Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast of unknown etiology. Most present as breast masses in women of child-bearing age. A 29-year-old female presented with a swollen, firm and tender right breast, initially misdiagnosed as mastitis. Core needle biopsy revealed findings consistent with granulomatous lobular mastitis, and cultures were all negative for an infectious etiology. She was started on steroid therapy to which she initially responded well. A few weeks later she deteriorated and was found to have multiple breast abscesses. She underwent operative drainage and cultures grew Mycobacterium fortuitum . Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast. The definitive diagnose entails a biopsy. Other causes of chronic or granulomatous mastitis should be ruled out, including atypical or rare bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum . This is the first reported case of granulomatous mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum . With pathologic confirmation of granulomatous mastitis, an infectious etiology must be ruled out. Atypical bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum may not readily grow on cultures, as with our case. Medical management is appropriate, with surgical excision reserved for refractory cases or for drainage of abscesses.
Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast of unknown etiology. Most present as breast masses in women of child-bearing age. A 29-year-old female presented with a swollen, firm and tender right breast, initially misdiagnosed as mastitis. Core needle biopsy revealed findings consistent with granulomatous lobular mastitis, and cultures were all negative for an infectious etiology. She was started on steroid therapy to which she initially responded well. A few we...
Li, W B; Ji, L Y; Xu, D L; Liu, H C; Zhao, X Q; Wu, Y M; Wan, K L
Objective: To understand the etiological characteristics and drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis isolated from a cow with mastitis and provide evidence for the prevention and control of infectious mastitis in cows. Methods: The milk sample was collected from a cow with mastitis, which was pretreated with 4 % NaOH and inoculated with L-J medium for Mycobacterium isolation. The positive cultures were initially identified by acid-fast staining and multi-loci PCR, then Mycobacterium species was identified by the multiple loci sequence analysis (MLSA) with 16S rRNA , hsp65 , ITS and SodA genes. The drug sensitivity of the isolates to 27 antibiotics was tested by alamar blue assay. Results: Two anti-acid stain positive strains were isolated from the milk of a cow with mastitis, which were identified as non- tuberculosis mycobacterium by multi-loci PCR, and multi-loci nucleic acid sequence analysis indicated that one strain was Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and another one was Mycobacterium elephantis . The results of the drug susceptibility test showed that the two strains were resistant to most antibiotics, including rifampicin and isoniazid, but they were sensitive to amikacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ethambutol, streptomycin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and linezolid. Conclusions: Mycobacterium thermoresistibile and Mycobacterium elephantis were isolated in a cow with mastitis and the drug susceptibility spectrum of the pathogens were unique. The results of the study can be used as reference for the prevention and control the infection in cows.
Bonetto, César C.
El presente Trabajo de Tesis se desprende como una línea de investigación del grupo de la UNRC dedicado al estudio de la problemática de la mastitis bovina tanto en aspectos básicos como aplicados con estudios genéticos, epidemiológicos y de virulencia de los principales microorganismos involucrados en la mastitis bovina. Staphylococccus coagulasa negativo (SCN) es un grupo bacteriano formado por varias especies que por lo general eran considerados flora oportunista de la piel y age...
Murai, Atsuko; Maruyama, Soichi; Nagata, Masahiko; Yuki, Masashi
A 2-year, 7-month-old female Chihuahua was admitted for a mammary mass measuring one cm in diameter. The dog had a history of demodicosis for 4 months and showed signs of pseudopregnancy at the time of the visit. Cytologic examination of an aspirate of the mass revealed a large number of macrophages containing nonstaining bacterial rods, which were acid-fast in a Ziehl-Neelsen stain, suggesting mycobacterial infection. Histologic examination of the mass revealed a pyogranulomatous mastitis characterized by an infiltration with macrophages containing acid-fast bacteria. Mycobacterium kansasii was subsequently cultured and identified by PCR. Surgical excision of the mass resulted in the growth of other dermal masses, but antimycobacterial treatment with rifampin and clarithromycin resolved these masses within 1 month. Three months after discontinuation of the treatment, similar organisms were found in aspirates of the enlarged bilateral inguinal lymph nodes by cytologic examination. Despite antimycobacterial treatment for another 4 months, there was no improvement and demodicosis also recurred. The dog eventually died of lymphoma 5 months after the relapse of mycobacterial infection. Although M kansasii is considered an important pathogen for pulmonary and cutaneous disease in people, there is only one report in a dog with an infection in a pleural effusion. As both adult-onset demodicosis in dogs as well as mycobacterial infection in people have been associated with T-lymphocyte deficiency, the M kansasii infection in this dog may have been associated with a condition of immune compromise. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
K K Yasar
Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria are pathogens responsible for cutaneous or subcutaneous infections especially occurring after injection, trauma or surgery. We describe a patient with Mycobacterium abscessus mastitis that presented as a mass lesion and haemorrhagical discharge. It was initially diagnosed and treated as fibrocystic disease and non-specific abscess. Full recovery was obtained with combination therapy of clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin without surgical debridement followed by several abscess aspirations. Atypical mycobacteria should be considered in diagnosis of chronic breast lesions in endemic areas. This is the first reported case of mastitis due to M. abscessus in Turkey.
Full Text Available Se presenta información reunida retrospectivamente sobre casos de micobacteriosis originados por Mycobacterium simiae (n = 4 y "M. sherrisii" (n = 6. Los casos ocurrieron entre pacientes con sida (n = 6, historia de silicosis (n = 2 o tuberculosis previa (n = 1. Un caso se perdió luego de diagnosticado y nueve fueron tratados con esquemas terapéuticos basados en claritromicina, etambutol y quinolonas. La respuesta fue muy pobre: cinco pacientes fallecieron (cuatro eran HIV positivos, tres permanecieron crónicos y sólo uno curó. Estas micobacterias originaron 2.1% de los casos de micobacteriosis registrados en un período de ocho años. La distinción de estas micobacterias raras de otras más frecuentes por métodos moleculares rápidos, parece ser clínicamente útil para advertir sobre la dificultad que puede presentar el tratamiento. Sin embargo, la diferenciación genotípica entre M. simiae y "M. sherrisii" parecería no ser clínicamente relevante, dado que no quedaron expuestas características que distingan a los pacientes afectados por los dos microorganismos tan estrechamente relacionados.
Wang, Ye-sheng; Li, Qi-wei; Zhou, Lin; Guan, Run-feng; Zhou, Xiang-ming; Wu, Ji-hong; Rao, Nan-yan; Zhu, Shuang
Mycobacteria, which are known as rapidly growing bacteria, are pathogens that are responsible for cutaneous or subcutaneous infections that especially occur after injection, trauma, or surgery. In this report, we describe a species of Mycobacterium abscessus that was isolated from a breast abscess in a patient who was previously diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM). This current case is the first ever presented case of GLM associated with M. abscessus documented in South China....
Full Text Available Mastitis is an infectious or non-infectious breast disease associated with breast inflammation. It is observed most frequently during milk stasis (engorgement and lactation period (puerperal with superimposed infection. Most mastitides heal with simple self-help measures, however, sometimes antibiotherapy and abscess drainage may be required. Other than lactating period, mastitides are encountered in the presence of recurrent infections and abscess. Although various factors, such as smoking, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis can at times be the root causes of mastitis, they are frequently observed in granulomatous mastitides. Treatment approaches not involving biopsy are disadvantageous and harmful in such cases which can be confused with breast cancer. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage in patients with breast abscess and irrigation of the pouch with saline are the preferred treatment approach today. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2014; 52: 150-2
Rossi, G; Grohn, Y T; Schukken, Y H; Smith, R L
Endemic diseases can be counted among the most serious sources of losses for livestock production. In dairy farms in particular, one of the most common diseases is Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Infection with MAP causes direct costs because it affects milk production, but it has also been suspected to increase the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) among infected animals. This might contribute to further costs for farmers. We asked whether MAP infection represents a risk factor for CM and, in particular, whether CM occurrences were more common in MAP-infected animals. Our results, obtained by survival analysis, suggest that MAP-infected cows had an increased probability of experiencing CM during lactation. These results highlight the need to account for the interplay of infectious diseases and other health conditions in economic and epidemiological modeling. In this case, accounting for MAP-infected cows having an increased CM occurrence might have nonnegligible effects on the estimated benefit of MAP control. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Se presenta información reunida retrospectivamente sobre casos de micobacteriosis originados por Mycobacterium simiae (n = 4 y "M. sherrisii" (n = 6. Los casos ocurrieron entre pacientes con sida (n = 6, historia de silicosis (n = 2 o tuberculosis previa (n = 1. Un caso se perdió luego de diagnosticado y nueve fueron tratados con esquemas terapéuticos basados en claritromicina, etambutol y quinolonas. La respuesta fue muy pobre: cinco pacientes fallecieron (cuatro eran HIV positivos, tres permanecieron crónicos y sólo uno curó. Estas micobacterias originaron 2.1% de los casos de micobacteriosis registrados en un período de ocho años. La distinción de estas micobacterias raras de otras más frecuentes por métodos moleculares rápidos, parece ser clínicamente útil para advertir sobre la dificultad que puede presentar el tratamiento. Sin embargo, la diferenciación genotípica entre M. simiae y "M. sherrisii" parecería no ser clínicamente relevante, dado que no quedaron expuestas características que distingan a los pacientes afectados por los dos microorganismos tan estrechamente relacionados.A revision of mycobacterial disease due to M simiae (n = 4 and "M. sherrisii" (n = 6 identified during an eight-year period is presented. Cases occurred among patients with AIDS (n = 6, previous history of silicosis (n = 2 or tuberculosis (n = 2. One case was lost to follow-up and the remaining nine responded poorly to chemotherapy based on clarithromycin, ethambutol and fluoroquinolones. Five patients died of whom four were HIV-positive, three remained chronic and one was cured. These microorganisms originated 2.1% of mycobacterioses cases detected in an eight-year period. Timely identification of this group of uncommon mycobacteria by molecular methods seems to be clinically relevant in order to warn of difficulties inherent to the treatment. However, the distinction between both closely related microorganisms might not be crucial for case
Full Text Available Mycobacteria, which are known as rapidly growing bacteria, are pathogens that are responsible for cutaneous or subcutaneous infections that especially occur after injection, trauma, or surgery. In this report, we describe a species of Mycobacterium abscessus that was isolated from a breast abscess in a patient who was previously diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM. This current case is the first ever presented case of GLM associated with M. abscessus documented in South China. The case presentation highlights the role of M. abscessus in GLM. The association of M. abscessus and GLM is discussed and a summary of breast infection due to Mycobacteria is given.
Wang, Ye-Sheng; Li, Qi-Wei; Zhou, Lin; Guan, Run-Feng; Zhou, Xiang-Ming; Wu, Ji-Hong; Rao, Nan-Yan; Zhu, Shuang
Mycobacteria, which are known as rapidly growing bacteria, are pathogens that are responsible for cutaneous or subcutaneous infections that especially occur after injection, trauma, or surgery. In this report, we describe a species of Mycobacterium abscessus that was isolated from a breast abscess in a patient who was previously diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM). This current case is the first ever presented case of GLM associated with M. abscessus documented in South China. The case presentation highlights the role of M. abscessus in GLM. The association of M. abscessus and GLM is discussed and a summary of breast infection due to Mycobacteria is given.
Lucienne G. Pretto
Full Text Available Foram examinadas 713 vacas de três rebanhos leiteiros localizados na região norte do Estado do Paraná e sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, das quais 137 apresentaram mastite. Nas três propriedades foram detectados oito animais (1,12% com mastite clínica por Mycoplasma bovis. Destes animais, quatro tratados com oxitetraciclina e tilosina e três com enrofloxacina, não responderam ao tratamento e foram descartados no decorrer da lactação. Uma vaca medicada com enrofloxacina recuperou quase que totalmente a secreção láctea mas a eliminação de M. bovis persistiu por toda lactação. Esta vaca apresentou cura bacteriológica na lactação seguinte. O descarte dos animais positivos, monitora-mento bacteriológico e a aplicação correta das medidas de prevenção para as mastites contagiosas controlaram a disseminação de M. bovis nos rebanhos.In this study 713 cows were examined. The animals were from three dairy farms in northern Paraná and the southwest of the State of São Paulo. From these cows, 137 had mastitis. On the three farms, 8 cows (1.12% with Mycoplasma bovis mastitis were detected. Four were treated with tylosin and oxytetracyclin and three with enrofloxacin. There was no response to the treatments, and these animals were culled during the lactation period. One cow treated with enrofloxacin almost totally recovered milk production, but elimination of M. bovis continued during the lactation, and there was no bacteriological cure. This cow had a normal milk production in the next lactation period, without elimination of M. bovis. Culling of positive animals, the bacteriological study and correct application of preventive practices for contagious mastitis controlled the dissemination of M. bovis to other animals.
Full Text Available Mycobacteria are aerobic, non-spore forming, gram positive, acid-fast bacilli, which affect skin, subcutaneous tissue, and other organs and systems. Mycobacterium fortuitum produces cellulitis, abscesses, papules-pustules, nodules and ulcers with serosanguinolent, purulent material, and subcutaneous necrosis. A 61-year-old woman, presents a case of two months of evolution that begins with reddish grain from an insect sting. After immersion in the Mexican Sea, it worsens, increases in quantity, is blistered and has brownish secretion; Physical examination shows erythematous plaque, with punctate orifices with hematic and meliceric crusts; Pustules and satellite papules, on the anterior aspect of the right leg. Histopathology: Suppurative dermal granulomas, centered by acute leukocyte infiltrate, with liquefactive tissue necrosis, surrounded by chronic inflammation with macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, multinucleated giant cells. The first skin culture returns negative; in the second skin culture, fast-growing, non-pigmented atypical mycobacteria. Molecular detection is performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction: Mycobacterium fortuitum. Treatment with Ciprofloxacin 500 mg every 12 hours, with resolution of the table to the eighth month. A case of cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium fortuitum, related to the immersion in the sea and corals, whose diagnostic process has been difficult and was achieved by techniques of advanced molecular biology.
Full Text Available Samples from intestines, liver, and lymph nodes were collected from a dairy steer with clinical suspicion of paratuberculosis. The samples were processed for histologic examination with hematoxylin-eosin and Zihel-Neelsen (ZN staining for the detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB, and submitted to immunohistochemistry (IHC. Macroscopic changes were observed in the small intestines, with thickening and corrugation of the mucosa. The main microscopic changes were found in small intestines, lymph vessels in the mesentery, and mesenteric lymph nodes characterized by enteritis, lymphangiectasia, and lymphadenitis. Liver presented with granulomatous hepatitis, an uncommon histopathological feature for paratuberculosis. The clinical features associated with positive culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and detection of AFB by ZN and IHC in the cytoplasm of macrophages (epithelioid in the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, lymph nodes, and liver were important to confirm the diagnosis of paratuberculosis.
Full Text Available A ocorrência de casos esporádicos de mastite causados por microrganismos de origem ambiental pode ser considerada como emergente e as leveduras, os fungos leveduriformes e os filamentosos são alguns dos principais agentes envolvidos. Em relação à mastite micótica, as leveduras são freqüentemente causas de infecções da glândula mamária em animais produtores de leite. A maior parte dos casos ocorre sob a forma de surtos localizados e/ou após tratamento com antimicrobianos. Os principais gêneros envolvidos são Candida e Cryptococcus, além de outros como Geotrichum, Pichia e Trichosporon. O objetivo do trabalho é revisar os aspectos gerais sobre a mastite micótica causada por leveduras e fungos leveduriformes, tais como etiologia, causas predisponentes, patogenicidade, diagnóstico, tratamento e profilaxia por meio de uma abordagem cronológica dos primeiros relatos, mas com enfoque principal nos resultados descritos recentemente na literatura veterinária nacional e internacional. O controle da mastite micótica é fundamentado em métodos preventivos, como adequado manejo da ordenha, correta higienização dos equipamentos e das instalações, com a finalidade de reduzir o número de animais acometidos, além de garantir a qualidade e a inocuidade dos produtos lácteos.The veterinary literature registers sporadic cases of infections caused by environmental microorganisms in which the main agents involved are yeasts, yeasts-like and filamentous fungi. In relation to dairy animals, the yeasts are more frequently incriminated as the aetiological agents of mycotic mastitis. Most cases occur under the form of localized outbreaks and / or after treatment with antimicrobial agents. The main genera involved in mastitis are Candida and Cryptococcus, besides others such as Geotrichum, Pichia and Trichosporon. The purpose of this review is to point out the main aspects of mastitis caused by yeasts and yeast-like fungi, such as etiology
Lilian María Mederos Cuervo
Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de coinfección por Mycobacterium malmoense y Mycobacterium tuberculosis en un paciente cubano con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (sida, que producía enfermedad respiratoria y hepática respectivamente. Los cultivos realizados a partir de las muestras de esputo demostraron la presencia de una cepa micobacteriana no pigmentada de crecimiento lento perteneciente al grupo III de Runyon e identificada como Mycobacterium malmoense. A partir de los cultivos del tejido hepático extraído laparoscópicamente se aisló una cepa posteriormente identificada como Mycobacterium tuberculosis. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó el diagnóstico de tuberculosis, el paciente recibió tratamiento específico y evolucionó clínicamente bien. Se reporta un caso infrecuente de coinfección por Mycobacterium, el cual describe el primer reporte de tuberculosis hepática en una paciente con sida en Cuba.
Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino con diagnóstico de infección por HIV quien presentó una masa en cuello de 7 x 10 cm, dolorosa, de consistencia dura, adherida, no pulsátil, con edema de la piel adyacente y sin otros signos asociados. La evolución fue de 6 meses. Los estudios de la masa y el esputo dieron como resultado el aislamiento de M. tuberculosis, lo que permitió un adecuado enfoque terapéutico y por consiguiente una respuesta clínica satisfactoria
Ji, Ling Yun; Xu, Dong Lei; Yin, Shu Peng; Liu, Hai Can; Li, Gui Lian; Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jian Hao; Zeng, Hao; Lou, Yong Liang; Lyu, Jian Xin; Wan, Kang Lin
In this study, milk from a cow with mastitis was analyzed to determine the presence of mycobacterial infection. Milk quality and security problems pertaining to the safe consumption of dairy products were also discussed in this study. Milk was preprocessed with 4% NaOH. Then, mycobacteria were isolated from the milk sample on L-J medium. The isolate was identified using multiple loci Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and multi-locus sequence analysis with 16S rRNA, sodA, hsp65, and ITS genes. The drug sensitivity of the isolate to 27 antibiotics was tested through alamar blue assay. Smooth, moist, pale yellow colonies appeared on the L-J medium within a week after inoculation. Based on the results of multiple loci PCR analysis, the isolate was preliminarily identified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The 16S rRNA, SodA, hsp65, and ITS gene sequences of the isolate exhibited 99%, 99%, 99%, and 100% similarities, respectively, with those of the published reference strains of Mycobacterium elephantis (M. elephantis). The drug sensitivity results showed that the strain is resistant to isoniazid, p-aminosalicylic acid, and trimesulf but is sensitive to ofloxacin, rifampicin, amikacin, capreomycin, moxifloxacin, kanamycin, levofloxacin, cycloserine, ethambutol, streptomycin, tobramycin, rifabutin, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, and minocycline. To the best of our knowledge, this study is initially to report the isolation of M. elephantis from the milk of a cow with mastitis in China. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de graves sintomas de mastite hiperaguda em vaca, causada por Klebsiella pneumoniae, na terceira semana de lactação. Descrevem-se aspectos epidemiológicos, sintomas clínicos, procedimentos de diagnóstico microbiológico, conduta terapêutica e medidas de controle.
Gilberto Rueda Pérez
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Hace exactamente 100 años, señores académicos, Roberto Koch presentó en concisa, lacónica y podríamos decir perfecta comunicación, a la Sociedad de Fisiología de Berlín, la demostración de que la TBC tenía como causa única la proliferación en el organismo vivo, del germen denominado por él Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.
Esta comunicación que hoy conmemoramos, cambió el curso de la microbiología, y sentó las bases para el desarrollo posterior del tratamiento etiológico de las enfermedades infecciosas. Años más tarde, Koch recibiría el máximo galardón otorgado por Nobel a los grandes benefactores de la humanidad, por este descubrimiento. Sería glorificado por sus
contemporáneos y por quienes posteriormente hemos tenido el privilegio de ejercer la medicina en el mundo civilizado, así como por quienes padecieron y padecen aún el terrible mal, al ver cercana su curación gracias a los descubrimientos recientes que han permitido derrotar al más temible enemigo de la patología humana: el Bacilo puesto en evidencia
por este retraído sabio alemán.
Pero no todo fue gloria y renombre en la vida de Roberto Koch. Vale la pena rememorar a grandes rasgos en este Centenario y ante esta Academia de Medicina Colombiana, algunos de los hechos sobresalientes de la vida de este hombre excepcional, que le dio luz en su época y le sigue dando a la ciencia en general, y que sentó premisas que siguen vigentes en nuestros días a través del postulado que lleva su nombre, ineludibles para quienes quieren demostrar científicamente hechos bacteriológicos.
Nace el 11 de diciembre de 1843 en la pequeña población de Klausthal en Hanover, y allí transcurre su primera juventud provinciana y sencilla para luego viajar a Gotinga, en cuya universidad estudia medicina, destacándose siempre por su dedicación y método en las asignaturas, recibiendo su doctorado en 1886, a los 23 años, bajo la tutela del Profesor
Aline Artioli Machado Yamamura
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de fatores de risco associados à mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii. Foram analisadas 13 propriedades leiteiras dos Estados do Paraná e de São Paulo, segundo os seguintes critérios de seleção: confirmação prévia de casos de mastite por Prototheca spp., triagem pela pesquisa de Prototheca spp. em tanques de expansão e latões e rebanhos com contagem de células somáticas acima de 5x105cel mL-1. As amostras coletadas consistiram de: leite, água, solo, fezes e swab de teteiras. Prototheca spp. foi isolada de amostras de leite dos quartos mamários com mastite clínica ou subclínica em uma propriedade e de amostras de leite e do ambiente em quatro propriedades, nas quais foi isolada em amostras de: água de bebedouro, abastecimento, esgoto, empoçada no piso de estábulo e sala de ordenha, solo de piquete e pasto, teteiras, fezes de bezerros e suínos. Do total de 383 vacas examinadas, Prototheca spp. foi isolada em 20 (5,2% vacas, sendo caracterizada como P. zopfii em 18. Os fatores de risco associados à mastite causada por P. zopfii foram: criação das vacas a pasto, alimentação dos animais com pasto e silagem, realização de ordenha mecânica em estábulo, permanência das vacas após ordenha em piquete sem alimento, criação de suínos próxima às instalações dos bovinos, existência de cães, gatos e roedores, falta de higienização dos tetos com água, pré-imersão dos tetos em aplicador com retorno e sem a troca do anti-séptico, alimentação dos bezerros com leite de vacas com mastite clínica e serem as vacas da raça holandesa.This research had as objective the study of risk factors associated with bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii. Thirteen dairy herds in Paraná and São Paulo states were analyzed and selected according to the following criteria: previous confirmation of Prototheca spp. mastitis cases, screening of Prototheca spp. in bulk tanks and
Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito
Full Text Available Um caso de mastite clínica causada por Prototheca zopfii em uma vaca de um rebanho leiteiro localizado na Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais foi estudado. O animal apresentou sinais clínicos nos quartos mamárias anteriores e queda acentuada na produção de leite. Após o diagnóstico inicial, o animal foi observado durante onze meses, do início da manifestação da doença até 12 dias após o parto. Exames microbiológicos do leite foram realizadas aos 7, 30, 39, 49, 65, 326 e 331 dias após o isolamento inicial, sendo os dois últimos exames realizados 7 e 12 dias após o parto. As amostras de P. zopfii isoladas apresentaram resistência in vitro a: ampicilina, canamicina, cefatoridina, enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, neomicina, oxacilina, penicilina, sulfonamidas e trimetoprim x sulfametoxazol. Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade in vitro das amostras de P. zopfii a um produto natural constituído de extrato de sementes de frutas cítricas, obtido comercialmente. A menor concentração que inibiu totalmente a alga foi 1:500. Recomendou-se um tratamento com a diluição a 1:200 do extrato em solução fisiológica estéril contendo timerosal a 1:30.000 como conservante, em doses diárias de 20ml, por via intramamária. O tratamento foi realizado inicialmente durante sete dias. Após este período houve redução, mas não a completa eliminação dos organismos do leite. Foi, então, recomendado mais um período de 15 dias de tratamento, de modo semelhante ao primeiro. Trinta e nove dias após o diagnóstico inicial não foi mais isolado P. zopfii do leite dos quartos afetados e a produção retornou a níveis semelhantes de antes da infecção. Amostras de leite naturalmente infectadas foram congelados a -20°C. Células viáveis de P. zopfii foram recuperadas de amostras mantidas até 38 dias nestas condições.A clinical case of mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in a cow from a dairy herd located in the region of Zona da
Full Text Available El complejo Mycobacterium avium (MAC es un patógeno que se encuentra en el medioambiente y causa infecciones tanto en pacientes inmunocompetentes como inmunocomprometidos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente VIH positivo varón de 38 años infectado por P. jirovecii y aparentemente infectado por Mycobacterium tuberculosis desde el año 2009, el cual fue tratado con antibioticoterapia para pneumocistosis y terapia antituberculosis (TB logrando mejoría parcial. En el año 2012 se le realizó nuevamente examen de cultivo y un nuevo tratamiento anti TB, frente a la sospecha de estar en presencia de una cepa de TB multidrogorresistente se recomienda realizar la identificación micobacteriana. El examen de cultivo fue positivo y el resultado genotípico resultó positivo para MAC. Se reporta el primer caso de un paciente VIH/SIDA con infección pulmonar por MAC en el Perú, así como una breve revisión de los aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y de tratamiento
Conclusion: Antepartum mastitis is uncommon during pregnancy. Physicians should assume that early, aggressive treatment of this infectious process will maximize breast tissue conservation and function. When abscess formation occurs, surgical drainage is essential, and general anesthesia is usually required.
Luciana Aramuni Gonçalves
Full Text Available Relata-se o primeiro caso no Brasil de mastite bovina por Clostridium perfringens tipo A. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por necrose da papila mamária e porção ventral do quarto afetado. O agente foi isolado em cultura pura e identificado como tipo A por PCR a partir do leite do quarto mamário afetado.This report describes a case of bovine mastitis due to Clostridium perfringens type A for first time in Brazil. The unical case showed necrosis of papilla mammary and ventral portion of the affected quarter. The microorganism was isolated in pure culture and identified as type A by PCR from milk of the affected mammary quarter.
Outbreak of persistent cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium chelonae after mesotherapy sessions, Lima, Peru Surto de abscessos cutâneos persistentes por Mycobacterium chelonae pós-mesoterapia, Lima, Peru
César V Munayco
Full Text Available Outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria have been occasionally described. The article reports an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium chelonae following mesotherapy in Lima, Peru. From December 2004 through January 2005, 35 subjects who had participated in mesotherapy training sessions presented with persistent cutaneous abscesses. Thirteen (37% of these suspected cases consented to underwent clinical examination. Skin punch-biopsies were collected from suspicious lesions and substances injected during mesotherapy were analyzed. Suspected cases were mainly young women and lesions included subcutaneous nodules, abscesses and ulcers. Mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from four patients and from a procaine vial. In conclusion, it is important to consider mesotherapy as a potential source of rapidly growing mycobacteria infections.Surtos de micobactérias de crescimento rápido têm sido relatados ocasionalmente. O estudo relata um surto de abscessos cutâneos por Mycobacterium chelonae após sessões de mesoterapia em Lima, Peru. De dezembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005, 35 pessoas que haviam passado por sessões de mesoterapia apresentaram esses abscessos cutâneos. Treze (37% desses casos suspeitos concordaram em realizar exames clínicos. Foram realizadas biópsias de punção de pele de lesões suspeitas e examinadas substâncias injetadas durante a mesoterapia. Os casos suspeitos eram predominantemente mulheres jovens e as lesões incluíram nódulos subcutâneos, abscessos e úlceras. Mycobacterium chelonae foi isolada de quatro pacientes e de um frasco de procaína. Em conclusão, é importante considerar a mesoterapia como fonte potencial de infecções de micobactérias de crescimento rápido.
Roberson, Jerry R
In summary, culture-based therapy and severity levels are key to management of clinical mastitis. Antibiotic therapy should be strongly considered for gram-positive clinical mastitis. Antibiotic therapy is not necessary for mild-to-moderate gram-negative clinical mastitis. Antibiotic therapy is warranted for practically all severe clinical mastitis as well as fluids and anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical mastitis cases due to yeast and fungal pathogens or no growth isolates do not warrant antibiotic therapy.
Munayco, César V; Grijalva, Carlos G; Culqui, Dante R; Bolarte, José L; Suárez-Ognio, Luis A; Quispe, Neyda; Calderon, Roger; Ascencios, Luis; Del Solar, Manuel; Salomón, Martín; Bravo, Francisco; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria have been occasionally described. The article reports an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium chelonae following mesotherapy in Lima, Peru. From December 2004 through January 2005, 35 subjects who had participated in mesotherapy training sessions presented with persistent cutaneous abscesses. Thirteen (37%) of these suspected cases consented to underwent clinical examination. Skin punch-biopsies were collected from suspicious lesions a...
Mastitis means inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. Many infective agents have been implicated as causes of mastitis. Worldwide, farmers have achieved tremendous success in reducing the incidence of contagious mastitis by adopting the traditional methods of mastitis control. The greatest impact of these control measures has been on infections caused by the contagious bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactia. But this success has not been demonstrated ...
Pavlović Vojislav; Vakanjac Slobodanka
Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solut...
Zhou, Fei; Yu, Li-Xiang; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Zhi-Gang
The clinical and pathological features of nine cases of granulomatous mastitis were compared with those of 10 cases of duct ectasia/periductal mastitis (DE/PM), all of which were associated with active granulomatous inflammation. Granulomatous mastitis affects a younger age group, and although there is some overlap with DE/PM, it has distinctive pathological features, particularly a lobule centred distribution, for which the term "granulomatous lobular mastitis" is recommended. There is a str...
Geraldo Márcio da Costa
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a freqüência de infecções intramamárias ocasionadas por leveduras a partir de amostras de leite (n=1710 coletadas em 40 rebanhos leiteiros do Estado de Minas Gerais. Cinqüenta e seis estirpes de leveduras do gênero Candida e uma linhagem de Trichosporon loubieri foram isoladas. Candida albicans foi a espécie dominante (28,1% das cepas, seguida por Candida parapsilosis (19,3%, Candida catenulata (14,0%, Candida glabrata (14,0% e Candida tropicalis (8,8%. Infecções mistas foram detectadas em 29,8% das vacas levedura-positivas. Amostras positivas para leveduras foram predominantemente obtidas (84% de vacas com mastite subclínica. A baixa taxa de isolamento de leveduras sugere que estes microrganismos não são relevantes para mastite bovina na região estudada.The objective of this study was to report the frequency of intramammary infections by yeasts, in Minas Gerais State, from milk samples (n = 1710 collected in 40 dairy herds. Fifty six yeast strains of the genus Candida and one strain of Trichosporon loubieri were isolated. Candida albicans was the dominant species (28.1% of the strains, followed by Candida parapsilosis (19.3%, Candida catenulata (14.0%, Candida glabrata (14.0%, Candida tropicalis (8.8%. Mixed infections were detected in 29.8% of yeast-positive cows. The yeast infection was more frequent (84% in cows with subclinical mastitis. The low rate of isolation of yeasts suggests that these microorganisms are not relevant to bovine mastitis in the studied region.
This study assessed prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. Data regarding occurrence of mastitis, farmers' current practices in mastitis control, and administering a questionnaire to 76 smallholder farmers collected their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter ...
Mastite subclínica causada por Staphylococcus aureus: custo-benefício da antibioticoterapia de vacas em lactação Subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus: cost benefit analysis of antibiotic therapy in lactating cows
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a relação custo-benefício do tratamento da mastite subclínica bovina causada por Staphylococcus aureus. Foram selecionados 270 quartos mamários com mastite subclínica e sadios, divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o estádio de lactação e o tratamento. O grupo 1 foi formado por animais entre 10 e 60 dias da lactação e tratados contra mastites; o grupo 2 incluiu animais entre 61 dias da lactação e dois meses antes da secagem e tratados contra mastite; o grupo 3 foi formado por animais entre 10 e 60 dias da lactação, não tratados contra mastite; e o grupo 4 foi formado por animais entre 61 dias em lactação e dois meses antes da secagem, não tratados. O tratamento foi realizado pela infusão intramamária de 150mg de gentamicina, uma vez ao dia. A reavaliação foi efetuada após 30 dias. Para os cálculos dos custos com o tratamento, foram considerados uma prevalência de S. aureus de 5% e os gastos com medicamento, descarte do leite, antibiograma e mão-de-obra. Observou-se redução de 2% e 14% das receitas nos grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente, quando comparada com as receitas obtidas antes do tratamento, demonstrando ser economicamente inviável o tratamento da mastite subclínica bovina causada por S. aureus, durante a lactação.Economic evaluation of the treatment bovine subclinical mastitis caused by S. aureus was evaluated. Two hundred and seventy udder quarters with or without subclinical mastitis were distributed into four groups, in conformity to lactational stage and treatments. Group 1 included animals treated between 10 and 60 days of lactation; group 2 included animals treated from 61 days of lactation to two months before drying; group 3 included animals no treated between 10 and 60 days of lactation; group 4 included animals no treated from 61 days of lactation to two months before drying. Treatment with gentamicin (150mg was accomplished by intramammary doses, once a day, after performing sensitivity
Espínola-Docio, Blanca; Costa-Romero, Marta; Díaz-Gómez, N. Marta; Paricio-Talayero, José M
La mastitis es una de las principales causas de abandono evitable de la lactancia materna, con el aumento de la morbimortalidad infantil que ello supone, pero no hay uniformidad en los criterios diagnósticos ni terapéuticos. El diagnóstico de la mastitis aguda es fundamentalmente clínico, y, solo en determinados casos, está indicado el cultivo de leche. El drenaje del pecho es fundamental en el tratamiento, por lo que debe mantenerse la lactancia. Si persisten los síntomas o si existe mucha r...
Full Text Available Granulomatous lobular mastitis is an unusual breast benign inflammatory disorder with unknown aetiology. It is generally emerged with the clinical symptoms of breast mass, abscess, inflammation and mammary duct fistula. The diagnosis is made by histopathology with a chronic non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in lobules of the breast tissue as the microscopic feature. Therapy of granulomatous lobular mastitis consists of surgical, medication treatment or combination of both, but now researches suggest that observational management is an acceptable treatment. Keywords: Breast, Granulomatous lobular mastitis, Mastitis, Granulomas
Full Text Available Mastitis poses a major economic and health problem in herds of dairy cows. The many years of taking different approaches to treating mastitis have not resulted in an adequate solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. The treatment of mastitis using antibiotics yields satisfactory results, but it implies substantial costs for treatment and losses in rejecting milk. Due to the above reasons, a new area of scientific research offers possibilities for finding new solutions to the ever present problem of mastitis - immunoprophylaxis. Vaccines against mastitis available at this time are still not sufficiently effective in general practice, and they are at the level of experimental vaccines. All barn vaccines which have been worked on so far have been significantly experimentally successful. The success is in a significant increase in the antibody titer in serum (but not in milk, as well as in reducing the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases among experimental and control animals. Nevertheless, it is still believed that immunoprophylaxis, as a method for preventing inflammation of the udder and the occurrence of mastitis, is still an insufficiently investigated field of scientific research. Many scientists are engaged on the problem of finding a vaccine against mastitis, but the coplexity of the mammary gland and the specific permeability of the blood-milk barrier do not permit these efforts to be as successful as they might be if this were not the case.
Full Text Available Mastitis means inflammation of the parenchyma of the mammary gland. Many infective agents have been implicated as causes of mastitis. Worldwide, farmers have achieved tremendous success in reducing the incidence of contagious mastitis by adopting the traditional methods of mastitis control. The greatest impact of these control measures has been on infections caused by the contagious bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactia. But this success has not been demonstrated for clinical mastitis caused by other agents. Organisms such as coagulase negative Staphylococci, environmental Streptococci, Mycoplasma spp and Serratia spp have increasingly been isolated from dairy herds that had low somatic cell counts. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 38-39
Héctor Alejandro Serrano-Coll
Full Text Available La lepra es una enfermedad infecciosa granulomatosa crónica, causada por Mycobacterium leprae . El curso natural de esta enfermedad está relacionado con una neuropatía periférica denominada neuropatía leprótica, la cual es responsable de la aparición de discapacidades en ojos, manos y pies. Se realizó una búsqueda estructurada en la base de datos de Pubmed y OVID utilizando los siguientes términos MeSH : lepra, neuropatía, nervio periférico, célula de Schwann, discapacidad, biomarcadores. El 83,8 % de los artículos referenciados en esta revisión fueron seleccionados a través de esta búsqueda. El daño neural en lepra es una patología en la que intervienen múltiples mecanismos fisiopatógenicos, que incluyen: la respuesta inmune del hospedero, la interacción de M. leprae a diferentes ligandos en las células Schwann, lo que permite la activación de vías de señalización celular que inducen inflamación, desmielinización y daños a nivel del axón, que se traducen en discapacidad sensitiva y motora en el paciente con lepra. Pero a pesar de que en las últimas décadas se han realizado avances importantes en el entendimiento de esta neuropatía, esto no se ha visto reflejado en herramientas o biomarcadores que sean útiles en la detección temprana del daño periférico causado por la lepra.
René Ramírez G.
Full Text Available El Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis (MAP es el agente causal de una enfermedad granulomatosica crónica, que afecta el tracto gastrointestinal de rumiantes domesticos y salvajes, conocida como la enfermedad de Johne o paratuberculosis. MAP es un microorganismo de crecimiento lento en cultivo, no obstante sobrevive in vivo en células fagocíticas mononucleares de los rumiantes, bajo condiciones de susceptibilidad individual, virulencia de la cepa infectante y estado inmune del individuo afectado. Una vez MAP es fagocitado por el macrófago bovino, tanto el macrófago como MAP activan: el uno para tratar de destruir a MAP y luego sufrir apoptosis y el otro para evadir su destrucción dentro del fagolisosoma del macrófago. El balance de dicha confrontación molecular determina el curso inicial de la infección hacia la eliminación eficiente del microorganismo o hacia el establecimiento de la infección, que culminará en los estadios III (clínico intermitente y IV (clínica terminal de la enfermedad de Johne. En la presente revisión se discuten los diferentes mecanismos moleculares por los cuales MAP evade la respuesta inmune, con énfasis en su comportamiento dentro de la vacuola fagocítica y como el agente establece mecanismos de sobrevivencia intracelular y altera la activación de los macrófagos del hospedero y de la respuesta inmune específica.
Vaz, Marta Helena Melo de Campos e Cunha
Tese de mestrado, Biologia Molecular e Genética, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 A tuberculose é uma doença infeciosa de etiologia bacteriana, com uma incidência anual média superior a 9 milhões de casos e tendo sido associada à morte de 1.5 milhões de indivíduos só em 2014. Dentro do género Mycobacterium, o complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTC) engloba várias espécies patogénicas, fenotipica e genotipicamente relacionadas, nomeadamente Mycobacterium tuberculosis, o...
Royster, Erin; Wagner, Sarah
The understanding of mastitis, its cause, and the rationale for treatment or nontreatment of mastitis under various circumstances continues to evolve. This article presents research-based evidence about the use or nonuse of drugs to treat mastitis. Nondrug factors involved in decision making about mastitis, including cow characteristics and the epidemiology of mastitis, are also briefly discussed. This article provides information that helps in the making of knowledgeable, evidence-based decisions about therapy for mastitis. Focus is primarily on the use of antimicrobial drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.
Zhou, Fei; Yu, Li-Xiang; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Zhi-Gang
Granulomatous lobular mastitis is an unusual breast benign inflammatory disorder with unknown aetiology. It is generally emerged with the clinical symptoms of breast mass, abscess, inflammation and mammary duct fistula. The diagnosis is made by histopathology with a chronic non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in lobules of the breast tissue as the microscopic feature. Therapy of granulomatous lobular mastitis consists of surgical, medication treatment or combination of both, but now researches suggest that observational management is an acceptable treatment.
Cotrino Badillo Victor
Full Text Available In Colombia, the great diversity in management, methods of milking and breeds for milk production, makes very difficult to unify the rules for mastitis control; therefore the veterinarian’s job, according to the available resources in each herd is to advise the best procedures for both, milking routines and mastitis control. Influenced by the differences in management, the prevalence of each of the microorganisms that may cause mastitis varies from region to region and even from herd to herd within the same area. As a rule of thumb, the more basic the system, the less practices for mastitis control are present; this situation consequently leads to a high presentation of contagious mastitis by Streptococcus agalactiae. As the management improves, and dry cow therapy practices are implemented particularly in systems with milking machines, the mayor pathogen isolated is Staphylococcus aureus which is a regular resident in the skin. The number of cases caused by environmental microorganisms is very low, but maintains the clinical level of serious acute mastitis reported in dairy herds in other countries. Due to the indiscriminate and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics used for mastitis treatment, a high level of resistance to antibiotics has resulted to most of the antibiotics already in the market. It is imperative a close cooperation between the organizations for drug regulation and control, the pharmaceutical industry and the Veterinary medical profession to established rules and standards to safeguard this non-renewable resource.La diversidad en los sistemas de manejo, métodos de ordeño y aun de razas que se tienen en la producción de leche en Colombia, no permiten unificar las normas para el control de mastitis y será el veterinario quien, de acuerdo con los recursos disponibles en cada finca, establezca los procedimientos para el manejo del ordeño y el control de la mastitis. Influenciados por las diferencias de manejo, la
Halasa, T.; Huijps, K.; Osterás, O.; Hogeveen, H.
Several studies have been published since 1990 on the economics of mastitis and mastitis management. However, hardly any of these studies has discussed the consistency of results with other studies. In the present paper, the economic factors associated with mastitis are explained, providing a
Jones, G. M. (Gerald Murray), 1941-; Swisher, Jerry M., 1949-
Today, many well-managed farms that have successfully controlled contagious mastitis and consistently produce milk with somatic cell counts (SCC) below 300,000 have problems with increased clinical mastitis.
Boboš, S.; Radinović, M.; Vidić, B.; Pajić, M.; Vidić, V.; Galfi, A.
One of the most important problems in milk production, causing great economic loses is certainly mastitis. In order to minimize economic losses from mastitis dairy farms introduce different mastitis management programs. These programs include mastitis therapy and prevention. In mastitis control prevention is most important and when mastitis occurs cost of therapy and milk discharge is very important. In our study we examined cost of mastitis treatment and m...
Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to
This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and
Full Text Available Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis. Moreover the disease is often overlooked and misdiagnosed as carcinoma or pyogenic abscess. Reports on breast tuberculosis from India have been few; reported incidence of breast tuberculosis amongst the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.64 and 3.59 per cent. Bilateral involvement is still more uncommon (3%. Most accepted view for spread of infection is centripetal lymphatic spread as axillary node involvement was shown to occur in 50 to 75 per cent of cases of tubercular mastitis. Here we re-port a case of a young female who presented with draining sinuses in the breast and no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of breast lump showed evidence of granulomatous mastitis. She was given therapeutic trial of four drug antitubercular treatment. Both the lump disappeared and sinus healed after six months of antitubercular treatment. Thus a retrospective diagnosis of tu-bercular mastitis was made.
Soft tissue abscess and lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium avium Complex as an expression of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after a second scheme of highly active antiretroviral therapy Linfadenitis y absceso subcutáneo por Complejo Mycobacterium avium como manifestación de síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune luego de un segundo esquema de terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad
Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is an atypical and unexpected reaction related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. IRIS includes an atypical response to an opportunistic pathogen (generally Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, cytomegalovirus and herpes varicella-zoster, in patients responding to HAART with a reduction of plasma viral load and evidence of immune restoration based on increase of CD4+ T-cell count. We reported a case of a patient with AIDS which, after a first failure of HAART, developed a subcutaneous abscess and supraclavicular lymphadenitis as an expression of IRIS due to Mycobacterium avium complex after starting a second scheme of HAART.El síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune (SIRI es una reacción atípica e inesperada relacionada con el tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. El SIRI representa una respuesta inflamatoria frente a un patógeno oportunista (generalmente Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Complejo Mycobacterium avium, citomegalovirus y herpes varicela-zóster en pacientes que responden a la TARGA con una marcada reducción de la carga viral en plasma y evidencia de una recuperación inmunológica expresada por el incremento de los niveles de linfocitos T CD4+. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida que desarrolló un absceso subcutáneo en muslo derecho y una adenitis supraclavicular izquierda como manifestación de SIRI por Complejo Mycobacterium avium luego del inicio de un segundo esquema de TARGA.
Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil
Laerte Francisco Filippsen
Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.
Detection of methicillin resistance and slime factor production of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis Detecção de resistência a meticilina e produção do fator slime por Staphylococcus aureus em mastite bovina
Full Text Available This study aimed to detect methicillin resistant and slime producing Staphylococcus aureus in cases of bovine mastitis. A triplex PCR was optimized targetting 16S rRNA, nuc and mecA genes for detection of Staphylococcus species, S. aureus and methicillin resistance, respectively. Furthermore, for detection of slime producing strains, a PCR assay targetting icaA and icaD genes was performed. In this study, 59 strains were detected as S. aureus by both conventional tests and PCR, and 13 of them were found to be methicillin resistant and 4 (30.7% were positive for mecA gene. Although 22 of 59 (37.2% S. aureus isolates were slime-producing in Congo Red Agar, in PCR analysis only 15 were positive for both icaA and icaD genes. Sixteen and 38 out of 59 strains were positive for icaA and icaD gene, respectively. Only 2 of 59 strains were positive for both methicillin resistance and slime producing, phenotypically, suggesting lack of correlation between methicillin resistance and slime production in these isolates. In conclusion, the optimized triplex PCR in this study was useful for rapid and reliable detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus. Furthermore, only PCR targetting icaA and icaD may not sufficient to detect slime production and further studies targetting other ica genes should be conducted for accurate evaluation of slime production characters of S. aureus strains.Este estudo objetivou a detecção de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina e produtor do fator slime em casos de mastite bovina. Um PCR triplex foi otimizado, com alvo no genes 16SrRNA, nuc e mecA para detecção de Staphylococcus spp, S. aureus e resistencia a meticilina, respectivamente. Para detecção das cepas produtoras do fator slime, empregou-se um PCR com alvo nos genes icaA e icaD. No estudo, 59 cepas foram identificadas como S. aureus por testes convencionais e PCR, sendo 13 resistentes a meticilina e quatro positivas para o gene mecA. Embora 22 das 59 cepas
Kim, Hyun A; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, Hnana; Lee, Ah Won [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Tuberculous mastitis is a rare manifestation of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. It mimics inflammatory breast cancer or other pyogenic inflammations. In most of the tuberculous mastitis reports, coexisting or prior tuberculosis infection and secondary infection of the breast by direct spread via axillary or cervical lymphadenopathy, or hematogenous spread have been noted. We describe the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a case of diffuse type mycobacterium tuberculosis of the breast showing diffuse edema which was confirmed as tuberculosis through biopsy and had no evidence of old or concurrent pulmonary tuberculosis on chest computed tomography
Full Text Available La diversidad en los sistemas de manejo, métodos de ordeño y aun de razas que se tienen en la producción de leche en Colombia, no permiten unificar las normas para el control de mastitis y será el veterinario quien, de acuerdo con los recursos disponibles en cada finca, establezca los procedimientos para el manejo del ordeño y el control de la mastitis. Influenciados por las diferencias de manejo, la prevalencia de cada uno de los microorganismos causantes de mastitis varía de región a región y aun de finca a finca en la misma zona. Como criterio general, entre más elemental sea el sistema de manejo o menos prácticas en el control de mastitis, predominan las mastitis contagiosas por Streptococcus agalactiae que van cediendo espacio a las producidas por Staphylococcus aureus cuando se implementan las prácticas de terapia de vaca seca, y en los hatos con ordeños mecánicos aumentan los casos por microorganismos localizados en la piel de los pezones. El número de casos por microorganismos ambientales es muy bajo, pero mantiene el comportamiento clínico de mastitis aguda grave que se reporta en los hatos estabulados en otros países. Por el uso indiscriminado y a veces inadecuado que caracteriza el manejo de los antibióticos para el tratamiento de mastitis se tiene un alto nivel de resistencia a la mayoría de los antibióticos existentes en el mercado para el tratamiento de la mastitis. Es urgente que en forma concertada entre el ente de control, la industria farmacéutica y el cuerpo médico veterinario se establezcan normas y criterios para salvaguardar este recurso no renovable.
Wilson, Courtney R.
A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey.
Wilson, Courtney R
A 3.7-kg, 3-year-old intact female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with the chief complaint of anorexia and lethargy of 3 days duration with a noticeable decrease in body condition and a large open wound on her ventral caudal abdomen. A diagnosis of acute mastitis with gland abscessation was made. The patient was successfully treated with oral antibiotics and open wound management using surgical debridement and lavage followed by wound dressings using honey.
Barrero P., Raúl; Benavides M., Alicia; León B., Manuel; Barrero V., David; Vargas V., Victoria
Se evaluó el manejo de 13 pacientes con mastitis granulomatosa idiopática y mastitis de células plasmáticas, tratadas en el Hospital Félix Bulnes, por un período de tres años. Se estudió la relación con la edad, anticoncepción, embarazo, lactancia y la atopia. Se evaluaron las limitaciones de la mamografía y de la ecotomografía mamaria y el uso de la biopsia trucut. Se compararon los resultados del tratamiento médico y quirúrgico 13 patients with granulomatous mastitis and plasmatic cell m...
Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F.
Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions
Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)
Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.
La diversidad en los sistemas de manejo, métodos de ordeño y aun de razas que se tienen en la producción de leche en Colombia, no permiten unificar las normas para el control de mastitis y será el veterinario quien, de acuerdo con los recursos disponibles en cada finca, establezca los procedimientos para el manejo del ordeño y el control de la mastitis. Influenciados por las diferencias de manejo, la prevalencia de cada uno de los microorganismos causantes de mastitis varía de región a regi...
Ramírez Vásquez, Nicolás; Arroyave Henao, Ofelia; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario; Jaramillo, Manuel; Cerón, Juan; Palacio, Luis Guillermo
Se efectuó un estudio de corte sobre la prevalencia de mastitis bovina en una muestra representativa de las granjas lecheras del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluaron los resultados del California Mastitis Test (CMT), Recuento de Células Somáticas (RCS) y cultivo bacteriológico de leche, y se analizaron los factores de riesgo asociados a mastitis bovina. El análisis estadístico de la información se efectuó por medio de estadística descriptiva, análisis de razón de prevalencias ...
Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.
Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.
Tuberculosis transmission of predominant genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Northern suburbs of Buenos Aires city region Transmisión de la tuberculosis por genotipos predominantes de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en la región Gran Buenos Aires Norte
Full Text Available In 2003, the incidence of tuberculosis in Argentina showed an increase compared to 2002. The severe national crisis at the end of the 90s has probably strongly contributed to this situation. The goal of this work was to estimate the extent of the spread of the most predominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and to assess the spread of predominant M. tuberculosis clusters as determined by spoligotyping and IS6110 RFLP. The study involved 590 pulmonary, smear-positive TB cases receiving medical attention at health centers and hospitals in Northern Buenos Aires (NBA suburbs, from October 2001 to December 2002. From a total of 208 clinical isolates belonging to 6 major clusters, 63 (30.2% isolates had identical spoligotyping and IS6110 RFLP pattern. Only 22.2% were shown to have epidemiological connections with another member of their respective cluster. In these major clusters, 30.2% of the 208 TB cases studied by both molecular techniques and contact tracing could be convincingly attributable to a recently acquired infection. This knowledge may be useful to assess the clonal distribution of predominant M. tuberculosis clusters in Argentina, which may make an impact on TB control strategies.La incidencia de la tuberculosis en Argentina mostró en 2003 un incremento en comparación con 2002. La grave crisis nacional a fines de los 90 ha probablemente contribuido en gran medida a esta situación. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la diversidad genética de aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis y el grado de dispersión de algunas cepas mayoritarias genéticamente relacionadas. El estudio involucró 590 aislamientos clínicos provenientes de muestras respiratorias con examen directo positivo, de pacientes atendidos en los hospitales y centros de salud que conforman la región Gran Buenos Aires Norte (NBA, de octubre de 2001 a diciembre de 2002. De 208 aislamientos que se encontraron en los 6 mayores clusters, 63 (30,2% ten
Evitar o efeito da vacinação BCG na detecção de infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis com um teste sanguíneo Avoiding the effect of BCG vaccination in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with a blood test
R. Diel; M Ernst; G Doscher; L Visuri-Karbe; U Greinert; S Niemann; A Nienhaus; C Lange
O risco de progressão da infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis para tuberculose-doença é sobretudo elevado nos primeiros anos após a infecção, estimando-se que 50% dos casos de tuberculose-infecção desenvolvem doença nos dois anos seguintes. A investigação precoce dos contactos baseia-se neste facto, e o teste cutâneo de tuberculina tem sido largamente utilizado como a prova de rastreio, apesar da sua limitação na população vacinada com BCG, nas reacções cruzadas com micobactérias não tuber...
Pereira, Frederick A; Mudgil, Adarsh V; Macias, Edgar S; Karsif, Karen
Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a rare breast condition with prominent skin findings. It is typically seen in young parous women. Painful breast masses, draining sinuses, scarring, and breast atrophy are the main clinical manifestations. IGLM can resemble a variety of other inflammatory and neoplastic processes of the breast. It is thought to result from obstruction and rupture of breast lobules. Extravasated breast secretions then induce an inflammatory reaction. Corynebacteria have also been implicated in the pathogenesis. Treatment is surgical, but systemic corticosteroids, methotrexate, and antibiotics also play a role. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.
Ozturk, E.; Akin, M.; Can, Mehmet F.; Ozrehan, I.; Yagci, G.; Tufan, T.; Kurt, B.
Objective was to discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years). The complaints at admission were a mass in the breast in 7 (50%) patients, an abscess and a mass in 6 (42.8%) and a skin fisculain one (7.2%). Granulomatous mastitis was unilateral in all subjects (on the right in 5 patients and on the left in 9). All of the patients underwent ultrasonographic evaluation. Mammography was performed in 8 and magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients. Seven patients (50%) were suspected to have breast carcinoma according radiological findings. We performed the large excision in 11, incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage in one, and incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage plus medical treatment (prednisolone, methotrexate) in 2 patients. Due to the development of abscess after 9 months, drainage and large excision were performed in one patient who received medical treatment. Idiopathic GM is a disease that generally affects young women of reproductive age and may be mistaken for breast carcinoma in clinical and radiological evaluations. The gold standard for the diagnosis is histopathologic evaluation. (author)
Sears, P M; González, R N; Wilson, D J; Han, H R
Procedures for mastitis diagnosis and control include culturing individual cow and bulk tank milk samples, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and evaluation of somatic cell count reports and clinical mastitis treatment records. Integrated use of such procedures is necessary for effective mastitis diagnosis and control.
Avaliação sorológica e de fatores de risco para a infecção por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis em rebanhos leiteiros da Microrregião de Garanhuns, Pernambuco Serological evaluation and risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy herds of Microregion Garanhuns, Pernambuco
Luenda de M. e Sá
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho realizar um inquérito epidemiológico da infecção por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP em bovinos leiteiros da microrregião de Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brasil. Para este estudo foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas de 408 animais, provenientes de 19 rebanhos localizados em 15 municípios. O exame sorológico foi realizado por Ensaio Imunoenzimático (ELISA indireto para detecção de anticorpos frente ao MAP. Em todas as propriedades, foi aplicado um questionário investigativo para análise dos fatores de risco, e as coordenadas geográficas coletadas por um aparelho de Global Position System (GPS para realização da distribuição espacial. A prevalência da infecção por MAP foi de 2,7% (11/408; I.C. 1,4-4,9. O número de focos foi 47,4% (9/19. Na análise de regressão logística foi identificado como fator de risco a taxa anual de nascimentos superior a 51 bezerros/ano (OR 3,8; I.C. 1,1-13,1. Desta forma, conclui-se que a infecção por MAP encontra-se presente nos rebanhos bovinos leiteiros da microrregião estudada e que medidas de controle baseadas nos fatores de risco identificados devem ser implementadas com o objetivo de reduzir o número de focos da infecção.The present study aimed to conduct an epidemiological investigation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infection in dairy cattle of the Garanhuns microregion, in Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 408 animals from 19 herds located in 15 cities. Serological tests were performed by indirect immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA for antibodies against MAP. In all farms, a questionnaire to investigate risk factors was used, and Global Position System (GPS receivers were used to collect geographic coordinates to show the spatial distribution of the animals. The prevalence of MAP infected cattle was 2.7% (11/408; I.C. 1.4-4.9. The rate of infection was 47.4% (9/19. An annual birth rate over 51 calves
Nicolás Ramírez Vásquez
Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio de corte sobre la prevalencia de mastitis bovina en una muestra representativa de las granjas lecheras del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluaron los resultados del California Mastitis Test (CMT, Recuento de Células Somáticas (RCS y cultivo bacteriológico de leche, y se analizaron los factores de riesgo asociados a mastitis bovina. El análisis estadístico de la información se efectuó por medio de estadística descriptiva, análisis de razón de prevalencias y regresión logística multinivel. Con la prueba de CMT se detectó un 20% de cuartos afectados con mastitis, la prevalencia de mastitis subclínica por vaca fue del 39,5% y la de mastitis clínica fue del 1,7%. Se efectuaron 648 cultivos de muestras de leche, de las cuales 23,9% fueron negativas, 34% positivas a Streptococcus agalactiae y 10,2% a Estafilococo coagulasa negativo. El análisis de regresión reveló que las vacas que tuvieron más de seis meses de lactancia presentaron una Odds Ratio (OR de 2,65 en comparación con las de un mes de lactancia (p < 0,05. Se halló un OR de 1,24 para la asociación de la edad y la mastitis (p < 0,05. Para el lavado de manos se encontró un OR de 0,36 en comparación con no hacerlo (p < 0,05. En conclusión, se halló una alta frecuencia de mastitis por vaca. El microorganismo más hallado fue el Streptococcus agalactiae. El trauma podría ser una causa importante de mastitis dado que no se observó crecimiento bacteriano en 23,9% de los cultivos de muestras de leche de cuartos con mastitis.
Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan [Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment.
Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Park, Kyeong Mee; Han, Se Hwan
The describe the radiologic findings of granulomatous mastitis of the breast. This study included 19 patients (age range: 22 to 56 years; mean 37 years) with 22 lesions that were pathologically confirmed as having granulomatous mastitis. All the patients underwent a breast ultrasonography and 13 patients underwent a mammography. The results of the mammography revealed focal asymmetry (n = 9), multiple ill-defined isodense nodules (n 2), ill-defined nodular density on craniocaudal view (n = 1), and unremarkable finding (n = 1). The sonographic findings included continuous or discontinuous multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions (n = 7), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion (n = 5), irregular-shaped, ill-defined low echoic mass (n = 4), fluid collection with internal floating materials suggesting the presence of an abscess (n = 4), ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesion and abscess (n = 1), and multiple ill-defined nodules (n = 1). In the case of granulomatous mastitis, the mammography results indicate a lack of specificity between normal findings and focal asymmetry. The sonographic findings indicate that ill-defined heterogeneously low echoic lesions or irregular shaped, ill-defined low echoic masses are difficult to differentiate from breast cancer. The sonographic findings of abscesses indicate a difficulty in differentiating them from cases of pyogenic mastitis. However, multiple tubular and nodular low echoic lesions, especially with a continuous appearance, should point to granulomatous mastitis, and is helpful in its differential diagnosis and treatment
Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail.
The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of mastitis and the contribution of each cost component of mastitis to the total mastitis induced cost in herds with low and high levels of subclinical mastitis under Scottish field conditions. It was estimated that mastitis cost £140 per cow/year to the average Scottish dairy farmer in 1996. However, this figure was as low as £69 per cow/year in herds with lower levels of subclinical mastitis, and as high as £228 cow/year in herds with high s...
The use of successive milking as a procedure for the elimination of infection on due to Prototheca spp in cases of bovine clinical mastitis. (A case report / Utilização de ordenhas sucessivas como procedimento para eliminação de infecção por prototheca spp de casos de mastite clínica bovina (relato de caso
Márcia Kiyoe Shimada
Full Text Available This work relates the case of two animals (Black and White Holstein from a bovine milking herd, from north of Paraná State, in which mastitis due Prototheca spp was diagnosed. As a procedure for the infection elimination, it was opted for the use of successive milking performed six times daily, during eight days. The animals were followed up through mycological cultures from milk Samples after 15, 30 and 60 days from the beginning of the procedure. The clinical signs regressed after three days and the mycologicai cultures were negative after the 15th day.O presente trabalho relata um caso de dois animais HPB de um rebanho bovino leiteiro, da região norte do Estado do Paraná, dos quais diagnosticou-se mastite clínica por Prototheca spp. Como procedimento para eliminação da infecção optou-se peta utilização de ordenhas sucessivas praticadas seis vezes diariamente durante oito dias. Os animais foram acompanhados através de culturas micológicas das amostras de leite após 15, 30 e 60 dias do inicio do procedimento. Os sinais clínicos regrediram após três dias, e a partir do 15° dia as culturas foram negativas.
Diane J. Ordway
Full Text Available RESUMO: Avaliaram-se in vitro as respostas das citocinas Tipo 1 e Tipo 2 de dadores portugueses saudÃ¡veis vacinados Ã nascenÃ§a com BCG, com Mantoux positivo (induraÃ§Ã£oâ¥5Â mm e de doentes com tuberculose pulmonar (TP. Foi efectuado o estudo por ELISA da produÃ§Ã£o de IFN-Î³ e IL-5 por CÃ©lulas Mononucleares do Sangue PerifÃ©rico (CMSP dos dadores apÃ³s estimulaÃ§Ã£o com M. tuberculosis e antigÃ©nio solÃºvel PPD. Foi confirmada a presenÃ§a intracelular de IFN-Î³ e de IL-4 em subpopulaÃ§Ãµes de cÃ©lulas T por anÃ¡lise multiparamÃ©trica, em citometria de fluxo. As CMSP dos doentes com tuberculose estimuladas com PPD e M. tuberculosis demonstraram uma diminuiÃ§Ã£o na produÃ§Ã£o de IFN-Î³ sem aumento da produÃ§Ã£o de IL-5 em resposta ao painel de antigÃ©nios. Nos doentes com tuberculose observou-se uma frequÃªncia diminuÃda de IFN-Î³ intracelular nas cÃ©lulas T CD4+ e CD8+, em comparaÃ§Ã£o com os grupos controlos. ApÃ³s estimulaÃ§Ã£o das CMSP com M. tuberculosis, os doentes demonstraram um aumento mÃ©dio de IL-4 intracelular no fenÃ³tipo T CD4+, mais evidente na subpopulaÃ§Ã£o T CD8+. O aumento da secreÃ§Ã£o de IL-4 nos doentes com tuberculose verificou-se sobretudo nos indivÃduos em estado avanÃ§ado da doenÃ§a. Os resultados obtidos por Citometria de Fluxo contradizem de alguma forma os obtidos por ELISA. A secreÃ§Ã£o de IL-4 intracelular representa uma medida mais sensÃvel da produÃ§Ã£o de citocinas tipo 2 do que a quantificaÃ§Ã£o de IL-5 por tÃ©cnicas de ELISA. Estes novos resultados sugerem que pode ocorrer uma mudanÃ§a de T 1 para T 2 em doentes com tuberculose em estado avanÃ§ado.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2001; VII (2: ABSTRACT: In vitro Type 1 and Type 2 cytokine responses were assessed in healthy Portuguese donors who were BGC vaccinated at birth and Mantoux positive (induration 5â¥mm and pulmonary tuberculosis patients
Al Nazer, Mona A
To review clinicopathological features of all cases diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) in our hospital and compare them with other data from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Reports of all breast specimens received in histopathology laboratory in Qatif Central Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over a 14 year period (1988 through to 2002) were collected and those diagnosed as IGLM were selected for analysis of both pathological material and clinical data. Eleven patients representing 1.6% of all breast specimens were diagnosed as IGLM. The mean age was 35 years (range 25-50). Both breasts were equally affected. The most frequent presenting symptom was a breast mass of 2-22 weeks duration. The most common clinical diagnosis was chronic abscess (5 patients). Relation to pregnancy, lactation or oral contraceptives pills was elicited in 4 patients. Recurrence at different time intervals occurred in 3 patients. Microscopically there was an evident granulomatous inflammation mostly in lobular distribution. Ductal inflammation with epithelial changes was noted in most cases. Staining and cultures were negative for both mycobacterium and fungal organisms. Granulomatous mastitis is not unheard of and clinicians should keep it in their list of differential diagnosis of breast lumps so appropriate handling of breast specimens including microbiological studies can be pursued. Utility of fine needle aspiration biopsy as a diagnostic tool is to be considered.
Myllys, V; Rautala, H
Using data from health records for cows in Finland from between 1983 and 1991, we investigated the general trend for frequency of mastitis in heifers, seasonal variation, breed differences, and etiology of the disease. The performance of the heifers was monitored during first lactation. Treatment of heifer mastitis, defined as mastitis treatment 1 wk before and 1 wk after calving, increased from 1.8 to 4.4% between 1983 and 1991. The increase can be partly attributed to increased milk production, subsequent reduced resistance to mastitis, and the general trend toward more efficient treatment of mastitis. Heifer mastitis was a characteristic disease of well-managed, productive herds with low SCC and a high frequency of mastitis treatments administered by a veterinarian. Of the feeding factors studied, only use of homemade concentrates was associated with higher mastitis frequency. Mastitic heifers had higher genetic potential for milk production than control heifers, but actual milk production was 70 to 80 kg lower than expected. Most mastitic heifers recovered well and were not more susceptible than control heifers to further incidence of mastitis or other diseases. However, heifer mastitis caused more heifers than usual to be culled.
Evitar o efeito da vacinação BCG na detecção de infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis com um teste sanguíneo Avoiding the effect of BCG vaccination in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection with a blood test
Full Text Available O risco de progressão da infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis para tuberculose-doença é sobretudo elevado nos primeiros anos após a infecção, estimando-se que 50% dos casos de tuberculose-infecção desenvolvem doença nos dois anos seguintes. A investigação precoce dos contactos baseia-se neste facto, e o teste cutâneo de tuberculina tem sido largamente utilizado como a prova de rastreio, apesar da sua limitação na população vacinada com BCG, nas reacções cruzadas com micobactérias não tuberculosas e na anergia cutânea em grupos específicos. Nos presentes estudos avalia-se a maior especificidade (no primeiro e a maior sensibilidade (no segundo de um novo teste sanguíneo na detecção de tuberculose- infecção. Este teste laboratorial feito em uma única amostra de sangue do doente baseia-se na libertação de gama-interferão das células T CD4 do indivíduo infectado quando expostas a antigenes micobacterianos. A libertação de interferão é fortemente estimulada por antigenes do Mycobacterium tuberculosis ausentes no M. bovis e na grande maioria das restantes micobactérias - conferindo especificidade ao teste. Estes antigenes ESAT-6/ CFP10 (early secretory antigenic target 6/ culture filtrated protein 10 reagem com o sangue do indivíduo infectado, levando à libertação de gama-interferão medido pelos métodos ELISA ou ELISPOT, dependendo do fabricante, respectivamente - Quantiferon Gold; Cellestis Limited, Austrália; e T-Spot.TB, Oxford Immunotec, UK. No primeiro estudo referenciado, 369 pessoas da academia de Polícia alemã foram avaliadas para o risco de tuberculose-infecção após o contacto com militar a quem foi diagnosticada tuberculose pulmonar com presença de bacilos ácido-alcool resistentes 3+ em exames de expectoração, com posterior cultura positiva para Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foi efectuado teste de Mantoux a todos os contactos, e aos que apresentavam o teste positivo (induração = 5mm
Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.
Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID
Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing
In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae to ticarcillin in combination with clavulanic acid.
Casal, M J; Rodriguez, F C; Luna, M D; Benavente, M C
The in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonei) to ticarcillin in combination with calvulanic acid (CA) was studied by the agar dilution method. All the M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum strains were inhibited at a ticarcillin concentration of 32 micrograms/ml or lower in combination with 5 micrograms of CA. M. chelonae and M. avium strains ...
Hinckley, L S; Benson, R H; Post, J E; DeCloux, J C
Susceptibility tests were performed on milk samples representing prevalent mastitis infections in certain herds. Susceptibility patterns of the same bacterial species from several mastitis infections in the same herd were consistent. The herd antibiotic susceptibility profiles were used as a basis for selecting antibiotics for treatment of all such mastitis cases in that herd. A high degree of correlation was seen between the susceptibility test results and treatment results. Susceptibility patterns of the same bacterial species from mastitis infections in different herds varied greatly, which indicated that any one antibiotic would not work equally well against the same bacterial infection in every herd. Therefore, treatment should be selected on the basis of susceptibility test results. When both Streptococcus and Staphylococcus mastitis occurred in the same herd, the susceptibility patterns for the 2 bacterial species varied widely. Therefore, for herds that experienced both streptococcal and staphylococcal mastitis, antibiotics to which both bacterial species were susceptible were used for treatment.
Adna Crisléia Rodrigues Monção de Lima
Full Text Available Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation, is the main factor that substantially compromises the milk quality. Several methods can diagnose the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. One these methods, the California Mastitis Test (CMT has as advantages being practical, low cost and the results are immediately available. The CMT method consists of adding the anionic neutral detergent to a milk sample in order to disrupt milk somatic cell membranes and release nucleic material. The viscousity formed by this reaction allows estimating the number of somatic cells (immunity cells presents in the milk. According to the degree of gelatinization obtained in this reaction, the interpretation of the scores varies from zero, no viscosity, to three crosses, highly viscous. This study was aimed to evaluate the CMT of eight dairy herds of different farms in Sao Paulo state, described by the letters A to H. The scores 1, 2 and 3 were considered positive for subclinical mastitis, while 0 was negative. The results were determined in relative frequency (%. It is evident that the herd D is the most affected by subclinical mastitis, because of the greater number of CMT positive (60%. This may be due to the mismanagement and poor conditions of milking. The properties C, F and G require greater attention, as the result of CMT could corroborate the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and infected cows can quickly transmit the infection to the healthy ones. Note that the farms A, B and H are the ones with
Mastitis remains one of the most common diseases of dairy cows and represents a large economic loss to the industry as well as a considerable welfare issue to the cows affected. Decisions are routinely made about the treatment and control of mastitis despite evidence being sparse regarding the likely consequences in terms of clinical efficacy and return on investment. The aim of this thesis was to enhance decision making around the treatment and prevention of mastitis using probabilistic meth...
Roberson, Jerry R
Each farm has a unique mix of mastitis pathogens and management procedures that have evolved over time. The herd veterinarian should work with the manager/owner to systematically develop treatment protocols that meet the needs and management of the farm. To establish a mastitis treatment protocol, it is necessary to develop a system to routinely identify clinical mastitis cases, develop a herd-specific severity level assessment system, manage the clinical mastitis cases based on severity level and culture result (when available), avoid antibiotic residues, and monitor the success of the system and alter the protocol as necessary.
Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.
With the completion of genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and upsurge in the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection worldwide partly as a result of HIV pandemic, there is need for rationale approach to vaccine and chemotherapy discoveries for M. tuberculosis. The homologue of mig gene of. Mycobacterium ...
Adna Crisléia Rodrigues Monção de Lima; Thiago Pereira Motta; Mariana Santos de Miranda; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi
Milk production in Brazil is undoubtedly one of the most important Brazilian agroindustrial complex. Moves large sums of money, the dairy industry employs millions of the people, having potential to provide the domestic and foreign markets. Besides surpassing year by year the index production. The quality of milk is increasingly demanded by consumers and there are bonus programs for milk with low somatic cell counts, which reveal, indirectely, the udder sanity. Mastitis, the udder inflamation...
Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette
was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured...... for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms......A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems. A questionnaire...
Co-infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e vírus da imunodeficiência humana: uma análise epidemiológica em Taubaté (SP Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus: an epidemiological analysis in the city of Taubaté, Brazil
Luiz Gustavo Miranda de Carvalho
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os principais aspectos da co-infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e vírus da imunodeficiência humana no município de Taubaté (SP nos anos de 2001 e 2002. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho apresenta o levantamento epidemiológico dos casos de tuberculose ocorridos em Taubaté em 2001 e 2002. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 250 casos de tuberculose, dos quais 70 corresponderam a casos de sorologia positiva para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (28%, 95 de sorologia negativa (38%, e para 85 pacientes a sorologia não foi realizada (34%. Com relação ao primeiro grupo houve predomínio do sexo masculino e da faixa etária de 30 a 40 anos, a forma clínica de tuberculose mais comum foi a pulmonar (65,71% e a taxa de cura foi de 59,38% . No grupo de pacientes para os quais não se comprovou a co-infecção também predominou o sexo masculino e ocorrência na mesma faixa etária, sendo a forma clínica mais comum também a pulmonar (70,55% e a taxa de cura foi de 81,63%. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o vírus da imunodeficiência humana é importante na epidemiologia da tuberculose e, portanto, o teste sorológico para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana deve ser realizado quando se diagnostica a presença de tuberculose.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the main aspects of co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus in the city of Taubaté (located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil in 2001 and 2002. METHODS: This study presents epidemiological data on tuberculosis cases occurring in Taubaté in 2001 and 2002. RESULTS: Of the 250 cases of tuberculosis analyzed, 70 (28% presented human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, 95 (38% presented human immunodeficiency virus seronegativity, and 85 (34% were patients who had not been submitted to serological testing. In the first group (tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, males from 30 to 40 years of age predominated, the most common clinical
Sordillo, Lorraine M; Streicher, Katie L
Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating mammals, but is especially problematic for dairy cattle. The most recent estimates from the National Mastitis Council suggest that mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and will cost the dairy industry over 2 billion dollars annually in the United States in lost profits (National Mastitis Council (1996) Current Concepts in Bovine Mastitis, National Mastitis Council, Madison, WI). The overall impact of mastitis on the quality and quantity of milk produced for human consumption has provided the impetus to better understand the pathophysiology of the mammary gland and develop ways to enhance disease resistance through immunoregulation. As such, the bovine species has played a critical and prominent role in our current understanding of mammary gland immunobiology. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity and how the stage of lactation can impact important host defenses While this review emphasizes the bovine system, comparisons to humans and other domestic mammals will be addressed as well.
van Uden, Dominique J. P.; Westenberg, A. H. Helen; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Meijer, Jos W. R.; de Wilt, J. H. W. Hans; Blanken-Peeters, Charlotte F. J. M.
Several conditions can mimic the clinical presentation of inflammatory breast cancer. Three women presented with a swollen, red and painful breast which turned out to be inflammatory breast cancer after being treated as infectious mastitis. Non-puerperal bacterial mastitis may be confused with
Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.
A model to calculate the economic losses of mastitis on an average Dutch dairy farm was developed and used as base for a tool for farmers and advisors to calculate farm-specific economic losses of mastitis. The economic losses of a clinical case in a default situation were calculated as ¿210,
Scott, Jane A.; Robertson, Michele; Fitzpatrick, Julie
questionnaire before discharge from hospital. Cases of mastitis were reported either directly to the researchers or were detected during regular follow-up telephone interviews at weeks 3, 8, 18 and 26. Women experiencing mastitis provided further information of their symptoms and the management and advice...
Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.
This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or
Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus
Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown
A. Gunay; U. Gunay
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of clinical mastitis on reproductive performance in 135 early lactation cows. The animals were divided into two groups according to the occurrence of mastitis as follows: group I (n = 45), clinical mastitis prior to the first artificial insemination breeding; group II (n = 45), clinical mastitis after artificial insemination and being diagnosed pregnant. Forty-five cows without any mastitis served as control group. Calving to first serv...
Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.
Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the o...
Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.
Full Text Available Udder health control has been conducted in three different cow breeds by comparing the California Mastitis Test results in order to justify its use in detecting subclinical mastitis. The test examined 75 cows, or 228 quarters in total. In 76% of the cows of different breeds, the results of California Mastitis Test were positive. The tests were positive in one or two quarters with the intensity level of one, two and three. The test showed much higher percentage of positive reaction in the rear quarters. According to the results of our research, the continuous application of this test enables the early detection of subclinical mastitis resulting in its prevention and also improvement in quantity and milk quality.Key words: mastitis, California Mastitis Test, cow
Bhaskaran, C S; Prasad, K R; Rao, G; Kameshwari, R; Saheb, D A; Aruna, C A
Twenty six cases of chronic granulomatous mastitis are reported in a 5 year period and the slides are reviewed. They are sub-classified into Chronic lobular mastitis (CLM), Plasma cell mastitis and subareolar granuloma. There are 10 cases each of CLM and plasma cell mastitis and one of subareolar granuloma. All the three conditions are associated with duct ectasia. Fat necrosis and infective granulomas were 2 each and one of foreign body granuloma. These lesions can be easily differentiated by histology. While most of the CLM occurred in younger age group, plasma cell mastitis is seen in older women. Histologically, there is a florid inflammatory cell reaction of the stroma with dilatation and destruction of some ducts, with microabscess formation. In plasma cell mastitis, the lesion is more chronic with predominance of plasma cells and involutionary changes of the ducts are seen.
Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis, in cows presents one of the most acute problems in intensive milk production, incurring huge economic losses which reach from 20-80% even in developed countries in the past decade. On the grounds of the programme of the respective Ministry, the Veterinary Service of the Republic of Serbia is obliged to monitor, detect, curb and control infective inflammation of the mammary gland caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus. Long-term different approaches to mastitis treatment did not result in the required solution, so that the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. In order to prevent the infiltration of the pathogenic cause into the mammary gland, its populating and multiplication, it is necessary to maintain constant and regular controls of milk, as well as undertake of preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the incidence of mastitis. Immunization and immunotherapy of mastitis are new and very interesting areas for scientific investigations and work. In the recent decades vaccines against staphylococcal mastitis are being successfully developed, whose success is reflected in the reduced incidence of clinical and subcilinical mastitis.
Akladios, Cherif; Kadoch, Vaneesa; Bodin, Frederic; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine; Wilk, Astride; Mathelin, Carole
Paraffin and petrolatum have been known for more than 100 years as volumizing products. Certain countries still use them despite important complications. The authors report the case of a 39-year-old patient presenting a bilateral oleogranulomatous mastitis. An injection of petrolatum had been realized 2 years ago in Chechnya for cosmetic reasons. Clinically, she presented dense, erythemic, and painful breasts. The radiological examination found diffuse oily cysts. After first abdominal expansion, a bilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction was performed. The authors present a literature review about the clinical and radiological data and the possible treatments, and underline the numerous risks of this procedure, which should be strictly forbidden.
Mote, Dajiram G; Gungi, Raghavendra P; Satyanarayana, V; Premsunder, T
Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare benign breast disease. It is characterized by chronic, non-caseating granulomatous lobulitis. It may be misdiagnosed as a carcinoma of the breast and may lead to mastectomy. Diagnostic criteria include-A) Granulomatous infl ammation with multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes. B) It is centered on lobules with minor ductal and periductal infl ammation. C) It nearly always follows the pregnancy. A case of GLM, which was treated with local excision and postoperative steroid therapy is being reported to increase awareness amongst surgeons and pathologist.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of clinical mastitis on reproductive performance in 135 early lactation cows. The animals were divided into two groups according to the occurrence of mastitis as follows: group I (n = 45, clinical mastitis prior to the first artificial insemination breeding; group II (n = 45, clinical mastitis after artificial insemination and being diagnosed pregnant. Forty-five cows without any mastitis served as control group. Calving to first service intervals were significantly longer (P P P < 0.05 in cows with clinical mastitis after first service (3.4 ± 0.9 than in cows with clinical mastitis before first service (2.1 ± 0.9 and in cows with no clinical mastitis (1.8 ± 0.8. This study indicated that clinical mastitis during early lactation in Holstein cows had a negative impact on their reproductive performance.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the determination of the occurrence and prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk on three dairy farms. A one year study on a total of 1031 black-white breed cows with a total of 1267 lactations was performed. Each dairy farm implemented a different technology of rearing and was of different herd size (farm A - tie-stalls, 162 cows; farm B - loose-housing system with open shed and deep bedding, 357 dairy cows; and farm C - loosehousing system with enclosed shed, 512 cows. Clinical mastitis in cows was detected by clinical examination of the udder and determination of abnormalities in the milk. To distinguish two consecutive cases of clinical mastitis within the same lactation a time period of nine days was used. Annual prevalence rate of clinical mastitis for the entire population of cows was 34.13% on cow level, and 30.07% on lactation level. There was a high prevalence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous cows, 21.43%, 40.77% and 12.55%, on farms A, B and C, respectively. Lactation incident risk for cows on farm A was 25.00%, farm B 95.58% and farm C 21.49%. The prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk tended to increase with increasing parity. The annual lactation risk for the entire population of cows was 45.86%. All indicators for the determination of the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy farms, which were observed during the research, showed the greatest values on farm B. Most of the cows manifested one (68.24% or two (18.63% cases of clinical mastitis during lactation. There was a long period in lactation until the appearance of the first case of clinical mastitis (112.21 ± 92.04 days. Generally, clinical mastitis was registered during the whole period of the survey, with some fluctuations between different seasons. The method of GLM (General Linear Model, univariate procedure, was used to analyze associations between the incidence of clinical mastitis and
Hovanessian Larsen, Linda J; Peyvandi, Banafsheh; Klipfel, Nancy; Grant, Edward; Iyengar, Geeta
Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease that has clinical and radiologic findings similar to those of breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical, imaging, and treatment findings in 54 women diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis between January 2000 and April 2008. The imaging findings of granulomatous lobular mastitis overlap with those of malignancy. The most common presentation is a focal asymmetric density on mammography and an irregular hypoechoic mass with tubular extensions on ultrasound. Core biopsy is typically diagnostic. Once the diagnosis is established by tissue sampling, corticosteroids are the first line of treatment.
Proteinograma e teores de cobre, ferro e zinco no soro sanguíneo de ovelhas da raça Santa Inês com mastite experimental por Staphylococcus aureus Proteinogram and serum concentrations of copper, iron and zinc in Santa Inês ewes with Staphylococcus aureus experimentally induced mastitis
Nivaldo de Azevêdo Costa
ório em razão de sua alta correlação com as proteínas especificas. As alterações nas concentrações séricas de Cu, Fe e Zn sugerem a ação de mediadores inflamatórios, estimulados por S. aureus.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Staphylococcus aureus experimentally induced mastitis on proteinogram and serum concentrations of cupper, iron and zinc levels of Santa Ines primiparous ewes . The right mammary gland of ten healthy ewes was inoculated with 1,0x10(4 UFC/mL of S. aureus. Clinical examination and determination of serum concentrations of proteins by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE, cupper, iron and zinc, as well plasma level of fibrinogen were measured before the inoculation (control and 12h, 24h, 36h, 48h, 60h, 72h, 84h, 96h, 108h, 120h, 132h, 168h, 180h, 288h and 336h after bacteria inoculation. All animals experimentally infected presented clinical mastitis and subsequent loss of mammary gland function. The electrophoretogram allowed the identification of 23 proteins with molecular weights (MW ranged from 26.000 to 185.000 daltons (Da including acute-phase proteins, IgG and IgA. A significant increase (P<0,05 in haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, IgG and IgA concentrations was observed. Antitrypsin and acid glicoprotein concentrations did not alter. The levels of iron and zinc decreased and the cupper concentration increased . A positive correlation between plasma fibrinogen and serum ceruloplasmin (r=0.74, haptoglobin (r=0.62 and IgA (r=0.62 was also identified. Results showed the importance of ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin as acute-phase proteins in ewes with intramammary infections and confirms fibrinogen as an inflammatory marker because its high correlation with specific proteins. The alterations in the serum levels of Cu, Fe and Zn suggest the action of inflammatory mediators triggered by S. aureus.
Trasch, Katja; Wehrend, Axel; Bostedt, Hartwig
Ultrasonographic images were acquired of the mammary glands of 40 bitches with physiologically lactating (n = 20) or inflamed glands (n = 20). Echogenicity, structure, homogeneity, thickness, and distinguishability of each tissue layer were assessed. Additionally, overall echogenicity was noted. In the normal lactating gland, different tissues could be differentiated easily. The parenchyma was, without exception, separated from adjacent tissues and was visible as medium echogenic tissue with a coarse-grained structure. The tissue always had some echogenic lines and anechoic areas and was slightly heterogeneous. The loss of distinct layering of the tissue was characteristic of an inflamed mammary gland and inflamed regions had reduced echogenicity. Additionally in five bitches with mastitis, the ultrasound examination was repeated five times for documentation of the progress of the illness and associated changes, supplemented with a color Doppler sonogram to assess changes in blood vessel density. Information from the examinations carried out via B-mode did not allow treatment success to be predicted. Two bitches with reduced blood vessel density centrally had a poor outcome whereas three bitches with increased blood vessel density had a good outcome. Thus, Doppler sonography might be a useful tool to obtain information of the prognosis in acute canine mastitis.
Milanov Dubravka; Aleksić Nevenka; Todorović Dalibor; Bugarski Dejan
Pasteurella (P.) multocida is a heterogeneous species of Gram-negative bacteria which are common commensals of the upper respiratory system of various mammal and bird species, but are also opportunistic contagious zoonotic pathogens which cause a wide spectre of infections in domestic animals and humans. P. multocida is a rare cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The source of infection mainly remains unknown, mastitis usually is acute, and the therapy by intramammary administration of antibiotic...
Milanov, Dubravka; Aleksić, Nevenka; Todorović, Dalibor; Bugarski, Dejan
Pasteurella (P.) multocida is a heterogeneous species of Gram-negative bacteria which are common commensals of the upper respiratory system of various mammal and bird species, but are also opportunistic contagious zoonotic pathogens which cause a wide spectre of infections in domestic animals and humans. P. multocida is a rare cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The source of infection mainly remains unknown, mastitis usually is acute, and the therapy by intramammary administration of antibiotic...
The results of radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis in 78 women are presented. It is shown that the radiotherapy is the method of choice. Application of radiotherapy at different stages of disease promotes either complete resolution of infiltration (1-2 irradiations) or stipulates the decrease in temperature, abatement of pains and improvement of general state (at the presence of purulent fusion of mammary tissue). X-ray therapy of postnatal mastitis has does not affect the lactational function of mammary gland
Goelles, M.; Kopp, W.; Beaufort, F.
The clinic of radiology at the university of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made. (orig.) [de
Goelles, M.; Kopp, W.; Beaufort, F.
The clinic of radiology at the University of Graz has examined 158 cases of nonpuerperal mastitis. By means of mammography and during further clinical course, differentiation to the inflammatory carcinoma was possible. In 55% of the examined cases one or more clinical symptoms, which are described as typical for the nonpuerperal mastitis, were absent. With the help of mammography in most of all cases an exact diagnosis was made.
Thurmond, M C
Methods and concepts of epidemiology offer means whereby udder health can be monitored and evaluated. Prerequisite to a sound epidemiologic approach is development of measures of mastitis that minimize biases and that account for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests. Mastitis surveillance offers an ongoing and passive system for evaluation of udder health, whereas clinical and observational trials offer a more proactive and developmental approach to improving udder health.
Egyptien, Sophie; Lefebvre, Michaël; Guieu, Liz-Valéry; Robiteau, Guillaume; Deleuze, Stefan
This report describes the treatments and discusses the cost effectiveness of a Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) device on a gangrenous mastitis case. Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland found mainly in lactating females. Coliforms (Escherichia coli), Staphylococcus spp (Staphylococcus aureus) and, to a lesser extent, Streptococcus spp are the most commonly isolated organisms in bitches. The bitch can be presented because of local signs of inflammation, puppies failing to th...
Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.
The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In
Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E
Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur
Sierra Parada, Claudia Rocío; Sánchez Morales, Édgar Alberto; Henao Riveros, Sandra Consuelo; Saavedra Rodríguez, Alfredo
Antecedentes. La aparición de aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistentes a los medicamentos ha hecho que se busquen métodos más rápidos y confiables para la determinación de la susceptibilidad a las drogas antituberculosas. Objetivo. Determinación de la susceptibilidad a drogas antituberculosas de primera línea en aislamientos de M. tuberculosis utilizando el método del tubo indicador de crecimiento micobacteriano (MGIT). Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 49 aislamientos...
Claudia Rocío Sierra Parada; Édgar Alberto Sánchez Morales; Sandra Consuelo Henao Riveros; Alfredo Saavedra Rodríguez
Antecedentes. La aparición de aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistentes a los medicamentos ha hecho que se busquen métodos más rápidos y confiables para la determinación de la susceptibilidad a las drogas antituberculosas. Objetivo. Determinación de la susceptibilidad a drogas antituberculosas de primera línea en aislamientos de M. tuberculosis utilizando el método del tubo indicador de crecimiento micobacteriano (MGIT). Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 49 aislamientos de...
risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows from November, 2012 to July, 2013 in Ambo town of West Shewa ... was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed ... In Ethiopia, even if it is not well established, several studies in various parts of ..... Mastitis and genetic evaluation for somatic cell count. In ...
van den Borne, B.H.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836826
This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was
J.H. Du Preez
Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.
J.H. Du Preez
Full Text Available Treatment of bovine mastitis depends on the cause, the clinical manifestation and the antibiotic susceptibility of the agent. Mastitis therapy is commonly unsuccessful owing to pathological changes that occur in the udder parenchyma as a result of the inflammatory reaction to mastitogenic bacteria, pharmacokinetic properties of antimicrobial mastitis drugs, mastitogenic bacterial and related factors, and poor animal husbandry and veterinary interventions.
... to a blocked duct, a collection of pus (abscess) can develop in your breast and form a breast mass or area of firmness with thickening. An abscess usually requires surgical drainage. To avoid this complication, ...
Ogura, Kanako; Matsumoto, Toshiharu; Aoki, Yuji; Kitabatake, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Minoru; Kojima, Kuniaki
Sometimes, mastitis needs to be differentiated from carcinoma because of its association with induration and with ultrasound findings (such as low-echo lesions) that resemble those in carcinoma. The aim was to define this type of mastitis and to examine 18 cases to clarify its clinicopathological features. All cases were categorized into three types: non-specific mastitis with neutrophilic infiltration (n = 7); non-specific mastitis with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration (n = 9); and granulomatous lobular mastitis (n = 2). The three types of mastitis presented similar ultrasound findings and shared certain histological features including fibrosis and diffuse or lobulocentric inflammation. Granulomatous lobular mastitis showed specific clinicopathological features including lobulocentric inflammation with giant cells, diffuse IgG4+ plasma cells, and also a high level of serum IgG4. Granulomatous lobular mastitis could be categorized into IgG4-related and non-IgG4-related granulomatous lobular mastitis. IgG4 immunohistochemistry serum IgG4 might be useful for diagnosis of IgG4-related granulomatous lobular mastitis and could help to avoid overtreatment such as wide excision.
Reinoso, Elina B; Lasagno, Mirta C; Odierno, Liliana M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Perez-Cabal, M A; Yaici, S; Alenda, R
Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.
Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre
Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes.
Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.
Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623
Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana
Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections.
Full Text Available Pasteurella (P. multocida is a heterogeneous species of Gram-negative bacteria which are common commensals of the upper respiratory system of various mammal and bird species, but are also opportunistic contagious zoonotic pathogens which cause a wide spectre of infections in domestic animals and humans. P. multocida is a rare cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The source of infection mainly remains unknown, mastitis usually is acute, and the therapy by intramammary administration of antibiotics does not lead to satisfactory results. Lethality is possible due to presence of endotoxins in blood. Literature data on P. multocida mastitis in dairy cows is particularly scarce, which is why such a case is described in the current work, with past medical history, clinical findings, laboratory diagnostics and therapeutic approach. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31071 and Grant no. III 46002
Wani, Abdul Majid; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Fatani, Mohamed I; Shakour, Bothaina Abdul
Lupus mastitis is a form of lupus profundus that is seen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. It usually presents as a swelling (or swellings) in the breasts, with or without pain. The condition is recurrent and progresses along with the underlying disease, with fat necrosis, calcification, fibrosis, scarring, and breast atrophy. Lupus mastitis is often confused with malignancy and lymphoma and, in our part of the world, with tuberculosis. Confusion is especially likely when it occurs in an unusual clinical setting. In this article, we present a case that presented with unique radiological, pathological, and clinical features. Awareness of the various manifestations of lupus mastitis is essential if unnecessary interventions such as biopsies and surgeries, and their consequences, are to be avoided
Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J
Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.
Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A
Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . The prevalence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women with mastitis with or without laboratory investigation. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2012, contacted investigators and other content experts known to us for unpublished trials and scanned the reference lists of retrieved articles. Selection criteria: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-RCTs comparing the effectiveness of various types of antibiotic therapies or antibiotic therapy versus alternative therapies for the treatment of mastitis. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. When in dispute, we consulted a third author. MAIN RESULTS: Two trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial (n = 25 compared amoxicillin with cephradine and found no significant difference between the two antibiotics in terms of symptom relief and abscess formation. Another, older study compared breast emptying alone as 'supportive therapy' versus antibiotic therapy plus supportive therapy, and no therapy. The findings of the latter study suggested faster clearance of symptoms for women using antibiotics, although the study design was problematic. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of lactational mastitis. There is an urgent need to conduct high-quality, double-blinded RCTs to determine whether antibiotics should be used in this
Produção de enterotoxinas e da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico por cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas na mastite bovina Production of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis
A. Nader Filho
Full Text Available A total of 72 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were examined for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE A, B, C, D and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1. The strains were isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis in dairy herds of São Paulo State, Brazil. Off 72 isolates, 38 (52.8% produced SEA, 38 (52.8% SEB, 32 (44.4% SED, 28 (38.9% SEC and 27 (37.5% TSST-1. From the 72 strains, 66 (91.7% produced, at least, one or more toxin, including TSST-1.
Behling, H.; Reich, W.; Schmeisser, G.
70 patients with mastitis were treated by low dose irradiation with soft X-rays and by secondary inhibition of the lactation by conservative physical measures. Breast abscesses were observed only in 6 of 70 patients. Therefore the antiinflammatory irradiation with low dose X-rays is a suitable method of treatment. (author)
Al-Marri, Mohammed R.; Aref, Essam; Omar, Ahamed J.
To present the mammography findings in 8 patients with tuberculosis (TB) of the breast, with a review of the literature. This study is a retrospective data collection. Each chart with confirmed breast TB based on bacteriology or pathologic findings was analyzed for clinical presentation, gender, nationality, demographic data, prior history of TB, investigation, management, mammographic findings and ultrasound, when available. Mammograms were reviewed by 2 consultant radiologists without knowing the previous diagnosis or the nature of the study. The study was carried out at The State Tuberculosis Registry and Radiology Department, Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar, from 1990 to 2002. Out of 13 females with TB mastitis, only 8 cases had mammograms preoperatively. The incidence of breast TB in Qatar is rare (1/1000 mammograms per year). Three types of TB mastitis were identified in our study; the nodular (50%), the diffuse (37.5%) of which 77% were limited to one sector of the breast and the sclerosing (12.5%) mastitis. Three patients (43%) were reported as carcinoma. Although mammography identified 3 types of TB, it was not helpful in differentiating TB from carcinoma of the breast. However, the careful evaluation of the degree of density and trabecular thickening of the mass in relation to it size might reduce the number of false positive cases of carcinoma diagnosed with mammograms. Biopsy specimen remains the best diagnostic tool in TB mastitis. (author)
Al-Marri, Mohammed R; Aref, Essam; Omar, Ahamed J
To present the mammography findings in 8 patients with tuberculosis (TB) of the breast, with a review of the literature. This study is a retrospective data collection. Each chart with confirmed breast TB based on bacteriology or pathologic findings was analyzed for clinical presentation, gender, nationality, demographic data, prior history of TB, investigation, management, mammographic findings and ultrasound, when available. Mammograms were reviewed by 2 consultant radiologists without knowing the previous diagnosis or the nature of the study. The study was carried out at The State Tuberculosis Registry and Radiology Department, Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar, from 1990 to 2002. Out of 13 females with TB mastitis, only 8 cases had mammograms preoperatively. The incidence of breast TB in Qatar is rare (1/1000 mammograms per year). Three types of TB mastitis were identified in our study; the nodular (50%), the diffuse (37.5%) of which 77% were limited to one sector of the breast and the sclerosing (12.5%) mastitis. Three patients (43%) were reported as carcinoma. Although mammography identified 3 types of TB, it was not helpful in differentiating TB from carcinoma of the breast. However, the careful evaluation of the degree of density and trabecular thickening of the mass in relation to it size might reduce the number of false positive cases of carcinoma diagnosed with mammograms. Biopsy specimen remains the best diagnostic tool in TB mastitis.
Hogeveen, H.; Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.
Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large
Kanazawa, S; Nagae, T; Fukuda, K; Katsu, I; Mukai, N; Sugihara, Y; Otani, H; Higami, Y; Tsunoda, T
We report a case of a rare inflammatory disease, granulomatous lobular mastitis. Two weeks prior to admission the patient, a 43 year-old woman, (gravida 1, para 1) had noticed a left breast mass associated with tenderness. Palpation, gross inspection, and clinical examination, as well as the rapid growth of the mass lesion led us to believe that it was highly suspicious of malignant neoplasm. Mammography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography did not differentiate it from a malignant neoplasm. Aspiration cytology revealed an inflammatory lesion with a few clusters of epithelial cells it was diagnosed as borderline malignancy(class III) by a prudent pathologist, and thus mastectomy was performed. However, the final histologi-cal diagnosis was granulomatous lobular mastitis with no evidence of malignancy. As the clinical manifestations of granulomatous mastitis are similar to those of mammary carcinoma and, as it is an inflammatory lesion of uncertain etiology and pathogenesis, it has often been mistaken clinically for carcinoma and treated as such. Our review of the literature indicated that granulomatous mastitis most often occurs in young patients with a history of childbirth or oral contraceptive usage. Recurrence was documented in 38% of patients, and, accordingly long-term follow-up by aspiration cytology, complete resection, and adequate drug treatment with corticosteroids are recommended.
Mónica M. Ortegón
Full Text Available Mycobacterium chelonae es el nombre correcto para la micobacteria aislada en 1903 de los pulmones enfermos de una tortuga marina. En una especie distinta de Mycobacterium fo/tuitum, aislado de ranas en 1905, y de Mycobacterium abscessus, considerado actualmente como una subespecie de M chelonae. Estas tres especies son las únicas patógenas para el hombre dentro del grupo de micobacterias ambientales o atipicas, de crecimiento rápido, las cuales se caracterizan por formar colonias en cultivo en menos de siete días. Son agentes etiológicos de nódulos y abscesos cutáneos, localizados y diseminados, de lesiones postoperatorias, usualmente en la cicatriz quirúrgica, de lesiones pulmonares y de linfadenitis granulomatosa, de osteomielitis y de queratitis, entre otras. Las lesiones cutáneas y de los tejidos blandos son las más frecuentes y resultan generalmente de la inoculación traumática de esta micobacteria. Histopatológicamente, los nódulos y abscesos muestran un proceso inflamatorio, supurativo y granulomatoso, mixto, en el que en la cuarta parte de los casos pueden demostrarse conglomerados de bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes, que tienden a estar situados en una vacuola en el centro del absceso. En Colombia, se han descrito tres brotes de abscesos subcutáneos producidos por bacterias ambientales, secundarios a la aplicación de inyecciones contaminadas con el germen causal: en 1981, en Bucaramanga, luego de la aplicación de la vacuna contra la fiebre amarilla, en 50 personas, la mayoría niños; en 1989, en Medellin, por la inyección subcutánea de alergenos, en 13 personas; y, en 1993, en varias ciudades de la costa atlántica, luego de aplicaciones subcutáneas de xilocaína, como tratamiento bionergético, en 297 pacientes. Existen otros informes aislados de casos posttraumáticos.La enfermedad diseminada por micobacterias de rápido crecimiento, se presenta en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. En la biopsia, predominan los
Grieger, A-S; Zoche-Golob, V; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V
Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis.
Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Lívia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi
Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Stap...
Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination.
Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.
The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients.
Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Jung Im; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Woo Chan; Hahn, Seong Tai
Periductal mastitis and mammary duct ectasia are now considered as separate disease entities in the female breast, and these two disease affect different age groups and have different etiologies and clinical symptoms. These two entities have very rarely been reported in the male breast and they have long been considered as the same disease as that in the female breast without any differentiation. We report here on the radiologic findings of a rare case of periductal mastitis that developed during the course of chemotherapy for lung cancer in a 50-year-old male. On ultrasonography, there was a partially defined mass with adjacent duct dilatation and intraductal hypoechogenicity, and this correlated with an immature abscess with a pus-filled, dilated duct and periductal inflammation on the pathologic examination
Overhagen, H. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Lameris, J.S.
The term non-puerperal mastitis describes a number of inflammatory diseases which can develop in a non-lactating breast. The clinical diagnosis NPM can be very difficult. However, mammography combined with ultrasound examination may lead to the correct diagnosis. In the mammogram a poorly marginated area of increased density can be seen, in case of an abscess there is a more circumscribed lesion. On ultrasound examination there is a well-circumscribed or ill-defined echo-poor lesion. The through transmission is not descreased and septa are frequently observed. If the radiological features correlate with the results of aspiration and cytological examination, the diagnosis NPM can be made and surgical intervention can be avoided. We describe the value of mammography and ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of non-puerperal mastitis in a group of six patients. (orig.) [de
Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Kim, Young Mook; Lee, Myung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included.
Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Kim, Young Mook; Lee, Myung Hwan; Kim, Hak Hee; Im, Jung Gi
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the characteristic findings of tuberculosis of the breast on mammogram, sonogram, and CT and to compare the results with the imaging feature of non-tuberculous mastitis. Using mammograms and sonograms, nine cases of tuberculosis of the breast were evaluated, and for four cases, CT was used. Aspects evaluated were contour, shape and size of the lesion, homogeneity of internal content, and extension of the lesion from/to the adjacent organs. Diagnosis was based on aspiration, surgery, and pathologic findings including acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Mammograms and sonograms of 19 patients with non-tuberculous mastitis of the breast were reviewed. No cases of tuberculous mastitis presented clinical evidence of acute inflammation such as fever, swelling or skin redness. Nine cases of tuberculous mastitis were seen as a distinct mass on mammogram and sonogram. Four of nine cases (44.4%) showed a relatively smooth peripheral margin on mammogram and a cold abscess form on sonogram and CT. There were other foci of tuberculosis in the chest wall, anterior mediastinum, pleural cavity or lung. Five cases demonstrated as a nodular type on US. In the non-tuberculous mastitis group, and abscess with distinct margin or direct contiguity between a breast lesion and the adjacent organ was observed neither on mammogram nor on sonogram. In an afebrile patient, relative homogeneous density with distinct margin in the breast on mammogram and a fistulous connection or direct continuity between breat abscess form with the adjacent organ on sonogram or CT is a characteristic feature of the tuberculous mastitis. The cold abscess type is a frequent subtypes of this entity, and must also be included
The distribution of yeast fungi has been ascertained as their influence on SCM etiology. Our developed preparation for treatment for yeast and microbe caused mastitis “Gentafung” is composition of wide spectrum antibiotics and antifungal medications. An evaluation was performed of commercially available homeopathic preparations in treating SCM. A new recommended preparation “OrbeScal” was evaluated for drying cows. A comparison of Candida genus commercial identification systems diagnostic acc...
Paviour, Sue; Musaad, Sahar; Roberts, Sally; Taylor, Graeme; Taylor, Susan; Shore, Keith; Lang, Selwyn; Holland, David
Corynebacteria were isolated from breast tissue, pus, or deep wound swabs of 24 women; the most common species isolated was the newly described Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, followed by Corynebacterium amycolatum and Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum. Gram-positive bacilli were seen in samples sent for culture or in histological specimens for 12 women, and 9 of the 12 women from whom adequate histological specimens were obtained had conditions that met the criteria for granulomatous lobular mastitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology.
Mote, Dajiram G.; Gungi, Raghavendra P.; Satyanarayana, V.; Premsunder, T.
Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare benign breast disease. It is characterized by chronic, non-caseating granulomatous lobulitis. It may be misdiagnosed as a carcinoma of the breast and may lead to mastectomy. Diagnostic criteria include-A) Granulomatous infl ammation with multinucleated giant cells, epithelioid histiocytes. B) It is centered on lobules with minor ductal and periductal infl ammation. C) It nearly always follows the pregnancy. A case of GLM, which was treated with local e...
Haas, de Y.; Barkema, H.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.
The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus
Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Madsen, P.
_170) or 300 d (LASCC_300) after calving, and the mastitis traits were unspecific mastitis (all mastitis treatments, both clinical and subclinical, regardless of the causative pathogen) and mastitis caused by either Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS...
Ruiz-Moreno, José Luis; Peña-Santos, Genaro
The breast infection by M tuberculosis is rare, when it occurs, clinical and histologically confused with other forms of granulomatous inflammation, making it essential to use other diagnostic methods also may be negative. We report a patient with fimica mastitis that originally was treated as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with apparent satisfactory clinical response. However, frequent relapses forced to look for other etiologies. Fortunately, the PCR showed the cause and was managed with specific treatment with disappearance of the disease. Clinical suspicion should be in mind when faced with a case like ours.
Some Nigerian plants used in traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis and/or some of its symptoms were screened for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only 3 of the 6 crude methanolic extracts of the 6 plant species exhibited inhibitory activities against ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis between calving and next conception on reproductive performance in Chinese Holstein cows. Six hundred and three multiparous Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm were divided into three groups respectively: cows with first clinical mastitis ...
Hald, Sara Vester; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl
Pneumococci are predominant in respiratory tract infections but may have unusual presentations such as lactational mastitis. We report a 29-year-old breastfeeding woman with pneumococcal mastitis confirmed by positive blood culture and culture of milk. Previously, a few similar cases have been...
Caroline Le Maréchal
Full Text Available S. aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in ruminant mastitis worldwide. The severity of staphylococcal infection is highly variable, ranging from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. This work represents an in-depth characterization of S. aureus mastitis isolates to identify bacterial factors involved in severity of mastitis infection.We employed genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to comprehensively compare two clonally related S. aureus strains that reproducibly induce severe (strain O11 and milder (strain O46 mastitis in ewes. Variation in the content of mobile genetic elements, iron acquisition and metabolism, transcriptional regulation and exoprotein production was observed. In particular, O11 produced relatively high levels of exoproteins, including toxins and proteases known to be important in virulence. A characteristic we observed in other S. aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis cases.Our data are consistent with a dose-dependant role of some staphylococcal factors in the hypervirulence of strains isolated from severe mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, transcriptional regulators, exoproteins and iron acquisition pathways constitute good targets for further research to define the underlying mechanisms of mastitis severity.
van Soest, Felix J S; Santman-Berends, Inge M G A; Lam, Theo J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Hogeveen, Henk
Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in
Sampimon, O.C.; Sol, J.; Koene, M.G.J.; Schaaf, A.; Kock, P.A.
Subclinical mastitis with a raised somatic cell count was diagnosed in a cow in her fifth lactation. It was caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which can also infect humans. This is the first time that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a mastitis sample in the Netherlands.
Soest, van Felix J.S.; Santman-Berends, Inge M.G.A.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.; Hogeveen, Henk
Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in
The genomes of two strains of Escherichia coli that cause bovine mastitis were sequenced. These strains are known to be associated with persistent and transient mastitis: strain ECA-B causes a transient infection, and ECC-M leads to a persistent infection....
Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.
Hald, Sara Vester; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl
Pneumococci are predominant in respiratory tract infections but may have unusual presentations such as lactational mastitis. We report a 29-year-old breastfeeding woman with pneumococcal mastitis confirmed by positive blood culture and culture of milk. Previously, a few similar cases have been re...
Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam
Ayrshire (SCC, clinical mastitis, udder conformation) and Valdostana (SCC, milk bacteriological results). Furthermore, association analysis across the regions was performed with a linear mixed model using imputed sequence for 845 Danish Red sires with nine mastitis phenotypes. Associations in five regions......Mastitis is a major animal welfare problem and the most costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. Within the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we aimed at validating quantitative trait loci affecting mastitis resistance at the molecular level. Eight chromosome regions with major effects on resistance...... to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from...
Åkerstedt, Maria; Forsbäck, Linda; Larsen, Torben
as markers for mastitis. Ten cows were monitored on 42 consecutive milking occasions through collection of udder quarter milk samples and representative cow composite milk samples, giving a total of 2100 individual milk samples. Each cow had its individual profile for the concentrations and variations...... quarters within an individual cow can identify deviations from the natural variations between milkings. This could be a valuable tool instead of, or in combination with, a cut-off value for each parameter in order to detect changes in the milk indicating mastitis.......Dairy herds are expanding and, with increasing numbers of animals in each herd, there is a need for automatic recording of indicators in milk in order to detect mastitis, inflammation of the udder. A number of biomarkers for mastitis have been suggested over the years. Mastitis usually occurs...
Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter
The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening....... This knowledge can be useful for the development of welfare assessment protocols, early disease detection, and for future work aimed at understanding the behavioral needs of dairy cows suffering from mastitis....
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø
investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the Bovine...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance...
Gerlach B., Francisco Arturo; Ayala Alvarez, Felix; Denogean Ballesteros, Francisco G.; Moreno Medina, Salomon; Gerlach B., Luis Ernesto
With the objective to know the mastitis cost for milk producer, was developed this study, with duration of a year in a milk farm of the North region of Sonora. The cost of the clinical and subclinical mastitis was estimated, taking into account the milk production, treatment costs and commercial milk value. The information was recorded monthly, the incidence of subclinical mastitis was obtained using California MastitisTest (CMT) and clinical mastitis incidence was obtained from farm health r...
Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder caused by bacteria that invade the udder through the teat canal, causing either persistent intramammary infections, or short, transient infections. Mastitis is the most costly disease on a dairy farm because it directly affects the production of milk, the primary source of income for the dairy farmer. Mastitis can be visible (clinical mastitis) or invisible (subclinical mastitis). A large proportion of farmers repeats antibiotic treatment after initial...
The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus...... (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance....... The method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis...
Borecki, M.; Niemiec, T.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Kuczyńska, B.; Doroz, P.; Urbańska, K.; Szmidt, M.; Szmidt, J.
Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland in animals under the influence of micro-organisms causing functional disorder of udder. Mastitis causes a variety of qualitative changes in the milk, which classified as mastitis milk, has a reduced value. A number of chemical procedures and lab instruments were developed to test for mastitis, of which the widest used are the California mastitis test and the somatic cell counter. This work presents the progress in development of new photonic sensors of mastitis using a conductometer, a spectrometer and a capillary head with local heating with improved measuring procedures. We showed that the significant increase in mastitis detection sensitivity is achieved by measuring the whey acidic instead of milk. The whey can be obtained from milk in a relatively simple and inexpensive chemical process. We correlated the conductivity measurement and the measurement of the number of somatic cells in the milk. The application of the measurement of optical transmission absorption in whey instead of the classic milk measurement increases the resolution of resistance measuring more than 3 times. However, the application of the method of capillary phase-transition to whey examination increases the resolution of measurement 15 times. The changes in resistance and time of the phase transitions are linearly correlated with the number of somatic cells.
Leo Francis Tauro
Full Text Available Tuberculous mastitis is a rare clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian sub-continent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess clinically and radiologically, may both co-exist. Routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in its diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC / biopsy are essential for diagnosis and tuberculosis culture when positive may be very useful to guide antimicrobial therapy. Antitubercular drugs in combination with aspiration or surgical drainage are usually associated with an excellent outcome.
Olsen, Molly L; Dilaveri, Christina A
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon breast disease often mistaken for breast infection or abscess. We present a case of IGM diagnosed after prolonged ineffective treatment of presumed infectious mastitis with abscess. Once the diagnosis was made with biopsy and further evaluation to exclude other causes of granulomatous disease, sinus tract debridement and closure by secondary intent resulted in resolution of symptoms in our patient. Many cases of IGM require immunosuppression with steroids, methotrexate or extensive surgery. To prevent morbidity, IGM should be considered in the differential diagnosis when presumed infectious mastitis with breast abscess does not respond to usual treatment.
Ditmyer, Heidi; Craig, Linden
Canine blastomycosis is a common systemic fungal infection within the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys and typically presents as pneumonia, lymphadenitis, or endophthalmitis. This report describes three cases in which mammary tissue samples were submitted to the Department of Pathobiology, University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine with clinical suspicion of neoplasia or postpartum bacterial mastitis. Pyogranulomatous to granulomatous mastitis and dermatitis with intralesional yeast consistent with Blastomyces dermatitidis were diagnosed. Two of the three dogs also had lymph node and pulmonary involvement. Mycotic mastitis due to Blastomyces dermatitidis is rarely reported and blastomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with mammary lesions from endemic areas.
Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.
Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D
Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.
Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D.
Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:24031528
Vasiu, Iosif; Dąbrowski, Roman; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Ceron, Jose J; Wdowiak, Anna; Pop, Raul Alexandru; Brudaşcă, Florinel Gheorghe; Pastor, Josep; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
Presence of mastitis in lactating bitches can become life threatening for both the bitch and pups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in both milk and serum for canine mastitis diagnosis. Our study showed that milk CRP levels ranged between 0.1 and 4.9μg/mL and from 0.3 to 40.0μg/mL in healthy and diseased bitches (Pcanine mastitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Catozzi, Carlotta; Sanchez Bonastre, Armand; Francino, Olga; Lecchi, Cristina; De Carlo, Esterina; Vecchio, Domenico; Martucciello, Alessandra; Fraulo, Pasquale; Bronzo, Valerio; Cuscó, Anna; D'Andreano, Sara; Ceciliani, Fabrizio
The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with subclinical mastitis, with a SCC number greater of 200,000 cells/ml and/or culture positive for udder pathogens, without clinical signs of mastitis. Bacterial DNA was purified and the 16S rRNA genes were individually amplified and sequenced. Significant differences were found in milk samples from healthy quarters and those with sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. The microbiota diversity of milk from healthy quarters was richer as compared to samples with sub-clinical mastitis, whose microbiota diversity was in turn richer as compared to those from clinical mastitis. The core microbiota of water buffalo milk, defined as the asset of microorganisms shared by all healthy milk samples, includes 15 genera, namely Micrococcus, Propionibacterium, 5-7N15, Solibacillus, Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Facklamia, Trichococcus, Turicibacter, 02d06, SMB53, Clostridium, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Pseudomonas. Only two genera (Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) were present in all the samples from sub-clinical mastitis, and no genus was shared across all in clinical mastitis milk samples. The presence of mastitis was found to be related to the change in the relative abundance of genera, such as Psychrobacter, whose relative abundance decreased from 16.26% in the milk samples from healthy quarters to 3.2% in clinical mastitis. Other genera, such as SMB53 and Solibacillus, were decreased as well. Discriminant analysis presents the evidence that the microbial community of healthy and clinical
Sørensen, Lars Peter; Madsen, P.; Mark, Thomas
The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus...... caused by different pathogens has been shown to differ greatly. Sampling bias may be present because there were not pathogen information on all mastitis treatments and because some farms do not record pathogen information. Therefore, improved recording of pathogen information and mastitis treatment sin...
Hmissa, Sihem; Sahraoui, Wassila; Missaoui, Nabiha; Stita, Wided; Mokni, Moncef; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Khairi, Hedi; Korbi, Sadok
Our retrospective study was performed on 10 cases of granulomatous mastitis registered in Obstetric Gynaecology Department and Pathology Department of CHU F. Hached, Sousse, during 8 years period. The mean age was 36.4 years (range 32-59). Among these 10 cases. 8 were observed in reproductive-age women and 2 were noted in menopausal women. Clinical findings showed unilateral breast nodule associated with inflammatory signs in 4 cases, mammelonary retraction in 2 cases and serous or sero-purulent mamelonnary flow in 4 cases. Mamnmographic examination suggested a malignant tumor in 5 patients. In all cases, the diagnosis is made by histopathology. Surgical treatment consisted in wide excision with drainage or radical mastectomy, eventually with combination with antibiotic therapy and non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Prognostic features showed a good cicatrization in 4 cases, local recurrence and cutaneous fistulization in one patient. Granulomatous mastitis aetiology is still unclear, auto-immune aetio-pathogenesis appears more interesting and should be clarified.
Højsgaard, S; Friggens, N C
for such data and a corresponding method for estimating the DOI from a panel of indicators. An empirical proof of concept is provided. Using DOI, there was a significant difference between the DOI of mastitic and healthy control cows beginning 5 d before the mastitic cows were treated for mastitis.......This paper has 2 objectives. First, it argues that it is beneficial to regard degree of infection with respect to mastitis as a latent quantity varying continuously from 0 (truly healthy) to 1 (full-blown clinical mastitis). This quantity is denoted as degree of infection (DOI). The DOI is based...
Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Trovato, Alberto; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Borroni, Emanuele; Heidarieh, Parvin; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Shahbazi, Narges; Cirillo, Daniela M; Tortoli, Enrico
Four strains isolated in Iran from pulmonary specimens of unrelated patients are proposed as representative of a novel Mycobacterium species. Similarity, at the phenotypic level, with Mycobacterium kansasii is remarkable with the photochromogenic yellow pigmentation of the colonies being the salient feature. They differ, however, genotypically from this species and present unique sequences in 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes. The average nucleotide identity and the genome-to-genome distance fully support the status of an independent species. The name proposed for this species is Mycobacterium persicum sp. nov. with AFPC-000227T (=DSM 104278T=CIP 111197T) as the type strain.
Rato, Márcia G.; Bexiga, Ricardo; Florindo, Carlos
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (Group C Streptococcus, GCS) and Streptococcus uberis are relevant mastitis pathogens, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. T...
Wager, L A; Linquist, W E; Hayes, G L; Britten, A M; Whitehead, R G; Webster, D E; Barnes, F D
Mastitis in its complexity has managed to forestall all efforts of eradication in spite of years of research, antibiotics and practical control measures. This minisymposium will touch on seven topics current to treatment and control of this economically important disease.
Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, C.
and identifying characteristic patterns in these results. Clinical signs, inflammatory reactions and microbiological identifications were obtained from 367 cases of clinical mastitis occurring over 18 months. Cow characteristics and preincident values such as milk yield and somatic cell count were obtained...... for each cow. Signs of previous udder inflammation were present in two-thirds of the clinical mastitis cases. Severe local inflammatory reactions were found in 21% of the cases and some indication of generalized signs such as fever and reduced appetite were found in 35% of the cases. Logistic regression....... Streptococcus dysgalactiae (9% of the cases) mastitis was typically persistent, virulent and manifest in periods of lower cow resistance. More patterns of subclinical and clinical Str. uberis mastitis (23% of the cases) seemed to be present....
Prevalence of bovine mastitis and multi-antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus and ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... their antibiotic sensitivities and management practices of sahiwal and dairy cattle kept at a centre of Kenya ...
Mukesh Kr. Sinha
Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from milk and 37% on account of veterinary expenses. Higher losses were observed in crossbred cows due to their high production potential that was affected during mastitis period. The cost of treating an animal was estimated to be INR509 which includes cost of medicine (31.10% and services (5.47%. Inadequate sanitation, hygiene, and veterinary services were the main predisposing factors for incidence and spread of mastitis as perceived by the respondents.
Steeneveld, W.; Werven, van T.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.
Under Dutch circumstances, most clinical mastitis (CM) cases of cows on dairy farms are treated with a standard intramammary antimicrobial treatment. Several antimicrobial treatments are available for CM, differing in antimicrobial compound, route of application, duration, and cost. Because cow
Imoto, S; Kitaya, T; Kodama, T; Hasebe, T; Mukai, K
We report a case of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis in a 35-year-old Japanese woman, who came to our hospital complaining of a tender mass in her right breast. Because the results of initial aspiration cytology were considered highly suspicious for carcinoma, modified radical mastectomy was performed. However, the final histological diagnosis was granulomatous lobular mastitis with no evidence of malignancy. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease of unknown etiology. Since the clinical manifestations are similar to those of mammary carcinoma, this condition has been misdiagnosed as carcinoma and treated as such. A review of the literature revealed that idiopathic granulomatous mastitis has tended to occur in young patients with a history of childbirth or oral contraceptive usage. Clinical or imaging diagnosis has often been difficult. Complete resection or corticosteroid therapy can be recommended as the optimal treatment. Since 38% of patients experience recurrence, long-term follow-up is indicated.
Wilson, Jason P; Massoll, Nicole; Marshall, Julia; Foss, Robin M; Copeland, Edward M; Grobmyer, Stephen R
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, also known as idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis, is a benign breast lesion that represents both a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. We report two cases of granulomatous mastitis recently evaluated and managed at our institution. To better understand this rare disease, we analyzed treatment outcomes in reported cases of granulomatous mastitis. One hundred sixteen cases were subsequently analyzed. Primary management strategies included observation (n = 9), steroids (n = 29), partial mastectomy (n = 75), and mastectomy (n = 3). Success rates with each treatment were observation, 56 per cent; steroids, 42 per cent; partial mastectomy, 79 per cent; and mastectomy, 100 per cent. Based on this analysis, we propose a clinically useful algorithm for both workup and management of these challenging cases.
Alekish, Myassar O; Ismail, Z Bani; Hammouri, H M; Daradka, M H; Taha, S Al; Olymat, I
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using a commercially-available polyvalent mastitis vaccine on the bacteriological cure rate of existing subclinical mastitis in Awassi sheep. A total of 164 lactating ewes were divided into two main groups according to udder health and milk somatic cell count (SCC): Group 1=normal (N; n=80) and Group 2=subclinical mastitis (SC; n=84). Each group was then subdivided randomly into two treatment groups: N vaccinated (N vax ; n=38), N non-vaccinated (N nvax ; n=42), SC vaccinated (SC vax ; n=42), and SC non-vaccinated (SC nvax ; n=42). The vaccine was administered as per manufacturer's recommendations. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all ewes before vaccine administration (T0) and again on days 28 (T2) and 42 (T3) of the experiment. In the SC group, the bacteriological cure rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 76% and 69%, respectively. In N group, the new intramammary infection rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 48% and 50%, respectively. Vaccination of normal ewes resulted in a significant (pewes on days 28 and 42 was 19% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of new intramammary infection rate in N nvax group on days 28 and 42 was 33% and 30%, respectively. In SC vax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 44% and 35%, respectively. In SC nvax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 27% and 32%, respectively. There was no statistically significant effect of vaccination on any of the studied milk composition parameters. This is a preliminary study that indicated a possible protective effect of vaccination against mastitis in sheep. Further, case-controlled studies are indicated to estimate the level of immunity this vaccine provides to vaccinated sheep.
Sinha, Mukesh Kr.; Thombare, N. N.; Mondal, Biswajit
A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from mil...
Mansion-de Vries, E M; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V
Mastitis is one of the most common and expensive diseases in dairy cattle. The decision to treat clinical mastitis is usually made without any knowledge of the etiology, and can therefore only be evidence-based to a limited extent. Evidence-based medicine relies essentially on a combination of one's own clinical competence and scientific findings. In mastitis therapy, those insights depend mostly on pathogen-specific factors. Therefore, in evidence-based therapeutic decision making the pathogen identification should serve as a basis for the consideration of scientifically validated therapeutic concepts. The present paper considers evidence-based treatment of clinical mastitis based on a literature review. The authors conclude that an anti-inflammatory treatment using an NSAID should be conducted regardless of the pathogen. However, the choice of an antibiotic therapy depends on the mastitis causative pathogen, clinical symptoms and the animal itself. In principle, a local antibiotic treatment should be chosen for mild and moderate mastitis. It should be noted, that the benefit of an antibiotic therapy for coliform infections is questionable. With knowledge concerning the pathogen, it appears entirely reasonable to refrain from an antibiotic therapy. For severe (i. e. feverish) mastitis, a parenteral antibiotic therapy should be selected. An extension of the antibiotic therapy beyond the manufacturer's information is only reasonable for streptococcal infections. It is important to make the decision on a prolonged antibiotic therapy only with the knowledge of the mastitis-causative pathogen. In terms of the therapy of a staphylococcus or streptococcus infection, a narrow-spectrum antibiotic from the penicillin family should be adopted when selecting the active agents.
Gomes, F. I.; Henriques, Mariana
Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field...
Guerra, Humberto; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Falconí, Eduardo; Bravo, Francisco; Donaires, Ninoska; Van Marck, Eric; Portaels, Françoise
Eight adult patients (ages 18-58, 5 women) with Buruli ulcer (BU) confirmed by at least 2 diagnostic methods were seen in a 10-year period. Attempts to culture Mycobacterium ulcerans failed. Five patients came from jungle areas, and 3 from the swampy northern coast of Peru. The patients had 1-5 lesions, most of which were on the lower extremities. One patient had 5 clustered gluteal lesions; another patient had 2 lesions on a finger. Three patients were lost to follow-up. All 5 remaining patients had moderate disease. Diverse treatments (antituberculous drugs, World Health Organization [WHO] recommended antimicrobial drug treatment for BU, and for 3 patients, excision surgery) were successful. Only 1 patient (patient 7) received the specific drug treatment recommended by WHO. BU is endemic in Peru, although apparently infrequent. Education of populations and training of health workers are first needed to evaluate and understand the full extent of BU in Peru.
Warner, Digby F.
Metabolism underpins the physiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, although experimental mycobacteriology has provided key insights into the metabolic pathways that are essential for survival and pathogenesis, determining the metabolic status of bacilli during different stages of infection and in different cellular compartments remains challenging. Recent advances—in particular, the development of systems biology tools such as metabolomics—have enabled key insights into the biochemical state of M. tuberculosis in experimental models of infection. In addition, their use to elucidate mechanisms of action of new and existing antituberculosis drugs is critical for the development of improved interventions to counter tuberculosis. This review provides a broad summary of mycobacterial metabolism, highlighting the adaptation of M. tuberculosis as specialist human pathogen, and discusses recent insights into the strategies used by the host and infecting bacillus to influence the outcomes of the host–pathogen interaction through modulation of metabolic functions. PMID:25502746
Montironi, Ivana D; Cariddi, Laura N; Reinoso, Elina B
Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes great economic losses per year, being Streptococcus uberis the main environmental pathogen involved. The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Minthostachys verticillata essential oil and limonene for S. uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. In addition, the effect of MIC on biofilm formation was analyzed. MIC values for the essential oil ranged from 14.3 to 114.5mg/ml (1.56-12.5%v/v) and MBC between 114.5 and 229mg/ml (12.5-25%v/v). MICs for limonene ranged from 3.3 to 52.5mg/ml (0.39-6.25%v/v) and MBC was 210mg/ml (25%v/v). Both compounds showed antibacterial activity and affected the biofilm formation of most of the strains tested. In conclusion, these compounds could be used as an alternative and/or complementary therapy for bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Borders, Heather; Mychaliska, George; Gebarski, K Stiennon
Neonatal mastitis and neonatal breast abscess are uncommon. Although well described in the pediatric and surgical literature, there is a paucity of reports describing their sonographic features. To describe and illustrate the sonographic features of neonatal mastitis and neonatal breast abscess. We reviewed the medical database of a large children's health-care center from 2000 through 2008 for patients presenting in the first 8 weeks of life with mastitis. The findings were correlated with clinical presentation and course, laboratory findings and clinical outcome. Four neonates (three girls and one boy) presented with mastitis. They all had prominent breast buds on the affected side with poorly defined margins, slightly more echogenic focally or diffusely compared to normal with hyperemia on color flow Doppler US. The surrounding subcutaneous tissue was thick and echogenic. Two abscesses presented as avascular areas without color flow on Doppler US, subtly increased through-transmission and surrounding hyperemia. One abscess was of increased echogenicity while the other was anechoic. Neonatal mastitis and breast abscess are unusual diseases that should be appropriately treated with antibiotics and drainage to avoid generalized sepsis, breast hypoplasia, and scarring. US is useful in distinguishing mastitis from breast abscess and guiding treatment options.
Elisa Junqueira Oliveira
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical mastitis (CM, in high production Holstein cows, as well as the environmental factors that favoring its incidence. The average milk production of 305 days, according to the class of mastitis was estimated by the method of least squares. The frequencies of clinical mastitis (CM events were analyzed according to the calving sequences (1-6, year of calving, season and stage of lactation, and infected quarter (right anterior, left anterior, right posterior, left posterior. The frequency of CM ranged from 11.39% in the first calving to 21.18% in the third. 58.56% of mastitis cases occurred in the wet season, and 41.44% occurred in the dry season. The final lactation stage (200 to 300 days was the period with the highest occurrence of CM (45.33%. The quarter posterior had a higher frequency CM (54.25%. Animals with higher levels of milk production of 305 days showed highest occurrence of CM. We must find a balance between milk production and mastitis in order to increase profitability. The study of the periods of greatest frequency clinical mastitis events is essential for dairy farming, to direct a program to control this disease.
Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; Janss, Luc; De Koning, Dirk-Jan
Mastitis in dairy cows is an unavoidable problem and variation in recovery from mastitis is therefore of interest, in addition to resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters for mastitis resistance and recovery were estimated for Danish Holstein-Friesian cows using data from Automatic Milking...... Systems equipped with online somatic cell count (OCC) measuring units. The OCC measurements were converted to elevated mastitis risks (EMR), a continuous variable (on a [0-1] scale) indicating the risk of mastitis. EMR values above 0.6 were assumed to indicate that a cow had mastitis. For each cow...... and lactation the sequence of health states (mastitic or healthy) was converted to weekly transitions: 0 if the cow stayed within the same state and 1 if the cow changed state. The result was two series of transitions: one for healthy to diseased (HD, to model mastitis resistance) and the other for diseased...
Sørensen, Lars Peter; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, M.K.
The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate costs related to 5 different pathogen-specific mastitis traits (susceptibility to different pathogens causing mastitis in dairy cattle) and unspecific mastitis, and 2) to compare selection differentials for an udder health index consisting of 5...... different pathogen-specific mastitis traits and lactation average somatic cell count from 5 to 170 d after first calving (LASCC170) with another index consisting of 1 unspecific mastitis trait and LASCC170. Economic values were estimated for mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus...... dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus uberis using a stochastic simulation model (SimHerd IV). Mastitis incidences for SimHerd IV were from incidences of mastitis treatments in primiparous Danish Holstein cows calving in 2007. Estimated costs ranged from 149 euro...
Zadoks, Ruth Nicolet
Mastitis is the most common and costly production disease affecting dairy cows. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis are two major mastitis-causing pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is traditionally classified as contagious pathogen, while Streptococcus uberis is classified as environmental
Full Text Available The significance of breast tuberculosis is due to rare occurrence and mistaken identity with breast cancer and pyogenic breast abscess. A 70-year-old woman presented with a gradually increasing swelling in the right breast involving the outer upper quadrant since 6 months. Examination of the axilla revealed no lymphadenopathy. FNAC from the lump was inconclusive. Straw-colored discharge from the FNAC site was negative for acid-fast bacilli on Z-N staining and on culture. Modified radical mastectomy was done since malignancy could not be ruled out. Histopathology showed features of granulomatous mastitis. Lymph nodes recovered from the specimen showed caseation necrosis. Anti-tubercular treatment was given to the patient, and she has remained asymptomatic over 1 year of follow-up so far. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurring in the breast is extremely rare and is uncommon even in countries where the incidence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis is high.
Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the increasing incidence of breast tuberculosis, its mistaken identity with carcinoma or pyogenic abscess and its effective diagnosis on cytology. Methods: This retrospective study was carried over short period of two months. Six patients were included. air dried and wet fixed smears prepared and stained with May-Grunwwald-Giemsa and Papanicolaou respectively. Zeihl Neelson staining was also applied. Results: Age groups varied from 16 to 70 years. Six cases presented within 2 months. Most common presentation was painless lump breast. One patient presented with discharging sinus. Lumps mostly favored right breast with predominance of upper outer quadrant. All except one were found to be positive for AFB. Conclusions: Incidences of tuberculous mastitis are increasing, can mimic carcinoma or abscess and should always be kept in differential diagnosis of lump breast. FNAC is helpful and ZN staining is gold standard in diagnosing acid fast bacilli.
C. A. Pistolese
Full Text Available Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is an uncommon benign disorder of the breast. At clinical examination, IGM is characterized by an inflammatory process of the breast, usually unilateral. Possible clinical findings are palpable mass with erythematous skin, pain, sterile abscesses, fistula and nipple retraction. Mammography and ultrasound findings are not specific for IGM. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis; it is also necessary to delineate the exact extension of the disease and to plan the correct treatment. Final diagnosis is histological. We described an unusual case of IGM with bilateral involvement in a patient with history of pacemaker implantation and IGM typical clinical symptoms. Mammography, ultrasound, and MRI examinations were performed to identify the inflammatory disorder and to plan the correct therapy. Imaging features were correlated with final histological diagnosis of IGM.
Masoodi, Talat; Mufti, Gowhar Nazir; Bhat, Javeed Iqbal; Lone, Rubina; Arshi, Syed; Ahmad, Syed Khurshid
Neonatal breast hypertrophy is a common phenomenon in term infants, superadded infection can lead to mastitis and that can progress to breast abscess with short and long term detrimental effects. Our effort is to study the prevalence, risk factors, the current microbial profile and sensitivity pattern in these infections in order to suggest an optimal treatment plan for these patients. Case series. Hospital based study conducted in Kashmir on the native population. 2011 to 2013. 32 neonates with features of mastitis or abscess were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data, laboratory work-up were recorded for all these patients in a patient form. Gram stain of the purulent nipple discharge or pus obtained on drainage was done and the specimens were culture plated. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined by disk diffusion and categorized by current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Most babies were full term, the age range was 6-48 days. Peak incidence for mastitis was in the 2nd week and for abscess in the 4th week. The ratio of male: female was 1:2 in the entire group, there was greater preponderance of female involvement with increasing age. Massage for expression of secretions a common practice in the study population had been done in 15 patients, especially in male babies. The babies were generally well and associated skin pustulosis was common. Laboratory workup showed polymorphonuclear leucocytosis and CRP positivity. Gram staining showed gram positive cocci in 13 patients and gram negative rods in 1 patient. Culture revealed Staphylococcus aureus in 18, E.col in 2, klebsiella in 1 patient and was sterile in 2 patients. Most strains of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to macrolides and penicillins. Fifteen were methicillin sensitive and 3 were resistant but were sensitive to amikacin, ofloxacin and vancomycin. Gram negative rods were sensitive to, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, quinolones, piperacillin
Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting
Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-tr...
Gabby Lutviandhitarani; Dian Wahyu Harjanti; Fajar Wahyono
(Green antibiotic betel leaf (Piper betle l.) as a substitute for commercial antibiotic in mastitis treatment) ABSTRACT. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible antibacterial activity of betel leaf on the amount and microscopic appearance of mastitis-causing bacteria. The randomized block design with 5 treatment groups were : K group (mastitis milk only as negative control), Ab group (mastitis milk + antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin as positive control), ...
Kurz, Jacqueline P.
Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation resear...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM is an inflammatory disease of the breast, which can mimic breast cancer in clinical and radiological findings. We conducted the present study in order to determine the diagnostic and other important aspects of this disease. METHODS: In this study, we reviewed the records of 38 patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis in order to describe the clinical, imaging, laboratory, pathologic, and treatment aspects of this disease. RESULTS: All of the patients’ ages were in the range of 22-62 years (mean age: 42 years. All of them had children, history of oral contraceptive pill (OCP usage, antibiotic therapy and mammoplasty. In physical examination, dimpling, edema, inflammation, ulcer, abscess, and firm mass were detected. Size of masses was in the range of 2 × 2 to 8 × 6 cm and their location, in most cases, was in the superior lateral quadrant or central region. In Ultrasonography, a hypoechoic fibroglandular mass and collection, and in pathologic findings, granulomatous reaction was reported. These patients were treated by antibiotics, corticosteroids, and surgery. CONCLUSIONS: GLM is a chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast which can mimic breast cancer. A history of child bearing, lactation, and OCP drug usage have suspicious roles in the formation of GLM. The most common clinical sign in these patients is a painful mass in the breast. We uncovered that clinical and radiological findings are not specific and sufficient for diagnosis of GLM. Therefore, for better diagnosis of this disease, usage of core, incisional, or excisional biopsy are recommended.
Kaleem, F.; Usman, J.; Omair, M.; Din, R.U.; Hassan, A.
Mycobacterium fortuitum, a rapidly growing mycobacterium, is ubiquitous in nature. The organism was considered to be a harmless saprophyte but now there have been several reports from different parts of the world wherein it has been incriminated in a variety of human infections. We report a culture positive case of surgical site infection caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum, who responded well to the treatment. (author)
For an optimal mastitis management on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), two individual cow decisions are important. First, there is a need for decision support on which mastitis alerts have the highest priority for visual checking for clinical mastitis (CM). In essence, all cows with
Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso
Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).
Hettinga, K A; van Valenberg, H J F; Lam, T J G M; van Hooijdonk, A C M
The ability to detect mastitis pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was studied. Milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli were collected. In addition, samples from cows without clinical mastitis and with low somatic cell count (SCC) were collected for comparison. All mastitis samples were examined by using classical microbiological methods, followed by headspace analysis for volatile metabolites. Milk from culture-negative samples contained a lower number and amount of volatile components compared with cows with clinical mastitis. Because of variability between samples within a group, comparisons between pathogens were not sufficient for classification of the samples by univariate statistics. Therefore, an artificial neural network was trained to classify the pathogen in the milk samples based on the bacterial metabolites. The trained network differentiated milk from uninfected and infected quarters very well. When comparing pathogens, Staph. aureus produced a very different pattern of volatile metabolites compared with the other samples. Samples with coagulase-negative staphylococci and E. coli had enough dissimilarity with the other pathogens, making it possible to separate these 2 pathogens from each other and from the other samples. The 2 streptococcus species did not show significant differences between each other but could be identified as a different group from the other pathogens. Five groups can thus be identified based on the volatile bacterial metabolites: Staph. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci (Strep. uberis and Strep. dysgalactiae as one group), E. coli, and uninfected quarters.
Oltean, Hanna N; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Omar S; Youssef, Tamer F; Karkouri, Mehdi; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmad; Blachley, Taylor; Tahri, Ali; Merajver, Sofia D
Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62-1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07-3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39-5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36-1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.
Hanna N. Oltean
Full Text Available Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis. Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62–1.90 and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07–3.61. Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47–0.67 and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39–5.72. Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60–0.84 and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36–1.97. This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.
Vlkova, H; Babak, V; Vrtkova, I; Cervinkova, D; Marosevic, D; Moravkova, M; Jaglic, Z
The aim of the present work was to examine a dairy herd with an anamnesis of recurrent clinical mastitis and decreased milk production. A total of 239 individual cow milk samples originating from asymptomatic cows were collected at four-month intervals and examined mainly for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci using standard cultivation methods. In total, 29.7% and 9.2% samples were positive for S. aureus and mastitis streptococci, respectively. Unlike for mastitis streptococci, the prevalence of animals positive for S. aureus had an increasing trend (pmastitis, reproductive and periparturient disorders and administration of antibiotics. In contrast to S. aureus, the occurrence of mastitis streptococci in milk was linked with previous cases of clinical mastitis and intramammary administration of antibiotics.
Marín Hernández, David
La Tuberculosis sigue siendo la enfermedad infecciosa con mayor prevalencia en el mundo con un tercio de la población infectada por algún miembro del complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. La enfermedad se ha expandido en los países en desarrollo y para el 2005 en México la incidencia fue de 15,249 nuevos casos pulmonares confirmados en el laboratorio. Aunque Mycobacterium tuberculosis es el agente causal principal de la tuberculosis humana, se han reportado continuamente caso...
A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1
Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.
Marco Leal G
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a proteolytic drug “chymotrypsin” combined with beta-lactam antibiotics in cows with acute mastitis. Material and Methods. Fourteen cows with acute mastitis. Three cows were treated with a beta-latam antibiotic (BLA and the other eleven cows were treated with chymotrypsin plus beta-lactam antibiotic (C+BLA. The response was evaluated according to the semiological findings, somatic cell count (SCC and a microbiological culture. Results. There was a therapeutic efficacy comparing the pre and post treatment period (SCC reduction, p<0.01 and a reduction of clinical signs in 84.7% of treated quarters in the first day of treatment (C+BLA compared with (BLA. Conclusions. Chymotrypsin improves the treatment of acute mastitis when is combined with BLA, controlling the infected mammary glands, compared with the group treated only with amoxicilina and clavulanic acid.
... detail/buruli-ulcer-(mycobacterium-ulcerans-infection)","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... Buruli ulcer on a regular basis to share information, coordinate disease control and research efforts, and monitor ...
Full Text Available Newly purchased animals that enter a herd with high milk production can be infected with pathogens of the mammary gland and are a potential risk of infection to the cows on the farm. This risk cannot be avoided entirely, but it can be minimized by taking biosecurity measures that should be written as a policy developed for biosecurity oversight of veterinary service: when older cows are purchased, they should be bought with complete lactations and SCC records, and bacterial examination of milk from the udder quarters must be negative for pathogens of the udder; newly purchased cows should come from herds in which the geometric mean somatic cell count is less than 200,000. The herd must have individual cow SCC recorded at least bimonthly for the previous 6 months; the herd must not have had any history of Strep. agalactiae infection in the last 2 years, the herd should be BVDV-free or vaccinated, and the herd owner must be honest and willing to provide all this information. Our country has accepted the standards for milk quality and hygienic properties that comply with EU standards. The proposed biosafety measures presented in this paper enable the determination of the health status of the herd and the biosecurity level of mastitis in commercial farming in intensive dairy production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31034
Tuğba Özlem Kalaycı
Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is an uncommon benign chronic inflammatory breast disease, and erythema nodosum (EN is an extremely rare systemic manifestation of IGM. Here, we report a rare case of IGM accompanied by EN. Case Report: A 32-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic with a history of a tender mass in the right breast. On physical examination, the right breast contained a hard, tender mass in the lower half with in-drawing of the nipple. She had florid EN affecting both legs. She was evaluated with mammography, ultrasound, power Doppler ultrasound, non-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB and excisional biopsy. Time-intensity curves showed a type II pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, which has an intermediate probability for malignancy. The FNAB reported a benign cytology suggestive of a granulomatous inflammation, which was also supported by the histopathological findings. A partial mastectomy was performed following medical treatment. There was no recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: IGM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of EN. Although histopathological examination remains the only method for the definite diagnosis of IGM, MRI can be helpful in the diagnosis or differentiation of benign lesions from malignant ones.
Alexander, Amy B; Hanley, Christopher S; Fischer, Martha T; Padilla, Luis R
A 1 yr 8 mo-old, previously healthy, primiparous female babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis) presented acutely recumbent and minimally responsive approximately 36 hr after giving birth to a single piglet. Toxic mastitis was diagnosed based on physical examination and laboratory results. The mammary tissue was firm, discolored, and produced negligible amounts of milk. All of the teats were eventually affected, resulting in the inability to provide adequate nutrition to the piglet. Although toxic mastitis has a poor prognosis in domestic sows, this babirusa recovered completely with aggressive management, including antibiotics and supportive care.
BOUJENANE, Ismail; AIMANI, Jalila EL; BY, Khalid
The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) and its risk factors in 1725 Holstein cows. Data were collected from a private farm from 2008 to 2012. The analysis of risk factors, performed with logistic regression, showed that cows at parity 2, 3, and 4 had 65%, 88%, and 115% risk of mastitis, respectively. This risk was higher (P < 0.001) than in cows at first parity. Cows that calved from October to January had the highest (P < 0.05) risk of masti...
Catozzi, C.; Sanchez Bonastre, A.; Francino, O.; Lecchi, C.; De Carlo, E.; Vecchio, D.; Martucciello, A.; Fraulo, P.; Bronzo, V.; Cuscó, A.; D'Andreano, S.; Ceciliani, F.
The aim of this study was to define the microbiota of water buffalo milk during sub-clinical and clinical mastitis, as compared to healthy status, by using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 137 quarter samples were included in the experimental design: 27 samples derived from healthy, culture negative quarters, with a Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of less than 200,000 cells/ml; 27 samples from quarters with clinical mastitis; 83 samples were collected from quarters with su...
Osborne, B M
Two cases of a lobular, necrotizing granulomatous process causing a unilateral painful breast mass mimicking carcinoma are presented for comparison. While the morphologic appearance in each case was that of lobular granulomatous mastitis, the etiologic agent in one case appeared to be Histoplasma capsulatum, based on Grocott methenamine silver staining, and represents the second reported case of histoplasmosis involving only breast parenchyma. Awareness of the rare entity, granulomatous mastitis, is important for the pathologist because the definitive diagnosis is made microscopically. Thorough evaluation of the breast tissue is essential for its management and should eventually contribute to the clarification of its etiology.
Wieles, B.; van Agterveld, M.; Janson, A.; Clark-Curtiss, J.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Harboe, M.; Thole, J.
Secreted proteins may serve as major targets in the immune response to mycobacteria. To identify potentially secreted Mycobacterium leprae antigens, antisera specific for culture filtrate proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used to screen a panel of recombinant antigens selected previously
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are responsible for tuberculosis in humans or animals, respectively. Both species are closely related and belong to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). M. tuberculosis is the most ancient species from which M. bovis and the other members o...
Jiao Zhang, MD
Full Text Available Summary:. Nontuberculous mycobacterium is a ubiquitous environmental organism that is unusual to cause a true infection, but it can cause severe cutaneous infections. In this case report, we present a successful treatment for a Chinese patient with Mycobacterium avium cutaneous infection after acupoint embedding therapy. We managed to conduct pathogenic detection, drug sensitive test, and multidisciplinary consultation. Finally, a systematic treatment strategy of nontuberculous mycobacterium was performed. Twenty-two-month follow-up revealed excellent outcome without any recurrence.
Reksen, O; Sølverød, L; Branscum, A J; Osterås, O
In quarter milk samples from 2,492 randomly sampled cows that were selected without regard to their current or previous udder health status, the relationships between the following outcome variables were studied: treatment of clinical mastitis; the joint event of either treatment or culling for mastitis; culling for all reasons; culling specifically for mastitis; and the covariates of positive milk culture for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., or other pathogens, or of negative culture for mastitis pathogens. Microbiological diagnoses were assigned at the cow level, and altogether 3,075 diagnoses were related to the outcome variables. The relation between the absence of pathogens and rich (>1,500 cfu/mL of milk) or sparse (mastitis was greater for cows diagnosed with Staph. aureus compared with cows with no pathogens in all analyses. Cows with sparse growth of Staph. aureus upon microbiological analysis were more likely to be treated for clinical mastitis, and cows with rich growth of the bacteria experienced a higher overall risk of culling when the models adjusted for cow composite milk somatic cell count. No difference between rich and sparse growth of Staph. aureus was found when mastitis was defined as the joint event of either culling for mastitis or treatment of clinical mastitis, and when the relationship with culling specifically for mastitis was assessed. The combined outcome of treatment and culling for mastitis was related to a positive diagnosis of Strep. spp. after cow composite milk somatic cell count was omitted from the model. Presence of Streptococcus spp. was also related to culling specifically for mastitis, whereas culling for all reasons and treatment of clinical mastitis was not related to a positive culture of Strep. spp. Presence of coagulase-negative Staph. spp. or other pathogens was not associated with either of the outcome variables.
were cows with chronic mastitis and the awareness of milkers on segregation of affected cows and use ... Bendictus, G. and Brand, A. 1998. Incidence of clinical ... Small-scale milk marketing and processing in Ethiopia. In: Rangnekar, D. and ...
Schlenstedt, R; Zschöck, M; Kloppert, B; Wolter, W
During January 1994 and August 1996 from dairy farms in Hessia a total of 305,609 milk samples were investigated. Prototheca sp. as etiological agent of a mastitis was isolated from milk samples of seven dairy herds. According to our experiences and to several reports from various countries dealing with Prototheca infections in dairy herds, mastitis control programs should include Prototheca algae as potential pathogens. Mastitis due to this organism usually occurs in different semeiologies, one with clinical symptoms, and the other, more common type, as subclinical mastitis. In both cases, Prototheca organisms use to persist in the tissue of the mammary gland also during the dry period and antimicrobial treatment proves to be ineffective. Considering the wide distribution of these algae as saprophytes in the environment and in feces of several domestic animals, predisposing factors like a humid aerobic milieu and unsanitary milking conditions are necessary for Prototheca infections becoming manifest in the udder of dairy cows. Control measures should preferably stress the identification and removal of infected animals, in particular when the disease is sporadic in the herd. Due to the more questionable occurrence of spontaneous healing and the lack of an efficient drug, slaughtering of infected cows appears as a suitable method to eliminate the disease from the herd. Additionally, improvement of the hygiene status concerning feeding and milking management within a herd is as essential as in the control of other opportunistic udder pathogens.
M.H. Lequin (Maarten); J. van Spengler (J.); R. van Pel; C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); H. van Overhagen (H.)
textabstractThe goal of this study was to explore possible specific mammographic and sonographic features in women with non-puerperal mastitis (NPM), in order to make an accurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgical procedures. From a group of 93 patients with NPM diagnosed between 1987 and
Wu Xiurong; Luo Xiaohua; Yu Xuming; Zhong Shan; Huang Yufan; Wu Xinyi; Lin Yubin
Objective: To investigate the clinical and mammographic features of plasma cell mastitis. Methods: Twenty-five patients (28 lesions) with histologically confirmed plasma cell mastitis, aged from 26 to 70 years (mean age 41 years), were examined with X-ray mammography. The clinical manifestations and imaging features were retrospectively reviewed. Results: No case was in lactation. The painful irregular masses, ranged from 1.3 to 8cm in size, were found in 22 patients, while 3 patients with acute episode. Recurrent episodes of breast masses were noted in 4 patients. Based on the mammographic appearances, the plasma cell mastitis were classified as the following four types: inflammation-like type (2/28), ductal ectasia type (3/28), focal infiltration type (10/28) and nodular type (13/28). The valuable radiographic signs: (1) An asymmetrically increased density along the lactiferous duct with a flame-like appearance, inhomogeneous low density tubular structures and scattered stick-shape calcifications. (2) Architectural distortion and oil cysts formation in adjacent area, (3) Subareolar ductal ectasia. Conclusions: The clinical and mammographic characteristics of plasma cell mastitis are critical to avoiding unnecessary surgery. Histopathological result is needed for the diagnosis in patients highly suspected of malignancy. (authors)
Green, M.J.; Green, L.E.; Schukken, Y.H.; Bradley, A.J.; Peeler, E.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Haas, de Y.; Collis, V.J.; Medley, G.F.
This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n =
Burmańczuk, Artur; Hola, Piotr; Milczak, Andrzej; Piech, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary; Wojciechowska, Beata; Grabowski, Tomasz
Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study. Baseline analysis (hematology, TNFα, SCC) was performed every 24h among all cows three days before the first dose (B1-B3). After the baseline monitoring (B1-B3) eight days treatment (D1-D8) was performed with a high and low dose. Selected blood parameters were analyzed. Starting from D1 to D8, a decrease of SCC in relation to baseline was characterized by declining trend. The presented results allowed the confirmation of the significant influence of quercetin on the reduction of SCC in mastitis in dairy cows after 8days of therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (1975) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Mastitis en kuddebestuur. A Smith, H.G.J. Coetzee ...
Full Text Available Mastitis in dairy cows is an economically important disease because it makes up 38% of all diseases that occur in intensive cattle breeding. Mastitis affects milk production, either temporarily or permanently, depending on the course of infection and type of pathogen agent. Regular and timely therapy of mastitis based on the application antimicrobials, apart from prophylaxis, is very important for good health of breeding stock. This paper presents the case of repeated mastitis in a cow, Holstein-Friesian breed, 5 years old, which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Milk samples from each separate quarter of the udder were collected under aseptic conditions and sent to the laboratory for further bacteriological tests, for isolation and identification of pathogens, as well as to test pathogen resistance to some antibiotics. On the basis of bacteriological examinations, there was confirmed the presence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which showed sensitivity to ampicillin, cloxacillin and augmentin, intermediate resistance to tetracycline and resistance to kotrimeksazol.(cotrimoxazole-proveriti [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085
Aldaqal, Saleh M.
To determine the clinical characteristic, clinical presentations and radiological features of diopathic granulomatous mastitis, and the best treatment approaches of this clinical entity. Between 1996 and 2003 the files and histopathology reports of 25 patients with granulomatous mastitis at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital Jeddah, Kindom of Saudi Arabia were reviewed. The data were analyzed and a Medline search was carried out from 1970 to 2003 to review relevant cases. The age of patients ranged from 24-66 years and the mean age was 36.6+-9.43 years. All patients were females. The most common clinical presentation was palpable tender mass. The most common mammographic finding was ill-defined mass. However, mixed hypo- and hyper-echogenic lesions with tubular connections were the common ultrasonic findings. Treatment approaches were conservative or surgical excision or steroid. Conservative treatment associated with the higher rate of complications, while treatment with steroid showed complete remission of disease. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare, benign breast disease that is usually underestimated or misdiagnosed. The clinical and radiological features resemble those of infectious mastitis or breast carcinoma. Early recognition and initiation of steroid treatment will result in complete remission of the disease and prevent complications. (author)
Boehmer, Jamie L
The pursuit of biomarkers for use as clinical screening tools, measures for early detection, disease monitoring, and as a means for assessing therapeutic responses has steadily evolved in human and veterinary medicine over the past two decades. Concurrently, advances in mass spectrometry have markedly expanded proteomic capabilities for biomarker discovery. While initial mass spectrometric biomarker discovery endeavors focused primarily on the detection of modulated proteins in human tissues and fluids, recent efforts have shifted to include proteomic analyses of biological samples from food animal species. Mastitis continues to garner attention in veterinary research due mainly to affiliated financial losses and food safety concerns over antimicrobial use, but also because there are only a limited number of efficacious mastitis treatment options. Accordingly, comparative proteomic analyses of bovine milk have emerged in recent years. Efforts to prevent agricultural-related food-borne illness have likewise fueled an interest in the proteomic evaluation of several prominent strains of bacteria, including common mastitis pathogens. The interest in establishing biomarkers of the host and pathogen responses during bovine mastitis stems largely from the need to better characterize mechanisms of the disease, to identify reliable biomarkers for use as measures of early detection and drug efficacy, and to uncover potentially novel targets for the development of alternative therapeutics. The following review focuses primarily on comparative proteomic analyses conducted on healthy versus mastitic bovine milk. However, a comparison of the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk and the proteomic analysis of common veterinary pathogens are likewise introduced.
Kamphuis, C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Hogeveen, H.
Our objective was to use data mining to develop and validate a detection model for clinical mastitis (CM) using sensor data collected at nine Dutch dairy herds milking automatically. Sensor data was available for almost 3.5 million quarter milkings (QM) from 1,109 cows; 348 QM with CM were observed
Cha, Elva; Smith, Rebecca L.; Kristensen, Anders R.; Hertl, Julia A.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Tauer, Loren W.; Welcome, Frank L.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.
The objective of this study was to determine the economic value of obtaining timely and more accurate clinical mastitis (CM) test results for optimal treatment of cows. Typically CM is first identified when the farmer observes recognisable outward signs. Further information of whether the
Mastitis is one of the most important diseases in dairy cattle. Recently, the so-called minor pathogens, of which coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most important group of bacteria, has received more attention. This thesis focuses on the role of CNS in udder health of dairy cows. The
Cha, Elva; Smith, Rebecca L.; Kristensen, Anders R.; Hertl, Julia A.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Tauer, Loren W.; Welcome, Frank L.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.
The objective of this study was to determine the economic value of obtaining timely and more accurate clinical mastitis (CM) test results for optimal treatment of cows. Typically CM is first identified when the farmer observes recognisable outward signs. Further information of whether the pathogen
Occurrence of bovine mastitis and isolation of Staphyloccocus species from ... the samples that were positive for CMT were found to be culture positive and out of ... S. aureus and 12.3% (12/97) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS).
semi-intensive (47.1%) and intensive (42.3%) than extensive (8.1%) management system. The present study indicated higher prevalence of mastitis linked with sev- ... due to zoonosis, food poisoning and antibiotic residue in the milk following ... Information on extrinsic factors such as management system (as extensive,.
Revd Dr Olaleye
Mastitis leads to economic losses in terms of reduced milk yield or milk quality, early culling. Manuscript received: February 2009; Accepted: July 2009 .... dispensed from each latex reagent into the six circular rings on the reaction card. Pasteur pipette was used to add 1 drop of extract to each of the six rings. Mixing.
Valeeva, N.I.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.
The aims of this study were 1) to explore different motivating factors and to quantify their importance in decisions of farmers on improving mastitis management, 2) to evaluate different quality payment schemes as extra incentive mechanisms for farmers, and 3) to link the motivating factors to
Over a period of 11 months, 435 milk samples were collected from 92 lactating female camels on a ranch in Northern Kenya that was traditionally managed. The samples were examined bacteriologically to determine the causative agents of camel mastitis in Kenya. 145 samples (33.3%) yielded no growth. The most ...
The rare condition of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is presented here, unusually, in a 54-year-old woman. IGM mimics breast carcinoma and further differentials include tuberculosis and fungal infections of the breast together with other chronic granulomatous conditions. Of note is its characteristic ultrasound ...
Bislev, Stine Lønnerup
Mastitis, som er betændelse i yverkirtlen forårsaget af indtrængende patogener, udgør en betydelig udfordring for dyresundhed- og velfærd i malkekvægsbesætninger. Identifikation af følsomme diagnostiske mastitismarkører vil kunne hjælpe med at stille en tidligere diagnose og gavne effekten af...... behandling. Patogenspecifikke biomarkører, der kan måles direkte i mælk, er lovende for at diagnosticere mastitis i de tidligste stadier af sygdommen. Dermed kan den korrekte antibiotika behandling påbegyndes, så snart en infektion i yveret opdages. Den massive tilstedeværelse af de dominerende...... hinanden. For at opfylde dette formål blev der udviklet en SRM metode rettet mod proteiner, som formodes at spille en stor rolle i mastitis. Under udviklingen af SRM metoden blev der først udvalgt 20 biomarkørkandidater, der relaterer til inflammation og mastitis. Derefter skulle der udvælges peptider, som...
Sellera, Fábio Parra; Sabino, Caetano Padial; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Gargano, Ronaldo Gomes; Benites, Nilson Roberti; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio
Bovine mastitis is considered the most important disease of worldwide dairy industry. Treatment of this disease is based on the application intramammary antibiotic, which favors an increase in the number of resistant bacteria in the last decade. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been investigated in different areas of Health Sciences, and has shown great potential for inactivating different pathogens, without any selection of resistant microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PDI in the inactivation of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. We tested the effectiveness of PDI against antibiotic resistant strains, isolated from bovine mastitis, from the following species: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Corynebacterium bovis, and the alga Prototheca zopfii. Nine experimental groups were evaluated: control, no treatment; light only, irradiation of a red light-emitting diode (λ=662 (20) nm) for 180 s; exposure to 50 μM methylene blue alone for 5 min; and PDI for 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 180 s. S. dysgalactiae, S. aureus, and C. bovis were inactivated after 30s of irradiation, whereas S. agalactiae was inactivated after 120 s and P. zopfii at 180 s of irradiation. These results show that PDI can be an interesting tool for inactivating pathogens for bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mushtaq, Saleem; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Shah, Aiyatullah; Lone, Sajad Ahmad; Hussain, Aehtesham; Hassan, Qazi Parvaiz; Ali, Md Niamat
Bovine mastitis is globally recognized as the most common and costly disease affecting dairy herds. The disease causes huge ﬁnancial losses to dairy industries by reduced yield and milk quality, deaths and culling of affected cows and also by associated treatment costs. The disease occurs due to invasion of the mammary glands by pathogenic bacteria followed by their multiplication in the milk producing tissues. The most common treatment method available against bovine mastitis is the intra-mammary infusion of antibiotics. However, their use is associated with the problem of antimicrobial resistance. This scenario has made search for alternative treatment approaches necessary. Medicinal plants with their well-established history are an excellent natural product resource used as an alternative therapy. Antibacterial agents from plants can act as important sources of novel antibiotics, efflux pump inhibitors, compounds that target bacterial virulence or can be used in combination with existing drugs. The plants form an essential component of ethno-veterinary medicine used in the treatment of different diseases like bovine mastitis. This review article attempts to provide an overview of the different medicinal plants used in the treatment of bovine mastitis. Antimicrobial studies of these plant species and some of their isolated constituents have been reviewed in detail. It highlights the logic and precedence behind mining this important natural product resource. Our own research findings in this direction and future scope of research are also discussed briefly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The present study was conducted between September 2006 and April 2007 with the aim of assessing the occurrence of camel mastitis and bacterial causes associated with it and evaluating Fat and Protein content of camel milk in Gewane district, Afar Regional State, Northeastern Ethiopia. Lactating camels which are ...
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis pathogens at the Magadu Dairy Farm, Sokoine University of Agriculture. A total of 19 milk samples were collected and cultured on blood agar and MacConkey agar followed by identification of bacteria colonies and cells using standard laboratory techniques.
Mol, de R.M.
Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,
Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Amit; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil
Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and
Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI
ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.
Simojoki, H; Orro, T; Taponen, S; Pyörälä, S
An experimental infection model was developed to study host response to intramammary infection in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes. CNS intramammary infections have become very common in modern dairy herds, and they can remain persistent in the mammary gland. More information would be needed about the pathophysiology of CNS mastitis, and an experimental mastitis model is a means for this research. Six primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were challenged with S. chromogenes 4 weeks after calving. One udder quarter of each cow was inoculated with 2.1 x 10(6)cfu of S. chromogenes. All cows became infected and clinical signs were mild. Milk production of the challenged quarter decreased on average by 16.3% during 7 days post-challenge. Cows eliminated bacteria in a few days, except for one cow which developed persistent mastitis. Milk indicators of inflammation, SCC and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) returned to normal within a week. Milk NAGase activity increased moderately, which reflects minor tissue damage in the udder. Concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) and milk amyloid A (MAA) were both elevated at 12h PC. MAA was affected by the milking times, and was at its highest before the morning milking. In our experimental model, systemic acute phase protein response with SAA occurred as an on-off type reaction. In conclusion, this experimental model could be used to study host response in CNS mastitis caused by the main CNS species and also for comparison of the host response in a mild intramammary infection and in more severe mastitis models.
Moniri, R; Dastehgoli, K; Akramian, A
The aim of this study was to determine Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and other bacteria for their resistance to antimicrobial agents approved for the control of pathogens involved in clinical bovine mastitis. This descriptive study was done on 106 milk samples obtained from clinical mastitis in dairy cattle husbandry from April 2006 through August 2006 in Kashan, Iran. From the total of 106 milk samples collected from clinical mastitis, 96 (90.6%) lead to positive culture. Coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated in 51 out of 96 samples (53.1%), Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 21 out of 96 (21.9%), gram negative bacilli isolated in 14 out of 96 (14.6%) and Enterococci isolated in 4 (4.2%). The highest rate of resistant CNS observed to penicillin (56.6%) and the highest rate of sensitivity to enrofloxacin 100%, followed by kanamycin, streptomycin and neomycin, 92.2, 82.3 and 82.3%, respectively. The highest rate of resistance S. aureus exhibited to penicillin (66.6%); while the highest rate of sensitivity showed to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxasole (81%), followed by kanamycin and enrofloxacin both at 76.2%. The highest rate of resistance gram negative bacilli exhibited to ampicillin and erythromycin at 71.4%. Their highest rate of sensitivity observed to enrofloxacin (78.6%), followed by kanamycin, (71.4%). In recent years, CNS is emerging as important minor mastitis pathogens and can be the cause of substantial economic losses. The high resistance rate to penicillin and other antibiotics found in this study emphasize the importance of identification of CNS when a bovine clinical mastitis is present.
Safi, Shahabeddin; Khoshvaghti, Ameneh; Jafarzadeh, Seyed Reza; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Nowrouzian, Iradj
The California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly used for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle. Acute phase proteins (APPs), as alternative biomarkers of mastitis, may increase in concentration in the absence of macroscopic changes in the milk, or may precede the onset of clinical signs. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of APPs measured in milk and in serum with bacterial culture for the diagnosis of bovine subclinical mastitis. One hundred and seventy-five Holstein cows were randomly selected from 7 dairy farms. Quarter milk and serum samples were taken from all cows. Milk samples were analyzed using a CMT and SCC, and for haptoglobin (MHp) and amyloid A (MAA) concentrations, and were also submitted for bacterial culture. Serum samples obtained concurrently were analyzed for haptoglobin (SHp) and amyloid A (SAA). Two-sample Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney) test was used to compare SCC, MAA, MHp, SAA, and SHp concentrations between culture-positive and culture-negative animals. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of each test using bacterial culture as the reference method. MAA concentration was the most accurate of the 5 tests, with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 98.3% at concentrations >16.4 mg/L. MAA and MHp had significantly larger areas under the curve than the respective serum proteins, SAA and SHp. The results suggest that measuring haptoglobin and amyloid A in milk is more accurate than serum analysis for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows.
Olde Riekerink, R G M; Barkema, H W; Kelton, D F; Scholl, D T
No nationwide studies of the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) have been conducted in Canada. Because the IRCM and distribution of mastitis-causing bacteria may show substantial geographic variation, the primary objective of this study was to determine regional pathogen-specific IRCM on Canadian dairy farms. Additionally, the association of pathogen-specific IRCM with bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and barn type were determined. In total, 106 dairy farms in 10 provinces of Canada participated in the study for a period of 1 yr. Participating producers recorded 3,149 cases of clinical mastitis. The most frequently isolated mastitis pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Overall mean and median IRCM were 23.0 and 16.7 cases per 100 cow-years in the selected herds, respectively, with a range from 0.7 to 97.4 per herd. No association between BMSCC and overall IRCM was found, but E. coli and culture-negative IRCM were highest and Staph. aureus IRCM was lowest in low and medium BMSCC herds. Staphylococcus aureus, Strep. uberis, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae IRCM were lowest in the Western provinces. Staphylococcus aureus and Strep. dysgalactiae IRCM were highest in Québec. Cows in tie-stalls had higher incidences of Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and other streptococcal IRCM compared with those in free-stalls, whereas cows in free stalls had higher Klebsiella spp. and E. coli IRCM than those in tie-stall barns. The focus of mastitis prevention and control programs should differ between regions and should be tailored to farms based on housing type and BMSCC.
Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L
This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.
Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Vollmers, John; Görlich, Dennis; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich
Escherichia coli bovine mastitis is a disease of significant economic importance in the dairy industry. Molecular characterization of mastitis-associated E. coli (MAEC) did not result in the identification of common traits. Nevertheless, a mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) pathotype has been proposed suggesting virulence traits that differentiate MAEC from commensal E. coli. The present study was designed to investigate the MPEC pathotype hypothesis by comparing the genomes of MAEC and commensal bovine E. coli. We sequenced the genomes of eight E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis cases and six fecal commensal isolates from udder-healthy cows. We analyzed the phylogenetic history of bovine E. coli genomes by supplementing this strain panel with eleven bovine-associated E. coli from public databases. The majority of the isolates originate from phylogroups A and B1, but neither MAEC nor commensal strains could be unambiguously distinguished by phylogenetic lineage. The gene content of both MAEC and commensal strains is highly diverse and dominated by their phylogenetic background. Although individual strains carry some typical E. coli virulence-associated genes, no traits important for pathogenicity could be specifically attributed to MAEC. Instead, both commensal strains and MAEC have very few gene families enriched in either pathotype. Only the aerobactin siderophore gene cluster was enriched in commensal E. coli within our strain panel. This is the first characterization of a phylogenetically diverse strain panel including several MAEC and commensal isolates. With our comparative genomics approach we could not confirm previous studies that argue for a positive selection of specific traits enabling MAEC to elicit bovine mastitis. Instead, MAEC are facultative and opportunistic pathogens recruited from the highly diverse bovine gastrointestinal microbiota. Virulence-associated genes implicated in mastitis are a by-product of commensalism with the primary function
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. Methods The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway. Clinical examination and collection of udder secretions were carried out by veterinarians. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was performed on 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 64 ewes. Results and conclusion S. aureus was recovered from 65.3% of 547 clinically affected mammary glands, coagulase-negative staphylococci from 2.9%, enterobacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, from 7.3%, Streptococcus spp. from 4.6%, Mannheimia haemolytica from 1.8% and various other bacteria from 4.9%, while no bacteria were cultured from 13.2% of the samples. Forty percent of the ewes with unilateral clinical S. aureus mastitis also had a subclinical S. aureus infection in the other mammary gland. Twenty-four of 28 (86% pairs of S. aureus isolates obtained from clinically and subclinically affected mammary glands of the same ewe were indistinguishable by PFGE. The number of identical pairs was significantly greater than expected, based on the distribution of different S. aureus types within the flocks. One-third of the cases occurred during the first week after lambing, while a second peak was observed in the third week of lactation. Gangrene was present in 8.8% of the clinically affected glands; S. aureus was recovered from 72.9%, Clostridium perfringens from 6.3% and E. coli from 6.3% of the secretions from such glands. This study shows that S. aureus predominates as a cause of clinical ovine mastitis in Norway, also in very severe cases. Results also indicate that S. aureus is frequently spread between udder halves of infected ewes.
Muhammad, Ghulam; Naureen, Abeera; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal-ur-Rehman
To evaluate a 3% solution of household detergent viz., Surf Excel (Surf field mastitis test, SFMT) vis-à-vis California mastitis test (CMT), Whiteside test (WST), somatic cell counts (SCC; cut off limit = 5 x 10(5) cells per millilitre) and bacteriological cultures for the detection of subclinical mastitis in quarter foremilk samples (n=800) of dairy cows and buffaloes. Culture and SCC were used as gold standards. All tests were evaluated parallel and serial patterns. The sensitivities of SFMT, SCC, culture, CMT and WST in parallel testing were 72.82, 81.55, 87.38, 75.73 and 54.37%, respectively in cows, while 66.22, 79.73, 82.43, 70.27 and 50.00, respectively in buffaloes. SFMT was significantly (pnegative predictive values of SFMT (93.50 in cow; 96.35 in buffaloes) differed non-significantly from that of CMT (94.02 in cow; 96.15 in buffaloes). The kappa index between the tests was moderate to perfect both in parallel (0.54 to >0.80) and serial (0.58 to >0.8) testing. On the basis of closely similar diagnostic efficiency of SFMT to CMT in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa index together with inexpensive and ready availability of SFMT reagent, it tempting to suggest that SFMT can be use as a cheaper, user-friendly alternative animal-side subclinical mastitis diagnostic test in poor countries.
Barrett Damien J
Full Text Available Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed. Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experience environmental mastitis. Herds with inadequate calving facilities, where cows spent prolonged periods on straw bedding, were likely to acquire environmental mastitis. In the majority of the herds, the selection of dry cow therapy lacked adequate planning. The majority of farmers took no action to reduce pain experienced by cows suffering mastitis. Deficiencies in parlour hygiene were evident in all herds experiencing elevation in SCC.
Karlsmose, Susanne; Kunstmann, L.; Rundsten, Carsten Friis
Bovine mastitis is the most common and costly dairy cattle disease. Mastitis is most frequently caused by bacterial species, and to ensure optimal treatment and control strategies, proper quality assured diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is important. With the aim to assess...... the capacity to isolate and identify mastitis pathogens at veterinary clinics, an external quality assurance system (EQAS) was annually (from 2006 to 2011) provided for the identification of mastitis pathogens. This study presents the setup of the proficiency test and the obtained results that enabled...... the organizers to pinpoint areas for improvement and thereby to assist veterinary practices at strengthening their mastitis diagnostics.The proficiency test consisted of 15 milk samples spiked with a pure culture of a mastitis pathogen and distributed to veterinary practices for identification. Applying...
Perrig, Melina S; Ambroggio, María B; Buzzola, Fernanda R; Marcipar, Iván S; Calvinho, Luis F; Veaute, Carolina M; Barbagelata, María Sol
This study aimed to determine the clonal relationship among 137 Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk with subclinical or clinical mastitis in Argentina and to assess the prevalence and conservation of pauA and sua genes. This information is critical for the rational design of a vaccine for the prevention of bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. The isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 137 isolates exhibited 61 different PFGE types and 25 distinct RAPD profiles. Simpson's diversity index was calculated both for PFGE (0.983) and for RAPD (0.941), showing a high discriminatory power in both techniques. The analysis of the relationship between pairs of isolates showed 92.6% concordance between both techniques indicating that any given pair of isolates distinguished by one method tended to be distinguished by the other. The prevalence of the sua and pauA genes was 97.8% (134/137) and 94.9% (130/137), respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the sua and pauA genes from 20 S. uberis selected isolates, based on their PFGE and RAPD types and geographical origin, showed an identity between 95% and 100% with respect to all reference sequences registered in GenBank. These results demonstrate that, in spite of S. uberis clonal diversity, the sua and pauA genes are prevalent and highly conserved, showing their importance to be included in future vaccine studies to prevent S. uberis bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Magaš, V.; Vakanjac, Slobodanka; Pavlović, V.; Velebit, B.; Mirilović, M.; Maletić, M.; Đurić, M.; Nedić, Svetlana
Mastitis in cows represents one of the most actual problems in intensive dairy production. The longtime different approaches to the treatment of mastitis have not offered a suitable solution, and the problem of mastitis is still present and acute. Prevention of pathogen penetration into the mammary gland, its colonization and multiplication impose a constant need for regular inspections of milk, as well as preventive and therapeutic measures to reduce the i...
Nurdin, E; Amelia, T; Makin, M
This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia...
Salas Olivé, Hèctor; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Facultat de Veterinària
Póster Mastitis is the most prevalent and costly disease in dairy production (between 65 and 182€ / cow ). The main pathogens causing mastitis are S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. uber, S. aureus and E. coli. The prevalence in Spain is of 25% (Perez-Cabal et al., 2008). Nowadays, the treatment of mastitis is based in the administration of antibiotics in two different productive moments: during lactation and dry period. Another option is the directed treatment. Treatment with antibacteria...
Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den, B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.
Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model include, amongst others, the probability of spontaneous cure, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, trans...
White, Maurice E.; Glickman, Lawrence T.; Barnes-Pallesen, Frances D.; Stem, Edgar S.; Dinsmore, Page; Powers, Michael S.; Powers, Pamela; Smith, Mary C.; Jasko, David
We examined the ability of clinicians to predict the causative organism of bovine mastitis in our practice. We obtained 118 milk culture results from 112 mastitic cows and compared the culture results to the predictions of clinicians at the time of milk sample collection. Sixty of 118 culture results were accurately predicted. The positive predictive value for coliform mastitis was 42% and the negative predictive value was 79% in a study population with a 31% prevalence of coliform mastitis. ...
Simbarashe Katsande; Gift Matope; Masimba Ndengu; Davies M. Pfukenyi
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-cli...
Shin, Young Duck; Park, Sung Su; Song, Young Jin; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin
Background We aimed to investigate the role of surgical excision in treating granulomatous lobular mastitis. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis treated from March 2008 to March 2014. We analyzed clinical features and therapeutic modalities and compared the patient outcomes based on treatment. Results During the study period, a total of 34 patients were diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis and treated. Initial treatments i...
Purpose: To characterize the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to second line drugs using a line probe assay. Methods: Multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated between December 2008 and December 2009 were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs ...
Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul
A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.
Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul
A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.
BACKGROUND: In Burkina Faso, there is no recent data about the level of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains among newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update of the primary drug resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis among patients in Burkina faso. METHODS: ...
Choo, Siew Woh; Ang, Mia Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Tan, Shi Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Heydari, Hamed; Mutha, Naresh V R; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah
Mycobacterium spp. are renowned for being the causative agent of diseases like leprosy, Buruli ulcer and tuberculosis in human beings. With more and more mycobacterial genomes being sequenced, any knowledge generated from comparative genomic analysis would provide better insights into the biology, evolution, phylogeny and pathogenicity of this genus, thus helping in better management of diseases caused by Mycobacterium spp.With this motivation, we constructed MycoCAP, a new comparative analysis platform dedicated to the important genus Mycobacterium. This platform currently provides information of 2108 genome sequences of at least 55 Mycobacterium spp. A number of intuitive web-based tools have been integrated in MycoCAP particularly for comparative analysis including the PGC tool for comparison between two genomes, PathoProT for comparing the virulence genes among the Mycobacterium strains and the SuperClassification tool for the phylogenic classification of the Mycobacterium strains and a specialized classification system for strains of Mycobacterium abscessus. We hope the broad range of functions and easy-to-use tools provided in MycoCAP makes it an invaluable analysis platform to speed up the research discovery on mycobacteria for researchers. Database URL: http://mycobacterium.um.edu.my.
Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.
"Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this......"Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.
Turk, Romana; Piras, Cristian; Kovačić, Mislav; Samardžija, Marko; Ahmed, Hany; De Canio, Michele; Urbani, Andrea; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Soggiu, Alessio; Bonizzi, Luigi; Roncada, Paola
Cow serum proteome was evaluated by three different complementary approaches in the control group, subclinical and clinical mastitis in order to possibly find differential protein expression useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of mastitis as well as for an early diagnosis of the disease. The systemic inflammatory and oxidative stress response in cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were observed. The collected evidence shows a differential protein expression of serpin A3-1, vitronectin-like protein and complement factor H in subclinical mastitis in comparison with the control. It was also found a differential protein expression of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, serpin A3-1, C4b-binding protein alpha chain, haptoglobin and apolipoprotein A-I in clinical mastitis compared to the control. Among the inflammatory proteins up-regulated in clinical mastitis, vitronectin is over-expressed in both subclinical and clinical mastitis indicating a strong bacterial infection. This suggests vitronectin as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of the onset of mastitis as well as a valuable marker for diagnosis of the subclinical form of the disease. Obtained data could be useful for the detection of mastitis during the subclinical phase and for a better comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the onset of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ronco, Troels; Klaas, Ilka C; Stegger, Marc; Svennesen, Line; Astrup, Lærke B; Farre, Michael; Pedersen, Karl
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy cows. Various subtypes, virulence genes and mobile genetic elements have been associated with isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis. So far, no Danish cattle associated S. aureus isolates have been whole-genome sequenced and further analyzed. Thus, the main objective was to investigate the population structure and genomic content of isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis, using whole-genome sequencing. This may reveal the origin of strains that cause clinical mastitis. S. aureus isolates from bulk tank milk (n = 94) and clinical mastitis (n = 63) were collected from 91 and 24 different farms, respectively and whole-genome sequenced. The genomic content was analyzed and a phylogenetic tree based on single nucleotide polymorphisms was constructed. In general, the isolates from both bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis were of similar genetic background. This suggests that dairy cows are natural carriers of the S. aureus subtypes that cause clinical mastitis if the right conditions are present and that a broad range of subtypes cause mastitis. A phylogenetic cluster that mostly consisted of ST151 isolates carried three mobile genetic elements that were primarily found in this group. The prevalence of resistance genes was generally low. However, the first ST398 methicillin resistant S. aureus isolate from a Danish dairy cow with clinical mastitis was detected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eckersall, P D; Young, F J; Nolan, A M
and serum amyloid A increase in serum during mastitis. The concentrations of these proteins were determined in an experimental model using a field strain of Staphylococcus aureus to induce subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The expression of mRNA coding for these proteins was assessed and the presence of M......The objectives were to establish the origin of 2 acute phase proteins in milk during subclinical bovine mastitis and to characterize the relationship between those proteins in milk and blood. Haptoglobin (Hp) and mammary-associated serum amyloid A (M-SAA3) appear in milk during mastitis, whereas Hp...
Delgado, Susana; García, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Jiménez, Esther; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; del Campo, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in different mammalian species. At present, it is unknown whether strains isolated from human mastitis cases share phenotypic properties and genetic background with those obtained from animal mastitis cases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize S. aureus strains isolated from women with lactational mastitis and to compare them with the strains responsible for bovine mastitis and noninfectious strains. All the strains were genotyped by both pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing and submitted to a characterization scheme that included diverse assays related to pathogenic potential and antibiotic resistance. Apart from siderophore production, no significant association was observed between the strains from bovine and human mastitis. Statistical differences between human- and bovine-mastitis-associated strains were detected for some traits and virulence determinants, such as the presence of prophages and cna and hlb genes, which were more frequently found within the bovine group. On the contrary, resistance to penicillin was significantly higher among strains isolated from human lactational mastitis, probably related to the common presence of the blaZ gene. A high genetic diversity was found among the strains involved in mastitis in breastfeeding women. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; de Koning, D J; Janss, Luc
Abstract Text: Better models of genetic evaluation for mastitis can be developed through longitudinal analysis of somatic cell count (SCC) which usually is used as a proxy for mastitis. Mastitis and recovery data with weekly observations of SCC were simulated for daughter groups of 60 and 240 per...... sire. Data were created to define cases: 1 if SCC was above a pre-specified boundary, else 0. A transition from below to above the boundary indicates probability to contract mastitis, and the other way indicates recovery. The MCMCglmm package was used to estimate breeding values. In the 60 daughters...
Amy Herndon Lewis
Full Text Available Representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS grew at equal rates in laboratory medium at 21% (air and 12% oxygen. Growth in 6% oxygen proceeded at a 1.4–1.8-fold lower rate. Colony formation was the same at 21% (air and 6% oxygen. The MAIS strains survived rapid shifts from aerobic to anaerobic conditions as measured by two experimental approaches (Falkinham (1996 . MAIS cells grown aerobically to log phase in broth were diluted, spread on agar medium, and incubated anaerobically for up to 20 days at 37 °C. Although no colonies formed anaerobically, upon transfer to aerobic conditions, greater than 25% of the colony forming units (CFU survived after 20 days of anaerobic incubation (Prince et al. (1989 . MAIS cells grown in broth aerobically to log phase were sealed and vigorous agitation led to oxygen depletion (Wayne model. After 12 days anaerobic incubation, M. avium and M. scrofulaceum survival were high (>50%, while M. intracellulare survival was lower (22%. M. avium cells shifted to anaerobiosis in broth had increased levels of glycine dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Growth of MAIS strains at low oxygen levels and their survival following a rapid shift to anaerobiosis is consistent with their presence in environments with fluctuating oxygen levels.
Lewis, Amy Herndon; Falkinham, Joseph O
Representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) grew at equal rates in laboratory medium at 21% (air) and 12% oxygen. Growth in 6% oxygen proceeded at a 1.4-1.8-fold lower rate. Colony formation was the same at 21% (air) and 6% oxygen. The MAIS strains survived rapid shifts from aerobic to anaerobic conditions as measured by two experimental approaches (Falkinham (1996) ). MAIS cells grown aerobically to log phase in broth were diluted, spread on agar medium, and incubated anaerobically for up to 20 days at 37°C. Although no colonies formed anaerobically, upon transfer to aerobic conditions, greater than 25% of the colony forming units (CFU) survived after 20 days of anaerobic incubation (Prince et al. (1989) ). MAIS cells grown in broth aerobically to log phase were sealed and vigorous agitation led to oxygen depletion (Wayne model). After 12 days anaerobic incubation, M. avium and M. scrofulaceum survival were high (>50%), while M. intracellulare survival was lower (22%). M. avium cells shifted to anaerobiosis in broth had increased levels of glycine dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Growth of MAIS strains at low oxygen levels and their survival following a rapid shift to anaerobiosis is consistent with their presence in environments with fluctuating oxygen levels. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu
The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present
Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4
Segura, C; Salvadó, M
Re-emergence of infectious diseases caused by mycobacteria as well as the emergence of multiresistant strains of Mycobacterium has promoted the research on the use of beta-lactames in the treatment of such diseases. Mycobacteria produce beta-lactamases: M. tuberculosis produces a wide-spectrum beta-lactamase whose behaviour mimicks those of Gram-negative bacteria. M. kansasii produces also beta-lactamase which can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. An overview on beta-lactamases from both species is reported.
Thatcher, A; Petrovski, K; Holmes, C; Dowson, K; Kelly, T; McLeod, K
Mastitis in two herds managed as a comparison between organic and conventional dairy farming systems was monitored for 4 years utilising regular bacterial culture of milk samples, individual and bulk somatic cell counts and observation by farm staff. The objective was to develop strategies for the control of mastitis in organic cows without the use of antibiotics. The herds showed differences in clinical mastitis incidence, subclinical mastitis prevalence and bulk milk somatic cell count. Des...
Jansen, J; van den Borne, B H P; Renes, R J; van Schaik, G; Lam, T J G M; Leeuwis, C
When mastitis incidence increases, either infection pressure has increased or cows' resistance has decreased. This usually indicates that farm management is not optimal. Numerous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effect of management practices on mastitis. In most of these studies, the identified risk factors could explain only part of the variance in mastitis incidence on farms. Several studies suggest that the unexplained variance is caused by farmers' attitudes towards different aspects of mastitis treatment and preventive behaviour. This study aims to determine, to quantify and to specify the extent to which farmers' attitudes, over and above farmers' behaviour, are factors that explain the variation in mastitis incidence, measured in terms of the quantifiable effect of management factors. An extensive survey on self-reported attitudes, behaviour and mastitis incidence was conducted on 336 Dutch dairy farms. Results of multiple linear regression analyses show that farmers' self-reported behaviour and attitudes together explain 48%, 31% and 23% of the variation within, respectively, the average farm bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), the clinical mastitis incidence and the combined clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence. Both behaviour and attitudes explain part of the variance. However, most of the variance in all three dependant measures is explained solely by the attitude variables. The variation in BMSCC value is best explained by (1) farmers' normative frame of reference about mastitis, (2) farmers' perceptions about the control of mastitis and (3) the perceived effect of a BMSCC penalty level. The variation in clinical mastitis is best explained by farmers' perceptions about mastitis control. The variation in the combined clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence rate is best explained by the perceived effect of a BMSCC penalty level and the frequency of contact with others. The results of this study show that farmers' attitudes are a
Le Maréchal Caroline
Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11 or subclinical (strain O46 mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ewe and mice experimental mastitis. Notably, they reproduced mild (O46 or severe (O11 mastitis in ewes. Ewe sera were used to identify staphylococcal immunoreactive proteins commonly or differentially produced during infections of variable severity and to define core and accessory seroproteomes. Such SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA allowed the identification of 89 immunoreactive proteins, of which only 52 (58.4% were previously identified as immunogenic proteins in other staphylococcal infections. Among the 89 proteins identified, 74 appear to constitute the core seroproteome. Among the 15 remaining proteins defining the accessory seroproteome, 12 were specific for strain O11, 3 were specific for O46. Distribution of one protein specific for each mastitis severity was investigated in ten other strains isolated from subclinical or clinical mastitis. We report here for the first time the identification of staphylococcal immunogenic proteins common or specific to S. aureus strains responsible for mild or severe mastitis. These findings open avenues in S. aureus mastitis studies as some of these proteins, expressed in vivo, are likely to account for the success of S. aureus as a pathogen of the ruminant mammary gland.
Foxman, Betsy; D'Arcy, Hannah; Gillespie, Brenda; Bobo, Janet Kay; Schwartz, Kendra
In 1994-1998, the authors followed 946 breastfeeding women from Michigan and Nebraska for the first 3 months postpartum or until they stopped breastfeeding to describe mastitis incidence, mastitis treatment, and any associations between mastitis occurrence and hypothesized host characteristics and behaviors. Participants were interviewed by telephone at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks postpartum or until they ceased breastfeeding. A total of 9.5% reported provider-diagnosed lactation mastitis at least once during the 12-week period, with 64% diagnosed via telephone. After adjustment in a logistic regression model, history of mastitis with a previous child (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.64, 6.11), cracks and nipple sores in the same week as mastitis (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 2.04, 5.51), using an antifungal nipple cream (presumably for nipple thrush) in the same 3-week interval as mastitis (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.37, 8.54), and (for women with no prior mastitis history) using a manual breast pump (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.92, 5.62) strongly predicted mastitis. Feeding fewer than 10 times per day was protective regardless of whether or not feeding frequency in the same week or the week before mastitis was included in the model (for the same week: 7-9 times: OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.41, 1.01; < or =6 times: OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.82). Duration of feeding was not associated with mastitis risk.
Detilleux, Johann; Theron, Léonard; Duprez, Jean-Noël; Reding, Edouard; Humblet, Marie-France; Planchon, Viviane; Delfosse, Camille; Bertozzi, Carlo; Mainil, Jacques; Hanzen, Christian
One method to improve durably animal welfare is to select, as reproducers, animals with the highest ability to resist or tolerate infection. To do so, it is necessary to distinguish direct and indirect mechanisms of resistance and tolerance because selection on these traits is believed to have different epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. We propose structural equation models with latent variables (1) to quantify the latent risk of infection and to identify, among the many potential mediators of infection, the few ones that influence it significantly and (2) to estimate direct and indirect levels of tolerance of animals infected naturally with pathogens. We applied the method to two surveys of bovine mastitis in the Walloon region of Belgium, in which we recorded herd management practices, mastitis frequency, and results of bacteriological analyses of milk samples. Structural equation models suggested that, among more than 35 surveyed herd characteristics, only nine (age, addition of urea in the rations, treatment of subclinical mastitis, presence of dirty liner, cows with hyperkeratotic teats, machine stripping, pre- and post-milking teat disinfection, and housing of milking cows in cubicles) were directly and significantly related to a latent measure of bovine mastitis, and that treatment of subclinical mastitis was involved in the pathway between post-milking teat disinfection and latent mastitis. These models also allowed the separation of direct and indirect effects of bacterial infection on milk productivity. Results suggested that infected cows were tolerant but not resistant to mastitis pathogens. We revealed the advantages of structural equation models, compared to classical models, for dissecting measurements of resistance and tolerance to infectious diseases, here bovine mastitis. Using our method, we identified nine major risk factors that were directly associated with an increased risk of mastitis and suggested that cows were tolerant but
Neerhof, H.J.; Madsen, P.; Ducrucq, V.; Vollema, A.R.; Jensen, I.; Korsgaard, I.R.
The relationship between mastitis and functional longevity was assessed with survival analysis on data of Danish Black and White dairy cows. Different methods of including the effect of mastitis treatment on the culling decision by a farmer in the model were compared. The model in which mastitis
Kamphuis, A.; Pietersma, D.; Tol, van der R.; Wiedermann, M.; Hogeveen, H.
Dairy farmers using automatic milking are able to manage mastitis successfully with the help of mastitis attention lists. These attention lists are generated with mastitis detection models that make use of sensor data obtained throughout each quarter milking. The models tend to be limited to using
Full Text Available The most common sites of herpes simplex virus (HSV infection are around the oral cavity and the genitalia. However, HSV can infect any skin or mucous membrane surface. One uncommon site of HSV infection is the breast. Reports of herpetic breast infections are predominantly cases of transmission from a systemically HSV-infected neonate to the mother during breast-feeding. A review of the literature identified only six reports suggesting HSV breast lesions acquired by means other than through an infected infant. Of these, only one report suggests HSV transmission to the breast from a male sexual partner. A second case of clinically unsuspected symptomatic herpes mastitis presumably acquired from sexual contact in a 46-year-old woman is presented. Herpes simplex type 1 was isolated by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymerization techniques. The purpose of this report is to alert physicians to HSV mastitis.
Full Text Available The study was conducted on 190 milk samples of bovine mastitis and 138 samples were confirmed positives for microorganisms. All the 138 samples were subjected to drug sensitivity test. The most effective antibiotic was enrofloxacin (91.67% followed by ciprofloxacin (90.15%, amikacin (87.12%, ceftriaxone (84.10%, chloramphenicol (80.31%, cefotaxime (79.55% and gentamicin (77.27%. Microorganisms were mostly resistant to drugs like streptomycin, penicillinG, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxycillin and neomycin in increasing order of resistance. Hence, it is suggested that the line of treatment should be based on antibiogram study of various isolates from bovine mastitis. Further, the selection of drugs after culture and sensitivity test should be based on their ability to cross blood tissue barrier or mammary parenchyma, lipophilicity and ability to work in alkaline pH. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 17-20
Vingerhoedt, N M; Janssen, S; Mravunac, M; Wauters, C A P; Strobbe, L J A
A palpable abnormality of the breast was found in three women, one aged 57 and two aged 41. The first two patients predominantly showed the characteristics of a purulent inflammation, and on mammogram the third patient appeared to have mastitis carcinomatosa. Histopathological investigation revealed a lobular, non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. They were treated with prednisone and the first and third patients also received azathioprine. After some time, the condition recurred in the contralateral breast in the second and third patients. Once again, medicinal treatment was given. When a palpable tumour of the breast is found the primary goal is to exclude malignancy. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare and benign tumour of the breast that clinically mimics carcinoma. Often, conventional imaging does not lead to the diagnosis. A histological needle biopsy is the best way to reach a diagnosis. Immunosuppressive therapy is effective and is preferred over surgery.
Weisman, L.S.; Ballou, C.E.
Mycobacterium smegmatis cells produce [ 3 H]methanol when incubated with [methyl- 3 H]methionine. The methanol is derived from S-adenosylmethionine rather than methyltetrahydrofolate. M. smegmatis cells carboxymethylate several proteins, and some of the methanol probably results from their demethylation, but most of the methanol may come from an unidentified component with a high gel mobility. Although methanol in the medium reached 19 μM, it was not incorporated into the methylated mannose polysaccharide, a lipid carrier in this organism
Yaghan, Rami J.
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is rare disease of breast. Clinically and radiologically it may mimic breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 34-year old female patient with the diagnosis, concentrating on magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and its clinical application. There have been other reports on MRI findings in this entity in the radiological literature, but in our case report clinical, cytological, pathological and radiological correlations are also provided. (author)
Mavrogianni, Vasia S; Menzies, Paula I; Fragkou, Ilektra A; Fthenakis, George C
This article indicates the principles for treatment of mastitis in ewes/does and explains the reasons why treatment may occasionally fail. It presents the principles for administration of antimicrobial agents at drying off of the animals. Finally, it addresses the risk of antimicrobials present in milk when improper withdrawal periods are used and the issues around testing for inhibitors before putting the milk into in a farm's tank. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo
The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953
de Mol, R M
The development and test of detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows is described in a PhD thesis that was defended in Wageningen on June 5, 2000. These models were based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and cow activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The models alert farmers to cows that need attention, because of possible oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables. A time series model describes the dependence between successive observations. The parameters of the time series models were fitted on-line for each cow after each milking by means of a Kalman filter, a mathematical method to estimate the state of a system on-line. The Kalman filter gives the best estimate of the current state of a system based on all preceding observations. This model was tested for 2 years on two experimental farms, and under field conditions on four farms over several years. A second detection model, for cow milked in an automatic milking system (AMS), was based on a generalization of the first model. Two data sets (one small, one large) were used for testing. The results for oestrus detection were good for both models. The results for mastitis detection were varying (in some cases good, in other cases moderate). Fuzzy logic was used to classify mastitis and oestrus alerts with both detection models, to reduce the number of false positive alerts. Fuzzy logic makes approximate reasoning possible, where statements can be partly true or false. Input for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection models and additional information. The number of false positive alerts decreased considerably, while the number of detected cases remained at the same level. These models make automated detection possible in practice.
Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, Countdown Downunder, Australia's national mastitis and cell count control programme, was created. With funding from the country's leading dairy organisation, Dairy Australia, this programme was originally intended to run for three years but is now in its tenth year. As it was the first time Australia had attempted a national approach to mastitis control on the farm, the first three years of the programme were largely concerned with the development of resources to be used by farmers and service providers. The second three years were devoted to training with both groups. Since that time, Countdown Downunder has entered into a second resource development phase. The goal of the programme was to achieve a reduction in the bulk milk somatic cell count from the Australian dairy herd. To achieve this, the programme had to develop resources with clear and consistent messages around mastitis and somatic cell count control on farms. It was determined that progress toward the goals would be made more rapidly if service providers were trained in the use of these resources prior to farmers. This paper reviews the Countdown Downunder programme from 1998 to 2007.
Sørensen, Lars Peter; Løvendahl, Peter
indicates high risk of mastitis. The EMR values were summarized for each cow using the log-transformed median EMR. A second trait was defined as the median of the log-transformed SCC values from 5 to 305 d in milk. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of co-variance components for the 2 traits......The aim of this study was to estimate heritability of elevated mastitis risk (EMR), a trait derived from in-line measurements of cell counts expressing risk of mastitis on a continuous scale, and its genetic correlation with in-line somatic cell counts. Log-transformed somatic cell counts (SCC; n...... = 855,181) based on in-line measurements (OCC, DeLaval, Sweden) in automatic milking systems were collected from 2007 to2013 in 7 herds from a total of 1986 first and second parity cows (5 to 305 d in milk). Only data from the lactation with most measurements was used from each cow. A bio-model based...
Full Text Available The California mastitis test (CMT was used to examine the milk of 6609 sheep, actually, from 13218 mammary complexes. A total of 986 milk samples were found to contain an increased number of somatic cells, and causes of mastitis were isolated from 910 (92.3% of these samples. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were: E. coli isolated from 189 (20.76% samples, Micrococcus sp from 186 (20.43% samples, Bacillus sp. from 177 (19.45%, Staphylococcus aureus from 172 (18.9% samples, and Proteus sp. from 121 (13.29% samples of sheep milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated in a much smaller number, from 25 (2.74% samples, Streptococcus sp. was isolated from 19 (2.08% samples, Pseudomonas sp. from 14 (1.53% samples, haemolytic E. coli was isolated from only 6 (0.65% samples, and Streptococcus agalactiae from only one sample. Among the 25 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 16 (64% isolates were identified as Staphylococcus chromogenes, and 9 (36% isolates as Staphylococcus simulans. The sensitivity of the isolated causes of mastitis to antibiotics was examined using the disc diffusion method. .
Duarte, Carla M; Freitas, Paulo P; Bexiga, Ricardo
Bovine mastitis is an economic burden for dairy farmers and preventive control measures are crucial for the sustainability of any dairy business. The identification of etiological agents is necessary in controlling the disease, reducing risk of chronic infections and targeting antimicrobial therapy. The suitability of a detection method for routine diagnosis depends on several factors, including specificity, sensitivity, cost, time in producing results, and suitability for large-scale sampling of milk. This article focuses on current methodologies for identification of mastitis pathogens and for detection of inflammation, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. Emerging technologies, such as transcriptome and proteome analyses and nano- and microfabrication of portable devices, offer promising, sensitive methods for advanced detection of mastitis pathogens and biomarkers of inflammation. The demand for alternative, fast, and reliable diagnostic procedures is rising as farms become bigger. Several examples of technological and scientific advances are summarized which have given rise to more sensitive, reliable and faster diagnostic results. © 2015 The Author(s).
Akcan, Alper; Akyildiz, Hizir; Deneme, Mehmet Ali; Akgun, Hulya; Aritas, Yucel
Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast. Clinical and radiological features may mimic breast carcinoma. Since this entity was first described, several clinical and pathologic features of the disease have been reported, but diagnostic features and treatment alternatives are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate diagnostic difficulties and discuss the outcome of surgical treatment in a series of 21 patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis. A retrospective review of 21 patients with histologically confirmed granulomatous lobular mastitis treated in our center between January 1995 and May 2005 was analyzed to identify issues in the diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition. The most common presenting symptoms were a mass in the breast and pain. Four patients had no significant mammographic findings (MMG), but on ultrasound (US), 2 had irregular hypoechoic mass, and 2 hypoechoic nodular structures had abnormalities-one parenchymal distortion and 1 mass formation in 2 of these 4 patients' magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In recurrent cases, limited excision under local anesthesia was performed, as the clinical examination suggested carcinoma. Although some findings on MMG and US are suggestive of benign breast disease, these modalities do not rule out malignancy. MRI may be helpful in patients who do not have significant pathology at MMG or US. Fine-needle aspiration cytology may be useful in some cases but diagnosis is potentially difficult because of its cytologic characteristics. Wide excision, particularly under general anesthesia, can be therapeutic as well as useful in providing an exact diagnosis.
Introduction: Neonatal mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the breast frequently associated with Staphylococcus aureus. While Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL), a B‐pore‐forming cytotoxin, is commonly associated with enhanced virulence in community‐acquired methicillin‐resistant S. aureus isolates, this is the first report to our knowledge of neonatal mastitis caused by PVL‐positive S. aureus.\\r\
Borne, van den B.H.P.; Lam, T.G.J.M.; Sampimon, O.C.; Jansen, J.; Schalk, G.
A 5-year national mastitis control program was initiated in the Netherlands in 2005. Knowledge transfer and improvements of dairy farmers’ motivation towards udder health were used as means to decrease mastitis occurrence in Dutch dairy herds. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the
Neijenhuis, F.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.
A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity
Koop, G.; van Werven, T.; Roffel, S.; Hogeveen, H.; Nazmi, K.; Bikker, F.J.
Due to the increasing use of automated milking systems, automated detection of clinical mastitis is becoming more important. Various in- or on-line diagnostic tests are in use, but generally suffer from false mastitis alerts. In this study, we explored a new diagnostic approach based on measurement
Lam, T.J.G.M.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Jansen, J.; Huijps, K.; Veersen, J.C.L.; Schaick, van G.; Hogeveen, H.
Because of increasing bulk milk somatic cell counts and continuous clinical mastitis problems in a substantial number of herds, a national mastitis control program was started in 2005 to improve udder health in the Netherlands. The program started with founding the Dutch Udder Health Centre (UGCN),
31 déc. 2013 ... MASTITIS IN CATTLE DAIRY FARMS IN ABOVEGROUND OF THE TUNISIA ..... a montré que les caractéristiques de la machine à traire ont une incidence ..... factors for clinical mastitis in herds with a low bulk milk somatic cell ...
Mastitis is a major constraint to milk production in camels. We conducted a survey in Marsabit and Isiolo counties of Kenya to quantify losses in milk yield associated with subclinical mastitis caused by ß-haemolytic Streptococci in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Four hundred and twenty (420) pair wise ...
Gigli, I.; Riggio, V.; Monteleone, G.; Cacioppo, D.; Rosa, A.J.M.; Maizon, D.O.
The objective of the following research was to determine the effect of LGB genotypes on subclinical mastitis in Valle del Belice dairy sheep. Ewes were classified as affected or not by subclinical mastitis within a lactation based on i) a positive culture in one of the test-days and ii) more than
Deluyker, H A; Gay, J M; Weaver, L D
In a high yielding low SCC herd, changes in milk yield associated with SCC and occurrence of clinical mastitis and differences in SCC with parity, clinical mastitis, and DIM were investigated. Milk yield data were obtained at every milking, and SCC was measured once every 48 h in 117 cows during the first 119 d postpartum. Effects of SCC and clinical mastitis on cumulative milk yield in the first 119 d postpartum were evaluated with least squares linear regression. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to detect changes in SCC. The SCC was highest at lactation onset, and cows with clinical mastitis had significantly higher SCC. During the 10 d prior to onset of clinical mastitis, SCC was higher in affected cows than in matched unaffected controls and surged just prior to diagnosis. During the 10-d period following a mastitis treatment, SCC differences between treated and control cows remained significant but became smaller with time and returned to the premastitis differences. Occurrence of clinical mastitis was associated with 5% milk yield loss. Cows with mean SCC > 245,000 cells/ml over the 119 d showed 6.2% yield loss compared with cows with SCC 245,000 cells/ml) because a greater percentage of cows (26%) had clinical mastitis than elevated SCC (12.5%).
Swinkels, J M; Hilkens, A; Zoche-Golob, V; Krömker, V; Buddiger, M; Jansen, J; Lam, T J G M
Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis treatment
Jansen, J.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Renes, R.J.; Schaik, van G.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Leeuwis, C.
When mastitis incidence increases, either infection pressure has increased or cows’ resistance has decreased. This usually indicates that farm management is not optimal. Numerous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effect of management practices on mastitis. In most of these studies, the
Swinkels, J.M.; Hilkens, A.; Zoche-Golob, V.; Krömker, V.; Buddiger, M.; Jansen, J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.
Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis
Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.
Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of
Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126322864; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A
Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which
Keane, O M; Budd, K E; Flynn, J; McCoy, F
Rapid and accurate identification of mastitis pathogens is important for disease control. Bacterial culture and isolate identification is considered the gold standard in mastitis diagnosis but is time consuming and results in many culture-negative samples. Identification of mastitis pathogens by PCR has been proposed as a fast and sensitive alternative to bacterial culture. The results of bacterial culture and PCR for the identification of the aetiological agent of clinical mastitis were compared. The pathogen identified by traditional culture methods was also detected by PCR in 98 per cent of cases indicating good agreement between the positive results of bacterial culture and PCR. A mastitis pathogen could not be recovered from approximately 30 per cent of samples by bacterial culture, however, an aetiological agent was identified by PCR in 79 per cent of these samples. Therefore, a mastitis pathogen was detected in significantly more milk samples by PCR than by bacterial culture (92 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively) although the clinical relevance of PCR-positive culture-negative results remains controversial. A mixed infection of two or more mastitis pathogens was also detected more commonly by PCR. Culture-negative samples due to undetected Staphylococcus aureus infections were rare. The use of PCR technology may assist in rapid mastitis diagnosis, however, accurate interpretation of PCR results in the absence of bacterial culture remains problematic.
Huijps, K.; Hogeveen, H.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.
Although many control practices to improve the mastitis situation on a farm and to reduce the economic losses of mastitis are available, the adoption rate and level of compliance of these measures are generally low. Implementing new measures involves costs, which can be divided into costs for the
Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.
In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control
Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Witten, Anika; Scheutz, Flemming; Schukken, Ynte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075051907; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich
Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection.
Dosogne, H.; Meyer, E.; Sturk, A.; van Loon, J.; Massart-Leën, A. M.; Burvenich, C.
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To investigate the effect of enrofloxacin on endotoxin resorption during bovine Escherichia coli mastitis. ANIMALS: 12 healthy early post partum Holstein cows. TREATMENT: Mastitis was induced by intramammary infusion of 10(4) cfu E. coli P4:032. Six cows were treated twice
Getaneh, Abraham Mekibeb; Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Hogeveen, Henk
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is considered to be one of the most frequent and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Also in Ethiopia, bovine mastitis is one of the most frequently encountered diseases of dairy cows. However, there was no study, so far, regarding the costs
Mastitis is an inflammation of the udder caused by bacteria that invade the udder through the teat canal, causing either persistent intramammary infections, or short, transient infections. Mastitis is the most costly disease on a dairy farm because it directly affects the production of milk, the
Kamphuis, C.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.
Automatic milking systems produce mastitis alert lists that report cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). A farmer has to check these listed cows to confirm a CM case and to start an antimicrobial treatment if necessary. In order to make a more informed decision, it would be beneficial to have
Steeneveld, W.; Swinkels, J.; Hogeveen, H.
Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of
little knowledge on dairy! husbandry and thus / the economic significance of mastitis 011 their. , dairy enterprises (Mchaui, 1995). Hence, the extent of mastitis as a problem in small holder dairy farms in: Tanzania'iis not well known. ,This 'is ironical, bearing in mind that small- holder dairy farmers own ~bout 60 % of the es-.
Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Koop, Gerrit; Lam, Theo J G M; Hogeveen, Henk
Understanding the intentions of dairy farmers towards mastitis control is important to design effective udder health control programs. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explore the intentions of North-Western Ethiopian dairy farmers towards implementing non-specified mastitis control
Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, van der M.A.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.
Based on sensor measurements, an automatic milking system (AMS) generates mastitis alert lists indicating cows which are likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Because of the general assumption of equal probabilities of developing CM for all cows, all alerts on the list have the same success rate.
Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium heraklionense, and a Newly Proposed Species, "Mycobacterium virginiense" sp. nov., but Not Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, as Species of the Mycobacterium terrae Complex Causing Tenosynovitis and Osteomyelitis.
Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wengenack, Nancy L; Eke, Uzoamaka A; Benwill, Jeana L; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J
Mycobacterium terrae complex has been recognized as a cause of tenosynovitis, with M. terrae and Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum reported as the primary etiologic pathogens. The molecular taxonomy of the M. terrae complex causing tenosynovitis has not been established despite approximately 50 previously reported cases. We evaluated 26 isolates of the M. terrae complex associated with tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis recovered between 1984 and 2014 from 13 states, including 5 isolates reported in 1991 as M. nonchromogenicum by nonmolecular methods. The isolates belonged to three validated species, one new proposed species, and two novel related strains. The majority of isolates (20/26, or 77%) belonged to two recently described species: Mycobacterium arupense (10 isolates, or 38%) and Mycobacterium heraklionense (10 isolates, or 38%). Three isolates (12%) had 100% sequence identity to each other by 16S rRNA and 99.3 to 100% identity by rpoB gene region V sequencing and represent a previously undescribed species within the M. terrae complex. There were no isolates of M. terrae or M. nonchromogenicum, including among the five isolates reported in 1991. The 26 isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin (100%), rifabutin (100%), ethambutol (92%), and sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (70%). The current study suggests that M. arupense, M. heraklionense, and a newly proposed species ("M. virginiense" sp. nov.; proposed type strain MO-233 [DSM 100883, CIP 110918]) within the M. terrae complex are the major causes of tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis in the United States, with little change over 20 years. Species identification within this complex requires sequencing methods. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Addis, M F; Tedde, V; Puggioni, G M G; Pisanu, S; Casula, A; Locatelli, C; Rota, N; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P; Uzzau, S
Mastitis due to intramammary infection is one of the most economically relevant diseases in dairy cows, causing reductions in milk quality and quantity. Currently, mastitis monitoring is based on somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriologic culture (BC) of milk. Nevertheless, inflammation-specific protein markers might provide more sensitive and reliable assays, enabling immunoassay-based screening strategies. Cathelicidin is an inflammatory protein released in milk that has recently demonstrated fair reliability and diagnostic potential for ewe mastitis. To assess its performance in cows, 531 quarter milk samples from 2 herds were tested using cathelicidin ELISA, SCC, and BC. We found that 29.0% of samples were positive for cathelicidin, 18.8% had SCC >200,000 cells/mL, and 13.7% were BC-positive. Cathelicidin showed a strong positive correlation with SCC as demonstrated by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and by the clustering of cathelicidin-negative and cathelicidin-positive samples in association with low and high SCC values, respectively. For evaluating the diagnostic performance of a novel test, BC cannot be considered a reliable gold standard for true disease status because of its known limitations. Therefore, we assessed the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the milk cathelicidin ELISA using a latent class analysis approach together with BC and SCC by considering different diagnostic thresholds to identify the preferred Se/Sp combination. We modeled conditional dependence of cathelicidin and SCC to account for their close association. The cathelicidin ELISA showed higher Se than SCC and BC for almost all threshold combinations. In fact, at the best-performing threshold combination, the Se of cathelicidin was 80.6%, 6.2 percentage points higher than that of SCC >200,000 cells/mL (74.4%) and similar to that of SCC >100,000 cells/mL (80.2%). Most importantly, this Se was obtained with a loss in Sp of only 1.4 percentage points compared
Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in
Getaneh, Abraham Mekibeb; Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Hogeveen, Henk
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is considered to be one of the most frequent and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Also in Ethiopia, bovine mastitis is one of the most frequently encountered diseases of dairy cows. However, there was no study, so far, regarding the costs of clinical mastitis and only two studies were reported on costs of subclinical mastitis. Presenting an appropriate and complete study of the costs of mastitis will help farmers in making management decisions for mastitis control. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic effects of mastitis on Ethiopian market-oriented dairy farms. Market-oriented dairy farming is driven by making profits through selling milk in the market on a regular basis. A dynamic stochastic Monte-Carlo simulation model (bio-economic model) was developed taking into account both clinical and subclinical mastitis. Production losses, culling, veterinarian costs, treatment, discarded milk, and labour were the main cost factors which were modeled in this study. The annual incidence of clinical mastitis varied from 0 to 50% with a mean annual incidence of 21.6%, whereas the mean annual incidence of subclinical mastitis was 36.2% which varied between 0 and 75%. The total costs due to mastitis for a default farm size of 8 lactating cows were 6,709 ETB per year (838 ETB per cow per year). The costs varied considerably, with 5th and 95th percentiles of 109 ETB and 22,009 ETB, respectively. The factor most contributing to the total annual cost of mastitis was culling. On average a clinical case costs 3,631 ETB, varying from 0 to 12,401, whereas a sub clinical case costs 147 ETB, varying from 0 to 412. The sensitivity analysis showed that the total costs at the farm level were most sensitive for variation in the probability of occurrence of clinical mastitis and the probability of culling. This study helps farmers to raise awareness about the actual costs of mastitis and motivate them to timely
Imas Sri Nurhayati
Full Text Available Prevention of mastitis is essential, as one of the efforts to control disease in dairy cow. Dry period has implications to understand the mastitis and its control strategies. The udder is very susceptible to be infected both at the beginning and towards the end of dry period. This is linked to physiological changes in udder. Treatment with antibiotics during the dry period can reduce new infection about 82% and has several advantages. The success rate of subclinical mastitis treatment is much higher (80-90% compared to the treatment during lactation (30-40%; the doses of antibiotic can be higher and safer, due to its retention time in udder becomes longer; the risk of antibiotic contamination in milk can be avoided because the udder is not milked. Antibiotic application during dry period is the best way to treat subclinical and chronic mastitis. Treatment during dry period is a specific mastitis control for intramammary infection to avoid economic losses.
Figueredo Rodríguez, Yoelsis; Gonzáles Cabrera, Noelia; Martínez Lemane, Julio; Mollineda Pérez, Ángel; García Gómez, Idaymi; García, Juan Ramón; Roller Gutiérrez, Felicia; Pedroso Sosa, Rodolfo
La mastitis es una enfermedad global que afecta la productividad de la vaca lechera. La prevalencia de esta enfermedad está determinada en gran medida por la inmunodepresión que ocurre durante el periodo de transición. La suplementación con cobre estimula el sistema inmunológico. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar el efecto de la suplementación de cobre &...
Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject involves detecting presence or absence of genetic marker associated with trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off-spring from it
NOVELTY - Determining (m1) resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject, involves detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of at least one genetic marker that is associated with at least one trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off......-spring from it, where the genetic marker is located on the bovine chromosome BTA11 in the region flanked by and including the zeta-chain associated protein 70kD (ZAP70) and CD8B genes, where the presence or absence of the genetic marker is indicative of mastitis resistance. USE - For determining resistance...... to mastitis in a bovine subject for determining mastitis resistance in a bovine subject; for detecting the presence or absence in a bovine subject of at least one genetic marker associated with resistance to mastitis; and for estimating breeding value in respect of susceptibility to mastitis in a bovine...
Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop
of culling and death. Although mastitis has received significant scientific attention, one aspect of bovine mastitis has only been touched upon very briefly; the characterization of the recovery period and its potential for modulation. Hence, in order to increase the understanding of the recovery period...... after bovine mastitis and to create a basis for future facilitation of recovery, the present thesis focussed on two selected aspects of recovery; a behavioural as well as an inflammatory aspect, aiming to 1) describe the behaviour of dairy cows in the days before, during and after antibiotic treatment...... stabilisation within these measures and 3) investigate a possible relationship between behaviour, milk production and inflammatory markers during naturally occurring bovine mastitis and its early recovery. Overall, the focus was on dairy cows housed in free stalls with automatic milking systems (AMS). This type...
Spanamberg, Andréia; Sanches, Edna Maria Cavallini; Santúrio, Jânio Morais; Ferreiro, Laerte
A ocorrência de casos esporádicos de mastite causados por microrganismos de origem ambiental pode ser considerada como emergente e as leveduras, os fungos leveduriformes e os filamentosos são alguns dos principais agentes envolvidos. Em relação à mastite micótica, as leveduras são freqüentemente causas de infecções da glândula mamária em animais produtores de leite. A maior parte dos casos ocorre sob a forma de surtos localizados e/ou após tratamento com antimicrobianos. Os principais gêneros...
Castro, A.; Pereira, J.M.; Amiama, C.; Bueno, J.
Over the last few years, the adoption of automatic milking systems (AMS) has experienced significant increase. However, hardly any studies have been conducted to investigate the distribution of mastitis pathogens in dairy herds with AMS. Because quick mastitis detection in AMS is very important, the primary objective of this study was to determine operational reliability and sensibility of mastitis detection systems from AMS. Additionally, the frequency of pathogen-specific was determined. For this purpose, 228 cows from ten farms in Galicia (NW Spain) using this system were investigated. The California Mastitis Test (CMT) was considered the gold-standard test for mastitis diagnosis and milk samples were analysed from CMT-positive cows for the bacterial examination. Mean farm prevalence of clinical mastitis was 9% and of 912 milk quarters examined, 23% were positive to the AMS mastitis detection system and 35% were positive to the CMT. The majority of CMT-positive samples had a score of 1 or 2 on a 1 (lowest mastitis severity) to 4 (highest mastitis severity) scale. The average sensitivity and specificity of the AMS mastitis detection system were 58.2% and 94.0% respectively being similar to other previous studies, what could suggest limitations for getting higher values of reliability and sensibility in the current AMSs. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8.8%), followed by Streptococcus uberis (8.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3.3%). The relatively high prevalence of these pathogens indicates suboptimal cleaning and disinfection of teat dipping cups, brushes and milk liners in dairy farms with AMS in the present study. (Author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001 for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%, Streptococcus uberis (19.1% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%. In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%. Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.
Rollin, E; Dhuyvetter, K C; Overton, M W
Clinical mastitis results in considerable economic losses for dairy producers and is most commonly diagnosed in early lactation. The objective of this research was to estimate the economic impact of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation for a representative US dairy. A deterministic partial budget model was created to estimate direct and indirect costs per case of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation. Model inputs were selected from the available literature, or when none were available, from herd data. The average case of clinical mastitis resulted in a total economic cost of $444, including $128 in direct costs and $316 in indirect costs. Direct costs included diagnostics ($10), therapeutics ($36), non-saleable milk ($25), veterinary service ($4), labor ($21), and death loss ($32). Indirect costs included future milk production loss ($125), premature culling and replacement loss ($182), and future reproductive loss ($9). Accurate decision making regarding mastitis control relies on understanding the economic impacts of clinical mastitis, especially the longer term indirect costs that represent 71% of the total cost per case of mastitis. Future milk production loss represents 28% of total cost, and future culling and replacement loss represents 41% of the total cost of a case of clinical mastitis. In contrast to older estimates, these values represent the current dairy economic climate, including milk price ($0.461/kg), feed price ($0.279/kg DM (dry matter)), and replacement costs ($2,094/head), along with the latest published estimates on the production and culling effects of clinical mastitis. This economic model is designed to be customized for specific dairy producers and their herd characteristics to better aid them in developing mastitis control strategies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Katsande, Simbarashe; Matope, Gift; Ndengu, Masimba; Pfukenyi, Davies M
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584) had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%), Escherichia coli (25.2%), Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.
Suojala, L; Kaartinen, L; Pyörälä, S
Bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli can range from being a subclinical infection of the mammary gland to a severe systemic disease. Cow-dependent factors such as lactation stage and age affect the severity of coliform mastitis. Evidence for the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for E. coli mastitis is very limited. Antimicrobial resistance is generally not a limiting factor for treatment, but it should be monitored to detect changes in resistance profiles. The only antimicrobials for which there is some scientific evidence of beneficial effects in the treatment for E. coli mastitis are fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. Both are critically important drugs, the use of which in animals destined for food should be limited to specific indications and should be based on bacteriological diagnosis. The suggested routine protocol in dairy herds could target the primary antimicrobial treatment for mastitis, specifically infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. In E. coli mastitis with mild to moderate clinical signs, a non-antimicrobial approach (anti-inflammatory treatment, frequent milking and fluid therapy) should be the first option. In cases of severe E. coli mastitis, parenteral administration of fluoroquinolones, or third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, is recommended due to the risk of unlimited growth of bacteria in the mammary gland and ensuing bacteremia. Evidence for the efficacy of intramammary-administered antimicrobial treatment for E. coli mastitis is so limited that it cannot be recommended. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have documented the efficacy in the treatment for E. coli mastitis and are recommended for supportive treatment for clinical mastitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dippenaar, Anzaan; Parsons, Sven David Charles; Sampson, Samantha Leigh; Van Der Merwe, Ruben Gerhard; Drewe, Julian Ashley; Abdallah, Abdallah; Siame, Kabengele Keith; Gey Van Pittius, Nicolaas Claudius; Van Helden, Paul David; Pain, Arnab; Warren, Robin Mark
Tuberculosis occurs in various mammalian hosts and is caused by a range of different lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). A recently described member, Mycobacterium suricattae, causes tuberculosis in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in Southern Africa and preliminary genetic analysis showed this organism to be closely related to an MTBC pathogen of rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), the dassie bacillus. Here we make use of whole genome sequencing to describe the evolution of the genome of M. suricattae, including known and novel regions of difference, SNPs and IS6110 insertion sites. We used genome-wide phylogenetic analysis to show that M. suricattae clusters with the chimpanzee bacillus, previously isolated from a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in West Africa. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium africanum lineage 6 complex, showing the evolutionary relationship of M. africanum and chimpanzee bacillus, and the closely related members M. suricattae, dassie bacillus and Mycobacterium mungi.
Tuberculosis occurs in various mammalian hosts and is caused by a range of different lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). A recently described member, Mycobacterium suricattae, causes tuberculosis in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in Southern Africa and preliminary genetic analysis showed this organism to be closely related to an MTBC pathogen of rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), the dassie bacillus. Here we make use of whole genome sequencing to describe the evolution of the genome of M. suricattae, including known and novel regions of difference, SNPs and IS6110 insertion sites. We used genome-wide phylogenetic analysis to show that M. suricattae clusters with the chimpanzee bacillus, previously isolated from a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in West Africa. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium africanum lineage 6 complex, showing the evolutionary relationship of M. africanum and chimpanzee bacillus, and the closely related members M. suricattae, dassie bacillus and Mycobacterium mungi.
Krabbe, Simon; Engelhart, Merete; Thybo, Sören
This case report describes a patient with scleroderma who developed Mycobacterium intracellulare infection, which for more than a year mimicked worsening of her connective tissue disorder. The patient was diagnosed with scleroderma based on puffy fingers that developed into sclerodactyly, abnormal......, unfortunately with significant scarring. Immunodeficiency testing was unremarkable. In summary, an infection with Mycobacterium intracellulare was mistaken for an unusually severe progression of scleroderma....
Elizabet A.L Pereyra
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus es el principal agente causante de mastitis bovina en Argentina y en el mundo. Esta bacteria ocasiona infecciones crónicas que generan importantes pérdidas a los productores y la industria lechera. El objetivo de este artículo es caracterizar los mecanismos que intervienen en la infección causada por S. aureus en la glándula mamaria bovina, evaluando dos aspectos diferentes del proceso infeccioso: por un lado, lo vinculado con la respuesta inmune innata por parte del hospedador, y por otro, la capacidad de la bacteria para evadir el sistema inmune e interactuar con diferentes tipos celulares. La exploración de la interacción de S. aureus con el sistema inmune de la glándula mamaria bovina permitirá identificar blancos para delinear nuevas alternativas preventivas o curativas, que contribuyan a evitar o eliminar las infecciones causadas por este organismo.
Vazquez, A I; Weigel, K A; Gianola, D; Bates, D M; Perez-Cabal, M A; Rosa, G J M; Chang, Y M
Typically, clinical mastitis is coded as the presence or absence of disease in a given lactation, and records are analyzed with either linear models or binary threshold models. Because the presence of mastitis may include cows with multiple episodes, there is a loss of information when counts are treated as binary responses. Poisson models are appropriated for random variables measured as the number of events, and although these models are used extensively in studying the epidemiology of mastitis, they have rarely been used for studying the genetic aspects of mastitis. Ordinal threshold models are pertinent for ordered categorical responses; although one can hypothesize that the number of clinical mastitis episodes per animal reflects a continuous underlying increase in mastitis susceptibility, these models have rarely been used in genetic analysis of mastitis. The objective of this study was to compare probit, Poisson, and ordinal threshold models for the genetic evaluation of US Holstein sires for clinical mastitis. Mastitis was measured as a binary trait or as the number of mastitis cases. Data from 44,908 first-parity cows recorded in on-farm herd management software were gathered, edited, and processed for the present study. The cows were daughters of 1,861 sires, distributed over 94 herds. Predictive ability was assessed via a 5-fold cross-validation using 2 loss functions: mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) as the end point and a cost difference function. The heritability estimates were 0.061 for mastitis measured as a binary trait in the probit model and 0.085 and 0.132 for the number of mastitis cases in the ordinal threshold and Poisson models, respectively; because of scale differences, only the probit and ordinal threshold models are directly comparable. Among healthy animals, MSEP was smallest for the probit model, and the cost function was smallest for the ordinal threshold model. Among diseased animals, MSEP and the cost function were smallest
Ana María Manjarrez López
Full Text Available La mastitis ocasiona grandes pérdidas económicas en los hatos lecheros. El Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales agentes causales de la enfermedad, considerado de importancia en la salud pública y la salud del hato. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de S. aureus y los biotipos predominantes en vacas con mastitis subclínica en hatos de producción lechera familiar en la región económica I, Centro-Este del Estado de México. Se condujo un estudio trasversal, en 269 vacas de diferentes etapas de lactación e información del hato en una encuesta cerrada. La muestra de leche se recolectó de cada vaca. La detección de mastitis se realizó mediante la prueba de California. Los biotipos de S. aureus se caracterizaron por medio de la técnica de agar tripticasa soya adicionado con cristal violeta 1:100,000. En las vacas estudiadas la prevalencia de mastitis subclínica fue del 48.3 % (IC95% 42.22 a 54.47 y de mastitis clínica 6.1 % (IC95% 3.44 a 9.48. Se obtuvieron 62 aislamientos de S. aureus, el 79 % correspondió al biotipo C (humano, el 11.3 % al A (bovino, el 6.5 % al E (canino y el 3.2 % a hospederos no específicos. El tamaño del hato resultó un factor de riesgo asociado a la mayor frecuencia de S. aureus, especialmente cuando el hato fue mayor de 13 vacas (OR=5.63, IC95% 1.72 a 18.21. Se identifico una prevalencia elevada de mastitis subclínica asociada a la infección por S. aureus Biotipos C y A considerados de importancia en la salud pública.
Castejon, Maria; Menéndez, Maria Carmen; Comas, Iñaki; Vicente, Ana; Garcia, Maria J
Bacterial whole-genome sequences contain informative features of their evolutionary pathways. Comparison of whole-genome sequences have become the method of choice for classification of prokaryotes, thus allowing the identification of bacteria from an evolutionary perspective, and providing data to resolve some current controversies. Currently, controversy exists about the assignment of members of the Mycobacterium avium complex, as is for the cases of Mycobacterium yongonense and 'Mycobacterium indicus pranii'. These two mycobacteria, closely related to Mycobacterium intracellulare on the basis of standard phenotypic and single gene-sequences comparisons, were not considered a member of such species on the basis on some particular differences displayed by a single strain. Whole-genome sequence comparison procedures, namely the average nucleotide identity and the genome distance, showed that those two mycobacteria should be considered members of the species M. intracellulare. The results were confirmed with other whole-genome comparison supplementary methods. According to the data provided, Mycobacterium yongonense and 'Mycobacterium indicus pranii' should be considered and renamed and included as members of M. intracellulare. This study highlights the problems caused when a novel species is accepted on the basis of a single strain, as was the case for M. yongonense. Based mainly on whole-genome sequence analysis, we conclude that M. yongonense should be reclassified as a subspecies of Mycobacterium intracellulareas Mycobacterium intracellularesubsp. yongonense and 'Mycobacterium indicus pranii' classified in the same subspecies as the type strain of Mycobacterium intracellulare and classified as Mycobacterium intracellularesubsp. intracellulare.
Abdallah, A. M.; Rashid, M.; Adroub, S. A.; Arnoux, M.; Ali, Shahjahan; van Soolingen, D.; Bitter, W.; Pain, Arnab
Mycobacterium phlei is a rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is typically nonpathogenic, with few reported cases of human disease. Here we report the whole genome sequence of M. phlei type strain RIVM601174.
Abdallah, A. M.
Mycobacterium phlei is a rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium species that is typically nonpathogenic, with few reported cases of human disease. Here we report the whole genome sequence of M. phlei type strain RIVM601174.
Cho, Sun Young; Peck, Kyong Ran; Kim, Jungok; Ha, Young Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon
We report 3 cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infections after bee venom acupuncture. All were treated with antibiotics and surgery. Mycobacterium chelonae infections should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic skin and soft tissue infections following bee venom acupuncture.
Fernández, Leónides; Cárdenas, Nivia; Arroyo, Rebeca; Manzano, Susana; Jiménez, Esther; Martín, Virginia; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel
Previous studies have shown that oral administration of lactobacilli can be an efficient approach to treat lactational infectious mastitis. In this trial, we have evaluated the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 to prevent this condition when orally administered during late pregnancy to women who had experienced infectious mastitis after previous pregnancies. In this study, 108 pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Those in the probiotic group (n = 55) ingested daily 9 log10 colony-forming units of L. salivarius PS2 from approximately week 30 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas those in the placebo group (n = 53) received a placebo. The occurrence of mastitis was evaluated during the first 3 months after delivery. Globally, 44 of 108 women (41%) developed mastitis; however, the percentage of women with mastitis in the probiotic group (25% [n = 14]) was significantly lower than in the control group (57% [n = 30]). When mastitis occurred, the milk bacterial counts in the probiotic group were significantly lower than those obtained in the placebo group. Oral administration of L. salivarius PS2 during late pregnancy appears to be an efficient method to prevent infectious mastitis in a susceptible population. NCT01505361. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Full Text Available Mastitis (intramammary infection causes the deterioration of ovarian follicular responses in cows, resulting in low fertility. The shortterm, acute clinical form of mastitis has a time-dependent disruptive effect on conception rate. It effectively lowers conception rate if events occur mainly 10 days before to 30 days after artificial insemination. Long-term subclinical mastitis is widely spread in commercial herds. Although it is less severe than clinical mastitis, its long-term nature causes a more pronounced decrease in conception rate. Even mild elevation of somatic cell count in subclinical cows significantly lowers conception rate. Disrupted follicular responses include depression of steroid production in the preovulatory follicle associated with low and delayed preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge, resulting in delayed ovulation in onethird of subclinical cows. Mastitis, clinical and subclinical, also impairs oocyte competence, reflected in low production of blastocysts. The corpus luteum seems to be insensitive to mastitis, possible due to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs when mastitis is first diagnosed.
Valde, J P; Lawson, L G; Lindberg, A; Agger, J F; Saloniemi, H; Osterås, O
Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated.
Welderufael, B. G.; Løvendahl, Peter; de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Janss, Lucas L. G.; Fikse, W. F.
Because mastitis is very frequent and unavoidable, adding recovery information into the analysis for genetic evaluation of mastitis is of great interest from economical and animal welfare point of view. Here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and investigate the genetic background not only for susceptibility to – but also for recoverability from mastitis. Somatic cell count records from 993 Danish Holstein cows genotyped for a total of 39378 autosomal SNP markers were used for the association analysis. Single SNP regression analysis was performed using the statistical software package DMU. Substitution effect of each SNP was tested with a t-test and a genome-wide significance level of P-value mastitis were located in or very near to genes that have been reported for their role in the immune system. Genes involved in lymphocyte developments (e.g., MAST3 and STAB2) and genes involved in macrophage recruitment and regulation of inflammations (PDGFD and PTX3) were suggested as possible causal genes for susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis, respectively. However, this is the first GWAS study for recoverability from mastitis and our results need to be validated. The findings in the current study are, therefore, a starting point for further investigations in identifying causal genetic variants or chromosomal regions for both susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis. PMID:29755506
Kawai, Kazuhiro; Inada, Mika; Ito, Keiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Nikaido, Masaru; Hata, Eiji; Katsuda, Ken; Kiku, Yoshio; Tagawa, Yuichi; Hayashi, Tomohito
Bovine mastitis causes significant economic losses in the dairy industry. Effective prevention of bovine mastitis requires an understanding of the infection status of a pathogenic microorganism in a herd that has not yet shown clinical signs of mastitis and appropriate treatment specific for the pathogenic microorganism. However, bacterial identification by culture has drawbacks in that the sensitivity may be low and the procedure can be complex. In this study, we developed a genetic detection method to identify mastitis pathogens using a simple and highly sensitive electrochemical DNA chip which can specifically detect bacterial DNA in milk specimens. First, we selected microorganisms belonging to 12 families and/or genera associated with mastitis for which testing should be performed. Next, we optimized the conditions for amplifying microorganism DNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) using 32 primers and the use of a DNA chip capable of measuring all pathogens simultaneously. Sample detection could be completed in just a few hours using this method. Comparison of the results obtained with our DNA chip method and those obtained by bacterial culture verified that when the culture method was set to 100%, the total positive concordance rate of the DNA chip was 85.0% and the total negative concordance rate was 86.9%. Furthermore, the proposed method allows both rapid and highly sensitive detection of mastitis pathogens. We believe that this method will contribute to the development of an effective mastitis control program.
L. ALI, G. MUHAMMAD, M. ARSHAD1, M. SAQIB AND I. J. HASSAN2
Full Text Available Two hundred fore-milk samples collected from 200 mastitis quarters of buffaloes (clinically mastitis quarters n = 17, sub-clinically mastitis quarters n = 183 were subjected to microbiological examination. The diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis was based on the results of Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. A total of 214 isolates of 13 different microbial species were recovered. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently recovered bacterial species accounting for 49.53% of all the isolates, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23.83%, Staphylococcus hyicus (8.88%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.54%, Bacillus spp. (3.74%, Staphylococcus hominis (1.40%, Escherichia coli (1.40%, Staphylococcus xylosus (0.93%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (0.93% and Corynebacterial spp. (0.93%. Yeast and prototheca each accounted for 0.47 percent of isolates. Two (0.93% isolates were identified as coagulase negative staphylococci species. In view of preponderance of the contagious pathogens (S. aureus, Str. agalactiae, it is recommended that mastitis control in the area of study should be based on contagious mastitis control practice.
Ma, C; Zhao, J; Xi, X; Ding, J; Wang, H; Zhang, H; Kwok, L Y
Bovine mastitis is an economical important microbial disease in dairy industry. Some recent human clinical trials have shown that oral probiotics supplementation could effectively control clinical mastitis, suggesting that the mechanism of mastitis protection might be achieved via the host gut microbiota. We aimed to test our hypothesis that bovine mastitis was related to changes in both the mammary and gut microbial profiles. By quantitative PCR, the milk and faecal microbial profiles of cows with low (1×10 6 cells/ml) somatic cell count (SCC) were compared. Firstly, we observed drastic differences in both the milk and faecal microbial compositions at genus and Lactobacillus-species levels between the two groups. Secondly, the pattern of faecal microbial community changes of mastitis cows was similar to that of the milk, characterised by a general increase in the mastitis pathogens (Enterococcus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and deprivation of Lactobacillus and its members (L. salivarius, L. sakei, L. ruminis, L. delbrueckii, L. buchneri, and L. acidophilus). Thirdly, only the faecal lactobacilli, but not bifidobacteria correlated with the milk microbial communities and SCC. Our data together hint to a close association between bovine mastitis, the host gut and milk microbiota.
Full Text Available Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and 0.127 for first parity cows and 0.228, 0.215, 0.358 and 0.204 for parities higher than three, respectively. The risk of a first parity cow being treated for mastitis was almost 3 times higher at calving in Norway than in Sweden. The period with the highest risk for mastitis treatments was from 2 days before calving until 14 days after calving and the highest risk for removal was from calving to 10 days after calving in all countries. The study clearly demonstrated differences in bovine mastitis treatment patterns among the Nordic countries. The most important findings were the differences in treatment risks during different lactations within each country, as well as differences in strategies with respect to the time during lactation mastitis was treated.
Piccart, K; Vásquez, A; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Olofsson, T C
Despite the increasing knowledge of prevention and control strategies, bovine mastitis remains one of the most challenging diseases in the dairy industry. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of 13 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from the honey crop of the honeybee, on several mastitis pathogens. The viable LAB were first reintroduced into a sterilized heather honey matrix. More than 20 different bovine mastitis isolates were tested against the mixture of the 13 LAB species in the honey medium using a dual-culture overlay assay. The mastitis isolates were identified through bacteriological culturing, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Additionally, the mastitis isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing through disk diffusion. Growth of all tested mastitis pathogens, including the ones displaying antimicrobial resistance to one or more antimicrobial compounds, were inhibited to some extent by the honey and LAB combination. The antibacterial effect of these LAB opens up new perspectives on alternative treatment and prevention of bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramalingam, Kirithiga; Srivastava, Anurag; Vuthaluru, Seenu; Dhar, Anita; Chaudhry, Rama
There is very little awareness of the general physicians and surgeons about the benign breast conditions such as duct ectasia (DE) and periductal mastitis (PDM) causing nipple discharge. Not only that these benign breast diseases ring a false alarm of cancer, they are also the second most common cause of benign breast diseases. The objective was to study the clinical and microbiological profiles of duct ectasia and periductal mastitis in Indian women for better understanding of the disease process, in order to be able to treat them well. Forty-one consecutive patients presenting to the Surgical Out-Patient Department with non-bloody nipple discharge with clinical and radiological features suggestive of DE or PDM were included. Microbial culture and cytopathological study of the nipple discharge were done. Histopathological studies and culture of the ductal tissue taken intraoperatively were carried out. There is no significant difference in the age distribution among women with DE and PDM. Smoking is not associated with DE and PDM of Indian patients in contrast to the Western literature evidence. Infective etiology was present in nearly 46 % of the patients in the study population more so in the periductal mastitis cases. The most common isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, unlike in Western population where nearly 50 % were anaerobes. Since the isolated organisms were resistant to the routinely used antibiotics in high proportion of cases, culture and sensitivity should be done in all possible cases for appropriately treating the subareolar sepsis before proceeding with the definitive treatment in the form of duct excision.
H. Castañeda Vázquez
Full Text Available The present work is a large epidemiological study aiming to detect the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and to investigate the major udder pathogens in Jalisco State, western Mexico. For this purpose, 2205 dairy cows, representing 33 Mexican dairy herds, were involved. Of 2205 cows, 752 mastitic animals were diagnosed and only 2,979 milk samples could be obtained for further investigation. All 2979 milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT to differentiate clinical cases from subclinical ones where 1996 samples (67 % reacted positively. Of these, 1087 samples (54.5% came from cows suffering from clinical cases of mastitis. Bacteriological identification of the causative agents revealed the presence of a major group of pathogens including the Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS, S.aureus, S.agalactiae, Corynebacterium spp. and Coliform bacteria which were detected in 464 (15.6%, 175 (5.9%, 200 (6.8%, 417 (14% and 123 (4.1% of the 2927 investigated quarters, 295 (15.4%, 118 (15.7%, 111 (14.8%, 227 (30.2% and 109 (14.5% of the 752 examined cows and in 33 (100%, 22 (66.7%, 19 (57.6%, 30 (90.1% and 27 (81.8% of the 33 herds involved, respectively. Other pathogens could be detected in the investigated milk samples such as S. dysgalactiae (0.4%, S.uberis (0.37%, Bacillus spp. (1%, Nocardia spp. (0.6% und Candida spp. (0.1%. Meanwhile, others were present in a negligible ratio; including the Aerococcus viridans, and Enterococcus spp., Lactococcus lactis, S. bovis.
Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N
Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.
Vilkki, Johanna; Dolezal, Marlies A; Sahana, Goutam
to mastitis were identified by GWAS using high-density SNP array in the Finnish Ayrshire and Brown Swiss breeds. These targeted regions were analyzed for polymorphisms from 20X whole-genome sequences of 38 ancestral bulls of the two populations. A set of 384 SNPs were selected based on their ranking from...... (on BTA3, BTA6, BTA8, BTA19, and BTA27) agreed across the breeds, but no identical associated SNPs were detected. Higher power (imputation to bigger population samples) will be needed to confirm results. On BTA6 the results indicate several QTL within a 5 Mb region. The results provide a basis...
Addis, M F; Tedde, V; Dore, S; Pisanu, S; Puggioni, G M G; Roggio, A M; Pagnozzi, D; Lollai, S; Cannas, E A; Uzzau, S
Mastitis due to intramammary infections is one of the most detrimental diseases in dairy sheep farming, representing a major cause of reduced milk productions and quality losses. In particular, subclinical mastitis presents significant detection and control problems, and the availability of tools enabling its timely, sensitive, and specific detection is therefore crucial. We have previously demonstrated that cathelicidins, small proteins implicated in the innate immune defense of the host, are specifically released in milk of mastitic animals by both epithelial cells and neutrophils. Here, we describe the development of an ELISA for milk cathelicidin and assess its value against somatic cell counts (SCC) and bacteriological culture for detection of ewe mastitis. Evaluation of the cathelicidin ELISA was carried out on 705 half-udder milk samples from 3 sheep flocks enrolled in a project for improvement of mammary health. Cathelicidin was detected in 35.3% of milk samples (249/705), and its amount increased with rising SCC values. The cathelicidin-negative (n=456) and cathelicidin-positive (n=249) sample groups showed a clear separation in relation to SCC, with median values of 149,500 and 3,300,000 cells/mL, respectively. Upon bacteriological culture, 20.6% (145/705) of the milk samples showed microbial growth, with coagulase-negative staphylococci being by far the most frequent finding. A significant proportion of all bacteriologically positive milk samples were positive for cathelicidin (110/145, 75.9%). Given the lack of a reliable gold standard for defining the true disease status, sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the cathelicidin ELISA were assessed by latent class analysis against 2 SCC thresholds and against bacteriological culture results. At an SCC threshold of 500,000 cells/mL, Se and Sp were 92.3 and 92.3% for cathelicidin ELISA, 89.0 and 94.9% for SCC, and 39.4 and 93.6% for bacteriological culture, respectively. At an SCC threshold of 1
Full Text Available She-camel mastitis is relatively not well studied in camel-rearing areas worldwide. In Iraq, few reports have been done on the camelids in general and on mastitis in particular in compare to other livestock such as cattle, sheep and goat. This study intends to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis and its etiological agents in shecamels in Samawah desert / Al Muthanna governorate. Thirty milk samples were collected from apparently clinical normal shecamels from 3 camelids herds during December 2016 to March 2017. The milk samples were aseptically collected from each quarter after stimulation milking process in she-camel. Each milk sample was subjected to physical and bacteriological examination and mastitis screening tests including (somatic cell count SCC and California mastitis test (CMT. The pH of fresh camel milk was varied from 6.1 to 6.5. All milk samples revealed a bright white color with upper thick creamy layer. No any signs of clinical mastitis were observed in all examined she-camels. Meanwhile, keratosis of the teats and udder due to severe tick infestation was observed in 83.33% percentage (25 out of 30. The subclinical mastitis was determined in 30% percentage (9 out of 30 lactating she-camels using SCC, CMT and revealed various bacterial growth. These bacteria were the Enterobacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp moreover, the percentage of isolates was 55.55% (5 out of 9, 33.33% (3 out of 9 and 11.11% (1 out of 9 respectively. In conclusion, this study confirmed the correlation between SCC and CMT in diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in 30% of the examined she-camel. Moreover, it approved the absence of clinical mastitis due to the nature of the milk production. The authors recommend to perform another future studies that including large number of the animals, in addition to study the natural physiological phenomena of milk production in shecamels.
Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69. Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91. Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91 while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90. Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353, while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67. The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.
Xiao, Hong-Bo; Sui, Guo-Guang; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Zhi-Liang
Mastitis is inflammation of a breast (or udder). Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) has been found as a key inflammatory mediator in mastitis. Purpose of this research was to investigate the mechanisms about repressing effect of kaempferol on mastitis. Forty mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10): C57BL/6J control mice, untreated murine mastitis, 10 mg/kg kaempferol treated murine mastitis (ip), and 30 mg/kg kaempferol treated murine mastitis (ip). Primary cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMEC) were indiscriminately divided into seven groups including control group, 10 mmol/L vehicle of kaempferol group, 10 μmol/L kaempferol treated group, 20 μg/mL LPS treated group, 1 μmol/L kaempferol plus LPS treated group, 3 μmol/L kaempferol plus LPS treated group, and 10 μmol/L kaempferol plus LPS treated group. In murine mastitis, kaempferol (10 or 30 mg/kg) treatment prevented mastitis development, decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) production, interleukin (IL)-6 level, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentration, and ANGPTL2 expression. In MMEC, kaempferol (1, 3, or 10 μM) reduced MPO production, TNF-α concentration, IL-6 level, and ANGPTL2 expression. The results in present study show that kaempferol modulates the expression of ANGPTL2 to lessen the mastitis in mice. Copyright © 2018 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Germán Rodríguez Martínez
Full Text Available Se describe la caracterización de la mastitis en diez hatos representativos de la Sabana de Bogotá, enfocándose al estudio del problema durante dos años de visitas bimensuales. Se realizaron diferentes tipos de pruebas de campo y de laboratorio: manejo del hato en general, registros de producción, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Cultivos bacteriológicos en medios Agar sangre, Agar Mac Conkey, Agar Sabouraud, recuento de células somáticas, en 644 vacas y 2576 cuartos con visitas bimensuales lo que arrojó un total de 7866 observaciones en vacas y 31464 observaciones en cuartos durante el estudio. Complementario al estudio se llevó a cabo un seguimiento semanal durante tres meses, en un grupo de 30 vacas en tres fincas con ordeño manual para determinar el efecto de la infección sobre la producción de leche por cuarto, mediante la utilización de un balde ideado por el autor. Los resultados sugieren un mayor efecto de la infección en hatos con ordeño mecánico donde se encontró un 61,2% de infección en vacas y un 30% de infección subclínica por cuartos y un 4,7 % de cuartos con mastitis clínica. En ordeño manual la infección fue de 48% en vacas, 23,6% en cuartos y 3,6% de casos de cuartos con mastitis clínica. Se encontró una correlación del 91 % entre el CMT y el recuento de células somáticas lo que concuerda con los resultados de otros investigadores. En relación a los diferentes microorganismos aislados, se encontró como dominante el Streptococcus agalactiae en ordeño manual y Staphylococcus aureus en ordeño mecánico y se descartó la posibilidad de encontrar microorganismos coliformes como causales de mastitis durante el estudio. Referente al efecto de la infección sobre la producción se registraron pérdidas hasta de cinco litros diarios por vaca afectada tomando como indicador el CMT y el pesaje de la leche. También se pudo definir una disminución de la producción por cuarto de: 0,42; 0,90; 1,47; y 2
Full Text Available Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02 Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin. We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two emb B homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum , this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae.
Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum) is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02 Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related) to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin). We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG) that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two embB homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum, this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae.
Phelan, Jody; Maitra, Arundhati; McNerney, Ruth; Nair, Mridul; Gupta, Antima; Coll, Francesc; Pain, Arnab; Bhakta, Sanjib; Clark, Taane G.
Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum) is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02 Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related) to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin). We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG) that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two embB homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum, this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae.
Phelan, Jody; Maitra, Arundhati; McNerney, Ruth; Nair, Mridul; Gupta, Antima; Coll, Francesc; Pain, Arnab; Bhakta, Sanjib; Clark, Taane G
Mycobacterium aurum (M. aurum) is an environmental mycobacteria that has previously been used in studies of anti-mycobacterial drugs due to its fast growth rate and low pathogenicity. The M. aurum genome has been sequenced and assembled into 46 contigs, with a total length of 6.02Mb containing 5684 annotated protein-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis using whole genome alignments positioned M. aurum close to Mycobacterium vaccae and Mycobacterium vanbaalenii, within a clade related to fast-growing mycobacteria. Large-scale genomic rearrangements were identified by comparing the M. aurum genome to those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. M. aurum orthologous genes implicated in resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs in M. tuberculosis were observed. The sequence identity at the DNA level varied from 68.6% for pncA (pyrazinamide drug-related) to 96.2% for rrs (streptomycin, capreomycin). We observed two homologous genes encoding the catalase-peroxidase enzyme (katG) that is associated with resistance to isoniazid. Similarly, two embB homologues were identified in the M. aurum genome. In addition to describing for the first time the genome of M. aurum, this work provides a resource to aid the use of M. aurum in studies to develop improved drugs for the pathogenic mycobacteria M. tuberculosis and M. leprae. Copyright © 2015 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sargeant, J M; Scott, H M; Leslie, K E; Ireland, M J; Bashiri, A
The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Ontario. The study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. Lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to ma...
Al-Farha, Abd Al-Bar; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Khazandi, Manouchehr; Hoare, Andrew; Petrovski, Kiro
Mycoplasma mastitis is increasingly posing significant impact on dairy industry. Although the effects of major conventional mastitis pathogens on milk components has been widely addressed in the literature, limited data on the effects of different Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma spp. on milk quality and quantity is available. The aim of this study was to determine the casual relationship of Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii to mastitis and compare them to subclinical mastitis caused by conventional mastitis pathogens from a single dairy herd in South Australia; Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii were detected using PCR applied directly to milk samples. The herd had mastitis problem with high somatic cell count and low response rate to conventional antimicrobial therapy. A total of 288 cow-level milk samples were collected aseptically and used in this study. Conventional culture showed a predominance of coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by coagulase-positive staphylococci, Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Klebsiella spp. PCR results showed a high prevalence of mycoplasmas (76.7%), including A. laidlawii (10.8%), M. bovis (6.2%), M. bovirhinis (5.6%), M. arginini (2%), and (52.1%) of cows were co-infected with two or more Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species. Mycoplasma co-infection significantly increased somatic cell counts (SCC) similar to conventional mastitis pathogens and compared to non-infected cows with 389.3, 550.3 and 67.3 respectively; and decreased the milk yield with 29.0, 29.9 and 34.4 l, respectively. Mycoplasma co-infection caused significant increase in protein percentage, and significant decrease in fat percentage and total milk solids, similar to other conventional mastitis pathogens. In contrast, changes in milk composition and yield caused by various individual Mycoplasma species were non-significant. Mycoplasma mastitis had on-farm economic consequences similar to common conventional mastitis pathogens. Results of our study
Maletić, M.; Magaš, V.; Maletić, J.
Mastitis is the most common and the most expensive disease of dairy cows. It is followed by a large number of direct and indirect costs that burden the farm’s budget and lead to major economic and health losses. The veterinarian at the farm plays a key role in implementing a protocol of biosecurity measures, a protocol of control, therapy, and the suppression of clinical and subclinical mastitis. In order to successfully implement these measures, a good communication between a veterinarian and a farm staff who performs milking procedures is necessary in order to detect and treat all cases of mastitis in time.
Valde, JP; Lawson, LG; Lindberg, A; Agger, JF; Saloniemi, H; Østerås, O
Data from the national dairy cow recording systems during 1997 were used to calculate lactation-specific cumulative risk of mastitis treatments and cumulative risk of removal from the herds in Denmark, Finland Norway and Sweden. Sweden had the lowest risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation and Norway had the highest risk. The incidence risk of recorded mastitis treatments during 305 days of lactation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was 0.177, 0.139, 0.215 and...
Verfaillie, G; Breucq, C; Sacre, R; Bourgain, C; Lamote, J
Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast. The differential diagnosis with malign breast disease is often not easy. In most cases a surgical biopsy is needed for correct diagnosis. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is an exclusion diagnosis, based on the demonstration of a characteristic histological pattern, combined with the exclusion of other possible causes of granulomatous breast lesions. There is still no generally accepted optimal treatment. If surgery forms part of the treatment, a conservative approach seems to be adequate in most cases. Another option is a long-term steroid treatment. It is mandatory to exclude infectious causes of granulomatous mastitis before corticoid therapy is started.
Roy José Andrade-Becerra
Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo aislar las diferentes bacterias causantes de mastitis subclínica, de cuartos positivos a CMT (2+ o mayores a 300,000 cel/mL de vacas procedentes de fincas lecheras del municipio de Toca (Boyacá. Mediante un muestreo probabilístico de conveniencia y por medio de un estudio descriptivo longitudinal retrospectivo durante el año 2013, se estudiaron 130 fincas especializadas en la producción de leche con promedios de 20 animales en lactancia por finca, ubicadas entre los 2300 y los 2800 msnm, con temperaturas anuales promedios de 13 °C y pluviosidades entre 800 y 1200 mm/año. Durante el año de estudio se encontró un 3.14% de cuartos positivos al CMT con grados superiores a 2 +. Streptococcus agalactiae se aisló en el 9,73%, y se convirtió en el principal patógeno aislado. Staphylococcus aureus fue aislado, en promedio, en el 6,00%. Corynebacterium bovis se aisló en el 0,30% de los casos. E. coli no se aisló. Mycoplasma bovis no se encontró en ninguna muestra. M. californicum se recuperó en el 0,50%. Levaduras, en el 0,20%, y Acholeplasma spp. se aisló en el 0,40%.
Mirta C Lasagno
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Streptococcus uberis isolated from subclinical mastitis (SCM cases, and to examine the possible association between both characteristics. A total of 32 S. uberis were isolated from 772 quarter milk samples (SCM > 250,000 cells/ml collected from 195 cows selected randomly from 18 dairy farms located in Argentina. The S. uberis strains were characterized phenotypically by the presence of virulence factors as plasminogen activator factor (PAF, hyaluronidase (HYA, capsule (CAP and CAMP factor, and were further characterized genotypically by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. S. uberis strains expressed plasminogen activator factor, hyaluronidase or capsule (65.5 %, 56.3 %, 59.4 %, respectively, but only 25 % of isolates were CAMP factor positive. Thirteen different virulence profiles were identified on the basis of the combination of virulence factors. Eighteen PFGE patterns with 90% of similarity were identified among 32 S. uberis. A great diversity of virulence profiles and PFGE patterns were present among dairy farms. S. uberis strains with the same PFGE pattern showed different virulence profiles. Bovine S. uberis strains causing SCM included in the present study showed heterogeneity in regard to their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and the PFGE patterns are not associated with the virulence profiles.Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Streptococcus uberis aislados de mastitis bovina subclínica en tambos de Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar las características fenotípicas y genotípicas de Streptococcus uberis aislados de casos de mastitis subclínica (MSC y examinar la posible asociación entre ambas características. Un total de 32 cepas de S. uberis fueron aisladas de 772 muestras de leche de cuartos mamarios (MSC > 25 0000 células/ml colectadas de 195 vacas seleccionadas al azar pertenecientes a 18 tambos
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM, duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ≥ 3 were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005. In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001. Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001. In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02 and winter (p = 0.03 in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities.
Full Text Available In Sleman, a regency in Yogyakarta special region, Etawah crossbred goats are excessively bred for thedairy produce called the goat’s milk. Subclinical mastitis is one of diseases which reduce the yield of goat’smilk. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors that contribute to the subclinical mastitis onthe Etawah crossbred goats in Sleman. The 200 samples one of which contains 10 mL of goat’s milk weretaken from the udders of the Etawah crossbred goats from the eight goat farms in Sleman. The 200samples were analyzed for the subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT. The data of riskfactors were gathered through a questionnaire. The risk factors on Etawah crossbred goats in Sleman weredetermine with the use of bivariate analysis chi square (X2, odds ratio (OR and relative risk (RR. Thegoat’s milk which subclinical mastitis was isolation and identification of bacteria based on biochemicaltests. The risk factors that cause the subclinicall mastitis on Etawah crossbred goats in Sleman were (1milk yield (X2=14.23; OR=6.52; RR=4.42, (2 age status of lactation (X2=1.60; OR=59.09; RR=17.94, (3age of weaning (X2=26.06; OR=2.22; RR=1.91, and (4 Body Condition Score (BCS (X2=13.89; OR=1.29;RR=1.22. Goat’s milk which subclinicall mastitis were isolated Bacillus sp (70%, Staphylococcus sp(33%, Pseudomonas sp (29%, Streptococcus sp (25%, Corynebacterium sp (12%, and E. coli (4%.
Milka P Podder
Full Text Available Klebsiella spp. is a common cause of bovine mastitis, but information regarding its molecular epidemiology is lacking from many parts of the world. On using mass spectrometry and partial sequencing of the rpoB gene, it was found that over a one year study, K. variicola and Enterobacter cloacae were misidentified as K. pneumoniae in a small number of clinical mastitis (CM cases from Newfoundland. Results suggest that the currently used standard biochemical/phenotypic tests lack the sensitivity required to accurately discriminate among the three mentioned Gram negative bacteria. In addition, a single strain of K. variicola was associated with CM from one farm in the study as demonstrated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD PCR. To the best of our knowledge, K. variicola, which is normally found in the environment, has not been isolated previously from milk obtained from cows with CM. Therefore, it is possible that K. variicola was not detected in milk samples in the past due to the inability of standard tests to discriminate it from other Klebsiella species.
Genaro A. Contreras
Full Text Available La mastitis en novillas es un problema que ha alcanzado importantes dimensiones a medida que las explotaciones lecheras se han especializado. Las hembras bovinas son susceptibles a infecciones intramamarias (IIM desde el momento en que la glándula mamaria se ha desarrollado completamente en el feto. Factores relacionados al animal, al medio en que se desarrolla y al manejo incrementan o reducen el riesgo de contraer IIM. El grupo de bacterias mas usualmente asociadas con IIM en novillas gestantes son los Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos (SCN, pero otras bacterias como Staphylococus aureus, Mycoplasma spp, Streptococcus uberis y Streptococcus agalactiae, son tambien importantes agentes etiológicos de IIM. Las alternativas al manejo de la mastitis en novillas están dirigidas a la reducción de factores de riesgo y se complementan con la administración de terapias de sellamiento físico del pezón, desinfectantes o antibióticas, previa evaluación de los programas de sanidad de hato con que cuenta cada explotación.
Fahmy, J; Halabi-Tawil, M; Bagot, M; Tournant, B; Petit, A
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a benign, aseptic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, which must be distinguished from tumoral and infectious processes that affect the breast, including tuberculosis. IGM is a rare cause of erythema nodosum, but it is useful for dermatologists to be aware of this association. A 32-year-old nulliparous woman presented with erythema nodosum, arthralgia and fever. On examination, she had a firm and painful mass of 5cm in the right breast with retraction and axillary adenopathy. The breast lump developed gradually over the preceding 4 months. Although two biopsies showed no evidence of atypical cells, inflammatory areas and a granulomatous process were seen. Culture of breast tissue for mycobacteria was negative. A diagnostic of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis was made. Systemic corticosteroids led to a reduction in size of the mass, but relapse occurred in the contralateral breast on dose-reduction of the corticosteroids. IGM is a rare disease of unknown aetiology. Diagnosis is based on characteristic histological features and exclusion of other granulomatous diseases. Extra-mammary signs are rare and include erythema nodosum, arthralgia and episcleritis. Management is poorly codified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nicholas, Robin A J; Fox, Larry K; Lysnyansky, Inna
Bovine mastitis caused by mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma bovis, is a major problem for milk production and animal welfare in large dairy herds in the USA and a serious, although sporadic, disease in Europe and the Middle East. It causes severe damage to the udder of cattle and is largely untreatable by chemotherapy. Mycoplasma mastitis has a distinct epidemiology and a unique set of risk factors, the most important of which is large herd size. The disease is often self-limiting, disappearing within months of outbreaks, sometimes without deliberate intervention. Improved molecular diagnostic tests are leading to more rapid detection of mycoplasmas. Typing tests, such as multi-locus sequence typing, can help trace the source of outbreaks. An approach to successful control is proposed, which involves regular monitoring and rapid segregation or culling of infected cows. Serious consideration should be given by owners of healthy dairy herds to the purchase of M. bovis-free replacements. Increased cases of disease could occur in Europe and Israel if the trend for larger dairy herds continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krömker, V; Leimbach, S
Animal-friendly, economical, resource-saving milk production provides the basis for sustained consumer acceptance. Bovine mastitis plays a decisive role in the dairy industry-disturbing animal health and welfare and causing considerable economic losses on the other hand. Currently, antimicrobial treatment is indispensable to keep bovine udder health, animal welfare and economic aspects in balance. On the contrary, emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent matter of particular public interest, and as a consequence, antimicrobial usage (AMU) in production livestock is a critically discussed subject. In urgent need of future reduction in AMU in the dairy industry, this review article describes and discusses possible approaches promising prompt implementation, including therapeutical alternatives as well as pro- and metaphylactic concepts such as the implementation of evidence-based mastitis therapy concepts and selective dry cow treatment (sDCT), in search of the most effective and contemporary methods for decreasing AMU and AMR in dairy production. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Johnstone, Kate J; Robson, Jennifer; Cherian, Sarah G; Wan Sai Cheong, Jenny; Kerr, Kris; Bligh, Judith F
Granulomatous (lobular) mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease affecting parous reproductive-aged women. Once considered idiopathic, there is growing evidence of an association with corynebacteria infection, especially in the setting of a distinct histological pattern termed cystic neutrophilic granulomatous mastitis (CNGM). We describe 15 cases with histological features either confirming (n = 12) or suggesting (n = 3) CNGM, and concurrent microbiological evidence of Corynebacterium species. The organism was detected by culture or 16S rRNA gene sequencing of specimens obtained at surgery or fine needle aspiration. In seven cases, Gram-positive organisms were seen within vacuolated spaces. Speciation was performed in nine cases, with Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii subsequently identified. These cases provide further evidence in support of this association and in doing so highlight the importance of recognising these histological clues as well as the limitations of Gram stain and microbiological culture in detecting this previously under-recognised disease process. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. All rights reserved.
Kfoury, H; Al Bhlal, L
We report 12 cases of granulomatous lobular mastitis occurring in young women, between ages 30 and 47 years, diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC) from 1987 to 1995. The disease was unilateral in 10 cases, while there was a history of involvement of the contralateral breast in two patients. At the time of diagnosis, two patients were lactating, two were pregnant, and two were pregnant and lactating. Histopathological examination in all cases revealed centrilobular granulomas and microabscess formation. Immunohistochemical staining in seven cases for T and B cell markers showed a predominance of T cells in the infiltrate in all cases. The treatment comprised surgical removal of the mass, debridement and antibiotics in some of the cases. In one patient referred from another institution, mastectomy had been performed on the basis of an erroneous histopathologic diagnosis of carcinoma. Preoperative diagnosis was carcinoma in seven cases and benign disease in the remaining five cases. Follow-up of the patients was uneventful in all cases. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast, which may clinically and pathologically mimic carcinoma, sometimes leading to misdiagnosis resulting in unnecessary surgery.
Full Text Available In our study was followed occurrence of staphylococcal mastitis in herd of 350 sheep during one lactation season. We found, the bacteria S. schleiferi was identified in 88 from all 204 isolates. In high number were identified also S. caprae (33, S. chromogenes (21, S. aureus (19, S. epidermidis (17, respectively. Important was occurrence S. intermedius, S. simulans, S. xylosus a S. warneri, too. The Staphylococcuss spp. caused latent and subclinical forms of mastitis predominantly, showed into subacute mastitis (26.5%. Acute mastitis was determined in 7.8 %. Eight bacteria S. aureus, two S. chromogenes, and two S. epidermidis produced staphylococcal enterotoxins.doi: 10.5219/171
Full Text Available This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection.
Anantharama Ankinakatte, Smitha; Norberg, Elise; Løvendahl, Peter
The aim of this paper is to develop and compare methods for early detection of oncoming mastitis with automated recorded data. The data were collected at the Danish Cattle Research Center (Tjele, Denmark). As indicators of mastitis, electrical conductivity (EC), somatic cell scores (SCS), lactate...... that combines residual components into a score to improve the model. To develop and verify the model, the data are randomly divided into training and validation data sets. To predict the occurrence of mastitis, neural network models (NNs) and generalized additive models (GAMs) are developed using the training...... classification with all indicators, using individual residuals rather than factor scores. When SCS is excluded, GAMs shows better classification result when milk yield is also excluded. In conclusion, the study shows that NNs and GAMs are similar in their ability to detect mastitis, a sensitivity of almost 75...
Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S
Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... milking, as seen by a higher frequency of tripping and kicking. Mastitic cows continued to show increased kicking during milking even after the antibiotic treatment period. These results show that the behavioral changes induced by naturally occurring mastitis persisted beyond the days of antibiotic...
Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study was carried out in Sidomulyo Village, Jabung, Malang Regen-cy from April 6th to May 6th, 2013. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influ-ence of Kersen leaf (Muntingia calabura L extract to reduce mastitis incidents. The materials used in this study were 15 Friesian Holstein crossbreed lactating dairy cows, chemical antiseptic, and Kersen leaf extract. The study used experiment Randomized Block Design with 3 treatments and 5 replications. The result shows that Kersen leaf extract was significantly (p>0.05 able to reduce mastitis incidents particularly 20% of Kersen leaf extract composition. The study suggests that Kersen leaf extract can be used as an effective substance in dipping solution for dairy cows Mastitis control program. Keywords: Kersen leaf extract, mastitis, teat dipping, dairy cows
Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø
Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve....... Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...
Okabe, Taro; Sasahara, Teppei; Suzuki, Jun; Onishi, Tsubasa; Komura, Masayoshi; Hagiwara, Shigehiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Morisawa, Yuji
Mycobacterium mageritense , a rapidly growing mycobacterium, is a rare clinical pathogen. Furthermore, parotitis due to non-tuberculosis mycobacterium is very rare in adults. Herein, we report the first case of M. mageritense parotitis in an immunocompetent adult. A 40-year-old man presented with swelling in a left parotid lesion. He was diagnosed with parotitis. The culture from the parotid abscess grew M. mageritense . He was unsuccessfully treated with levofloxacin monotherapy. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was added, leading to some clinical response; however, the erythema persisted despite 14 months of antibiotic therapy. Subsequently, the skin lesion was surgically removed. The antibiotic treatment was ceased a week after surgery as the postoperative course was uneventful and the lesion had improved. No recurrence was noted at 7 months after surgery. Although extremely rare, M. mageritense can cause parotitis in immunocompetent adults, and may not be sufficiently treated with antibiotics alone.
We report the draft genome sequence of the type strain Mycobacterium chimaera Fl-0169T, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). M. chimaera Fl-0169T was isolated from a patient in Italy and is highly similar to strains of M. chimaera isolated in Ireland, though Fl-0169T possesses unique virulence genes. Evidence suggests that M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. chimaera are differently virulent and a comparative genomic analysis is critically needed to identify diagnostic targets that reliably differentiate species of MAC. With treatment costs for Mycobacterium infections estimated to be >$1.8 B annually in the U.S., correct species identification will result in improved treatment selection, lower costs, and improved patient outcomes.
Sørensen, Lars Peter; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, J.R.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the risk of clinical mastitis (CM) and QTL affecting somatic cell score (SCS) exhibit pathogen-specific effects on the incidence of mastitis. Bacteriological data on mastitis pathogens were used to investigate...... pathogen specificity of QTL affecting treatments of mastitis in first parity (CM1), second parity (CM2), and third parity (CM3), and QTL affecting SCS. The 5 most common mastitis pathogens in the Danish dairy population were analyzed: Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Escherichia coli, coagulase...... against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Strep. uberis. Our results show that particular mastitis QTL are highly likely to exhibit pathogen-specificity. However, the results should be interpreted carefully because the results are sensitive to the sampling method and method of analysis. Field data were...
Nielsen, C; Østergaard, Søren; Emanuelson, U
Herd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling......% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk......The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, Sim...
Ronco, Troels; Klaas, Ilka C.; Stegger, Marc
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy cows. Various subtypes, virulence genes and pathogenicity islands have been associated with isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis. So far, no Danish cattle associated S. aureus isolates have been...... and clinical mastitis were of similar genetic background. This suggests that dairy cows are natural carriers of the S. aureus subtypes that cause clinical mastitis if the right conditions are present and that a broad range of subtypes cause mastitis. A phylogenetic cluster that mostly consisted of ST151...... isolates carried three pathogenicity islands that were primarily found in this group. The prevalence of resistance genes was generally low. However, the first ST398 methicillin resistant S. aureus isolate from a Danish dairy cow with clinical mastitis was detected....
Patil, M. P.; Nagvekar, A. S.; Ingole, S. D.; Bharucha, S. V.; Palve, V. T.
Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC) and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade), (+2 Grade), (+3 Grade), and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml) and alkaline phosphatase (U/L) in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432), subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013), with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034), with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737) and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907) respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes. PMID:27047098
Andrey Pinzón Trujillo
Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to carry out a study about the effects of subclinical mastitis in cows of 34 dairy farms in the Upper Chicamocha region (Boyacá department.The farms are registered in the livestock farmers association of Boyacá (FABEGAN. This study was done with the aim to know about the infection status of cows and establish which are the principal etiologic agents associated with the disease and its relation with the milking routine. To this aim, applied comparison even tests for the productive variables to relate with the California Mastitis Test (CMT and the microbiological characterization, a blocks design under factorial 2 x 4 array to analyze the existence of significant differences between the mastitis grades, the sample season and its interaction, and blocks design under factorial 2 x 4 array to analyze the existence of significant differences among the mastitis subclinical grades, the sampling season and its interaction. 6616 quarters were submitted to the California Mastitis Test (CMT in two times and different season. The results did not show any significant differences between the two times of sampling. The positive samples according with CMT (CMT-2 and CMT-3 were submitted to microbiological tests where, in the most of the cases of mastitis, the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus was detected. They are the main etiologic agents in the disease. The results indicate the close relation between the milking routine and mastitis. The deficient practices in the milking process are the cause of dissemination and prevalence of mastitis in farms.
Juliana R.P. Arcaro
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of evaporative cooling in freestall on mastitis occurrence, milk production, and composition, as well as cortisol, T3 (triiodothyronine, and T4 (thyroxin levels in lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows averaging 70 ± 10 day postpartum were used in four treatments from January to March 2003. The treatments were: Day (cooling from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.; Night (cooling from 7:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.; 24-hour (cooling 24-hour; and Control (no cooling. Wired cup test was used for clinical mastitis diagnosis, and the California Mastitis Test (CMT was used to identify subclinical mastitis. Blood and milk samples were taken weekly for microbiological and hormonal analyses. The cortisol levels were higher than normal values in all treatment groups, suggesting stress conditions, but T3 and T4 levels remained normal in all groups. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis was lower in Day and Night groups than in Control and 24-hour groups. Regarding the microbiological analyses, in all groups the isolation of Corynebacterium sp. from milk samples increased while negative coagulase staphylococci (CNS declined as etiological agents of subclinical mastitis. However, in Day and 24-hour groups, coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS increased mainly Staphylococcus aureus (49.8% and 47.7% respectively. The Night group showed a decrease in subclinical mastitis occurrences. Our data indicate that all animals subjected to treatments presented high levels of cortisol, indicating a stress condition. The Night treatment presented a reduction in microbial isolation, suggesting a reduced susceptibility to mastitis.
M. P. Patil
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade, (+2 Grade, (+3 Grade, and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml and alkaline phosphatase (U/L in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432, subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013, with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034, with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737 and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907 respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes.
Endimiani, Andrea; Bertschy, Isabelle; Perreten, Vincent
An Escherichia coli isolate producing the CMY-2 β-lactamase was found in the milk of a cow with recurrent subclinical mastitis. The isolate was resistant to the antibiotics commonly used for intramammary mastitis treatment, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides. This is the first report of a plasmid-mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in bovine milk.
Rasmussen, Ditte B.; Fogsgaard, Katrine; Røntved, Christine Maria
Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS......) in dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis, and correlate behavioral changes in nociceptive responses to clinical and paraclinical variables....
De Oliveira, A. P.; Watts, J. L.; Salmon, S. A.
Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 811 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in 11 countries. The countries and number of isolates included Denmark (105), England (92), Finland (95), Germany (103), Iceland (22), Ireland (42), Norway (101), Sweden...... antimicrobial agents tested regardless of country. Given the differences in antimicrobial use in various countries, the widespread adoption of mastitis control programs to prevent infections limits the exposure of S. aureus infected animals to antimicrobial drugs....
Chen, Qing; He, Guiliang; Zhang, Wenyao; Xu, Tong; Qi, Hongliang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing
Fibroblasts are predominant components of mammary stromal cells and play crucial roles in the development and involution of bovine mammary gland; however, whether these cells contribute to mastitis has not been demonstrated. Thus, we have undertaken biological and molecular characterization of inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from slaughtered dairy cows because of fractured legs during lactation...
Korkut, Ercan; Akcay, Mufide Nuran; Karadeniz, Erdem; Subasi, Irmak Durur; Gursan, Nesrin
In this study we aimed to define clinical, radiologic and pathological specialties of patients who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty with granulomatous mastitis and show medical and surgical treatment results. With the help of this study we will be able to make our own clinical algorithm for diagnosis and treatment. We searched retrospectively addresses, phone numbers and clinical files of 93 patients whom diagnosed granulomatous mastitis between a decade of January 2001 - December 2010. We noted demographic specialties, ages, gender, medical family history, main complaints, physical findings, radiological and laboratory findings, medical treatments, postoperative complications and surgical procedures if they were operated; morbidity, recurrence and success ratios, complications after treatment for patients discussed above. In this study we evaluated 93 patients, 91 females and 2 males, with granulomatous mastitis retrospectively who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty between January 2001 and December 2010. Mean age was 34.4 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the lesions. Seventy three patients had idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis and 20 patients had specific granulomatous mastitis IGM (18 tuberculosis mastitis, 1 alveolar echinococcosis and 1 silk reaction). All the patients had surgical debridement or antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory treatment with results bad clinical response before applied our clinic. Empiric antibiotic therapy and drainage of the breast lesions are not enough for complete remission of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. The lesion must be excised completely. In selected patients, corticosteroid therapy can be useful. In the patients with tuberculous mastitis, abscess drainage and antituberculous therapy can be useful, but wide excision must be chosen for the patients with recurrent disease.
Vakanjac, Slobodanka; Pavlović, Vojislav; Magaš, Vladimir; Pavlović, Miloš; Đurić, Miloje; Maletić, Milan; Nedić, Svetlana; Sočo, Ivan
Inflammation of the mammary gland, mastitis in cows, presents one of the most acute problems in intensive dairy production, inflicting huge economic losses. In the course of one year, 80 samples were taken at investigated farms from udder quarters of cows with clinical mastitis and 160 samples from udder quarters of cows with subclinical mastitis. The efficacy of three preparations, A, B, and C, was examined in the treatment of clinical and subclinical mast...
Tuli, Richard; O'Hara, Brian J; Hines, Janet; Rosenberg, Anne L
Background Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is an uncommon, benign entity with a diagnosis of exclusion. The typical clinical presentation of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis often mimics infection or malignancy. As a result, histopathological confirmation of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis combined with exclusion of infection, malignancy and other causes of granulomatous disease is absolutely necessary. Case Presentation We present a case of a young woman with idiopathic granulomatous ma...
B. K. Bansal; D. K. Gupta; T. A. Shafi; S. Sharma
Aim: The present study was planned to determine the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) strains isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis in dairy cows. Antibiotic sensitivity profile will be helpful to recommend early therapy at the field level prior to availability of CST results. Materials and Methods: The milk samples from cases of clinical mastitis received in Mastitis Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences Univer...
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Somatic Cell Count (SCC and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA production. Results: Significant (P<0.05 decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 271-273
Adil Majid Bhat
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of clinical mastitis in bovines of Jammu region, to identify the infectious organisms responsible for it, and the antimicrobial sensitivity of isolated pathogens. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cases that were presented to the Medicine Division of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, R.S. Pura, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir. A total of 260 cases of bovines were presented from June 30, 2012, to July 01, 2013, out of which 30 cases were of clinical mastitis. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was made on the basis of history and clinical examination of affected animals. Results: Animal and quarter-wise incidence of clinical mastitis were found to be 11.5% and 5.76%, respectively. Of the 23 isolates obtained, Staphylococcus aureus (60.87% was the most frequently isolated organism, followed by coagulase negative Staphylococci (13.04%, Streptococcus uberis (4.35%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8.69%, and Escherichia coli (13.04%. The antimicrobial sensitivity of isolates revealed maximum sensitivity to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin/ sulbactam, ceftriaxone/tazobactam, ceftizoxime, ampicillin/sulbactam and least sensitivity for oxytetracycline and penicillin. Conclusion: Staphylococcus spp. is the major causative agent of clinical mastitis in bovines of Jammu region. The causative agents of the clinical mastitis were most sensitive to enrofloxacin and gentamicin.
Hoe, Fernanda G H; Ruegg, Pamela L
To determine whether there was any association between results of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of pathogens isolated from cows with mild or moderate clinical mastitis and outcome of treatment. Observational study. 133 cows with mild or moderate mastitis in a single quarter. Cows were treated by means of intramammary infusion of pirlimycin (50 mg) in the affected quarter once daily for 2 days; additional intramammary treatments with the same product were administered if the milk continued to appear abnormal. Duration of treatment and days until clinical cure were recorded. Bacterial isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by means of a broth micro-dilution technique. Environmental streptococci, coliforms, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp were the most commonly isolated pathogens. Duration of treatment and days until clinical cure were not significantly different for cows from which pathogens that were susceptible or resistant to pirlimycin were isolated. Bacteriologic cure rates 14 and 21 days after treatment were not significantly different for cows with mastitis caused by susceptible or resistant bacteria. Similar results were found when data only from cows with mastitis caused by gram-positive isolates were analyzed. In the present study, differences in clinical outcome for cows with mild or moderate mastitis that could be attributed to differences in results of in vitro susceptibility testing were not identified. The use of in vitro susceptibility testing to guide intramammary mastitis treatment cannot be recommended on the basis of results of this study.
Hovinen, Mari; Simojoki, Heli; Pösö, Reeta; Suolaniemi, Jenni; Kalmus, Piret; Suojala, Leena; Pyörälä, Satu
Activity of lysosomal N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in milk has been used as an indicator of bovine mastitis. We studied NAGase activity of 808 milk samples from healthy quarters and quarters of cows with spontaneous subclinical and clinical mastitis. Associations between milk NAGase activity and milk somatic cell count (SCC), mastitis causing pathogen, quarter, parity, days in milk (DIM) and season were studied. In addition, the performance of NAGase activity in detecting clinical and subclinical mastitis and distinguishing infections caused by minor and major bacteria was investigated. Our results indicate that NAGase activity can be used to detect both subclinical and clinical mastitis with a high level of accuracy (0·85 and 0·99). Incomplete correlation between NAGase activity and SCC suggests that a substantial proportion of NAGase activity comes from damaged epithelial cells of the udder in addition to somatic cells. We therefore recommend determination of NAGase activity from quarter foremilk after at least six hours from the last milking using the method described. Samples should be frozen before analysis. NAGase activity should be interpreted according to DIM, at least during the first month of lactation. Based on the results of the present study, a reference value for normal milk NAGase activity of 0·1-1·04 pmoles 4-MU/min/μl for cows with ≥30 DIM (196 samples) could be proposed. We consider milk NAGase activity to be an accurate indicator of subclinical and clinical mastitis.
Osumi, Takafumi; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kano, Rui; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Onozaki, Masanobu; Makimura, Koichi; Ito, Takaaki; Matsubara, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko
This study is the first investigation on Japanese isolates of Prototheca zopfii from bovine mastitis and the cow-barn surroundings by molecular characterization to clarify routes of infection for bovine protothecal mastitis. We performed isolation of Prototheca from cow-barn surroundings (drinking water, sewage and feces) and milk samples from cases of bovine mastitis. Genotypes of the 32 isolates of P. zopfii from cow-barn surroundings and 67 isolates from mastitis were analyzed by genotype-specific PCR assays and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays. All mastitis isolates were identified as P. zopfii genotype 2. Conversely, 29 isolates from cow-barn surroundings were identified as P. zopfii genotypes 1 and 3 isolates as genotype 2, respectively. Given these results, both genotypes of P. zopfii could exist in cow-barn surroundings, but no sites were identified as frequent sources of P. zopfii genotype 2. P. zopfii isolates should thus be further explored with regard to genotype to clarify the reservoir of etiological agents in bovine Prototheca mastitis.
Steeneveld, Wilma; Swinkels, Jantijn; Hogeveen, Henk
Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model included the probability of cure after treatment, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, transmission of infection to other cows, and physiological effects of the infection. Using basic input parameters for Dutch circumstances, the average economic costs per cow of an untreated chronic subclinical mastitis case caused by Str. uberis in a single quarter from day of diagnosis onwards was euro109. With treatment, the average costs were higher (euro120). Thus, for the average cow, treatment was not efficient economically. However, the risk of high costs was much higher when cows with chronic subclinical mastitis were not treated. A sensitivity analysis showed that profitability of treatment of chronic subclinical Str. uberis mastitis depended on farm-specific factors (such as economic value of discarded milk) and cow-specific factors (such as day of diagnosis, duration of infection, amount of transmission to other cows and cure rate). Therefore, herd level protocols are not sufficient and decision support should be cow specific. Given the importance of cow-specific factors, information from the current model could be applied to automatic decision support systems.
Cao, Rongfeng; Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Zhang, Naisheng
Kaempferol isolated from the root of Zingiberaceae plants galangal and other Chinese herbal medicines have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis are unknown and their underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of kaempferol on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Kaempferol was injected 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The present results showed that kaempferol markedly reduced infiltration of neutrophilic granulocyte, activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, kaempferol suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol against the LPS-induced mastitis possibly through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.
Chinnappan, Raja; Al Attas, Sana; Kaman, Wendy E; Bikker, Floris J; Zourob, Mohammed
Mastitis in dairy cattle is an inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue. Mastitis increases plasmin levels, leading to an increased proteolysis of milk proteins such as casein, resulting in a significant decrease in milk quality and related dairy products. Due to its key-role in mastitis, we used plasmin proteolytic activity as a biomarker for the detection of mastitis in bovine mastitic milk. Inspired by earlier studies on protease activity using mastitic milk samples, we developed a simple colorimetric assay to distinguish mastitic milk from milk derived from healthy animals. The plasmin substrate coupled to magnetic nanoparticles form a black self-assembled monolayer on a gold sensor surface. In the presence of increased levels of plasmin, the substrate is cleaved and the peptide fragment attached to the magnetic beads, will be attracted by the magnet which is present under the sensor strips revealing the golden surface. We found the area of the golden color surface proportional to plasmin activity. The sensitivity of this method was determined to be 1 ng/ml of plasmin in vitro. Next, we tested the biosensor using mastitis positive milk of which infection is confirmed by bacterial cultures. This newly developed colorimetric biosensor has high potential in applications for the diagnosis of mastitis with potential spin offs to health, food and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H
Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.
Kano, Rui; Sato, Ayano; Sobukawa, Hideto; Sato, Yuko; Ito, Takaaki; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi
Prototheca zopfii is an achlorophyllic alga that causes bovine mastitis, resulting in a reduction in milk production and the secretion of thin, watery milk with white flakes. This study evaluated the use of an ELISA system for distinguishing cows with mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2 from healthy cows and cows with chronic candidal mastitis. We also investigated the transitional changes of specific antibody titers in healthy cows injected with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. The ELISA system exhibited the highest sensitivity (94%) and specificity (100%) for chronic protothecal mastitis when the positive cutoff value was set at 43.4 ELISA units. Anti-protothecal IgG titers were positive in all cows after they were inoculated with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. These results indicated that ELISA detection of anti-protothecal IgG in serum provided specificity and sensitivity sufficient for diagnosing protothecal mastitis. Thus, an ELISA system incorporating this specific antiserum is expected to be valuable for definitive field-based diagnosis of bovine mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M
Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maede Moosavi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Mohsen Ghavami; Amin Tamadoد
The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ? 150 DIM), duration of masti...
Hektoen, L; Ødegaard, S A; Løken, T; Larsen, S
There is often a need to reduce sample size in clinical trials due to practical limitations and ethical considerations. Better comparability between treatment groups by use of stratification in the design, and use of continuous outcome variables in the evaluation of treatment results, are two methods that can be used in order to achieve this. In this paper the choice of stratification factors in trials of clinical mastitis in dairy cows is investigated, and two score-scales for evaluation of clinical mastitis are introduced. The outcome in 57 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis and included in a clinical trial comparing homeopathic treatment, placebo and a standard antibiotic treatment is investigated. The strata of various stratification factors are compared across treatments to determine which other factors influence outcome. The two score scales, measuring acute and chronic mastitis symptoms, respectively, are evaluated on their ability to differentiate between patients classified from clinical criteria as responders or non-responders to treatment. Differences were found between the strata of the factors severity of mastitis, lactation number, previous mastitis this lactation and bacteriological findings. These factors influence outcome of treatment and appear relevant as stratification factors in mastitis trials. Both score scales differentiated between responders and non-responders to treatment and were found useful for evaluation of mastitis and mastitis treatment.
Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu
The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also
Lourenço Nogueira, Christiane; Simmon, Keith E; Chimara, Erica; Cnockaert, Margo; Carlos Palomino, Juan; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard; Cardoso Leão, Sylvia
Two isolates from water, D16Q19 and D16R27, were shown to be highly similar in their 16S rRNA, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hsp65 and rpoB gene sequences to 'Mycobacterium franklinii' DSM 45524, described in 2011 but with the name not validly published. They are all nonpigmented rapid growers and are related phenotypically and genetically to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group. Extensive characterization by phenotypic analysis, biochemical tests, drug susceptibility testing, PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene and ITS, DNA sequencing of housekeeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that 'M. franklinii' DSM 45524, D16Q19 and D16R27 belong to a single species that is separated from other members of the M. chelonae-M. abscessus group. On the basis of these results we propose the formal recognition of Mycobacterium franklinii sp. nov. Strain DSM 45524(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2149(T)) is the type strain.
Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S
The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of
Bruce-Micah, R.; Gamm, U.; Hüttenberger, D.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of bacterial strains presents an attractive potential alternative to antibiotic therapies. Success is dependent on the effective accumulation in bacterial cells of photochemical substances called photosensitizers, which are usually porphyrins or their derivatives. The kinetics of porphyrin synthesis after treatment with the precursor ALA and the accumulation of the Chlorin e6 and the following illumination were studied. The goal was to estimate effectivity of the destructive power of these PS in vitro in respect of the physiological states of Mycobacteria. So the present results examine the cell destruction by PDI using ALA-induced Porphyrins and Chlorin e6 accumulated in Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium smegmatis, which serve as models for the important pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium bovis. We could show that both Mycobacterium after ALA and Chlorin e6 application were killed by illumination with light of about 662 nm. A reduction of about 97% could be reached by using a lightdose of 70 mW/cm2.
Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl
While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of
Zhang, Lina; Hu, Jiani; Guys, Nicholas; Meng, Jinli; Chu, Jianguo; Zhang, Weisheng; Liu, Ailian; Wang, Shaowu; Song, Qingwei
To demonstrate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the characterisation of mastitis lesions. Sixty-one non-puerperal patients with pathologically confirmed single benign mastitis lesions underwent preoperative examinations with conventional MRI and axial DWI. Patients were categorised into three groups: (1) periductal mastitis (PDM), (2) granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM), and (3) infectious abscess (IAB). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of each lesion were recorded. A one-way ANOVA with logistic analysis was performed to compare ADC values and other parameters. Discriminative abilities of DWI modalities were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). P mastitis subtypes. • Mastitis subtypes exhibit different characteristics on DWI and DCE MRI. • ADC values are helpful in isolating PDM from other mastitis lesions. • Distribution of non-mass enhancement also has value in comparing mastitis subtypes.
Phenotypic and Serotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Subclinical Mastitis Cattle (KARAKTERISASI SECARA FENOTIPE DAN SEROTIPE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS YANG BERASAL DARI MASTITIS SUBKLINIK PADA SAPI
Siti Gusti Ningrum
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is known as a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cattle. In the presentstudy, 104 isolates of Staphylococcus originated from subclinical mastitis cattle characterized for thephenotypic properties and the presence of Staphylococcal protein A (Spa. Some bacteria were resistancesagainst several antibiotics were also studied, such as erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, cefepime,nitrofurantoin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. About 78% of the isolated were moderatelysensitive to nitrofurantoin, while 89% were highly resistant to cefepime and ciprofloxacin. Using thevarious mammals’ sera, seven isolates out of 104 revealed the presence of Spa.
Full Text Available La eficacia protectora de la actual vacuna (BCG contra la tuberculosis, para contrarrestar las formas pulmonares de esta enfermedad y su reactivación, resulta variable o poco eficiente, lo cual impone la búsqueda urgente de nuevas alternativas profilácticas contra esta enfermedad. Basados en las ventajas inmunogénicas que ofrece el uso de vacunas vivas, se han encaminado diferentes estrategias de este tipo empleando mutantes auxotróficos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis , BCG recombinante o micobacterias no tuberculosas. Existen evidencias experimentales acerca de la protección conferida tras la vacunación con cepas vivas, inactivadas o fracciones proteicas de Mycobacterium'habana' TMC-5135 contra la infección por Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Esta respuesta protectora parece ir aparejada de escasos signos de virulencia en los modelos animales ensayados, lo cual coloca a M.´habana´ dentro de los posibles candidatos vacunales contra la tuberculosis al ajustarse a la condición que impone una vacuna clásica de reproducir la infección y los eventos inmunes que le suceden lo más fielmente posible a como ocurren de manera natural, sin causar extensos daños en el receptor.
Kasales, Claudia J; Han, Bing; Smith, J Stanley; Chetlen, Alison L; Kaneda, Heather J; Shereef, Serene
The purpose of this article is to show radiologists how to readily recognize nonpuerperal subareolar abscess and its complications in order to help reduce the time to definitive therapy and improve patient care. To achieve this purpose, the various theories of pathogenesis and the associated histopathologic features are reviewed; the typical clinical characteristics are detailed in contrast to those seen in lactational abscess and inflammatory breast cancer; the common imaging findings are described with emphasis on the sonographic features; correlative pathologic findings are presented to reinforce the imaging findings as they pertain to disease origins; and the various treatment options are reviewed. Nonpuerperal subareolar mastitis and abscess is a benign breast entity often associated with prolonged morbidity. Through better understanding of the underlying disease process the imaging, physical, and clinical findings of this rare process can be more readily recognized and treatment options expedited, improving patient care.
Full Text Available Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. A 39-year-old patient with no history of oral contraceptive use presented with complaints such as redness, pain, and swelling in her left breast. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a suspicious inflamed mass lesion. Core biopsy was performed to exclude breast cancer and to further diagnose. The breast abscess was drained and steroids were given for treatment. In order to monitor any progression during the three months of treatment, hormone levels were routinely examined. Prolactin level was above the reference range, and pituitary MRI revealed a pituitary prolactinoma. After treatment with prolactin inhibitors, IGM also improved with hyperprolactinemia. This report emphasizes attention to hyperprolactinemia in cases of IGM diagnosis and treatment.
Ugwu, B T; Nwadiaro, P O
A case of furuncular myiasis of the breast due to infestation by the larva of Cordylobia anthropophaga in a young lady is presented. Some of the physical presentations of Cordylobia anthropophaga mastitis are similar to those of carcinoma of the breast. High index of suspicion in endemic areas, including patients who had visited such areas, the characteristic intense itching of the affected breast, the use of the magnifying hand lens and subsequent extraction of the offending maggots are the invaluable aids to diagnosis and treatment. The ulcer left on the breast after extraction of the maggot should be biopsied and the associated ill defined mass and skin changes must be seen to resolve completely before carcinoma of the breast can be safely ruled out. The various methods of extraction and the preventive measures are highlighted. Though furuncular myiasis has been reported to involve every part of domestic animals, this is the first reported case in literature involving the human breast.
S. Y. A. Al-Dabbagh
Full Text Available A total of 90 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis from different areas in Mosul city, in a period from October 2009 to June 2010, for the detection of gram negative bacteriological causative agents. The bacteria were identified using morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. thirty tow (35.3% gram negative bacterial isolates were obtained from the total count which included 14 isolates (15.5% for Escherichia coli, 7 isolates (7.7% for Klebsiella spp, 4 isolates (4.4% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 3 isolates (3.3% for Enterobacter aerogenes ,2 isolates for Serratia marcescens and one isolates (1.1% for each of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pasteurella multocida. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that most of these isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin following by Gentamycin and Cotrimoxazole, while most of these organisms were resistant to Ampicillin, the isolates showed different percentages of sensitivity to Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Neomycin and Chloramphenicol.
Elina B Reinoso
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection.
Fetveit, T; Uggerud, R
A 36 year old woman, mother of a two year old child developed, in the course of one night, a tender mass in the upper medial quadrant of the left mamma. Treatment with antibiotics had no effect, and after a week the patient was admitted to hospital for drainage of the abscess and further examination. She had then developed reactive arthritis. Histological examination of a specimen from the mamma revealed lobular granulomatous mastitis. This connection has not been described before in the literature. Further examination showed no signs of infectious disease or sarcoidosis. Surgical drainage had only a minor effect on the breast-mass. The patient was treated with prednisone for six months, and after one year of observation the mass has disappeared, but the arthralgias persists.
Cheng, Juan; Du, Yu-tang; Ding, Hua-ye
To study the clinical and pathologic features of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM). Sixty-eight cases of GLM were retrieved from the archival file. The clinical data and histologic features were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-eight patients presented with breast mass. Ulceration in overlying breast skin was seen in 9 cases. Most of the patients had history of breast feeding. None of them had evidence of specific infections involving the breast. The clinical and radiologic features mimicked malignancy. Histologically, GLM was characterized by the presence of non-necrotizing granulomas, usually admixed with neutrophils and associated with benign ductolobular units. The ductolobular architecture was still preserved. The duration of follow up ranged from 6 to 36 months. Four patients suffered from disease recurrence. GLM shows clinical and radiologic features reminiscent of breast cancer. Correct diagnosis requires histologic examination of the biopsy specimens.
Suhadi, F; Dadang-Sudrajat; Maria-Lina, R.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) procedure using three primary set derived from repetitive DNA sequence specific to mycobacteria was used to diagnose pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The assay was specific for M. tuberculosis and could be used to detect the amount DNA less than 10 -9 g
Doroudchi M, Kremer K, Basiri EA, Kadivar MR,. Van Soolingen D, Ghaderi AA. IS6110‑RFLP and spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Iran. Scand J Infect. Dis 2000;32:663‑8. 13. Farnia P, Masjedi MR, Mirsaeidi M, Mohammadi F,. Jallaledin‑Ghanavi, Vincent V, et al. Prevalence of Haarlem I and Beijing ...
Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura
Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.
Rosenberg Alan M
Full Text Available Abstract A child with isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis, with features initially suggesting oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is presented. This patient illustrates the need to consider the possibility of tuberculosis as the cause of oligoarthritis in high-risk pediatric populations even in the absence of a tuberculosis contact history and without evidence of overt pulmonary disease.
Keith Simmon, scientist at Isentio US discusses research that was done while he was at ARUP laboratories, discusses a new classification of Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus complex. Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/22/2011.
Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is transmitted mainly through aerosolization of infected sputum which puts laboratory workers at risk in spite of the laboratory workersf risk of infection being at 3 to 9 times higher than the general public. Laboratory safety should therefore be ...
Abstract. Purpose: To characterize the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to second line drugs using a line probe assay. Methods: ... Marne-la-Coquette,. France). Bacterial isolates contained in 500 µl of liquid culture were heat- inactivated at 95 °C for 30 min and then sonicated for 12 min. Finally, the suspension was ...
Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in humans due to Mycobacterium caprae is very low and is almost confined to Europe. We report a case of a previously healthy 41-year-old Moroccan with a 6 month history of abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue and diarrhea. A diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis due to M. caprae was made.
van Beers, S. M.; de Wit, M. Y.; Klatser, P. R.
Leprosy is still a health problem in many countries. Because the causative organism, Mycobacterium leprae cannot be cultured in vitro, it is virtually impossible to assess exposure, and the onset of infection and disease. As a consequence, the chain of infection, considered as the relationships
The World Health Organization's targets of eliminating Tuberculosis (TB) by 2050 is challenged by the emergence and spread of drug resistance TB. However, the traditional mechanism of resistance is that of acquired resistance, whereby the mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) strain develops mutations under selective ...
CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are ...
van Ingen, Jakko; Looijmans, Frank; Mirck, Piet; Dekhuijzen, Richard; Boeree, Martin; van Soolingen, Dick
To the Editor: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized as human pathogens (1). Otomastoiditis is a rare extrapulmonary NTM disease type first described in 1976; Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus group bacteria, which are rapidly growing NTM, are the most frequent causative
The electrophoretic mobilities (EPMs) of thirty Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) organisms were measured. The EPMs of fifteen clinical isolates ranged from -1.9 to -5.0 µm cm V-1s-1, and the EPMs of fifteen environmental isolates ranged from -1...
Loots, Miriam A. M.; de Jong, Menno D.; van Soolingen, Dick; Wetsteyn, José C. F. M.; Faber, William R.
Rare tropical skin diseases are seen more frequently in Western countries because of the increased popularity of visiting tropical regions. A 55-year-old white man developed a painless leg ulcer after traveling in Guatemala and Belize. A mycobacterium was cultured from a biopsy specimen and was
Purpose: To determine the surface epitopes of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) and evaluate their efficacy in the production of anti-M. leprae antibodies in an animal model. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 34 patients suffering from lepromatous leprosy. Antibodies were obtained from the samples, ...
This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy cattle in the Jimma zone of Ethiopia in 2011. A random sample of 29 herds was selected, and all mature cattle within these herds had a blood sample taken. Serum was tested in duplicate, ...
Full Text Available Mastitis imposes considerable and recurring economic losses on the dairy industry worldwide. The main objective of this study was to estimate herd-level costs incurred by expenditures and production losses associated with mastitis on Canadian dairy farms in 2015, based on producer reports. Previously, published mastitis economic frameworks were used to develop an economic model with the most important cost components. Components investigated were divided between clinical mastitis (CM, subclinical mastitis (SCM, and other costs components (i.e., preventive measures and product quality. A questionnaire was mailed to 374 dairy producers randomly selected from the (Canadian National Dairy Study 2015 to collect data on these costs components, and 145 dairy producers returned a completed questionnaire. For each herd, costs due to the different mastitis-related components were computed by applying the values reported by the dairy producer to the developed economic model. Then, for each herd, a proportion of the costs attributable to a specific component was computed by dividing absolute costs for this component by total herd mastitis-related costs. Median self-reported CM incidence was 19 cases/100 cow-year and mean self-reported bulk milk somatic cell count was 184,000 cells/mL. Most producers reported using post-milking teat disinfection (97% and dry cow therapy (93%, and a substantial proportion of producers reported using pre-milking teat disinfection (79% and wearing gloves during milking (77%. Mastitis costs were substantial (662 CAD per milking cow per year for a typical Canadian dairy farm, with a large portion of the costs (48% being attributed to SCM, and 34 and 15% due to CM and implementation of preventive measures, respectively. For SCM, the two most important cost components were the subsequent milk yield reduction and culling (72 and 25% of SCM costs, respectively. For CM, first, second, and third most important cost components were
Júlia Gazzoni Jardim
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Jardim J.G., Deminicis B.B., Peixoto E.C.T.M., Heinzen E.L. & Domingues P.F. [Etiological profile of bovine mastitis from dairy farms in the Western Paraná, Brazil.] Perfil etiológico da mastite bovina na bacia leiteira do oeste paranaense, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:65-70, 2014. Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ 28013-600, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The aim of this study was evaluate the occurrence, infectious etiology and risk factors associated with mastitis in 331 dairy cows from sixteen farms located in the region of Marechal Cândido Rondon in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Both cows as the properties were selected of a non-random form and being selected 20% of lactation cows from each farm. The test for identification of subclinical mastitis was the California Mastitis Test and the diagnosis of the clinical mastitis was carried out by the observation of signs of inflammation in the udder and macroscopic changes in milk. Of lactating cows, 195 (60.77% were positive for mastitis and 93,75% of the farms analyzed had at least one positive animal. The etiologic agents isolated in a total of three hundred twenty-nine samples were Staphylococcus aureus (47.2%, Staphylococcus sp. (29.2%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (18.1%, Streptococcus uberis (16,7%, Corynebaterium spp. (11,1% and Streptococcus intermedius (1.39%. Besides, was evaluated the interaction of the type of mechanical milking in function of the mastitis degree and the use of the disinfection of teats before and after milking was not interference in mastitis incidence, however, the accomplishment of the disinfection of teats before and after -dipping favored in the control of subclinical mastitis. We conclude that the significant occurrence of mastitis in herds is due to improper management conditions
Aghamohammadi, Mahjoob; Haine, Denis; Kelton, David F.; Barkema, Herman W.; Hogeveen, Henk; Keefe, Gregory P.; Dufour, Simon
Mastitis imposes considerable and recurring economic losses on the dairy industry worldwide. The main objective of this study was to estimate herd-level costs incurred by expenditures and production losses associated with mastitis on Canadian dairy farms in 2015, based on producer reports. Previously, published mastitis economic frameworks were used to develop an economic model with the most important cost components. Components investigated were divided between clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and other costs components (i.e., preventive measures and product quality). A questionnaire was mailed to 374 dairy producers randomly selected from the (Canadian National Dairy Study 2015) to collect data on these costs components, and 145 dairy producers returned a completed questionnaire. For each herd, costs due to the different mastitis-related components were computed by applying the values reported by the dairy producer to the developed economic model. Then, for each herd, a proportion of the costs attributable to a specific component was computed by dividing absolute costs for this component by total herd mastitis-related costs. Median self-reported CM incidence was 19 cases/100 cow-year and mean self-reported bulk milk somatic cell count was 184,000 cells/mL. Most producers reported using post-milking teat disinfection (97%) and dry cow therapy (93%), and a substantial proportion of producers reported using pre-milking teat disinfection (79%) and wearing gloves during milking (77%). Mastitis costs were substantial (662 CAD per milking cow per year for a typical Canadian dairy farm), with a large portion of the costs (48%) being attributed to SCM, and 34 and 15% due to CM and implementation of preventive measures, respectively. For SCM, the two most important cost components were the subsequent milk yield reduction and culling (72 and 25% of SCM costs, respectively). For CM, first, second, and third most important cost components were culling (48
Full Text Available Mastitis is probably the most common and costly disease in modern dairy cow husbandry. The aim of the present paper was to report the results concerning udder health after implementation of a specific strategy using both field and laboratory methods. During the period June 2010-December 2011 a total of 674 dairy cows from four dairy farms were included in the investigation. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by detection of signs of inflammation in the udder, while subclinical mastitis was diagnosed at the animal level by an increased Somatic Cell Count (SCC using laboratory tests, and subsequently confirmed at quarter level by California Mastitis Test (CMT.Microbiological analysis of the milk samples was carried out by standard procedures using Gram staining, biochemical tests and automated identification system.The distribution of somatic cell counts on cow level (n=674 was:305 (45.3% with SCC less than 100,000SCC/mL, 236 (35.0% 100,001 - 350,000 SCC/mL, and 133 (18.7% with more than 350,000SCC/mL. From a total of 1684 quarters tested by CMT, 644 quarters (38.2% were positive and 1040 quarters (61.8% were negative. In 60 out of 101 quarters that had a positive CMT result and no current treatment and that were sampled for bacteriology, bacteria could be isolated. Main bacteria identified, were coagulase - negative staphylococci (40.0%, Streptococcus agalactiae was present in 25.0%, Escherichia coli in 16.6%, Proteus spp. in 11.7% and Staphylococcus aureus in 6.7% of the bacteriological positive samples. After introducing specific mastitis-control measures, focusing on milking hygiene, dry-off treatment, and antibiotic treatment of both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis cases, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was reduced from 38.2to 10.8%, while the incidence of clinical mastitis decreased from 21.0% to 4.9%.In conclusion, the implementation of a standard mastitis control plan based on a regular assessment of the somatic cell count can
Cha, Elva; Smith, Rebecca L; Kristensen, Anders R; Hertl, Julia A; Schukken, Ynte H; Tauer, Loren W; Welcome, Frank L; Gröhn, Yrjö T
The objective of this study was to determine the economic value of obtaining timely and more accurate clinical mastitis (CM) test results for optimal treatment of cows. Typically CM is first identified when the farmer observes recognisable outward signs. Further information of whether the pathogen causing CM is Gram-positive, Gram-negative or other (including no growth) can be determined by using on-farm culture methods. The most detailed level of information for mastitis diagnostics is obtainable by sending milk samples for culture to an external laboratory. Knowing the exact pathogen permits the treatment method to be specifically targeted to the causation pathogen, resulting in less discarded milk. The disadvantages are the additional waiting time to receive test results, which delays treating cows, and the cost of the culture test. Net returns per year (NR) for various levels of information were estimated using a dynamic programming model. The Value of Information (VOI) was then calculated as the difference in NR using a specific level of information as compared to more detailed information on the CM causative agent. The highest VOI was observed where the farmer assumed the pathogen causing CM was the one with the highest incidence in the herd and no pathogen specific CM information was obtained. The VOI of pathogen specific information, compared with non-optimal treatment of Staphylococcus aureus where recurrence and spread occurred due to lack of treatment efficacy, was $20.43 when the same incorrect treatment was applied to recurrent cases, and $30.52 when recurrent cases were assumed to be the next highest incidence pathogen and treated accordingly. This indicates that negative consequences associated with choosing the wrong CM treatment can make additional information cost-effective if pathogen identification is assessed at the generic information level and if the pathogen can spread to other cows if not treated appropriately.
Juan Sepúlveda Aceves
Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia de las autovacunas como herramienta en el control de mastitis en 52 vacas en producción. Se cultivó leche de los animales seleccionados y de los microorganismos ambientales aislados se preparó una autovacuna polivalente de células muertas con pseudocápsula, se aplicaron 2 dosis de 5 ml cada una con intervalo de 15 días a 26 animales, el resto de ellos fue un grupo control, los animales tenían características similares. Se contaron las células somáticas por mililitro de leche (CCS / ml cada tercer día desde la primera aplicación de vacuna hasta completar 30 días, el grupo vacunado mantuvo una media geométrica con menor número de células somáticas por mililitro (272,952 que el grupo control (326,098; se obtuvo una reducción del 16.2% (p= 0.01. Luego se midieron células somáticas cada mes durante 6 meses y el grupo tratamiento presentó una reducción de 23% (p = 0.02 con respecto al grupo control (252,000 y 328,500 ccs/ml respectivamente. También se observó en animales vacunados una reducción de la incidencia de mastitis subclínica de 16.9% y clínica de 35.3% (p= 0.01 y p= 0.1. A su vez se registró la producción promedio de leche de 0 a 30 días pos tratamiento, la cual fue superior en los animales vacunados por 0.6 L (2.7%, p = 0.04, de 15 días a 4 meses pos tratamiento 1.9 L (7.3%, p < 0.05 y de 15 días a 6 meses pos tratamiento de 1.1 L (4.3%, p < 0.05. Las vacunas autógenas demostraron ser efectivas para control de mastitis subclínica y clínica además de ayudar a mejorar la producción láctea.
Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Gougoulis, D A; Gallidis, E; Ptochos, S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Fthenakis, G C
Objective was to study, in an experimental model, the possible role of gastrointestinal nematode infection in predisposing ewes to mastitis during the lactation period. Twenty-four ewes (A or B [n=12]), free from nematode and trematode helminths, were used. Group A animals received 5000 third-stage larvae of a trichostrongylid helminth cocktail and group B ewes were unparasitised controls. Animals in group A developed gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis confirmed by >500epg in faecal samples; mean epg of group B ewes were Ewes were challenged by deposition of Mannheimia haemolytica into the teat duct. In group A, 7 ewes developed clinical and 5 subclinical mastitis; no ewe in group B developed clinical mastitis, but only subclinical (12 ewes) (P=0.002). M. haemolytica was isolated from 132/132 and 121/132 udder samples from group A or B, respectively (Pewes that developed clinical mastitis than in others which did not (0.709 and 0.162 versus 0.662 and 0.136, respectively; Pewes with subclinical mastitis (in group A or B), inducible-lymphoid-follicles were observed in the teat, which were not observed in ewes with clinical disease. Total pathology scores summed over all days were 127 and 73 for group A or B ewes, respectively (maximum possible 192; Pewes that developed clinical mastitis. It is concluded that, in view of bacterial challenge, gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis and particularly Teladorsagia infection, might lead to clinical mastitis, through various pathogenetic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Demon, Dieter; Ludwig, Carolin; Breyne, Koen; Guédé, David; Dörner, Julia-Charlotte; Froyman, Robrecht; Meyer, Evelyne
Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in cattle causes important financial losses in the dairy industry due to lower yield and bad milk quality. Although S. aureus is susceptible to many antimicrobials in vitro, treatment often fails to cure the infected udder. Hence, comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobials against S. aureus mastitis is desirable to direct treatment strategies. The mouse mastitis model is an elegant tool to evaluate antimicrobials in vivo while circumventing the high costs associated with bovine experiments. An evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of the intramammary (imam) applied first generation cephalosporins cefalexin, cefalonium, cefapirin and cefazolin, was performed using the S. aureus mouse mastitis model. In vivo determination of the effective dose 2log(10) (ED(2log10)), ED(4log10), protective dose 50 (PD(50)) and PD(100) in mouse mastitis studies, support that in vitro MIC data of the cephalosporins did not fully concur with the in vivo clinical outcome. Cefazolin was shown to be the most efficacious first generation cephalosporin to treat S. aureus mastitis whereas the MIC data indicate that cefalonium and cefapirin were more active in vitro. Changing the excipient for imam application from mineral oil to miglyol 812 further improved the antimicrobial efficacy of cefazolin, confirming that the excipient can influence the in vivo efficacy. Additionally, statistical analysis of the variation of S. aureus-infected, excipient-treated mice from fourteen studies emphasizes the strength of the mouse mastitis model as a fast, cost-effective and highly reproducible screening tool to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial compounds against intramammary S. aureus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available (Green antibiotic betel leaf (Piper betle l. as a substitute for commercial antibiotic in mastitis treatment ABSTRACT. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible antibacterial activity of betel leaf on the amount and microscopic appearance of mastitis-causing bacteria. The randomized block design with 5 treatment groups were : K group (mastitis milk only as negative control, Ab group (mastitis milk + antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin as positive control, S1 group (mastitis milk + 1,25 ml betel leaf water extract, S2 group (mastitis milk+ 2,5 ml betel leaf water extract, and S3 group (mastitis milk + 5 ml betel leaf water extract. The result showed that the amount of bacteria in the betel leaves groups (S1, S2, and S3 groups were lower (P 0,05. Moreover, this research showed that betel leaf water extract had the same effectiveness with commercial antibiotic penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin to inhibit the growth of bacteria as indicated by the same amount of bacteria (P>0,05 among the betel leaf groups (S1, S2, and S3 groups and the Ab group. Gram-positive and negative bacteria were seen in the K group. However, only Gram-negative bacteria were visible in the betel leaf groups (S1, S2, and S3 groups and in the Ab groups, indicating that betel leaf had the same effectiveness as penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria.
B. G. Welderufael
Full Text Available Because mastitis is very frequent and unavoidable, adding recovery information into the analysis for genetic evaluation of mastitis is of great interest from economical and animal welfare point of view. Here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS to identify associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate the genetic background not only for susceptibility to – but also for recoverability from mastitis. Somatic cell count records from 993 Danish Holstein cows genotyped for a total of 39378 autosomal SNP markers were used for the association analysis. Single SNP regression analysis was performed using the statistical software package DMU. Substitution effect of each SNP was tested with a t-test and a genome-wide significance level of P-value < 10-4 was used to declare significant SNP-trait association. A number of significant SNP variants were identified for both traits. Many of the SNP variants associated either with susceptibility to – or recoverability from mastitis were located in or very near to genes that have been reported for their role in the immune system. Genes involved in lymphocyte developments (e.g., MAST3 and STAB2 and genes involved in macrophage recruitment and regulation of inflammations (PDGFD and PTX3 were suggested as possible causal genes for susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis, respectively. However, this is the first GWAS study for recoverability from mastitis and our results need to be validated. The findings in the current study are, therefore, a starting point for further investigations in identifying causal genetic variants or chromosomal regions for both susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis.
Mignacca, Sebastian Alessandro; Dore, Simone; Spuria, Liliana; Zanghì, Pietro; Amato, Benedetta; Duprè, Ilaria; Armas, Federica; Biasibetti, Elena; Camperio, Cristina; Lollai, Stefano A; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Cannas, Eugenia Agnese; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo; Marianelli, Cinzia
Alternatives to antibiotic therapy for mastitis in ruminants are needed. We present an evaluation, in two trials, of the efficacy of an intramammary infusion of a live culture of Lactococcus lactis for the treatment of subclinical and clinical mastitis in ewes. In total, 67 animals were enrolled: 19 lactating ewes (study 1), including healthy (N=6) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)-infected ewes (N=13); and 48 lactating ewes (study 2) with either CNS mastitis (N=32), or Staphylococcus aureus mastitis (N=16), for a total of 123 mammary glands. Intramammary infusions were performed with either L. lactis or PBS for 3 (study 1) or 7 (study 2) consecutive days. Antibiotic-treated and untreated control glands were included. Milk samples for microbiology, somatic cell analysis and milk production were collected before and after treatment.Results/Key findings.L. lactis rapidly activated the mammary glands' innate immune response and initiated an inflammatory response as evidenced by the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and increased somatic cell counts. But while leading to a transient clearance of CNS in the gland, this response caused mild to moderate clinical cases of mastitis characterized by abnormal milk secretions and udder inflammation. Moreover, S. aureus infections did not improve, and CNS infections tended to relapse. Under our experimental conditions, the L. lactis treatment led to a transient clearance of the pathogen in the gland, but also caused mild to moderate clinical cases of mastitis. We believe it is still early to implement bacterial formulations as alternatives in treating mastitis in ruminants and further experimentation is needed.
Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial and small-scale farms in Zimbabwe. Thirty five quarter milk samples from clinical mastitis cases and 371 quarter milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis were cultured for bacterial pathogens. The most frequent pathogens isolated in clinical mastitis were the enteric bacteria (31.4 %, followed by coagulase negative staphylococci (22.9 % and then Staphylococcus aureus (17.1 %, whereas in subclinical mastitis S. aureus (34.2 % and coagulase-negative staphylococci were (33.2 % the most common. Bacillus species were only isolated in milk samples from subclinical mastitis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were observed in mixed infections with other bacteria in only 2.2 % of the 406 milk samples from clinical and subclinical mastitis where they were isolated together with Bacillus species in 6 of the 9 mixed infection cases. About 95 % of the milk samples from which 131 coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated had correspondingly high somatic cell counts. The coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated most frequently were S. chromogenes (7.9 %, S. epidermidis (7.4 % and S. hominis (5.9 %. They were all associated with high somatic cell counts. All the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin and erythromycin, and more than 90 %of the isolates were susceptible to neomycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (17.6 %, followed by lincomycin (13.7 %. About 8 % of the isolates were resistant to both penicillin and streptomycin.
Ebert, Fanny; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Simons, Julia; Pieper, Laura
Mastitis is one of the most common diseases in dairy production, and homeopathic remedies have been used increasingly in recent years to treat it. Clinical trials evaluating homeopathy have often been criticized for their inadequate scientific approach. The objective of this triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in bovine clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a conventionally managed dairy farm between June 2013 and May 2014. Dairy cows with acute mastitis were randomly allocated to homeopathy (n = 70) or placebo (n = 92), for a total of 162 animals. The homeopathic treatment was selected based on clinical symptoms but most commonly consisted of a combination of nosodes with Streptococcinum, Staphylococcinum, Pyrogenium, and Escherichia coli at a potency of 200c. Treatment was administered to cows in the homeopathy group at least once per day for an average of 5 d. The cows in the placebo group were treated similarly, using a placebo preparation instead (lactose globules without active ingredients). If necessary, we also used allopathic drugs (e.g., antibiotics, udder creams, and anti-inflammatory drugs) in both groups. We recorded data relating to the clinical signs of mastitis, treatment, time to recovery, milk yield, somatic cell count at first milk recording after mastitis, and culling. We observed cows for up to 200 d after clinical recovery. Base-level data did not differ between the homeopathy and placebo groups. Mastitis lasted for an average of 6 d in both groups. We observed no significant differences in time to recovery, somatic cell count, risk of clinical cure within 14 d after disease occurrence, mastitis recurrence risk, or culling risk. The results indicated no additional effect of homeopathic treatment compared with placebo. The advantages or disadvantages of homeopathy should be carefully assessed for individual farms. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by
Cássia Yumi Ikuta
Full Text Available Research, development of new biotechnological methods, diagnostic tests, confirmation of results, and reinvestigations are possible because of the availability of well-preserved living organisms maintained without any changes. Cryopreservation is a simpler, more reliable and long-term stable method for culture maintenance. Storage temperature and composition of the suspending vehicle are factors that affect the viability of mycobacterial strains. Three vehicles and three storage temperatures were evaluated to define a suitable cryoprotective medium for the preservation of Mycobacterium bovis strains. Colonies of sixteen M. bovis isolates were used to prepare the suspensions, which were then added to three vehicles: sterile 0.85% saline solution (SS, Middlebrook 7H9 broth (7H9, and Middlebrook 7H9 broth with sodium pyruvate (7H9p replacing glycerol. Aliquots of these suspensions were frozen by three different methods, directly in the -20°C freezer, directly in the -80°C freezer, and at -196°C by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN. The frozen aliquots were thawed at room temperature after 45, 90 and 120 days. Mycobacterial viability was assessed by counting the living cells on plates of Stonebrink medium before and after the freezing procedure. Storage at -20°C exhibited a lower recovery of M. bovis compared to storage at -80°C (Dunn’s test, p=0.0018 and LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.0352. There was no statistically significant difference between storage at -80°C and in LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.1403, yet -80°C showed better results than LN. All three suspending vehicles showed no statistically significant difference in terms of viability (Friedman’s test, p=0.7765. Given the low loss proportion of 5% during storage at -20°C and the high cost equipment required for storage at -80°C and LN, we recommend storage at -20°C or -80°C, when this is available, for preservation of M. bovis field strains.
Davidson, Rebecca M; DeGroote, Mary Ann; Marola, Jamie L; Buss, Sarah; Jones, Victoria; McNeil, Michael R; Freifeld, Alison G; Elaine Epperson, L; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Jackson, Mary; Iwen, Peter C; Salfinger, Max; Strong, Michael
A novel slowly growing, non-chromogenic species of the class Actinobacteria was isolated from a human respiratory sample in Nebraska, USA, in 2012. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence supported placement into the genus Mycobacterium with high sequence similarity to a previously undescribed strain isolated from a patient respiratory sample from Oregon, USA, held in a collection in Colorado, USA, in 2000. The two isolates were subjected to phenotypic testing and whole genome sequencing and found to be indistinguishable. The bacteria were acid-fast stain-positive, rod-shaped and exhibited growth after 7-10 days on solid media at temperatures ranging from 25 to 42°C. Colonies were non-pigmented, rough and slightly raised. Analyses of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight profiles showed no matches against a reference library of 130 mycobacterial species. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical for the two isolates, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) between their genomes was 99.7 % and phylogenetic comparisons classified the novel mycobacteria as the basal most species in the slowly growing Mycobacterium clade. Mycobacterium avium is the most closely related species based on rpoB gene sequence similarity (92 %), but the ANI between the genomes was 81.5 %, below the suggested cut-off for differentiating two species (95 %). Mycolic acid profiles were more similar to M. avium than to Mycobacterium simiae or Mycobacterium abscessus. The phenotypic and genomic data support the conclusion that the two related isolates represent a novel Mycobacterium species for which the name Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE-TNMC-100812T (=ATCC BAA-2683T=DSM 46873T).
Satti, L.; Abbasi, S.; Sattar, A.; Ikram, A.; Manzar, M.A.; Khalid, M.M.
Incidence and prevalence of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection vary greatly by location and death is very rare except in disseminated disease in immunocompromised individuals. We present what we believe is the first case of bone marrow infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum in an HIV negative patient. Bone marrow examination revealed presence of numerous acid fast bacilli which were confirmed as Mycobacterium fortuitum on culture and by molecular analysis. Patient was managed successfully with amikacin and ciprofloxacin. (author)
Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.
Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…
Staphylococci cause bovine mastitis with Staphylococcus aureus being responsible for the majority of the mastitis-based losses to the dairy industry (up to $2 billion/annum). Treatment is primarily with antibiotics that are often ineffective and potentially contribute to resistance development. Bac...
van den Borne, B. H P; Lam, T. J G M; van Schaik, G.
The aim of this study was to associate changes in dairy farmers' self-reported attitude, knowledge, and behavior with the decrease in incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM). Farmer-diagnosed clinical mastitis cases were obtained from two surveys conducted before (July 2004-June 2005) and at the
Borne, van den B.H.P.; Jansen, J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Schaik, van G.
The aim of this study was to associate changes in dairy farmers' self-reported attitude, knowledge, and behavior with the decrease in incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM). Farmer-diagnosed clinical mastitis cases were obtained from two surveys conducted before (July 2004–June 2005) and at the