. Brain-relevant antibodies in first-episode psychosis: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Beck, Katherine; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Coutinho, Ester; Jacobson, Leslie; Lang, Bethan; Sainz-Fuertes, Ricardo; Papanastasiou, Evangelos; Di Forti, Marta; Nicholson, Tim; Vincent, Angela; Murray, Robin M

    2018-06-01

    There has been much recent excitement about the possibility that some cases of psychosis may be wholly due to brain-reactive antibodies, with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex reported in a few patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Participants were recruited from psychiatric services in South London, UK, from 2009 to 2011 as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study. We conducted a case-control study to examine NMDAR and VGKC-complex antibody levels and rates of antibody positivity in 96 patients presenting with FEP and 98 controls matched for age and sex. Leucine-rich glioma inactiviated-1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein (CASPR) antibodies were also measured. Notably, patients with suspicion of organic disease were excluded. VGKC-complex antibodies were found in both cases (n = 3) and controls (n = 2). NMDAR antibody positivity was seen in one case and one control. Either LGI1-Abs or CASPR2-Abs were found in three cases and three controls. Neuronal antibody staining, consistent with the above results or indicating potential novel antigens, was overall positive in four patients but also in six controls. Overall, antibody positivity was at low levels only and not higher in cases than in controls. This case-control study of the prevalence of antibodies in FEP does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that FEP is associated with an immune-mediated process in a subgroup of patients. Nevertheless, as other bio-clinical factors may influence the effect of such antibodies in a given individual, and patients with organic neurological disease may be misdiagnosed as FEP, the field requires more research to put these findings in context.

  19. Circulating Levels of MicroRNA from Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: Evidence That miR-25 Associates to Residual Beta-Cell Function and Glycaemic Control during Disease Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lotte B.; Wang, Cheng; Sorensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the miRN...

  20. Investigating the (MisMatch between Natural Pest Control Knowledge and the Intensity of Pesticide Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mall

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts to increase sustainability in the crop systems that need it most. In this study, we investigate the match (or mismatch between the intensity of pesticide use and the availability of knowledge on the ecosystem service of natural pest control across various crop systems. Using a systematic literature search on pest control and publicly available pesticide data, we find that pest control literature is not more abundant in crops where insecticide input per hectare is highest. Instead, pest control literature is most abundant, with the highest number of studies published, in crops with comparatively low insecticide input per hectare but with high world harvested area. These results suggest that a major increase of interest in agroecological research towards crops with high insecticide input, particularly cotton and horticultural crops such as citrus and high value-added vegetables, would help meet knowledge needs for a timely ecointensification of agriculture.

  1. Investigating the (Mis)Match between Natural Pest Control Knowledge and the Intensity of Pesticide Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, David; Larsen, Ashley E; Martin, Emily A

    2018-01-05

    Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts to increase sustainability in the crop systems that need it most. In this study, we investigate the match (or mismatch) between the intensity of pesticide use and the availability of knowledge on the ecosystem service of natural pest control across various crop systems. Using a systematic literature search on pest control and publicly available pesticide data, we find that pest control literature is not more abundant in crops where insecticide input per hectare is highest. Instead, pest control literature is most abundant, with the highest number of studies published, in crops with comparatively low insecticide input per hectare but with high world harvested area. These results suggest that a major increase of interest in agroecological research towards crops with high insecticide input, particularly cotton and horticultural crops such as citrus and high value-added vegetables, would help meet knowledge needs for a timely ecointensification of agriculture.

  2. Fundamental differences in axial and appendicular bone density in stress fractured and uninjured Royal Marine recruits--a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Trish; Lanham-New, Susan A; Shaw, Anneliese M; Cobley, Rosalyn; Allsopp, Adrian J; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Arnett, Timothy R; Taylor, Pat; Cooper, Cyrus; Fallowfield, Joanne L

    2015-04-01

    Stress fracture is a common overuse injury within military training, resulting in significant economic losses to the military worldwide. Studies to date have failed to fully identify the bone density and bone structural differences between stress fractured personnel and controls due to inadequate adjustment for key confounding factors; namely age, body size and physical fitness; and poor sample size. The aim of this study was to investigate bone differences between male Royal Marine recruits who suffered a stress fracture during the 32 weeks of training and uninjured control recruits, matched for age, body weight, height and aerobic fitness. A total of 1090 recruits were followed through training and 78 recruits suffered at least one stress fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and whole body (WB) using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in 62 matched pairs; tibial bone parameters were measured using peripheral Quantitative Computer Tomography in 51 matched pairs. Serum C-terminal peptide concentration was measured as a marker of bone resorption at baseline, week-15 and week-32. ANCOVA was used to determine differences between stress fractured recruits and controls. BMD at the LS, WB and FN sites was consistently lower in the stress fracture group (Pstress fracture recruits and controls were evident in all slices of the tibia, with the most prominent differences seen at the 38% tibial slice. There was a negative correlation between the bone cross-sectional area and BMD at the 38% tibial slice. There was no difference in serum CTx concentration between stress fracture recruits and matched controls at any stage of training. These results show evidence of fundamental differences in bone mass and structure in stress fracture recruits, and provide useful data on bone risk factor profiles for stress fracture within a healthy military population. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining frontotemporal connectivity and rTMS in healthy controls: implications for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromann, Paula M; Tracy, Derek K; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Krabbendam, Lydia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to have clinically beneficial effects in altering the perception of auditory hallucinations (AH) in patients with schizophrenia. However, the mode of action is not clear. Recent neuroimaging findings indicate that rTMS has the potential to induce not only local effects but also changes in remote, functionally connected brain regions. Frontotemporal dysconnectivity has been proposed as a mechanism leading to psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. The current study examines functional connectivity between temporal and frontal brain regions after rTMS and the implications for AH in schizophrenia. A connectivity analysis was conducted on the fMRI data of 11 healthy controls receiving rTMS, compared with 11 matched subjects receiving sham TMS, to the temporoparietal junction, before engaging in a task associated with robust frontotemporal activation. Compared to the control group, the rTMS group showed an altered frontotemporal connectivity with stronger connectivity between the right temporoparietal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the angular gyrus. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that normalizing the functional connectivity between the temporoparietal and frontal brain regions may underlie the therapeutic effect of rTMS on AH in schizophrenia.

  4. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Mohammadi, Parvin; Elahi, Elham; Barati, Hojatollah

    2016-01-01

    A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.

  5. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41, consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89, and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.

  6. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hao-Ning [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048 (China); Xia, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The 309th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100091 (China); Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Chen, Fa-Ming, E-mail: cfmsunhh@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co

  7. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hao-Ning; Xia, Yu; Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co

  8. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina Del Mar; Vieta, Eduard; Kapczinski, Flavio; Rosa, Adriane R; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35) than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001). Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008). Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  9. Executive functioning and general cognitive ability in pregnant women and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyper, Serge V; Searleman, Alan; Thacher, Pamela V; Maine, Emily E; Johnson, Alicia G

    2010-11-01

    The current study compared the performances of pregnant women with education- and age-matched controls on a variety of measures that assessed perceptual speed, short-term and working memory capacity, subjective memory complaints, sleep quality, level of fatigue, executive functioning, episodic and prospective memory, and crystallized and fluid intelligence. A primary purpose was to test the hypothesis of Henry and Rendell (2007) that pregnancy-related declines in cognitive functioning would be especially evident in tasks that place a high demand on executive processes. We also investigated a parallel hypothesis: that the pregnant women would experience a broad-based reduction in cognitive capability. Very limited support was found for the executive functioning hypothesis. Pregnant women scored lower only on the measure of verbal fluency (Controlled Oral Word Association Test, COWAT) but not on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task or on any working memory measures. Furthermore, group differences in COWAT performance disappeared after controlling for verbal IQ (Shipley vocabulary). In addition, there was no support for the general decline hypothesis. We conclude that pregnancy-associated differences in performance observed in the current study were relatively mild and rarely reached either clinical or practical significance.

  10. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Emelie; Edholm, Peter; Ponsot, Elodie; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Hellmén, Erik; Nilsson, Andreas; Engfeldt, Peter; Cederholm, Tommy; Risérus, Ulf; Kadi, Fawzi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 ± 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Comorbidity, family history and personality traits in pathological gamblers compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Lemenager, T; Zois, E; Hoffmann, S; Nakovics, H; Beutel, M; Vogelgesang, M; Wölfling, K; Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M

    2017-05-01

    While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls. We studied differences in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related variables, psychiatric comorbidity (lifetime), family history of psychiatric conditions, as well as personality traits such as impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), sensation seeking (Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale) and the NEO-FFI big five. Personality traits were validated in an age- and ethnicity-matched subsample of "pure" gamblers without any psychiatric comorbidity (including nicotine dependence). Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Chi 2 analyses, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis, as appropriate. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple comparisons. Only 1% of the gamblers had been diagnosed with an impulse control disorder other than gambling (ICD-10). Notably, 88% of the gamblers in our sample had a comorbid diagnosis of substance dependence. The highest axis I comorbidity rate was for nicotine dependence (80%), followed by alcohol dependence (28%). Early age of first gambling experience was correlated with gambling severity. Compared to first-degree relatives of controls, first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer from alcohol dependence (27.0% vs. 7.4%), pathological gambling (8.3% vs. 0.7%) and suicide attempts (2.7% vs. 0.4%). Significant group differences were observed for the NEO-FFI factors neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Gamblers were also more impulsive than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms of

  12. Application of the perfectly matched layer in 3-D marine controlled-source electromagnetic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Li, Yuguo; Han, Bo; Liu, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the complex frequency-shifted perfectly matched layer (CFS-PML) in stretching Cartesian coordinates is successfully applied to 3-D frequency-domain marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) field modelling. The Dirichlet boundary, which is usually used within the traditional framework of EM modelling algorithms, assumes that the electric or magnetic field values are zero at the boundaries. This requires the boundaries to be sufficiently far away from the area of interest. To mitigate the boundary artefacts, a large modelling area may be necessary even though cell sizes are allowed to grow toward the boundaries due to the diffusion of the electromagnetic wave propagation. Compared with the conventional Dirichlet boundary, the PML boundary is preferred as the modelling area of interest could be restricted to the target region and only a few absorbing layers surrounding can effectively depress the artificial boundary effect without losing the numerical accuracy. Furthermore, for joint inversion of seismic and marine CSEM data, if we use the PML for CSEM field simulation instead of the conventional Dirichlet, the modelling area for these two different geophysical data collected from the same survey area could be the same, which is convenient for joint inversion grid matching. We apply the CFS-PML boundary to 3-D marine CSEM modelling by using the staggered finite-difference discretization. Numerical test indicates that the modelling algorithm using the CFS-PML also shows good accuracy compared to the Dirichlet. Furthermore, the modelling algorithm using the CFS-PML shows advantages in computational time and memory saving than that using the Dirichlet boundary. For the 3-D example in this study, the memory saving using the PML is nearly 42 per cent and the time saving is around 48 per cent compared to using the Dirichlet.

  13. Analysis of Risk Factors for Colonic Diverticular Bleeding: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yuusaku; Kudo, Shin-ei; Miyachi, Hideyuki; Misawa, Masashi; Okoshi, Shogo; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2016-03-01

    Diverticular bleeding can occasionally cause massive bleeding that requires urgent colonoscopy (CS) and treatment. The aim of this study was to identify significant risk factors for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Between January 2009 and December 2012, 26,602 patients underwent CS at our institution. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent an urgent CS due to acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Seventy-two patients were diagnosed with colonic diverticular hemorrhage. One hundred forty-nine age- and sex-matched controls were selected from the patients with nonbleeding diverticula who underwent CS during the same period. The relationship of risk factors to diverticular bleeding was compared between the cases and controls. Uni- and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio [OR], 14.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.89 to 55.80; pdisease (OR, 8.66; 95% CI, 2.33 to 32.10; p=0.00126), and hyperuricemia (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 1.74 to 138.00; p=0.014) remained statistically significant predictors of diverticular bleeding. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cerebrovascular disease and hyperuricemia were significant risks for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. The knowledge obtained from this study may provide some insight into the diagnostic process for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  14. Using multivariate machine learning methods and structural MRI to classify childhood onset schizophrenia and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna eGreenstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multivariate machine learning methods can be used to classify groups of schizophrenia patients and controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. However, machine learning methods to date have not been extended beyond classification and contemporaneously applied in a meaningful way to clinical measures. We hypothesized that brain measures would classify groups, and that increased likelihood of being classified as a patient using regional brain measures would be positively related to illness severity, developmental delays and genetic risk. Methods: Using 74 anatomic brain MRI sub regions and Random Forest, we classified 98 COS patients and 99 age, sex, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls. We also used Random Forest to determine the likelihood of being classified as a schizophrenia patient based on MRI measures. We then explored relationships between brain-based probability of illness and symptoms, premorbid development, and presence of copy number variation associated with schizophrenia. Results: Brain regions jointly classified COS and control groups with 73.7% accuracy. Greater brain-based probability of illness was associated with worse functioning (p= 0.0004 and fewer developmental delays (p=0.02. Presence of copy number variation (CNV was associated with lower probability of being classified as schizophrenia (p=0.001. The regions that were most important in classifying groups included left temporal lobes, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal regions, and left medial parietal lobes. Conclusions: Schizophrenia and control groups can be well classified using Random Forest and anatomic brain measures, and brain-based probability of illness has a positive relationship with illness severity and a negative relationship with developmental delays/problems and CNV-based risk.

  15. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Infection with Entamoeba histolytica ( E. histolytica ) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Anti- E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted.

  16. Effects of emotionally affect adult and baby' photographs in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients evaluating by exploratory eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Chizuko; Morita, Kiichiro; Shoji, Yoshihisa; Fujiki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Asaumi, Yasue; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between mother and baby is of fundamental importance in the development of cognitive function and emotion. In this study we investigated the effects of affective photographs of a mother and baby (crying or smiling faces) and other stimuli (neutral mother or baby faces) on visual cognitive function in schizophrenic patents. We recorded exploratory eye movements in 22 healthy controls and 22 age-matched schizophrenic patients. Total number of right and left field gaze points (right TNGP, left TNGP) in the visual fields were determined using an eye-mark recorder as subjects viewed affectively charged or neutral photographs (crying, smiling or neutral faces). Left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral) were significantly larger in controls than patients, and right TNGP for neutral mother photographs were significantly larger in controls than in patients. Right TNGP for photographs of smiling babies were significantly larger in controls than patients, and left TNGP for photographs of both smiling and crying babies were significantly larger in controls than patients. Within the patient group, right TNGP were significantly larger than left TNGP for all mother photographs (crying, smiling or neutral). Left TNGP for photographs of mothers and babies correlated negatively with negative symptom scores. These results suggest that exploratory eye movements when viewing emotionally laded twin stimuli such as photographs of a mother and baby are a useful marker of visual cognitive function in both healthy controls and schizophrenic patients.

  17. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case-control study in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Butu, Yuli; Simpson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990-2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. A matched case-control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas) was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score) were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0-7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs) were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The study identified a number of factors amenable to health service intervention associated with neonatal deaths in normal and low

  18. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case–control study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnawi Abdullah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990–2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. Objective: This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. Design: A matched case–control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Results: Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0–7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. Conclusion: The study identified a number of factors amenable to

  19. Prosody Perception and Production in Children with Hearing Loss and Age- and Gender-Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathottukaren, Rose Thomas; Purdy, Suzanne C; Ballard, Elaine

    2017-04-01

    Auditory development in children with hearing loss, including the perception of prosody, depends on having adequate input from cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Lack of adequate auditory stimulation can lead to delayed speech and language development. Nevertheless, prosody perception and production in people with hearing loss have received less attention than other aspects of language. The perception of auditory information conveyed through prosody using variations in the pitch, amplitude, and duration of speech is not usually evaluated clinically. This study (1) compared prosody perception and production abilities in children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing; and (2) investigated the effect of age, hearing level, and musicality on prosody perception. Participants were 16 children with hearing loss and 16 typically developing controls matched for age and gender. Fifteen of the children with hearing loss were tested while using amplification (n = 9 hearing aids, n = 6 cochlear implants). Six receptive subtests of the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C), the Child Paralanguage subtest of Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA 2), and Contour and Interval subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) were used. Audio recordings of the children's reading samples were rated using a perceptual prosody rating scale by nine experienced listeners who were blinded to the children's hearing status. Thirty two children, 16 with hearing loss (mean age = 8.71 yr) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children with normal hearing (mean age = 8.87 yr). Assessments were completed in one session lasting 1-2 hours in a quiet room. Test items were presented using a laptop computer through loudspeaker at a comfortable listening level. For children with hearing loss using hearing instruments, all tests were completed with hearing devices set at their everyday listening setting. All PEPS

  20. Reserve-building activities in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Ayandeh, Armon; Ramanathan, Murali; Benedict, Ralph; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Zivadinov, Robert

    2015-08-12

    Cognitive reserve has been implicated as a possible protective factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) but to date no study has compared reserve-building activities across disease course or to healthy controls. This study aims to describe differences in reserve-building activities across the MS disease course and healthy controls. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional cohort study that included 276 healthy controls, and subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS; n = 67), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 358) and secondary progressive MS (PMS; n = 109). Past reserve-building activities were operationalized as occupational attainment and education. Current activities comprised 6 strenuous and 6 non-strenuous activities, including 5 reserve-building activities and television-watching. Multivariate Analysis of Variance models examined group differences in past and current activities, after adjusting for covariates. There were group differences in past and current reserve-building activities. SPMS patients had lower past reserve-building activities than healthy controls. All forms of MS engaged in fewer strenuous current reserve-building pursuits than healthy controls. RRMS read less than healthy controls. SPMS engaged in fewer job-related non-strenuous activities. All MS groups watched more television than healthy controls. MS patients show significantly fewer past and present reserve-building activities. Although it is difficult to establish causality without future prospective studies, lifestyle-modifying interventions should prioritize expanding MS patients' repertoire of strenuous and non-strenuous activities.

  1. Driving safety after brain damage: follow-up of twenty-two patients with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R T; Golden, R S; Butter, J; Tepper, D; Rothke, S; Holmes, J; Sahgal, V

    1990-02-01

    Driving after brain damage is a vital issue, considering the large number of patients who suffer from cerebrovascular and traumatic encephalopathy. The ability to operate a motor vehicle is an integral part of independence for most adults and so should be preserved whenever possible. The physician may estimate a patient's ability to drive safely based on his own examination, the evaluation of a neuropsychologist, and a comprehensive driving evaluation--testing, driving simulation, behind-the-wheel observation--with a driving specialist. This study sought to evaluate the ability of brain-damaged individuals to operate a motor vehicle safely at follow-up. These patients had been evaluated (by a physician, a neuropsychologist, and a driving specialist) and were judged able to operate a motor vehicle safely after their cognitive insult. Twenty-two brain-damaged patients who were evaluated at our institution were successfully followed up to five years (mean interval of 2.67 years). Patients were interviewed by telephone. Their driving safely was compared with a control group consisting of a close friend or spouse of each patient. Statistical analysis revealed no difference between patient and control groups in the type of driving, the incidence of speeding tickets, near accidents, and accidents, and the cost of vehicle damage when accidents occurred. The patient group was further divided into those who had, and those who had not experienced driving difficulties so that initial neuropsychologic testing could be compared. No significant differences were noted in any aspect of the neuropsychologic test battery. We conclude that selected brain-damaged patients who have passed a comprehensive driving assessment as outlined were as fit to drive as were their normal matched controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  3. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinjen Julie Hsu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as “the ball is above the cup”, where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children.Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6–11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as “the cup is above the drum” or “the bird is below the hat”. Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation. A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded.Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children’s scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant

  4. Incidence and risk factors for postoperative lingual neuropraxia following airway instrumentation: A retrospective matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Kai Su

    Full Text Available Lingual nerve injury or neuropraxia is a rare but potentially serious perioperative complication following airway instrumentation during general anesthesia. This study explored the the incidence and perioperative risk factors for lingual nerve injury in patients receiving laryngeal mask (LMA or endotracheal (ETGA general anesthesia in a single center experience.All surgical patients in our hospital who received LMA or ETGA from 2009 to 2013 were included, and potential perioperative risk factors were compared. Matched controls were randomly selected (in 1:5 ratio from the same database in non-case patients. A total of 36 patients in the records had reported experiencing tongue numbness after anesthesia in this study. Compared with the non-case surgical population (n = 54314, patients with tongue numbness were significantly younger (52.2±19.5 vs 42.0±14.5; P = 0.002 and reported lower ASA physical statuses (2.3±0.7 vs 1.6±0.6; P<0.001. Patient gender, anesthesia technique used, and airway device type (LMA or ETGA did not differ significantly across the two groups. A significantly higher proportion of patients underwent operations of the head-and-neck region (38.9 vs 15.6%; P = 0.002 developed tongue numbness after anesthesia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that head-and-neck operations remained the most significant independent risk factor for postoperative lingual nerve injury (AOR 7.63; 95% CI 2.03-28.70.The overall incidence rate of postoperative lingual neuropraxy was 0.066% in patients receiving general anesthesia with airway device in place. Young and generally healthy patients receiving head-and-neck operation are at higher risk in developing postoperative lingual neuropraxy. Attention should be particularly exercised to reduce the pressure of endotracheal tube or laryngeal mask on the tongue during head-and-neck operation to avert the occurrence of postoperative lingual neuropraxy.

  5. Lower Self-Reported Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients on cART and With Low Comorbidity Compared With Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin K; Eiersted, Morten R; Gaardbo, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    replication and with low comorbidity, compared with healthy controls. We furthermore aimed to identify factors associated with QoL. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 52 HIV-infected patients and 23 healthy controls matched on age, gender, education, and comorbidity. HIV-infected patients...... and healthy controls had previously been examined regarding cognitive, physical, metabolic, and immunological parameters. QoL was investigated using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV). Linear multiple regression models were created to find factors associated with mental health summary......BACKGROUND: Self-reported quality of life (QoL) has previously been found to be impaired in patients living with HIV and associated with viral replication, degree of immunodeficiency, and comorbidity. We aimed at investigating QoL in a group of HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral...

  6. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Claude Dubray,1–3 Bruno Pereira4 1University Hospital, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Inserm, CIC 1405, UMR Neurodol 1107, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467 was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature, and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results: APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05. Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04. All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01 and body temperature did not change. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance

  7. Controllable transmission and total reflection through an impedance-matched acoustic metasurface

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun

    2014-12-02

    A general design paradigm for a novel type of acoustic metasurface is proposed by introducing periodically repeated supercells on a rigid thin plate, where each supercell contains multiple cut-through slits that are filled with materials possessing different refractive indices but the same impedance as that of the host medium. When the wavelength of the incident wave is smaller than the periodicity, the direction of the transmitted wave with nearly unity transmittance can be chosen by engineering the phase discontinuities along the transverse direction. When the wavelength is larger than the periodicity, even though the metasurface is impedance matched to the host medium, most of the incident energy is reflected back and the remaining portion is converted into a surface-bound mode. We show that both the transmitted wave control and the high reflection with the surface mode excitation can be interpreted by a unified analytic model based on mode-coupling theory. Our general design principle not only supplies the functionalities of reflection-type acoustic metasurfaces, but also exhibits unprecedented flexibility and efficiency in various domains of wave manipulation for possible applications in fields like refracting, collimating, focusing or absorbing wave energy.

  8. Alteration patterns of brain glucose metabolism: comparisons of healthy controls, subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Uk; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Chung, Yong-An; Chung, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Some groups have focused on the detection and management of subjective memory impairment (SMI) as the stage that precedes mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there have been few clinical studies that have examined biomarkers of SMI to date. To investigate the differences in glucose metabolism as a prodromal marker of dementia in patients with SMI, MCI, and healthy controls using brain F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Sixty-eight consecutive patients with SMI, 47 patients with MCI, and 42 age-matched healthy subjects were recruited. All subjects underwent FDG-PET and detailed neuropsychological testing. FDG-PET images were analyzed using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program. FDG-PET analysis showed glucose hypometabolism in the periventricular regions of patients with SMI and in the parietal, precentral frontal, and periventricular regions of patients with MCI compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, hypometabolism on FDG-PET was noted in the parietal and precentral frontal regions in MCI patients compared to SMI patients. The results suggest that hypometabolism in the periventricular regions as seen on FDG-PET may play a role as a predictive biomarker of pre-dementia, and the extension of reduced glucose metabolism into parietal regions likely reflects progression of cognitive deterioration. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  9. A Matched Case-Control Study on Open and Endovascular Treatment of Popliteal Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, W; Fargion, A; Masciello, F; Piffaretti, G; Pratesi, G; Giacomelli, E; Pratesi, C

    2018-01-01

    To compare early and late results of open and endovascular management of popliteal artery aneurysm in a retrospective single-center matched case-control study Methods: From 1981 to 2015, 309 consecutive interventions for popliteal artery aneurysm were performed in our institution, in 59 cases with endovascular repair and in 250 cases with open repair. Endovascular repair was preferred in older asymptomatic patients, while open repair was offered more frequently to patients with a thrombosed popliteal artery aneurysm and a poor run-off status. A one-to-one coarsened exact matching on the basis of the baseline demographic, clinical, and anatomical covariates significantly different between the two treatment options was performed and two equivalent groups of 56 endovascular repairs and open repairs were generated. The two groups were compared in terms of perioperative results with χ 2 test and of follow-up outcomes with the Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of perioperative outcomes. Median duration of follow-up was 38 months. Five-year survival rates were 94% in endovascular repair group and 89.5% in open repair group (p = 0.4, log-rank 0.6). Primary patency rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 81%, 78%, and 72% in endovascular repair group and 82.5%, 80%, and 64% in open repair group (p = 0.8, log-rank 0.01). Freedom from reintervention at 5 years was 65.5% in endovascular repair group and 76% in open repair group (p = 0.2, log-rank 1.2). Secondary patency at 1, 3, and 5 years was 94%, 86%, and 74% in endovascular repair group, and 94%, 89%, and 71% in open repair group, respectively (p = 0.9, log-rank 0.01). The rates of limb preservation at 5 years were 94% in endovascular repair group and 86.4% in open repair group (p = 0.3, log-rank 0.8). Open repair and endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysms provided in this retrospective single-center experience similar perioperative and follow-up results in

  10. Factors predisposing to post-renal transplant erythrocytosis. A prospective matched-pair control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, M; Hestin, D; Mayeux, D; Mertes, P M; Renoult, E

    1996-02-01

    We conducted a prospective study on 81 consecutive patients who had a kidney transplant with graft function for over 3 months to evaluate the prevalence of erythrocytosis following renal transplantation (PTE) and its potential risk factors. True PTE was defined as a RBC mass > 120% of the theoretical value allowing for sex, weight and height. 18 patients (22.2%) developed PTE (RBC mass = 157 +/- 21%) with no evidence of polycythemia vera (PV), or secondary polycythemia due to reduced arterial oxygen, kidney or hepatic tumors. PTE was more common in males (p = 0.041) and less common in patients treated with recombinant erythropoietin (rHEPO) prior to transplantation. 18 non-polycythemic patients (Hb 12.6 +/- 1.3 g/dl) matched for sex, age and renal function were used as case controls. Fewer PTE patients were transfused post-transplantation (p = 0.026). At the time of diagnosis, mean serum EPO was normal and similar to that of controls. PTE patients had lower serum ferritin (p = 0.005) and more commonly received iron supplementation when PTE occurred (p = 0.003). Other clinical factors did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two patients had a thrombotic event, 6 recovered spontaneously and 11 were successfully treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). The normalization of Hb, hematocrit and RBC mass in ACEI treated patients was accompanied by a decline in serum EPO (p = 0.008). We conclude that true erythrocytosis is prevalent in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant patients. PTE seems to be an idiopathic erythrocytosis. Pretransplant rHEPO treatment may limit PTE by blunting the increased sensitivity of erythroid precursors to EPO and iron supplementation, which stimulates the development of PTE. ACEI treatment is effective and safe.

  11. Oral lesions and dental status among institutionalized orphans in Yemen: A matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs and dental caries and to evaluate oral health practices among institutionalized orphan-children in Sana′a city, Yemen. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 202 institutionalized male-orphan-children in the main orphanage in Sana′a city, were matched to 202 non-orphan schoolchildren. Clinical examination included assessment of OMLs based on standard international diagnostic criteria and evaluation of dental status using the Decayed/decayed, Missed/missed and Filled/filled (DMFT/dmft index according to World Health Organization recommendations. Demographic data and oral hygiene practices were obtained by interviewing each subject using special questionnaire form. Results: Majority of children were in the 12-15 year age group. Nine types of lesions were reported among orphans; the most common lesions were fissured tongue (24.3%, herpes labialis (7.9% and traumatic ulcers (2.5%. The occurrence of herpes labialis was found to be significantly higher in orphans than in controls (P < 0.01. The prevalence of dental caries was insignificantly lower among the orphans (84.7% compared with the non-orphans (89.61%; P = 0.136. The mean dmft score was significantly lower in orphans than in controls (2.28 vs. 3.82; P = 0.001. Conclusions: The institutionalized children in this orphanage had a high prevalence of OMLs but low prevalence of dental caries, though they revealed poor oral hygiene practices. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health and oral health practices of children living in orphanages.

  12. Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis: a prospective, control-matched, cohort radiographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kern; Samartzis, Dino; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Nassr, Ahmad; Andersson, Gunnar B; Yoon, S Tim; Phillips, Frank M; Goldberg, Edward J; An, Howard S

    2005-01-01

    Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis manifests primarily after the sixth decade of life as a result of facet hypertrophy and degenerative disc disease. Congenital stenosis, on the other hand, presents earlier in age with similar clinical findings but with multilevel involvement and fewer degenerative changes. These patients may have subtle anatomic variations of the lumbar spine that may increase the likelihood of thecal sac compression. However, to the authors' knowledge, no quantitative studies have addressed various radiographic parameters of symptomatic, congenitally stenotic individuals to normal subjects. To radiographically quantify and compare the anatomy of the lumbar spine in symptomatic, congenitally stenotic individuals to age- and sex-matched, asymptomatic, nonstenotic controlled individuals. A prospective, control-matched, cohort radiographic analysis. Axial and sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and lateral, lumbar, plain radiographs of 20 surgically treated patients who were given a clinical diagnosis of congenital lumbar stenosis by the senior author were randomized with images of 20, asymptomatic age- and sex-matched subjects. MRIs and lateral, lumbar, plain radiographs were independently quantitatively assessed by two individuals. Measurements obtained from the axial MRIs included: midline anterior-posterior (AP) vertebral body diameter, vertebral body width, midline AP canal diameter, canal width, spinal canal cross-sectional area, pedicle length, and pedicle width. From the sagittal MRIs, the following measurements were calculated: AP vertebral body diameter, vertebral body height, and AP canal diameter at the mid-vertebral level. On the lateral, lumbar, plain radiograph (L3 level), the AP diameters of the vertebral body spinal canal were measured. The images of these 40 individuals were then randomized and distributed in a blinded fashion to five separate spine surgeons who graded the presence and severity of congenital stenosis

  13. Parent and child care provider partnerships: Protocol for the Healthy Me, Healthy We (HMHW) cluster randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennink-Kaminski, Heidi; Vaughn, Amber E; Hales, Derek; Moore, Reneé H; Luecking, Courtney T; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-01-01

    Formation of diet and physical activity habits begins during early childhood. However, many preschool-aged children in the United States do not achieve recommendations for a nutritious diet or active lifestyle. Two important spheres of influence, home and child care, could ensure that children receive consistent health messages. Innovative approaches that engage both parents and child care providers in a substantial way are needed. Social marketing, a promising approach for health promotion targeting children, uses principles that recognize the need to engage multiple stakeholders and to emphasize benefits and overcome barriers associated with behavior change. Yet, application of social marketing principles in interventions for preschool-age children is limited. Healthy Me, Healthy We (HMHW) is 2-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a 8-month social marketing campaign on the diet and physical activity behaviors of preschool children (3-4years old), their parents, and child care providers. The campaign is delivered by the child care center and includes branded classroom and at-home activities and materials. Primary outcomes are children's diet quality (assessed with Healthy Eating Index scores) and minutes of non-sedentary activity (measured via accelerometers). Secondary outcomes assess children's body mass index, nutrition and physical activity practices at the child care center and at home, and health behaviors of child care providers and parents. HMHW is an innovative approach to promoting healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children. The campaign targets children during a key developmental period and leverages a partnership between providers and parents to affect behavior change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely

    2014-02-01

    Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting high self-control, this study exploits situations of low self-control, by strategically using the tendency under these conditions to rely on heuristics (simple decision rules) as quick guides to action. More specifically, the authors associated healthy food products with the social proof heuristic (i.e., normative cues that convey majority endorsement for those products). One hundred seventy-seven students (119 men), with an average age of 20.47 years (SD = 2.25) participated in the experiment. This study used a 2 (low vs. high self-control) × 2 (social proof vs. no heuristic) × 2 (trade-off vs. control choice) design, with the latter as within-subjects factor. The dependent variable was the number of healthy food choices in a food-choice task. In line with previous studies, people made fewer healthy food choices under low self-control. However, this negative effect of low self-control on food choice was reversed when the healthy option was associated with the social proof heuristic. In that case, people made more healthy choices under conditions of low self-control. Low self-control may be even more beneficial for healthy food choices than high self-control in the presence of a heuristic. Exploiting situations of low self-control is a new and promising method to promote health on impulse. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Muscular Contraction Mode Differently Affects Autonomic Control During Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eWeippert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. Aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN and isometric contractions (ISO at a similar, low heart rate (HR level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively, rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a nonlinear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  16. Stability Analysis of Positive Polynomial Fuzzy-Model-Based Control Systems with Time Delay under Imperfect Premise Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaomiao; Lam, Hak Keung; Song, Ge; Liu, Fucai

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability and positivity analysis of polynomial-fuzzy-model-based ({PFMB}) control systems with time delay, which is formed by a polynomial fuzzy model and a polynomial fuzzy controller connected in a closed loop, under imperfect premise matching. To improve the design and realization flexibility, the polynomial fuzzy model and the polynomial fuzzy controller are allowed to have their own set of premise membership functions. A sum-of-squares (SOS)-based stability ana...

  17. Controllable frequency entanglement via auto-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, A.V.; Walton, Z.D.; Booth, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.; Teich, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A new method for generating entangled photons with controllable frequency correlation via spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) is presented. The method entails initiating counter-propagating SPDC in a single-mode nonlinear waveguide by pumping with a pulsed beam perpendicular to the waveguide. In a typical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) experiment, a photon from a monochromatic pump beam decays into two photons (often referred to as signal and idler) via interaction with a nonlinear optical crystal. While the signal and idler may be broadband individually, conservation of energy requires that the sum of their respective frequencies equals the single frequency of the monochromatic pump. This engenders frequency anti-correlation in the down-converted beams. Two developments in quantum information theory have renewed interest in the generalized states of frequency correlation. First, quantum information processes requiring the synchronized creation of multiple photon pairs have been devised, such as quantum teleportation. The requisite temporal control can be achieved by pumping the crystal with a brief pulse. The availability of pump photons of differing frequencies relaxes the strict frequency anti-correlation in the down-converted beams. Second, applications such as entanglement-enhanced clock synchronization and one-way auto-compensating quantum cryptography have been introduced that specifically require frequency correlation, as opposed to the usual frequency anticorrelation. Our method for obtaining controllable frequency entanglement entails initiating type-I SPDC (signal and idler identically polarized) in a single-mode nonlinear waveguide by pumping with a pulsed beam perpendicular to the waveguide. The down-converted photons emerge from opposite ends of the waveguide with a joint spectrum that can be varied from frequency anti-correlated to frequency correlated by adjusting the temporal and spatial characteristics of the

  18. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela P. Vasconcelos-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD, in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36, unaffected siblings (n=35, and healthy controls (n=44. Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST. A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21, unaffected siblings (n=14, and healthy controls (n=22 also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Results: Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35 than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p < 0.001 and siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001. Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008. Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p < 0.030 and in the number of correctly completed categories on WCST (p = 0.030. Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Conclusion: Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis on methotrexate treatment: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritsi, Despoina N; Coffin, Susan E; Argyri, Ioanna; Vartzelis, George; Spyridis, Nick; Tsolia, Maria N

    2017-01-01

    To describe the immunogenicity and side effects of immunisation against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in JIA patients on methotrexate treatment, who have not been previously exposed to HAV. Case-control study performed in JIA patients and healthy controls matched on age and gender. The subjects received two doses of inactivated anti-HAV vaccine (720 mIU/ml) intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Seroconversion, seroprotection rates and anti-HAV-IgG titres were measured at 1, 7 and 18 months. Children were monitored for adverse events. 83 JIA patients and 76 controls were enrolled in the study. At one month, seroprotection rates were lower in children with, as compared to those without JIA (48.2% vs. 65%; p=0.05). At 7 and 18 months, rates of seroprotection rose significantly and were similar in both groups. The titre of anti-HAV-IgG was lower in children with JIA than healthy children at all time points (pVaccines were well tolerated. Two doses of inactivated HAV vaccine were well tolerated and immunogenic in most immunosuppressed children with JIA; however, a single dose of HAV vaccine was insufficient to induce seroprotection in half of the patients. Further studies are required to analyse the long-term immunity against HAV in this population and optimal HAV immunisation regimen.

  20. P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) event-related potentials (ERPs): People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) vs. age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCane, Lynn M; Heckman, Susan M; McFarland, Dennis J; Townsend, George; Mak, Joseph N; Sellers, Eric W; Zeitlin, Debra; Tenteromano, Laura M; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Vaughan, Theresa M

    2015-11-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aimed at restoring communication to people with severe neuromuscular disabilities often use event-related potentials (ERPs) in scalp-recorded EEG activity. Up to the present, most research and development in this area has been done in the laboratory with young healthy control subjects. In order to facilitate the development of BCI most useful to people with disabilities, the present study set out to: (1) determine whether people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy, age-matched volunteers (HVs) differ in the speed and accuracy of their ERP-based BCI use; (2) compare the ERP characteristics of these two groups; and (3) identify ERP-related factors that might enable improvement in BCI performance for people with disabilities. Sixteen EEG channels were recorded while people with ALS or healthy age-matched volunteers (HVs) used a P300-based BCI. The subjects with ALS had little or no remaining useful motor control (mean ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised 9.4 (±9.5SD) (range 0-25)). Each subject attended to a target item as the items in a 6×6 visual matrix flashed. The BCI used a stepwise linear discriminant function (SWLDA) to determine the item the user wished to select (i.e., the target item). Offline analyses assessed the latencies, amplitudes, and locations of ERPs to the target and non-target items for people with ALS and age-matched control subjects. BCI accuracy and communication rate did not differ significantly between ALS users and HVs. Although ERP morphology was similar for the two groups, their target ERPs differed significantly in the location and amplitude of the late positivity (P300), the amplitude of the early negativity (N200), and the latency of the late negativity (LN). The differences in target ERP components between people with ALS and age-matched HVs are consistent with the growing recognition that ALS may affect cortical function. The development of BCIs for use by this population may begin

  1. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  2. Influence of the snubbers and matching transformer on an optimal trajectory controlled resonant transistor DC/DC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankov Dimitrov Nikolay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines a series resonant DC/DC optimal trajectory controlled converter during operation above resonant frequency, taking into account the influence of the snubbers and matching transformer. We obtain expressions for the load characteristics, boundary curves between possible modes and limits of the soft commutation area. Computer simulation and experimental observation confirm the theoretical results.

  3. Clinical implications of gait analysis in the rehabilitation of adult patients with "Prader-Willi" Syndrome: a cross-sectional comparative study ("Prader-Willi" Syndrome vs matched obese patients and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccalaro Gabriele

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being severely overweight is a distinctive clinical feature of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS. PWS is a complex multisystem disorder, representing the most common form of genetic obesity. The aim of this study was the analysis of the gait pattern of adult subjects with PWS by using three-Dimensional Gait Analysis. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of obese patients and in a group of healthy subjects. Methods Cross-sectional, comparative study: 19 patients with PWS (11 males and 8 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 29.3–50.3 kg/m2; 14 obese matched patients (5 males and 9 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 34.3–45.2 kg/m2; 20 healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age: 21–41 years, BMI: 19.3–25.4 kg/m2. Kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking were assessed by an optoelectronic system and two force platforms. Results PWS adult patients walked slower, had a shorter stride length, a lower cadence and a longer stance phase compared with both matched obese, and healthy subjects. Obese matched patients showed spatio-temporal parameters significantly different from healthy subjects. Furthermore, Range Of Motion (ROM at knee and ankle, and plantaflexor activity of PWS patients were significantly different between obese and healthy subjects. Obese subjects revealed kinematic and kinetic data similar to healthy subjects. Conclusion PWS subjects had a gait pattern significantly different from obese patients. Despite that, both groups had a similar BMI. We suggest that PWS gait abnormalities may be related to abnormalities in the development of motor skills in childhood, due to precocious obesity. A tailored rehabilitation program in early childhood of PWS patients could prevent gait pattern changes.

  4. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  5. Propensity score matching for selection of local areas as controls for evaluation of effects of alcohol policies in case series and quasi case-control designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Campbell, R; Brennan, A; Mooney, J; Angus, C; Hickman, M

    2016-03-01

    Area-level public health interventions can be difficult to evaluate using natural experiments. We describe the use of propensity score matching (PSM) to select control local authority areas (LAU) to evaluate the public health impact of alcohol policies for (1) prospective evaluation of alcohol policies using area-level data, and (2) a novel two-stage quasi case-control design. Ecological. Alcohol-related indicator data (Local Alcohol Profiles for England, PHE Health Profiles and ONS data) were linked at LAU level. Six LAUs (Blackpool, Bradford, Bristol, Ipswich, Islington, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne) as sample intervention or case areas were matched to two control LAUs each using PSM. For the quasi case-control study a second stage was added aimed at obtaining maximum contrast in outcomes based on propensity scores. Matching was evaluated based on average standardized absolute mean differences (ASAM) and variable-specific P-values after matching. The six LAUs were matched to suitable control areas (with ASAM 0.05 indicating good matching) for a prospective evaluation study that sought areas that were similar at baseline in order to assess whether a change in intervention exposure led to a change in the outcome (alcohol related harm). PSM also generated appropriate matches for a quasi case-control study--whereby the contrast in health outcomes between cases and control areas needed to be optimized in order to assess retrospectively whether differences in intervention exposure were associated with the outcome. The use of PSM for area-level alcohol policy evaluation, but also for other public health interventions, will improve the value of these evaluations by objective and quantitative selection of the most appropriate control areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Upper spine morphology in hypophosphatemic rickets and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe upper spine morphology in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls to assess differences in spine morphology in terms of severity of skeletal impact and to study associations between spine morphology...

  7. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene I/D Polymorphism in Pakistani Rheumatic Heart Disease Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rehman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valve scarring and collagen deposition are crucial in pathogenesis of Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD, an autoimmune disorder of the heart. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE plays a major role in fibrous tissue formation. Objectives: The present research work aimed to assess the role of ACE Insertion/Deletion (I/D polymorphism in progress of RHD. Patients and Methods: DNA was pre pared from blood samples from 156 RHD patients (156 and 204 healthy ethnically-matched controls. Then, it was screened using sequence-specific Primers. Polymerase chain reaction and Agarose gel electrophoresis. The data were analyzed using Vassar stats (http://faculty.vassar.edu/lowry/VassarStats.html. Results: I allele (P = 0.024, OR = 1.42 and II genotype (P = 0.001, OR = 3.07 were significantly higher in Pakistani RHD patients compared to the healthy controls. Also, a significant difference was found between the female, but not male, patients and the controls regarding I allele and II genotype. Conclusions: The study results provided information about involvement of ACE I/D polymorphism in molecular mechanism of RHD. Thus, it can become one of the useful tools in risk assessment and help with designing strategies to combat the disease.

  8. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  9. Longitudinal CSF biomarkers in patients with early Parkinson disease and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Brit; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea J; Coffey, Christopher S; Taylor, Peggy; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Singleton, Andy; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Galasko, Douglas

    2017-11-07

    To analyze longitudinal levels of CSF biomarkers in drug-naive patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and healthy controls (HC), examine the extent to which these biomarker changes relate to clinical measures of PD, and identify what may influence them. CSF α-synuclein (α-syn), total and phosphorylated tau (t- and p-tau), and β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42) were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months in 173 patients with PD and 112 matched HC in the international multicenter Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative. Baseline clinical and demographic variables, PD medications, neuroimaging, and genetic variables were evaluated as potential predictors of CSF biomarker changes. CSF biomarkers were stable over 6 and 12 months, and there was a small but significant increase in CSF Aβ42 in both patients with patients with PD and HC from baseline to 12 months. The t-tau remained stable. The p-tau increased marginally more in patients with PD than in HC. α-syn remained relatively stable in patients with PD and HC. Ratios of p-tau/t-tau increased, while t-tau/Aβ42 decreased over 12 months in patients with PD. CSF biomarker changes did not correlate with changes in Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores or dopamine imaging. CSF α-syn levels at 12 months were lower in patients with PD treated with dopamine replacement therapy, especially dopamine agonists. These core CSF biomarkers remained stable over 6 and 12 months in patients with early PD and HC. PD medication use may influence CSF α-syn. Novel biomarkers are needed to better profile progressive neurodegeneration in PD. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Relationship between control beliefs, strategy use, and memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Rachel L; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Clare, Linda; Ames, David; Saling, Michael M; Storey, Elsdon; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Parsons, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    Little information is available regarding the extent of strategy use and factors that affect strategy use in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). This study aimed to compare spontaneous strategy use and beliefs about the controllability of memory between aMCI and healthy older adult (HOA) samples and to explore the relationships between beliefs, strategy use, and memory performance for both groups. The aMCI and HOA groups each composed of 60 individuals matched for age and education. The Memory Controllability Inventory was used to assess control beliefs, and the extent of semantic clustering on a list-learning task provided a measure of spontaneous strategy use. The aMCI group endorsed lower control beliefs and demonstrated poorer semantic clustering and memory performance compared with the HOA group. Although strategy use partially mediated the control beliefs-memory performance relationship for the HOA group, this was not replicated for the aMCI group. Despite the weak relationship between control beliefs and strategy use, and control beliefs and memory performance for the aMCI group, the strong relationship between strategy use and memory performance provides impetus for further research into factors that can be used as a means of enhancing strategy use in interventions for aMCI.

  11. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element...... and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides....

  12. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The follicular skin microbiome in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Thorsen, Jonathan; Saunte, Ditte M.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Although the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) remains enigmatic, several factors point to potential involvement of the cutaneous microbiome. Insight into the cutaneous microbiome in HS using next-generation sequencing may provide novel data on the microbiological diversity...... of the skin.  OBJECTIVE: To investigate the follicular skin microbiome in patients with HS and in healthy controls.  DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This case-control study obtained punch biopsy specimens from patients with HS (lesional and nonlesional) and healthy controls between October 1, 2014....... Biopsy specimens from healthy controls were obtained from the axilla only.  MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The different microbiomes were investigated using next-generation sequencing targeting 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA.  RESULTS: The skin microbiome was characterized in 30 patients with HS (mean [SD] age...

  14. iPad-assisted measurements of duration estimation in psychiatric patients and healthy control subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Preuschoff

    Full Text Available Handheld devices with touchscreen controls have become widespread in the general population. In this study, we examined the duration estimates (explicit timing made by patients in a major general hospital and healthy control subjects using a custom iPad application. We methodically assessed duration estimates using this novel device. We found that both psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients significantly overestimated time periods compared with healthy control subjects, who estimated elapsed time very precisely. The use of touchscreen-based methodologies can provide valuable information about patients.

  15. Emotional intelligence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Katrin; Driessen, Martin; Behnia, Behnoush; Wingenfeld, Katja; Roepke, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Emotional intelligence as a part of social cognition has, to our knowledge, never been investigated in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), though the disorder is characterized by aspects of emotional dysfunctioning. PTSD often occurs with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as a common comorbidity. Studies about social cognition and emotional intelligence in patients with BPD propose aberrant social cognition, but produced inconsistent results regarding emotional intelligence. The present study aims to assess emotional intelligence in patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, PTSD with comorbid BPD, and BPD patients without comorbid PTSD, as well as in healthy controls. 71 patients with PTSD (41 patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD, 30 patients with PTSD with comorbid BPD), 56 patients with BPD without PTSD, and 63 healthy controls filled in the Test of Emotional Intelligence (TEMINT). Patients with PTSD without comorbid BPD showed impairments in emotional intelligence compared to patients with BPD without PTSD, and compared to healthy controls. These impairments were not restricted to specific emotions. Patients with BPD did not differ significantly from healthy controls. This study provides evidence for an impaired emotional intelligence in PTSD without comorbid BPD compared to BPD and healthy controls, affecting a wide range of emotions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gratitude mediates quality of life differences between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Sirois, Fuschia; Hirsch, Jameson; Weber, Annemarie; Vajda, Christian; Schelling, Jorg; Kohls, Niko; Offenbacher, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Despite a growing literature on the benefits of gratitude for adjustment to chronic illness, little is known about gratitude in medical populations compared to healthy populations, or the degree to which potential deficits in gratitude might impact quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to (1) examine levels of gratitude and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and (2) consider the role of gratitude in explaining quality of life differences between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Participants were 173 fibromyalgia patients and 81 healthy controls. All participants completed measures of gratitude, quality of life, and socio-demographics. Although gratitude was positively associated with quality of life, levels of gratitude and quality of life were lower in the fibromyalgia sample relative to the healthy controls. This difference in gratitude partially mediated differences in quality of life between the two groups after controlling for socio-demographic variables. Our findings suggest that gratitude is a valuable positive psychological trait for quality of life in people with fibromyalgia. Interventions to improve gratitude in this patient population may also bring enhancement in quality of life.

  17. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, M.; Brinkman, S.A.; Beatty, A.; Maika, A.; Satriawan, E.; de Ree, J.; Hasan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program

  18. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, M.P.; Brinkman, S.A.; Beatty, A.; Maika, A.; Satriawan, E.; de Ree, J.; Hasan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program

  19. Modafinil and cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia and healthy volunteers: the effects of test battery in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J; Michalopoulou, P G; Lewis, S W; Preston, S; Bamford, C; Collier, T; Kalpakidou, A; Wykes, T; Emsley, R; Pandina, G; Kapur, S; Drake, R J

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have major functional impacts. Modafinil is a cognitive enhancer whose effect in healthy volunteers is well-described, but whose effects on the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia appear to be inconsistent. Two possible reasons for this are that cognitive test batteries vary in their sensitivity, or that the phase of illness may be important, with patients early in their illness responding better. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled single-dose crossover study of modafinil 200 mg examined this with two cognitive batteries [MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)] in 46 participants with under 3 years' duration of DSM-IV schizophrenia, on stable antipsychotic medication. In parallel, the same design was used in 28 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers. Uncorrected p values were calculated using mixed effects models. In patients, modafinil significantly improved CANTAB Paired Associate Learning, non-significantly improved efficiency and significantly slowed performance of the CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge spatial planning task. There was no significant effect on any MCCB domain. In healthy volunteers, modafinil significantly increased CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing, Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shifting and verbal recall accuracy, and MCCB social cognition performance. The only significant differences between groups were in MCCB visual learning. As in earlier chronic schizophrenia studies, modafinil failed to produce changes in cognition in early psychosis as measured by MCCB. CANTAB proved more sensitive to the effects of modafinil in participants with early schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. This confirms the importance of selecting the appropriate test battery in treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia.

  20. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C; Tossici-Bolt, Livia

    2013-01-01

    of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls....

  1. Health on Impulse : When Low Self-Control Promotes Healthy Food Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; de Vet, E.

    Objective: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting

  2. Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting

  3. Quasi-phase matching and quantum control of high harmonic generation in waveguides using counterpropagating beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L.; Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2010-11-09

    All-optical quasi-phase matching (QPM) uses a train of counterpropagating pulses to enhance high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a hollow waveguide. A pump pulse enters one end of the waveguide, and causes HHG in the waveguide. The counterpropagation pulses enter the other end of the waveguide and interact with the pump pulses to cause QPM within the waveguide, enhancing the HHG.

  4. The effect of obesity on inflammatory markers in patients with PCOS: a BMI-matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin Kurt, Raziye; Okyay, Ayşe Güler; Hakverdi, Ali Ulvi; Gungoren, Arif; Dolapcioglu, Kenan Serdar; Karateke, Atilla; Dogan, Mustafa Ozcil

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have shown increased inflammatory activity in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); however, it remains uncertain whether this increased inflammatory activity is a consequence of the disorder itself or of the accompanying obesity. We therefore aimed to test the inflammatory marker levels in obese and lean patients with PCOS by using two separate control groups with matching body mass index (BMI). A total of 120 women in reproductive age with (n = 62) and without (n = 60) PCOS were recruited for the study. Patients with PCOS were divided into two groups as obese (n = 32) and lean (n = 30) PCOS groups according to BMI. Two BMI-matched control groups were created. Furthermore, high sensitive CRP protein (hsCRP), neutrophils, lymphocytes, white blood cell count (WBC) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were evaluated with complete blood count. The hsCRP (5.5 ± 0.8 vs. 3.1 ± 0.7, p PCOS compared to the control group while lymphocyte count was lower (1.71 ± 0.65 vs. 1.98 ± 0.39, p = 0.008). Similarly, both obese and lean patients with PCOS had higher levels of hsCRP, neutrophils, leukocytes and NLR ratios compared to BMI-matched controls. The correlation analysis revealed a moderate correlation between NLR and hsCRP (r 0.459, p lean and obese patients with PCOS have increased inflammatory markers compared to BMI-matched control groups indicating that the inflammation seen in PCOS might be related with the presence of the disorder rather than with obesity.

  5. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  6. EEG spectral coherence data distinguish chronic fatigue syndrome patients from healthy controls and depressed patients--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Frank H; McAnulty, Gloria B; McCreary, Michelle C; Cuchural, George J; Komaroff, Anthony L

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies suggest central nervous system involvement in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet there are no established diagnostic criteria. CFS may be difficult to differentiate from clinical depression. The study's objective was to determine if spectral coherence, a computational derivative of spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), could distinguish patients with CFS from healthy control subjects and not erroneously classify depressed patients as having CFS. This is a study, conducted in an academic medical center electroencephalography laboratory, of 632 subjects: 390 healthy normal controls, 70 patients with carefully defined CFS, 24 with major depression, and 148 with general fatigue. Aside from fatigue, all patients were medically healthy by history and examination. EEGs were obtained and spectral coherences calculated after extensive artifact removal. Principal Components Analysis identified coherence factors and corresponding factor loading patterns. Discriminant analysis determined whether spectral coherence factors could reliably discriminate CFS patients from healthy control subjects without misclassifying depression as CFS. Analysis of EEG coherence data from a large sample (n = 632) of patients and healthy controls identified 40 factors explaining 55.6% total variance. Factors showed highly significant group differentiation (p EEG spectral coherence analysis identified unmedicated patients with CFS and healthy control subjects without misclassifying depressed patients as CFS, providing evidence that CFS patients demonstrate brain physiology that is not observed in healthy normals or patients with major depression. Studies of new CFS patients and comparison groups are required to determine the possible clinical utility of this test. The results concur with other studies finding neurological abnormalities in CFS, and implicate temporal lobe involvement in CFS pathophysiology.

  7. Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Konstans; Brook, Barry W.; Lacy, Robert C.; Mutze, Greg J.; Peacock, David E.; Sinclair, Ron G.; Schwensow, Nina; Cassey, Phillip; O'Hara, Robert B.; Fordham, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases can exert a strong influence on the dynamics of host populations, but it remains unclear why such disease-mediated control only occurs under particular environmental conditions. We used 16 years of detailed field data on invasive European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia, linked to individual-based stochastic models and Bayesian approximations, to test whether (i) mortality associated with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is driven primarily by seasonal matche...

  8. MANTEL-HAENSZEL TYPE ESTIMATORS FOR THE COUNTER-MATCHED SAMPLING DESIGN IN NESTED CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Yoshinori; Zhang, Zhong-Zhan; 藤井, 良宜

    2001-01-01

    We are concerned with a counter-matched nested case-control study. Assuming the proportional hazards model, the Mantel-Haenszel estimators of hazard rates are presented in two situations. The proposed estimators can be calculated without estimating the nuisance parameter. Consistent estimators of the variance of the proposed hazard rate estimators are also developed. We compare these estimators to the maximum partial likelihood estimators in the asymptotic variance. The methods are illustrate...

  9. Hormonal, functional and genetic biomarkers in controlled ovarian stimulation: tools for matching patients and protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviggi, Carlo; Humaidan, Peter; Ezcurra, Diego

    2012-01-01

    single patient characteristics. These could potentially be used to match patients with the right treatment options to optimise efficacy, safety and tolerability during COS. Currently, age and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level remain the most commonly used single patient characteristics in clinical...... practice. These variables only provide a basic prognosis for success and indications for standard COS treatment based on gross patient categorisation. In contrast, the anti-Müllerian hormone level appears to be an accurate predictor of ovarian reserve and response to COS, and could be used successfully...

  10. Impact of psoriasis on patients' work and productivity: a retrospective, matched case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Mills, Douglas; Bala, Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis negatively impacts patient quality of life; however, the impact on work and productivity is not well known. To determine the impact of psoriasis on work and productivity using data from the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS). Data collected from 40 730 adults who completed the NHWS between 1 May and 30 June 2004, of whom 1127 had psoriasis, were analyzed. Psoriasis patients and a matched cohort of non-psoriasis patients were identified to assess the impact of psoriasis on work and productivity. Psoriasis patients were more likely to have missed work for health-related reasons (p work productivity impairment (p work impairment (p work (p work productivity.

  11. Can We Achieve Intuitive Prosthetic Elbow Control Based on Healthy Upper Limb Motor Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manelle Merad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals

  12. Social Norms and Financial Incentives to Promote Employees’ Healthy Food Choices: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Levy, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Population-level strategies to improve healthy food choices are needed for obesity prevention. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2,672 employees at Massachusetts General Hospital who were regular customers of the hospital cafeteria with all items labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy), or red (unhealthy) to determine if social norm (peer-comparison) feedback with or without financial incentives increased employees’ healthy food choices. Participants were randomized in 2012 to three arms: 1) monthly letter with social norm feedback about healthy food purchases, comparing employee to “all” and to “healthiest” customers (feedback-only); 2) monthly letter with social norm feedback plus small financial incentive for increasing green purchases (feedback-incentive); or 3) no contact (control). The main outcome was change in proportion of green-labeled purchases at end of 3-month intervention. Post-hoc analyses examined linear trends. At baseline, the proportion of green-labeled purchases (50%) did not differ between arms. At end of the 3-month intervention, the percentage increase in green-labeled purchases was larger in the feedback-incentive arm compared to control (2.2% vs. 0.1%, P=0.03), but the two intervention arms were not different. The rate of increase in green-labeled purchases was higher in both feedback-only (P=0.04) and feedback-incentive arms (P=0.004) compared to control. At end of a 3-month wash-out, there were no differences between control and intervention arms. Social norms plus small financial incentives increased employees’ healthy food choices over the short-term. Future research will be needed to assess the impact of this relatively low-cost intervention on employees’ food choices and weight over the long-term. Trial Registration: Clinical Trials.gov NCT01604499 PMID:26827617

  13. A Comparative Evaluation of Gait between Children with Autism and Typically Developing Matched Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet S. Dufek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports suggest children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD ambulate differently than peers with typical development (TD. Little empirical evidence supports these reports. Children with ASD exhibit delayed motor skills, and it is important to determine whether or not motor movement deficits exist during walking. The purpose of the study was to perform a comprehensive lower-extremity gait analysis between children (aged 5–12 years with ASD and age- and gender-matched-samples with TD. Gait parameters were normalized to 101 data points and the gait cycle was divided into seven sub-phases. The Model Statistic procedure was used to test for statistical significance between matched-pairs throughout the entire gait cycle for each parameter. When collapsed across all participants, children with ASD exhibited large numbers of significant differences (p < 0.05 throughout the gait cycle in hip, knee, and ankle joint positions as well as vertical and anterior/posterior ground reaction forces. Children with ASD exhibited unique differences throughout the gait cycle, which supports current literature on the heterogeneity of the disorder. The present work supports recent findings that motor movement differences may be a core symptom of ASD. Thus, individuals may benefit from therapeutic movement interventions that follow precision medicine guidelines by accounting for individual characteristics, given the unique movement differences observed.

  14. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela [University of Tuebingen, Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center for Neurodegenerative Disease (DZNE), Tuebingen (Germany); Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  15. Risk factors for fatality among confirmed adult dengue inpatients in Singapore: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Linn Thein

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify demographic, clinical and laboratory risk factors for death due to dengue fever in adult patients in Singapore. METHODS: Multi-center retrospective study of hospitalized adult patients with confirmed dengue fever in Singapore between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008. Non-fatal controls were selected by matching age and year of infection with fatal cases. World Health Organization 1997, 2009 criteria were applied to define dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, warning signs and severe dengue. Statistical significance was assessed by conditional logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: Significantly more fatal cases than matched controls had pre-existing co-morbid conditions, and presented with abdominal pain/tenderness. Median pulse rates were significantly higher while myalgia was significantly less frequent in cases. . Fatal cases also had higher leucocyte counts, platelet counts, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatine and bilirubin levels on admission compared to controls. There was no statistical significant difference between the prevalence of DHF and hematocrit level among cases and controls. Multivariate analysis showed myalgia and leucocyte count at presentation were independent predictors of fatality (adjusted odds ratios 0.09 and 2.94 respectively. None of the controls was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU or given blood transfusion, while 71.4% and 28.6% of fatal cases received ICU admission and blood transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Absence of myalgia and leucocytosis on admission were independently associated with fatality in our matched case-control study. Fatalities were also commonly associated with co-morbidities and clinicians should be alarmed if dengue patients fulfilled severe dengue case definition on admission.

  16. SEMTAP (Serpentine End Match TApe program): The Easy Way to Program Your Numerically Controlled Router for the Production of SEM Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. Coleman

    1977-01-01

    SEMTAP (Serpentine End Match TApe Program) is an easy and inexpensive method of programing a numerically controlled router for the manufacture of SEM (Serpentine End Matching) joints. The SEMTAP computer program allows the user to issue commands that will accurately direct a numerically controlled router along any SEM path. The user need not be a computer programer to...

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among lung cancer-free smokers: The importance of healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Michelle D; Eldridge, Ronald; Follis, Jack L; Etzel, Carol J; Shete, Sanjay; El-Zein, Randa A

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers enrolled as "healthy" controls in studies is 10-50%. The COPD status of ideal smoker populations for lung cancer case-control studies should be checked via spirometry; however, this is often not feasible, because no medical indications exist for asymptomatic smokers to undergo spirometry prior to study enrollment. Therefore, there is an unmet need for robust, cost effective assays for identifying undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. Such assays would help excluding unhealthy smokers from lung cancer case-control studies. We used the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay (a measure of genetic instability) to identify undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. We used a convenience population from an on-going lung cancer case-control study including smokers with lung cancer (n = 454), smoker controls (n = 797), and a self-reported COPD (n = 200) contingent within the smoker controls. Significant differences for all CBMN endpoints were observed when comparing lung cancer to All controls (which included COPD) and Healthy controls (with no COPD). The risk ratio (RR) was increased in the COPD group vs. Healthy controls for nuclear buds (RR 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.62), and marginally increased for micronuclei (RR 1.06, 0.98-1.89) and nucleoplasmic bridges (RR 1.07, 0.97-1.15). These findings highlight the importance of using truly healthy controls in studies geared toward assessment of lung cancer risk. Using genetic instability biomarkers would facilitate the identification of smokers susceptible to tobacco smoke carcinogens and therefore predisposed to either disease. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Flexibility of Knee Joint Muscles in Women with Knee Osteoarthritis and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abolahrari Shirazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in synovial joints. Due to high loading forces during weight-bearing activities, the knee joint is prone to degenerative processes. This study aimed to compare the flexibility of muscles around the knee joint in patients with knee osteoarthritis with those of healthy individuals. Methods: Twenty-three women with bilateral knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy women matched with the patient group for age, height and weight participated in this study. Flexibility of the quadriceps, hamstring, iliotibial band, adductor and gastrocnemius muscles was evaluated with a goniometric device. Pain intensity was assessed with a visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests to compare the two groups, and Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate muscle flexibility and pain intensity. Results: significant lower flexibility of the bilateral quadriceps muscles was found in patients compared to healthy women (P<0.05. No significant differences were detected between groups regarding other muscles. Quadriceps flexibility correlated significantly with pain intensity in patients (P<0.001. Conclusion: In patients with osteoarthritis, quadriceps flexibility may be decreased although other muscles may remain unaffected. Quadriceps stretching is thus a potentially important component of treatment, which may influence pain reduction in these patients.

  19. Correlation between prostate brachytherapy-related urethral stricture and peri-apical urethral dosimetry: A matched case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earley, James J.; Abdelbaky, Ather M.; Cunningham, Melanie J.; Chadwick, Eliot; Langley, Stephen E.M.; Laing, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiation dose to the bulbomembranous urethra has been shown to correlate with urethral stricture formation. This retrospective case–control study was designed to explore the relationship between dose to the apical/peri-apical regions of the urethra and development of brachytherapy (BXT)-related urethral stricture. Materials and methods: Cases were patients who developed urethral stricture after treatment with BXT as monotherapy and who had urethral dosimetry post-implant. Each case was matched with a control that had not developed urethral stricture. Dosimetry was compared between cases and controls. Results: Twenty-three cases were pair matched with 23 controls. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, presenting Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) or Gleason score. The dose delivered to the peri-apical and apical urethra was significantly higher for cases when compared with controls (peri-apical urethra: mean V 150 1.1 Vs 0.8 cc [p = 0.02]; apical urethra: mean dose 200 Vs 174 Gy [p = 0.01]). The distance from the prostate apex to isodose lines was also found to be significant in predicting stricture formation. Conclusion: There was evidence to suggest that the development of BXT-related stricture was associated with radiation dose at the apical and peri-apical urethra. Attention to the dose delivered to those areas may minimise the risk of developing such morbidity.

  20. Refractive index and solubility control of para-cymene solutions for index-matched fluid-structure interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Charles; Fu, Christopher D.; Weichselbaum, Noah A.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2015-12-01

    To deploy optical diagnostics such as particle image velocimetry or planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in complex geometries, it is beneficial to use index-matched facilities. A binary mixture of para-cymene and cinnamaldehyde provides a viable option for matching the refractive index of acrylic, a common material for scaled models and test sections. This fluid is particularly appropriate for large-scale facilities and when a low-density and low-viscosity fluid is sought, such as in fluid-structure interaction studies. This binary solution has relatively low kinematic viscosity and density; its use enables the experimentalist to select operating temperature and to increase fluorescence signal in PLIF experiments. Measurements of spectral and temperature dependence of refractive index, density, and kinematic viscosity are reported. The effect of the binary mixture on solubility control of Rhodamine 6G is also characterized.

  1. Differences in Nutritional Status Between Very Mild Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Verhey, F. R.; Sijben, J.W.C.; Bouwman, F.H.; Dautzenberg, P.L.J.; Lansink, M.; Sipers, W.M.W.; van Asselt, D.Z.B.; van Hees, A.M.J.; Stevens, M.; Vellas, B.; Scheltens, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies on the systemic availability of nutrients and nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widely available, but the majority included patients in a moderate stage of AD. Objective: This study compares the nutritional status between mild AD outpatients and healthy controls.

  2. Vitamin D and Testosterone in Healthy Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Pilz, Stefan; Trummer, Christian; Schwetz, Verena; Pachernegg, Oliver; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Available evidence shows an association of vitamin D with androgen levels in men. However, results from preliminary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. To evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation increases total testosterone (TT) levels in healthy men. The Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT is

  3. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  4. Health Locus of Control in Indonesian Women with Breast Cancer: a Comparison with Healthy Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskandarsyah, A.; de Klerk, C.; Suardi, D.R.; Sadarjoen, S.S.; Passchier, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Indonesian women with breast cancer havea higher external health locus of control (HLC) than healthy women, and to explore the association between HLC and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In this study, 120 consecutive women with breast cancer were

  5. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  6. Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Hairston, Ilana S; Arnedt, J Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of the disorder. Although the mechanisms of sleep disturbances of AD are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD versus healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. The authors assessed 52 AD participants (mean ± SD age: 36.0 ± 11.0 yrs of age, 10 women) who were 3-12 wks since their last drink (abstinence: 57.9 ± 19.3 d) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (34.4 ± 10.6 yrs, 5 women). Following a 23:00-06:00 h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 d and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-h extension of wakefulness (02:00 h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30 min beginning at 19:30 h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. There was a slower rate of rise and lower maximal amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the AD group. DLMO varied by the method used to derive it. Using 3 pg/mL as threshold, no significant differences were found between the AD and HC groups. Using 2 standard deviations above the mean of the first three samples, the DLMO in AD occurred significantly later, 21:02 ± 00:41 h, than in HC, 20:44 ± 00:21 h (t = -2.4, p = .02). Although melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess the salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO found to be significantly delayed by a mean 18 min in AD participants. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats.

  7. Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy findings in a population with connective tissue disease and in normal healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Y; Elvins, D M; Ring, E F; McHugh, N J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and quantify the morphological characteristics of nailfold capillaries that distinguish different forms of connective tissue disease from healthy controls. METHODS: A CCD video microscope with fibreoptic illumination and PC based image processing was used to visualise nailfold capillaries and to quantify findings in 23 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), and 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Capillary density was reduced in SSc (5.2 (SD 1.3) capillaries/mm) compared with other patient groups and controls. The average number of enlarged capillaries/finger was high in all disease groups (5.5-6.6) compared with controls (2). However, giant capillaries were most frequent in SSc (43%) and were not present in controls. Mild and moderate avascular areas were present in all groups (35%-68%), but severe avascularity was most frequent in SSc (44%) compared with other patients (18%-19%) and controls (0%). The greatest frequency of extensive haemorrhage was in SSc (35%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a range of abnormal capillary findings in patients with connective tissue disease and healthy controls. However, certain abnormalities such as a reduced number of capillaries, severe avascularity, giant capillaries, and haemorrhage are most commonly associated with SSc. Videomicroscopy with image processing offers many technical advantages that can be exploited in further studies of nailfold capillaries. Images PMID:8774177

  8. The Hunger Games: Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tracy T L; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2017-09-01

    The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless, through two studies the current research aims to demonstrate that hungry consumers would not always be disadvantaged when encountering a self-control conflict involving a trade-off choice between a healthy vs. a more palatable but unhealthy choice. Particularly we posit that the choice outcome of the self-control conflict is dependent on contextual cues, such that hungry consumers with the tendency to make fast decisions could benefit from following a social proof heuristic promoting the healthy options. In Study 1, we indeed observed participants' self-reported hunger to be negatively associated with state self-control, but as most participants generally experienced low levels of hunger we did not observe apparent effects of hunger on food choice (DV), and correspondingly the potential influence of the social proof heuristic in moderating the choice outcome. However, in Study 2 where hunger was manipulated, we found hungry participants making significantly less healthy choices than satiated participants, but a social proof heuristic mitigated this effect (i.e., in the presence of social proof heuristic hungry participants made just as many healthy food choices as satiated participants; and hungry participants made more healthy choices in the social proof condition than in the no heuristic condition). These findings support our approach of providing contextual cues in the environment in order to work with, rather than against, the impulsivity triggered by hunger to promote successful self-control behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma oxytocin concentrations are lower in depressed vs. healthy control women and are independent of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kaeli W; Garner, Joseph P; Carson, Dean S; Keller, Jennifer; Lembke, Anna; Hyde, Shellie A; Kenna, Heather A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Schatzberg, Alan F; Parker, Karen J

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) promotes social behavior and attenuates stress responsivity in mammals. Recent clinical evidence suggests OT concentrations may be dysregulated in major depression. This study extends previous research by testing whether: 1) OT concentrations vary systematically in depressive disorders with and without hypercortisolemia, 2) gender differences in OT concentrations are observed in depressed vs. healthy control participants, and 3) OT concentrations are predictive of clinical phenotypes. Plasma OT concentrations of psychotic major depressive (PMD; n = 14: 10 female, 4 male), non-psychotic major depressive (NPMD; n = 17: 12 female, 5 male), and non-depressed, healthy control (n = 19: 11 female, 8 male) participants were assayed at 2000, 2400, 0400, and 0800 h. Plasma cortisol concentrations were quantified at 2300 h, and clinical phenotypes were determined. As expected, PMD participants, compared to NPMD and healthy control participants, showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations. Although both depressed groups showed similar OT concentrations, a significant interaction effect between group and gender was observed. Specifically, depressed females exhibited lower mean OT concentrations than depressed males. Further, depressed vs. healthy control female participants exhibited lower mean OT concentrations, whereas depressed vs. healthy control male participants showed a trend in the opposite direction. OT concentrations were also predictive of desirability, drug dependence, and compulsivity scores as measured by the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. All findings were independent of cortisol. These data suggest that OT signaling may provide a mechanism by which to better understand female-biased risk to develop depressive disorders and that plasma OT concentrations may be a useful biomarker of certain clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Understanding Price Controls and Non-Price Competition with Matching Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hatfield, John William; Plott, Charles R.; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2012-01-01

    We develop a quality competition model to understand how price controls affect market outcomes in buyer-seller markets with discrete goods of varying quality. While competitive equilibria do not necessarily exist in such markets when price controls are imposed, we show that stable outcomes do exist and characterize the set of stable outcomes in the presence of price restrictions. In particular, we show that price controls induce non-price competition: price floors induce the trade of ineffici...

  11. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Conclusion PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis. PMID:24278649

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in Crohn's disease and healthy controls: a prospective case-control study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruyn, Jessica R.; van Heeckeren, Rosanne; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Löwenberg, Mark; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Frijstein, Gerard; D'Haens, Geert R.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been observed in a wide range of medical conditions including Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to assess whether CD patients have lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls, and to determine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. 25(OH)D was measured by chemiluminescent

  13. Spontaneous Swallowing during All-Night Sleep in Patients with Parkinson Disease in Comparison with Healthy Control Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Irem Fatma; Tiftikcioglu, Bedile Irem; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous saliva swallows (SS) appear especially during sleep. The rate of SS was rarely investigated in all-night sleep in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Dysphagia is a frequent symptom in PD, but the rate of SS was never studied with an all-night sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). A total of 21 patients with PD and 18 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Frequencies of SS and coughing were studied in all-night sleep recordings of patients with PD and controls. During all-night sleep, video-EEG 12-channel recording was used including the electromyography (EMG) of the swallowing muscles, nasal airflow, and recording of vertical laryngeal movement using a pair of EEG electrodes over the thyroid cartilage. The total number of SS was increased while the mean duration of sleep was decreased in PD when compared to controls. Sialorrhea and clinical dysphagia, assessed by proper questionnaires, had no effect in any patient group. The new finding was the so-called salvo type of consecutive SS in one set of swallowing. The amount of coughing was significantly increased just after the salvo SS. In PD, the rate of SS was not sufficient to demonstrate the swallowing disorder, such as oropharyngeal dysphagia, but the salvo type of SS was quite frequent. This is a novel finding and may contribute to the understanding of swallowing problems in patients with dysphagic or nondysphagic PD. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Changes of deep gray matter magnetic susceptibility over 2years in multiple sclerosis and healthy control brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hagemeier

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis, pathological changes of both tissue iron and myelin occur, yet these factors have not been characterized in a longitudinal fashion using the novel iron- and myelin-sensitive quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM MRI technique. We investigated disease-relevant tissue changes associated with myelin loss and iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis deep gray matter (DGM over two years. One-hundred twenty (120 multiple sclerosis patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this prospective study. Written informed consent and local IRB approval were obtained from all participants. Clinical testing and QSM were performed both at baseline and at follow-up. Brain magnetic susceptibility was measured in major DGM structures. Temporal (baseline vs. follow-up and cross-sectional (multiple sclerosis vs. controls differences were studied using mixed factorial ANOVA analysis and appropriate t-tests. At either time-point, multiple sclerosis patients had significantly higher susceptibility in the caudate and globus pallidus and lower susceptibility in the thalamus. Over two years, susceptibility increased significantly in the caudate of both controls and multiple sclerosis patients. Inverse thalamic findings among MS patients suggest a multi-phase pathology explained by simultaneous myelin loss and/or iron accumulation followed by iron depletion and/or calcium deposition at later stages. Keywords: Quantitative susceptibility mapping, QSM, Iron, Multiple sclerosis, Longitudinal study

  15. Motor and non-motor features of Parkinson's disease in LRRK2 G2019S carriers versus matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzler, Steven A; Riley, David E; Chen, Shu G; Tatsuoka, Curtis M; Johnson, William M; Mieyal, John J; Walter, Ellen M; Whitney, Christina M; Feng, I Jung; Owusu-Dapaah, Harry; Mittal, Shivam O; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L

    2018-05-15

    LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been generally indistinguishable from those with idiopathic PD, with the exception of variable differences in some motor and non-motor domains, including cognition, gait, and balance. LRRK2 G2019S is amongst the most common genetic etiologies for PD, particularly in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) populations. This cross-sectional data collection study sought to clarify the phenotype of LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers with PD. Primary endpoints were the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Other motor and non-motor data were also assessed. The Mann-Whitney U Test was utilized to compare LRRK2 G2019S carriers with PD (LRRK2+) with non-carrier PD controls who were matched for age, gender, education, and PD duration. Survival analyses and log rank tests were utilized to compare interval from onset of PD to development of motor and non-motor complications. We screened 251 subjects and 231 completed the study, of whom 9 were LRRK2+, including 7 AJ subjects. 22.73% of AJ subjects with a family history of PD (FH) and 12.96% of AJ subjects without a FH were LRRK2+. There were no significant differences between the 9 LRRK2+ subjects and 19 matched PD controls in MDS-UPDRS, MoCA, or other motor and non-motor endpoints. Prevalence of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation in AJ and non-AJ subjects in our study population in Cleveland, Ohio was comparable to other clinical studies. There were no significant motor or non-motor differences between LRRK2+ PD and matched PD controls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mobile phone SMS messages can enhance healthy behaviour: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jayne A; King, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy behaviour, such as smoking cessation and adherence to prescribed medications, mitigates illness risk factors but health behaviour change can be challenging. Mobile phone short-message service (SMS) messages are increasingly used to deliver interventions designed to enhance healthy behaviour. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model to synthesise 38 randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of SMS messages to enhance healthy behaviour. Participants (N = 19,641) lived in developed and developing countries and were diverse with respect to age, ethnicity, socioeconomic background and health behaviours targeted for change. SMS messages had a small, positive, significant effect (g = 0.291) on a broad range of healthy behaviour. This effect was maximised when multiple SMS messages per day were used (g = 0.395) compared to using lower frequencies (daily, multiple per week and once-off) (g = 0.244). The low heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I (2) = 38.619) supports reporting a summary effect size and implies that the effect of SMS messaging is robust, regardless of population characteristics or healthy behaviour targeted. SMS messaging is a simple, cost-effective intervention that can be automated and can reach any mobile phone owner. While the effect size is small, potential health benefits are well worth achieving.

  17. Risk factors related to female breast cancer in regions of Northeast China: a 1:3 matched case-control population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-gang; Jia, Cun-xian; Geng, Cui-zhi; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Li-yuan

    2012-03-01

    There has been an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in China, but no definite risk and protective factors for breast cancer have been identified in Chinese females. This study was designed to identify the risk factors for female breast cancer in North and East China. A 1:3 matched, case-control study was conducted. All of the subjects in the case and control groups were selected from a previous epidemiological survey of 122 058 females aged 25 to 70 years. Single and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to study potential factors in the development of breast cancer. Significant differences at the level of α=0.20 between case and control groups were observed for the following factors: economic status, social status, family annual income, bean product consumption, body mass index (BMI), family history of breast cancer in the first or second degree, number of miscarriages, menstrual pattern, benign breast disease history, nipple leakage, inverted nipple, history of diabetes mellitus, history of hypertension, history of ovarian cyst, physical exercise, current and global quality of life satisfaction, healthy behavior and prevention, and scores of breast cancer-related knowledge. After Cox-regression model analysis (α=0.10), six factors were found to be significantly related to breast cancer, of which the ORs and 95%CIs were: BMI, 1.696 (1.169-2.460, P=0.005); benign breast disease history, 2.672 (0.848-8.416, P=0.093); family history of breast cancer, 7.080 (1.758-28.551, P=0.006); number of miscarriages, 1.738 (1.014-2.978, P=0.044); global quality of life satisfaction, 3.044 (1.804-5.136, P=0.000); healthy behavior and prevention, 3.294 (1.692-6.412, P=0.000). A comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer was identified. Women should be educated about a healthy lifestyle, especially those with a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast disease.

  18. Effects of nanotechnologies-based devices on postural control in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchiodi Albedi, Giovanna; Corna, Stefano; Aspesi, Valentina; Clerici, Daniela; Parisio, Cinzia; Seitanidis, Jonathan; Cau, Nicola; Brugliera, Luigia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2017-09-05

    The aim of the present preliminary randomized controlled study was to ascertain whether the use of newly developed nanotechnologies-based patches can influence posture control of healthy subjects. Thirty healthy female subjects (age 39.4 years, BMI 22.74 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to two groups: one with active patches and a control group with sham patches. Two patches were applied with a tape: one on the subject's sternum and the other on the C7 apophysis. Body sway during quiet upright stance was recorded with a dynamometric platform. Each subject was tested under two visual conditions, eyes open and closed. We used a blocked stratified randomization procedure conducted by a third party. Subjects wearing the sham patches showed a significant increase of the centre of pressure sway area after 4 hours when they performed the habitual moderate-intensity work activities. In the active patch group, a decrease of the sway path was evident, providing evidence of an enhanced balance control. Our preliminary findings on healthy subjects indicate that nanotechnological devices generating ultra-low electromagnetic fields can improve posture control.

  19. Evaluating components of dental care utilization among adults with diabetes and matched controls via hurdle models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Monica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About one-third of adults with diabetes have severe oral complications. However, limited previous research has investigated dental care utilization associated with diabetes. This project had two purposes: to develop a methodology to estimate dental care utilization using claims data and to use this methodology to compare utilization of dental care between adults with and without diabetes. Methods Data included secondary enrollment and demographic data from Washington Dental Service (WDS and Group Health Cooperative (GH, clinical data from GH, and dental-utilization data from WDS claims during 2002–2006. Dental and medical records from WDS and GH were linked for enrolees continuously and dually insured during the study. We employed hurdle models in a quasi-experimental setting to assess differences between adults with and without diabetes in 5-year cumulative utilization of dental services. Propensity score matching adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between the two groups. Results We found that adults with diabetes had lower odds of visiting a dentist (OR = 0.74, p  0.001. Among those with a dental visit, diabetes patients had lower odds of receiving prophylaxes (OR = 0.77, fillings (OR = 0.80 and crowns (OR = 0.84 (p 0.005 for all and higher odds of receiving periodontal maintenance (OR = 1.24, non-surgical periodontal procedures (OR = 1.30, extractions (OR = 1.38 and removable prosthetics (OR = 1.36 (p  Conclusions Patients with diabetes are less likely to use dental services. Those who do are less likely to use preventive care and more likely to receive periodontal care and tooth-extractions. Future research should address the possible effectiveness of additional prevention in reducing subsequent severe oral disease in patients with diabetes.

  20. Symptom Severity and Quality of Life Among Long-term Colorectal Cancer Survivors Compared With Matched Control Subjects: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tae L; Charles, Susan T; Gunaratne, Mekhala; Baxter, Nancy N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cohen, Zane; Gallinger, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Data are lacking regarding physical functioning, psychological well-being, and quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors >10 years postdiagnosis. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported physical functioning, quality of life, and psychological well-being in long-term colorectal cancer survivors compared with age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey. The colorectal cancer survivors and unaffected control subjects were recruited from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. A population-based sample of colorectal cancer survivors (N = 296) and their age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects (N = 255) were included. Survivors were, on average, 15 years postdiagnosis. Quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scale, bowel dysfunction with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center scale, urinary dysfunction with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, fatigue with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, and depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. In linear mixed-model analyses adjusting for income, education, race, and comorbid medical conditions, survivors reported good emotional, functional, physical, and overall quality of life, comparable to control subjects. Fatigue and urinary functioning did not differ significantly between survivors and control subjects. Survivors reported significantly higher social quality of life and lower depression compared with unaffected control subjects. The only area where survivors reported significantly worse deficits was in bowel dysfunction, but the magnitude of differences was relatively small. Generalizability is limited by moderately low participation rates. Findings are likely biased toward healthy participants. No baseline assessment was available to examine change in outcomes over time. Long

  1. Balance control of grid currents for UPQC under unbalanced loads based on matching-ratio compensation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chunjiang; Chai, Xiuhui

    2018-01-01

    In three-phase four-wire systems, unbalanced loads can cause grid currents to be unbalanced, and this may cause the neutral point potential on the grid side to shift. The neutral point potential shift will worsen the control precision as well as the performance of the threephase four-wire unified...... fluctuations, and elaborates the interaction between unbalanced grid currents and DC bus voltage fluctuations; two control strategies of UPQC under three-phase stationary coordinate based on the MCA are given, and finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are verified...... power quality conditioner (UPQC), and it also leads to unbalanced three-phase output voltage, even causing damage to electric equipment. To deal with unbalanced loads, this paper proposes a matching-ratio compensation algorithm (MCA) for the fundamental active component of load currents...

  2. Carotid intima-media thickness in mainly non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome and age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min; Kang, Jin Hwa; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Chae, Soo Jin; Kim, Sun Mie; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic disturbances are well-recognized clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CIMT in women with PCOS has been investigated in many studies, but there has been only one report in the Korean population. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in young untreated Korean women with PCOS and age-matched controls, specifically by measuring their CIMT. CIMT was measured by one radiologist in 56 PCOS patients and 56 controls. To compare the CIMT according to PCOS phenotypes, women with PCOS were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of hyperandrogenism. Although PCOS patients were more obese and had higher blood pressure and insulin resistance index than the age-matched controls, the CIMT was not different between the two groups (0.49 ± 0.09 mm in PCOS patients vs. 0.50 ± 0.11 mm in controls, respectively, p = 0.562). When the CIMT in the control group was compared with hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS groups, also no significant differences were found. Despite the significant differences in some vascular risk factors between women with PCOS and controls, PCOS patients did not have a significantly higher CIMT (even in the hyperandrogenic subgroups). Although our study did not show the increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in PCOS patients, the role of CIMT continues to be investigated considering the importance of screening and monitoring CVD risk factors in women with PCOS.

  3. Plasma total ghrelin and leptin levels in human narcolepsy and matched healthy controls: Basal concentrations and response to sodium oxybate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donjacour, C.E.; Pardi, D.; Aziz, N.A.; Frolich, M.; Roelfsema, F.; Overeem, S.; Pijl, H.; Lammers, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Narcolepsy is caused by a selective loss of hypocretin neurons and is associated with obesity. Ghrelin and leptin interact with hypocretin neurons to influence energy homeostasis. Here, we evaluated whether human hypocretin deficiency, or the narcolepsy therapeutic agent sodium

  4. Cognition following acute tryptophan depletion : Difference between first-degree relatives of bipolar disorder patients and matched healthy control volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobczak, S; Riedel, W J; Booij, I; Aan Het Rot, M; Deutz, N E P; Honig, A

    BACKGROUND: Serotonergic circuits have been proposed to mediate cognitive processes, particularly learning and memory. Cognitive impairment is often seen in bipolar disorders in relation to a possible lowered serotonergic turnover. METHODS: We investigated the effects of acute tryptophan depletion

  5. Comparison of MRI-defined back muscles volume between patients with ankylosing spondylitis and control patients with chronic back pain: age and spinopelvic alignment matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Doo Hee; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    To compare MRI-defined back muscle volume between AS patients and age, and spinopelvic alignment matched control patients with chronic back pain. 51 male patients with AS were enrolled. Age and spinopelvic alignment matched controls (male) were found among non-AS patients with chronic back pain. After matching procedure, fully matched controls were found in 31 of 51 AS patients (60.8%), who represent AS patients without deformity. However, matched controls were not found in 20 of 51 AS patients (39.2%), who represent AS patients with deformity. MRI parameters of back muscle (paraspinal muscle and psoas muscle) at L4/5 disc level including cross-sectional area (CSA) and fat-free cross-sectional area (FCSA) were compared between AS patients and matched controls. Covariates, including BMI, self-reported physical activity, and the presence of chronic disease, which can influence back muscle volume, were also investigated. There were no statistical differences in age, body mass index, score of back pain (NRS), and spinopelvic alignment, and physical activity between matched AS patients and control patients except for duration of back pain. All MRI parameters for paraspinal muscle volume in matched AS patients (without deformity) were significantly less than those of control patients, and significantly larger than those of non-matched AS patients (with deformity). Body size adjusted MRI parameters (relative CSA and relative FCSA) of paraspinal muscle showed strong correlations with lumbar lordosis and sacral slope. Such relationship between paraspinal muscle and spinopelvic parameters remained significant even after multivariate adjustment. AS patients without deformity already have decreased paraspinal muscle volume compared with age and spinopelvic alignment matched non-AS patients with chronic back pain. Such decrease in paraspinal muscle volume was significantly associated with kyphotic deformity of AS patients even after multivariate adjustment. Although the result

  6. Assessment of Parent Orientation towards Autonomy vs. Control in Promoting Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Padilla, Miguel A

    2012-07-01

    Self-determination theory has been widely applied to understanding individuals' health-related behaviors such as eating healthy foods and exercising. Different reasons for engagement are associated with varying levels of personal agency or autonomy. Authority figures in the environment can be supportive of autonomy or, in contrast, controlling. Although researchers have assessed individuals' perceptions of the autonomy-support in their environments, studies have not directly examined the authority figures' orientations to autonomy with respect to health contexts. A new scale, Parent Orientations to Health, was created to investigate parent orientation to autonomy and control with respect to healthy eating and exercise in children. One hundred and forty-three parents of elementary school-aged children responded to the scale. Scale validation and reliability results indicate that the scale successfully assessed parent orientation towards autonomy for children in health contexts. Furthermore, parent autonomy orientation varied according to child weight status and the healthiness of the child's diet. Parent orientation towards autonomy can be evaluated through the use of the Parent Orientations to Health scale. In addition, parent autonomy orientation is associated with both the healthiness of the child's diet (as perceived by the parent) and the child's body mass index. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Longitudinal development of the gut microbiome and metabolome in preterm neonates with late onset sepsis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher J; Embleton, Nicholas D; Marrs, Emma C L; Smith, Daniel P; Fofanova, Tatiana; Nelson, Andrew; Skeath, Tom; Perry, John D; Petrosino, Joseph F; Berrington, Janet E; Cummings, Stephen P

    2017-07-12

    Late onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. While studies have implicated gut bacteria in the aetiology of the disease, functional analysis and mechanistic insights are generally lacking. We performed temporal bacterial (n = 613) and metabolomic (n = 63) profiling on extensively sampled stool from 7 infants with LOS and 28 matched healthy (no LOS or NEC) controls. The bacteria isolated in diagnostic blood culture usually corresponded to the dominant bacterial genera in the gut microbiome. Longitudinal changes were monitored based on preterm gut community types (PGCTs), where control infants had an increased number of PGCTs compared to LOS infants (P = 0.011). PGCT 6, characterised by Bifidobacteria dominance, was only present in control infants. Metabolite profiles differed between LOS and control infants at diagnosis and 7 days later, but not 7 days prior to diagnosis. Bifidobacteria was positively correlated with control metabolites, including raffinose, sucrose, and acetic acid. Using multi-omic analysis, we show that the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of LOS. While the causative agent of LOS varies, it is usually abundant in the gut. Bifidobacteria dominance was associated with control infants, and the presence of this organism may directly protect, or act as a marker for protection, against gut epithelial translocation. While the metabolomic data is preliminary, the findings support that gut development and protection in preterm infants is associated with increased in prebiotic oligosaccharides (e.g. raffinose) and the growth of beneficial bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium).

  8. Trauma exposure is associated with increased context-dependent adjustments of cognitive control in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Weber, Fanny; Hoyer, Jürgen; Plessow, Franziska

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with alterations in prefrontal-cortex-dependent cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, cognitive control). However, it remains unclear whether these cognitive dysfunctions are related to PTSD symptomatology or trauma exposure. Furthermore, regarding cognitive control, research has only focused on the integrity of selected control functions, but not their dynamic regulation in response to changing environmental demands. Therefore, the present study investigated dynamic variations in interference control, in addition to overall interference susceptibility and working memory (WM) performance in matched groups of 24 PTSD patients and 26 traumatized and 30 nontraumatized healthy controls. The Simon task was used to measure overall interference susceptibility and the flexible adjustment of cognitive control, on the basis of the occurrence of response conflicts (conflict adaptation effect). WM performance was assessed with the forward and backward digit span tasks. Since we have previously shown that trauma exposure per se is associated with reduced hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), we further explored whether PTSD/trauma-related cognitive alterations are related to HCC in proximal 3-cm hair segments. The results revealed that PTSD patients and traumatized controls showed significantly more pronounced conflict adaptation effects than nontraumatized controls. Moreover, the conflict adaptation effect was positively related to the number of lifetime traumatic events and the frequency of traumatization. The groups did not differ in overall interference susceptibility or WM performance. Exploratory analyses revealed no association between HCC and the observed cognitive differences. These results suggest that context-driven control adjustments constitute a sensitive correlate of trauma exposure, irrespective of PTSD.

  9. Sleep and circadian variability in people with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Helen J; Park, Margaret; Wyatt, James K; Rizvydeen, Muneer; Fogg, Louis F

    2017-06-01

    To compare sleep and circadian variability in adults with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) to healthy controls. Forty participants (22 DSWPD, 18 healthy controls) completed a ten-day protocol, consisting of DLMO assessments on two consecutive nights, a five-day study break, followed by two more DLMO assessments. All participants were instructed to sleep within one hour of their self-reported average sleep schedule for the last four days of the study break. We analyzed the participants' wrist actigraphy data during these four days to examine intraindividual variability in sleep timing, duration and efficiency. We also examined shifts in the DLMO from before and after the study break. Under the same conditions, people with DSWPD had significantly more variable wake times and total sleep time than healthy controls (p ≤ 0.015). Intraindividual variability in sleep onset time and sleep efficiency was similar between the two groups (p ≥ 0.30). The DLMO was relatively stable across the study break, with only 11% of controls but 27% of DSWPDs showed more than a one hour shift in the DLMO. Only in the DSWPD sample was greater sleep variability associated with a larger shift in the DLMO (r = 0.46, p = 0.03). These results suggest that intraindividual variability in sleep can be higher in DSWPD versus healthy controls, and this may impact variability in the DLMO. DSWPD patients with higher intraindividual variability in sleep are more likely to have a shifting DLMO, which could impact sleep symptoms and the optimal timing of light and/or melatonin treatment for DSWPD. Circadian Phase Assessments at Home, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01487252, NCT01487252. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  11. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  12. Intake of key micronutrients and food groups in patients with late-stage age-related macular degeneration compared with age-sex-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Liew, Gerald; Russell, Joanna; Cosatto, Victoria; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the risk factor profile of patients presenting with late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) could help identify the most frequent modifiable AMD precursors among people who are referred for treatment. We aimed to assess dietary behaviours by comparing adjusted mean intakes of micronutrients and major food groups (fruits, vegetables, fish) among patients with AMD and a sample of age-sex-matched controls. Cross-sectional analysis of 480 late AMD cases and 518 population-based age-sex-matched controls with no AMD signs. AMD cases (aged 60+ years) were those presenting for treatment to a hospital eye clinic in Sydney, Australia, during 2012-2015. The comparator group were obtained from a cohort study (Blue Mountains Eye Study; Sydney, Australia) during 2002-2009. Dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. AMD lesions were assessed from retinal photographs. After multivariable adjustment, patients with late-stage AMD compared with controls had significantly lower intakes of vitamin E (7.4 vs 9.8 mg/day; p<0.0001), beta-carotene (6232 vs 7738 μg/day; p<0.0001), vitamin C (161 vs 184 mg/day; p=0.0002) and folate (498.3 vs 602 μg/day; p<0.0001); but had higher intakes of zinc (13.0 vs 11.9 mg/day; p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of patients with late AMD met the recommended intake of vegetables than controls: 52.9% versus 64.5%; p=0.0002. This study showed significant differences in intakes of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, folate and vegetables between patients with late-stage AMD and healthy controls, and thus has provided a better understanding of the nutritional intake of patients presenting with advanced AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures associated with distal radius fractures: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hideyoshi; Shinohara, Takaaki; Natsume, Tadahiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Ulnar styloid fractures are often associated with distal radius fractures. However, controversy exists regarding whether to treat ulnar styloid fractures. This study aimed to evaluate clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures after distal radius fractures were treated with the volar locking plate system. We used prospectively collected data of distal radius fractures. 111 patients were enrolled in this study. A matched case-control study design was used. We selected patients who underwent fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (case group). Three control patients for each patient of the case group were matched on the basis of age, sex, and fracture type of distal radius fractures from among patients who did not undergo fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (control group). The case group included 16 patients (7 men, 9 women; mean age: 52.6 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 3; base, 11; and proximal, 2). The control group included 48 patients (15 men, 33 women; mean age: 61.1 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 10; base, 31; and proximal, 7). For radiographic examination, the volar tilt angle, radial inclination angle, and ulnar variance length were measured, and the union of ulnar styloid fractures was judged. For clinical examination, the range of motions, grip strength, Hand20 score, and Numeric Rating Scale score were evaluated. There was little correction loss for each radiological parameter of fracture reduction, and these parameters were not significantly different between the groups. The bone-healing rate of ulnar styloid fractures was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group, but the clinical results were not significantly different. We revealed that there was no need to fix ulnar styloid fractures when distal radius fractures were treated via open reduction and internal fixation with a volar locking plate system. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association

  14. Enhancing a sustainable healthy working life: design of a clustered randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koolhaas Wendy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve a sustainable healthy working life, we have developed the intervention 'Staying healthy at work', which endeavours to enhance work participation of employees aged 45 years and older by increasing their problem-solving capacity and stimulating their awareness of their role and responsibility towards a healthy working life. This research study aims to evaluate the process and the effectiveness of the intervention compared with care as usual. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial design (randomized at the supervisor level, with a 1-year follow-up. Workers aged 45 years and older have been enrolled in the study. Workers in the intervention group are receiving the intervention 'Staying healthy at work'. The main focus of the intervention is to promote a healthy working life of ageing workers by: (1 changing workers awareness and behaviour, by emphasizing their own decisive role in attaining goals; (2 improving the supervisors' ability to support workers in taking the necessary action, by means of enhancing knowledge and competence; and (3 enhancing the use of the human resource professionals and the occupational health tools available within the organization. The supervisors in the intervention group have been trained how to present themselves as a source of support for the worker. Workers in the control group are receiving care as usual; supervisors in the control group have not participated in the training. Measurements have been taken at baseline and will be followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measures are vitality, work ability and productivity. The secondary outcomes measures include fatigue, job strain, work attitude, self-efficacy and work engagement. A process evaluation will be conducted at both the supervisor and the worker levels, and satisfaction with the content of the intervention will be assessed. Discussion The intervention 'Staying healthy at work' has the

  15. An investigation of care-based vs. rule-based morality in frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Andrew R; Paholpak, Pongsatorn; Daianu, Madelaine; Fong, Sylvia S; Mather, Michelle; Jimenez, Elvira E; Thompson, Paul; Mendez, Mario F

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral changes in dementia, especially behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), may result in alterations in moral reasoning. Investigators have not clarified whether these alterations reflect differential impairment of care-based vs. rule-based moral behavior. This study investigated 18 bvFTD patients, 22 early onset Alzheimer's disease (eAD) patients, and 20 healthy age-matched controls on care-based and rule-based items from the Moral Behavioral Inventory and the Social Norms Questionnaire, neuropsychological measures, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) regions of interest. There were significant group differences with the bvFTD patients rating care-based morality transgressions less severely than the eAD group and rule-based moral behavioral transgressions more severely than controls. Across groups, higher care-based morality ratings correlated with phonemic fluency on neuropsychological tests, whereas higher rule-based morality ratings correlated with increased difficulty set-shifting and learning new rules to tasks. On neuroimaging, severe care-based reasoning correlated with cortical volume in right anterior temporal lobe, and rule-based reasoning correlated with decreased cortical volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that frontotemporal disease decreases care-based morality and facilitates rule-based morality possibly from disturbed contextual abstraction and set-shifting. Future research can examine whether frontal lobe disorders and bvFTD result in a shift from empathic morality to the strong adherence to conventional rules. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy for Morbid Obesity in Patients After Orthotopic Liver Transplant: a Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamalaidze, Levan; Stauffer, John A; Arasi, Lisa C; Villacreses, Diego E; Franco, Jose Salvador Serrano; Bowers, Steven; Elli, Enrique F

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is frequently encountered in patients with orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). The role of bariatric surgery is still unclear for this specific population. The aim of this study was to review our experience with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) after OLT. We performed a retrospective case-control study of patients undergoing LSG after OLT from 2010 to 2016. OLT-LSG patients were matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and year to non-OLT patients undergoing LSG. Demographics, operative variables, postoperative events, and long-term weight loss with comorbidity resolution were collected and compared between cases and controls. Of 303 patients undergoing LSG, 12 (4%) had previous OLT. They were matched to 36 non-OLT patients. No difference was found between groups in the American Society of Anesthesiologists class, mean operative time, or postoperative morbidity. The non-OLT group, however, had a significantly shorter mean hospital stay than the OLT group (1.7 vs 3.1 days; P OLT patients had significantly more excess body weight loss at 2 years (53.7 vs 45.2%; P OLT in appropriately selected patients appears to have similar outcomes to LSG in non-OLT patients.

  17. POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHRONIC MOTION SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyahya D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural control requires complex processing of peripheral sensory inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Motion sensitivity and decreased postural control are influenced by visual-vestibular conflicts.The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the postural control of healthy adults with and without history of sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity using a computerized dynamic posturography in a virtual reality environment. Sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity was operationally defined as a history of avoiding activities causing dizziness, nausea, imbalance, and/or blurred vision without having a related medical diagnosis. Methods: Twenty healthy adults between 22 and 33 years of age participated in the study. Eleven subjects had sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity and 9 subjects did not. Postural control was measured in both groups using the Bertec Balance Advantage-Dynamic Computerized Dynamic Posturography with Immersion Virtual Reality (CDP-IVR. The CDP-IVR reports an over-all equilibrium score based on subjects’ center of gravity displacement and postural sway while immersed in a virtual reality environment. Subjects were tested on stable (condition 1 and unstable (condition2 platform conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, height, weight, body mass index in kg/m2, postural control scores for conditions 2, and average (p>0.05. However, significant differences were observed in mean postural control for condition 1 between groups (p=0.03. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that healthy young adults without chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity have better postural control than those with chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to explore wider age ranges with larger samples sizes as well as intervention strategies to improve postural control.

  18. Evaluating metabolites in patients with major depressive disorder who received mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and healthy controls using short echo MRSI at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jakary, Angela; Gillung, Erin; Eisendrath, Stuart; Nelson, Sarah J; Mukherjee, Pratik; Luks, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate differences in metabolite levels between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls, to assess changes in metabolites in patients after they completed an 8-week course of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and to exam the correlation between metabolites and depression severity. Sixteen patients with MDD and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied using 3D short echo-time (20 ms) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 Tesla. Relative metabolite ratios were estimated in five regions of interest corresponding to insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. In all cases, MBCT reduced severity of depression. The ratio of total choline-containing compounds/total creatine (tCr) in the right caudate was significantly increased compared to that in healthy controls, while ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/tCr in the left ACC, myo-inositol/tCr in the right insula, and glutathione/tCr in the left putamen were significantly decreased. At baseline, the severity of depression was negatively correlated with my-inositol/tCr in the left insula and putamen. The improvement in depression severity was significantly associated with changes in NAA/tCr in the left ACC. This study has successfully evaluated regional differences in metabolites for patients with MDD who received MBCT treatment and in controls using 7 Tesla MRSI.

  19. Mothers of boys with gender identity disorder: a comparison of matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, S; Coates, S

    1991-03-01

    This pilot study compared mothers of boys with gender identity disorder (GID) with mothers of normal boys to determine whether differences in psychopathology and child-rearing attitudes and practices could be identified. Results of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and the Beck Depression Inventory revealed that mothers of boys with GID had more symptoms of depression and more often met the criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder than the controls. Fifty-three percent of the mothers of boys with GID compared with only 6% of controls met the diagnosis for Borderline Personality Disorder on the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines or had symptoms of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory. Results of the Summers and Walsh Symbiosis Scale suggested that mothers of probands had child-rearing attitudes and practices that encouraged symbiosis and discouraged the development of autonomy.

  20. Differences Between Psoriasis Patients and Skin-healthy Controls Concerning Appraisal of Touching, Shame and Disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahousen, Theresa; Kupfer, Jörg; Gieler, Uwe; Hofer, Angelika; Linder, M Dennis; Schut, Christina

    2016-08-23

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and considerable life impact. Feelings of shame and stigmatization can lead to avoidance of social activity and intimacy. In this study, the questionnaire TSD-Q was used to evaluate pleasure in touching oneself and in a partnership, parental touching during childhood and (skin-related) shame and disgust. Skin-related disgust and shame were significantly higher in psoriatic patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, psoriasis-patients scored significantly lower than skin-healthy controls concerning appraisal of self-touching and parental touching. In contrast, psoriasis-patients scored higher concerning appraisal of touching in a partnership. Due to the fact that low self-esteem might enhance the negative evaluation of touch and the feelings of shame and disgust, psychological interventions should be integrated in the treatment of psoriasis.

  1. Emotional Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Comparison to Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Suvak, Michael K; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Shea, M Tracie; Litz, Brett T

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have investigated emotional functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). To explore the nature and extent of emotion difficulties in OCPD, the authors examined four domains of self-reported emotional functioning--negative affectivity, anger, emotion regulation, and emotion expressivity--in women with OCPD and compared them to a borderline personality disorder (BPD) group and a healthy control group. Data were collected as part of a larger psychophysiological experimental study on emotion regulation and personality. Compared to healthy controls, participants with OCPD reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity, trait anger, emotional intensity, and emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties included lack of emotional clarity, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Participants with OCPD scored similarly to participants with BPD on only one variable, namely, problems engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset. Results suggest that OCPD may be characterized by notable difficulties in several emotional domains.

  2. Inverse association between dopaminergic neurotransmission and Iowa Gambling Task performance in pathological gamblers and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine system is believed to affect gambling behavior in pathological gambling. Particularly, dopamine release in the ventral striatum appears to affect decision-making in the disorder. This study investigated dopamine release in the ventral striatum in relation to gambling performance...... on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in 16 Pathological Gamblers (PG) and 14 Healthy Controls (HC). We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to measure the binding potential of [(11)C] raclopride to dopamine D2/3 receptors during a baseline and gambling condition. We hypothesized that decreased raclopride...... binding potentials in the ventral striatum during gambling (indicating dopamine release) would be associated with higher IGT performance in Healthy Controls, but lower IGT performance in Pathological Gamblers. The results showed that Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had...

  3. Four-Quadrant Facial Function in Dysphagic Patients after Stroke and in Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Hägg; Lita Tibbling

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine any motility disturbance in any quadrant of the face other than the quadrant innervated by the lower facial nerve contralateral to the cortical lesion after stroke. Thirty-one stroke-afflicted patients with subjective dysphagia, consecutively referred to a swallowing centre, were investigated with a facial activity test (FAT) in all four facial quadrants and with a swallowing capacity test (SCT). Fifteen healthy adult participants served as FAT controls. Sixteen pat...

  4. Suppression of Extinction with TMS in Humans: From Healthy Controls to Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    We review a series of studies exemplifying some applications of single-pulse and paired-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the study of spatial attention and of its deficits. We will focus primarily on sensory extinction, the failure to consciously perceive a contralesional sensory stimulus only during bilateral stimulation of homologous surfaces. TMS studies in healthy controls show that it is possible either to interfere or modulate the excitability of the parietal cortex during sen...

  5. The effects of oxytocin on fear recognition in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal eFischer-Shofty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who suffer from schizophrenia often show a marked deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions, as part of broader impairment of social cognition. Research has shown that recognition of negative emotions, specifically fear recognition, is particularly impaired among patients with schizophrenia. Recently we reported that intranasal administration of OT (IN OT increased the ability to correctly recognize fear in a group of healthy men. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of IN OT administration on fear recognition among patients with schizophrenia. Based on previous research, we also sought to examine a possible selective effect of OT dependent on baseline performance, hypothesizing that IN OT would have a greater enhancement effect on less proficient individuals. It was thus hypothesized that patients will show more improvement in fear recognition following the administration of IN OT as compared to controls. Sixty six participants (31 schizophrenia patients, 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the current study. All participants received treatment of a single dose of 24 IU IN OT and an equivalent amount of placebo, one week apart. The participants’ ability to accurately recognize fear and happiness was evaluated using a face morphing task. Overall, as a group, both patients and healthy control participants were more accurate in recognizing fearful facial expressions, but not happy faces, following IN OT administration, as compared to their performance following placebo. IN OT did not differentially affect emotion recognition in patients and healthy controls. Yet, the results indicated a selective effect for IN OT, in which the hormone improves fear recognition only among individuals whose baseline performance was below the median, regardless of their psychiatric status.

  6. Association study between COMT 158Met and creativity scores in bipolar disorder and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder (BD patients have been reported to be associated higher creativity abilities, and recent data tend to support the hypothesis that dopaminergic system that could be associated with creativity. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is one of the major enzymes involved in the metabolic degradation of dopamine. The COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680 or Val158Met Met allele is reported to cause decreased activity of this enzyme in prefrontal cortex and improve performance in several cognitive domains. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Val158Met on creativity in BD type I and healthy controls. Methods Ninety-seven healthy volunteers and 120 BD type I were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and tested for creativity (Barrow Welsh Art Scale – BWAS and intelligence Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. Results COMT Met allele positively influenced creativity scores in healthy controls but not in BD subjects during mood episodes and euthymia. The presence of allele Met did not influence IQ scores. No influence of IQ total score on creativity was observed. Limitations control group presented higher IQ scores and euthymic group was under medication use. Discussion Our research suggests positive effect of COMT rs4680 (allele Met on creativity scores in healthy controls. One possible interpretation is that creativity is more likely to be associated with lesser degrees of bipolarity. The fact that the same results were not observed in BD may be associated to dysfunctions in the dopaminergic system that characterizes this disorder. Further studies with larger samples and other types of BD should explore the role of the dopaminergic system in creativity.

  7. Total antioxidants in plasma of hemodialysed patients and healthy controls measured by two commercial assays

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskovska, Tatjana; Jansen, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As a result of an increased interest in oxidative stress research, in both basic and clinical studies, numerous commercial test kits became available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results for total antioxidants measured by two commercial assays in a complex clinical condition such as single hemodialysis session in patients on chronic hemodialysis treatment, in comparison to healthy controls. Methods: The level of plasma total antioxidants was measured by BAP ...

  8. Best matching theory & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch or best match? This book demonstrates that best matching of individual entities to each other is essential to ensure smooth conduct and successful competitiveness in any distributed system, natural and artificial. Interactions must be optimized through best matching in planning and scheduling, enterprise network design, transportation and construction planning, recruitment, problem solving, selective assembly, team formation, sensor network design, and more. Fundamentals of best matching in distributed and collaborative systems are explained by providing: § Methodical analysis of various multidimensional best matching processes § Comprehensive taxonomy, comparing different best matching problems and processes § Systematic identification of systems’ hierarchy, nature of interactions, and distribution of decision-making and control functions § Practical formulation of solutions based on a library of best matching algorithms and protocols, ready for direct applications and apps development. Design...

  9. Social support and psychological well-being in gender dysphoria: a comparison of patients with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson's Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Rao, Ashwini K

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson's disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia.

  11. Salivary IgA concentration in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Sardari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The alterations in salivary flow rate and its compositions could affect the development, symptoms, and severity of oral changes in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salivary IgA in type I in comparison with type II diabetic patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 25 patients with type I diabetes, 25 patients with type II diabetes, and 25 control subjects (12 subjects for the type I and 13 subjects for the type II were enrolled. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected by spitting method and the concentration of salivary IgA was measured byenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Results: The mean of salivary IgA in type I diabetic patients was 148.3 ± 38.7 μg/ml and in their controls was 65.8 ± 17.4 μg/ml (P < 0.001. In type II diabetic patients the mean of salivary IgA was 67.3 ± 20.6 μg/ml and in their controls was 63.3 ± 15.2 μg/ml. There was no significant difference between patients with type II diabetes and controls (P = 0.54. The mean of salivary IgA in patients with type I diabetes was significantly higher than in patients with type II diabetes (148.3 ± 38.7 versus 67.3 ± 20.6 μg/ml, respectively, P < 0.001. Conclusions: Level of salivary IgA in type II diabetic patients in comparison with their healthy control did not show any significant difference, but in type I diabetic patients was higher than that of healthy controls and type II diabetic patients.

  12. Characterization of the polysensitized patient: a matched case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2009-01-01

    for polysensitization, including atopic eczema. METHODS: A questionnaire case-control study of 562 polysensitized and 1124 single/double-sensitized individuals was performed. RESULTS: The results show that 45% of polysensitized and 31% of single/double-sensitized patients had or had had atopic eczema, and atopic eczema...... the group of patients with atopic eczema and the group without atopic eczema. CONCLUSION: Patients with atopic eczema were overrepresented in the group of polysensitized patients and polysensitized patients should be viewed in the light of occurrence or lack of atopic eczema....

  13. Investigating consummatory and anticipatory pleasure across motivation deficits in schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Susana; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Daskalakis, Z Jeff; Ravindran, Arun; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Remington, Gary; Foussias, George

    2017-08-01

    Anhedonia has traditionally been considered a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, but the true nature of this deficit remains elusive. This study sought to investigate consummatory and anticipatory pleasure as it relates to motivation deficits. Eighty-four outpatients with schizophrenia and 81 healthy controls were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), as well as a battery of clinical and cognitive assessments. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine the experience of pleasure as a function of diagnosis, and across levels of motivation deficits (i.e. low vs. moderate. vs. high) in schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses were also conducted to evaluate the predictive value of amotivation in relation to the TEPS. There were no significant differences between schizophrenia and healthy control groups for either consummatory or anticipatory pleasure. Within the schizophrenia patients, only those with high levels of amotivation were significantly impaired in consummatory and anticipatory pleasure compared to low and moderate groups, and compared to healthy controls. Further, our results revealed that amotivation significantly predicts both consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, with no independent contribution of group. Utilizing study samples with a wide range of motivation deficits and incorporating objective paradigms may provide a more comprehensive understanding of hedonic deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in tidal breathing between infants with chronic lung diseases and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilitzki S

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnostic value of tidal breathing (TB measurements in infants is controversially discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the breathing pattern of sleeping infants with chronic lung diseases (CLD differ from healthy controls with the same postconceptional age and to assess the predictive value of TB parameters. Methods In the age of 36–42 postconceptional weeks TB measurements were performed in 48 healthy newborns (median age and weight 7d, 3100 g and 48 infants with CLD (80d, 2465 g using the deadspace-free flow-through technique. Once the infants had adapted to the mask and were sleeping quietly and breathing regularly, 20–60 breathing cycles were evaluated. Beside the shape of the tidal breathing flow-volume loop (TBFVL 18 TB parameters were analyzed using ANOVA with Bonferroni correction. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curves were calculated to investigate the discriminative ability of TB parameters. Results The incidence of concave expiratory limbs in CLD infants was 31% and significantly higher compared to controls (2% (p Conclusion The breathing pattern of CLD infants differs significantly from that of healthy controls. Concave TBFVL and an increased RR measured during quiet sleep and under standardized conditions may indicate diminished respiratory functions in CLD infants whereas most of the commonly used TB parameters are poorly predictive.

  15. Plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity in healthy controls compared with aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Ulku; Gamsiz-Isik, Hikmet; Cifcibasi, Emine; Ademoglu, Evin; Yalcin, Funda

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP), generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and periodontally healthy controls. This cross-sectional study includes of 88 individuals seeking dental treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between January 2011 and March 2012. Fifteen AgP patients were compared with 21 healthy controls (C1), while 36 CP patients were compared with 16 healthy controls (C2). Clinical periodontal measurements were recorded, and plasma and saliva samples were collected. The TAOC of the plasma and saliva samples were determined using a commercially available colorimetric kit. The plasma TAOC of both AgP and CP patients was significantly lower for C1 and C2. The salivary TAOC of CP patients was significantly lower for C2, but there was no significant difference between AgP patients and C1. Our results demonstrate that severe periodontitis may be associated with a lower plasma antioxidant capacity. The reduced antioxidant capacity in patients with severe periodontitis, especially with aggressive forms may be an important contributing factor to severe tissue destruction.

  16. The metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed greater differences between patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls than those in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Han, Ji Yun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-03-01

    To determine differences between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the plasma metabolites in patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In all, 65 nononobese patients (aged 30-70 years) with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and 65 nonobese sex-matched healthy controls were included, and fasting peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma metabolomes were profiled. The diabetic or impaired fasting glucose patients showed higher circulating and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α than controls. Compared with controls, impaired fasting glucose or diabetic subjects showed increases in 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolites: six amino acids (valine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), l-pyroglutamic acid, two fatty acid amides containing palmitic amide and oleamide and two lysophosphatidylcholines. In impaired fasting glucose or diabetic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 positively associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysophosphatidylcholines and circulating inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities. In plasma metabolites between patients and healthy controls, we observed significant increases in only three amino acids (proline, valine and leucine) and decreases in only five lysophosphatidylcholines. This study demonstrates significant differences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolome in patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes compared with healthy controls. These differences were greater than those observed in the plasma metabolome. These data suggest peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a useful tool to better understand the inflammatory pathophysiology of diabetes.

  17. Nutrition Facts Use in Relation to Eating Behaviors and Healthy and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Haynos, Ann F; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-03-01

    Investigate the relationship between use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods and weight-related behaviors. Cross-sectional survey in 2015-2016. Young adult respondents (n = 1,817; 57% women; average age 31.0 ± 1.6 years) to the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults-IV survey, the fourth wave of a longitudinal cohort study. Use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods; healthy, unhealthy, and extreme weight control behaviors; intuitive eating; binge eating. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity/race, education, income, and weight status. In women, greater Nutrition Facts use was associated with a 23% and 10% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a 17% greater chance of engaging in binge eating. In men, greater label use was associated with a 27% and 17% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a lower level of intuitive eating. Professionals advising patients and clients on weight management may consider possible gender differences in response to weight loss and management guidance. Since label use was related to engagement in some unhealthy behaviors in addition to healthy behaviors, it is important to consider how individuals may use labels, particularly those at risk for, or engaging in, disordered eating behaviors. Future research investigating potential relationships between Nutrition Facts use, intuitive eating, and binge eating is needed. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle intervention for chronic low back pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda; Wiggers, John; OʼBrien, Kate M; Wolfenden, Luke; Yoong, Sze Lin; Hodder, Rebecca K; Lee, Hopin; Robson, Emma K; McAuley, James H; Haskins, Robin; Kamper, Steven J; Rissel, Chris; Williams, Christopher M

    2018-06-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month healthy lifestyle intervention, on pain intensity in patients with chronic low back pain who were overweight or obese. We conducted a pragmatic randomised controlled trial, embedded within a cohort multiple randomised controlled trial of patients on a waiting list for outpatient orthopaedic consultation at a tertiary hospital in NSW, Australia. Eligible patients with chronic low back pain (>3 months in duration) and body mass index ≥27 kg/m and education and referral to a 6-month telephone-based healthy lifestyle coaching service, or usual care. The primary outcome was pain intensity measured using an 11-point numerical rating scale, at baseline, 2 weeks, and monthly for 6 months. Data analysis was by intention-to-treat according to a prepublished analysis plan. Between May 13, 2015, and October 27, 2015, 160 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention or usual care. We found no difference between groups for pain intensity over 6 months (area under the curve, mean difference = 6.5, 95% confidence interval -8.0 to 21.0; P = 0.38) or any secondary outcome. In the intervention group, 41% (n = 32) of participants reported an adverse event compared with 56% (n = 45) in the control group. Our findings show that providing education and advice and telephone-based healthy lifestyle coaching did not benefit patients with low back pain who were overweight or obese, compared with usual care. The intervention did not influence the targeted healthy lifestyle behaviours proposed to improve pain in this patient group.

  19. Dynamic connectivity states estimated from resting fMRI Identify differences among Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barnaly; Damaraju, Eswar; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes, and both are associated with dysconnectivity among large-scale brain networks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data facilitates studying macroscopic connectivity among distant brain regions. Standard approaches to identifying such connectivity include seed-based correlation and data-driven clustering methods such as independent component analysis (ICA) but typically focus on average connectivity. In this study, we utilize ICA on rsfMRI data to obtain intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and age matched SZ and BP patients. Subsequently, we investigated difference in functional network connectivity, defined as pairwise correlations among the timecourses of ICNs, between HCs and patients. We quantified differences in both static (average) and dynamic (windowed) connectivity during the entire scan duration. Disease-specific differences were identified in connectivity within different dynamic states. Notably, results suggest that patients make fewer transitions to some states (states 1, 2, and 4) compared to HCs, with most such differences confined to a single state. SZ patients showed more differences from healthy subjects than did bipolars, including both hyper and hypo connectivity in one common connectivity state (dynamic state 3). Also group differences between SZ and bipolar patients were identified in patterns (states) of connectivity involving the frontal (dynamic state 1) and frontal-parietal regions (dynamic state 3). Our results provide new information about these illnesses and strongly suggest that state-based analyses are critical to avoid averaging together important factors that can help distinguish these clinical groups.

  20. GOLIAH (Gaming Open Library for Intervention in Autism at Home): a 6-month single blind matched controlled exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouen, Anne-Lise; Narzisi, Antonio; Xavier, Jean; Tilmont, Elodie; Bodeau, Nicolas; Bono, Valentina; Ketem-Premel, Nabila; Anzalone, Salvatore; Maharatna, Koushik; Chetouani, Mohamed; Muratori, Filippo; Cohen, David

    2017-01-01

    To meet the required hours of intensive intervention for treating children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we developed an automated serious gaming platform (11 games) to deliver intervention at home (GOLIAH) by mapping the imitation and joint attention (JA) subset of age-adapted stimuli from the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) intervention. Here, we report the results of a 6-month matched controlled exploratory study. From two specialized clinics, we included 14 children (age range 5-8 years) with ASD and 10 controls matched for gender, age, sites, and treatment as usual (TAU). Participants from the experimental group received in addition to TAU four 30-min sessions with GOLIAH per week at home and one at hospital for 6 months. Statistics were performed using Linear Mixed Models. Children and parents participated in 40% of the planned sessions. They were able to use the 11 games, and participants trained with GOLIAH improved time to perform the task in most JA games and imitation scores in most imitation games. GOLIAH intervention did not affect Parental Stress Index scores. At end-point, we found in both groups a significant improvement for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores, Vineland socialization score, Parental Stress Index total score, and Child Behavior Checklist internalizing, externalizing and total problems. However, we found no significant change for by time × group interaction. Despite the lack of superiority of TAU + GOLIAH versus TAU, the results are interesting both in terms of changes by using the gaming platform and lack of parental stress increase. A large randomized controlled trial with younger participants (who are the core target of ESDM model) is now discussed. This should be facilitated by computing GOLIAH for a web platform. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02560415.

  1. VIM-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a large tertiary care hospital: matched case-control studies and a network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voor In 't Holt, Anne F; Severin, Juliëtte A; Hagenaars, Margot B H; de Goeij, Inge; Gommers, Diederik; Vos, Margreet C

    2018-01-01

    Emergence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is of global concern. We aimed to identify epidemiological relationships, the most common way of transmission, and risk factors for presence of Verona Integron-encoded Metallo-β-lactamase (VIM)-positive P. aeruginosa (VIM-PA). We conducted a network analysis and matched case-control studies (1:2:2). Controls were hospital-based and matched with cases for ward, day of admission (control group 1 and 2) and time between admission and the identification of VIM-PA (control group 1). The network was visualized using Cytoscape, and risk factors were determined using conditional logistic regression. Between August 2003 and April 2015, 144 case patients and 576 control patients were recruited. We identified 307 relationships in 114 out of these 144 patients, with most relationships (84.7%) identified at the same department ratio [OR] = 4.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00 to 9.65 and OR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.12 to 5.49), > 10 day use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) (OR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.02 to 8.68 and OR = 4.61; 95% CI = 1.22 to 17.37), and use of quinolones (OR = 3.29; 95% CI = 1.34 to 8.10 and OR = 3.95; 95% CI = 1.13 to 13.83 and OR = 4.47; 95% CI = 1.75 to 11.43) were identified as risk factors when using both control groups. The network analysis indicated that the majority of transmissions occurred on the wards, but through unidentified and presumably persistent sources, which are most likely in the innate hospital environment. Previous use of certain antibiotic regimens made patients prone to VIM-PA carriage. Additionally, gastroscopy could be considered as a high-risk procedure in patients with risk factors. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that infection control measures targeting VIM-PA should be focused on reducing antibiotics and eliminating sources in the environment.

  2. Effects of Trait Self-Control on Response Conflict About Healthy and Unhealthy Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillebaart, Marleen; Schneider, Iris K; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-12-01

    Self-control leads to positive life outcomes, but it is poorly understood. While previous research has focused on self-control failure, self-control success remains unexplored. The current studies aim to shed more light on the mechanisms of self-control by focusing on the resolution of response conflict as a key component in self-control success. Trait self-control was measured, and participants reported on the magnitude of response conflict they experienced about healthy and unhealthy foods in Study 1 (N = 146; M age  = 33.03; 59 females, 83 males, 4 unknown). The response conflict process was assessed in Study 2 (N = 118; M age  = 21.45; 68 females, 41 males, 9 unknown). Outcomes showed that self-reported evaluative response conflict about food items was smaller for people high in trait self-control. Study 2 revealed that higher trait self-control predicted faster resolution of self-control conflict, and an earlier peak of the response conflict. Taken together, these results provide insight into what makes people with high trait self-control successful, namely, how they handle response conflict. Implications for self-control theories and future directions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Convergence and divergence of neuroanatomic correlates and executive task performance in healthy controls and psychiatric participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Tak Chung, Dennis; Jerram, Matthew W; Lee, Jonathan K; Katz, Harvey; Gansler, David A

    2013-12-30

    The associations between brain matter volume in the cerebral cortex and set shifting and attentional control as operationalized by the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) and Condition Three of the Delis-Kaplan version of the Color Word Interference Test (CWIT) were investigated in 15 healthy controls and 16 heterogeneously diagnosed psychiatric patients with self-control problems using voxel based morphometry. Both groups underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment. WCST and CWIT variables, and a composite, were regressed across the whole brain. Although CWIT performance levels were the same in both groups, neuroanatomic correlates for the psychiatric participants invoked the left hemisphere language system, but the bilateral dorsal attention system in the healthy controls. On its own, no neuroanatomic correlates were observed for the WCST. But when part of a composite with CWIT, neuroanatomic correlates in the dorsal attention system emerged for the psychiatric participants. Psychometric combinations of manifest executive task variables may best represent higher level latent neuro-cognitive control systems. Factor analytic studies of neuropsychological test performances suggest the constructs being measured are the same across psychiatric and non-diagnosed participants, however, imaging modalities indicate the relevant neural architecture can vary by group. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Theory of mind, insecure attachment and paranoia in adolescents with early psychosis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten W J; Shergill, Sukhi S; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2013-08-01

    Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) is found in adults with schizophrenia and is associated with paranoid symptoms. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM as well as paranoia. Insight into associations between insecure attachment and impaired ToM skills may help clinicians and patients to understand interpersonal difficulties and use this knowledge to improve recovery. This study used a visual perspective-taking task to investigate whether cognitive ToM is already impaired in adolescents with early psychosis as compared to controls. Also investigated was whether perspective-taking and paranoia are associated with insecure (adult) attachment. Thirty-two adolescent patients with early psychosis and 78 healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study design and completed the level 1 perspective-taking task, psychopathology assessments (CAPE, PANSS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), attachment style (PAM) and the WASI vocabulary. Patients did not significantly differ in level-1 perspective-taking behaviour compared to healthy controls. No significant associations were found between perspective-taking, paranoia and attachment. Insecure attachment was significantly related to paranoid thoughts, after controlling for illness-related symptoms. No impairment of level-1 perspective-taking was found in adolescent patients with early psychosis compared to healthy controls. Results indicate that level-1 perspective-taking is not impaired during the early stages of psychotic illness. The association between paranoia and attachment support previous findings and provide further insight into the nature of psychotic symptoms. Understanding the role of attachment in paranoia may help patients and their care workers to gain insight into the reasons for the development or persistence of symptoms. Future research should compare early psychosis samples with more chronic samples to explore whether perspective-taking deteriorates during the course of the illness.

  6. Effect of Metabolic Syndrome on the Functional Outcome of Corticosteroid Injection for Lateral Epicondylitis: Retrospective Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Hak; Oh, Minjoon; Noh, Jung Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-09-07

    Both obesity and diabetes mellitus are well-known risk factors for tendinopathies. We retrospectively compared the efficacy of single corticosteroid injections in treating lateral epicondylitis in patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fifty-one patients with lateral epicondylitis and MetS were age- and sex-matched with 51 controls without MetS. Pain severity, Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score, and grip strength were assessed at base line and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-injection. The pain scores in the MetS group were greater than those in the control group at 6 and 12 weeks. The disability scores and grip strength in the MetS group were significantly worse than those of the control group at 6 weeks. However, there were no significant differences at 24 weeks between the groups in terms of pain, disability scores and grip strengths. After 24 weeks, three patients (6%) in the control group and five patients (10%) in the MetS group had surgical decompression (p = 0.46). Patients with MetS are at risk for poor functional outcome after corticosteroid injection for lateral epicondylitis in the short term, but in the long term there was no difference in outcomes of steroid injection in patients with and without MetS.

  7. Ultrasound Characteristics of the Achilles Tendon in Tophaceous Gout: A Comparison with Age- and Sex-matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Matthew; Dalbeth, Nicola; Allen, Bruce; Stewart, Sarah; House, Tony; Boocock, Mark; Frampton, Christopher; Rome, Keith

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the frequency and distribution of characteristics of the Achilles tendon (AT) in people with tophaceous gout using musculoskeletal ultrasound (US). Twenty-four participants with tophaceous gout and 24 age- and sex-matched controls without gout or other arthritis were recruited. All participants underwent a greyscale and power Doppler US examination. The AT was divided into 3 anatomical zones (insertion, pre-insertional, and proximal to the mid-section). The following US characteristics were assessed: tophus, tendon echogenicity, tendon vascularity, tendon morphology, entheseal characteristics, bursal morphology, and calcaneal bone profile. The majority of the participants with tophaceous gout were middle-aged men (n = 22, 92%) predominately of European ethnicity (n = 14, 58%). Tophus deposition was observed in 73% (n = 35) of tendons in those with gout and in none of the controls (p gout compared to controls. High prevalence of entheseal calcifications, calcaneal bone cortex irregularities, and calcaneal enthesophytes were observed in both gout participants and controls, without differences between groups. Intratendinous structural damage was rare. Hyperechoic spots were significantly more common at the insertion compared to the zone proximal to the mid-section (p gout. Despite crystal deposition, intratendinous structural changes are infrequent. Many characteristics observed in the AT in people with tophaceous gout, particularly at the calcaneal enthesis, are not disease-specific.

  8. Differences in active range of motion measurements in the upper extremity of patients with writer's cramp compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Shamim, Ejaz A; Diomi, Pierre; Hattori, Takaaki; Pandey, Sanjay; Vorbach, Sherry; Park, Jung E; Wu, Tianxia; Auh, Sungyoung; Hallett, Mark

    Exploratory case-control study. Writer's cramp (WC) is a type of focal hand dystonia. The central nervous system plays a role in its pathophysiology, but abnormalities in the affected musculoskeletal components may also be relevant. We compared the active range of motion (ROM) in patients with WC and healthy volunteers (HVs) and correlated the findings with disease duration and severity. Affected limb joints were measured with goniometers. Patients were assessed at least 3 months after their last botulinum toxin (botulinum neurotoxin) injection, and strength was clinically normal. t tests were used to compare the ROMs of WC with matched HVs. The Spearman correlation coefficient assessed the relationship of active ROMs to the disease duration and handwriting subscore of the Dystonia Disability Scale. ROMs of D1 metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint extension as well as D2 and D5 MCP flexion were significantly smaller in WC, and distal interphalangeal joint extension in D3 and D5 was significantly greater compared with HVs. There were negative correlations between D2 MCP flexion and disease duration and with Dystonia Disability Scale. Abnormalities in ROMs in WC were found. Severity and disease duration correlated with reduced D2 MCP flexion. This may be related to intrinsic biomechanical abnormalities, co-contraction of muscles, or a combination of subclinical weakness and atrophy from repeated botulinum neurotoxin injections. Hand biomechanical properties should not be ignored in the pathophysiology of WC. 2c. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial experience with a synthetic sealant PleuraSeal™ after pulmonary resections: a prospective study with retrospective case matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennings Ellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate postoperative outcome and efficacy of a hydrogel tissue sealant for prevention of alveolar leakage after open lung resections. 20 consecutive patients were enrolled in the PleuraSeal™ sealant group (PSG and case matched with 20 retrospective controls (CG with standard treatment. Assessment of postoperative air leakage was performed until chest tube removal. Patients were followed until 30 days after discharge. At end of surgery, 100% in the PSG and 0% in the CG were air leak free (p The study demonstrated a superior efficacy of PleuraSeal™ sealant compared with standard surgical treatment for sustained sealing of postoperative air leakage and causes shorter air leak chest tube duration.

  10. Profitability and Market Value of Orphan Drug Companies: A Retrospective, Propensity-Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dyfrig A; Poletti-Hughes, Jannine

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the high cost of orphan drugs has led to questions being asked about the generosity of the incentives for development, and associated company profits. We conducted a retrospective, propensity score matched study of publicly-listed orphan companies. Cases were defined as holders of orphan drug market authorisation in Europe or the USA between 2000-12. Control companies were selected based on their propensity for being orphan drug market authorisation holders. We applied system General Method of Moments to test whether companies with orphan drug market authorization are valued higher, as measured by the Tobin's Q and market to book value ratios, and are more profitable based on return on assets, than non-orphan drug companies. 86 companies with orphan drug approvals in European (4), USA (61) or both (21) markets were matched with 258 controls. Following adjustment, orphan drug market authorization holders have a 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.6% to 18.7%) higher return on assets than non-orphan drug companies; Tobin's Q was higher by 9.9% (1.0% to 19.7%); market to book value by 15.7% (3.1% to 30.0%) and operating profit by 516% (CI 19.8% to 1011%). For each additional orphan drug sold, return on assets increased by 11.1% (0.6% to 21.3%), Tobin's Q by 2.7% (0.2% to 5.2%), and market to book value ratio by 5.8% (0.7% to 10.9%). Publicly listed pharmaceutical companies that are orphan drug market authorization holders are associated with higher market value and greater profits than companies not producing treatments for rare diseases.

  11. Conformational diversity of flexible ligand in metal-organic frameworks controlled by size-matching mixed ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Xiu-Ni; Qin, Lan; Yan, Xiao-Zhi; Yu, Lei; Xie, Yi-Xin; Han, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of N-auxiliary flexible exo-bidentate ligand 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) and carboxylates ligands naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H_2ndc) or 4,4′-(hydroxymethylene)dibenzoic acid (H_2hmdb), in the presence of cadmium(II) salts have given rise to two novel metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands (FL-MOFs), namely, [Cd_2(2,6-ndc)_2(bpp)(DMF)]·2DMF (1) and [Cd_3(hmdb)_3(bpp)]·2DMF·2EtOH (2) (DMF=N,N-Dimethylformamide). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that compound 1 exhibits a three-dimensional self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster second building unit. Compound 2 displays an infinite three-dimensional ‘Lucky Clover’ shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster and V-shaped organic linkers. The flexible bpp ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which are successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process. - Graphical abstract: Compound 1 exhibits a 3D self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster, and 2 displays an infinite 3D ‘Lucky Clover’ shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster. The flexible 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process.

  12. Conformational diversity of flexible ligand in metal-organic frameworks controlled by size-matching mixed ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Xiu-Ni; Qin, Lan; Yan, Xiao-Zhi; Yu, Lei; Xie, Yi-Xin; Han, Lei, E-mail: hanlei@nbu.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of N-auxiliary flexible exo-bidentate ligand 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) and carboxylates ligands naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H{sub 2}ndc) or 4,4′-(hydroxymethylene)dibenzoic acid (H{sub 2}hmdb), in the presence of cadmium(II) salts have given rise to two novel metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands (FL-MOFs), namely, [Cd{sub 2}(2,6-ndc){sub 2}(bpp)(DMF)]·2DMF (1) and [Cd{sub 3}(hmdb){sub 3}(bpp)]·2DMF·2EtOH (2) (DMF=N,N-Dimethylformamide). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that compound 1 exhibits a three-dimensional self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster second building unit. Compound 2 displays an infinite three-dimensional ‘Lucky Clover’ shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster and V-shaped organic linkers. The flexible bpp ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which are successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process. - Graphical abstract: Compound 1 exhibits a 3D self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster, and 2 displays an infinite 3D ‘Lucky Clover’ shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster. The flexible 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process.

  13. Bus Stops and Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Collisions in Lima, Peru: A Matched Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Johnston, Brian D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ebel, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. Design Matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossing. Setting Random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February, 2011 to September, 2011. Participants 97 intersection cases representing 1,134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October, 2010 and January, 2011 and their matched controls. Main Exposures Presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. Main Outcome Occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Results Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53-7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Both formal and informal bus stops were associated with a higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76-22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37-6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02-5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high income countries. Conclusions In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a three-fold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. PMID:24357516

  14. Association between vitamin D and pressure ulcers in older ambulatory adults: results of a matched case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalava UR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Usha R Kalava1, Stephen S Cha2, Paul Y Takahashi1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Department of Biostatistics, 3Kogod Center of Aging, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Pressure ulcers are common among older adults, but knowledge about nutritional risk factors is still developing. Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly population and is required for normal skin proliferation. The role of vitamin D in pressure ulceration and wound healing is not known. The purpose of this case–control study was to determine the association between vitamin D levels and pressure ulceration in an older community-dwelling cohort.Methods: All cases and controls were community-dwelling elderly older than 60 years in a primary care panel in Olmsted County, MN. Pressure ulcer cases were defined clinically. The controls were age-matched and gender-matched to controls without pressure ulceration. The main exposure variable was 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in both groups. The other exposure variable was the Charlson Comorbidity Index used to measure medical comorbidity. The analysis included univariate and conditional logistic regression for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.Results: The average (standard deviation age of the study participants with a pressure ulcer was 80.46 years (±8.67, and the average vitamin D level was 30.92 ng/mL (±12.46. In univariate analysis, Vitamin D deficiency (levels < 25 ng/mL was associated with pressure ulcers (odds ratio: 1.871, P = 0.0154. Comorbidities of the subjects calculated using the Charlson Comorbidity Index were also associated with pressure ulcers (odds ratio: 1.136, P < 0.001. In the final conditional logistical regression model, the association of Vitamin D and pressure ulcers became nonsignificant after adjustment for comorbid illness.Conclusion: Medical comorbidities increased the risk of pressure ulceration. Vitamin D deficiency was not an independent risk factor

  15. Differences in nutritional status between very mild Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Verhey, Frans R; Sijben, John W C; Bouwman, Femke H; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Lansink, Mirian; Sipers, Walther M W; van Asselt, Dieneke Z B; van Hees, Anneke M J; Stevens, Martijn; Vellas, Bruno; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the systemic availability of nutrients and nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widely available, but the majority included patients in a moderate stage of AD. This study compares the nutritional status between mild AD outpatients and healthy controls. A subgroup of Dutch drug-naïve patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥20) from the Souvenir II randomized controlled study (NTR1975) and a group of Dutch healthy controls were included. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring levels of several nutrients, conducting the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®) questionnaire and through anthropometric measures. In total, data of 93 healthy cognitively intact controls (MMSE 29.0 [23.0-30.0]) and 79 very mild AD patients (MMSE = 25.0 [20.0-30.0]) were included. Plasma selenium (p < 0.001) and uridine (p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in AD patients, with a similar trend for plasma vitamin D (p = 0.094) levels. In addition, the fatty acid profile in erythrocyte membranes was different between groups for several fatty acids. Mean MNA screening score was significantly lower in AD patients (p = 0.008), but not indicative of malnutrition risk. No significant differences were observed for other micronutrient or anthropometric parameters. In non-malnourished patients with very mild AD, lower levels of some micronutrients, a different fatty acid profile in erythrocyte membranes and a slightly but significantly lower MNA screening score were observed. This suggests that subtle differences in nutrient status are present already in a very early stage of AD and in the absence of protein/energy malnutrition.

  16. Differential expression of proteomics models of colorectal cancer, colorectal benign disease and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shu-Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is often diagnosed at a late stage with concomitant poor prognosis. The hypersensitive analytical technique of proteomics can detect molecular changes before the tumor is palpable. The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectra (SELDI-TOF-MS is a newly-developed technique of evaluating protein separation in recent years. The protein chips have established the expression of tumor protein in the serum specimens and become the newly discovered markers for tumor diagnosis. The objective of this study was to find new markers of the diagnosis among groups of CRC, colorectal benign diseases (CBD and healthy controls. The assay of SELDI-TOF-MS with analytical technique of protein-chip bioinformatics was used to detect the expression of protein mass peaks in the sera of patients or controls. One hundred serum samples, including 52 cases of colorectal cancer, 27 cases of colorectal benign disease, and 21 cases of healthy controls, were examined by SELDI-TOF-MS with WCX2 protein-chips. Results The diagnostic models (I, II and III were setup by analyzed the data and sieved markers using Ciphergen - Protein-Chip-Software 5.1. These models were combined with 3 protein mass peaks to discriminate CRC, CBD, and healthy controls. The accuracy, the sensitivity and the particularity of cross verification of these models are all highly over 80%. Conclusions The SELDI-TOF-MS is a useful tool to help diagnose colorectal cancer, especially during the early stage. However, identification of the significantly differentiated proteins needs further study.

  17. Analysis of breath volatile organic compounds in children with chronic liver disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Katharine; Alkhouri, Naim; Cikach, Frank; Patel, Nishaben; Yan, Chen; Grove, David; Lopez, Rocio; Rome, Ellen; Dweik, Raed A

    2015-04-20

    Breath testing is increasingly being used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for disease states across medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as measured by mass spectrometry in healthy children and children with chronic liver disease (CLD). Patients between the ages of 6 and 21 were recruited for the study. Control subjects were recruited from a general pediatric population during well-child visits, while patients with CLD were recruited from pediatric gastroenterology clinic visits. The diagnosis of CLD was confirmed by clinical, laboratory, and/or histologic data. A single exhaled breath was collected and analyzed by means of selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry per protocol. A total of 104 patients were included in the study (49 with CLD and 55 healthy controls). Of the patients with CLD, 20 had advanced liver fibrosis (F3-F4). In the CLD cohort, levels of exhaled 1-decene, 1-heptene, 1-octene and 3 methylhexane were found to be significantly higher when compared to the control population (p CLD patients when compared to controls (p CLD was excellent (AUROC = 0.97). Our study demonstrates that children with CLD have a unique pattern of exhaled VOCs. Utilization of a combination of these VOCs represents a promising non-invasive diagnostic tool and may provide further insight into the pathophysiologic processes and pathways leading to pediatric liver disease. Further analysis of these compounds in external cohorts are needed to validate our findings.

  18. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted.

  19. Visual field defects and retinal nerve fiber imaging in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Paula; Ascaso, Francisco J; Vicente, Eugenio; Tejero-Garcés, Gloria; Adiego, María I; Cristóbal, José A

    2018-03-02

    To assess the retinal sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients evaluated with standard automated perimetry (SAP). And to correlate the functional SAP results with structural parameters obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT). This prospective, observational, case-control study consisted of 63 eyes of 63 OSAHS patients (mean age 51.7 ± 12.7 years, best corrected visual acuity ≥20/25, refractive error less than three spherical or two cylindrical diopters, and intraocular pressure < 21 mmHg) who were enrolled and compared with 38 eyes of 38 age-matched controls. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was measured by Stratus OCT and SAP sensitivities and indices were explored with Humphrey Field Analyzer perimeter. Correlations between functional and structural parameters were calculated, as well as the relationship between ophthalmologic and systemic indices in OSAHS patients. OSAHS patients showed a significant reduction of the sensitivity for superior visual field division (p = 0.034, t-student test). When dividing the OSAHS group in accordance with the severity of the disease, nasal peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly lower in severe OSAHS than that in controls and mild-moderate cases (p = 0.031 and p = 0.016 respectively, Mann-Whitney U test). There were no differences between groups for SAP parameters. We found no correlation between structural and functional variables. The central visual field sensitivity of the SAP revealed a poor Pearson correlation with the apnea-hipopnea index (0.284, p = 0.024). Retinal sensitivity show minor differences between healthy subjects and OSAHS. Functional deterioration in OSAHS patients is not easy to demonstrate with visual field examination.

  20. Relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkgöz Çepni, Serap; Kitiş, Yeter

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the healthy lifestyle behaviors and the health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students. The study included 572 undergraduate students of a university in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. The data were collected with the General Characteristics Form, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Health Competence Scale and investigated with the structural equation model. Health-specific self-efficacy was an important predictor of healthy lifestyle behaviors. The Internal health locus of control influenced the healthy lifestyle behaviors through health-specific self-efficacy. The other dimension was the Powerful Others health locus of control that affected healthy lifestyle behaviors, both directly and indirectly, through health-specific self-efficacy. There was a chance that the health locus of control had a negative effect on healthy lifestyle behaviors through self-efficacy. Health-specific self-efficacy is an important prerequisite for changes in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which supports Pender's model. The subscales of the health locus of control vary in their effects on healthy lifestyle behaviors, which partly supports Pender's model. Nurses, by using this model, can examine ways of improving these cognitive-perceptual factors and implement health education programs that are directed towards improving them in young persons. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  1. Skin autofluorescence is associated with arterial stiffness and insulin level in endurance runners and healthy controls - Effects of aging and endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couppé, Christian; Dall, Christian Have; Svensson, Rene Brüggebusch; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Karlsen, Anders; Praet, Stephan; Prescott, Eva; Magnusson, S Peter

    2017-05-01

    Life-long regular endurance exercise yields positive effects on cardiovascular and metabolic function, disease and mortality rate. Glycation may be a major mechanism behind age-related diseases. However, it remains unknown if skin autofluorescence (SAF), which reflects glycation, is related to arterial and metabolic function in life-long endurance runners and sedentary controls. Healthy elderly men: 15 life-long endurance runners (OT) (64±4years) and 12 old untrained (OU) (66±4years), and healthy young men; ten young athletes (YT) (26±4years) matched to OT for running distance, and 12 young untrained (YU) (24±3years) were recruited. Endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index, RHI) and arterial stiffness (augmentation index, AI@75 and AI) were measured by an operator-independent PAT 2000. SAF was non-invasively determined using an autofluorescence spectrometer. For AI@75 there was an effect of age (page correction (both r 2 =0.19, paging and pathology). Surprisingly, endurance running only had modest effects on cardiovascular function compared to lean healthy controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activities of daily living associated with acquisition of melioidosis in northeast Thailand: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direk Limmathurotsakul

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is a serious infectious disease caused by the Category B select agent and environmental saprophyte, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Most cases of naturally acquired infection are assumed to result from skin inoculation after exposure to soil or water. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for inoculation, inhalation and ingestion as routes of infection, and develop preventive guidelines based on this evidence.A prospective hospital-based 1∶2 matched case-control study was conducted in Northeast Thailand. Cases were patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis, and controls were patients admitted with non-infectious conditions during the same period, matched for gender, age, and diabetes mellitus. Activities of daily living were recorded for the 30-day period before onset of symptoms, and home visits were performed to obtain drinking water and culture this for B. pseudomallei. Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis based on 286 cases and 512 controls showed that activities associated with a risk of melioidosis included working in a rice field (conditional odds ratio [cOR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-3.3, other activities associated with exposure to soil or water (cOR = 1.4; 95%CI 0.8-2.6, an open wound (cOR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.3, eating food contaminated with soil or dust (cOR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.0-2.2, drinking untreated water (cOR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.6, outdoor exposure to rain (cOR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2, water inhalation (cOR = 2.4; 95%CI 1.5-3.9, current smoking (cOR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.0-2.3 and steroid intake (cOR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.4-6.9. B. pseudomallei was detected in water source(s consumed by 7% of cases and 3% of controls (cOR = 2.2; 95%CI 0.8-5.8.We used these findings to develop the first evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of melioidosis. These are suitable for people in melioidosis-endemic areas, travelers and military personnel. Public health campaigns

  3. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf: protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

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    Le Ha ND

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1 a skill-building intervention; (2 price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3 a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4 a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the

  4. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

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    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  5. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidental findings in healthy control research subjects using whole-body MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, S.H.X.; Cobbold, J.F.L.; Lim, A.K.P.; Eliahoo, J.; Thomas, E.L.; Mehta, S.R.; Durighel, G.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bell, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful clinical tool used increasingly in the research setting. We aimed to assess the prevalence of incidental findings in a sequential cohort of healthy volunteers undergoing whole-body MRI as part of a normal control database for imaging research studies. Materials and methods: 148 healthy volunteers (median age 36 years, range 21-69 years; 63.5% males, 36.5% females) were enrolled into a prospective observational study at a single hospital-based MRI research unit in London, UK. Individuals with a clinical illness, treated or under investigation were excluded from the study. Results: 43 (29.1%) scans were abnormal with a total of 49 abnormalities detected. Of these, 20 abnormalities in 19 patients (12.8%) were of clinical significance. The prevalence of incidental findings increased significantly with both increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Obese subjects had a fivefold greater risk of having an incidental abnormality on MRI (OR 5.4, CI 2.1-14.0). Conclusions: This study showed that more than one quarter of healthy volunteers have MR-demonstrable abnormalities. There was an increased risk of such findings in obese patients. This has ethical and financial implications for future imaging research, particularly with respect to informed consent and follow-up of those with abnormalities detected during the course of imaging studies.

  7. Evaluation of the vaginal flora in pregnant women receiving opioid maintenance therapy: a matched case-control study.

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    Farr, Alex; Kiss, Herbert; Hagmann, Michael; Holzer, Iris; Kueronya, Verena; Husslein, Peter W; Petricevic, Ljubomir

    2016-08-05

    Vaginal infections are a risk factor for preterm delivery. In this study, we sought to evaluate the vaginal flora of pregnant women receiving opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) in comparison to non-dependent, non-maintained controls. A total of 3763 women with singleton pregnancies who underwent routine screening for asymptomatic vaginal infections between 10 + 0 and 16 + 0 gestational weeks were examined. Vaginal smears were Gram-stained, and microscopically evaluated for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. In a retrospective manner, data of 132 women receiving OMT (cases) were matched for age, ethnicity, parity, education, previous preterm delivery, and smoking status to the data of 3631 controls. The vaginal flora at antenatal screening served as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were gestational age and birth weight. In the OMT group, 62/132 (47 %) pregnant women received methadone, 39/132 (29.5 %) buprenorphine, and 31/132 (23.5 %) slow-release oral morphine. Normal or intermediate flora was found in 72/132 OMT women (54.5 %) and 2865/3631 controls [78.9 %; OR 0.49 (95 % CI, 0.33-0.71); p Candidiasis occurred more frequently in OMT women than in controls [OR 2.11 (95 % CI, 1.26-3.27); p candidiasis) and trichomoniasis. Compared to infants of the control group, those of women with OMT had a lower mean birth weight [MD -165.3 g (95 % CI, -283.6 to -46.9); p = 0.006]. Pregnant women with OMT are at risk for asymptomatic vaginal infections. As recurrent candidiasis is associated with preterm delivery, the vulnerability of this patient population should lead to consequent antenatal infection screening at early gestation.

  8. Impact of Fibromyalgia in the Sit-to-Stand-to-Sit Performance Compared With Healthy Controls.

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    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Olivares, Pedro R; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction in the ability to perform activities of daily living. Sit-to-stand-to-sit performance is one of the most common activities of daily living and often is evaluated by counting the number of repetitions of the 30-second chair-stand test. No study, however, has examined the performance over the 30 seconds of this test of female patients with fibromyalgia on a phase-by-phase basis. To evaluate the impact of fibromyalgia on performance of the 30-second chair-stand test and to analyze how the kinematic performance changed over the 30-second test period. A cross-sectional study. Local association of fibromyalgia. Fifteen females with fibromyalgia and nine healthy female controls. Participants performed the 30-second chair-stand test while wearing a motion capture device. Duration of each sit-to-stand-to-sit phase within the 30-second time limit was compared between groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. The association between duration of phases and scores from the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was tested using bivariate correlations. The duration of impulse and sit-to-stand phases were gradually increased over the 30 seconds of the chair-stand test for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). The mean duration of these 2 phases was associated with symptom duration and the function domain of the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (P fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Since sit-to-stand from a chair is a common daily activity, women with fibromyalgia may require specific exercises to improve performance of this task. Not applicable. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Pulmonary Hypertension with CMR: Pulmonary Hypertension 
Patients and Healthy Volunteers Control Study

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    Meng WANG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The clinical course of pulmonary hypertension (PH is one of progressive deterioration interspersed with episodes of acute decompensation. It is difficult to predict when patients will die because death may come either suddenly or slowly due to progressive heart failure. The aim of this study is to investigate morphology, function and hemodynamics in PH, compared with healthy people, and to investigate the clinical value of detection of PH by use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR parameters. Methods CMR was performed in 56 PH patients collected from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014 and 22 healthy controls. The following parameters were calculated: right ventricle (RV end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, ejection fraction (EF, myocardial mass (MM, RV fractional area change (RVFAC, interventricular septal curvature (CIVS, left ventricular free wall curvature (CFW, and CIVS/CFW, main pulmonary artery (MPA positive peak velocity, maximal area, minimal area and distensibility. Comparisons of CMR measurements between PH patients and controls were analyzed by using the student t-tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to compare the PH diagnostic abilities for four parameters (MPA positive peak velocity, distensibility, curvature ratio, and RVFAC and combined CMR parameter. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Compared with healthy controls, RV morphology, function and hemodynamics of PH group declined and deteriorate obviously. The ROC curve analysis showed that among the four parameters distensibility of MPA had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.95. Additionally, combined CMR parameter (positive peak velocity+distensibility+curvature ratio+RVFAC had even higher AUC (AUC=0.988. Conclusion Comprehensive CMR parameters is conducive to accurately reflect the overall state RV-pulmonary circulation in patients with PH.

  10. Cortisol Modulation by Ayahuasca in Patients With Treatment Resistant Depression and Healthy Controls

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    Ana C. de Menezes Galvão

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder, affecting about 350 million people, and around 30% of the patients are resistant to currently available antidepressant medications. Recent evidence from a randomized controlled trial (RCT supports the rapid antidepressant effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca in treatment-resistant depression. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of ayahuasca on plasma cortisol and awakening salivary cortisol response, in the same group of treatment-resistant patients (MD and in healthy volunteers (C. Subjects received a single dose of ayahuasca or placebo (dosing session, and both plasma and awakening salivary cortisol response were measured at baseline (before dosing session and 48 h after the dosing session. Baseline assessment (D0 showed blunted awakening salivary cortisol response and hypocortisolemia in patients, with respect to healthy controls. Salivary cortisol was also measured during dosing session, and we observed higher increases for both C and MD that ingested ayahuasca than placebo. After 48 h from the dosing session with ayahuasca, patients' awakening salivary cortisol response is similar to the ones detected in controls. No significant changes in plasma cortisol levels were observed 48 h after the sessions. Therefore, these findings point to new evidence on the modulation of salivary cortisol levels as a result of an ayahuasca session, both in healthy and depressive volunteers. Considering that cortisol acts in regulation of distinct physiological pathways, emotional and cognitive processes, it is assumed to be critically involved to the etiology of depression and its regulation seems to be important for the treatment and remission of major depression, ayahuasca use as antidepressant should be further investigated. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of psychedelics in the treatment of human mental disorders.

  11. Brain responses to sound intensity changes dissociate depressed participants and healthy controls.

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    Ruohonen, Elisa M; Astikainen, Piia

    2017-07-01

    Depression is associated with bias in emotional information processing, but less is known about the processing of neutral sensory stimuli. Of particular interest is processing of sound intensity which is suggested to indicate central serotonergic function. We tested weather event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to occasional changes in sound intensity can dissociate first-episode depressed, recurrent depressed and healthy control participants. The first-episode depressed showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant sounds compared to recurrent depression group and control participants. In addition, both depression groups, but not the control group, showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant than standard sounds. Whether these manifestations of sensory over-excitability in depression are directly related to the serotonergic neurotransmission requires further research. The method based on ERPs to sound intensity change is fast and low-cost way to objectively measure brain activation and holds promise as a future diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of actions promoting healthy eating on students' lipid profile: A controlled trial

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    Rita De Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutrition intervention actions on the lipid profile of children and adolescents enrolled in public elementary schools. METHODS: This nine-month, controlled, intervention study included 202 students aged 7 to 14 years attending two schools (intervention/control located in a poor neighborhood of the municipality of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Actions were implemented in the intervention school to promote healthy eating habits, presented as "Ten steps to healthy eating". The effect of these actions was assessed by subjecting the students at baseline and end of the follow-up to biochemical, maturation, and anthropometric measurements and a produce intake survey. The dependent variables were the changes in the study biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of covariance assessed the changes that occurred over the study period. RESULTS: The mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides of the intervention students decreased 13.18 mg/dL (p=0.001, 7.41 mg/dL (p=0.038, and 12.37 mg/dL (p=0.029, respectively, compared with the control students. CONCLUSION: Actions of this nature have a positive impact on lipid profile. This study adds to those that use effective and viable public health strategies implementable at the primary care level.

  13. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

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    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  14. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

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    Jenna Strizzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can substantially alter many areas of a person’s life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL, Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI, Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI, and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS. Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p<0.001, FSFI subscales of desire (p<0.05, arousal (p<0.05, lubrication (p<0.05, orgasm (p<0.05, and satisfaction (p<0.05, and the ISS (p<0.001 than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs.

  16. Evaluation of Salivary Vitamin C and Catalase in HIV Positive and Healthy HIV Negative Control Group.

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    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Vaziri-Amjad, Samaneh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV-positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group. Forty-nine HIV-infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary catalase levels were 7.99±2.40 and 8.37±1.81 in the case and control groups, respectively. Catalase level was lower in the case group but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.380). Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3.76±1.92 and 4.87±2.20, respectively (P=0.009). HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Cortical control of gait in healthy humans: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ChiHong, Wang; YauYau, Wai; BoCheng, Kuo; Yei-Yu, Yeh; JiunJie Wang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the cortical control of gait in healthy humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two block-designed fMRI sessions were conducted during motor imagery of a locomotor-related task. Subjects watched a video clip that showed an actor standing and walking in an egocentric perspective. In a control session, additional fMRI images were collected when participants observed a video clip of the clutch movement of a right hand. In keeping with previous studies using SPECT and NIRS, we detected activation in many motor-related areas including supplementary motor area, bilateral precentral gyrus, left dorsal premotor cortex, and cingulate motor area. Smaller additional activations were observed in the bilateral precuneus, left thalamus, and part of right putamen. Based on these findings, we propose a novel paradigm to study the cortical control of gait in healthy humans using fMRI. Specifically, the task used in this study - involving both mirror neurons and mental imagery - provides a new feasible model to be used in functional neuroimaging studies in this area of research. (author)

  18. Knee joint laxity and passive stiffness in meniscectomized patients compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlund, Jonas B; Creaby, Mark W; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-10-01

    Passive mechanical behavior of the knee in the frontal plane, measured as angular laxity and mechanical stiffness, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Little is known about knee laxity and stiffness prior to knee OA onset. We investigated knee joint angular laxity and passive stiffness in meniscectomized patients at high risk of knee OA compared with healthy controls. Sixty patients meniscectomized for a medial meniscal tear (52 men, 41.4 ± 5.5 years, 175.3 ± 7.9 cm, 83.6 ± 12.8 kg, mean ± SD) and 21 healthy controls (18 men, 42.0 ± 6.7 years, 176.8 ± 5.7 cm, 77.8 ± 13.4 kg) had their knee joint angular laxity and passive stiffness assessed twice ~2.3 years apart. Linear regression models including age, sex, height and body mass as covariates in the adjusted model were used to assess differences between groups. Greater knee joint varus (-10.1 vs. -7.3°, pknee joint angular laxity and reduced passive stiffness ~3 months post surgery compared with controls. In addition, the results indicated that knee joint laxity may increase over time in meniscectomized patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between oral health status and type 2 diabetes mellitus among Sudanese adults: a matched case-control study.

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    Hasaan G Mohamed

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and subjective oral health indicators of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM with age and gender matched non-diabetic controls. A second aim was to identify clinical and subjective oral health indicators that discriminate between well-controlled and poorly controlled T2DM patients as well as between patients with long and short duration of the disease. METHODS: A total of 457 individuals participated in the study (154 T2DM cases and 303 non-diabetic controls. The T2DM group was sub-divided according to metabolic control [(well-controlled: glycosylated haemoglobin test 8%, (poorly controlled: glycosylated haemoglobin test > 8%] and according to duration of T2DM [(long duration: >10 years, (short duration: 10 years]. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including socio-demographics, lifestyle and oral health related quality of life factors. The clinical examination comprised full mouth probing depths, plaque index, tooth mobility index, furcation involvement and coronal and root surface caries. RESULTS: The T2DM patients presented with more probing depths 4 mm, furcation involvement, tooth mobility, missing teeth, and oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP. The corresponding adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were 4.07 (1.74-9.49, 2.96 (1.36-6.45, 5.90 (2.26-15.39, 0.23 (0.08-0.63 and 3.46 (1.61-7.42, respectively. Moreover, the odds ratio was 2.60 (1.21-5.55 for the poorly controlled T2DM patients to have high levels of mobility index and 2.94 (1.24-6.94 for those with long duration of T2DM to have high decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT values. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that chronic periodontitis, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and OIDP were more prevalent among T2DM patients compared to their non-diabetic controls.

  20. Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and healthy controls in the United States

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    Switzer William M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence of XMRV infection by using serologic and molecular assays. Blinded PCR and serologic testing were performed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and at two additional laboratories. Results Archived blood specimens were tested from persons with CFS defined by the 1994 international research case definition and matched healthy controls from Wichita, Kansas and metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia populations. Serologic testing at CDC utilized a Western blot (WB assay that showed excellent sensitivity to MuLV and XMRV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, and no reactivity on sera from 121 US blood donors or 26 HTLV-and HIV-infected sera. Plasma from 51 CFS cases and plasma from 53 controls were all WB negative. Additional blinded screening of the 51 cases and 53 controls at the Robert Koch Institute using an ELISA employing recombinant Gag and Env XMRV proteins identified weak seroreactivity in one CFS case and a healthy control, which was not confirmed by immunofluorescence. PCR testing at CDC employed a gag and a pol nested PCR assay with a detection threshold of 10 copies in 1 ug of human DNA. DNA specimens from 50 CFS patients and 56 controls and 41 US blood donors were all PCR-negative. Blinded testing by a second nested gag PCR assay at the Blood Systems Research Institute was also negative for DNA specimens from the 50 CFS cases and 56 controls. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of infection with XMRV in our U.S. study population of CFS patients or healthy controls by using multiple molecular and serologic assays. These data do not support an

  1. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda.

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    Nazarius M Tumwesigye

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15-29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda's capital city.The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis.Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19-4.45, lower engine capacity (<100 cc (OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91-8.70, riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19-3.52, riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58-14.18 and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62-25.9. Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late.More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding licenses and test the riding competency of all

  2. Trends and causes of maternal mortality in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia: a matched case–control study

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    Legesse T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tegene Legesse,1 Misra Abdulahi,2 Anteneh Dirar2 1Department of Public Health, Collage of Health Science, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia; 2Department of Population and Family Health, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia Introduction: Measures of maternal death are fundamental to a country’s health and development status. In developing countries, it remains a daunting and largely unmet public health challenge. There were two studies completed over 10 years ago in Jimma University Specialized Hospital to identify trends, but recently there have been many changes in Ethiopia to reduce maternal death. Therefore, it is important to track the achievements made in Ethiopia in the context of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. No study undertaken in the country has quantified deaths of women from specific causes after controlling confounders.Objective: To assess trends and causes of maternal death in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia.Methods: A time-matched case–control study was conducted on 600 (120 cases and 480 controls females who utilized obstetrics and gynecology services from January 2010 to December 2014. To observe trends in maternal death, maternal mortality ratio was calculated for each year. Stata version 13 was used to analyze causal inference using propensity score matching method.Results: Maternal mortality ratio was 857/100,000 and had a decreasing trend from it’s highest in 2010 of 1,873/100,000 to it’s lowest of 350/100,000 in 2014. The leading cause of maternal death was hemorrhage (54% (β=0.477, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.307, 0.647, followed by pregnancy-induced hypertension (20% (β=0.232, 95% CI: 0.046, 0.419, and anemia (12% (β=0.110, 95% CI: 0.017, 0.204.Conclusion: There is a decreasing trend of maternal death. Hemorrhage was the major cause of death identified in each year of study. Keywords: maternal death, maternal

  3. A comparison of cognitive functions in non-hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and age-matched healthy volunteers using mini-mental state examination questionnaire and event-related potential, P300 analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Parkash Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess sub-clinical cognitive dysfunctions in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients having no hypoxemia vs. age-matched healthy volunteers using (i an electrophysiological test: Auditory event related potential, P300 test and (ii a questionnaire tool: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Eighty male subjects were included: 40 stable COPD patients (smoking history >20 pack years and 40 healthy volunteers (HVs. Age, duration of illness, smoking pack years, and spirometric indices were assessed. MMSE scores were evaluated in these groups. Latency of P300 wave and amplitude of P300 wave were studied in both groups to detect P300 abnormalities in COPD group. Correlations of P300 abnormalities with patient characteristic parameters and MMSE scores were assessed. In addition, individual COPD patients having significant cognitive dysfunctions beyond cut-off value of 99 th percentile of HVs were analyzed. Results: We observed significantly prolonged P300 latency ( P 0.05 for all. Conclusions: Our study explores cognitive dysfunctions in stable COPD patients with no hypoxemia. This study highlights the relative importance of using MMSE and P300. Cognitive dysfunctions were detected both by MMSE and P300; however, MMSE abnormalities were more frequent compared to P300 abnormalities (27/40 vs. 10/40 in COPD patients.

  4. Lack of Association Between Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Diabetes Mellitus: A Matched Case-Control Study in a Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Loera-Moncivais, Nayely; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Madrid, Guillermina; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Centeno-Tinoco, Maria Magdalena; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada A; Salas-Pacheco, Jose M; Campos-Moreno, Oscar Vladimir; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema

    2017-06-01

    Very little is known about the association between infection with Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ) and diabetes mellitus. We perform an age- and gender-matched case-control study to determine the association of T. gondii infection and diabetes mellitus. Cases included 156 patients with diabetes mellitus and 156 controls without diabetes mellitus who attended in two public clinics in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were tested for the presence of anti- Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked fluorescence assays (ELFA). Anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6.4%) of the 156 cases and in five (3.2%) of the 156 controls (odds ratio (OR): 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69 - 6.19; P = 0.18). The frequency of high (> 150 IU/mL) anti- T. gondii IgG levels in seropositive cases (1/10: 10.0%) was comparable to the one (1/5: 20%) in seropositive controls (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.02 - 9.03; P = 1.00). None of the 10 cases and five controls with seropositivity to anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were positive for anti- T. gondii IgM antibodies. Stratification by gender showed similar frequencies of T. gondii infection in female cases (7/107: 6.5%) and female controls (4/107: 3.7%) (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 0.51 - 6.34; P = 0.53), and in male cases (3/49: 6.1%) and male controls (1/49: 2.0%) (OR: 3.13; 95% CI: 0.31 - 31.19; P = 0.61). We conclude that there is not serological evidence of an association between T. gondii infection and diabetes mellitus in the studied subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to elucidate the role of T. gondii in diabetes should be conducted.

  5. Predictors of breast cancer among women in a northern state of Malaysia: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalqah, Laila; Radaideh, Khaldoon; Yusoff, Zuraidah Mohd; Awaisu, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer has been increased in South East Asia countries, but there are limited data for breast cancer risk factors in these countries. To clarify the risk for breast cancer among the Malaysian women, a matched case-control study was conducted. Between October 2009 and April 2010, a survey was prospectively conducted among women admitted to clinics of Penang General Hospital for examination and/or treatment by using a questionnaire. Therefore, characteristics of patients diagnosed with breast cancer (n=150) were compared with control cases (n=150) admitted to hospital for non-neoplastic, non-hormone related diseases. Family history of a distant relative with breast cancer (OR=2.84), history of first-degree relatives with breast cancer (OR=2.95), history of benign breast disease (OR=2.43), menstrual irregularity (OR=4.24), and use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (OR=2.15) were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer in our population. Furthermore, education more than 11 years (OR=0.40), breastfeeding (OR=0.50), being employed (OR=0.45) and practicing low fat diet (OR=0.53) were strongly protective against breast cancer development. The results emphasize the importance of conducting a series of awareness campaigns that highlights the protective role of longer breastfeeding period against breast cancer and the negative relationships between OCP use and high fat diet with this disease.

  6. Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Konstans; Brook, Barry W; Lacy, Robert C; Mutze, Greg J; Peacock, David E; Sinclair, Ron G; Schwensow, Nina; Cassey, Phillip; O'Hara, Robert B; Fordham, Damien A

    2015-02-06

    Infectious diseases can exert a strong influence on the dynamics of host populations, but it remains unclear why such disease-mediated control only occurs under particular environmental conditions. We used 16 years of detailed field data on invasive European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia, linked to individual-based stochastic models and Bayesian approximations, to test whether (i) mortality associated with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is driven primarily by seasonal matches/mismatches between demographic rates and epidemiological dynamics and (ii) delayed infection (arising from insusceptibility and maternal antibodies in juveniles) are important factors in determining disease severity and local population persistence of rabbits. We found that both the timing of reproduction and exposure to viruses drove recurrent seasonal epidemics of RHD. Protection conferred by insusceptibility and maternal antibodies controlled seasonal disease outbreaks by delaying infection; this could have also allowed escape from disease. The persistence of local populations was a stochastic outcome of recovery rates from both RHD and myxomatosis. If susceptibility to RHD is delayed, myxomatosis will have a pronounced effect on population extirpation when the two viruses coexist. This has important implications for wildlife management, because it is likely that such seasonal interplay and disease dynamics has a strong effect on long-term population viability for many species. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Spontaneous vaginal delivery in the birth-chair versus in the conventional dorsal position: a matched controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, H S; Benedicic, C; Arikan, M G; Haas, J; Petru, E

    2001-09-17

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a birth-chair on obstetric outcome. We reviewed the hospital records of 220 consecutive pregnant women who gave birth on a birth-chair at our institution. The control group consisted of 440 pregnant women who preceded and followed the index cases and who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries in the conventional dorsal supine position. The controls were matched for parity and for the attending mid-wife. Patients who delivered in the birth-chair had significantly lower rates of episiotomy and manual separation of the placenta. The umbilical blood cord pH was significantly higher in neonates of the birth-chair group. The duration of labour, rate of perineal and vaginal injury, Apgar scores and rate of admission to a neonatal intermediate care unit were not influenced by the mode of delivery. Our data support previous studies that a birth-chair delivery may be a safe alternative to conventional delivery in the supine position.

  8. Delay and probability discounting of sexual and monetary outcomes in individuals with cocaine use disorders and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Herrmann, Evan S; Sweeney, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorders are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, partly due to higher rates of unprotected sex. Recent research suggests delay discounting of condom use is a factor in sexual HIV risk. Delay discounting is a behavioral economic concept describing how delaying an event reduces that event's value or impact on behavior. Probability discounting is a related concept describing how the uncertainty of an event decreases its impact on behavior. Individuals with cocaine use disorders (n = 23) and matched non-cocaine-using controls (n = 24) were compared in decision-making tasks involving hypothetical outcomes: delay discounting of condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task), delay discounting of money, the effect of sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk on likelihood of condom use (Sexual Probability Discounting Task), and probability discounting of money. The Cocaine group discounted delayed condom-protected sex (i.e., were more likely to have unprotected sex vs. wait for a condom) significantly more than controls in two of four Sexual Delay Discounting Task partner conditions. The Cocaine group also discounted delayed money (i.e., preferred smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts) significantly more than controls. In the Sexual Probability Discounting Task, both groups showed sensitivity to STI risk, however the groups did not differ. The Cocaine group did not consistently discount probabilistic money more or less than controls. Steeper discounting of delayed, but not probabilistic, sexual outcomes may contribute to greater rates of sexual HIV risk among individuals with cocaine use disorders. Probability discounting of sexual outcomes may contribute to risk of unprotected sex in both groups. Correlations showed sexual and monetary results were unrelated, for both delay and probability discounting. The results highlight the importance of studying specific behavioral processes (e.g., delay and probability

  9. Dietary habits, oral impact on daily performance and type 2 diabetes: a matched case-control study from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hasaan G; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah O; Åstrøm, Anne N

    2017-05-22

    It is evident that social and behavioural factors influence on individuals' general health and quality of life. Nevertheless, information about the influence of dietary habits on oral health-related quality of life is limited; especially among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of dietary habits and clinical oral health indicators on oral health-related quality of life in individuals with and without T2D. A total of 149 T2D cases and 298 controls were recruited for this age and gender matched case-control study. Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted to collect data about socio-demographic characteristics, consumption of food items per week (milk, meat, eggs, vegetables, fruits, sweets and bread) and oral impact on daily performance (OIDP). Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, tooth mobility, decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT) and root caries were recorded. Difficulty with eating and sleeping were more frequently reported by T2D cases (23.5% and 16.1%, respectively) than by the controls (10.7% and 5.0%, respectively) (P  0). The corresponding ORs were 1.23 (1.01-4.89) and 2.10 (1.08-4.09), respectively. Participants with low consumption of meat and vegetables were more likely than their counterparts with high consumption to report any oral impact. The corresponding ORs were 0.46 (0.25-0.83) and 0.38 (0.17-0.87), respectively. There was a significant interaction between diabetic status and meat consumption as well as between diabetic status and bread consumption. Oral impacts were more frequently reported in T2D cases than controls. Independent of diabetic- and oral clinical status, dietary habits discriminated between individuals with and without oral impacts. The influence of meat and bread consumption on OIDP varied significantly according to T2D status.

  10. Testing Hypotheses on Risk Factors for Scientific Misconduct via Matched-Control Analysis of Papers Containing Problematic Image Duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Daniele; Costas, Rodrigo; Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo; Bik, Elisabeth M

    2018-02-19

    It is commonly hypothesized that scientists are more likely to engage in data falsification and fabrication when they are subject to pressures to publish, when they are not restrained by forms of social control, when they work in countries lacking policies to tackle scientific misconduct, and when they are male. Evidence to test these hypotheses, however, is inconclusive due to the difficulties of obtaining unbiased data. Here we report a pre-registered test of these four hypotheses, conducted on papers that were identified in a previous study as containing problematic image duplications through a systematic screening of the journal PLoS ONE. Image duplications were classified into three categories based on their complexity, with category 1 being most likely to reflect unintentional error and category 3 being most likely to reflect intentional fabrication. We tested multiple parameters connected to the hypotheses above with a matched-control paradigm, by collecting two controls for each paper containing duplications. Category 1 duplications were mostly not associated with any of the parameters tested, as was predicted based on the assumption that these duplications were mostly not due to misconduct. Categories 2 and 3, however, exhibited numerous statistically significant associations. Results of univariable and multivariable analyses support the hypotheses that academic culture, peer control, cash-based publication incentives and national misconduct policies might affect scientific integrity. No clear support was found for the "pressures to publish" hypothesis. Female authors were found to be equally likely to publish duplicated images compared to males. Country-level parameters generally exhibited stronger effects than individual-level parameters, because developing countries were significantly more likely to produce problematic image duplications. This suggests that promoting good research practices in all countries should be a priority for the international

  11. Delay and probability discounting of sexual and monetary outcomes in individuals with cocaine use disorders and matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Johnson

    Full Text Available Individuals with cocaine use disorders are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, partly due to higher rates of unprotected sex. Recent research suggests delay discounting of condom use is a factor in sexual HIV risk. Delay discounting is a behavioral economic concept describing how delaying an event reduces that event's value or impact on behavior. Probability discounting is a related concept describing how the uncertainty of an event decreases its impact on behavior. Individuals with cocaine use disorders (n = 23 and matched non-cocaine-using controls (n = 24 were compared in decision-making tasks involving hypothetical outcomes: delay discounting of condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task, delay discounting of money, the effect of sexually transmitted infection (STI risk on likelihood of condom use (Sexual Probability Discounting Task, and probability discounting of money. The Cocaine group discounted delayed condom-protected sex (i.e., were more likely to have unprotected sex vs. wait for a condom significantly more than controls in two of four Sexual Delay Discounting Task partner conditions. The Cocaine group also discounted delayed money (i.e., preferred smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts significantly more than controls. In the Sexual Probability Discounting Task, both groups showed sensitivity to STI risk, however the groups did not differ. The Cocaine group did not consistently discount probabilistic money more or less than controls. Steeper discounting of delayed, but not probabilistic, sexual outcomes may contribute to greater rates of sexual HIV risk among individuals with cocaine use disorders. Probability discounting of sexual outcomes may contribute to risk of unprotected sex in both groups. Correlations showed sexual and monetary results were unrelated, for both delay and probability discounting. The results highlight the importance of studying specific behavioral processes (e.g., delay and

  12. Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Rafe; Walker, Ann F; Middleton, Richard W; Wallis, Carol; Simpson, Hugh C R

    2008-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the chief causes of death in the UK, and are associated with high circulating levels of total cholesterol in the plasma. Artichoke leaf extracts (ALEs) have been reported to reduce plasma lipids levels, including total cholesterol, although high quality data is lacking. The objective of this trial was to assess the effect of ALE on plasma lipid levels and general well-being in otherwise healthy adults with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. 131 adults were screened for total plasma cholesterol in the range 6.0-8.0 mmol/l, with 75 suitable volunteers randomised onto the trial. Volunteers consumed 1280 mg of a standardised ALE, or matched placebo, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol decreased in the treatment group by an average of 4.2% (from 7.16 (SD 0.62) mmol/l to 6.86 (SD 0.68) mmol/l) and increased in the control group by an average of 1.9% (6.90 (SD 0.49) mmol/l to 7.03 (0.61) mmol/l), the difference between groups being statistically significant (p=0.025). No significant differences between groups were observed for LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels. General well-being improved significantly in both the treatment (11%) and control groups (9%) with no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, ALE consumption resulted in a modest but favourable statistically significant difference in total cholesterol after 12 weeks. In comparison with a previous trial, it is suggested that the apparent positive health status of the study population may have contributed to the modesty of the observed response.

  13. Decision making, cognitive distortions and emotional distress: A comparison between pathological gamblers and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the interplay between cognitive distortions, emotional states, and decision making in gambling remains unexplored. Pathological gamblers (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 54) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Compared to healthy controls, pathological gamblers showed poorer decision making and reported higher scores on measures assessing cognitive distortions and emotional distress. All measures were positively associated with gambling severity. A significant negative correlation between decision making and cognitive distortions was also observed. No associations were found between poor decision making and emotional distress. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cognitive distortions, emotional distress, and poor decision making were significant predictors of problem gambling. The use of self-report measures and the absence of female participants limit the generalizability of the reported findings. The present study is the first to demonstrate the mutual influence between irrational beliefs and poor decision making, as well as the role of cognitive bias, emotional distress, and poor decision making in gambling disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of hepatitis E virus seroprevalence between HBsAg-positive population and healthy controls in Shandong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jiang, Zechun; Lv, Jingjing; Liu, Jiaye; Yan, Bingyu; Feng, Yi; Li, Li; Zhang, Guomin; Wang, Fuzhen; Xu, Aiqiang

    2018-02-12

    Persons with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection were reported to suffer severe disease after hepatitis E virus (HEV) superinfection, but the studies regarding HEV seroprevalence in this population were limited. A recent study in Vietnam found higher HEV seroprevalence among CHB patients compared with healthy controls. A community-based case-control study was conducted in two counties of Shandong province, China, where hepatitis E incidence was at the highest (Rushan) and lowest (Zhangqiu) in the province based on data from routine public health surveillance. Four townships were selected randomly from each county and all residents in these townships were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Those tested positive for HBsAg (CHB group) and the 1:1 age and sex-matched HBsAg-negative residents (control group) were included. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were tested and positive rates of IgG and IgM were compared between the CHB group and the control group. In total, 2048 CHB participants and 2054 controls were included in the study. In the CHB group, HEV IgG seroprevalence was 9.16% (95% CI: 7.47-11.09) in Zhangqiue and 38.06% (95% CI: 35.07-41.19) in Rushan (P < 0.001); the corresponding rates of IgM were 0.1% (95% CI: 0.002-0.54) and 1.57% (95% CI: 0.90-2.53), respectively (P < 0.001). HEV IgG seroprevalence was similar between CHB group and the control group in both counties (P = 0.21, P = 0.47, respectively) and the same results were found for the positive rate of IgM (P = 0.103, P = 0.262, respectively). Multivariable analysis showed the status of HBsAg was not independently associated with the status of anti-HEV IgG in either Zhangqiu or Rushan [P = 0.187, OR = 1.23(95% CI: 0.90, 1.68); P = 0.609, OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.26)]. The seroprevalence of HEV varies greatly in different geographic areas, but the seroprevalence is similar between populations with and without CHB. CHB patients residing in high HEV endemic areas

  15. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  16. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Child Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Opioid Dependence: Comparison of Family Characteristics and Type and Severity of Child Maltreatment with a Matched Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Mattick, Richard P.; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for child maltreatment among opioid-dependent persons compared to a community sample of similar social disadvantage. Method: The study employed a case-control design. Cases had a history of opioid pharmacotherapy. Controls were frequency matched to cases with regard to age, sex…

  18. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Engberg, Göran

    2012-01-01

    on the activity of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the enzyme converting kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Methods: We analyzed the association between KMO gene polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of KYNA in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were...... selected covering KMO and were analyzed in UNPHASED. Results: We included 17 patients with schizophrenia and 33 controls in our study. We found an association between a KMO SNP (rs1053230), encoding an amino acid change of potential importance for substrate interaction, and CSF concentrations of KYNA....... Limitations: Given the limited sample size, the results are tentative until replication. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the nonsynonymous KMO SNP rs1053230 influences CSF concentrations of KYNA....

  19. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Engberg, Göran; Schwieler, Lilly; Werge, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A; Hall, Håkan; Terenius, Lars; Agartz, Ingrid; Jönsson, Erik G; Schalling, Martin; Erhardt, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show increased brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA). This compound is an end-metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, and its formation indirectly depends on the activity of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the enzyme converting kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. We analyzed the association between KMO gene polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of KYNA in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected covering KMO and were analyzed in UNPHASED. We included 17 patients with schizophrenia and 33 controls in our study. We found an association between a KMO SNP (rs1053230), encoding an amino acid change of potential importance for substrate interaction, and CSF concentrations of KYNA. Given the limited sample size, the results are tentative until replication. Our results suggest that the nonsynonymous KMO SNP rs1053230 influences CSF concentrations of KYNA.

  20. A comparison of substantia nigra T1 hyperintensity in Parkinson's disease dementia, Alzheimer's disease and age-matched controls: Volumetric analysis of neuromelanin imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Ju Yeon; Yun, Won Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Ki Chang; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases.

  1. Additive effects of heating and exercise on baroreflex control of heart rate in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peçanha, Tiago; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Low, David A

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed the additive effects of passive heating and exercise on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve healthy young men (25 ± 1 yr, 23.8 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 ) randomly underwent two experimental sessions: heat stress (HS; whole body heat stress using a tube-lined suit to increase core temperature by ~1°C) and normothermia (NT). Each session was composed of a preintervention rest (REST1); HS or NT interventions; postintervention rest (REST2); and 14 min of cycling exercise [7 min at 40%HR reserve (EX1) and 7 min at 60%HR reserve (EX2)]. Heart rate and finger blood pressure were continuously recorded. cBRS was assessed using the sequence (cBRS SEQ ) and transfer function (cBRS TF ) methods. HRV was assessed using the indexes standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive RR intervals (RMSSD). cBRS and HRV were not different between sessions during EX1 and EX2 (i.e., matched heart rate conditions: EX1 = 116 ± 3 vs. 114 ± 3 and EX2 = 143 ± 4 vs. 142 ± 3 beats/min but different workloads: EX1 = 50 ± 9 vs. 114 ± 8 and EX2 = 106 ± 10 vs. 165 ± 8 W; for HS and NT, respectively; P heat stress to exercise does not affect cBRS and HRV. Alternatively, in workload-matched conditions, the addition of heat to exercise results in reduced cBRS and HRV compared with exercise in normothermia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study assessed cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during the combination of heat and exercise stresses. This is the first study to show that prior whole body passive heating reduces cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation of heart rate during exercise. These findings contribute to the better understanding of the role of thermoregulation on cardiovascular regulation during exercise.

  2. Evaluation of live attenuated S79 mumps vaccine effectiveness in mumps outbreaks: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuan-xi; Nie, Jun; Liang, Jian-hua; Wang, Ming

    2009-02-05

    Mumps virus infection is a potentially serious viral infection of childhood and early adulthood. In China, live attenuated S(79) mumps vaccine has been licensed for pediatric use since 1990. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of live attenuated S(79) mumps vaccine against clinical mumps in outbreaks. Cases were selected from mumps outbreaks in schools in Guangzhou between 2004 and 2005. Each case was matched by gender, age and classroom. Vaccination information was obtained from Children's EPI Administrative Computerized System. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated for 1 or 2 doses of S(79) vaccine with 95% confidence intervals (CI). One hundred and ninety-four cases and 194 controls were enrolled into the study. VE of the S(79) mumps vaccine for 1 dose versus 0 confer protection 80.4% (95% CI, 60.0%-90.4%) and VEs against mumps in outbreaks for 1 dose of mumps vaccine are similar among those children aged 4-9 years and aged over 10 years old. The live attenuated S(79) mumps vaccine can be effective in preventing clinical mumps outbreaks.

  3. Genetic response in masseter muscle after orthognathic surgery in comparison with healthy controls - A Microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Maya; Petto, Carola; Schneider, Matthias; Harzer, Winfried

    2017-04-01

    One third of adult patients with orthognathic surgery of a prognathic or retrognathic mandible show relapse. The sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible leads to a displacement of both parts up to 10 mm without any changes of muscle attachment. Changed mandible length needs adaptation of muscle capacity because of changed force to moment ratio. The aim of this Microarray study was to analyze the general genetic response of masseter muscle in patients with retrognathism or prognathism of the mandible six months after surgery in comparison with healthy untreated controls. We found in tissue samples from masseter muscle a reduction of different entities between patients and controls but less in retrognathic than in prognathic patients (274/429). The different entities to controls in prognathia were reduced from 1862 to 1749 but increased in retrognathia from 1070 to 1563. We have to consider that the total amount of different entities to the controls is higher in patients with prognathic mandible (7364) because of their strong genetic controlled development compared with that in patients with retrognathic mandible (4126), which is more environmentally influenced. It can be concluded that function follows form after surgical change with high inheritance. In retrognathic patients the adaptation could be delayed or the capacity of regeneration potential is not sufficient. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 1-D Wavelet Signal Analysis of the Actuators Nonlinearities Impact on the Healthy Control Systems Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Tudoroiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of the 1-D wavelet analysis to extract several patterns from signals data sets collected from healthy and faulty input-output signals of control systems as a preliminary step in real-time implementation of fault detection diagnosis and isolation strategies. The 1-D wavelet analysis proved that is an useful tool for signals processing, design and analysis based on wavelet transforms found in a wide range of control systems industrial applications. Based on the fact that in the real life there is a great similitude between the phenomena, we are motivated to extend the applicability of these techniques to solve similar applications from control systems field, such is done in our research work. Their efficiency will be demonstrated on a case study mainly chosen to evaluate the impact of the uncertainties and the nonlinearities of the sensors and actuators on the overall performance of the control systems. The proposed techniques are able to extract in frequency domain some pattern features (signatures of interest directly from the signals data set collected by data acquisition equipment from the control system.

  5. Promoting Active Transport in Older Adolescents Before They Obtain Their Driving Licence: A Matched Control Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Hannah; Simons, Dorien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Geus, Bas; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17-18 years). Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport. A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium). A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course 'Driving Licence at School' in intervention schools (intervention group 1). Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course 'Driving Licence at School'. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week) and follow-up (after eight weeks). To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed. A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7) years) was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001) and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030) compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow-up measurement was found within intervention

  6. Promoting Active Transport in Older Adolescents Before They Obtain Their Driving Licence: A Matched Control Intervention Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Verhoeven

    Full Text Available Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17-18 years. Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport.A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium. A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course 'Driving Licence at School' in intervention schools (intervention group 1. Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course 'Driving Licence at School'. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week and follow-up (after eight weeks. To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed.A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7 years was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001 and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030 compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow-up measurement was found within

  7. A healthcare utilization cost comparison between employees receiving a worksite mindfulness or a diet/exercise lifestyle intervention to matched controls 5 years post intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Maryanna D; Sieck, Cynthia; Gascon, Gregg; Malarkey, William; Huerta, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    To compare healthcare costs and utilization among participants in a study of two active lifestyle interventions implemented in the workplace and designed to foster awareness of and attention to health with a propensity score matched control group. We retrospectively compared changes in healthcare (HC) utilization among participants in the mindfulness intervention (n=84) and the diet/exercise intervention (n=86) to a retrospectively matched control group (n=258) drawn for this study. The control group was matched from the non-participant population on age, gender, relative risk score, and HC expenditures in the 9 month preceding the study. Measures included number of primary care visits, number and cost of pharmacy prescriptions, number of hospital admissions, and overall healthcare costs tracked for 5 years after the intervention. Significantly fewer primary care visits (porganization health cost savings that such programs can generate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EXAMINATION ABOUT INFLUENCE FOR PRECISION OF 3D IMAGE MEASUREMENT FROM THE GROUND CONTROL POINT MEASUREMENT AND SURFACE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results

  9. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  10. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestad KA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut A Hestad,1–3 Siri Weider,3,4 Kristian Bernhard Nilsen,5–7 Marit Sæbø Indredavik,8,9 Trond Sand7,10 1Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 2Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Psychiatry, Specialised Unit for Eating Disorder Patients, Levanger Hospital, Health Trust Nord-Trøndelag, Levanger, Norway; 5Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway; 7Department of Neurology, Section for Clinical Neurophysiology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway; 8Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 9Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 10Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway Objective: To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN and healthy controls.Methods: Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions.Results: There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in µV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051. Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P

  11. Strength of Structural and Functional Frontostriatal Connectivity Predicts Self-Control in the Healthy Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Lohrey, Corinna; Drobetz, Reinhard; Baetschmann, Hansruedi; Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the successful use of executive functions and initiation of top-down processes to control one's thoughts, behavior, and emotions, and it is crucial to perform self-control. Self-control is needed to overcome impulses and can be assessed by delay of gratification (DoG) and delay discounting (DD) paradigms. In children/adolescents, good DoG/DD ability depends on the maturity of frontostriatal connectivity, and its decline in strength with advancing age might adversely affect self-control because prefrontal brain regions are more prone to normal age-related atrophy than other regions. Here, we aimed at highlighting the relationship between frontostriatal connectivity strength and DoG performance in advanced age. We recruited 40 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 74.0 ± 7.7 years) and assessed the DoG ability using the German version of the DoG test for adults in addition to the delay discounting (DD) paradigm. Based on diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, respectively, the structural and functional whole-brain connectome were reconstructed based on 90 different brain regions of interest in addition to a 12-node frontostriatal DoG-specific network and the resulting connectivity matrices were subjected to network-based statistics. The 90-nodes whole-brain connectome analyses revealed subnetworks significantly associated with DoG and DD with a preponderance of frontostriatal nodes involved suggesting a high specificity of the findings. Structural and functional connectivity strengths between the putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens on the one hand and orbitofrontal, dorsal, and ventral lateral prefrontal cortices on the other hand showed strong positive correlations with DoG and negative correlations with DD corrected for age, sex, intracranial volume, and head motion parameters. These associations cannot be explained by differences in impulsivity and executive functioning. This pattern

  12. Animal-assisted therapy and agitation and depression in nursing home residents with dementia: a matched case-control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majić, Tomislav; Gutzmann, Hans; Heinz, Andreas; Lang, Undine E; Rapp, Michael A

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) on symptoms of agitation/aggression and depression in nursing home residents with dementia in a randomized controlled trial. Previous studies have indicated that AAT has beneficial effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms in various psychiatric disorders but few studies have investigated the efficacy of AAT in patients suffering from dementia. Of 65 nursing home residents with dementia (mean [standard deviation] age: 81.8 [9.2] years; mean Mini-Mental State Examination score: 7.1 [0.7]), 27 matched pairs (N = 54) were randomly assigned to either treatment as usual or treatment as usual combined with AAT, administered over 10 weekly sessions. Blinded raters assessed cognitive impairment with the Mini-Mental State Examination, presence of agitation/aggression with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, and depression with the Dementia Mood Assessment Scale at baseline and during a period of 4 weeks after AAT intervention. In the control group, symptoms of agitation/aggression and depression significantly increased over 10 weeks; in the intervention group, patients receiving combined treatment displayed constant frequency and severity of symptoms of agitation/aggression (F1,48 = 6.43; p <0.05) and depression (F1,48 = 26.54; p <0.001). Symptom amelioration did not occur in either group. AAT is a promising option for the treatment of agitation/aggression and depression in patients with dementia. Our results suggest that AAT may delay progression of neuropsychiatric symptoms in demented nursing home residents. Further research is needed to determine its long-time effects. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Lyon, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients...... with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically...... and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease...

  14. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Changes to online control and eye-hand coordination with healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rielly, Jessica L; Ma-Wyatt, Anna

    2018-06-01

    Goal directed movements are typically accompanied by a saccade to the target location. Online control plays an important part in correction of a reach, especially if the target or goal of the reach moves during the reach. While there are notable changes to visual processing and motor control with healthy ageing, there is limited evidence about how eye-hand coordination during online updating changes with healthy ageing. We sought to quantify differences between older and younger people for eye-hand coordination during online updating. Participants completed a double step reaching task implemented under time pressure. The target perturbation could occur 200, 400 and 600 ms into a reach. We measured eye position and hand position throughout the trials to investigate changes to saccade latency, movement latency, movement time, reach characteristics and eye-hand latency and accuracy. Both groups were able to update their reach in response to a target perturbation that occurred at 200 or 400 ms into the reach. All participants demonstrated incomplete online updating for the 600 ms perturbation time. Saccade latencies, measured from the first target presentation, were generally longer for older participants. Older participants had significantly increased movement times but there was no significant difference between groups for touch accuracy. We speculate that the longer movement times enable the use of new visual information about the target location for online updating towards the end of the movement. Interestingly, older participants also produced a greater proportion of secondary saccades within the target perturbation condition and had generally shorter eye-hand latencies. This is perhaps a compensatory mechanism as there was no significant group effect on final saccade accuracy. Overall, the pattern of results suggests that online control of movements may be qualitatively different in older participants. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Vriends, Noortje; Steppan, Martin; Raschle, Nora M; Praetzlich, Martin; Oldenhof, Helena; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres; Ackermann, Katharina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Puzzo, Ignazio; Wells, Amy; Rogers, Jack C; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind H; Grisley, Liam; Baumann, Sarah; Gundlach, Malou; Kohls, Gregor; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A; Sesma-Pardo, Eva; Dochnal, Roberta; Lazaratou, Helen; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Bigorra Gualba, Aitana; Smaragdi, Areti; Siklósi, Réka; Dikeos, Dimitris; Hervás, Amaia; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu; De Brito, Stephane A; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fairchild, Graeme; Freitag, Christine M; Popma, Arne; Kieser, Meinhard; Stadler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1) to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2) to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression), age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES); and (3) to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD) aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), respectively). The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls). The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing violence

  17. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing

  18. Capture, learning, and classification of upper extremity movement primitives in healthy controls and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge; Uddin, Jasim; Nilsen, Dawn; Mclnerney, James; Fadoo, Ammarah; Omofuma, Isirame B; Hughes, Shatif; Agrawal, Sunil; Allen, Peter; Schambra, Heidi M

    2017-07-01

    There currently exist no practical tools to identify functional movements in the upper extremities (UEs). This absence has limited the precise therapeutic dosing of patients recovering from stroke. In this proof-of-principle study, we aimed to develop an accurate approach for classifying UE functional movement primitives, which comprise functional movements. Data were generated from inertial measurement units (IMUs) placed on upper body segments of older healthy individuals and chronic stroke patients. Subjects performed activities commonly trained during rehabilitation after stroke. Data processing involved the use of a sliding window to obtain statistical descriptors, and resulting features were processed by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The likelihoods of the states, resulting from the HMM, were segmented by a second sliding window and their averages were calculated. The final predictions were mapped to human functional movement primitives using a Logistic Regression algorithm. Algorithm performance was assessed with a leave-one-out analysis, which determined its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for all classified primitives. In healthy control and stroke participants, our approach identified functional movement primitives embedded in training activities with, on average, 80% precision. This approach may support functional movement dosing in stroke rehabilitation.

  19. Effects of the "affectionless control" parenting style on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-30

    The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.

  20. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  1. Activation of the attachment system and mentalization in depressive and healthy individuals: An experimental control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fizke Ella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a developmental and clinical point of view attachment theory and mentalization are closely connected and have become increasingly important to understand the origins of psychopathological development. However, very little is known about how exactly different inner working models of attachment are related to diverse mentalizing abilities and this is particularly true for adult populations - healthy as well as clinical populations. In the present study we investigated this relation with a sample of inpatients diagnosed with depression and a sample of healthy individuals. In an experimental setting the attachment system was activated using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Mentalization was assessed during activation and in comparison to a control condition using a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. We expected that an activation of the attachment system i diminishes the capacity to take another’s perspective in individuals with unresolved state of mind, ii has no impact in individuals with secure attachment representation and iii is dependent of clinical status in individuals with insecure (but organized working models of attachment. Overall, these hypotheses were confirmed. However, the impact of clinical status on mentalization in insecure attachment has to be further explored. We summarize that attachment state of mind has a mediating influence on mentalization basically in such situations where the attachment system is activated.

  2. Endurance exercise-induced changes in BNP concentrations in cardiovascular patients versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengevaeren, Vincent L; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J; van Kimmenade, Roland R; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2017-01-15

    Healthy athletes demonstrated increased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations following exercise, but it is unknown whether these responses are exaggerated in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) or disease (CVD). We compared exercise-induced increases in BNP between healthy controls (CON) and individuals with CVRF or CVD. Furthermore, we aimed to identify predictors for BNP responses. Serum BNP concentrations were measured in 191 participants (60±12yrs) of the Nijmegen Marches before (baseline) and immediately after 4 consecutive days of walking exercise (30-50km/day). CVRF (n=54) was defined as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity or smoking and CVD (n=55) was defined as a history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation or angina pectoris. Individuals walked 487±79min/day at 65±10% of their maximum heart rate. Baseline BNP concentrations were higher for CVD (median: 28.1pg/ml; interquartile range: 13-50, p0.05). Predictors for post-exercise BNP (R 2 =0.77) were baseline BNP, beta-blocker use and age. Prolonged moderate-intensity walking exercise increases BNP concentrations in CVD participants, but not in CVRF and CON. BNP increases were small, and did not accumulate across consecutive days of exercise. These findings suggest that prolonged walking exercise for multiple consecutive days is feasible with minimal effect on myocardial stretch, even for participants with CVD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational prediction of CRISPR cassettes in gut metagenome samples from Chinese type-2 diabetic patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangericao, Tatiana C; Peng, Zhanhao; Zhang, Xuegong

    2016-01-11

    CRISPR has been becoming a hot topic as a powerful technique for genome editing for human and other higher organisms. The original CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats coupled with CRISPR-associated proteins) is an important adaptive defence system for prokaryotes that provides resistance against invading elements such as viruses and plasmids. A CRISPR cassette contains short nucleotide sequences called spacers. These unique regions retain a history of the interactions between prokaryotes and their invaders in individual strains and ecosystems. One important ecosystem in the human body is the human gut, a rich habitat populated by a great diversity of microorganisms. Gut microbiomes are important for human physiology and health. Metagenome sequencing has been widely applied for studying the gut microbiomes. Most efforts in metagenome study has been focused on profiling taxa compositions and gene catalogues and identifying their associations with human health. Less attention has been paid to the analysis of the ecosystems of microbiomes themselves especially their CRISPR composition. We conducted a preliminary analysis of CRISPR sequences in a human gut metagenomic data set of Chinese individuals of type-2 diabetes patients and healthy controls. Applying an available CRISPR-identification algorithm, PILER-CR, we identified 3169 CRISPR cassettes in the data, from which we constructed a set of 1302 unique repeat sequences and 36,709 spacers. A more extensive analysis was made for the CRISPR repeats: these repeats were submitted to a more comprehensive clustering and classification using the web server tool CRISPRmap. All repeats were compared with known CRISPRs in the database CRISPRdb. A total of 784 repeats had matches in the database, and the remaining 518 repeats from our set are potentially novel ones. The computational analysis of CRISPR composition based contigs of metagenome sequencing data is feasible. It provides an efficient

  4. Clinical and sonographic risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia - a case-control study with parity and gestational age matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parantainen, Jukka; Palomäki, Outi; Talola, Nina; Uotila, Jukka

    2014-06-01

    To examine the clinical risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia today and to evaluate ultrasound methods predicting it. Retrospective, matched case-control study at a University Hospital with 5000 annual deliveries. The study population consisted of 152 deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia over a period of 8.5 years (January 2004-June 2012) and 152 controls matched for gestational age and parity. The data was collected from the medical records of mothers and children and analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Incidences and odds ratios were calculated for risk factors and complications. Antenatal ultrasound data was analyzed when available by conditional logistic regression to test for significant differences between study groups. Birthweight (OR 12.1 for ≥4000 g; 95% CI 4.18-35.0) and vacuum extraction (OR 3.98; 95% CI 1.25-12.7) remained the most significant clinical risk factors. Only a trend of an association of pregestational or gestational diabetes was noticed (OR 1.87; 95% CI 0.997-3.495, probability of type II error 51%). Of the complications of shoulder dystocia the incidence of brachial plexus palsies was high (40%). Antenatal ultrasound method based on the difference between abdominal and biparietal diameters had a significant difference between cases and controls. The impact of diabetes as a risk factor has diminished, which may reflect improved screening and treatment. Antenatal ultrasound methods are showing some promise, but the predictive value of ultrasound alone is probably low. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Measuring Life Satisfaction in Parkinson's Disease and Healthy Controls Using the Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvereide, Lise; Hagell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The 5-item Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was designed to measure general life satisfaction (LS). Here we examined the psychometric properties of the SWLS in a cohort of persons with Parkinson`s disease (PwPD) and age and gender matched individuals without PD. The SWLS was administered to PwPD and controls from the Norwegian ParkWest study at 5 and 7 years after the time of diagnosis. Data were analysed according to classical test theory (CTT) and Rasch measurement theory. CTT scaling assumptions for computation of a SWLS total score were met (corrected item-total correlations >0.58). The SWLS was reasonably well targeted to the sample and had good reliability (ordinal alpha, 0.92). The scale exhibited good fit to the Rasch model and successfully separated between 5 statistically distinct strata of people (levels of SWLS). The seven response categories did not work as intended and the scale may benefit from reduction to five response categories. There was no clinically significant differential item functioning. Separate analyses in PwPD and controls yielded very similar results to those from the pooled analysis. This study supports the SWLS as a valid instrument for measuring LS in PD and controls. However, Rasch analyses provided new insights into the performance and validity of the SWLS and identified areas for future revisions in order to further improve the scale.

  6. Track-match procedure criteria in the reference mark plane for quality control of event measurements from the JINR measuring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    A new technique to preselect potential tracks of events in a reference plane is described. This technique allows to log bench marks used in track projections which connect two tops or a top and a break point in the TRACK-MATCH procedure. The above technique is implemented in a modular measurement quality control program. The results of measurement quality control obtained using a geometry restoration program are compared with those of the measurement quality control program

  7. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young; Eun, Jong Pil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each...

  8. Personality styles in patients with fibromyalgia, major depression and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiles Tore C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is suggested to be a manifestation of depression or affective spectrum disorder. We measured the cognitive style of patients with FMS to assess personality styles in 44 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS by comparing them with 43 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and 41 healthy controls (HC. Methods Personality styles were measured by the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS. The Structured Clinical interview for DSM Axis I was applied to Axis I disorders, while the Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression severity. Results Patients with FMS in general have a sociotropic personality style similar to patients with MDD, and different from HC, but FMS patients without a lifetime history of MDD had a cognitive personality style different from patients with MDD and similar to HC. Conclusion These findings suggest that a depressotypic personality style is related to depressive disorder, but not to FMS.

  9. Developing a ubiquitous health management system with healthy diet control for metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yao-Chiang; Chen, Kai-Hong; Lin, Hsueh-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Self-management in healthcare can allow patients managing their health data anytime and everywhere for prevention of chronic diseases. This study established a prototype of ubiquitous health management system (UHMS) with healthy diet control (HDC) for people who need services of metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan. System infrastructure comprises of three portals and a database tier with mutually supportive components to achieve functionality of diet diaries, nutrition guides, and health risk assessments for self-health management. With the diet, nutrition, and personal health database, the design enables the analytical diagrams on the interactive interface to support a mobile application for diet diary, a Web-based platform for health management, and the modules of research and development for medical care. For database integrity, dietary data can be stored at offline mode prior to transformation between mobile device and server site at online mode. The UHMS-HDC was developed by open source technology for ubiquitous health management with personalized dietary criteria. The system integrates mobile, internet, and electronic healthcare services with the diet diary functions to manage healthy diet behaviors of users. The virtual patients were involved to simulate the self-health management procedure. The assessment functions were approved by capturing the screen snapshots in the procedure. The proposed system development was capable for practical intervention. This approach details the expandable framework with collaborative components regarding the self-developed UHMS-HDC. The multi-disciplinary applications for self-health management can support the healthcare professionals to reduce medical resources and improve healthcare effects for the patient who requires monitoring personal health condition with diet control. The proposed system can be practiced for intervention in the hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Echocardiographic findings and joint hypermobility: patients with mitral valve prolapse vs. healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradmand S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mitral valve prolapse is a relatively common valvular abnormality in most communities and joint hypermobility (JHM is also seen in many healthy people as well as in certain clinical disorders, such as Marfan syndrome. The present study was designed to investigate the association between joint hypermobility and mitral valve prolapse (MVP in an Iranian population sample. "nMethods: Fifty-seven patients with nonrheumatic and isolated mitral anterior leaflet prolapse (24 men and 33 women, mean age 23.5 +/-2.3 and 51 healthy subjects (20 men and 31 women, mean age 22.9+/-2.3 were studied. The presence of JHM was evaluated according to the Carter-Wilkinson & Beighton criteria. Echocardiographic examination was performed in all subjects and the correlation between the echocardiographic features of the mitral valve and the hypermobility score were investigated. "nResults: The frequency of JHM in patients with MVP was found to be significantly higher than that of controls (26.3% vs. 7.8%, with mean JHM scores of 3.1+/-2.2 and 1.9+/-1.7, respectively. The patients in the MVP group had significantly increased the anterior mitral leaflet thickness (AMLT, 3.4+/-0.4 mm vs. 3.0+/-0.3 mm; p<0.0005 and maximal leaflet displacement (MLD, 2.4+/-0.3 mm vs. 1.5+/-0.2 mm; p<0.0005 compared to the controls. "nConclusions: We detect a statistically significant relationship between isolated MVP and joint hypermobility as well as between the severity of JHM and echocardiographic features of the mitral leaflets. These results suggest a common etiology for MVP and JHM, which should be investigated in future well-conducted studies.

  11. Classical and additional antiphospholipid antibodies in blood samples of ischemic stroke patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel-Neiderman, Narin-Nard; Tanne, David; Goren, Idan; Rotman-Pikielny, Pnina; Levy, Yair

    2017-04-01

    Classical antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLa) are found in 6-25% of blood samples from stroke patients. The frequency of novel aPLa antibodies in blood samples of CVA patients is not known. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed on blood samples from 209 CVA patients (170 samples were obtained during the acute phase and 39 samples were from patients with complete carotid stenosis) and compared to 54 healthy controls. Subjects were tested for the presence of the classical aPL antibodies anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta2-glycoprotein (aβ2gI), in addition to antiphosphatidylethanolamine (aPE), anti-phosphatidylserine (aPS), and Annexin V. All antibodies were tested for both IgM and IgG subclasses. Numeric analysis of the antibody titer levels (μ/ml) revealed a significantly higher subclinical titer by two standard deviations of many aPL autoantibodies among CVA patients (Pv < 0.05). However, according to the kit manufacturer's cutoff value, no positive antibodies were found except a trend toward higher percentage of positive aPS IgG titer in the CVA group compared to controls (6.2 vs. %0; P = 0.077). According to the manufacturer's cutoff, significantly higher levels of positive antibodies were not found among stroke patients. However, the absolute ELISA values of stroke patients were significantly higher. These results suggest that lower cutoff values than those used for APS diagnosis should be used for risk stratification of CVA among healthy individuals.

  12. What is the Difference in Morphologic Features of the Thoracic Pedicle Between Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Healthy Subjects? A CT-based Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Gao, Wenjie; Chen, Chong; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Shaochun; Xu, Caixia; Huang, Dongsheng; Su, Peiqiang

    2017-11-01

    Describing the morphologic features of the thoracic pedicle in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for placement of pedicle screws. Previous studies showed inadequate reliability owing to small sample size and heterogeneity of the patients surveyed. To use CT scans (1) to describe the morphologic features of 2718 thoracic pedicles from 60 female patients with Lenke Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 60 age-, sex-, and height-matched controls; and (2) to classify the pedicles in three types based on pedicle width and analyze the distribution of each type. A total of 2718 pedicles from 60 female patients with Lenke Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 60 matched female controls were analyzed via CT. All patients surveyed were diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, Lenke Type 1, at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, and all underwent pedicle screw fixation between January 2008 and December 2013 with preoperative radiographs and CT images on file. We routinely obtained CT scans before these procedures; all patients who underwent surgery during that period had CT scans, and all were available for analysis here. Control subjects had CT scans for other clinical indications and had no abnormal findings of the spine. The control subjects were chosen to match patients in terms of age (15 ± 2.6 years versus 15 ± 2.6 years) and sex. Height of the two groups also was matched (154 ± 9 cm versus 155 ± 10 cm; mean difference, -1.06 cm; 95% CI, -1.24 to -0.81 cm; p adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (22%; 293 of 1322) compared with controls (13%; 178 of 1396) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.42-0.63; p adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, they commonly occurred on the concave side 34% (228 of 661) and on the AV-SC region (32%; 43 of 136). Pedicle width on the concave side was narrower than pedicle width on the convex side and pedicle width in healthy control subjects. The apical vertebra in the structural curve was

  13. A comparative study of the working memory multicomponent model in psychosis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Elosúa, M Rosa; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-08-01

    Working memory deficits are considered nuclear deficits in psychotic disorders. However, research has not found a generalized impairment in all of the components of working memory. We aimed to assess the components of the Baddeley and Hitch working memory model: the temporary systems-the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer (introduced later by Baddeley)-and the central executive system, which includes four executive functions: divided attention, updating, shifting and inhibition. We assessed working memory performance in a sample of 21 patients with a psychotic disorder and 21 healthy controls. Patients also underwent a clinical assessment. Both univariate and repeated measures ANOVAs were applied to analyze performance in the working memory components between groups. Patients with a psychotic disorder underperformed compared to the controls in all of the working memory tasks, but after controlling for age and premorbid IQ, we only found a difference in performance in the N-Back task. Repeated measures ANCOVAs showed that patients also underperformed compared to the controls in the Digit span test and the TMT task. Not all of the components of working memory were impaired in the patients. Specifically, patients' performance was impaired in the tasks selected to assess the phonological loop and the shifting executive function. Patients' also showed worse performance than controls in the N-Back task, representative of the updating executive function. However, we did not find higher impairment in the patients' performance respect to controls when increasing the loading of the task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison between exercise performance in asthmatic children and healthy controls – Physical Activity Questionnaire application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Santos-Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The PAQ questionnaire (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen is a self-administered 7-day recall validated questionnaire that measures physical activity levels in young people. A final activity score is obtained (1 indicates low and 5 indicates high physical activity level.Our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the level of physical activity of children with controlled allergic disease and healthy children. Patients and methods: We used the PAQ questionnaire with a group of asthmatic children attending hospital outpatient clinic and a group of healthy children matched for age. Results: 155 children with allergic disease (median age of 11 years; 63% males and 158 healthy controls (median age of 10 years; 46% males answered the questionnaire.There were no differences in the overall level of physical activity, estimated by PAQ score, between allergic and healthy children (2,40 ± 0,7 vs 2,48 ± 0,62; p = 0,32. Performance in physical education classes and after school sports activity was found to be different between the study groups; healthy children were more active (p = 0,011 and did more sports between 6 and 10 pm (p = 0,036. No other statistically significant differences were found between the study groups. Conclusion: Despite the fact that a majority of the parents of allergic children stated that their child's disease was a barrier to physical activity, in our study there seems to be no difference between the level of physical activity of controlled asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Resumo: Introdução: O questionário PAQ (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen é um questionário validado, que mede os níveis de atividade física em jovens através de perguntas referentes aos últimos 7 dias. É obtido um resultado final (1 indica um nível de atividade física baixo e 5 um nível elevado

  15. Risks factors and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbard, Andrew I T; Slavin, Monica A; Reed, Caroline; Trubiano, Jason A; Teh, Benjamin W; Haeusler, Gabrielle M; Thursky, Karin A; Worth, Leon J

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. Cancer populations are at high-risk for infection, but comprehensive evaluation in the current era of cancer care has not been performed. The objective of this study was to describe characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of CDI in cancer patients. Fifty consecutive patients with CDI at a large Australian cancer centre (2013-2015) were identified from the hospital pathology database. Each case was matched by ward and hospital admission date to three controls without toxigenic CDI. Treatment and outcomes of infection were evaluated and potential risk factors were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Patients with CDI had a mean age of 59.7 years and 74% had an underlying solid tumour. Healthcare-associated infection comprised 80% of cases. Recurrence occurred in 10, and 12% of cases were admitted to ICU within 30 days. Severe or severe-complicated infection was observed in 32%. Independent risk factors for infection included chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 3.82, 95% CI 1.67-8.75; p = 0.002), gastro-intestinal/abdominal surgery (OR 4.64, 95% CI 1.20-17.91; p = 0.03), proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.05-5.80; p = 0.04), and days of antibiotic therapy (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08; p = 0.02). Severe or complicated infections are frequent in patients with cancer who develop CDI. Receipt of chemotherapy, gastro-intestinal/abdominal surgery, PPI therapy, and antibiotic exposure contribute to infection risk. More effective CDI therapy for cancer patients is required and dedicated antibiotic stewardship programs in high-risk cancer populations are needed to ameliorate infection risk.

  16. In patients suffering from idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, anxiety scores are higher than in healthy controls, but do not vary according to sex or repeated central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzazi N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nooshin Bazzazi,1 Mohammad Ahmadpanah,2 Siamak Akbarzadeh,1 Mohammad Ali Seif Rabiei,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,4 Serge Brand4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences; Hamadan, Iran; 3Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 4Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Basel, Switzerland; 5Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Introduction: Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR is a relatively common ophthalmic disorder characterized by the development of a serous detachment of the sensory retina. Psychophysiological factors may trigger or maintain CSCR, though, surprisingly, the association between CSCR and anxiety has yet to be studied. The aims of the present study were threefold: to determine whether 1 Iranian patients with CSCR have higher scores for anxiety, 2 anxiety is lower, if CSCR has been experienced twice, and whether 3 anxiety scores differ between sexes.Methods: A total of 30 patients with CSCR and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls took part in the study. A brief face-to-face interview was conducted covering demographic variables and history and occurrence of CSCR and assessing anxiety.Results: Compared to healthy controls, anxiety was significantly higher in both first-time and second-time CSCR patients. In CSCR patients, anxiety scores did not differ between sexes.Conclusion: Higher anxiety scores were observed in Iranian patients with CSCR, irrespective of whether this was the first or second occurrence of CSCR. This suggests there is no psychological adaptation in terms of reduced anxiety among patients with repeated CSCR. Keywords: idiopathic central

  17. Brain structure in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and healthy controls: a VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic, Igor; Dietzek, Maren; Schönfeld, Nils; Lorenz, Carsten; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian; Smesny, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Early intervention research in schizophrenia has suggested that brain structural alterations might be present in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis. The heterogeneity of regional effects of these changes, which is established in schizophrenia, however, has not been explored in prodromal or high-risk populations. We used high-resolution MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) to analyze grey matter differences in 43 ultra high-risk subjects for psychosis (meeting ARMS criteria, identified through CAARMS interviews), 24 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and 49 healthy controls (groups matched for age and gender). Compared to healthy controls, resp., first-episode schizophrenia patients had reduced regional grey matter in left prefrontal, insula, right parietal and left temporal cortices, while the high-risk group showed reductions in right middle temporal and left anterior frontal cortices. When dividing the ultra-high-risk group in those with a genetic risk vs. those with attenuated psychotic symptoms, the former showed left anterior frontal, right caudate, as well as a smaller right hippocampus, and amygdala reduction, while the latter subgroup showed right middle temporal cortical reductions (each compared to healthy controls). Our findings in a clinical psychosis high-risk cohort demonstrate variability of brain structural changes according to subgroup and background of elevated risk, suggesting frontal and possibly also hippocampal/amygdala changes in individuals with genetic susceptibility. Heterogeneity of structural brain changes (as seen in schizophrenia) appears evident even at high-risk stage, prior to potential onset of psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In patients suffering from idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, anxiety scores are higher than in healthy controls, but do not vary according to sex or repeated central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzazi, Nooshin; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Siamak; Seif Rabiei, Mohammad Ali; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a relatively common ophthalmic disorder characterized by the development of a serous detachment of the sensory retina. Psychophysiological factors may trigger or maintain CSCR, though, surprisingly, the association between CSCR and anxiety has yet to be studied. The aims of the present study were threefold: to determine whether 1) Iranian patients with CSCR have higher scores for anxiety, 2) anxiety is lower, if CSCR has been experienced twice, and whether 3) anxiety scores differ between sexes. A total of 30 patients with CSCR and 30 healthy age-and sex-matched controls took part in the study. A brief face-to-face interview was conducted covering demographic variables and history and occurrence of CSCR and assessing anxiety. Compared to healthy controls, anxiety was significantly higher in both first-time and second-time CSCR patients. In CSCR patients, anxiety scores did not differ between sexes. Higher anxiety scores were observed in Iranian patients with CSCR, irrespective of whether this was the first or second occurrence of CSCR. This suggests there is no psychological adaptation in terms of reduced anxiety among patients with repeated CSCR.

  19. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (↓~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (↓~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ↓MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

  20. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  1. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  2. Karolinska Scales of Personality, cognition and psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Björn Mikael; Holm, Gunnar; Ekselius, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies on both personality dimensions and cognition in schizophrenia are scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine personality traits and the relation to cognitive function and psychotic symptoms in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In total 23 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). A broad cognitive test programme was used, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, the Finger-Tapping Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test . Compared with controls, the patients exhibited prominent elevations on KSP scales measuring anxiety proneness and neuroticism (P = 0.000005-0.0001), on the Detachment scale (P < 0.00009) and lower value on the Socialization scale (P < 0.0002). The patients also scored higher on the Inhibition of Aggression, Suspicion, Guilt and Irritability scales (P = 0.002-0.03) while the remaining five scales did not differ between patients and controls. KSP anxiety-related scales correlated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) general psychopathology subscale. Cognitive test results were uniformly lower in the patient group and correlated with PANSS negative symptoms subscale. There was no association between KSP scale scores and PANSS positive or negative symptoms. The patients revealed a highly discriminative KSP test profile with elevated scores in neuroticism- and psychoticism-related scales as compared to controls. Results support previous findings utilizing other personality inventories in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive test performance correlated inversely with negative symptoms.

  3. Gender Differences in Interpersonal Problems of Alcohol-Dependent Patients and Healthy Controls

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    Marc Walter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64. Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and were subtyped according to Lesch’s Alcohol Typology (LAT. There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  4. Endogenous opioid blockade and impulsive responding in alcoholics and healthy controls.

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    Mitchell, Jennifer M; Tavares, Venessa C; Fields, Howard L; D'Esposito, Mark; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2007-02-01

    The opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX) is one of few approved treatments for alcoholism, yet the mechanism by which it reduces drinking remains unclear. In rats, NTX reduces morphine-induced impulsive choice bias; however, nothing is known about the drug's effect on discrete aspects of impulsive behavior in humans, such as decision-making and inhibitory control. Here, we used a modified delay discounting procedure to investigate whether NTX improves decision-making or inhibitory control in humans. We measured the effect of acute NTX (50 mg) on choice between smaller sooner (SS) and larger later monetary rewards and on response errors (motor mismatch) in a high conflict condition in a group of abstinent alcoholics (AA) and healthy control subjects (CS). We previously reported that AA selected the SS option significantly more often than did CS in this paradigm. If the choice bias of AA is due to enhanced endogenous opioid signaling in response to potential reward, NTX should reduce such bias in the AA group. We found that NTX did not reliably reduce impulsive choice in the AA group; however, NTX's effect on choice bias across individuals was robustly predictable. NTX's effect on choice bias was significantly correlated with scores on Rotter's Locus of Control (LOC) scale; increasingly internal LOC scores predicted increasing likelihood of impulsive choices on NTX. In addition, we found that NTX significantly enhanced control of motor responses, particularly within the CS group. These results suggest that endogenous opioids may impair response selection during decision-making under conflict, and that NTX's effects on explicit decision-making are personality-dependent. Determining the biological basis of this dependence could have important implications for effective alcoholism treatment.

  5. White matter correlates of impaired attention control in major depressive disorder and healthy volunteers.

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    Rizk, Mina M; Rubin-Falcone, Harry; Keilp, John; Miller, Jeffrey M; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria A; Kamal, Ahmed M; Abdelhameed, Mohamed A; Mann, J John

    2017-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired attention control and alterations in frontal-subcortical connectivity. We hypothesized that attention control as assessed by Stroop task interference depends on white matter integrity in fronto-cingulate regions and assessed this relationship using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MDD and healthy volunteers (HV). DTI images and Stroop task were acquired in 29 unmedicated MDD patients and 16 HVs, aged 18-65 years. The relationship between Stroop interference and fractional anisotropy (FA) was examined using region-of-interest (ROI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses. ROI analysis revealed that Stroop interference correlated positively with FA in left caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) in HVs (r = 0.62, p = 0.01), but not in MDD (r = -0.05, p= 0.79) even after controlling for depression severity. The left cACC was among 4 ROIs in fronto-cingulate network where FA was lower in MDD relative to HVs (F (1,41) = 8.87, p = 0.005). Additionally, TBSS showed the same group interaction of differences and correlations, although only at a statistical trend level. The modest sample size limits the generalizability of the findings. Structural connectivity of white matter network of cACC correlated with magnitude of Stroop interference in HVs, but not MDD. The cACC-frontal network, sub-serving attention control, may be disrupted in MDD. Less cognitive control may include enhanced effects of salience in HVs, or less effective response inhibition in MDD. Further studies of salience and inhibition components of executive function may better elucidate the relationship between brain white matter changes and executive dysfunction in MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part II. Matched case-control study

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    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD was associated with high mortality in swine populations worldwide. Studies performed in different regions identified spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal trends as factors contributing to patterns of the disease spread. Patterns consistent with spatial trend and spatio-temporal clustering were already identified in this dataset. On the basis of these results, we have further investigated the nature of local spread in this report. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for incidence cases of reported PCVAD. Results A time-matched case-control study was used as a study design approach, and conditional logistic regression as the analytical method. The main exposure of interest was local spread, which was defined as an unidentified mechanism of PCVAD spread between premises located within 3 kilometers of the Euclidean distance. Various modifications of variables indicative of local spread were also evaluated. The dataset contained 278 swine herds from Ontario originally sampled either from diagnostic laboratory submissions or directly from the target population. A PCVAD case was defined on the basis of the producer's recall. Existence of apparent local spread over the entire study period was confirmed (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83, and was further identified to be time-varying in nature - herds experiencing outbreaks in the later part of the epidemic were more likely than control herds to be exposed to neighboring herds experiencing recent PCVAD outbreaks. More importantly, the pattern of local spread was driven by concurrent occurrence of PCVAD on premises under the same ownership (OREXACTwithin ownership = 25.6, 95% CI: 3.4, +inf; OREXACToutside ownership = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.3. Other significant factors included PRRSv status of a herd (OREXACT = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.9, after adjusting for geographical location by including the binary

  7. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be

  8. Severe obesity and diabetes self-care attitudes, behaviours and burden : Implications for weight management from a matched case-controlled study. Results from Diabetes MILES-Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, J.B.; Browne, J.L.; Mosely, K.G.; Jones, K.M.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether diabetes self-care attitudes, behaviours and perceived burden, particularly related to weight management, diet and physical activity, differ between adults with Type 2 diabetes who are severely obese and matched non-severely obese control subjects. Methods The 1795

  9. Comparison of MRI-assessed body fat content between lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and matched controls : less visceral fat with PCOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, Jacoba G.; Stassen, Chrit M.; van Haard, Paul M. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder. However, PCOS has a strong resemblance to the metabolic syndrome, including preponderance of visceral fat deposition. The aim of this study is to compare fat distribution between lean women with PCOS and controls matched for

  10. Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities

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    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

  11. Using Mahalanobis Distance Scores for Matched Pairing of Schools in a Randomized Controlled Trial Study of Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER)

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    Zoblotsky, Todd; Ransford-Kaldon, Carolyn; Morrison, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the recruitment and site selection process that has been underway since January 2011, with particular emphasis on the use of Mahalanobis distance score to determine matched pairs of sites prior to randomization to treatment and control groups. Through a systematic winnowing process, the authors found that they could…

  12. Healthy Foundations Study: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate biological embedding of early-life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Catherine, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; Jack, Susan M; Atkinson, Leslie; Kobor, Michael; Sheehan, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Waddell, Charlotte; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-01-26

    Adverse early experiences are associated with long-lasting disruptions in physiology, development and health. These experiences may be 'biologically embedded' into molecular and genomic systems that determine later expressions of vulnerability. Most studies to date have not examined whether preventive interventions can potentially reverse biological embedding. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based intervention with demonstrated efficacy in improving prenatal health, parenting and child functioning. The Healthy Foundations Study is an innovative birth cohort which will evaluate the impact of the NFP on biological outcomes of mothers and their infants. Starting in 2013, up to 400 pregnant mothers and their newborns were recruited from the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project-a randomised controlled trial of the NFP, and will be followed to child aged 2 years. Women were recruited prior to 28 weeks' gestation and then individually randomised to receive existing services (comparison group) or NFP plus existing services (intervention group). Hair samples are collected from mothers at baseline and 2 months post partum to measure physiological stress. Saliva samples are collected from infants during all visits for analyses of stress and immune function. Buccal swabs are collected from infants at 2 and 24 months to assess DNA methylation. Biological samples will be related to child outcome measures at age 2 years. The study received ethical approval from seven research ethics boards. Findings from this study will be shared broadly with the research community through peer-reviewed publications, and conference presentations, as well as seminars with our policy partners and relevant healthcare providers. The outcomes of this study will provide all stakeholders with important information regarding how early adversity may lead to health and behavioural disparities and how these may be altered through early interventions. NCT01672060; Pre-results.

  13. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Menno; Brinkman, Sally A; Beatty, Amanda; Maika, Amelia; Satriawan, Elan; de Ree, Joppe; Hasan, Amer

    2013-08-16

    This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program was developed in collaboration with the World Bank with a total budget of US$127.7 million, and targets an estimated 738,000 children aged 0 to 6 years living in approximately 6,000 poor communities. The aim of the program is to increase access to early childhood services with the secondary aim of improving school readiness. The study is being conducted across nine districts. The baseline survey contained 310 villages, of which 100 were originally allocated to the intervention arm, 20 originally allocated to a 9-month delay staggered start, 100 originally allocated to an 18-month delay staggered start and 90 allocated to a matched control group (no intervention). The study consists of two cohorts, one comprising children aged 12 to 23 months and the other comprising children aged 48 to 59 months at baseline. The data collection instruments include child observations and task/game-based assessments as well as a questionnaire suite, village head questionnaire, service level questionnaires, household questionnaire, and child caretaker questionnaire. The baseline survey was conducted from March to April 2009, midline was conducted from April to August 2010 and endline conducted early 2013. The resultant participation rates at both the district and village levels were 90%. At the child level, the participation rate was 99.92%. The retention rate at the child level at midline was 99.67%. This protocol paper provides a detailed record of the trial design including a discussion regarding difficulties faced with compliance to the randomization, compliance to the dispersion schedule of community block grants, and procurement delays for baseline and midline data collections. Considering the

  14. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

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    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  15. Differences in Facial Emotion Recognition between First Episode Psychosis, Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls.

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    Ana Catalan

    Full Text Available Facial emotion recognition (FER is essential to guide social functioning and behaviour for interpersonal communication. FER may be altered in severe mental illness such as in psychosis and in borderline personality disorder patients. However, it is unclear if these FER alterations are specifically related to psychosis. Awareness of FER alterations may be useful in clinical settings to improve treatment strategies. The aim of our study was to examine FER in patients with severe mental disorder and their relation with psychotic symptomatology.Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Alterations on emotion recognition were assessed in 3 groups: patients with first episode psychosis (FEP (n = 64, borderline personality patients (BPD (n = 37 and healthy controls (n = 137, using the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Structured Interview for Schizotypy Revised and Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences scales were used to assess positive psychotic symptoms. WAIS III subtests were used to assess IQ.Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed a significant difference between groups on the FER of neutral faces score between FEP, BPD patients and controls and between FEP patients and controls in angry face recognition. No significant differences were found between groups in the fear or happy conditions. There was a significant difference between groups in the attribution of negative emotion to happy faces. BPD and FEP groups had a much higher tendency to recognize happy faces as negatives. There was no association with the different symptom domains in either group.FEP and BPD patients have problems in recognizing neutral faces more frequently than controls. Moreover, patients tend to over-report negative emotions in recognition of happy faces. Although no relation between psychotic symptoms and FER alterations was found, these deficits could contribute to a patient's misinterpretations in daily life.

  16. Habit learning and the genetics of the dopamine D3 receptor: evidence from patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéri, Szabolcs; Juhász, Anna; Rimanóczy, Agnes; Szekeres, György; Kelemen, Oguz; Cimmer, Csongor; Szendi, István; Benedek, György; Janka, Zoltán

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between the Ser9Gly (SG) polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and striatal habit learning in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. Participants were given the weather prediction task, during which probabilistic cue-response associations were learned for tarot cards and weather outcomes (rain or sunshine). In both healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia, participants with Ser9Ser (SS) genotype did not learn during the early phase of the task (1-50 trials), whereas participants with SG genotype did so. During the late phase of the task (51-100 trials), both participants with SS and SG genotype exhibited significant learning. Learning rate was normal in patients with schizophrenia. These results suggest that the DRD3 variant containing glycine is associated with more efficient striatal habit learning in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. A look inside the nerve - Morphology of nerve fascicles in healthy controls and patients with polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexander; Winter, Natalie; Rattay, Tim W; Härtig, Florian; Dammeier, Nele M; Auffenberg, Eva; Koch, Marilin; Axer, Hubertus

    2017-12-01

    Polyneuropathies are increasingly analyzed by ultrasound. Summarizing, diffuse enlargement is typical in Charcot-Marie Tooth type 1 (CMT1a), regional enlargement occurs in inflammatory neuropathies. However, a distinction of subtypes is still challenging. Therefore, this study focused on fascicle size and pattern in controls and distinct neuropathies. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median, ulnar and peroneal nerve (MN, UN, PN) was measured at predefined landmarks in 50 healthy controls, 15 CMT1a and 13 MMN patients. Additionally, largest fascicle size and number of visible fascicles was obtained at the mid-upper arm cross-section of the MN and UN and in the popliteal fossa cross-section of the PN. Cut-off normal values for fascicle size in the MN, UN and PN were defined (50%) in all nerves (p20%), representing differential fascicle enlargement (enlarged and normal fascicles at the same location) sparing the peroneal nerve (regional fascicle enlargement). Based on these findings distinct fascicle patterns were defined. Normal values for fascicle size could be evaluated; while CMT1a features diffuse fascicle enlargement, MMN shows regional and differential predominance with enlarged fascicles as single pathology. Pattern analysis of fascicles might facilitate distinction of several otherwise similar neuropathies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The control of translational accuracy is a determinant of healthy ageing in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Haar, Tobias; Leadsham, Jane E; Sauvadet, Aimie; Tarrant, Daniel; Adam, Ilectra S; Saromi, Kofo; Laun, Peter; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Breitenbach-Koller, Hannelore; Breitenbach, Michael; Tuite, Mick F; Gourlay, Campbell W

    2017-01-01

    Life requires the maintenance of molecular function in the face of stochastic processes that tend to adversely affect macromolecular integrity. This is particularly relevant during ageing, as many cellular functions decline with age, including growth, mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. Protein synthesis must deliver functional proteins at all times, implying that the effects of protein synthesis errors like amino acid misincorporation and stop-codon read-through must be minimized during ageing. Here we show that loss of translational accuracy accelerates the loss of viability in stationary phase yeast. Since reduced translational accuracy also reduces the folding competence of at least some proteins, we hypothesize that negative interactions between translational errors and age-related protein damage together overwhelm the cellular chaperone network. We further show that multiple cellular signalling networks control basal error rates in yeast cells, including a ROS signal controlled by mitochondrial activity, and the Ras pathway. Together, our findings indicate that signalling pathways regulating growth, protein homeostasis and energy metabolism may jointly safeguard accurate protein synthesis during healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

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    Mohammad Ehsan Rahiminejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL, plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05. However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384. Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases.

  20. Direct experience while eating: Laboratory outcomes among individuals with eating disorders versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Carmona, Cristina; Narváez, Vanessa; Seto, Victoria; Martin-Blanco, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; Soriano, José; Soler, Joaquim

    2017-12-01

    To compare individuals with eating disorders (EDs) to healthy controls (HCs) to assess for differences in direct engagement in the eating process. Participants (n=58) were asked to eat an orange slice. To assess the degree of direct engagement with the eating process, participants were asked to write down 10 thoughts about the experience of eating the orange slice. Next, the participants were instructed to classify the main focus of each thought as either experiential ("direct experience") or analytical ("thinking about"). A direct experience index (DEI) was computed by dividing the number of times that participants classified an experience as a "direct experience" (the numerator) by the total number of all observations (i.e., direct experience+thinking about). Participants also completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) to assess mindfulness facets and decentering, respectively. Compared to controls, participants in the EDs group presented significantly lower levels of direct experience during the eating task (EDs group: mean=43.54, SD=29.64; HCs group: mean=66.17, SD=22.23, p=0.03). Participants in the EDs group also scored significantly lower on other mindfulness-related variables. These findings suggest that engagement with the direct experience of eating is lower in individuals with EDs. Future research should investigate the role of mindfulness-based interventions to address direct experience while eating in individuals with EDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Minor Physical Anomalies in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Controls

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    Irina Manouilenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor Physical Anomalies (MPAs are subtle abnormalities of the head, face, and limbs, without significant cosmetic or functional impact to the individual. They are assumed to represent external markers of developmental deviations during foetal life. MPAs have been suggested to indicate severity in mental illness and constitute external markers for atypical brain development. Higher frequencies of MPAs can be found in children with autism. The aims of the present study were to examine the prevalence and patterns of MPAs in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and to investigate whether MPAs are associated with symptom severity and overall functioning. Fifty adults with ASD and intelligence within the normal range and 53 healthy controls were examined with the Waldrop scale, an instrument for assessing MPAs. Face and feet were photographed enabling blinded assessment. Significant differences between the ASD and the control group were found on the MPA total scores, and also in the craniofacial region scores. Moreover, the shape of the ears was associated with autistic traits, in the ASD group. High MPA total scores were associated with poorer functioning. The findings suggest a link between MPAs, autistic traits, and level of functioning. Assessment of MPAs may assist in the diagnostic procedure of psychiatric disorders.

  2. Four-Quadrant Facial Function in Dysphagic Patients after Stroke and in Healthy Controls

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    Mary Hägg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine any motility disturbance in any quadrant of the face other than the quadrant innervated by the lower facial nerve contralateral to the cortical lesion after stroke. Thirty-one stroke-afflicted patients with subjective dysphagia, consecutively referred to a swallowing centre, were investigated with a facial activity test (FAT in all four facial quadrants and with a swallowing capacity test (SCT. Fifteen healthy adult participants served as FAT controls. Sixteen patients were judged to have a central facial palsy (FP according to the referring physician, but all 31 patients had a pathological FAT in the lower quadrant contralateral to the cortical lesion. Simultaneous pathology in all four quadrants was observed in 52% of stroke-afflicted patients with dysphagia; some pathology in the left or right upper quadrant was observed in 74%. Dysfunction in multiple facial quadrants was independent of the time interval between stroke and study inclusion. All patients except two had a pathological SCT. All the controls had normal activity in all facial quadrants. In summary the majority of poststroke patients with dysphagia have subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction in three or four facial quadrants as assessed with a FAT. However, whether subclinical orofacial motor dysfunction can be present in stroke-afflicted patients without dysphagia is unknown.

  3. Effects of a lighter, smaller football on acute match injuries in adolescent female football: a pilot cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersen, Lars L; Møller, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Clausen, Mikkel B; Hölmich, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Andersen, Thomas B; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The high injury incidence during match-play in female adolescent football is a major concern. In football, males and females play matches with the same football size. No studies have investigated the effect of football size on injury incidence in female adolescent football. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing a lighter, smaller football on the injury pattern in female adolescent football. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial including 26 football teams representing 346 adolescent female football players (age 15-18 years). The teams were randomized to a new lighter, smaller football (INT, N.=12 teams) or a traditional FIFA size 5 football (CON, N.=14 teams) during a full match-season. Acute time-loss injuries and football-exposure during match-play were reported weekly by text-message questions and verified subsequently by telephone interview. In total, 46 acute time-loss injuries were registered (5 severe injuries), yielding an incidence rate of 15.2 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 8.5-27.2) in INT and 18.6 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 14.0-24.8) in CON. The estimated 22% greater injury incidence rate risk (IRR: 1.22 [95% CI: 0.64-2.35]) in the CON group was not significant. With an IRR of 1.22, a future RCT main study would need to observe 793 acute time-loss injuries during match-play, in order to have a power of 80%. A large-scaled RCT is required to definitively test for beneficial or harmful effects of a lighter, smaller football in adolescent female football.

  4. Multi-platform mass spectrometry analysis of the CSF and plasma metabolomes of rigorously matched amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuolikainen, Anna; Jonsson, Pär; Ahnlund, Maria; Antti, Henrik; Marklund, Stefan L; Moritz, Thomas; Forsgren, Lars; Andersen, Peter M; Trupp, Miles

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are protein-aggregation diseases that lack clear molecular etiologies. Biomarkers could aid in diagnosis, prognosis, planning of care, drug target identification and stratification of patients into clinical trials. We sought to characterize shared and unique metabolite perturbations between ALS and PD and matched controls selected from patients with other diagnoses, including differential diagnoses to ALS or PD that visited our clinic for a lumbar puncture. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from rigorously age-, sex- and sampling-date matched patients were analyzed on multiple platforms using gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS). We applied constrained randomization of run orders and orthogonal partial least squares projection to latent structure-effect projections (OPLS-EP) to capitalize upon the study design. The combined platforms identified 144 CSF and 196 plasma metabolites with diverse molecular properties. Creatine was found to be increased and creatinine decreased in CSF of ALS patients compared to matched controls. Glucose was increased in CSF of ALS patients and α-hydroxybutyrate was increased in CSF and plasma of ALS patients compared to matched controls. Leucine, isoleucine and ketoleucine were increased in CSF of both ALS and PD. Together, these studies, in conjunction with earlier studies, suggest alterations in energy utilization pathways and have identified and further validated perturbed metabolites to be used in panels of biomarkers for the diagnosis of ALS and PD.

  5. Childhood adversity and cognitive function in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls: evidence for an association between neglect and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, S; Asmal, L; Chiliza, B; Olivier, M R; Phahladira, L; Scheffler, F; Seedat, S; Marder, S R; Green, M F; Emsley, R

    2017-12-22

    Childhood adversity is associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, findings to date are inconsistent and little is known about the relationship between social cognition and childhood trauma. We investigated the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive function in patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder (n = 56) and matched healthy controls (n = 52). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing this relationship in patients and controls exposed to similarly high levels of trauma. Pearson correlational coefficients were used to assess correlations between Childhood Trauma Questionnaire abuse and neglect scores and cognition. For the MCCB domains displaying significant (p childhood neglect remained a significant predictor of impairment in social cognition in both patients and controls. Neglect was also a significant predictor of poorer verbal learning in patients and of attention/vigilance in controls. However, childhood abuse did not significantly predict cognitive impairments in either patients or controls. These findings are cross sectional and do not infer causality. Nonetheless, they indicate that associations between one type of childhood adversity (i.e. neglect) and social cognition are present and are not illness-specific.

  6. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of the metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis, early unclassified polyarthritis, and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Mette; Østergaard, Mikkel; Rostrup, Egill

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an indicator of inflammatory activity in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or early unclassified polyarthritis, and to compare the results with a healthy control group. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: We examined 42 RA and 23 early unclassified polyarthritis patients, and 12 healthy controls in a cross-sectional study. Dynamic MRI (repeated FLASH-MR images after injection of a contrast agent) was performed through the 2nd to the 5th MCP joint. Two methods for identification of the enhancing...

  7. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2: A randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian families designed using community-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Parker, Tassy; Kim, Kyungmann; Grant, Vernon M; Sheche, Judith N; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-04-01

    Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described. Methods Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a lifestyle intervention targeting increased fruit and vegetable intake, decreased sugar intake, increased physical activity, decreased TV/screen time, and two less-studied risk factors: stress and sleep. Families with young children from five American Indian communities nationwide were randomly assigned to a healthy lifestyle intervention ( Wellness Journey) augmented with social support (Facebook and text messaging) or a child safety control group ( Safety Journey) for 1 year. After Year 1, families in the Safety Journey receive the Wellness Journey, and families in the Wellness Journey start the Safety Journey with continued wellness-focused social support based on communities' request that all families receive the intervention. Primary (adult body mass index and child body mass index z-score) and secondary (health behaviors) outcomes are assessed after Year 1 with additional analyses planned after Year 2. Results To date, 450 adult/child dyads have been enrolled (100% target enrollment). Statistical analyses await trial completion in 2017. Lessons learned Conducting a community-partnered randomized controlled trial requires significant formative work, relationship building, and ongoing flexibility. At the communities' request, the study involved minimal exclusion criteria, focused on wellness rather than obesity, and included an active

  8. Healthy eating and obesity prevention for preschoolers: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing effective prevention and intervention programs for the formative preschool years is seen as an essential step in combating the obesity epidemic across the lifespan. The overall goal of the current project is to measure the effectiveness of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention, the MEND (Mind Exercise Nutrition Do It! program that is delivered to parents of children aged 2-4 years. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with 200 parents and their 2-4 year old children who attend the MEND 2-4 program in metropolitan and regional Victoria. Parent-child dyads will attend ten 90-minute group workshops. These workshops focus on general nutrition, as well as physical activity and behaviours. They are typically held at community or maternal and child health centres and run by a MEND 2-4 trained program leader. Child eating habits, physical activity levels and parental behaviours and cognitions pertaining to nutrition and physical activity will be assessed at baseline, the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months post the intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents, who will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion Our study is the first RCT of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention targeted specifically to Australian parents and their preschool children aged 2-4 years. It responds to the call by experts in the area of childhood obesity and child health that prevention of overweight in the formative preschool years should focus on parents, given that parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to impact significantly on the development of early overweight. This is 'solution-oriented' rather than 'problem-oriented' research, with its focus being on prevention rather than intervention. If this is a positive trial, the MEND2-4 program can be implemented as a

  9. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  10. Quality of life and functional impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparison of patients with and without comorbidity, patients in remission, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jonathan D; Simpson, H Blair; Nissenson, Kore J; Liebowitz, Michael R; Foa, Edna B

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with interference in quality of life (QOL) and functional impairment. However, these studies did not compare individuals in remission to individuals who continue to have the disorder, predominantly used comparisons with norms and not with a matched normal sample, and did not always consider the impact of comorbidity. We administered multiple measures that assess QOL and functional impairment to 66 OCD patients who had previously consented for a clinical trial and to 36 age and sex matched individuals who denied any psychiatric history. Results confirm that OCD was associated with significantly lower QOL and functional impairment compared to healthy controls (HCs) in areas of work, social life, and family life. Individuals with OCD and other comorbid psychiatric diagnoses showed the poorest QOL and functioning, with comorbid depression accounting for much of the variance. The levels of QOL and functioning in individuals in remission tended to lie in between HCs and individuals with current OCD: their QOL or functioning did not differ significantly from HCs nor did they consistently differ significantly from those who had current OCD. These results suggest that individuals who are in remission have improved levels of QOL and functioning, whereas individuals with OCD are significantly impaired, and individuals with OCD and comorbid disorders are the most impaired. Treatment strategies should be focused on achieving remission of all symptoms to have the greatest impact on functioning and QOL. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Defining guilt in depression: a comparison of subjects with major depression, chronic medical illness and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatavi, Kayhan; Nicolson, Rob; MacDonald, Cathy; Osher, Sue; Levitt, Anthony

    2002-04-01

    Although guilt is a widely accepted feature of depression, there is limited and inconsistent data defining the nature of this symptom. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specificity and nature of guilt in subjects with major depression as compared to patients with another chronic medical illness and healthy controls. Outpatients with current major depressive episode (MDE; n=34), past-MDE (n=22), chronic cardiac illness (n=20) and healthy controls (n=59) were administered the following measures: The Guilt Inventory (GI), State Shame and Guilt Scale (SSGS), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Overall multivariate analysis of covariance comparing mean scores for the six guilt subscales [state-guilt, trait-guilt, moral standards (from the GI); state-guilt, -pride, and -shame (from the SSGS)] across the four groups was significant (F=9.1, df=6:121, pguilt (GI), current-MDE>past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for trait-guilt (GI), current-MDE=past-MDE>cardiac=healthy controls; for state-shame, -guilt and -pride (SSGS), current-MDE>past-MDE, past-MDE=cardiac, past-MDE>healthy, cardiac=healthy controls. Among depressed patients, there was significant correlation between Ham-D score and all guilt sub-scales (pguilt, shame and low pride distinguish acutely depressed from all other groups, and are highly influenced by severity of depression. Trait-guilt does not differentiate acute from past depressed. Data suggests guilt may represent both an enduring and fluctuating feature of depressive illness over its longitudinal course.

  12. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma do not differ from those of age- and weight-matched control dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jennifer L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Hauck, Marlene L

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D concentrations show an inverse correlation with incidence of certain tumors in people and dogs. Additionally, human osteosarcoma has been associated with dysregulation of vitamin D-dependent pathways. The study objective was to compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 in 20 dogs with osteosarcoma to age- and weight-matched control dogs. We hypothesized that dogs with osteosarcoma would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D than control dogs. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 concentrations for dogs with osteosarcoma and matched-controls were 34.95 ng/mL and 33.85 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.784). Based on these data, 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency might not be important in the pathogenesis of canine osteosarcoma. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. EEG-neurofeedback training of beta band (12-22Hz) affects alpha and beta frequencies - A controlled study of a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Paluch, Katarzyna; Kublik, Ewa; Rogala, Jacek; Mikicin, Mirosław; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2018-01-08

    The frequency-function relation of various EEG bands has inspired EEG-neurofeedback procedures intending to improve cognitive abilities in numerous clinical groups. In this study, we administered EEG-neurofeedback (EEG-NFB) to a healthy population to determine the efficacy of this procedure. We evaluated feedback manipulation in the beta band (12-22Hz), known to be involved in visual attention processing. Two groups of healthy adults were trained to either up- or down-regulate beta band activity, thus providing mutual control. Up-regulation training induced increases in beta and alpha band (8-12Hz) amplitudes during the first three sessions. Group-independent increases in the activity of both bands were observed in the later phase of training. EEG changes were not matched by measured behavioural indices of attention. Parallel changes in the two bands challenge the idea of frequency-specific EEG-NFB protocols and suggest their interdependence. Our study exposes the possibility (i) that the alpha band is more prone to manipulation, and (ii) that changes in the bands' amplitudes are independent from specified training. We therefore encourage a more comprehensive approach to EEG-neurofeedback training embracing physiological and/or operational relations among various EEG bands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a psychosocial intervention on survival among patients with stage I breast and prostate cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrock, D; Palmer, R F; Taylor, B

    1999-05-01

    Psychosocial factors have been linked to the development and progression of cancer and shown to be relevant in cancer care. However, the evidence that psychosocial interventions affect cancer survival is less conclusive. Few methodologically sound studies have addressed this issue. To investigate the effects of a 6-week psychosocial intervention on survival among patients with stage I breast and prostate cancer. Matched case-control. 3 rural hospitals or cancer centers in central Pennsylvania. 21 breast and 29 prostate stage I cancer patients (treatment group) matched with 74 breast and 65 prostate stage I cancer patients from the same hospitals who did not receive the intervention (control group). Six 2-hour health psychology classes conducted by a licensed staff psychologist. Survival time was compared between the 2 groups and with national norms. The intervention group lived significantly longer than did matched controls. At 4- to 7-year follow-up (median = 4.2 years), none of the breast cancer patients in the intervention group died, whereas 12% of those in the control group died. Twice as many matched-control prostate cancer patients died compared with those in the intervention group (28% vs 14%). Control group survival was similar to national norms. These results are consistent with prior clinical trials and suggest that short-term psychosocial interventions that encourage the expression of emotions, provide social support, and teach coping skills can influence survival among cancer patients. However, self-selection bias cannot be ruled out as an alternative explanation for the results. These interventions merit further consideration and research.

  15. Attention and memory impairments in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis and inflammatory bowel disease in comparison to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Bartosz; Stanisławska-Kubiak, Maia; Strzelecki, Wojciech; Mojs, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    The main aim of the study was to analyze and compare attention and memory performance in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in healthy controls. 28 patients with CF, 30 patients with IBD and 30 healthy subjects took part in the study (all in age range of 7-17). All subjects were in intellectual norm. To analyze the functioning of attention, the d2 Test of Attention by Brickenkamp (d2 test) was applied. Memory performance was assessed using the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) and the Trial of 10 words. The CF and IBD groups committed significantly more errors in the d2 test than the healthy controls. The CF group also had significantly higher fluctuation rates and received significantly lower scores in overall concentration performance than the control group. Patients with CF made more mistakes and had fewer correct memory projections in BVRT than the healthy controls. Patients with IBD committed significantly more errors in BVRT than the control group. Patients with CF and IBD also got significantly lower scores in the Trial of 10 words than the control group. Pediatric patients with CF and IBD performed more poorly than the healthy controls on attention and memory tests. More distinct cognitive impairments were observed in the CF group. Further research is needed to find the underlying mechanisms and clinical and/or functional significance of observed cognitive deficits. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Negative autobiographical memories in social anxiety disorder: A comparison with panic disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Watson, Lynn A; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-03-01

    Empirical interest in mental imagery in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has grown over the past years but still little is known about the specificity to SAD. The present study therefore examines negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder (SAD), compared to patients with panic disorder (PD), and healthy controls (HCs). A total of 107 participants retrieved four memories cued by verbal phrases associated with either social anxiety (SA) or panic anxiety (PA), with two memories for each cue category. PA-cued memories were experienced with stronger imagery and as more traumatic. They were also rated as more central to identity than SA-cued memories, but not among participants with SAD, who perceived SA-cued memories as equally central to their identity. When between-group effects were detected, participants with anxiety disorders differed from HCs, but not from each other. Central limitations include reliance on self-report measures, comorbidity in the anxiety disorder groups, and lack of a neutrally cued memory comparison. The findings align with models of SAD suggesting that past negative social events play a central role in this disorder. Future research is suggested to further explore the function of negative memories, not only in SAD, but also in other anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visual selective attention in body dysmorphic disorder, bulimia nervosa and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollei, Ines; Horndasch, Stefanie; Erim, Yesim; Martin, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral models postulate that selective attention plays an important role in the maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). It is suggested that individuals with BDD overfocus on perceived defects in their appearance, which may contribute to the excessive preoccupation with their appearance. The present study used eye tracking to examine visual selective attention in individuals with BDD (n=19), as compared to individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) (n=21) and healthy controls (HCs) (n=21). Participants completed interviews, questionnaires, rating scales and an eye tracking task: Eye movements were recorded while participants viewed photographs of their own face and attractive as well as unattractive other faces. Eye tracking data showed that BDD and BN participants focused less on their self-rated most attractive facial part than HCs. Scanning patterns in own and other faces showed that BDD and BN participants paid as much attention to attractive as to unattractive features in their own face, whereas they focused more on attractive features in attractive other faces. HCs paid more attention to attractive features in their own face and did the same in attractive other faces. Results indicate an attentional bias in BDD and BN participants manifesting itself in a neglect of positive features compared to HCs. Perceptual retraining may be an important aspect to focus on in therapy in order to overcome the neglect of positive facial aspects. Future research should aim to disentangle attentional processes in BDD by examining the time course of attentional processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon; Seo, Hyung Suk

    2009-01-01

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p 2 , 715.4 ± 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 ± 108, 844.1 ± 85) and the HCs (563.2 ± 75, 818.9 ± 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  20. Neutrophil Microvesicles from Healthy Control and Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Prevent the Inflammatory Activation of Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefin I. Rhys

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles (MVs are emerging as a novel means to enact cell-to-cell communication in inflammation. Here, we aimed to ascertain the ability of neutrophil-derived MVs to modulate target cell behaviour, the focus being the macrophage.MVs were generated in response to tumour necrosis factor-α, from healthy control neutrophils or those from rheumatoid arthritis patients. MVs were used to stimulate human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro, or administered intra-articularly in the K/BxN mouse model of arthritis. A macrophage/fibroblast-like synoviocyte co-culture system was used to study the effects of vesicles on the crosstalk between these cells.We demonstrate a direct role for phosphatidylserine and annexin-A1 exposed by the MVs to counteract classical activation of the macrophages, and promote the release of transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Classically-activated macrophages exposed to neutrophil MVs no longer activated fibroblast-like synoviocytes in subsequent co-culture settings. Finally, intra-articular administration of neutrophil MVs from rheumatoid arthritis patients in arthritic mice affected the phenotype of joint macrophages.Altogether these data, with the identification of specific MV determinants, open new opportunities to modulate on-going inflammation in the synovia – mainly by affecting macrophage polarization and potentially also fibroblast-like synoviocytes - through the delivery of autologous or heterologous MVs produced from neutrophils. Keywords: Neutrophils, Macrophages, Vesicles, Rheumatoid arthritis

  1. The effect of light touch on balance control during overground walking in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, A R; Unger, J; Arnold, C M; Fung, J; Lanovaz, J L

    2017-12-01

    Balance control is essential for safe walking. Adding haptic input through light touch may improve walking balance; however, evidence is limited. This research investigated the effect of added haptic input through light touch in healthy young adults during challenging walking conditions. Sixteen individuals walked normally, in tandem, and on a compliant, low-lying balance beam with and without light touch on a railing. Three-dimensional kinematic data were captured to compute stride velocity (m/s), relative time spent in double support (%DS), a medial-lateral margin of stability (MOS ML ) and its variance (MOS ML CV), as well as a symmetry index (SI) for the MOS ML . Muscle activity was evaluated by integrating electromyography signals for the soleus, tibialis anterior, and gluteus medius muscles bilaterally. Adding haptic input decreased stride velocity, increased the %DS, had no effect on the MOS ML magnitude, decreased the MOS ML CV, had no effect on the SI, and increased activity of most muscles examined during normal walking. During tandem walking, stride velocity and the MOS ML CV decreased, while %DS, MOS ML magnitude, SI, and muscle activity did not change with light touch. When walking on a low-lying, compliant balance beam, light touch had no effect on walking velocity, MOS ML magnitude, or muscle activity; however, the %DS increased and the MOS ML CV and SI decreased when lightly touching a railing while walking on the balance beam. The decreases in the MOS ML CV with light touch across all walking conditions suggest that adding haptic input through light touch on a railing may improve balance control during walking through reduced variability.

  2. The effect of light touch on balance control during overground walking in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Oates

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balance control is essential for safe walking. Adding haptic input through light touch may improve walking balance; however, evidence is limited. This research investigated the effect of added haptic input through light touch in healthy young adults during challenging walking conditions. Sixteen individuals walked normally, in tandem, and on a compliant, low-lying balance beam with and without light touch on a railing. Three-dimensional kinematic data were captured to compute stride velocity (m/s, relative time spent in double support (%DS, a medial-lateral margin of stability (MOSML and its variance (MOSMLCV, as well as a symmetry index (SI for the MOSML. Muscle activity was evaluated by integrating electromyography signals for the soleus, tibialis anterior, and gluteus medius muscles bilaterally. Adding haptic input decreased stride velocity, increased the %DS, had no effect on the MOSML magnitude, decreased the MOSMLCV, had no effect on the SI, and increased activity of most muscles examined during normal walking. During tandem walking, stride velocity and the MOSMLCV decreased, while %DS, MOSML magnitude, SI, and muscle activity did not change with light touch. When walking on a low-lying, compliant balance beam, light touch had no effect on walking velocity, MOSML magnitude, or muscle activity; however, the %DS increased and the MOSMLCV and SI decreased when lightly touching a railing while walking on the balance beam. The decreases in the MOSMLCV with light touch across all walking conditions suggest that adding haptic input through light touch on a railing may improve balance control during walking through reduced variability.

  3. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drachmann Tue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. Objective To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low or high content of chlorophyll. Results There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730 concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24% compared to phytanic acid group (15%. There were no significant effects of phytanic acid on risk markers for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The results indicate that increased intake of dairy fat modify the plasma phytanic acid concentration, regardless of cows feeding regime and the minor difference in dietary phytanic acid. Whether the phytanic acid has potential to affects the risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human still remain to be elucidated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343576

  4. Effects of age and physical activity on the autonomic control of heart rate in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Melo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aging process and an active life-style on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR were investigated in nine young sedentary (YS, 23 ± 2.4 years, 16 young active (YA, 22 ± 2.1 years, 8 older sedentary (OS, 63 ± 2.4 years and 8 older active (OA, 61 ± 1.1 years healthy men. Electrocardiogram was continuously recorded for 15 min at rest and for 4 min in the deep breathing test, with a breath rate of 5 to 6 cycles/min in the supine position. Resting HR and RR intervals were analyzed by time (RMSSD index and frequency domain methods. The power spectral components are reported in normalized units (nu at low (LF and high (HF frequency, and as the LF/HF ratio. The deep breathing test was analyzed by the respiratory sinus arrhythmia indices: expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I and inspiration-expiration difference (deltaIE. The active groups had lower HR and higher RMSSD index than the sedentary groups (life-style condition: sedentary vs active, P < 0.05. The older groups showed lower HFnu, higher LFnu and higher LF/HF ratio than the young groups (aging effect: young vs older, P < 0.05. The OS group had a lower E/I ratio (1.16 and deltaIE (9.7 bpm than the other groups studied (YS: 1.38, 22.4 bpm; YA: 1.40, 21.3 bpm; OA: 1.38, 18.5 bpm. The interaction between aging and life-style effects had a P < 0.05. These results suggest that aging reduces HR variability. However, regular physical activity positively affects vagal activity on the heart and consequently attenuates the effects of aging in the autonomic control of HR.

  5. Engaging rural women in healthy lifestyle programs: insights from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha L; Harrison, Cheryce L; Teede, Helena J; Ng, Sze; Moran, Lisa J; Lombard, Catherine B

    2015-09-16

    The obesity epidemic is well established, particularly in rural settings. Programs promoting healthy lifestyles for rural women are urgently needed; however, participant engagement is challenging. In the context of a large randomized controlled trial targeting the prevention of weight gain in rural women, we explored successful recruitment strategies and aimed to understand participants' barriers, enablers and reasons for program participation. We recruited women (aged 18-55 years) from the general rural Australian population. A mixed-methods approach was applied to explore factors that influenced program participation, including quantitative questionnaires for all participants (n = 649) and qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted for a subgroup of participants (n = 45). Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 6 and 12 months post program commencement. We recruited 649 rural women through a community communication and partnering strategy, a program marketing campaign and mobilization of social networks. Program participants were diverse across education and income levels and were representative of the wider Australian regional population. Factors that influenced program engagement were divided into personal (perceived program benefits and program accessibility) and social (peer persuasion and support). Identified enablers included convenience of the program location, perceived program utility, such as weight management and optimization of lifestyle choices, as well as attending the program with peer support. Barriers to engagement, which are likely exacerbated in rural communities included lack of anonymity, self-consciousness and segregated social networks in rural settings. Participants reported that eliciting local support and maximizing publicity is fundamental to improving future program engagement. Multiple program promotion strategies including communication, marketing and partnering, as well as mobilization of social networks and peer

  6. The circulating cell-free microrna profile in systemic sclerosis is distinct from both healthy controls and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, S. O.; Iversen, L. V.; Carlsen, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the expression profile of cell-free circulating microRNA (miRNA) in systemic sclerosis (SSc), healthy controls (HC), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. Total RNA was purified from plasma and 45 different, mature miRNA were measured using quantitative PCR assays...

  7. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  8. 1H-NMR METABONOMICS ANALYSIS OF SERA DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MAMMARY TUMOR-BEARING MICE AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global analysis of 1H-NMR spectra of serum is an appealing approach for the rapid detection of cancer. To evaluate the usefulness of this method in distinguishing between mammary tumor-bearing mice and healthy controls, we conducted 1H-NMR metabonomic analyses on serum samples ob...

  9. Voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle in cases with neck/shoulder pain compared to healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Katrine Tholstrup; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Subjects reporting neck/shoulder pain have been shown to generate less force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the shoulder muscles compared to healthy controls. This has been suggested to be caused by a pain-related decrease in voluntary activation (VA) rather than lack of...

  10. Filaggrin gene mutations and the distribution of filaggrin in oral mucosa of patients with oral lichen planus and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, K R; Johansen, J D; Reibel, J

    2017-01-01

    candidiasis. Immunohistochemistry were performed using poly- and monoclonal filaggrin antibodies. RESULTS: The immunoreactivity for filaggrin was significantly more intense in the oral mucosa in the patients with OLP/OLL compared to healthy controls (p=0.000025). No difference was noted in the incidence...

  11. Neural congruency effects in the multi-source interference task vanish in healthy youth after controlling for conditional differences in mean RT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamin Kim

    Full Text Available According to the conflict monitoring model of cognitive control, reaction time (RT in distracter interference tasks (e.g., the Stroop task is a more precise index of response conflict than stimulus congruency (incongruent vs. congruent. The model therefore predicts that RT should be a reliable predictor of activity in regions of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC that are posited to detect response conflict. In particular, pMFC activity should be (a greater in slow-RT than in fast-RT trials within a given task condition (e.g., congruent and (b equivalent in RT-matched trials from different conditions (i.e., congruent and incongruent trials. Both of these effects have been observed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies of adults. However, neither effect was observed in a recent study of healthy youth, suggesting that (a the model does not accurately describe the relationship between RT and pMFC activity in this population or (b the recent study was characterized by high variability due to a relatively small sample size. To distinguish between these possibilities, we asked a relatively large group of healthy youth (n = 28 to perform a distracter interference task - the multi-source interference task (MSIT - while we recorded their brain activity with functional MRI. In this relatively large sample, both of the model's predictions were confirmed. We conclude that the model accurately describes the relationship between pMFC activity and RT in healthy youth, but that additional research is needed to determine whether processes unrelated to response conflict contribute to this relationship.

  12. The acute effect of beta-guanidinopropionic acid versus creatine or placebo in healthy men (ABC-Trial): A randomized controlled first-in-human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Fares A; Horjus, Deborah L; Haan, Yentl C; van der Woude, Lisa; Schaap, Marianne C; Oudman, Inge; van Montfrans, Gert A; Nieuwland, Rienk; Salomons, Gajja S; Clark, Joseph F; Brewster, Lizzy M

    2017-12-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the ATP-generating enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is involved in hypertension. CK rapidly regenerates ATP from creatine phosphate and ADP. Recently, it has been shown that beta-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), a kidney-synthesized creatine analogue and competitive CK inhibitor, reduced blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. To further develop the substance as a potential blood pressure-lowering agent, we assessed the tolerability of a sub-therapeutic GPA dose in healthy men. In this active and placebo-controlled, triple-blind, single-centre trial, we recruited 24 healthy men (18-50 years old, BMI 18.5-29.9 kg m -2 ) in the Netherlands. Participants were randomized (1:1:1) to one week daily oral administration of GPA 100 mg, creatine 5 g, or matching placebo. The primary outcome was the tolerability of GPA, in an intent-to-treat analysis. Twenty-four randomized participants received the allocated intervention and 23 completed the study. One participant in the placebo arm dropped out for personal reasons. GPA was well tolerated, without serious or severe adverse events. No abnormalities were reported with GPA use in clinical safety parameters, including physical examination, laboratory studies, or 12-Lead ECG. At day 8, mean plasma GPA was 213.88 (SE 0.07) in the GPA arm vs. 32.75 (0.00) nmol l -1 in the placebo arm, a mean difference of 181.13 (95% CI 26.53-335.72). In this first-in-human trial, low-dose GPA was safe and well-tolerated when used during 1 week in healthy men. Subsequent studies should focus on human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments with different doses. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  13. The Role of Healthy Lifestyle in the Implementation of Regressing Suboptimal Health Status among College Students in China: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Hongjie; Jiang, Pingping; Yu, Lin; Jing, Yuan; Li, Fei; Wu, Shengwei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Yanyan; Kwan, Hiuyee; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan; Sun, Xiaomin

    2017-02-28

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is the intermediate health state between health and disease, it is medically undiagnosed and is also termed functional somatic syndrome. Although its clinical manifestations are complicated and various, SHS has not reached the disease status. Unhealthy lifestyle is associated with many chronic diseases and mortality. In accordance with the impact of lifestyle on health, it is intriguing to determine the association between unhealthy lifestyle and SHS risk. We conducted a nested case-control study among healthy Chinese college students from March 2012 to September 2013, which was nested in a prospective cohort of 5676 students. We performed 1:1 incidence density sampling with matched controls for birth year, sex, grade, specialty and individual character. SHS was evaluated using the medical examination report and Sub-health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0). Exposure was defined as an unhealthy lifestyle per the frequency of six behavioral dimensions from the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II). We matched 543 cases of SHS (42.66%) in a cohort of 1273 students during the 1.5 years mean follow-up time with controls. A significant difference (t = 9.79, p lifestyle behavior with respect to behavioral dimensions significantly affected SHS likelihood. Further analyses revealed a marked increase (average increased 14.73 points) in lifestyle level among those SHS regression to health after 1.5 years, with respect to the HPLP-II behavioral dimensions, in addition to the total score (t = -15.34, p lifestyles, and the Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 240 2 of 17 mitigation of modifiable lifestyle risk factors may lead to SHS regression. Increased efforts to modify unhealthy lifestyles are necessary to prevent SHS.

  14. Sensitivity of cognitive tests in four cognitive domains in discriminating MDD patients from healthy controls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JaeHyoung; Oh, In Kyung; Han, Changsu; Huh, Yu Jeong; Jung, In-Kwa; Patkar, Ashwin A; Steffens, David C; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2013-09-01

    We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine which neuropsychological domains and tasks would be most sensitive for discriminating between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls. Relevant articles were identified through a literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for the period between January 1997 and May 2011. A meta-analysis was conducted using the standardized means of individual cognitive tests in each domain. The heterogeneity was assessed, and subgroup analyses according to age and medication status were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 22 trials involving 955 MDD patients and 7,664 healthy participants were selected for our meta-analysis. MDD patients showed significantly impaired results compared with healthy participants on the Digit Span and Continuous Performance Test in the attention domain; the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A) and the Digit Symbol Test in the processing speed domain; the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Verbal Fluency in the executive function domain; and immediate verbal memory in the memory domain. The Finger Tapping Task, TMT-B, delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory failed to separate MDD patients from healthy controls. The results of subgroup analysis showed that performance of Verbal Fluency was significantly impaired in younger depressed patients (memory was significantly reduced in depressed patients using antidepressants. Our findings have inevitable limitations arising from methodological issues inherent in the meta-analysis and we could not explain high heterogeneity between studies. Despite such limitations, current study has the strength of being the first meta-analysis which tried to specify cognitive function of depressed patients compared with healthy participants. And our findings may provide clinicians with further evidences that some cognitive tests in specific cognitive domains have sensitivity

  15. Effect of verbal persuasion on self-efficacy for pain-related diagnostic sensory testing in individuals with chronic neck pain and healthy controls - a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Anne; Sterling, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cold pain threshold (CTh), pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pain tolerance (CPTo) tests, and the level of self-efficacy when self-efficacy for diagnostic sensory testing was manipulated by verbal persuasion before a testing situation in persons with neck pain and in healthy controls. A randomized experimental design was used. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 22 individuals with either traumatic or nontraumatic chronic neck pain were recruited to participate in the study. The intervention consisted of two experimental verbal persuasion conditions: Increase self-efficacy and Decrease self-efficacy. The PPT was measured using a pressure algometer, the CTh was measured using a thermo test system, and CPTo was measured by submerging the participant's hand in ice water up to the elbow joint. On three occasions, the participants reported their self-efficacy level in performing the sensory tests. In the chronic neck pain group, there were no differences in pain threshold or tolerance. There was a difference in the self-efficacy level after verbal persuasion between the experimental conditions. In the healthy control group, the CThs increased following the condition that aimed to increase self-efficacy. No other differences were observed in the healthy controls. A short verbal persuasion in the form of manipulative instructions seems to have a marginal effect on the individual's self-efficacy levels in the chronic neck pain group and a slight influence on the results of sensory testing in healthy controls.

  16. A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David A

    2016-02-24

    Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting. SHELf tested the impact of individual (skill-building), environmental (20% price reductions), and combined (skill-building + 20% price reductions) interventions on women's purchasing and consumption of fruits, vegetables, low-calorie carbonated beverages and water. This process evaluation investigated the reach, effectiveness, implementation, and maintenance of the SHELf interventions. RE-AIM provided a conceptual framework to examine the processes underlying the impact of the interventions using data from participant surveys and objective sales data collected at baseline, post-intervention (3 months) and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher's exact, χ (2) and t-tests assessed differences in quantitative survey responses among groups. Adjusted linear regression examined the impact of self-reported intervention dose on food purchasing and consumption outcomes. Thematic analysis identified key themes within qualitative survey responses. Reach of the SHELf interventions to disadvantaged groups, and beyond study participants themselves, was moderate. Just over one-third of intervention participants indicated that the interventions were effective in changing the way they bought, cooked or consumed food (p < 0.001 compared to control), with no differences among intervention groups. Improvements in purchasing and consumption outcomes were greatest among those who received a higher intervention dose. Most notably, participants who said they accessed price reductions on fruits and vegetables purchased (519 g/week) and consumed (0.5 servings/day) more vegetables. The majority of participants said they accessed (82%) and appreciated discounts on fruits and vegetables, while there was limited use (40%) and appreciation of discounts on low-calorie carbonated

  17. Effectiveness of Japanese encephalitis SA 14-14-2 live attenuated vaccine among Indian children: Retrospective 1:4 matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandale, Babasaheb V; Khan, Siraj A; Kushwaha, Komal P; Rahman, Helina; Gore, Milind M

    2018-04-24

    We estimate the effectiveness of Japanese encephalitis (JE) SA 14-14-2 live-attenuated vaccination single dose campaign among children aged 1-15 years in India during 2006-07. Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases hospitalized following vaccination campaigns during the years 2006-08 were investigated retrospectively. The laboratory-confirmed JE cases were detected from the surveillance laboratories based on anti-JE IgM antibody by ELISA or viral RNA detection by RT-PCR in sera or cerebrospinal fluid. Consent was sought from parents or guardians. Four community controls were chosen randomly per case during house-to-house survey employing individual matching on age, gender and residence during the risk period. Vaccination history was enquired from the child's guardian and verified from vaccination card at home or records at health centre. Conditional logistic regression was conducted on matched case-control sets. We studied 149 cases and matched 596 controls. Vaccination effectiveness was 43.8% (95% CI, 1.9-67.8) based on vaccination card or record. However, effectiveness was 72.2% (95% CI, 56.2-82.4) based on parental history or card/record. Vaccination effectiveness in Assam state was higher than in Uttar Pradesh state. We concluded that the single subcutaneous dose of SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine provided moderate effectiveness in Indian children. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected sisters and healthy controls: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected sisters. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected sisters and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy sisters and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy sisters and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected sisters emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. Event-related potentials in response to emotional words in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yin, Hui-fang; Wu, Da-xing; Xu, Shu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitive processing and abnormal brain activation in response to emotional stimuli have long been recognized as core features of the major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine how Chinese patients with MDD process Chinese emotional words presented to either the left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH). Reaction time (RT) and the late positive component of the event-related potential were measured while subjects judged the valence (positive or negative) of emotional words written in Chinese. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD exhibited slower RTs in response to negative words. In all subjects, the RTs in response to negative words were significantly faster than RTs in response to positive words presented to the LH, as well as significantly faster than responses to negative words presented to the RH. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients exhibited reduced activation of the central and left regions of the brain in response to both negative and positive words. In healthy controls, the posterior brain areas were more active than the anterior brain areas when responding to negative words. All individuals showed faster RTs in response to negative words compared to positive words. In addition, MDD patients showed lateralization of brain activity in response to emotional words, whereas healthy individuals did not show this lateralization. Posterior brain areas appear to play an especially important role in discriminating and experiencing negative emotional words. This study provides further evidence in support of the negative bias hypothesis and the emotional processing theory.

  20. Multiple sclerosis patients have a diminished serologic response to vitamin D supplementation compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Pavan; Steele, Sonya U; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Revirajan, Nisha R; Marcus, Jacqueline; Dembele, Marieme; Cassard, Sandra D; Hollis, Bruce W; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mowry, Ellen M

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), and patients do not always show the expected response to vitamin D supplementation. We aimed to determine if vitamin D supplementation leads to a similar increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) levels in patients with MS and healthy controls (HCs). Participants in this open-label study were female, white, aged 18-60 years, had 25(OH)D levels ⩽ 75 nmol/l at screening, and had relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or were HCs. Participants received 5000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for 90 days. Utilizing generalized estimating equations we examined the relationship between the primary outcome (serum 25(OH)D level) and the primary (MS versus HC status) and secondary predictors. For this study 27 MS patients and 30 HCs were enrolled. There was no significant difference in baseline 25(OH)D level or demographics except for higher body mass index (BMI) in the MS group (25.3 vs. 23.6 kg/m(2), p=0.035). In total, 24 MS subjects and 29 HCs completed the study. In a multivariate model accounting for BMI, medication adherence, and oral contraceptive use, MS patients had a 16.7 nmol/l (95%CI: 4.2, 29.2, p=0.008) lower increase in 25(OH)D levels compared with HCs. Patients with MS had a lower increase in 25(OH)D levels with supplementation, even after accounting for putative confounders. © The Author(s), 2015.

  1. CYP2D6 genotype predicts antipsychotic side effects in schizophrenia inpatients: a retrospective matched case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Jakobsen, Klaus D; Hansen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    -state plasma concentrations at a given dose, thus increasing the risk of toxic effects from medication. METHODS: We identified 18 PM patients with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis from a clinical database covering all patients who have been analyzed in an ongoing standardized CYP2D6 screening program. Each...... PM patient was carefully matched on age, gender and diagnosis with an intermediate metabolizer (IM) and an extensive metabolizer (EM) from the same database to generate 18 triplets. Clinical data, primarily on side effects of treatment, were obtained from medical records by an experienced research...

  2. Latent palmprint matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2009-06-01

    The evidential value of palmprints in forensic applications is clear as about 30 percent of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While biometric systems for palmprint-based personal authentication in access control type of applications have been developed, they mostly deal with low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full palmprint matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensic applications. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi (the current standard in forensic applications) or higher resolution and uses minutiae as features to be compatible with the methodology used by latent experts. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latent prints lifted at crime scenes are of poor image quality, cover only a small area of the palm, and have a complex background. Other difficulties include a large number of minutiae in full prints (about 10 times as many as fingerprints), and the presence of many creases in latents and full prints. A robust algorithm to reliably estimate the local ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates the extraction of ridge and minutiae features even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based minutiae matching algorithm is used to match two palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latent palmprints) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Despite the inherent difficulty of latent-to-full palmprint matching, rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7 and 69 percent, respectively, were achieved in searching live-scan partial palmprints and latent palmprints against the background database.

  3. Aerobic exercise as a potential way to improve self-control after ego-depletion in healthy female college students