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Sample records for massless phi4 theory

  1. Debye mass of massless \\phi^4-theory to order g^6 at weak coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the Debye mass of massless \\phi^4-theory to order g^6 at weak coupling. The contributions to the Debye mass arise from the hard momentum scale of order T and the soft momentum scale of order gT. Effective field theory methods and dimensional reduction are used to separate the contributions from the two momentum scales. The hard contribution can be calculated as a power series in g^2 using naive perturbation theory with bare propagators. The soft contribution is calculated using an effective theory in three dimensions, whose coefficients are power series in g^2. This contribution is a power series in g starting at order g^3. The calculation of the hard part to order g^6. The calculation of the soft part requires calculating the mass parameter in the effective theory to order g^6 and the evaluation of four-loop self-energy diagrams in three dimensions. This gives the Debye mass correct up to order g^6. We discuss the convergence of the perturbative series as well as the loop expansion in three dime...

  2. Semiclassical transition in \\phi^4 theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kyatkin, A B

    1994-01-01

    We have shown an example of semiclassical transition in $\\phi^{4}$ theory with positive coupling constant. This process can be described by the classical $O(4)$-invariant solution, considered on a contour in the complex time plane. The transition is technically analogous to the one-instanton transition in the electroweak model. It is suppressed by the factor $\\exp(-2S_{0})$, where $S_{0}$ is Lipatov instanton action. This process describes a semiclassical transition between two coherent states with much smaller number of particles in the initial state than in the final state. Therefore, it could be relevant to the problem of calculation of amplitudes for multiparticle production in $\\phi^4$-type models.

  3. Shear viscosity of the $\\Phi^4$ theory from classical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Homor, M M

    2015-01-01

    Shear viscosity of the classical $\\Phi^4$ theory is measured using classical microcanonical simulation. To calculate the Kubo formula, we measure the energy-momentum tensor correlation function, and apply the Green-Kubo relation. Being a classical theory, the results depend on the cutoff which should be chosen in the range of the temperature. Comparison with experimentally accessible systems is also performed.

  4. Equilibration in phi^4 theory in 3+1 dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizabalaga, A; Tranberg, A; Arrizabalaga, Alejandro; Smit, Jan; Tranberg, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The process of equilibration in phi^4 theory is investigated for a homogeneous system in 3+1 dimensions and a variety of out-of-equilibrium initial conditions, both in the symmetric and broken phase, by means of the 2PI effective action. Two Phi-derivable approximations including scattering effects are used: the two-loop and the ``basketball'', the latter corresponding to the truncation of the 2PI effective action at O(lambda^2). The approach to equilibrium, as well as the kinetic and chemical equilibration is investigated.

  5. Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory and Gradient Flow in {\\phi}^4 Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brida, Mattia Dalla; Kennedy, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we present an exploratory study of several novel methods for numerical stochastic perturbation theory. For the investigation we consider observables defined through the gradient flow in the simple {\\phi}^4 theory.

  6. Critical $O(2)$ and $O(3)$ $\\phi^4$ theories near six dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Herbut, Igor F

    2015-01-01

    We consider $O(N)$-symmetric bosonic $\\phi^4$ field theories above four dimensions, and propose a new reformulation in terms of an irreducible tensorial field with a cubic and Yukawa terms. The $\\phi^4$ field theory so rewritten exhibits real and nontrivial IR-stable fixed points near and below six dimension, for low values of $N$ such as $N=2$ and $N=3$. The so-defined UV completions of the $O(2)$ and $O(3)$ models hence constitute precious examples of asymptotically safe quantum field theories. The possibility of an extension of our results to five dimensions is discussed.

  7. Strong-Coupling $\\phi^4$-Theory in $4- \\epsilon$ Dimensions and Critical Exponents

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinert, Hagen

    1998-01-01

    With the help of variational perturbation theory we continue the renormalization constants $\\phi^4$-theories in $4- \\epsilon$ dimensions to strong bare couplings $g_0$ and find their power behavior in $g_0$, thereby determining all critical exponents without renormalization group techniques.

  8. Truncated Hilbert space approach to the 2d $\\phi^{4}$ theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z

    2015-01-01

    We apply the massive analogue of the truncated conformal space approach to study the two dimensional $\\phi^{4}$ theory in finite volume. We focus on the broken phase and determine the finite size spectrum of the model numerically. We compare these results against semi-classical analysis and the Bethe-Yang spectrum.

  9. Nonperturbative calculation of the shear viscosity in hot $\\phi^{4}$ theory in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, E; Wang, Enke; Heinz, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Starting from the Kubo formula we calculate the shear viscosity in hot phi**4 theory nonperturbatively by resumming ladders with a real-time version of the Bethe-Salpeter equation at finite temperature. In the weak coupling limit, the generalized Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem is shown to decouple the Bethe-Salpeter equations for the different real-time components of the 4-point function. The resulting scalar integral equation is identical with the one obtained by Jeon using diagrammatic ``cutting rules'' in the Imaginary Time Formalism.

  10. Hamiltonian Truncation Study of the Phi^4 Theory in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Rychkov, Slava

    2015-01-01

    We defend the Fock-space Hamiltonian truncation method, which allows to calculate numerically the spectrum of strongly coupled quantum field theories, by putting them in a finite volume and imposing a UV cutoff. The accuracy of the method is improved via an analytic renormalization procedure inspired by the usual effective field theory. As an application, we study the two-dimensional Phi^4 theory for a wide range of couplings. The theory exhibits a quantum phase transition between the symmetry-preserving and symmetry-breaking phases. We extract quantitative predictions for the spectrum and the critical coupling and make contact with previous results from the literature. Future directions to further improve the accuracy of the method and enlarge its scope of applications are outlined.

  11. Scaling analysis of the O(4)-symmetric $\\Phi^4$-theory in the broken phase

    CERN Document Server

    Göckeler, Meinulf; Neuhaus, Thomas; Zimmermann, Frank; 10.1016/0550-3213(93)90489-C

    2009-01-01

    We study the $O(4)$-symmetric $ \\Phi^4 $-theory in the scaling region of the broken phase using the standard and a Symanzik improved action with infinite bare self-coupling $\\lambda$. A high precision Monte Carlo simulation is performed by applying the reflection cluster algorithm. Employing the histogram method we analytically continue to a sequence of values of the hopping parameter $\\kappa$ neighbouring the actually simulated ones. In the investigated vicinity of the critical point $\\kappa_{c}$ finite volume effects affecting, e.g., the determination of the field expectation value $\\Sigma$ and the mass $m_\\sigma$ of the $\\sigma$-particle are very well described by 1-loop renormalized perturbation theory. We carry out a detailed scaling analysis on a high level of precision. Finally we discuss the upper bound on the Higgs mass for both kinds of actions.

  12. Weyl geometry, anti-De Sitter space, and $\\Phi^4$-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Camargo, H A; Socolovsky, M

    2015-01-01

    We study the Gaussian approximation to the quantum fluctuations of the metric of the four dimensional anti-De Sitter spacetime. The associated massless scalar field has a quartic self interaction, for which we construct the generating functional of the $n$-point correlation functions. The concomitant infrared divergence is cured by a mass renormalization provided by the cosmological constant, which is also responsible for the renormalization of the coupling constant of the field theory.

  13. Truncated Hilbert Space Approach for the 1+1D phi^4 Theory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    (an informal seminar, not a regular string seminar) We used the massive analogue of the truncated conformal space approach to study the broken phase of the 1+1 dimensional scalar phi^4 model in finite volume, similarly to the work by S. Rychkov and L. Vitale. In our work, the finite size spectrum was determined numerically using an effective eigensolver routine, which was followed by a simple extrapolation in the cutoff energy. We analyzed both the periodic and antiperiodic sectors. The results were compared with semiclassical and Bethe-Yang results as well as perturbation theory. We obtained the coupling dependence of the infinite volume breather and kink masses for moderate couplings. The results fit well with semiclassics and perturbative estimations, and confirm the conjecture of Mussardo that at most two neutral excitations can exist in the spectrum. We believe that improving our method with the renormalization procedure of Rychkov et al. enables to measure further interesting quantities such as decay ra...

  14. Two-dimensional light-front $\\phi^4$ theory in a symmetric polynomial basis

    CERN Document Server

    Burkardt, M; Hiller, J R

    2016-01-01

    We study the lowest-mass eigenstates of $\\phi^4_{1+1}$ theory with both odd and even numbers of constituents. The calculation is carried out as a diagonalization of the light-front Hamiltonian in a Fock-space representation. In each Fock sector a fully symmetric polynomial basis is used to represent the Fock wave function. Convergence is investigated with respect to the number of basis polynomials in each sector and with respect to the number of sectors. The dependence of the spectrum on the coupling strength is used to estimate the critical coupling for the positive-mass-squared case. An apparent discrepancy with equal-time calculations of the critical coupling is resolved by an appropriate mass renormalization.

  15. Deforming the theory lambda-phi-4 along the parameters and fields gradient flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, R

    2014-01-01

    Considering the action for the theory $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ for a massive scalar bosonic field as an entropy functional on the space of coupling constants and on the space of fields, we determine the gradient flows for the scalar field, the mass, and the self-interaction parameter. When the flow parameter is identified with the energy scale, we show that there exist phase transitions between unbroken exact symmetry scenarios and spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios at increasingly high energies. Since a non-linear heat equation drives the scalar field through a {\\it reaction-diffusion} process, in general the flows are not reversible, mimicking the renormalization group flows of the $c$-theorem; the deformation of the field at increasingly high energies can be described as non-linear traveling waves, or solitons associated to self-similar solutions

  16. Dirac-Kahler Theory and Massless Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pletyukhov, V A

    2010-01-01

    Three massless limits of the Dirac-Kahler theory are considered. It is shown that the Dirac-Kahler equation for massive particles can be represented as a result of the gauge-invariant mixture (topological interaction) of the above massless fields.

  17. Conformal invariance in massless DKP theory

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Lunardi, J T; Teixeira, R G

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the conformal invariance properties of massless scalar and vector fields in riemannian space-times in the framework of Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) theory. A comparison with the traditional approach based on (massless) Klein-Gordon and Maxwell equations is also presented.

  18. The vacuum structure of light-front $\\phi^{4}_{1+1}$-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Heinzl, T; Werner, E; Zellermann, B

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the vacuum structure of \\phi^4-theory in 1+1 dimensions quantised on the light-front x^+ =0. To this end, one has to solve a non-linear, operator-valued constraint equation. It expresses that mode of the field operator having longitudinal light-front momentum equal to zero, as a function of all the other modes in the theory. We analyse whether this zero mode can lead to a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of the field \\phi and thus to spontaneous symmetry breaking. In perturbation theory, we get no symmetry breaking. If we solve the constraint, however, non-perturbatively, within a mean-field type Fock ansatz, the situation changes: while the vacuum state itself remains trivial, we find a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value above a critical coupling. Exactly the same result is obtained within a light-front Tamm-Dancoff approximation, if the renormalisation is done in the correct way.

  19. On the low-energy spectrum of spontaneously broken \\Phi^4 theories

    CERN Document Server

    Consoli, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of a one-component, spontaneously broken \\Phi^4 theory is generally believed to have the same simple massive form \\sqrt{{\\bf p}^2 + m^2_h} as in the symmetric phase where =0. However, in lattice simulations of the 4D Ising limit of the theory, the two-point connected correlator and the connected scalar propagator show deviations from a standard massive behaviour that do not exist in the symmetric phase. As a support for this observed discrepancy, I present a variational, analytic calculation of the energy spectrum E_1({\\bf p}) in the broken phase. This analytic result, while providing the trend E_1({\\bf p})\\sim \\sqrt{{\\bf p}^2 + m^2_h} at large |{\\bf p}|, gives an energy gap E_1(0)< m_h, even when approaching the infinite-cutoff limit \\Lambda \\to \\infty with that infinitesimal coupling \\lambda \\sim 1/\\ln \\Lambda suggested by the standard interpretation of "triviality" within leading-order perturbation theory. I also compare with other approaches and discuss the more general implicat...

  20. Entanglement entropy between real and virtual particles in $\\phi ^{4}$ quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ardenghi, Juan Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to compute the entanglement entropy of real and virtual particles by rewriting the generating functional of $\\phi ^{4}$ theory as a mean value between states and observables defined through the correlation functions. Then the von Neumann definition of entropy can be applied to these quantum states and in particular, for the partial traces taken over the internal or external degrees of freedom. This procedure can be done for each order in the perturbation expansion showing that the entanglement entropy for real and virtual particles behaves as $\\ln (m_{0})$. In particular, entanglement entropy is computed at first order for the correlation function of two external points showing that mutual information is identical to the external entropy and that conditional entropies are negative for all the domain of $m_{0}$. In turn, from the definition of the quantum states, it is possible to obtain general relations between total traces between different quantum states of a r theory. Finally, disc...

  1. Implicit Regularisation Technique Calculation of the Two-loop $\\phi_{4}^{4}$-theory $\\beta$-function

    CERN Document Server

    Brizola, A; Battistel, O A; Nemes, M C; Sampaio, Marcos

    1999-01-01

    A new 4-D regularisation scheme is proposed. The main advantage is that no explicit use of a specific regulator is made and thus we can, in principle, avoid undesirable symmmetry-breakings related to its choice. We illustrate with the calculation of the $QED$ and $\\phi^4_4$-theory

  2. Study of the Six-Loop Beta Function of the $\\lambda\\phi^4_4$ Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shrock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether the six-loop beta function of the $\\lambda \\phi^4_4$ theory exhibits evidence for an ultraviolet zero. As part of our analysis, we calculate and analyze Pad\\'e approximants to this beta function. Extending our earlier results at the five-loop level, we find that in the range of $\\lambda$ where the perturbative calculation of the six-loop beta function is reliable, the theory does not exhibit robust evidence for an ultraviolet zero.

  3. Study of the Six-Loop Beta Function of the $\\lambda\\phi^4_4$ Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shrock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether the six-loop beta function of the $\\lambda \\phi^4_4$ theory exhibits evidence for an ultraviolet zero. As part of our analysis, we calculate and analyze Pad\\'e approximants to this beta function. Extending our earlier results at the five-loop level, we find that in the range of $\\lambda$ where the perturbative calculation of the six-loop beta function is reliable, the theory does not exhibit robust evidence for an ultraviolet zero.

  4. Systematic method for unification of various field theories in a two-dimensional classical $\\phi^4$ field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zarei, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Although creating a unified theory in Elementary Particles Physics is still an open problem, there are a lot of attempts for unifying other fields of physics. Following such unifications, we regard a two dimensional (2D) classical $\\Phi^{4}$ field theory model to study several field theories with different symmetries in various dimensions. While the completeness of this model has been already proved by a mapping between statistical mechanics and quantum information theory, here, we take into account a fundamental systematic approach with purely mathematical basis to re-derive such completeness in a general manner. Due to simplicity and generality, we believe that our method leads to a general approach which can be understood by other physical communities as well as quantum information theorists. Furthermore, our proof of the completeness is not only a proof-of-principle, but also an interesting algorithmic proof. We consider a discrete version of a general field theory as an arbitrary polynomial function of f...

  5. Partially massless higher-spin theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-02-01

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes "third-order" Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin algebra. We also discuss nuances in the theory that occur in specific dimensions; in particular, the theory dramatically truncates in bulk dimensions D = 3 , 5 and has non-diagonalizable mixings which occur in D = 4 , 7.

  6. Renormalization group functions of $\\phi^4$ theory in the MS-scheme to six loops

    CERN Document Server

    Kompaniets, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Subdivergences constitute a major obstacle to the evaluation of Feynman integrals and an expression in terms of finite quantities can be a considerable advantage for both analytic and numeric calculations. We report on our implementation of the suggestion by F. Brown and D. Kreimer, who proposed to use a modified BPHZ scheme where all counterterms are single-scale integrals. Paired with parametric integration via hyperlogarithms, this method is particularly well suited for the computation of renormalization group functions and easily automated. As an application of this approach we compute the 6-loop beta function and anomalous dimensions of the $\\phi^4$ model.

  7. Partially Massless Higher-Spin Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes "third-order" Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin al...

  8. Geometry of dynamics and phase transitions in classical lattice $\\phi^{4}$ theories

    CERN Document Server

    Caiani, L; Clementi, C; Pettini, G; Pettini, M; Gatto, R; Caiani, Lando; Casetti, Lapo; Clementi, Cecilia; Pettini, Giulio; Pettini, Marco; Gatto, Raoul

    1998-01-01

    We perform a microcanonical study of classical lattice phi^4 field models in 3 dimensions with O(n) symmetries. The Hamiltonian flows associated to these systems that undergo a second order phase transition in the thermodynamic limit are here investigated. The microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics neatly reveals the presence of a phase transition through the time averages of conventional thermodynamical observables. Moreover, peculiar behaviors of the largest Lyapunov exponents at the transition point are observed. A Riemannian geometrization of Hamiltonian dynamics is then used to introduce other relevant observables, that are measured as functions of both energy density and temperature. On the basis of a simple and abstract geometric model, we suggest that the apparently singular behaviour of these geometric observables might probe a major topological change of the manifolds whose geodesics are the natural motions.

  9. Critical Coupling in (1+1)-Dimensional Light-Front $\\phi^{4}$ Theory; 2, effects of non-diagonal interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Oshima, K

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in (1+1)-dimensional $\\phi^{4}$ theory is studied with discretized light-front quantization. Taking effects of non-diagonal interactions into account, the first few terms of the commutation relations $[a_{0},a_{n}]$ are recalculated in the $\\hbar$ expansion. Our result of the critical coupling is still consistent with the equal-time result $22\\mu^{2}/\\hbar \\le \\lambda_{\\rm{cr}} \\le 55.5\\mu^{2}/\\hbar$. We also have examined effects of regarding the ratio of the bare coupling constant to a renormalized mass as an independent parameter in the $\\hbar$ expansion.

  10. Recursive graphical construction of feynman diagrams and their multiplicities in straight phi(4) and straight phi2A theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert; Pelster; Kastening; Bachmann

    2000-08-01

    The free energy of a field theory can be considered as a functional of the free correlation function. As such it obeys a nonlinear functional differential equation that can be turned into a recursion relation. This is solved order by order in the coupling constant to find all connected vacuum diagrams with their proper multiplicities. The procedure is applied to a multicomponent scalar field theory with a straight phi(4) self-interaction and then to a theory of two scalar fields straight phi and A with an interaction straight phi2A. All Feynman diagrams with external lines are obtained from functional derivatives of the connected vacuum diagrams with respect to the free correlation function. Finally, the recursive graphical construction is automatized by computer algebra with the help of a unique matrix notation for the Feynman diagrams.

  11. Vertex and Propagator in $\\Phi^{4}$ Theory from 4PI Effective Action in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Carrington, M E

    2012-01-01

    A set of self-consistent nonlinear integral equations for the four-point vertex and the propagator are derived from the 4-loop 4PI effective action for scalar field theories. This set of integral equations are solved in two dimensions through numerical lattice calculations. We compare the calculated results with those of perturbation theories. We find that the 4PI calculations are well consistent with the perturbation ones in perturbative regions. Non-perturbative results are also obtained in the 4PI formalism when the interacting strength becomes large. Furthermore, the full-momentum dependence of the four-point vertex is easily obtained in the 4PI effective action theories.

  12. Symmetry breaking in noncommutative finite temperature λphi4 theory with a nonuniform ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J. M.; Ramírez, C.; Sánchez, M.

    2014-05-01

    We consider the CJT effective action at finite temperature for a noncommutative real scalar field theory, with noncommutativity among space and time variables. We study the solutions of a stripe type nonuniform background, which depends on space and time. The analysis in the first approximation shows that such solutions appear in the planar limit, but also under normal anisotropic noncommutativity. Further we show that the transition from the uniform ordered phase to the non uniform one is first order and that the critical temperature depends on the nonuniformity of the ground state.

  13. Recursive graphical construction of feynman diagrams in straight phi(4) theory: asymmetric case and effective energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastening

    2000-04-01

    The free energy of a multicomponent scalar field theory is considered as a functional W[G,J] of the free correlation function G and an external current J. It obeys nonlinear functional differential equations which are turned into recursion relations for the connected Green's functions in a loop expansion. These relations amount to a simple proof that W[G,J] generates only connected graphs and can be used to find all such graphs with their combinatoric weights. A Legendre transformation with respect to the external current converts the functional differential equations for the free energy into those for the effective energy Gamma[G,Phi], which is considered as a functional of the free correlation function G and the field expectation Phi. These equations are turned into recursion relations for the one-particle irreducible Green's functions. These relations amount to a simple proof that Gamma[G,J] generates only one-particle irreducible graphs and can be used to find all such graphs with their combinatoric weights. The techniques used also allow for a systematic investigation into resummations of classes of graphs. Examples are given for resumming one-loop and multiloop tadpoles, both through all orders of perturbation theory. Since the functional differential equations derived are nonperturbative, they constitute also a convenient starting point for other expansions than those in numbers of loops or powers of coupling constants. We work with general interactions through four powers in the field.

  14. Quantum periods: A census of \\phi^4-transcendentals

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetz, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Perturbative quantum field theories frequently feature rational linear combinations of transcendentals (periods). A prominent series of these periods are the odd zeta values \\zeta(2n+1). In massless \\phi^4-theory we show that the periods originate from certain (primitive) vacuum graphs. Primitive graphs with vertex connectivity 3 are reducible in the sense that they lead to products of lower (loop-)order periods. The number of irreducible primitive graphs is determined up to 11 loops and a list of graphs with their associated periods (if available) is given up to 8 loops.

  15. Renormalized coupling constants for 3D scalar \\lambda\\phi^4 field theory and pseudo-\\epsilon-expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitina, M A

    2016-01-01

    Renormalized coupling constants g_{2k} that enter the critical equation of state and determine nonlinear susceptibilities of the system possess universal values g*_{2k} at the Curie point. They are calculated, along with the ratios R_{2k} = g_{2k}/g_4^{k-1}, for the three-dimensional scalar \\lambda\\phi^4 field theory within the pseudo-\\epsilon-expansion approach. Pseudo-\\epsilon-expansions for g*_6, g*_8, R*_6, and R*_8 are derived in the five-loop approximation, numerical estimates are presented for R*_6 and R*_8. The higher-order coefficients of the pseudo-\\epsilon-expansions for the sextic coupling are so small that simple Pade approximants turn out to be sufficient to yield very good numerical results. Their use gives R*_6 = 1.650 while the most recent lattice estimate is R*_6 = 1.649(2). For the octic coupling pseudo-\\epsilon-expansions are less favorable from the numerical point of view. Nevertheless, Pade-Borel resummation leads in this case to R*_8 = 0.890, the number differing only slightly from the ...

  16. Massless black holes and charged wormholes in string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Goulart, Prieslei

    2016-01-01

    We present the zero mass black holes and charged Einstein-Rosen bridges (wormholes) that arise from the five parameters dyonic black hole solution of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. These massless black holes exist individually in spacetime, different from the known massless solutions which come in pairs with opposite signs for their masses. By imposing appropriate boundary conditions the massless solution can be nonextremal, extremal or a naked singularity. The nonextremal and extremal massless solutions allow the bridge construction, and from them we obtain the first analytical charged Einstein-Rosen bridge satisfying the null energy condition ever found.

  17. Massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory and Pseudoclassical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Valverde, J S

    2005-01-01

    We give an action for the massless spinning particle in pseudoclassical mechanics by using grassmann variables. The constructed action is invariant under $\\tau $-reparametrizations, local SUSY and O(N) transformations. After quantization, for the special case N=2, we get an action which describes the spin 0, 1 and topological sectors of the massless DKP theory.

  18. The spectrum of the anomalous dimensions of the composite operators in the $\\varepsilon$- expansion in the scalar $\\phi^{4}$ - field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Derkachov, S E

    1995-01-01

    The spectrum of the anomalous dimensions of the composite operators (with arbitrary number of fields n and derivatives l) in the scalar \\phi^4 - theory in the first order of the \\epsilon -expansion is investigated. The exact solution for the operators with number of fields \\leq 4 is presented. The behaviour of the anomalous dimensions in the large l limit has been analyzed. It is given the qualitative description of the structure of the spectrum for the arbitrary n.

  19. $\\Phi^{4}$ Oscillatons

    CERN Document Server

    Valdez-Alvarado, Susana; Urena-Lopez, L Arturo

    2011-01-01

    We solve numerically the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system with spherical symmetry, for a massive real scalar field endowed with a quartic self-interaction potential, and obtain the so-called $\\Phi^4$-oscillatons which is the short name for oscillating soliton stars. We analyze numerically the stability of such oscillatons, and study the influence of the quartic potential on the behavior of both, the stable (S-oscillatons) and unstable (U-oscillatons) cases under small and strong radial perturbations.

  20. Infrared-Finite Amplitudes for Massless Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, D A

    2003-01-01

    We present a method to construct infrared-finite amplitudes for gauge theories with massless fermions. Rather than computing $S$-matrix elements between usual states of the Fock space we construct order-by-order in perturbation theory dressed states that incorporate all long-range interactions. The $S$-matrix elements between these states are shown to be free from soft and collinear singularities. As an explicit example we consider the process $e^+ e^-\\to 2$ jets at next-to-leading order in the strong coupling. We verify by explicit calculation that the amplitudes are infrared finite and recover the well-known result for the total cross section $e^+ e^-\\to$ hadrons.

  1. Massless Winger particles in conformal field theory are free

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimoto, Yoh

    2013-01-01

    We show that in a four dimensional conformal Haag-Kastler net, its massless particle spectrum is generated by a free field subnet. If the massless particle spectrum is scalar, then the free field subnet decouples as a tensor product component.

  2. Interaction Between Massive and Massless Gravitons by Perturbing Topological Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Koorambas

    2012-01-01

    We test the Wu gauge theory of gravity with massive gravitons in the perturbing topological field theory framework. We show that the computation of the correlation function between massive and massless gravitons is reported up to 4-loop and appears to be unaffected by radiative correction. This result ensures the stability of the linking number between massive and massless gravitons with respect to the local perturbation, a result with potential wider applications in cosmology.

  3. Inflaton Fragmentation After lambda phi^4 Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G N; Felder, Gary N; Navros, Olga

    2007-01-01

    We use lattice simulations to examine the detailed dynamics of inflaton fragmentation during and after preheating in $\\lambda \\phi^4$ chaotic inflation. The dynamics are qualitatively similar to preheating after $m^2 \\phi^2$ inflation, involving the exponential growth and subsequent expansion and collision of bubble-like inhomogeneities of the inflaton and other scalar fields. During this stage fluctuations of the fields become strongly non-Gaussian. In the quartic theory, the conformal nature of the theory allows us to extend our simulations to much greater times than is possible for the quadratic model. With these longer simulations we have been able to determine the time scale on which Gaussianity is restored, which occurs after a time on the order of a thousand inflaton oscillations.

  4. Behavior of boundary string field theory associated with integrable massless flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, A; Itoyama, H

    2001-06-04

    We put forward an idea that the boundary entropy associated with integrable massless flow of thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) is identified with tachyon action of boundary string field theory. We show that the temperature parametrizing a massless flow in the TBA formalism can be identified with tachyon energy for the classical action at least near the ultraviolet fixed point, i.e., the open string vacuum.

  5. Pressure of massless hot scalar theory in the boundary effective theory framework

    CERN Document Server

    Bessa, A; de Carvalho, C A A; Fraga, E S

    2010-01-01

    We use the boundary effective theory (BET) approach to thermal field theory in order to calculate the pressure of a system of massless scalar fields with quartic interaction. The method naturally separates the infrared physics, and is essentially non-perturbative. To lowest order, the main ingredient is the solution of the free Euler-Lagrange equation with non-trivial (time) boundary conditions. We derive a resummed pressure, which is in good agreement with recent calculations found in the literature, following a very direct and compact procedure.

  6. Massless and Massive Gauge-Invariant Fields in the Theory of Relativistic Wave Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Pletyukhov, V A

    2010-01-01

    In this work consideration is given to massless and massive gauge-invariant spin 0 and spin 1 fields (particles) within the scope of a theory of the generalized relativistic wave equations with an extended set of the Lorentz group representations. The results obtained may be useful as regards the application of a relativistic wave-equation theory in modern field models.

  7. Geometric Representation of the generator of duality in massless and massive $p-$form field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, Ernesto; Martinez, Yisely

    2010-01-01

    We study the invariance under duality transformations in massless and massive $p-$form field theories and obtain the Noether generators of the infinitesimal transformations that correspond to this symmetry. These generators are realized in geometrical representations that generalize the Loop Representation of the Maxwell field, allowing for a geometrical interpretation which is studied.

  8. Massless interacting particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosyakov, B P [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Sarov, 607190 Nizhnii Novgorod Region (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kosyakov@vniief.ru

    2008-11-21

    We show that classical electrodynamics of massless charged particles and the Yang-Mills theory of massless quarks do not experience rearranging their initial degrees of freedom into dressed particles and radiation. Massless particles do not radiate. We propose a conformally invariant version of the direct interparticle action theory for these systems.

  9. Generic scaling relation in the scalar $\\phi^{4}$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Derkachov, S E

    1996-01-01

    The results of analysis of the one--loop spectrum of anomalous dimensions of composite operators in the scalar \\phi^{4} model are presented. We give the rigorous constructive proof of the hypothesis on the hierarchical structure of the spectrum of anomalous dimensions -- the naive sum of any two anomalous dimensions generates a limit point in the spectrum. Arguments in favor of the nonperturbative character of this result and the possible ways of a generalization to other field theories are briefly discussed.

  10. Conformal invariance of massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory in Riemannian spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, R [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lunardi, J T [Grupo de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Av. Gal. Carlos Cavalcanti 4748, 84032-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Pimentel, B M [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, R G [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do EspIrito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari s/n, Goiabeiras, CEP 29060-900, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2005-07-21

    We investigate the conformal invariance of massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory coupled to Riemannian spacetimes. We show that, as usual, in the minimal coupling procedure only the spin 1 sector of the theory-which corresponds to the electromagnetic field-is conformally invariant. We also show that the conformal invariance of the spin 0 sector can be naturally achieved by introducing a compensating term in the Lagrangian. Such a procedure-besides not modifying the spin 1 sector-leads to the well-known conformal coupling between the scalar curvature and the massless Klein-Gordon-Fock field. Going beyond the Riemannian spacetimes, we briefly discuss the effects of a nonvanishing torsion in the scalar case.

  11. Conformal invariance of massless Duffin Kemmer Petiau theory in Riemannian spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; Lunardi, J. T.; Pimentel, B. M.; Teixeira, R. G.

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the conformal invariance of massless Duffin Kemmer Petiau theory coupled to Riemannian spacetimes. We show that, as usual, in the minimal coupling procedure only the spin 1 sector of the theory—which corresponds to the electromagnetic field—is conformally invariant. We also show that the conformal invariance of the spin 0 sector can be naturally achieved by introducing a compensating term in the Lagrangian. Such a procedure—besides not modifying the spin 1 sector—leads to the well-known conformal coupling between the scalar curvature and the massless Klein Gordon Fock field. Going beyond the Riemannian spacetimes, we briefly discuss the effects of a nonvanishing torsion in the scalar case.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation Calculation of Critical Coupling Constant for Continuum \\phi^4_2

    OpenAIRE

    Loinaz, Will; Willey, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    We perform a Monte Carlo simulation calculation of the critical coupling constant for the continuum {\\lambda \\over 4} \\phi^4_2 theory. The critical coupling constant we obtain is [{\\lambda \\over \\mu^2}]_crit=10.24(3).

  13. Boundary scattering in the phi^4 model

    CERN Document Server

    Dorey, Patrick; Mercer, James; Romanczukiewicz, Tomasz; Shnir, Yasha

    2015-01-01

    We study boundary scattering in the phi^4 model on a half-line with a one-parameter family of Neumann-type boundary conditions. A rich variety of phenomena is observed, which extends previously-studied behaviour on the full line to include regimes of near-elastic scattering, the restoration of a missing scattering window, and the creation of a kink or oscillon through the collision-induced decay of a metastable boundary state.

  14. Partially Massless Higher-Spin Theory II: One-Loop Effective Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We continue our study of a generalization of the D-dimensional linearized Vasiliev higher-spin equations to include a tower of partially massless (PM) fields. We compute one-loop effective actions by evaluating zeta functions for both the "minimal" and "non-minimal" parity-even versions of the theory. Specifically, we compute the log-divergent part of the effective action in odd-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=7 through 19 (dual to the $a$-type conformal anomaly of the dual boundary theory), and the finite part of the effective action in even-dimensional Euclidean AdS spaces for D=4 through 8 (dual to the free energy on a sphere of the dual boundary theory). We pay special attention to the case D=4, where module mixings occur in the dual field theory and subtlety arises in the one-loop computation. The results provide evidence that the theory is UV complete and one-loop exact, and we conjecture and provide evidence for a map between the inverse Newton's constant of the partially massless higher-spin th...

  15. Massless interacting particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kosyakov, B P

    2007-01-01

    We show that classical electrodynamics of massless charged particles and the Yang--Mills--Wong theory of massless quarks do not experience rearranging their initial degrees of freedom into dressed particles and radiation. Massless particles do not radiate. We propose a version of the direct interparticle action theory for such systems, which offers promise as a useful tool in studying the physics of quark-gluon plasma.

  16. All-loop order critical exponents for massless scalar field theory with Lorentz violation in the BPHZ method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo R. S.

    2016-12-01

    We compute analytically the all-loop level critical exponents for a massless thermal Lorentz-violating (LV) O(N) self-interacting λϕ4 scalar field theory. For that, we evaluate, firstly explicitly up to next-to-leading loop order and later in a proof by induction up to any loop level, the respective β-function and anomalous dimensions in a theory renormalized in the massless BPHZ method, where a reduced set of Feynman diagrams to be calculated is needed. We investigate the effect of the Lorentz violation in the outcome for the critical exponents and present the corresponding mathematical explanation and physical interpretation.

  17. Static and dynamic analysis of a massless scalar field coupled with a class of gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kiem, Y H; Kiem, Youngjai; Park, Dahl

    1995-01-01

    General static solutions for a massless scalar field coupled to a class of effectively 2-d gravity theories continuously connecting spherically symmetric d-dimensional Einstein gravity (d >3) and the CGHS model are analytically obtained. They include black holes and point scalar charge solutions with naked singularities, and are used to give an analytic proof of no-hair theorem. Exact scattering solutions in s-wave 4-d Einstein gravity are constructed as a generalization of corresponding static solutions. They show the existence of black hole formation threshold for square pulse type incoming stress-energy flux, above which trapped surfaces are dynamically formed. The relationship between this behavior and the numerically studied phase transition in this system \\cite{choptuik} is discussed.

  18. Triviality of $\\phi^4_4$ in the broken phase revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Korzec, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    We define a finite size renormalization scheme for $\\phi^4$ theory which in the thermodynamic limit reduces to the standard scheme used in the broken phase. We use it to re-investigate the question of triviality for the four dimensional infinite bare coupling (Ising) limit. The relevant observables all rely on two-point functions and are very suitable for a precise estimation with the worm algorithm. This contribution updates an earlier publication by analysing a much larger dataset.

  19. Bound states of the $\\phi^4$ model via the Non-Perturbative Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, F; Leonard, F; Delamotte, B

    2016-01-01

    Using the nonperturbative renormalization group, we study the existence of bound states in the symmetry-broken phase of the scalar $\\phi^4$ theory in all dimensions between two and four and as a function of the temperature. The accurate description of the momentum dependence of the two-point function, required to get the spectrum of the theory, is provided by means of the Blaizot--M\\'endez-Galain--Wschebor approximation scheme. We confirm the existence of a bound state in dimension three, with a mass within 1% of previous Monte-Carlo and numerical diagonalization values.

  20. Finite Size Effects in the Anisotropic $\\lambda/4! (\\phi^{4}_{1} + \\phi^{4}_{2})_{d}$ Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, C D

    1999-01-01

    We consider the $\\frac{\\lambda}{4!}(\\phi^{4}_{1}+\\phi^{4}_{2})$ model on a d-dimensional Euclidean space, where all but one of the coordinates are unbounded. Translation invariance along the bounded coordinate, z, which lies in the interval [0,L], is broken because of the boundary conditions (BC's) chosen for the hyperplanes z=0 and z=L. Two different possibilities for these BC's boundary conditions are considered: DD and NN, where D denotes Dirichlet and N Newmann, respectively. The renormalization procedure up to one-loop order is applied, obtaining two main results. The first is the fact that the renormalization program requires the introduction of counterterms which are surface interactions. The second one is that the tadpole graphs for DD and NN have the same z dependent part in modulus but with opposite signs. We investigate the relevance of this fact to the elimination of surface divergences.

  1. Anomalous dimensions of gauge-invariant amplitudes in massless effective gauge theories of strongly correlated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusynin, VP; Khveshchenko, DV; Reenders, M

    2003-01-01

    We use the radial gauge to calculate the recently proposed ansatz for the physical electron propagator in such effective models of strongly correlated electron systems as the QED(3) theory of the pseudogap phase of the cuprates. The results of our analysis help to settle the recent dispute about the

  2. Probing the fuzzy sphere regularisation in simulations of the $3d \\lambda \\phi^4$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Medina, Julieta; O'Connor, Denjoe

    2008-01-01

    We regularise the 3d \\lambda \\phi^4 model by discretising the Euclidean time and representing the spatial part on a fuzzy sphere. The latter involves a truncated expansion of the field in spherical harmonics. This yields a numerically tractable formulation, which constitutes an unconventional alternative to the lattice. In contrast to the 2d version, the radius R plays an independent r\\^{o}le. We explore the phase diagram in terms of R and the cutoff, as well as the parameters m^2 and \\lambda. Thus we identify the phases of disorder, uniform order and non-uniform order. We compare the result to the phase diagrams of the 3d model on a non-commutative torus, and of the 2d model on a fuzzy sphere. Our data at strong coupling reproduce accurately the behaviour of a matrix chain, which corresponds to the c=1-model in string theory. This observation enables a conjecture about the thermodynamic limit.

  3. Exact Renormalization of Massless QED2

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Casana, Rodolfo; Dias, Sebastiao Alves

    2001-01-01

    We perform the exact renormalization of two-dimensional massless gauge theories. Using these exact results we discuss the cluster property and confinement in both the anomalous and chiral Schwinger models.

  4. Exact Renormalization of Massless QED2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Dias, Sebastião Alves

    We perform the exact renormalization of two-dimensional massless gauge theories. Using these exact results we discuss the cluster property and confinement in both the anomalous and chiral Schwinger models.

  5. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Gal'tsov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some authors suggest that strictly massless charge does not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for ab initio massless particle of zero spin. Provided E2≫eH, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at ħω=E/3, and the average photon energy is 4E/9. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on E nor on H. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Classical theory is reliable only as providing the low-frequency part of the true quantum radiation spectrum.

  6. The Yang-Mills gradient flow and SU(3) gauge theory with 12 massless fundamental fermions in a colour-twisted box

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, C -J David; Ramos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We perform the step-scaling investigation of the running coupling constant, using the gradient-flow scheme, in SU(3) gauge theory with twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation. The Wilson plaquette gauge action and massless unimproved staggered fermions are used in the simulations. Our lattice data are prepared at high accuracy, such that the statistical error for the renormalised coupling, g_GF, is at the subpercentage level. To investigate the reliability of the continuum extrapolation, we employ two different lattice discretisations to obtain g_GF. For our simulation setting, the corresponding gauge-field averaging radius in the gradient flow has to be almost half of the lattice size, in order to have this extrapolation under control. We can determine the renormalisation group evolution of the coupling up to g^2_GF ~ 6, before the onset of the bulk phase structure. In this infrared regime, the running of the coupling is significantly slower than the two-loop perturbative prediction, altho...

  7. The Yang-Mills gradient flow and SU(3) gauge theory with 12 massless fundamental fermions in a colour-twisted box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-J. David; Ogawa, Kenji [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University,Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Ramos, Alberto [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1121 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-12-16

    We perform the step-scaling investigation of the running coupling constant, using the gradient-flow scheme, in SU(3) gauge theory with twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation. The Wilson plaquette gauge action and massless unimproved staggered fermions are used in the simulations. Our lattice data are prepared at high accuracy, such that the statistical error for the renormalised coupling, g{sub G{sub F}}, is at the subpercentage level. To investigate the reliability of the continuum extrapolation, we employ two different lattice discretisations to obtain g{sub G{sub F}}. For our simulation setting, the corresponding gauge-field averaging radius in the gradient flow has to be almost half of the lattice size, in order to have this extrapolation under control. We can determine the renormalisation group evolution of the coupling up to g{sub G{sub F}{sup 2}}∼6, before the onset of the bulk phase structure. In this infrared regime, the running of the coupling is significantly slower than the two-loop perturbative prediction, although we cannot draw definite conclusion regarding possible infrared conformality of this theory. Furthermore, we comment on the issue regarding the continuum extrapolation near an infrared fixed point. In addition to adopting the fit ansätz a’la Symanzik for performing this task, we discuss a possible alternative procedure inspired by properties derived from low-energy scale invariance at strong coupling. Based on this procedure, we propose a finite-size scaling method for the renormalised coupling as a means to search for infrared fixed point. Using this method, it can be shown that the behaviour of the theory around g{sub G{sub F}{sup 2}}∼6 is still not governed by possible infrared conformality.

  8. The Yang-Mills gradient flow and SU(3) gauge theory with 12 massless fundamental fermions in a colour-twisted box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-J. David; Ogawa, Kenji; Ramos, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    We perform the step-scaling investigation of the running coupling constant, using the gradient-flow scheme, in SU(3) gauge theory with twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation. The Wilson plaquette gauge action and massless unimproved staggered fermions are used in the simulations. Our lattice data are prepared at high accuracy, such that the statistical error for the renormalised coupling, g GF , is at the subpercentage level. To investigate the reliability of the continuum extrapolation, we employ two different lattice discretisations to obtain g GF . For our simulation setting, the corresponding gauge-field averaging radius in the gradient flow has to be almost half of the lattice size, in order to have this extrapolation under control. We can determine the renormalisation group evolution of the coupling up to g GF 2 ˜ 6, before the onset of the bulk phase structure. In this infrared regime, the running of the coupling is significantly slower than the two-loop perturbative prediction, although we cannot draw definite conclusion regarding possible infrared conformality of this theory. Furthermore, we comment on the issue regarding the continuum extrapolation near an infrared fixed point. In addition to adopting the fit ansätz a' la Symanzik for performing this task, we discuss a possible alternative procedure inspired by properties derived from low-energy scale invariance at strong coupling. Based on this procedure, we propose a finite-size scaling method for the renormalised coupling as a means to search for infrared fixed point. Using this method, it can be shown that the behaviour of the theory around g GF 2 ˜ 6 is still not governed by possible infrared conformality.

  9. The 2D effective field theory of interfaces derived from 3D field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Provero, P; Provero, Paolo; Vinti, Stefano

    1995-01-01

    The one--loop determinant computed around the kink solution in the 3D \\phi^4 theory, in cylindrical geometry, allows one to obtain the partition function of the interface separating coexisting phases. The quantum fluctuations of the interface around its equilibrium position are described by a c=1 two--dimensional conformal field theory, namely a 2D free massless scalar field living on the interface. In this way the capillary wave model conjecture for the interface free energy in its gaussian approximation is proved.

  10. Scattering of massless scalar waves by magnetically charged black holes in Einstein–Yang–Mills–Higgs theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gußmann, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    The existence of the classical black hole solutions of the Einstein–Yang–Mills–Higgs equations with non-Abelian Yang–Mills–Higgs hair implies that not all classical stationary magnetically charged black holes can be uniquely described by their asymptotic characteristics. In fact, in a certain domain of parameters, there exist different spherically-symmetric, non-rotating and asymptotically-flat classical black hole solutions of the Einstein–Yang–Mills–Higgs equations which have the same ADM mass and the same magnetic charge but significantly different geometries in the near-horizon regions. (These are black hole solutions which are described by a Reissner–Nordström metric on the one hand and the black hole solutions with non-Abelian Yang–Mills–Higgs hair which are described by a metric which is not of Reissner–Nordström form on the other hand). One can experimentally distinguish such black holes with the same asymptotic characteristics but different near-horizon geometries classically by probing the near-horizon regions of the black holes. We argue that one way to probe the near-horizon region of a black hole which allows one to distinguish magnetically charged black holes with the same asymptotic characteristics but different near-horizon geometries is by classical scattering of waves. Using the example of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by magnetically charged black holes which can be obtained as solutions of the Einstein–Yang–Mills–Higgs equations with a Higgs triplet and gauge group SU(2) in the limit of an infinite Higgs self-coupling constant we show how, in this case, the scattering cross sections differ for the magnetically charged black holes with different near-horizon geometries but the same asymptotic characteristics. We find in particular that the characteristic glory peaks in the cross sections are located at different scattering angles.

  11. The Composite Operator (CJT) Formalism in the $(\\lambda\\phi^4+\\eta\\phi^{6})_{D=3}$ Model at Finite Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Añaños, G N J

    2000-01-01

    We discuss three-dimensional $ \\lambda\\phi^4+\\eta\\phi^6 $ theory in the context of the 1/N expansion at finite temperature. We use the method of the composite operator (CJT) for summing a large sets of Feynman graphs. We analyse the behavior of the thermal square mass and the thermal coupling constant in the low and high temperature limit. The existent of the tricritical point at some temperature is found using this non-pertubative method.

  12. Chiral closed strings: four massless states scattering amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Marcelo M.; Siegel, Warren

    2017-01-01

    We compute the scattering amplitudes of four massless states for chiral (closed) bosonic and type II superstrings using the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye ( KLT ) factorization method. The amplitude in the chiral bosonic case is identical to a field theory amplitude corresponding to the spin-2 tachyon, massless gravitational sector and massive spin-2 tardyon states of the spectrum. Chiral type II superstrings amplitude only possess poles associated with the massless gravitational sector. We briefly discuss the extension of the calculation to heterotic superstrings.

  13. Chiral Closed strings: Four massless states scattering amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Marcelo M

    2016-01-01

    We compute the scattering amplitudes of four massless states for chiral (closed) bosonic and type II superstrings using the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye ($KLT$) factorization method. The amplitude in the chiral bosonic case is identical to a field theory amplitude corresponding to the spin-$2$ tachyon, massless gravitational sector and massive spin-2 tardyon states of the spectrum. Chiral type II superstrings amplitude only possess poles associated with the massless gravitational sector. We briefly discuss the extension of the calculation to heterotic superstrings.

  14. Numerical study of the classical 2D discrete frustrated phi(4) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savkin, V.; Rubtsov, A.N.; Janssen, T.

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional discrete frustrated phi(4) model is studied by Monte Carlo simulations for two sets of the parameters of the model. Two phase transitions and a floating-incommensurate phase are observed for the case of stronger frustration. The phase transition from the floating-fluid phase to t

  15. Numerical study of the classical 2D discrete frustrated phi(4) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savkin, V.; Rubtsov, A.N.; Janssen, T.

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional discrete frustrated phi(4) model is studied by Monte Carlo simulations for two sets of the parameters of the model. Two phase transitions and a floating-incommensurate phase are observed for the case of stronger frustration. The phase transition from the floating-fluid phase to

  16. Nonperturbative Lattice Simulation of High Multiplicity Cross Section Bound in $\\phi^4_3$ on Beowulf Supercomputer

    CERN Document Server

    Charng, Y Y

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, we have investigated the possibility of large cross sections at large multiplicity in weakly coupled three dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory using Monte Carlo Simulation methods. We have built a Beowulf Supercomputer for this purpose. We use spectral function sum rules to derive a bound on the total cross section where the quantity determining the bound can be measured by Monte Carlo simulation in Euclidean space. We determine the critical threshold energy for large high multiplicity cross section according to the analysis of M.B. Volosion and E.N. Argyres, R.M.P. Kleiss, and C.G. Papadopoulos. We compare the simulation results with the perturbation results and see no evidence for large cross section in the range where tree diagram estimates suggest they should exist.

  17. Massless DKP field in Lyra manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Pimentel, B M

    2005-01-01

    Massless scalar and vector fields are coupled to Lyra geometry by means of Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) theory. Using Schwinger Variational Principle, equations of motion, conservation laws and gauge symmetry are implemented. We find that the scalar field couples to the anholonomic part of the torsion tensor, and the gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field is not breaking by the coupling with torsion.

  18. Partially massless graviton on beyond Einstein spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Hinterbichler, Kurt; von Strauss, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    We show that a partially massless graviton can propagate on a large set of spacetimes which are not Einstein spacetimes. Starting from a recently constructed theory for a massive graviton that propagates the correct number of degrees of freedom on an arbitrary spacetime, we first give the full explicit form of the scalar constraint responsible for the absence of a sixth degree of freedom. We then spell out generic conditions for the constraint to be identically satisfied, so that there is a scalar gauge symmetry which makes the graviton partially massless. These simplify if one assumes that spacetime is Ricci symmetric. Under this assumption, we find explicit non-Einstein spacetimes (some, but not all, with vanishing Bach tensors) allowing for the propagation of a partially massless graviton. These include in particular the Einstein static Universe.

  19. Anomalies without Massless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Gurlanik, Z

    1994-01-01

    Baryon and lepton number in the standard model are violated by anomalies, even though the fermions are massive. This problem is studied in the context of a two dimensional model. In a uniform background field, fermion production arise from non-adiabatic behavior that compensates for the absence of massless modes. On the other hand, for localized instanton-like configurations, there is an adiabatic limit. In this case, the anomaly is produced by bound states which travel across the mass gap. The sphaleron corresponds to a bound state at the halfway point.

  20. The Massless Spectrum of Heterotic Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    de la Ossa, Xenia; Svanes, Eirik Eik

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the four-dimensional massless spectrum of supersymmetric Minkowski compactifications of ten-dimensional heterotic supergravity, including the anomaly cancelation condition. This can be calculated from restrictions arising from F-term conditions in a four-dimensional effective theory. The results agree with computations of the infinitesimal moduli space recently performed from a ten-dimensional perspective. The paper is based on a talk given by Eirik Eik Svanes in Leuven for the workshop on "The String Theory Universe".

  1. Massless DKP fields in Riemann-Cartan space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Pimentel, B M; Lunardi, J T; Teixeira, R G

    2003-01-01

    We study massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) fields in the context of Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory. In the case of an identically vanishing torsion (Riemannian space-times) we show that there exists local gauge symmetries which reproduce the usual gauge symmetries for the massless scalar and electromagnetic fields. On the other hand, similarly to what happens with the Maxwell theory, a non-vanishing torsion breaks the usual U(1) local gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field.

  2. Chiral logarithms in the massless limit tamed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivel, Nikolai; Polyakov, Maxim V; Vladimirov, Alexei

    2008-12-31

    We derive nonlinear recursion relations for the leading chiral logarithms (LLs) in massless theories. These relations not only provide a very efficient method of computation of LLs (e.g., the 33-loop contribution is calculated in a dozen of seconds on a PC) but also equip us with a powerful tool for the summation of the LLs. Our method is not limited to chiral perturbation theory only; it is pertinent to any nonrenormalizable effective field theory such as, for instance, the theory of critical phenomena, low-energy quantum gravity, etc.

  3. Permanent Underdetermination from Approximate Empirical Equivalence in Field Theory: Massless and Massive Scalar Gravity, Neutrino, Electromagnetic, Yang-Mills and Gravitational Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Pitts, J Brian

    2016-01-01

    Classical and quantum field theory provide not only realistic examples of extant notions of empirical equivalence, but also new notions of empirical equivalence, both modal and occurrent. A simple but modern gravitational case goes back to the 1890s, but there has been apparently total neglect of the simplest relativistic analog, with the result that an erroneous claim has taken root that Special Relativity could not have accommodated gravity even if there were no bending of light. The fairly recent acceptance of nonzero neutrino masses shows that widely neglected possibilities for nonzero particle masses have sometimes been vindicated. In the electromagnetic case, there is permanent underdetermination at the classical and quantum levels between Maxwell's theory and the one-parameter family of Proca's electromagnetisms with massive photons, which approximate Maxwell's theory in the limit of zero photon mass. While Yang-Mills theories display similar approximate equivalence classically, quantization typically ...

  4. Massless DKP field in a Lyra manifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, R [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Melo, C A M de [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pimentel, B M [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-02-07

    Massless scalar and vector fields are coupled to the Lyra geometry by means of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) theory. Using the Schwinger variational principle, the equations of motion, conservation laws and gauge symmetry are implemented. We find that the scalar field couples to the anholonomic part of the torsion tensor, and the gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field does not break by the coupling with torsion.

  5. Massless DKP field in a Lyra manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; de Melo, C. A. M.; Pimentel, B. M.

    2007-02-01

    Massless scalar and vector fields are coupled to the Lyra geometry by means of the Duffin Kemmer Petiau (DKP) theory. Using the Schwinger variational principle, the equations of motion, conservation laws and gauge symmetry are implemented. We find that the scalar field couples to the anholonomic part of the torsion tensor, and the gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field does not break by the coupling with torsion.

  6. Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Dam, H. van

    1970-01-01

    Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields are considered. It is found that there is a discrete difference between the zero-mass theories and the very small, but non-zero mass theories. In the case of gravitation, comparison of massive and mass-less theories with experiment, in

  7. Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Dam, H. van

    1970-01-01

    Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields are considered. It is found that there is a discrete difference between the zero-mass theories and the very small, but non-zero mass theories. In the case of gravitation, comparison of massive and mass-less theories with experiment, in partic

  8. Instantons and Massless Fermions in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, C. G. Jr.; Dashen, R.; Gross, D. J.

    1977-05-01

    The role of instantons in the breakdown of chiral U(N) symmetry is studied in a two dimensional model. Chiral U(1) is always destroyed by the axial vector anomaly. For N = 2 chiral SU(N) is also spontaneously broken yielding massive fermions and three (decoupled) Goldstone bosons. For N greater than or equal to 3 the fermions remain massless. Realistic four dimensional theories are believed to behave in a similar way but the critical N above which the fermions cease to be massive is not known in four dimensions.

  9. Massless DKP fields in Riemann-Cartan spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Lunardi, J T; Pimentel, B M; Teixeira, R G

    2003-01-01

    We study massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) fields in the context of Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory, interacting via minimal coupling procedure. In the case of an identically vanishing torsion (Riemannian spacetimes) we show that there exist local gauge symmetries which reproduce the usual gauge symmetries for the massless scalar and electromagnetic fields. On the other hand, similarly to what happens with the Maxwell theory, a non-vanishing torsion, in general, breaks the usual U(1) local gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field or, from a different point of view, imposes conditions on the torsion.

  10. Massless DKP fields in Riemann-Cartan spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, R [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fainberg, V Ya [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lunardi, J T [Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Av Gal. Carlos Cavalcanti 4748, CEP 84032-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Pimentel, B M [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, R G [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Sao Judas Tadeu, Rua Taquari 546, CEP 03166-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-06-07

    We study massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) fields in the context of Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory, interacting via minimal coupling procedure. In the case of an identically vanishing torsion (Riemannian spacetimes) we show that there exist local gauge symmetries which reproduce the usual gauge symmetries for the massless scalar and electromagnetic fields. On the other hand, similarly to what happens with the Maxwell theory, a non-vanishing torsion, in general, breaks the usual U(1) local gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field or, from a different point of view, imposes conditions on the torsion.

  11. Massless DKP fields in Riemann-Cartan spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; Fainberg, V. Ya; Lunardi, J. T.; Pimentel, B. M.; Teixeira, R. G.

    2003-06-01

    We study massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) fields in the context of Einstein-Cartan gravitation theory, interacting via minimal coupling procedure. In the case of an identically vanishing torsion (Riemannian spacetimes) we show that there exist local gauge symmetries which reproduce the usual gauge symmetries for the massless scalar and electromagnetic fields. On the other hand, similarly to what happens with the Maxwell theory, a non-vanishing torsion, in general, breaks the usual U(1) local gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field or, from a different point of view, imposes conditions on the torsion.

  12. Renormalized position space amplitudes in a massless QFT

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet renormalization of massless Feynman amplitudes has been shown to yield associate homogeneous distributions. Their degree coincides with the degree of divergence while their order - the highest power of the logarithm in the dilation anomaly - is given by the number of (sub)divergences. We observe that (convergent) integration over internal vertices does not alter the total degree of (superficial) ultraviolet divergence. For a conformal invariant theory internal integration is also proven to preserve the order of associate homogeneity. Our conclusions concerning the (off-shell) infrared finiteness of the ultraviolet renormalized massless $\\varphi^4$ theory agrees with the old result of Lowenstein and Zimmermann [LZ].

  13. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  14. Kaluza-Klein reduction of massive and partially massless spin-2 fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, James; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We describe the dimensional reduction of massive and partially massless spin-2 fields on general Einstein direct product manifolds. As with massless fields, the higher-dimensional gauge symmetry of the partially massless field displays itself upon dimensional reduction as a tower of Stückelberg symmetries for the massive modes of the tower. Unlike the massless case, the zero mode of the gauge symmetry does not display itself as a lower-dimensional non-Stückelberg gauge symmetry enforcing partial masslessness on the zero mode. Partial masslessness is destroyed by the dimensional reduction and the zero-mode gauge symmetry instead serves to eliminate the radion. In addition, we study the fully nonlinear dimensional reduction of de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity on a circle, which results in a massive scalar-tensor-vector theory which we expect to be ghost free, and whose scalar-tensor sector is a special case of mass-varying massive gravity.

  15. Kaluza-Klein Reduction of Massive and Partially Massless Spin-2

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, James

    2016-01-01

    We describe the dimensional reduction of massive and partially massless spin-2 fields on general Einstein direct product manifolds. As with massless fields, the higher-dimensional gauge symmetry of the partially massless field displays itself upon dimensional reduction as a tower of St\\"uckelberg symmetries for the massive modes of the tower. Unlike the massless case, the zero mode of the gauge symmetry does not display itself as a lower-dimensional non-Stuckelberg gauge symmetry enforcing partial masslessness on the zero mode. Partial masslessness is destroyed by the dimensional reduction and the zero mode gauge symmetry instead serves to eliminate the radion. In addition, we study the fully non-linear dimensional reduction of dRGT massive gravity on a circle, which results in a massive scalar-tensor-vector theory which we expect to be ghost-free, and whose scalar-tensor sector is a special case of mass-varying massive gravity.

  16. Macroscopic (and microscopic massless modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Abbott

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study certain spinning strings exploring the flat directions of AdS3×S3×S3×S1, the massless sector cousins of su(2 and sl(2 sector spinning strings. We describe these, and their vibrational modes, using the D(2,1;α2 algebraic curve. By exploiting a discrete symmetry of this structure which reverses the direction of motion on the spheres, and alters the masses of the fermionic modes s→κ−s, we find out how to treat the massless fermions which were previously missing from this formalism. We show that folded strings behave as a special case of circular strings, in a sense which includes their mode frequencies, and we are able to recover this fact in the worldsheet formalism. We use these frequencies to calculate one-loop corrections to the energy, with a version of the Beisert–Tseytlin resummation.

  17. On massless dyadic forms and no minimal coupling theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Kassiteridis, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    We use spinor helicity formalism in order to derive the dyadic forms for massless fields of various spins. We also give an iterated form of this approach in case higher spin theories are under study. This reduces calculations at hard and soft scattering problems in gauge theories drastically. We also state and prove a theorem of gauge symmetry violation in the presence of minimal coupling with light in higher spin theories ($j>1/2$).

  18. Massless particles, electromagnetism, and Rieffel induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsman, N.P. [ed.] [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Wiedemann, U.A. [ed.] [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1994-06-01

    The connection between space-time covariant representations (obtained by inducing from the Lorentz group) and irreducible unitary representations (induced from Wigner`s little group) of the Poincare groups is re-examined in the massless case. In the situation relevant to physics, it is found that these are related by Marsden-Weinstein reduction with respect to a gauge group. An analogous phenomenon is observed for classical massless relativistic particles. This symplectic reduction procedure can be (`second`) quantized using a generalization of the Rieffel induction technique in operator algebra theory, which is carried through in detail for electromagnetism. Starting from the so-called Fermi representation of the field algebra generated by the free abelian gauge field, we construct a new (`rigged`) sesquilinear form on the representation space, which is positive semi-definite, and given in terms of a Gaussian weak distribution (promeasure) on the gauge group (taken to be a Hilbert Lie group). This eventually constructs the algebra of observables of quantum electromagnetism (directly in its vacuum representation) as a representation of the so-called algebra of weak observables induced by the trivial representation of the gauge group. (orig.)

  19. The Effect of Cosmological Evolution on Solar System Constraints and on the Scalarization of Neutron Stars in Massless Scalar-Tensor Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David; Barausse, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Certain scalar-tensor theories of gravity that generalize Jordan-Fierz-Brans-Dicke theory are known to predict non-trivial phenomenology for neutron stars. In these theories, first proposed by Damour and Esposito-Far\\`ese, the scalar field has a standard kinetic term, and couples conformally to the matter fields. The weak equivalence principle is therefore satisfied, but scalar effects may arise in strong-field regimes, e.g. allowing for violations of the strong equivalence principle in neutron stars ("spontaneous scalarization") or in sufficiently tight binary neutron-star systems ("dynamical/induced scalarization"). The original scalar-tensor theory proposed by Damour and Esposito-Far\\`ese is in tension with solar-system constraints (for couplings that lead to scalarization), if one accounts for cosmological evolution of the scalar field and no mass term is included in the action. We here extend the conformal coupling of that theory, in order to ascertain if, in this way, solar-system tests can be passed, w...

  20. Small massless excitations against a nontrivial background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariton, N. G.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    1994-03-01

    We propose a systematic approach for finding bosonic zero modes of nontrivial classical solutions in a gauge theory. The method allows us to find all the modes connected with the broken space-time and gauge symmetries. The ground state is supposed to be dependent on some space coordinates yα and independent of the rest of the coordinates xi. The main problem which is solved is how to construct the zero modes corresponding to the broken xiyα rotations in vacuum and which boundary conditions specify them. It is found that the rotational modes are typically singular at the origin or at infinity, but their energy remains finite. They behave as massless vector fields in x space. We analyze local and global symmetries affecting the zero modes. An algorithm for constructing the zero mode excitations is formulated. The main results are illustrated in the Abelian Higgs model with the string background.

  1. Order and Chaos in the One-Dimensional $\\phi^4$ Model : N-Dependence and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoover, William Graham

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the equilibrium one-dimensional $\\phi^4$ model from the dynamical systems point of view. We find an infinite number of periodic orbits which are computationally stable while at the same time exhibiting positive Lyapunov exponents. We formulate a standard initial condition for the investigation of the microcanonical chaotic number dependence of the model. We speculate on the uniqueness of the model's chaotic sea and on the connection of such collections of deterministic and time-reversible states to the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  2. Higher-spin massless S-matrices in four-dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    McGady, David A

    2013-01-01

    On-shell, analytic S-matrix elements are constructed from a finite set of primitive three-point amplitudes, which are uniquely fixed by Poincare invariance. We classify all such three-point amplitudes in four-dimensions. Imposing the simplest incarnation of Locality and Unitarity on four-particle amplitudes constructed from these exact three-particle amplitudes rules-out all but an extremely small subset of interactions among higher-spin massless states. Notably, the equivalence principle, and the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are simple corollaries of this principle. Further, no massless states with helicity larger than two may consistently interact with massless spin-2 gravitons. Yang-Mills, chromodynamics, electrodynamics, and phi-cubed -theory are the only marginal and relevant interactions between massless states consistent with this incarnation Locality and Unitarity. Simple analysis of amplitudes with leading-order interactions between massless spin-3/2 states shows that these states interact gravitationall...

  3. Renormalization of position space amplitudes in a massless QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    Ultraviolet renormalization of position space massless Feynman amplitudes has been shown to yield associate homogeneous distributions. Their degree is determined by the degree of divergence while their order—the highest power of logarithm in the dilation anomaly—is given by the number of (sub)divergences. In the present paper we review these results and observe that (convergent) integration over internal vertices does not alter the total degree of (superficial) ultraviolet divergence. For a conformally invariant theory internal integration is also proven to preserve the order of associate homogeneity. The renormalized 4-point amplitudes in the φ4 theory (in four space-time dimensions) are written as (non-analytic) translation invariant functions of four complex variables with calculable conformal anomaly. Our conclusion concerning the (off-shell) infrared finiteness of the ultraviolet renormalized massless φ4 theory agrees with the old result of Lowenstein and Zimmermann [23].

  4. Explicitly Broken Supersymmetry with Exactly Massless Moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xi; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is an avatar of the little hierarchy problem of the MSSM in 3-dimensional supersymmetry. We propose a solution to this problem in AdS$_3$ based on the AdS/CFT correspondence. The bulk theory is a supergravity theory in which U(1) $\\times$ U(1) R-symmetry is gauged by Chern-Simons fields. The bulk theory is deformed by a boundary term quadratic in the gauge fields. It breaks SUSY completely and sources an exactly marginal operator in the dual CFT. SUSY breaking is communicated by gauge interactions to bulk scalar fields and their spinor superpartners. Since the R-charges of scalar and spinor differ, this generates a SUSY breaking shift of their masses. The Ward identity facilitates the calculation of these mass shifts to any desired order in the strength of the deformation. Moduli fields are massless $R$-neutral bulk scalars with vanishing potential in the undeformed theory. These properties are maintained to all orders in the deformation despite the fact that moduli couple in the bulk to loops of R-char...

  5. Paraelectricity in Magnetized Massless QED

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, Efrain J; Sanchez, Angel

    2011-01-01

    We show that the chiral-symmetry-broken phase of massless QED in the presence of a magnetic field exhibits strong paraelectricity. A large anisotropic electric susceptibility develops in the infrared region, where most of the fermions are confined to their lowest Landau level, and dynamical mass and anomalous magnetic moment are generated via the magnetic catalysis mechanism. The nonperturbative nature of this effect is reflected in the dependence of the electric susceptibility on the fine-structure constant. The strong paraelectricity is linked to the electric dipole moments of the particle/anti-particle pairs that form the chiral condensate. The significant electric susceptibility can be used as a probe to detect the realization of the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking in physical systems.

  6. Symmetries of Massive and Massless Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Wigner's little groups are subgroups of the Lorentz group dictating the internal space-time symmetries of massive and massless particles. These little groups are like O(3) and E(2) for massive and massless particles respectively. While the geometry of the O(3) symmetry is familiar to us, the geometry of the flat plane cannot explain the E(2)-like symmetry for massless particles. However, the geometry of a circular cylinder can explain the symmetry with the helicity and gauge degrees of freedom. It is shown further that the symmetry of the massless particle can be obtained as a zero-mass limit of O(3)-like symmetry for massive particles. It is shown further that the polarization of massless neutrinos is a consequence of gauge invariance, while the symmetry of massive neutrinos is still like O(3).

  7. Special Gravity as Alternatives for Interacting Massless Gravitons

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Special gravity, first discussed by Wald \\cite{Wald:1986bj} decades ago, is a novel class of theories for interacting massless gravitons in Minkowski spacetime. It respects gauge invariance, but not general covariance, which is drastically different from Einstein's gravity and many of its modifications. In this note, we study properties of special gravity, revealing its connections with asymptotic causality, S-matrix program, non-renormalization, massive gravity and emergent gravitons in condensed matter systems.

  8. On AdS/CFT without massless gravitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apolo, Luis, E-mail: lav271@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Porrati, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.porrati@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-08-14

    We point out that it is possible to define CFT duals to AdS theories with massive gravitons only. This is achieved by considering the product of two or more CFTs on the boundary, each possessing a large-N expansion and a corresponding bulk dual. It is possible to couple the CFTs through a marginal perturbation that makes all but one of the bulk gravitons massive. In the infinite-N limit for one of the CFTs the massless graviton decouples.

  9. On AdS/CFT without Massless Gravitons

    CERN Document Server

    Apolo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We point out that it is possible to define CFT duals to AdS theories with massive gravitons only. This is achieved by considering the product of two or more CFTs on the boundary, each possessing a large-N expansion and a corresponding bulk dual. It is possible to couple the CFTs through a marginal perturbation that makes all but one of the bulk gravitons massive. In the infinite-N limit for one of the CFTs the massless graviton decouples.

  10. All Tree-level Amplitudes in Massless QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC; Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan; Schuster, Theodor; /Humboldt U., Berlin

    2010-10-25

    We derive compact analytical formulae for all tree-level color-ordered gauge theory amplitudes involving any number of external gluons and up to three massless quark-anti-quark pairs. A general formula is presented based on the combinatorics of paths along a rooted tree and associated determinants. Explicit expressions are displayed for the next-to-maximally helicity violating (NMHV) and next-to-next-to-maximally helicity violating (NNMHV) gauge theory amplitudes. Our results are obtained by projecting the previously-found expressions for the super-amplitudes of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (N = 4 SYM) onto the relevant components yielding all gluon-gluino tree amplitudes in N = 4 SYM. We show how these results carry over to the corresponding QCD amplitudes, including massless quarks of different flavors as well as a single electroweak vector boson. The public Mathematica package GGT is described, which encodes the results of this work and yields analytical formulae for all N = 4 SYM gluon-gluino trees. These in turn yield all QCD trees with up to four external arbitrary-flavored massless quark-anti-quark-pairs.

  11. Liouville vortex and $\\phi^{4}$ kink solutions of the Seiberg-Witten equations

    CERN Document Server

    Nergiz, S; Nergiz, Serdar; Saclioglu, Cihan

    1996-01-01

    The Seiberg--Witten equations, when dimensionally reduced to \\bf R^{2}\\mit, naturally yield the Liouville equation, whose solutions are parametrized by an arbitrary analytic function g(z). The magnetic flux \\Phi is the integral of a singular Kaehler form involving g(z); for an appropriate choice of g(z) , N coaxial or separated vortex configurations with \\Phi=\\frac{2\\pi N}{e} are obtained when the integral is regularized. The regularized connection in the \\bf R^{1}\\mit case coincides with the kink solution of \\varphi^{4} theory.

  12. The inaction approach to gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Pivovarov, Grigorii

    2012-01-01

    The inaction approach introduced previously for phi^4 is generalized to gauge theories. It combines the advantages of the effective field theory and causal approaches to quantum fields. Also, it suggests ways to generalizing gauge theories.

  13. Can mass-less QCD dynamically generate heavy quarks?

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Oca, Alejandro Cabo Montes de; Martinez-Pedrera, Danny

    2005-01-01

    As it was suggested by previous works on a modified perturbation expansion for QCD, the possibility for the generation of large quark condensates in the mass-less version of the theory is explored. For this purpose, it is firstly presented a way of well define the Feynman diagrams at any number of loops by just employing dimensional regularization. After that, the calculated zero and one loop corrections to the effective potential indicate a strong instability of the system under the generation of quark condensates. The also evaluated quark condensate dependence of particular two loop terms does not modify the instability picture arising at one loop. The results suggest a possible mechanism for a sort of Top Condensate Model to be a dynamically fixed effective action for mass-less QCD. The inability of lattice calculations in detecting this possibility could be related with the limitations in treating the fermion determinants.

  14. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Prester, P. Dominis; Pereira, A. Duarte; Giaccari, S.; Štemberga, T.

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones.

  15. Massive and massless neutrinos on unbalanced seesaws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Zhi-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations requires new physics beyond the standard model (SM).A SM-like gauge theory with p lepton families can be extended by introducing q heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos but preserving its SU(2)L x U(1)y gauge symmetry.The overall neutrino mass matrix M turns out to be a symmetric (p+q) x (p+q) matrix.Given p>q,the rank of M is in general equal to 2q,corresponding to 2q non-zero mass eigenvalues.The existence of (p-q) massless left-handed Majorana neutrinos is an exact consequence of the model,independent of the usual approximation made in deriving the Type-I seesaw relation between the effective p x p light Majorana neutrino mass matrix M,and the q x q heavy Majorana neutrino mass matrix MR.In other words,the numbers of massive left- and right-handed neutrinos are fairly matched.A good example to illustrate this "seesaw fair play rule"is the minimal seesaw model with p = 3 and q = 2,in which one masslese neutrino sits on the unbalanced seesaw.

  16. On the gauge and global symmetries of the candidate partially massless bimetric gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Apolo, Luis; Lundkvist, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a particular ghost-free bimetric theory that exhibits the partially massless (PM) symmetry at quadratic order. At this order the global SO(1,4) symmetry of the theory is enhanced to SO(1,5). We show that this global symmetry becomes inconsistent at cubic order, in agreement with a previous calculation. Furthermore, we find that the PM symmetry of this theory cannot be extended beyond cubic order in the PM field. More importantly, it is shown that the PM symmetry cannot be extended to quartic order in any theory with one massless and one massive spin-2 fields.

  17. Glueball and meson spectrum in large-N massless QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bochicchio, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We provide outstanding numerical evidence that in large-N massless QCD the joint spectrum of the masses squared, for fixed integer spin s and unspecified parity and charge conjugation, obeys exactly the following laws: m_k^2 = (k+s/2) Lambda_QCD^2 for s even, m_k^2 = 2(k+s/2) Lambda_QCD^2 for s odd, k = 1,2,... for glueballs, and m_n^2 = 1/2 (n+s/2) Lambda_QCD^2, n = 0,1,... for mesons. One of the striking features of these laws is that they imply that the glueball and meson masses squared form exactly-linear Regge trajectories in the large-N limit of massless QCD, all the way down to the low-lying states: A fact unsuspected so far. The numerical evidence is based on lattice computations by Meyer-Teper in SU(8) YM for glueballs, and by Bali et al. in SU(17) quenched massless QCD for mesons, that we analyze systematically. The aforementioned spectrum for spin-0 glueballs is implied by a Topological Field Theory underlying the large-N limit of YM, whose glueball propagators satisfy as well fundamental universal...

  18. Domain wall solitons and Hopf algebraic translational symmetries in noncommutative field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sasai, Yuya

    2007-01-01

    Domain wall solitons are the simplest topological objects in field theories. The conventional translational symmetry in a field theory is the generator of a one-parameter family of domain wall solutions, and induces a massless moduli field which propagates along a domain wall. We study similar issues in braided noncommutative field theories possessing Hopf algebraic translational symmetries. As a concrete example, we discuss a domain wall soliton in the scalar phi^4 braided noncommutative field theory in Lie-algebraic noncommutative spacetime, [x^i,x^j]=2i kappa epsilon^{ijk}x_k (i,j,k=1,2,3), which has a Hopf algebraic translational symmetry. We first discuss the existence of a domain wall soliton in view of Derrick's theorem, and construct explicitly a one-parameter family of solutions in perturbation of the noncommutativity parameter kappa. We then find the massless moduli field which propagates on the domain wall soliton. We further extend our analysis to the general Hopf algebraic translational symmetry.

  19. Non-gaussianity in axion N-flation models Quadratic and $\\lambda\\phi^4$ plus axion potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kamarpour, Mehran

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate large non-gaussianity in axion N-flation models, taking account while dynamically a large number of axions begin away from the hilltop region(come down from the hill) and so serve only to be the source of the Hubble rate. Therefore the single field stays closest to the hilltop sources the non-Gaussianity. In this case most of axions can be replaced by a single effective field with a quadratic potential. So our potential will contain two fields. The full cosine is responsible for the axion closest to hilltop and quadratic term which is a source for Hubble rate [4]. We obtain power spectrum, spectral index and non-gaussianity parameter, then we impose conditions from WMAP for power spectrum and spectral index and see how large on non-gaussianity parameter it is possible to achieve with such conditions. Finally we swap quadratic term to {\\lambda}{\\phi}^4 and see whether this makes it harder or easier to achieve large non-gaussianity.We find large non-gaussianity is achievable by impo...

  20. Consistency Conditions on the S-Matrix of Massless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a set of consistency conditions on the S-matrix of theories of massless particles of arbitrary spin in four-dimensional Minkowski space-time. We find that in most cases the constraints, derived from the conditions, can only be satisfied if the S-matrix is trivial. Our conditions apply to theories where four-particle scattering amplitudes can be obtained from three-particle ones via a recent technique called BCFW construction. We call theories in this class constructible. We propose a program for performing a systematic search of constructible theories that can have non-trivial S-matrices. As illustrations, we provide simple proofs of already known facts like the impossibility of spin $s > 2$ non-trivial S-matrices, the impossibility of several spin 2 interacting particles and the uniqueness of a theory with spin 2 and spin 3/2 particles.

  1. Shock structure in massless gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Majorana

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available The shock structure problem is investigated in the framework of the Eckart theory of irreversible thermodynamics in the ultra relativistic limit. It is considered a neutrino gas and a gas in the approximation of hard sphere model.

  2. Massive, massless and ghost modes of gravitational waves from higher-order gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanos, Charalampos; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    We linearize the field equations for higher order theories that contain scalar invariants other than the Ricci scalar. We find that besides a massless spin-2 field (the standard graviton), the theory contains also spin-0 and spin-2 massive modes with the latter being, in general, ghost modes. The...

  3. Electromagnetic fields of a massless particle and the eikonal

    CERN Document Server

    Jackiw, Roman W; Ortiz, M; Jackiw, Roman; Kabat, Dan; Ortiz, Miguel

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields of a massless charged particle are described by a gauge potential that is almost everywhere pure gauge. Solution of quantum mechanical wave equations in the presence of such fields is therefore immediate and leads to a new derivation of the quantum electrodynamical eikonal approximation. The elctromagnetic action in the eikonal limit is localised on a contour in a two-dimensional Minkowski subspace of four-dimensional space-time. The exact S-matrix of this reduced theory coincides with the eikonal approximation, and represents the generalisatin to electrodynamics of the approach of 't Hooft and the Verlinde's to Planckian scattering.

  4. Massless Dirac fields and Barbero-Immirzi parameter in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berredo-Peixoto, Guilherme de; Shapiro, Ilya Lvovich; Souza, Cleber Abrahao de [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (ICE/UFJF), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    We consider cosmological solution for Einstein gravity with massless fermions with a four-fermion coupling, which emerges from the Holst action and is related to the Barbero-Immirzi (BI) parameter. The gravitational action of this sort is a popular object of investigation in a non-perturbative formalism of quantum gravity. After exploring the consistency conditions for Dirac field within the standard Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric, one can rule out some classes of simplest solutions, related to conformal transformation of the field. It can be shown that the Dirac spinor components should be distinct complex functions of time. Finally, the theory with BI parameter and minimally coupling massless Dirac field is equivalent to a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = wρ, with w = 1/7. It is remarkable that the equation of state of the self-interacting spinor matter does not depend on the BI parameter. As a result, the theory does not allow smooth transition to the usual GR without Holst term. (author)

  5. Is the up-quark massless?

    CERN Document Server

    Irving, A C; Michael, C; Sharkey, K J; Wittig, H

    2001-01-01

    We report on determinations of the low-energy constants alpha5 and alpha8 in the effective chiral Lagrangian at O(p^4), using lattice simulations with N_f=2 flavours of dynamical quarks. Precise knowledge of these constants is required to test the hypothesis whether or not the up-quark is massless. Our results are obtained by studying the quark mass dependence of suitably defined ratios of pseudoscalar meson masses and matrix elements. Although comparisons with an earlier study in the quenched approximation reveal small qualitative differences in the quark mass behaviour, numerical estimates for alpha5 and alpha8 show only a weak dependence on the number of dynamical quark flavours. Our results disfavour the possibility of a massless up-quark, provided that the quark mass dependence in the physical three-flavour case is not fundamentally different from the two-flavour case studied here.

  6. Renormalized versions of the massless Thirring model

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R

    2003-01-01

    We present a non-perturbative study of the (1+1)-dimensional massless Thirring model by using path integral methods. The model presents two features, one of them has a local gauge symmetry that is implemented at quantum level and the other one without this symmetry. We make a detailed analysis of their UV divergence structure, a non-perturbative regularization and renormalization processes are proposed.

  7. Nonpertubative Solutions of Massless Gauged Thirring Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalo, R.; Casana, R.; Pimentel, B. M.

    2010-11-01

    We present a nonperturbative quantization of the two-dimensional massless gauged Thirring model by using the path-integral approach. First, we will study the constraint structure of model via the Dirac's formalism and by using the Faddeev-Senjanovic method we calculate the vacuum-vacuum transition amplitude in a Rξ-gauge, then we compute the Green's functions in a nonperturbative framework.

  8. Fermion condensates of massless QED$_{2}$ at finite density in non-trivial topological sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, H R; De la Plata, N; de La Plata, Nacional

    1996-01-01

    Vacuum expectation values of products of local bilinears \\bar\\psi\\psi are computed in massless QED_2 at finite density. It is shown that chiral condensates exhibit an oscillatory inhomogeneous behaviour depending on the chemical potential. The use of a path-integral approach clarifies the connection of this phenomenon with the topological structure of the theory.

  9. Regulating the infrared by mode matching: a massless scalar in expanding spaces with constant deceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a massless scalar field, with a possible coupling ξ to the Ricci scalar in a D dimensional Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with a constant deceleration parameter q=ϵ-1, ϵ=-H˙/H2. Correlation functions for the Bunch-Davies vacuum of such a theory have long

  10. Electromagnetic fields and potentials generated by massless charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzurli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.azzurli@gmail.com [Scuola Galileiana di Studi Superiori, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Lechner, Kurt, E-mail: lechner@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo, 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    We provide for the first time the exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for a massless charged particle moving on a generic trajectory at the speed of light. In particular we furnish explicit expressions for the vector potential and the electromagnetic field, which were both previously unknown, finding that they entail different physical features for bounded and unbounded trajectories. With respect to the standard Liénard–Wiechert field the electromagnetic field acquires singular δ-like contributions whose support and dimensionality depend crucially on whether the motion is (a) linear, (b) accelerated unbounded, (c) accelerated bounded. In the first two cases the particle generates a planar shock-wave-like electromagnetic field traveling along a straight line. In the second and third cases the field acquires, in addition, a δ-like contribution supported on a physical singularity-string attached to the particle. For generic accelerated motions a genuine radiation field is also present, represented by a regular principal-part type distribution diverging on the same singularity-string. - Highlights: • First exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for massless charges in arbitrary motion. • Explicit expressions of electromagnetic fields and potentials. • Derivations are rigorous and based on distribution theory. • The form of the field depends heavily on whether the motion is bounded or unbounded. • The electromagnetic field contains unexpected Dirac-delta-function contributions.

  11. Massless scalar Feynman diagrams: five loops and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, David J

    2016-01-01

    Several powerful techniques for evaluating massless scalar Feynman diagrams are developed, viz: the solution of recurrence relations to evaluate diagrams with arbitrary numbers of loops in $n=4-2\\omega$ dimensions; the discovery and use of symmetry properties to restrict and compute Taylor series in $\\omega$; the reduction of triple sums over Chebyshev polynomials to products of Riemann zeta functions; the exploitation of conformal invariance to avoid four-dimensional Racah coefficients. As an example of the power of these techniques we evaluate all of the 216 diagrams, with 5 loops or less, which give finite contributions of order $1/k^2$ or $1/k^4$ to a propagator of momentum $k$ in massless four-dimensional scalar field theories. Remarkably, only 5 basic numbers are encountered: $\\zeta(3)$, $\\zeta(5)$, $\\zeta(7)$, $\\zeta(9)$ and the value of the most symmetrical diagram, which is calculated to 14 significant figures. It is conceivable that these are the only irrationals appearing in 6-loop beta functions. ...

  12. Students' difficulties with tension in massless strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-García, S.; Alfaro-Avena, L. L.; Chávez-Pierce, J. E.; Luna-González, J.; González-Quezada, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Many students enrolled in introductory mechanics courses have difficulties with understanding the concept of static equilibrium. Some of these difficulties are related to the concept of force in the context of tension in massless strings. We identify three kinds of misconceptions: Students' beliefs that the angle of the string and proximity to the object are related to the tension. Students also use incorrect compensation arguments to reason about situations where both the angle and proximity change simultaneously. These difficulties were identified during investigations conducted in laboratory and lecture sessions at three universities in the United States and Mexico.

  13. Massless Boundary Sine-Gordon Model Coupled to External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kogetsu, H

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a generalization of the massless boundary sine-Gordon model with conformal invariance, which has been used to describe an array of D-branes (or rolling tachyon). We consider a similar action whose couplings are replaced with external fields depending on the boundary coordinate. Even in the presence of the external fields, this model is still solvable, though it does not maintain the whole conformal symmetry. We obtain, to all orders in perturbation theory in terms of the external fields, a simpler expression of the boundary state and the disc partition function. As a by-product, we fix the relation between the bare couplings and the renormalized couplings which has been appeared in papers on tachyon lump and rolling tachyon.

  14. On 4 D, =1 massless gauge superfields of arbitrary superhelicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, S. James; Koutrolikos, Konstantinos

    2014-06-01

    We present an alternative method of exploring the component structure of an arbitrary super-helicity (integer Y = s, or half odd integer Y = s+1 /2 for any integer s) irreducible representation of the Super-Poincaré group. We use it to derive the component action and the SUSY transformation laws. The effectiveness of this approach is based on the equations of motion and their properties, like the Bianchi identities. These equations are generated by the superspace action when it is expressed in terms of prepotentials. For that reason we reproduce the superspace action for arbitrary superhelicity, using unconstrained superfields. The appropriate, to use, superfields are dictated by the representation theory of the group and the requirement that there is a smooth limit between the massive and massless case.

  15. Towards a construction of inclusive collision cross-sections in the massless Nelson model

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The conventional approach to the infrared problem in perturbative quantum electrodynamics relies on the concept of inclusive collision cross-sections. A non-perturbative variant of this notion was introduced in algebraic quantum field theory. Relying on these insights, we take first steps towards a non-perturbative construction of inclusive collision cross-sections in the massless Nelson model. We show that our proposal is consistent with the standard scattering theory in the absence of the i...

  16. Higher-order singletons, partially massless fields, and their boundary values in the ambient approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekaert, Xavier [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Grigoriev, Maxim, E-mail: grig@lpi.ru [Tamm Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-11

    Using ambient space we develop a fully gauge and o(d,2)-covariant approach to boundary values of AdS{sub d+1} gauge fields. It is applied to the study of (partially) massless fields in the bulk and (higher-order) conformal scalars, i.e. singletons, as well as (higher-depth) conformal gauge fields on the boundary. In particular, we identify the corresponding generalized Fradkin–Tseytlin equations as obstructions to the extension of the off-shell boundary value to the bulk, generalizing the usual considerations for the holographic anomalies to the partially massless fields. We also relate the background fields for the higher-order singleton to the boundary values of partially massless fields and prove the appropriate generalization of the Flato–Fronsdal theorem, which is in agreement with the known structure of symmetries for the higher-order wave operator. All these facts support the following generalization of the higher-spin holographic duality: the O(N) model at a multicritical isotropic Lifshitz point should be dual to the theory of partially massless symmetric tensor fields described by the Vasiliev equations based on the higher-order singleton symmetry algebra.

  17. Massless gauge bosons other than the photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Gauge bosons associated with unbroken gauge symmetries, under which all standard model fields are singlets, may interact with ordinary matter via higher-dimensional operators. A complete set of dimension-six operators involving a massless U(1) field, {gamma}', and standard model fields is presented. The {mu} {yields} e{gamma}' decay, primordial nucleosynthesis, star cooling and other phenomena set lower limits on the scale of chirality-flip operators in the 1-15 TeV range, if the operators have coefficients given by the corresponding Yukawa couplings. Simple renormalizable models induce {gamma}' interactions with leptons or quarks at two loops, and may provide a cold dark matter candidate.

  18. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2003-07-01

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  19. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazinski, P O; Sharapov, A A [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-07

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  20. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O

    2003-01-01

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field having regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e. can be canceled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of homogeneous external field the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  1. Resonant oscillations of massless neutrinos in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, J. W. F.

    1987-12-01

    Oscillations of neutrinos propagating in matter do not require that neutrinos are massive, at a fundamental level. Even if neutrinos are massless as a consequence of an exact symmetry - such as total lepton number - they can oscillate into one another if the weak interaction has a small non-universal component, whose existence would signal physics beyond the standard model. The experimental constraints and theoretical plausibility of the mechanism are discussed. Coherent neutrino and antineutrino scattering could substantially affect the late thermal phase neutrino signal from a supernova explosion. I am thankful to Peter Rosen and Lincoln Wolfenstein, organizers of the Workshop on Solar and Astrophysical neutrinos, for the hospitality extended to me Aspen, where this work was partially done. I am also sincerely indebted to Sergey Petcov for help in deriving the evolution equation, Joe Schechter and Lincoln Wolfenstein for valuable discussions and to James Wilson and George Fuller for discussions on the Dynamics of supernovae.

  2. Gravitational Radiation from Massless Particle Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2016-05-17

    We compute classical gravitational bremsstrahlung from the gravitational scattering of two massless particles at leading order in the (center of mass) deflection angle $\\theta\\sim 8 G E/b \\ll 1$. The calculation, although non-perturbative in the gravitational constant, is surprisingly simple and yields explicit formulae --in terms of multidimensional integrals-- for the frequency and angular distribution of the radiation. In the range $ b^{-1} (GE)^{-1}$ the radiation is confined to cones of angular size of order $\\theta (GE\\omega)^{-1/2}$ resulting in a scale-invariant ($d\\omega/\\omega$) spectrum. The total efficiency in GW production is dominated by this "high frequency" region and is formally logarithmically divergent in the UV. If the spectrum is cutoff at the limit of validity of our approximations ($ GE \\omega \\sim \\theta^{-2}$), the fraction of incoming energy radiated away turns out to be $\\frac{1}{\\pi} \\theta ^2 \\log \\theta^{-2}$ at leading logarithmic accuracy.

  3. Motion of Massive and Massless Test particles in Dyadosphere Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Raychaudhuri, B; Kalam, M; Ghosh, A

    2008-01-01

    Motion of massive and massless test particle in equilibrium and non-equilibrium case is discussed in a dyadosphere geometry through Hamilton-Jacobi method. Geodesics of particles are discussed through Lagrangian method too. Scalar wave equation for massless particle is analyzed to show the absence of superradiance.

  4. Is a generalized NJL model the effective action of massless QCD?

    CERN Document Server

    de Oca, Alejandro Cabo Montes

    2015-01-01

    A local and gauge invariant alternative version of QCD for massive fermions introduced in previous works, is considered here to just propose a theory which includes Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) terms in its defining action in a renormalizable form. The Lagrangian includes a special kind of new vertices which at first sight, look as breaking power counting renormalizability. However, these terms also modify the quark propagators, to become more decreasing that the Dirac propagator at large momenta, indicating that the theory is renormalizable. Therefore, it follows the surprising conclusion that the added NJL four fermions terms does not break renormalizability. The approach, can also be interpreted as a slightly generalized renormalization procedure for massless QCD, which seems able to incorporate the mass generating properties for the quarks of the NJL model, in a renormalizable way. The structure of the free propagator, given by the substraction between a massive and a massless Dirac one in the Lee-Wick form, ...

  5. Finite temperature and dissipative corrections to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation from $\\lambda\\Phi^4$ one loop contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Matos, T

    2011-01-01

    Starting with a scalar field in a thermal bath and using the one loop quantum correction potential, we rewrite the Klein-Gordon equation in its thermodynamical representation and study the behavior of this scalar field due to temperature variations in the equations of motion. We find the generalization of a Gross-Pitaevskii like equation for a relativistic Bose gas with finite temperature, the corresponding thermodynamic and viscosity expressions, and an expression for the postulate of the first law of the thermodynamics for this BECs. We also propose that the equations obtained might help to explain at some level the phase transition of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in terms of quantum field theory in a simple way.

  6. Resummation of the Two Distinct Large Logarithms in the Broken $O(N)$-symmetric $\\phi^4$-model

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesendanger, C

    1996-01-01

    The loop-expansion of the effective potential in the $O(N)$-symmetric those systematically a new minimal two-scale subtraction scheme $\\tMS$ is introduced in an $O(N)$-invariant generalization of $\\MS$. As the $\\tMS$ beta functions depend on the renormalization scale-ratio a large logarithms resummation is performed on them. Two partial $\\tMS$ renormalization group equations are derived to turn the beta functions into $\\tMS$ running parameters. With the use of standard perturbative boundary conditions, which become applicable in $\\tMS$, the leading logarithmic $\\tMS$ effective potential is computed. The calculation indicates that there is no stable vacuum in the broken phase of the theory for $1

  7. Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, K S; Geim, A K; Morozov, S V; Jiang, D; Katsnelson, M I; Grigorieva, I V; Dubonos, S V; Firsov, A A

    2005-11-10

    Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. Here we report an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation. The charge carriers in graphene mimic relativistic particles with zero rest mass and have an effective 'speed of light' c* approximately 10(6) m s(-1). Our study reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In particular we have observed the following: first, graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the quantum unit of conductance, even when concentrations of charge carriers tend to zero; second, the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; and third, the cyclotron mass m(c) of massless carriers in graphene is described by E = m(c)c*2. This two-dimensional system is not only interesting in itself but also allows access to the subtle and rich physics of quantum electrodynamics in a bench-top experiment.

  8. Categories of Massless D-Branes and del Pezzo Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Addington, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In analogy with the physical concept of a massless D-brane, we define a notion of "Q-masslessness" for objects in the derived category. This is defined in terms of monodromy around singularities in the stringy Kahler moduli space and is relatively easy to study using spherical functors. We consider several examples in which del Pezzo surfaces and other rational surfaces in Calabi-Yau threefolds are contracted. For precisely the del Pezzo surfaces that can be written as hypersurfaces in weighted P3, the category of Q-massless objects is a "fractional Calabi-Yau" category of graded matrix factorizations.

  9. The dynamical gluon mass in the massless bound-state formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Ibanez, David

    2014-01-01

    We describe the phenomenon of dynamical gluon mass generation within the massless bound-state formalism, which constitutes the general framework for the systematic implementation of the Schwinger mechanism in non-Abelian gauge theories. The main ingredient of this formalism is the dynamical formation of bound states with vanishing mass, which gives rise to effective vertices containing massless poles; these vertices, in turn, trigger the Schwinger mechanism, and allow for the gauge-invariant generation of an effective gluon mass. In this particular approach, the gluon mass is directly related to quantities that are intrinsic to the bound-state formation itself, such as the "transition amplitude" and the corresponding "bound-state wave-function". Specifically, a set of powerful relations discussed in the text, allows one to determine the dynamical evolution of the gluon mass through a Bethe-Salpeter equation, which controls the dynamics of the relevant wave-function. In addition, it is possible to demonstrate ...

  10. Towards a construction of inclusive collision cross-sections in massless Nelson's model

    CERN Document Server

    Dybalski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The conventional approach to the infrared problem in perturbative quantum electrodynamics relies on the concept of inclusive collision cross-sections. A non-perturbative variant of this notion was introduced in algebraic quantum field theory. Relying on these insights, we take first steps towards a non-perturbative construction of inclusive collision cross-sections in massless Nelson's model. We show that our proposal is consistent with the standard scattering theory in the absence of the infrared problem and discuss its status in the infrared-singular case.

  11. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  12. Lectures on Matrix Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydri, Badis

    The subject of matrix field theory involves matrix models, noncommutative geometry, fuzzy physics and noncommutative field theory and their interplay. In these lectures, a lot of emphasis is placed on the matrix formulation of noncommutative and fuzzy spaces, and on the non-perturbative treatment of the corresponding field theories. In particular, the phase structure of noncommutative $\\phi^4$ theory is treated in great detail, and an introduction to noncommutative gauge theory is given.

  13. Topological Symmetry, Spin Liquids and CFT Duals of Polyakov Model with Massless Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat

    2008-04-30

    We prove the absence of a mass gap and confinement in the Polyakov model with massless complex fermions in any representation of the gauge group. A U(1){sub *} topological shift symmetry protects the masslessness of one dual photon. This symmetry emerges in the IR as a consequence of the Callias index theorem and abelian duality. For matter in the fundamental representation, the infrared limits of this class of theories interpolate between weakly and strongly coupled conformal field theory (CFT) depending on the number of flavors, and provide an infinite class of CFTs in d = 3 dimensions. The long distance physics of the model is same as certain stable spin liquids. Altering the topology of the adjoint Higgs field by turning it into a compact scalar does not change the long distance dynamics in perturbation theory, however, non-perturbative effects lead to a mass gap for the gauge fluctuations. This provides conceptual clarity to many subtle issues about compact QED{sub 3} discussed in the context of quantum magnets, spin liquids and phase fluctuation models in cuprate superconductors. These constructions also provide new insights into zero temperature gauge theory dynamics on R{sup 2,1} and R{sup 2,1} x S{sup 1}. The confined versus deconfined long distance dynamics is characterized by a discrete versus continuous topological symmetry.

  14. Massless black holes as black diholes and quadruholes

    CERN Document Server

    Ortín, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    Massless black holes can be understood as bound states of a (positive mass) extreme a=\\sqrt{3} black hole and a singular object with opposite ({\\it i.e.}~negative) mass with vanishing ADM (total) mass but non-vanishing gravitational field. Supersymmetric balance of forces is crucial for the existence of this kind of bound states and explains why the system does not move at the speed of light in spite of being massless. We also explain how supersymmetry allows for negative mass as long as it is never isolated but in bound states of total non-negative mass. The known massless black-hole solutions should then be considered particular cases of ``gravitational dipoles''. We also present ``gravitational quadrupoles'' and comment on the possible role of all these objects in string phase transitions.

  15. Calculating four-loop massless propagators with Forcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, T.; Ruijl, B.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present Forcer, a new FORM program for the calculation of four-loop massless propagators. The basic framework is similar to that of the Mincer program for three-loop massless propagators: the program reduces Feynman integrals to a set of master integrals in a parametric way. To overcome an ineludible complexity of the program structure at the four-loop level, most of the code was automatically generated or made with computer-assisted derivations. Correctness of the program has been checked with the recomputation of some quantities in the literature.

  16. Hertz potentials and asymptotic properties of massless fields

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Lars; Joudioux, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Hertz potentials for free massless spin-s fields on the Minkowski spacetime, with data in weighted Sobolev spaces. We prove existence and pointwise estimates for the Hertz potentials using a weighted estimate for the wave equation. This is then applied to give weighted estimates for the solutions of the spin-s field equations, for arbitrary half-integer s. In particular, the peeling properties of the free massless spin-s fields are analyzed for initial data in weighted Sobolev spaces with arbitrary, non-integer weights.

  17. Scattering of massless Dirac particles by oscillating barriers in one dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Santander, C. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez-Adame, F., E-mail: adame@ucm.es [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fuentevilla, C.H.; Diez, E. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    We study the scattering of massless Dirac particles by oscillating barriers in one dimension. Using the Floquet theory, we find the exact scattering amplitudes for time-harmonic barriers of arbitrary shape. In all cases the scattering amplitudes are found to be independent of the energy of the incoming particle and the transmission coefficient is unity. This is a manifestation of the Klein tunneling in time-harmonic potentials. Remarkably, the transmission amplitudes for arbitrary sharply-peaked potentials also become independent of the driving frequency. Conditions for which barriers of finite width can be replaced by sharply-peaked potentials are discussed.

  18. Infrared behaviour of massless QED in space-time dimensions $3 \\leq d < 4$

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, I; Sharatchandra, H S; Mitra, Indrajit; Ratabole, Raghunath

    2005-01-01

    We show that the logarithmic infrared divergences in electron self-energy and vertex function of massless QED in 2+1 dimensions can be removed at all orders of 1/N by an appropriate choice of a non-local gauge. Thus the infrared behaviour given by the leading order in 1/N is not modified by higher order corrections. Our analysis gives a computational scheme for the Amati-Testa model, resulting in a non-trivial conformal invariant field theory for all space-time dimensions $3 \\leq d < 4$.

  19. Explicitly broken supersymmetry with exactly massless moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Zhao, Yue

    2016-06-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence is applied to an analogue of the little hierarchy problem in three-dimensional supersymmetric theories. The bulk is governed by a super-gravity theory in which a U(1) × U(1) R-symmetry is gauged by Chern-Simons fields. The bulk theory is deformed by a boundary term quadratic in the gauge fields. It breaks SUSY completely and sources an exactly marginal operator in the dual CFT. SUSY breaking is communicated by gauge interactions to bulk scalar fields and their spinor superpartners. The bulk-to-boundary propagator of the Chern-Simons fields is a total derivative with respect to the bulk coordinates. Integration by parts and the Ward identity permit evaluation of SUSY breaking effects to all orders in the strength of the deformation. The R-charges of scalars and spinors differ so large SUSY breaking mass shifts are generated. Masses of R-neutral particles such as scalar moduli are not shifted to any order in the deformation strength, despite the fact that they may couple to R-charged fields running in loops. We also obtain a universal deformation formula for correlation functions under an exactly marginal deformation by a product of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic U(1) currents.

  20. Nonplanar loops leave the Veneziano model photon massless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of a pole at p2=0 in the orientable nonplanar one-loop photon self-energy in the Veneziano model is verified. Thus the photon remains massless, and spontaneous symmetry breaking - at least as reported in this context in the literature - is not found.

  1. The gravitational shock wave of a massless particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't; Dray, T

    1985-01-01

    The (spherical) gravitational shock wave due to a massless particle moving at the speed of light along the horizon of the Schwarzchild black hole is obtained. Special cases of our procedure yield previous results by Aichelburg and Sexl[1] for a photon in Minkowski vpace and by Penrose [2] for source

  2. The asymptotic limits of zero modes of massless Dirac operators

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    Asymptotic behaviors of zero modes of the massless Dirac operator $H=\\alpha\\cdot D + Q(x)$ are discussed, where $\\alpha= (\\alpha_1, \\alpha_2, \\alpha_3)$ is the triple of $4 \\times 4$ Dirac matrices, $ D=\\frac{1}{i} \

  3. Horizontal symmetries of leptons with a massless neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshipura, Anjan S., E-mail: anjan@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Patel, Ketan M., E-mail: ketan@theory.tifr.res.in [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2013-12-18

    Residual symmetry G{sub ν} of neutrino mass matrix with a massless neutrino and embedding of G{sub ν} and the residual symmetry G{sub l} of the charged lepton mass matrix into finite discrete groups G is discussed. Massless neutrino results if G{sub ν} and hence G are subgroups of U(3) rather than of SU(3). Structure of the resulting leptonic mixing matrix U{sub PMNS} is discussed in three specific examples based on groups (a) Σ(3N{sup 3}), (b) Σ(2N{sup 2}) and (c) S{sub 4}(2)≡A{sub 4}⋊Z{sub 4}. Σ(3N{sup 3}) groups are able to reproduce either the second or the third column of U{sub PMNS} correctly. Σ(2N{sup 2}) groups lead to prediction θ{sub 13}=0, θ{sub 23}=(π)/4 for the reactor and atmospheric mixing angles respectively if neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted. Solar angle remains undetermined in this case. This also gets determined when G=S{sub 4}(2) which can give bi-maximal mixing for inverted hierarchy. Examples (b) and (c) provide a good zeroth order approximation to realistic leptonic mixing with a massless neutrino. We also present an example of the specific model based on S{sub 4}(2) symmetry in which a massless neutrino and viable leptonic mixing angles are obtained.

  4. Emission spectrum of soft massless states from heavy superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    We calculate emission rates of various bosonic/fermionic soft massless states of open/closed superstring from an ensemble of a highly excited open/closed superstring in the flat background. The resulting spectrum shows thermal distributions at the Hagedorn temperature. We find greybody factors for each process and observe their relation to the ones from blackholes.

  5. Nonplanar loops leave the Veneziano model photon massless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of a pole at p2=0 in the orientable nonplanar one-loop photon self-energy in the Veneziano model is verified. Thus the photon remains massless, and spontaneous symmetry breaking - at least as reported in this context in the literature - is not found.

  6. Nonplanar loops leave the Veneziano model photon massless

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-04-16

    The absence of a pole at p/sup 2/=0 in the orientable nonplanar one-loop photon self-energy in the Veneziano model is verified. Thus the photon remains massless, and spontaneous symmetry breaking - at least as reported in this context in the literature - is not found.

  7. Massless QFT and the Newton-Wigner Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Much, Albert

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the second-quantized version of the spatial-coordinate operator, known as the Newton-Wigner-Pryce operator, is explicitly given w.r.t. the massless scalar field. Moreover, transformations of the conformal group are calculated on eigenfunctions of this operator in order to investigate the covariance group w.r.t. probability amplitudes of localizing particles.

  8. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality in the soft behavior of the dilaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo; Marotta, Raffaele; Mojaza, Matin

    2016-12-01

    We consider the tree-level scattering amplitudes in the NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz) massless sector of closed superstrings in the case where one external state becomes soft. We compute the amplitudes generically for any number of dimensions and any number and kind of the massless closed states through the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string. Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory.

  9. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality in the soft behavior of the dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Di Vecchia, Paolo; Mojaza, Matin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the tree-level scattering amplitudes in the NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz) massless sector of closed superstrings in the case where one external state becomes soft. We compute the amplitudes generically for any number of dimensions and any number and kind of the massless closed states through the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string. Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory.

  10. Exploring the S matrix of massless particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Paolo; Conde, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    We use the recently proposed generalized on-shell representation for scattering amplitudes and a consistency test to explore the space of tree-level consistent couplings in four-dimensional Minkowski space-time. The extension of the notion of constructibility implied by the generalized on-shell representation, i.e. the possibility to reconstruct at tree level all the scattering amplitudes from the three-particle ones, together with the imposition of the consistency conditions at four-particle level, allow us to rediscover all the known theories characterized by three-particle couplings and propagator 1/P2, and their algebra structure if any. Interestingly, this analysis seems to leave room for high-spin couplings, provided that at least the requirement of locality is weakened. We do not claim to have found tree-level consistent high-spin theories, but rather that our methods show signatures of them and very likely, with a suitable modification, they can be a good framework to perform a systematic search.

  11. Fate of the conformal fixed point with twelve massless fermions and SU(3) gauge group

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Zoltan; Kuti, Julius; Mondal, Santanu; Nogradi, Daniel; Wong, Chik Him

    2016-01-01

    We report new results on the conformal properties of an important strongly coupled gauge theory, a building block of composite Higgs models beyond the Standard Model. With twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group, an infrared fixed point of the $\\beta$-function was recently reported in the theory (Cheng:2014jba) with uncertainty in the location of the critical gauge coupling inside the narrow $[ 6.0theory with model-building implications. Using the exact same renormalization scheme as the previous study, we show that no fixed point of the $\\beta$-function exists in the reported interval.

  12. Noncommutative AdS2/CFT1 duality: The case of massless scalar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzul, A.; Stern, A.

    2017-09-01

    We show how to construct correlators for the CFT1 which is dual to noncommutative AdS2 (n c AdS2). We do it explicitly for the example of the massless scalar field on Euclidean n c AdS2. n c AdS2 is the quantization of AdS2 that preserves all the isometries. It is described in terms of the unitary irreducible representations, more specifically discrete series representations, of s o (2 ,1 ). We write down symmetric differential representations for the discrete series and then map them to functions on the Moyal-Weyl plane. The Moyal-Weyl plane has a large distance limit which can be identified with the boundary of n c AdS2. Killing vectors can be constructed on n c AdS2 which reduce to the AdS2 Killing vectors near the boundary. We, therefore, conclude that n c AdS2 is asymptotically AdS2, and so the AdS /CFT correspondence should apply. For the example of the massless scalar field on Euclidean n c AdS2, the on-shell action, and resulting two-point function for the boundary theory, are computed to leading order in the noncommutativity parameter. The computation is nontrivial because nonlocal interactions appear in the Moyal-Weyl description. Nevertheless, the result is remarkably simple and agrees with that of the commutative scalar field theory, up to a rescaling.

  13. On the tree-level structure of scattering amplitudes of massless particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Paolo; Conde, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    We provide a new set of on-shell recursion relations for tree-level scattering amplitudes, which are valid for any non-trivial theory of massless particles. In particular, we reconstruct the scattering amplitudes from (a subset of) their poles and zeroes. The latter determine the boundary term arising in the BCFW-representation when the amplitudes do not vanish as some momenta are taken to infinity along some complex direction. Specifically, such a boundary term can be expressed as a sum of products of two on-shell amplitudes with fewer external states and a factor dependent on the location of the relevant zeroes and poles. This allows us to recast the amplitudes to have the standard BCFW-structure, weighted by a simple factor dependent on a subset of zeroes and poles of the amplitudes. We further comment on the physical interpretation of the zeroes as a particular kinematic limit in the complexified momentum space. The main implication of the existence of such recursion relations is that the tree-level approximation of any consistent theory of massless particles can be fully determined just by the knowledge of the corresponding three-particle amplitudes.

  14. Time-dependent massless Dirac fermions in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khantoul, Boubakeur, E-mail: bobphys@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Jijel, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Fring, Andreas, E-mail: a.fring@city.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-30

    Using the Lewis–Riesenfeld method of invariants we construct explicit analytical solutions for the massless Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions describing quasi-particles in graphene. The Hamiltonian of the system considered contains some explicit time-dependence in addition to one resulting from being minimally coupled to a time-dependent vector potential. The eigenvalue equations for the two spinor components of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant are found to decouple into a pair of supersymmetric invariants in a similar fashion as the known decoupling for the time-independent Dirac Hamiltonians. - Highlights: • An explicit analytical solution for a massless 2+1 dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation is found. • All steps of the Lewis–Riesenfeld method have been carried out.

  15. Quartet unconstrained formulation for massless higher spin fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, I. L.; Galajinsky, A. V.; Krykhtin, V. A.

    2007-09-01

    We construct simple unconstrained Lagrangian formulations for massless higher spin fields in flat space of arbitrary dimension and on anti-de Sitter background. Starting from the triplet equations of Francia and Sagnotti, which describe a chain of spin modes, we introduce an auxiliary field and find appropriate gauge invariant constraints that single out the spin- s mode. The resulting quartet of fields, thus describing an irreducible representation of the Poincaré group, is used to construct simple Lagrangian formulations, which are local, free from higher derivative terms and use equal number of auxiliary fields for an unconstrained description of any value of spin. Our method proves to be most efficient for an unconstrained description of massless higher spin fermions in anti-de Sitter space. A relation of the minimal models with the universal BRST approach is discussed.

  16. Quartet unconstrained formulation for massless higher spin fields

    CERN Document Server

    Buchbinder, I L; Krykhtin, V A

    2007-01-01

    We construct simple unconstrained Lagrangian formulations for massless higher spin fields in flat space of arbitrary dimension and on anti de Sitter background. Starting from the triplet equations of Francia and Sagnotti, which describe a chain of spin modes, we introduce an auxiliary field and find appropriate gauge invariant constraints that single out the spin-s mode. The resulting quartet of fields, thus describing an irreducible representation of the Poincare group, is used to construct simple Lagrangian formulations, which are local, free from higher derivative terms and use equal number of auxiliary fields for an unconstrained description of any value of spin. Our method proves to be most efficient for an unconstrained description of massless higher spin fermions in anti de Sitter space. A relation of the minimal models with the universal BRST approach is discussed.

  17. Optimized Perturbation Theory at Finite Temperature Two-Loop Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chiku, S

    2000-01-01

    We study the optimized perturbation theory (OPT) at finite temperature, which is a self-consistent resummation method. Firstly, we generalize the idea of the OPT to optimize the coupling constant in lambda phi^4 theory, and give a proof of the renormalizability of this generalized OPT. Secondly, the principle of minimal sensitivity and the criterion of the fastest apparent convergence, which are conditions to determine the optimal parameter values, are examined in lambda phi^4 theory. Both conditions exhibit a second-order transition at finite temperature with critical exponent beta = 0.5 in the two-loop approximation.

  18. Inflation in pure gravity with only massless spin-2 fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    We show that without introducing additional fields or extra degrees of freedom, a specific higher derivative extension of Einstein's gravity that has only a massless spin-2 excitation in its perturbative spectrum, has an inflationary period, a quasi-de Sitter phase with enough number of e-foldings required to solve the horizon and related problems. The crucial ingredient in the construction is the curvature dependence of the effective Newton's constant.

  19. Parity violation and the masslessness of the neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannheim, P.D.

    1978-09-01

    It is proposed that the weak interaction be obtained by gauging the strong interaction chiral flavor group. The neutrinos are then four-component spinors. Pairs of right-handed neutrinos are allowed to condense into the vacuum. This produces maximal parity violation in both the quark and lepton sectors of the weak interaction, keeps the neutrinos massless, and also leads to the conventional Weinberg mixing pattern. The approach also in principle provides a way of calculating the Cabibbo angle. 11 references.

  20. Perturbative renormalization and infrared finiteness in the Wilson renormalization group the massless scalar case

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, M; Marchesini, G

    1993-01-01

    A new proof of perturbative renormalizability and infrared finiteness for a scalar massless theory is obtained from a formulation of renormalized field theory based on the Wilson renormalization group. The loop expansion of the renormalized Green functions is deduced from the Polchinski equation of renormalization group. The resulting Feynman graphs are organized in such a way that the loop momenta are ordered. It is then possible to analyse their ultraviolet and infrared behaviours by iterative methods. The necessary subtractions and the corresponding counterterms are automatically generated in the process of fixing the physical conditions for the ``relevant'' vertices at the normalization point. The proof of perturbative renormalizability and infrared finiteness is simply based on dimensional arguments and does not require the usual analysis of topological properties of Feynman graphs.

  1. Perturbative renormalization and infrared finiteness in the Wilson renormalization group: the massless scalar case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, M.; D'Attanasio, M.; Marchesini, G.

    1993-11-01

    A new proof of perturbative renormalizability and infrared finiteness for a scalar massless theory is obtained from a formulation of renormalized field theory based on the Wilson renormalization group. The loop expansion of the renormalized Green functions is deduced from the Polchinski equation of renormalization group. The resulting Feynman graphs are organized in such a way that the loop momenta are ordered. It is then possible to analyse their ultraviolet and infrared behaviours by iterative methods. The necessary subtractions and the corresponding counterterms are automatically generated in the process of fixing the physical conditions for the "relevant" vertices at the normalization point. The proof of perturbative renormalizability and infrared finiteness is simply based on dimensional arguments and does not require the usual analysis of topological properties of Feynman graphs.

  2. 3+1D Massless Weyl Spinors from Bosonic Scalar-Tensor Duality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amoretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the fermionization of a bosonic-free theory characterized by the 3+1D scalar-tensor duality. This duality can be interpreted as the dimensional reduction, via a planar boundary, of the 4+1D topological BF theory. In this model, adopting the Sommerfield tomographic representation of quantized bosonic fields, we explicitly build a fermionic operator and its associated Klein factor such that it satisfies the correct anticommutation relations. Interestingly, we demonstrate that this operator satisfies the massless Dirac equation and that it can be identified with a 3+1D Weyl spinor. Finally, as an explicit example, we write the integrated charge density in terms of the tomographic transformed bosonic degrees of freedom.

  3. Massive, massless and ghost modes of gravitational waves from higher-order gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanos, Charalampos; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Nesseris, Savvas

    2009-01-01

    We linearize the field equations for higher order theories that contain scalar invariants other than the Ricci scalar. We find that besides a massless spin-2 field (the standard graviton), the theory contains also spin-0 and spin-2 massive modes with the latter being, in general, ghost modes. Then, we investigate the possible detectability of such additional polarization modes of a stochastic gravitational wave by ground-based and space interferometric detectors. Finally, we extend the formalism of the cross-correlation analysis, including the additional polarization modes, and calculate the detectable energy density of the spectrum for a stochastic background of the relic gravity waves that corresponds to our model. For the situation considered here, we find that these massive modes are certainly of interest for direct detection by the LISA experiment.

  4. 3+1D Massless Weyl spinors from bosonic scalar-tensor duality

    CERN Document Server

    Amoretti, Andrea; Caruso, Giacomo; Maggiore, Nicola; Magnoli, Nicodemo

    2013-01-01

    We consider the fermionization of a bosonic free theory characterized by the 3+1D scalar - tensor duality. This duality can be interpreted as the dimensional reduction, via a planar boundary, of the 4+1D topological BF theory. In this model, adopting the Sommerfield tomographic representation of quantized bosonic fields, we explicitly build a fermionic operator and its associated Klein factor such that it satisfies the correct anticommutation relations. Interestingly, we demonstrate that this operator satisfies the massless Dirac equation and that it can be identified with a 3+1D Weyl spinor. Finally, as an explicit example, we write the integrated charge density in terms of the tomographic transformed bosonic degrees of freedom.

  5. 'Massless' vector field in de Sitter Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garidi, T.; Gazeau, J-P. [APC, CNRS UMR 7164, Universite Paris 7, Denis Diderot, Boite 7020, F-75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rouhani, S. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Islamic Azad University, P.O.BOX 14835-157, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takook, M.V. [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    In the present work the massless vector field in the de Sitter (dS) space has been quantized. 'Massless' is used here by reference to conformal invariance and propagation on the dS light-cone whereas 'massive' refers to those dS fields which contract at zero curvature unambiguously to massive fields in Minkowski space. Due to the gauge invariance of the massless vector field, its covariant quantization requires an indecomposable representation of the de Sitter group and an indefinite metric quantization. We will work with a specific gauge fixing which leads to the simplest one among all possible related Gupta-Bleuler structures. The field operator will be defined with the help of coordinate independent de Sitter waves (the modes) which are simple to manipulate and most adapted to group theoretical matters. The physical states characterized by the divergence-lessness condition will for instance be easy to identify. The whole construction is based on analyticity requirements in the complexified pseudo-Riemannian manifold for the modes and the two-point function. (authors)

  6. Massless L\\"uscher Terms and the Limitations of the AdS3 Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    In AdS5/CFT4 integrability the Bethe ansatz gives the spectrum of long strings, accurate up to exponentially small corrections. This is no longer true in AdS3, as we demonstrate here by studying L\\"uscher F-terms with a massless particle running in the loop. We apply this to the classic test of Hern\\'andez & L\\'opez, in which the su(2) sector Bethe equations (including one-loop dressing phase) should match the semiclassical string theory result for a circular spinning string. These calculations did not agree in AdS3xS3xT4, and we show that the sum of all massless L\\"uscher F-terms can reproduce the difference.

  7. Entanglement entropy and massless phase in the antiferromagnetic three-state quantum chiral clock model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yan-Wei; Cho, Sam Young; Batchelor, Murray T.; Zhou, Huan-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The von Neumann entanglement entropy is used to estimate the critical point hc/J ≃0.143 (3 ) of the mixed ferro-antiferromagnetic three-state quantum Potts model H =∑i[J (XiXi+1 2+Xi2Xi +1) -h Ri] , where Xi and Ri are standard three-state Potts spin operators and J >0 is the antiferromagnetic coupling parameter. This critical point value gives improved estimates for two Kosterlitz-Thouless transition points in the antiferromagnetic (β model, where Δ and β are, respectively, the chirality and coupling parameters in the clock model. These are the transition points βc≃-0.143 (3 ) at Δ =1/2 between incommensurate and commensurate phases and βc≃-7.0 (1 ) at Δ =0 between disordered and incommensurate phases. The von Neumann entropy is also used to calculate the central charge c of the underlying conformal field theory in the massless phase h ≤hc . The estimate c ≃1 in this phase is consistent with the known exact value at the particular point h /J =-1 corresponding to the purely antiferromagnetic three-state quantum Potts model. The algebraic decay of the Potts spin-spin correlation in the massless phase is used to estimate the continuously varying critical exponent η .

  8. Forcer: a FORM program for 4-loop massless propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, T; Vermaseren, J A M

    2016-01-01

    We present a new FORM program for analytically evaluating four-loop massless propagator-type Feynman integrals in an efficient way. Our program Forcer implements parametric reductions of the aforementioned class of Feynman integrals into a set of master integrals and can be considered as a four-loop extension of the three-loop Mincer program. Since the program structure at the four-loop level is highly complicated and the equations easily become lengthy, most of the code was generated in an automatic way or with computer-assisted derivations. We have checked correctness of the program by recomputing already-known quantities in the literature.

  9. Schwinger's oscillator method, supersymmetric quantum mechanics and massless particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider Schwinger's method of angular momentum addition using the SU(2 algebra with both a fermionic and a bosonic oscillator. We show that the total spin states obtained are: one boson singlet state and an arbitrary number of spin-1/2 states, the later ones are energy degenerate. It means that we have in this case supersymmetric quantum mechanics and also the addition of angular momentum for massless particles. We review too the cases of two bosonic and two fermionic oscillators.

  10. On the origin of divergences in massless $QED_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Casana, Rodolfo; Dias, Sebastiao Alves

    2001-01-01

    We show that ultraviolet divergences found in fermionic Green's functions of massless $QED_2$ have an essentially non-perturbative nature. We investigate their origin both in gauge invariant formalism (the one where we introduce Wess-Zumino fields to restore quantum gauge invariance) and in gauge non-invariant formalism, mapping two different but equivalent mechanisms responsible for their appearance. We find the same results in both approaches, what contradicts a previous work of Jian-Ge, Qing-Hai and Yao-Yang, that found no divergences in the chiral Schwinger model considered in the gauge invariant formalism.

  11. On the origin of divergences in massless QED2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Dias, Sebastião A.

    2001-07-01

    We show that ultraviolet divergences found in fermionic Green functions of massless QED2 have an essentially non-perturbative nature. We investigate their origin both in the gauge invariant formalism (where we introduce Wess-Zumino fields to restore quantum gauge invariance) and in the gauge non-invariant formalism, mapping two different but equivalent mechanisms responsible for their appearance. We find the same results in both approaches, what contradicts a previous work of Jian-Ge, Qing-Hai and Yao-Yang, that found no divergences in the chiral Schwinger model considered in the gauge invariant formalism.

  12. Generalized Symmetries of Massless Free Fields on Minkowski Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Anco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete and explicit classification of generalized, or local, symmetries of massless free fields of spin s ≥ 1/2 is carried out. Up to equivalence, these are found to consists of the conformal symmetries and their duals, new chiral symmetries of order 2s, and their higher-order extensions obtained by Lie differentiation with respect to conformal Killing vectors. In particular, the results yield a complete classification of generalized symmetries of the Dirac-Weyl neutrino equation, Maxwell's equations, and the linearized gravity equations.

  13. Two-Dimensional Plasmonics in Massive and Massless Electron Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hosang

    Plasmonic waves in solid-state are caused by collective oscillation of mobile charges inside or at the surface of conductors. In particular, surface plasmonic waves propagating at the skin of metals have recently attracted interest, as they reduce the wavelength of electromagnetic waves coupled to them by up to ˜10 times, allowing one to create miniaturized wave devices at optical frequencies. In contrast, plasmonic waves on two-dimensional (2D) conductors appear at much lower infrared and THz-GHz frequencies, near or in the electronics regime, and can achieve far stronger wavelength reduction factor reaching well above 100. In this thesis, we study the unique machinery of 2D plasmonic waves behind this ultra-subwavelength confinement and explore how it can be used to create various interesting devices. To this end, we first develop a physically intuitive theoretical formulation of 2D plasmonic waves, whose two main components---the Coulomb restoration force and inertia of the collectively oscillating charges---are combined into a transmission-line-like model. We then use this formulation to create various ultra-subwavelength 2D plasmonic devices. For the 2D conductor, we first choose GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure---a 2D electron gas consisting of massive (m* > 0) electrons---demonstrating plasmonic bandgap crystals, interferometers, and negatively refracting metamaterials. We then examine a 2D plasmonic device based on graphene, a 2D electron gas consisting of effectively massless (m* = 0) electrons. We theoretically show and experimentally demonstrate that the massless electrons in graphene can surprisingly exhibit a collective mass when subjected to a collective excitation, providing the inertia that is essential for the propagation of 2D plasmonic waves. Lastly, we theoretically investigate the thermal current fluctuation behaviors in massive and massless electron gases. While seemingly unrelated on first sight, we show that the thermal current fluctuation is

  14. Partition function of massless scalar field in Schwarzschild background

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, Abhik Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Using thermal value of zeta function instead of zero temperature, the partition function of quantized fields in arbitrary stationary backgrounds was found to be independent of undetermined regularization constant in even-dimension and the long drawn problem associated with the trace anomaly effect had been removed. Here, we explicitly calculate the expression for the coincidence limit so that the technique may be applied in some specific problems. A particular problem dealt with here is to calculate the partition function of massless scalar field in Schwarzschild background.

  15. Parametric resonance of entropy perturbations in massless preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cai, Yi-Fu; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we revisit the question of possible preheating of entropy modes in a two-field model with a massless inflaton coupled to a matter scalar field. Using a perturbative approximation to the covariant method we demonstrate that there is indeed a parametric instability of the entropy mode which then at second-order leads to exponential growth of the curvature fluctuation on super-Hubble scale. Back-reaction effects shut off the induced curvature fluctuations, but possibly not early enough to prevent phenomenological problems. This confirms previous results obtained using different methods and resolves a controversy in the literature.

  16. The Asymptotic Limits of Zero Modes of Massless Dirac Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitō, Yoshimi; Umeda, Tomio

    2008-01-01

    Asymptotic behaviors of zero modes of the massless Dirac operator H = α · D + Q( x) are discussed, where α = (α1, α2, α3) is the triple of 4 × 4 Dirac matrices, D = 1/i nabla_x, and Q( x) = ( q jk ( x)) is a 4 × 4 Hermitian matrix-valued function with | q jk ( x) | ≤ C -ρ, ρ > 1. We shall show that for every zero mode f, the asymptotic limit of | x|2 f ( x) as | x| → + ∞ exists. The limit is expressed in terms of the Dirac matrices and an integral of Q( x) f ( x).

  17. Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO XiangQian

    2007-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking,which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero.In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory,one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses,and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit.This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks,without any ambiguous mass extrapolation.The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD,which deserves further investigation.

  18. Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking, which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero. In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory, one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses, and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit. This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks, without any ambiguous mass extrapolation. The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD, which deserves further investigation.

  19. On 4D, N = 1 Massless Gauge Superfields of Higher Superspin: Integer Case

    CERN Document Server

    Gates,, S James

    2013-01-01

    We present an alternative method of exploring the component structure of an integer super-helicity Y=s (for any integers) irreducible representation of the Super-Poincare group. We use it to derive the component action and the SUSY transformation laws. The effectiveness of this approach is based on the equations of motion and their properties, like Bianchi identities. These equations are generated by the superspace action when it is expressed in terms of prepotentials. For that reason we reproduce the superspace action for integer superspin, using unconstrained superfields. The appropriate, to use, superfields are dictated by the representation theory of the group and the requirement that there is a smooth limit between the massive and massless case.

  20. Properties of MT2 in the massless limit

    CERN Document Server

    Lally, Colin H

    2012-01-01

    Although numerical methods are required to evaluate the stransverse mass, MT2, for general input momenta, non-numerical methods have been proposed for some special clases of input momenta. One special case, considered in this note, is the so-called `massless limit' in which all four daughter objects (comprising one invisible particle and one visible system from each `side' of the event) have zero mass. This note establishes that it is possible to construct a stable and accurate implementation for evaluating MT2 based on an analytic expression valid in that massless limit. Although this implementation is found to have no significant speed improvements over existing evaluation strategies, it leads to an unexpected by-product: namely a secondary variable, that is found to be very similar to MT2 for much of its input-space and yet is much faster to calculate. This is potentially of interest for hardware applications that require very fast estimation of a mass scale (or QCD background discriminant) based on a hypo...

  1. Massless D-Branes on Calabi-Yau Threefolds and Monodromy

    CERN Document Server

    Aspinwall, Paul S; Horja, R P; Aspinwall, Paul S.; Karp, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the link between the occurrence of massless B-type D-branes for specific values of moduli and monodromy around such points in the moduli space. This allows us to propose a classification of all massless B-type D-branes at any point in the moduli space of Calabi-Yau's. This classification then justifies a previous conjecture due to Horja for the general form of monodromy. Our analysis is based on using monodromies around points in moduli space where a single D-brane becomes massless to generate monodromies around points where an infinite number become massless. We discuss the various possibilities within the classification.

  2. Creation of Massless Spin-1 Particles in a Godel-type Metric

    CERN Document Server

    Aydogdu, O; Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    We study the phenomena of creation of massless spin-1 particles in the universe based on a Godel-type space-time model. First, we solve the massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation. Next, using the exact solution, we calculate, via the Bogoliubov transformations technique, the density number of massless spin-1 particles created. Furthermore, we also compute the oscillating region and the frequency spectrum of these particles for the background considered. In appendix, we show that the Maxwell equations give the same solution as the massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation.

  3. Non-linear partially massless symmetry in an SO(1,5) continuation of conformal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Apolo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We construct a non-linear theory of interacting spin-2 fields that is invariant under the partially massless (PM) symmetry to all orders. This theory is based on the SO(1,5) group, in analogy with the SO(2,4) formulation of conformal gravity, but has a quadratic spectrum free of ghost instabilities. The action contains a vector field associated to a local SO(2) symmetry which is manifest in the vielbein formulation of the theory. We show that, in a perturbative expansion, the SO(2) symmetry transmutes into the PM transformations of a massive spin-2 field. In this context, the vector field is crucial to circumvent earlier obstructions to an order-by-order construction of PM symmetry. Although the non-linear theory lacks enough first class constraints to remove all helicity-0 modes from the spectrum, the PM transformations survive to all orders. The absence of ghosts and strong coupling effects at the non-linear level are not addressed here.

  4. Capacitor Discharge and Vacuum Resistance in Massless QED_2

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yi-Zen

    2010-01-01

    A charged parallel plate capacitor will create particle-antiparticle pairs by the Schwinger process and discharge over time. We consider the full quantum discharge process in 1+1 dimensions including backreaction, when the electric field interacts with massless charged fermions. We recover oscillatory features in the electric field observed in a semiclassical analysis and find that the amplitude of the oscillations falls off as t^{-1/2} and that stronger coupling implies slower decay. Remarkably, Ohm's law applies to the vacuum and we evaluate the quantum electrical conductivity of the vacuum to be 2e/\\pi^{1/2}, where e is the fermionic charge. Similarities and differences with black hole evaporation are mentioned.

  5. Renormalized New Solutions for the Massless Thirring Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.

    We present a nonperturbative study of the (1+1)-dimensional massless Thirring model by using path integral methods. The regularization ambiguities — coming from the computation of the fermionic determinant — allow to find new solution types for the model. At quantum level the Ward identity for the 1PI 2-point function for the fermionic current separates such solutions in two phases or sectors, the first one has a local gauge symmetry that is implemented at quantum level and the other one without this symmetry. The symmetric phase is a new solution which is unrelated to the previous studies of the model and, in the nonsymmetric phase there are solutions that for some values of the ambiguity parameter are related to well-known solutions of the model. We construct the Schwinger-Dyson equations and the Ward identities. We make a detailed analysis of their UV divergence structure and, after, we perform a nonperturbative regularization and renormalization of the model.

  6. Massless Interacting Scalar Fields in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Nacir, Diana López; Trombetta, Leonardo G

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to compute the two-point functions for an $O(N)$ scalar field model in de Sitter spacetime, avoiding the well known infrared problems for massless fields. The method is based on an exact treatment of the Euclidean zero modes and a perturbative one of the nonzero modes, and involves a partial resummation of the leading secular terms. This resummation, crucial to obtain a decay of the correlation functions, is implemented along with a double expansion in an effective coupling constant $\\sqrt\\lambda$ and in $1/N$. The results reduce to those known in the leading infrared approximation and coincide with the ones obtained directly in Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime in the large $N$ limit. The new method allows for a systematic calculation of higher order corrections both in $\\sqrt\\lambda$ and in $1/N$.

  7. Lorentz noninvariant oscillations of massless neutrinos are excluded

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, Vernon; Marfatia, Danny; Whisnant, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    The bicycle model of Lorentz noninvariant neutrino oscillations without neutrino masses naturally predicts maximal mixing and a 1/E dependence of the oscillation argument for muon-neutrino to tau-neutrino oscillations of atmospheric and long-baseline neutrinos, but cannot also simultaneously fit the data for solar neutrinos and KamLAND. We search for other possible structures of the effective Hamiltonian for Lorentz noninvariant oscillations of massless neutrinos that naturally have a 1/E dependence at high neutrino energy. Due to the lack of any evidence for direction dependence, we consider only direction-independent oscillations. Although we find a number of models with a 1/E dependence for atmospheric and long-baseline neutrinos, none can also simultaneously fit solar and KamLAND data.

  8. Electromagnetic fields and potentials generated by massless charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Azzurli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We provide for the first time the exact solution of Maxwell's equations for a massless charged particle moving on a generic trajectory at the speed of light. In particular we furnish explicit expressions for the vector potential and the electromagnetic field, which were both previously unknown, finding that they entail different physical features for bounded and unbounded trajectories. With respect to the standard Lienard-Wiechert field the electromagnetic field acquires singular delta-like contributions whose support and dimensionality depend crucially on whether the motion is a) linear, b) accelerated unbounded, c) accelerated bounded. In the first two cases the particle generates a planar shock-wave-like electromagnetic field traveling along a straight line. In the second and third cases the field acquires, in addition, a delta-like contribution supported on a physical singularity-string attached to the particle. For generic accelerated motions a genuine radiation field is also present, represented by a re...

  9. Fate of the conformal fixed point with twelve massless fermions and SU(3) gauge group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Zoltan; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Mondal, Santanu; Nogradi, Daniel; Wong, Chik Him

    2016-11-01

    We report new results on the conformal properties of an important strongly coupled gauge theory, a building block of composite Higgs models beyond the Standard Model. With twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group, an infrared fixed point (IRFP) of the β -function was recently reported in the theory [A. Cheng, A. Hasenfratz, Y. Liu, G. Petropoulos, and D. Schaich, J. High Energy Phys. 05 (2014) 137] with uncertainty in the location of the critical gauge coupling inside the narrow [6.0 fixed point and scale invariance in the theory with model-building implications. Using the exact same renormalization scheme as the previous study, we show that no fixed point of the β -function exists in the reported interval. Our findings eliminate the only seemingly credible evidence for conformal fixed point and scale invariance in the Nf=12 model whose infrared properties remain unresolved. The implications of the recently completed 5-loop QCD β -function for arbitrary flavor number are discussed with respect to our work.

  10. Massless Dirac particles in the vacuum C-metric

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles in the vacuum C-metric spacetime, representing the nonlinear superposition of the Schwarzschild black hole solution and the Rindler flat spacetime associated with uniformly accelerated observers. Under certain conditions, the C-metric can be considered as a unique laboratory to test the coupling between intrinsic properties of particles and fields with the background acceleration in the full (exact) strong-field regime. The Dirac equation is separable by using, e.g., a spherical-like coordinate system, reducing the problem to one-dimensional radial and angular parts. Both radial and angular equations can be solved exactly in terms of general Heun functions. We also provide perturbative solutions to first-order in a suitably defined acceleration parameter, and compute the acceleration-induced corrections to the particle absorption rate as well as to the angle-averaged cross section of the associated scattering problem in the low-frequency limit. Furthermore, we...

  11. Massless Scalar Field Propagator in a Quantized Space-Time

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, V

    2006-01-01

    We consider in detail the analytic behaviour of the non-interacting massless scalar field two-point function in H.S. Snyder's discretized non-commuting spacetime. The propagator we find is purely real on the Euclidean side of the complex $p^2$ plane and goes like $1/p^2$ as $p^2\\to 0$ from either the Euclidean or Minkowski side. The real part of the propagator goes smoothly to zero as $p^2$ increases to the discretization scale $1/a^2$ and remains zero for $p^2>1/a^2$. This behaviour is consistent with the termination of single-particle propagation on the ultraviolet side of the discretization scale. The imaginary part of the propagator, consistent with a multiparticle-production branch discontinuity, is finite and continuous on the Minkowski side, slowly falling to zero when $1/a^2

  12. Rich gauge structures from a unitary approach of some massless gauge fields of spins one and two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioroianu, Eugen-Mihaita

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper consists in the investigation of both first- and second-order dynamics for a special massless tensor gauge field of degree (k + 1). Geometrically, this can be interpreted as a bosonic (1-)form-valued k-form that, in specific space-time dimensions, describes either spin-1 or spin 2 gauge fields. The idea of using multi-forms in describing general tensor gauge fields is not new. It was previously investigated at Lagrangian level1-3 where was displayed interesting exotic gauge theories. In arbitrary Minkowski space-times, the considered geometric object combines two tensor gauge fields with mixed symmetry namely a (k + 1)-form and a massless tensor gauge field with the mixed symmetry (k, 1). Concretely, we first approach the bosonic (1-)form-valued k-form from the Hamiltonian perspective, Dirac analysis revealing new compelling gauge structures. Second, we construct the Lagrangian first-order formulations for the considered geometric ingredient.

  13. Infrared Dynamics of a Large N QCD Model, the Massless String Sector and Mesonic Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Keshav; Mia, Mohammed; Richard, Michael; Trottier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A consistency check for any UV complete model for large N QCD should be, among other things, the existence of a well-defined vector and scalar mesonic spectra. In this paper, we use our UV complete model in type IIB string theory to study the IR dynamics and use this to predict the mesonic spectra in the dual type IIA side. The advantage of this approach is two-fold: not only will this justify the consistency of the supergravity approach, but it will also give us a way to compare the IR spectra and the model with the ones proposed earlier by Sakai and Sugimoto. Interestingly, the spectra coming from the massless stringy sector are independent of the UV physics, although the massive string sector may pose certain subtleties regarding the UV contributions as well as the mappings to actual QCD. Additionally, we find that a component of the string landscape enters the picture: there are points in the landscape where the spectra can be considerably improved over the existing results in the literature. These points...

  14. Non-perturbative Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian and paraelectricity in magnetized massless QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Efrain J. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Incera, Vivian de la, E-mail: vincera@utep.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sanchez, Angel [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave., El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2012-11-21

    In this paper we calculate the non-perturbative Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian for massless QED in a strong magnetic field H, where the breaking of the chiral symmetry is dynamically catalyzed by the external magnetic field via the formation of an electro-positron condensate. This chiral condensate leads to the generation of dynamical parameters that have to be found as solutions of non-perturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations. Since the electron-positron pairing mechanism leading to the breaking of the chiral symmetry is mainly dominated by the contributions from the infrared region of momenta much smaller than {radical}(eH), the magnetic field introduces a dynamical ultraviolet cutoff in the theory that also enters in the non-perturbative Euler-Heisenberg action. Using this action, we show that the system exhibits a significant paraelectricity in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. The non-perturbative nature of this effect is reflected in the non-analytic dependence of the obtained electric susceptibility on the fine-structure constant. The strong paraelectricity in the field direction is linked to the orientation of the electric dipole moments of the pairs that form the chiral condensate. The large electric susceptibility can be used to detect the realization of the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking in physical systems.

  15. Pseudo-topological transitions in 2D gravity models coupled to massless scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambjorn, J., E-mail: ambjorn@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Goerlich, A.T., E-mail: goerlich@nbi.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Jurkiewicz, J., E-mail: jerzy.jurkiewicz@uj.edu.pl [Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Zhang, H.-G., E-mail: zhang@th.if.uj.edu.pl [Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-11

    We study the geometries generated by two-dimensional causal dynamical triangulations (CDT) coupled to d massless scalar fields. Using methods similar to those used to study four-dimensional CDT we show that there exists a c=1 'barrier', analogous to the c=1 barrier encountered in non-critical string theory, only the CDT transition is easier to be detected numerically. For d Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1 we observe time-translation invariance and geometries entirely governed by quantum fluctuations around the uniform toroidal topology put in by hand. For d>1 the effective average geometry is no longer toroidal but 'semiclassical' and spherical with Hausdorff dimension d{sub H}=3. In the d>1 sector we study the time dependence of the semiclassical spatial volume distribution and show that the observed behavior is described by an effective mini-superspace action analogous to the actions found in the de Sitter phase of three- and four-dimensional pure CDT simulations and in the three-dimensional CDT-like Horava-Lifshitz models.

  16. On the Tree-Level Structure of Scattering Amplitudes of Massless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We provide a new set of on-shell recursion relations for tree-level scattering amplitudes, which are valid for any non-trivial theory of massless particles. In particular, we reconstruct the scattering amplitudes from (a subset of) their poles and zeroes. The latter determine the boundary term arising in the BCFW-representation when the amplitudes do not vanish as some momenta are taken to infinity along some complex direction. Specifically, such a boundary term can be expressed as a sum of products of two on-shell amplitudes with fewer external states and a factor dependent on the location of the relevant zeroes and poles. This allows us to recast the amplitudes to have the standard BCFW-structure, weighted by a simple factor dependent on a subset of zeroes and poles of the amplitudes. We further comment on the physical interpretation of the zeroes as a particular kinematic limit in the complexified momentum space. The main implication of the existence of such recursion relations is that the tree-level appro...

  17. Disorder-driven itinerant quantum criticality of three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, J. H.; Goswami, Pallab; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-02-01

    Progress in the understanding of quantum critical properties of itinerant electrons has been hindered by the lack of effective models which are amenable to controlled analytical and numerically exact calculations. Here we establish that the disorder-driven semimetal to metal quantum phase transition of three-dimensional massless Dirac fermions could serve as a paradigmatic toy model for studying itinerant quantum criticality, which is solved in this work by exact numerical and approximate field-theoretic calculations. As a result, we establish the robust existence of a non-Gaussian universality class, and also construct the relevant low-energy effective field theory that could guide the understanding of quantum critical scaling for many strange metals. Using the kernel polynomial method (KPM), we provide numerical results for the calculated dynamical exponent (z ) and correlation length exponent (ν ) for the disorder-driven semimetal (SM) to diffusive metal (DM) quantum phase transition at the Dirac point for several types of disorder, establishing its universal nature and obtaining the numerical scaling functions in agreement with our field-theoretical analysis.

  18. Analytical On-shell Calculation of Higher Order Scattering: Massless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Holstein, Barry R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the use of on-shell methods involving calculation of the discontinuity across the t-channel cut associated with the exchange of a pair of massless particles can be used to evaluate loop contributions to the electromagnetic and gravitational scattering of both massive and massless particles. In the gravitational case the use of factorization permits a straightforward and algebraic calculation of higher order scattering results, which were obtained previously by considerably more arduous Feynman diagram techniques.

  19. Magneto-Optical Signature of Massless Kane Electrons in Cd3 As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrap, A.; Hakl, M.; Tchoumakov, S.; Crassee, I.; Kuba, J.; Goerbig, M. O.; Homes, C. C.; Caha, O.; Novák, J.; Teppe, F.; Desrat, W.; Koohpayeh, S.; Wu, L.; Armitage, N. P.; Nateprov, A.; Arushanov, E.; Gibson, Q. D.; Cava, R. J.; van der Marel, D.; Piot, B. A.; Faugeras, C.; Martinez, G.; Potemski, M.; Orlita, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report on optical reflectivity experiments performed on Cd3 As2 over a broad range of photon energies and magnetic fields. The observed response clearly indicates the presence of 3D massless charge carriers. The specific cyclotron resonance absorption in the quantum limit implies that we are probing massless Kane electrons rather than symmetry-protected 3D Dirac particles. The latter may appear at a smaller energy scale and are not directly observed in our infrared experiments.

  20. Thermal Renormalons in Scalar Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Loewe, M

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the scalar theory $\\lambda \\phi ^{4}$, we explore the occurrence of thermal renormalons, i. e. temperature dependent singularities in the Borel plane. Using Thermofield Dynamics, we found in fact a series of singularities of this kind, which are located to the right of the well known zero temperature pole, being therefore of a subleading character in the ambiguity of the Borel sum.

  1. Tunnelling of Massive/Massless Bosons from the Apparent Horizon of FRW Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimet Jusufi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Hawking radiation of vector particles from the apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW universe in the framework of quantum tunnelling method. Furthermore we use Proca equation, a relativistic wave equation for a massive/massless spin-1 particle (massless γ photons, weak massive W± and Z0 bosons, strong massless gluons, and ρ and ω mesons together with a Painlevé space-time metric for the FRW universe. We solve the Proca equation via Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ equation and the WKB approximation method. We recover the same result for the Hawking temperature associated with vector particles as in the case of scalar and Dirac particles tunnelled from outside to the inside of the apparent horizon in a FRW universe.

  2. Single twistor description of massless, massive, AdS, and other interacting particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Bars, Itzhak; Picon, Moises

    2006-01-01

    The Penrose transform between twistors and the phase space of massless particles is generalized from the massless case to an assortment of other particle dynamical systems, including special examples of massless or massive particles, relativistic or non-relativistic, interacting or non-interacting, in flat space or curved spaces. Our unified construction involves always the \\it{same} twistor Z^A with only four complex degrees of freedom and subject to the \\it{same} helicity constraint. Only the twistor to phase space transform differs from one case to another. Hence a unification of diverse particle dynamical systems is displayed by the fact that they all share the same twistor description. Our single twistor approach seems to be rather different and strikingly economical construction of twistors compared to other past approaches that introduced multiple twistors to represent some similar but far more limited set of particle phase space systems.

  3. On the W-geometrical origins of massless field equations and gauge invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, E

    1996-01-01

    We show how to obtain all covariant field equations for massless particles of arbitrary integer, or half-integer, helicity in four dimensions from the quantization of the rigid particle, whose action is given by the integrated extrinsic curvature of its worldline, {\\ie} S=\\alpha\\int ds \\kappa. This geometrical particle system possesses one extra gauge invariance besides reparametrizations, and the full gauge algebra has been previously identified as classical \\W_3. The key observation is that the covariantly reduced phase space of this model can be naturally identified with the spinor and twistor descriptions of the covariant phase spaces associated with massless particles of helicity s=\\alpha. Then, standard quantization techniques require \\alpha to be quantized and show how the associated Hilbert spaces are solution spaces of the standard relativistic massless wave equations with s=\\alpha. Therefore, providing us with a simple particle model for Weyl fermions (\\alpha=1/2), Maxwell fields (\\alpha=1), and hig...

  4. A Massless-Point-Charge Model for the Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available “It is rather remarkable that the modern concept of electrodynamics is not quite 100 years old and yet still does not rest firmly upon uniformly accepted theoretical foun- dations. Maxwell’s theory of the electromagnetic field is firmly ensconced in modern physics, to be sure, but the details of how charged particles are to be coupled to this field remain somewhat uncertain, despite the enormous advances in quantum electrody- namics over the past 45 years. Our theories remain mathematically ill-posed and mired in conceptual ambiguities which quantum mechanics has only moved to another arena rather than resolve. Fundamentally, we still do not understand just what is a charged particle” [1, p.367]. As a partial answer to the preceeding quote, this paper presents a new model for the electron that combines the seminal work of Puthoff [2] with the theory of the Planck vacuum (PV [3], the basic idea for the model following from [2] with the PV theory adding some important details.

  5. A Massless-Point-Charge Model for the Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "It is rather remarkable that the modern concept of electrodynamics is not quite 100 years old and yet still does not rest firmly upon uniformly accepted theoretical foundations. Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field is firmly ensconced in modern physics, to be sure, but the details of how charged particles are to be coupled to this field remain somewhat uncertain, despite the enormous advances in quantum electrodynamics over the past 45 years. Our theories remain mathematically ill-posed and mired in conceptual ambiguities which quantum mechanics has only moved to another arena rather than resolve. Fundamentally, we still do not understand just what is a charged particle" (Grandy W.T. Jr. Relativistic quantum mechanics of leptons and fields. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht-London, 1991, p.367. As a partial answer to the preceeding quote, this paper presents a new model for the electron that combines the seminal work of Puthoff with the theory of the Planck vacuum (PV, the basic idea for the model following from Puthoff with the PV theory adding some important details.

  6. Four-dimensional heterotic strings and conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luest, D.; Theisen, S.; Zoupanos, G.

    1988-01-25

    The techniques of (super) conformal field theory are applied to 4-dimensional heterotic string theories. We discuss certain aspects of 4-dimensional strings in the framework of the bosonic lattice approach such as the realization of superconformal symmetry, character valued partition functions, construction of vertex operators and ghost picture changing. As an application we compute all possible 3- and 4-point tree amplitudes of the massless fields and derive from them the low energy effective action of the massless modes. Some effects for the massless spectrum due to one-loop string effects are also mentioned.

  7. Exploring the S-Matrix of Massless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We use the recently proposed generalised on-shell representation for scattering amplitudes and a consistency test to explore the space of tree-level consistent couplings in four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The extension of the constructible notion implied by the generalised on-shell representation, i.e. the possibility to reconstruct at tree level all the scattering amplitudes from the three-particle ones, together with the imposition of the consistency conditions at four-particle level, allow to rediscover all the known theories and their algebra structure, if any. Interestingly, this analysis seems to leave room for high-spin couplings, provided that at least the requirement of locality is weakened. We do not claim to have found tree-level consistent high-spin theories, but rather that our methods show signatures of them and very likely, with a suitable modification, they can be a good framework to perform a systematic search.

  8. Emergent gauge theories and supersymmetry: a QED primer

    CERN Document Server

    Chkareuli, J L

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous Lorentz invariance violation (SLIV) in general vector field theories may lead to an appearance of massless Nambu-Goldstone modes which are identified with photons and other gauge fields in the Standard Model. Nonetheless, it may turn out that SLIV is not the only reason for emergent massless photons to appear if spacetime symmetry is further enlarged. In this connection, a special link may be related to supersymmetry that we try to illustrate in this note by the supersymmetric QED example. We argue that a generic source for massless photons could be spontaneously broken supersymmetry rather than physically manifested SLIV. We consider supersymmetric QED model extended by an arbitrary polynomial potential of massive vector superfield that induces the spontaneous SUSY violation in the visible sector. As a consequence, massless photon emerges as a companion of massless photino which is in fact the Goldstone fermion state in the tree approximation. However, being mixed with anoth...

  9. Singular and non-singular endstates in massless scalar field collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Swastik

    2011-01-01

    We study the collapse of a massless scalar field coupled to gravity. A class of blackhole solutions are identified. We also report on a class of solutions where collapse starts from a regular spacelike surface but then the collapsing scalar field freezes. As a result, in these solutions, a black hole does not form, neither is there any singularity in the future.

  10. Massless conformal fields, AdS(d+1/CFTd higher spin algebras and their deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We extend our earlier work on the minimal unitary representation of SO(d,2 and its deformations for d=4,5 and 6 to arbitrary dimensions d. We show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the minrep of SO(d,2 and its deformations and massless conformal fields in Minkowskian spacetimes in d dimensions. The minrep describes a massless conformal scalar field, and its deformations describe massless conformal fields of higher spin. The generators of Joseph ideal vanish identically as operators for the quasiconformal realization of the minrep, and its enveloping algebra yields directly the standard bosonic AdS(d+1/CFTd higher spin algebra. For deformed minreps the generators of certain deformations of Joseph ideal vanish as operators and their enveloping algebras lead to deformations of the standard bosonic higher spin algebra. In odd dimensions there is a unique deformation of the higher spin algebra corresponding to the spinor singleton. In even dimensions one finds infinitely many deformations of the higher spin algebra labelled by the eigenvalues of Casimir operator of the little group SO(d−2 for massless representations.

  11. Massive and massless modes of the triplet phase of neutron matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bedaque, Paulo F; Sen, Srimoyee

    2014-01-01

    Neutron matter at densities of the order of the nuclear saturation density is believed to have neutrons paired in the 3P2 channel. We study the low lying modes of this phase and find two massless modes (angulons), resulting from the spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry as well as three other, gapped modes. We compute their masses at arbitrary temperatures.

  12. Time transients in the quantum corrected Newtonian potential induced by a massless nonminimally coupled scalar field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marunovic, A.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop graviton vacuum polarization induced by a massless, nonminimally coupled scalar field on Minkowski background. We make use of the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, which allows us to study time dependent phenomena. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to

  13. Backreaction of a massless minimally coupled scalar field from inflationary quantum fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glavan, D; Prokopec, T.; Prymidis, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a massless, minimally coupled scalar field in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with periods of different constant deceleration parameter. We assume the Bunch-Davies vacuum during inflation and then use a sudden matching approximation to match it onto a

  14. Late-time quantum backreaction from inflationary fluctuations of a nonminimally coupled massless scalar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glavan, D.; Prokopec, T.; van der Woude, D. C.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the late-time one-loop quantum backreaction from inflationary fluctuations of a non-minimally coupled, massless scalar field. The scalar is assumed to be a spectator field in an inflationary model with a constant principal slow-roll. parameter. We regulate the infrared by matching onto a

  15. No nonminimally coupled massless scalar hair for spherically symmetric neutral black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2017-08-01

    We provide a remarkably compact proof that spherically symmetric neutral black holes cannot support static nonminimally coupled massless scalar fields. The theorem is based on causality restrictions imposed on the energy-momentum tensor of the fields near the regular black-hole horizon.

  16. A massless neutrino and lepton mixing patterns from finite discrete subgroups of U(3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshipura, Anjan S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura,Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Patel, Ketan M. [Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova,I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-04-02

    Finite discrete subgroups of U(3) as possible flavour symmetries G{sub f} for a massless neutrino with predictive mixing angles are studied. This is done by assuming that a residual symmetry S{sub ν} appropriate for describing a massless neutrino is contained in G{sub f}. It is shown that all the groups G{sub f} admitting three dimensional faithful irreducible representation and generated from a specific set of 3×3 matrices imply only one of the three flavour compositions for the massless state namely, unmixed, maximally mixed with equal probabilities and bimaximally mixed with probabilities (0,1/2,1/2) and their permutations. This result holds irrespective of the order of G{sub f} and the choice of S{sub ν} within it. All of these lead to unfavorable leading order prediction for the solar mixing angle. Neutrino mixing pattern is then numerically investigated in case of subgroups of U(3) with order less than 512 and it is found that only one of these can lead to a massless neutrino and leading order predictions for all the mixing angles close to their experimental values. Ways to correct for the solar angle prediction are proposed and two concrete examples giving the observed mixing pattern are discussed.

  17. Perfect Actions for Scalar Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We construct an optimally local perfect lattice action for free scalars of arbitrary mass, and truncate its couplings to a unit hypercube. Spectral and thermodynamic properties of this ``hypercube scalar'' are drastically improved compared to the standard action. We also discuss new variants of perfect actions, using anisotropic of triangular lattices, or applying new types of RGTs. Finally we add a $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ term and address perfect lattice perturbation theory. We report on a lattice action for the anharmonic oscillator, which is perfect to $O(\\lambda)$.

  18. Interacting scalar fields in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Devaraj, G; Devaraj, Ganesh; Einhorn, Martin B

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the massless \\lambda \\phi^4 theory in de Sitter space. We argue that the infrared divergence associated with the free massless, minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space is not present when interactions are included because the field does not remain minimally coupled. This is essentially because \\xi=0 is not a fixed point of the renormalization group once interactions are included.

  19. Interaction of moving branes with background massless and tachyon fields in superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Z., E-mail: z.rezaei@aut.ac.ir; Kamani, D., E-mail: kamani@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Using the boundary state formalism, we study a moving Dp-brane in a partially compact space-time in the presence of background fields: the Kalb-Ramond field B{sub {mu}{nu}}, a U(1) gauge field A{sub {alpha}}, and the tachyon field. The boundary state enables us to obtain the interaction amplitude of two branes with the above back-ground fields. The branes are parallel or perpendicular to each other. Because of the presence of background fields, compactification of some space-time directions, motion of the branes, and the arbitrariness of the dimensions of the branes, the system is rather general. Due to the tachyon fields and velocities of the branes, the behavior of the interaction amplitude reveals obvious differences from the conventional behavior.

  20. Numerical evaluation of virtual corrections to multi-jet production in massless QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, S.; Yundin, V.; Biedermann, B.

    2013-01-01

    .7.4. Classification: 11.5. External routines: QCDLoop (http://qcdloop.fnal.gov/), qd (http://crd.lbl.gov/dhbailey/mpdist/), both included in the distribution file. Nature of problem:. Evaluation of virtual corrections for multi-jet production in massless QCD. Solution method:. Purely numerical approach based on tree......We present a C++ library for the numerical evaluation of one-loop virtual corrections to multi-jet production in massless QCD. The pure gluon primitive amplitudes are evaluated using NGluon (Badger et al., (2011) [62]). A generalized unitarity reduction algorithm is used to construct arbitrary...... amplitudes obtained via Berends-Giele recursion combined with unitarity method. Restrictions:. Full colour and helicity summed corrections only up to 5 final state jets. Running time:. Full colour and helicity summed 2 ¿ 4 channels take around 0.5-8 s per point depending on the number of fermion lines...

  1. Non-perturbative Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian and Paraelectricity in Magnetized Massless QED

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, Efrain J; Sanchez, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Using the non-perturbative Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian for massless QED in a strong magnetic field, we show that the chiral-symmetry-broken phase of massless QED in the presence of a magnetic field exhibits significant paraelectricity. A large anisotropic electric susceptibility develops in the strong-field region, where most of the fermions are confined to their lowest Landau level, and dynamical mass and anomalous magnetic moment are generated via the magnetic catalysis mechanism. The nonperturbative nature of this effect is reflected in the non-analytic dependence of the electric susceptibility on the fine-structure constant. The strong paraelectricity is linked to the electric dipole moments of the particle/anti-particle pairs that form the chiral condensate. The large electric susceptibility can be used to detect the realization of the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking in physical systems.

  2. On the Dynamics of the Massless Spin-1 Particles in the Rotating Cosmological Models

    CERN Document Server

    Salti, M; Havare, A; Korunur, M; Salti, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Oktay; Havare, Ali; Korunur, Murat

    2005-01-01

    In the present article, we have considered massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation for the general rotating space-times, and obtain its second order form in this cosmological model. Considering this second order differential equation for some well-known cosmological model which are included by the our general line-element, we obtain exact solution of the massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation. On the other hand, by using spinor form of the Maxwell equations the propagation problem is reduced to the solution of the second order differential equation of complex combination of the electric and magnetic fields. For these two different approach we obtain the spinors in terms of field strength tensor.

  3. On the ``massless gap`` adjustment of detected energy for passive material in front of a calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, H.J.

    1992-01-31

    I have designed a correction scheme for energy losses in passive material in front of a calorimeter based on the ``massless gap`` idea. I use a flexible geometry model of a calorimeter design for SDC outside of a solenoidal coil made of aluminium cylinders of adjustable thickness. The signal from the first radiation length of active calorimetry is scaled dependent on the incoming and observed energies of the shower. A reasonable recovery of the resolution of an unobstructed calorimeter is achieved using correction factors that depend only upon the total thickness of passive material. Thus a useful correction may be built into the hardware by increasing the amount of scintillator in the first radiation length of the active calorimeter. The distribution of correction factors determined event-by-event indicate that an additional dependence on the observed signal in the massless gap and total incident energy is clearly present.

  4. Non-commutative U(1) Gauge Theory on R**4 with Oscillator Term

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, Daniel N; Schweda, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the renormalizability of the non-commutative $\\Phi^4$ model with added oscillator term, we formulate a non-commutative gauge theory, where the oscillator enters as a gauge fixing term. All propagators turn out to be essentially given by the Mehler kernel and the bilinear part of the action is invariant under the Langmann-Szabo duality. The model is a promising candidate for a renormalizable non-commutative U(1) gauge theory.

  5. Effects of nearly massless, spin-zero particles on light propagation in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiani, L.; Petronzio, R.; Zavattini, E.

    1986-08-07

    Very light or massless spin-zero particles coupled to two photons, such as axions or genuine Goldstone bosons, induce small changes in the polarization state of a laser beam travelling in a magnetic field. Severe bounds on mass and coupling can be obtained through the observation of changes in polarization plane and ellipticity of the beam, at the level of accuracy allowed by present technologies. A positive signal would determine mass, coupling and parity of this hypothetical particle.

  6. New results for a two-loop massless propagator-type Feynman diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V

    2016-01-01

    We consider the two-loop massless propagator-type Feynman diagram with an arbitrary (non-integer) index on the central line. We analytically prove the equality of the two well-known results existing in the literature which express this diagram in terms of ${}_3F_2$-hypergeometric functions of argument $-1$ and $1$, respectively. We also derive new representations for this diagram which may be of importance in practical calculations.

  7. Resonant frequencies of massless scalar field in rotating black-brane spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ji-Liang; Pan Qi-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the resonant frequencies of the massless scalar field in the near extremal Kerr-like black-brahe spacetime. It is shown that the different angular quantum number will present different resonant frequencies. It is also shown that the real part of the resonant frequencies increases as the compact dimensions parameter μi increases, but the magnitude of the imaginary part decreases as μi increases.

  8. Approximate stress-energy tensor of the massless spin-1/2 field in Schwarzschild spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Matyjasek, J

    2005-01-01

    The approximate stress-energy tensor of the conformally invariant massless spin-1/2 field in the Hartle-Hawking state in the Schwarzschild spacetime is constructed. It is shown that by solving the conservation equation in conformal space and utilizing the regularity conditions in a physical metric one obtains the stress-energy tensor that is in a good agreement with the numerical calculations. The back reaction of the quantized field upon the spacetime metric is briefly discussed.

  9. Lattice Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. Precise extraction of the mass gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Kujawa-Cichy, Agnieszka [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Szyniszewski, Marcin [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). NOWNano DTC

    2012-12-15

    We present results of applying the Hamiltonian approach to the massless Schwinger model. A finite basis is constructed using the strong coupling expansion to a very high order. Using exact diagonalization, the continuum limit can be reliably approached. This allows to reproduce the analytical results for the ground state energy, as well as the vector and scalar mass gaps to an outstanding precision better than 10{sup -6} %.

  10. Free massless fermionic fields of arbitrary spin in d-dimensional anti-de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M.A.

    1988-04-25

    Free massless fermionic fields of arbitrary spins, corresponding to fully symmetric tensor-spinor irreducible representations of the flat little group SO(d-2), are described in d-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in terms of differential forms. Appropriate linearized higher-spin curvature 2-forms are found. Explicitly gauge invariant higher-spin actions are constructed in terms of these linearized curvatures.

  11. Massless ground state for a compact SU(2 matrix model in 4D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyonell Boulton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We show the existence and uniqueness of a massless supersymmetric ground state wavefunction of a SU(2 matrix model in a bounded smooth domain with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This is a gauge system and we provide a new framework to analyze the quantum spectral properties of this class of supersymmetric matrix models subject to constraints which can be generalized for arbitrary number of colors.

  12. Towards massless higher spin extension of D=5, N=8 gauged supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sezgin, E; Sundell, P

    2001-01-01

    The AdS(5) superalgebra PSU(2, 2/4) has an infinite dimensional extension, which we denote by hs(2, 2/4). We show that the gauging of hs(2, 2/4) gives rise to a spectrum of physical massless fields which coincides with the symmetric tensor product of two AdS(5) spin-1 doubletons (i.e. the N = 4 SYM

  13. No nonminimally coupled massless scalar hair for spherically symmetric neutral reflecting stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2017-07-01

    It has recently been proved that horizonless compact stars with reflecting boundary conditions cannot support spatially regular matter configurations made of minimally coupled scalar fields, vector fields, and tensor fields. In the present paper we extend this intriguing no-hair property to the physically interesting regime of scalar fields with nonminimal coupling to gravity. In particular, we prove that static spherically symmetric configurations made of nonminimally coupled massless scalar fields cannot be supported by compact reflecting stars.

  14. Localization properties and causality aspects of massless and massive scalar particles

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Localization properties of scalar single particle states are analyzed by explicit calculational examples with a focus on the massless case. Problems arising from the non-existence of relativistic particle position operators respecting the causal structure of Minkowski spacetime are illustrated by exploring the conflicts arising from localization and causal properties commonly imposed on single particle states. These topics necessitate the introduction of quantum field theoretical localization concepts and are scarcely discussed and often misinterpreted in the literature.

  15. Excited TBA equations II: massless flow from tricritical to critical Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Paul A. E-mail: p.pearce@ms.unimelb.edu.au; Chim, Leung E-mail: leung.chim@dsto.defence.gov.au; Ahn, Changrim E-mail: ahn@dante.ewha.ac.kr

    2003-06-16

    We consider the massless tricritical Ising model M(4,5) perturbed by the thermal operator phi (cursive,open) Greek{sub 1,3} in a cylindrical geometry and apply integrable boundary conditions, labelled by the Kac labels (r,s), that are natural off-critical perturbations of known conformal boundary conditions. We derive massless thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations for all excitations by solving, in the continuum scaling limit, the TBA functional equation satisfied by the double-row transfer matrices of the A{sub 4} lattice model of Andrews, Baxter and Forrester (ABF) in Regime IV. The resulting TBA equations describe the massless renormalization group flow from the tricritical to critical Ising model. As in the massive case of Part I, the excitations are completely classified in terms of (m,n) systems but the string content changes by one of three mechanisms along the flow. Using generalized q-Vandermonde identities, we show that this leads to a flow from tricritical to critical Ising characters. The excited TBA equations are solved numerically to follow the continuous flows from the UV to the IR conformal fixed points.

  16. Massless and Massive Higher Spins from Anti-de Sitter Space Waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Gwak, Seungho; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Higgs mechanism to massive higher-spin gauge fields is an outstanding open problem. We investigate this issue in the context of Kaluza-Klein compactification. Starting from a free massless higher-spin field in $(d+2)$-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and compactifying over a finite angular wedge, we obtain an infinite tower of heavy, light and massless higher-spin fields in $(d+1)$-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. All massive higher-spin fields are described gauge invariantly in terms of St\\"ueckelberg fields. The spectrum depends on the boundary conditions imposed at both ends of the wedges. We obseved that higher-derivative boundary condition is inevitable for spin greater than three. For some higher-derivative boundary conditions, equivalently, spectrum-dependent boundary conditions, we get a non-unitary representation of partially-massless higher-spin fields of varying depth. We present intuitive picture which higher-derivative boundary conditions yield non-unitary system in terms of boundary action. We ...

  17. Nearly massless Dirac fermions hosted by Sb square net in BaMnSb2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Cao, Huibo; Zhu, Yanglin; Chuang, Alyssa; Graf, D.; Adams, D. J.; Radmanesh, S. M. A.; Spinu, L.; Chiorescu, I.; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Layered compounds AMnBi2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, or rare earth element) have been established as Dirac materials. Dirac electrons generated by the two-dimensional (2D) Bi square net in these materials are normally massive due to the presence of a spin-orbital coupling (SOC) induced gap at Dirac nodes. Here we report that the Sb square net in an isostructural compound BaMnSb2 can host nearly massless Dirac fermions. We observed strong Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in this material. From the analyses of the SdH oscillations, we find key signatures of Dirac fermions, including light effective mass (~0.052m0; m0, mass of free electron), high quantum mobility (1280 cm2V−1S−1) and a π Berry phase accumulated along cyclotron orbit. Compared with AMnBi2, BaMnSb2 also exhibits much more significant quasi two-dimensional (2D) electronic structure, with the out-of-plane transport showing nonmetallic conduction below 120 K and the ratio of the out-of-plane and in-plane resistivity reaching ~670. Additionally, BaMnSb2 also exhibits a G-type antiferromagnetic order below 283 K. The combination of nearly massless Dirac fermions on quasi-2D planes with a magnetic order makes BaMnSb2 an intriguing platform for seeking novel exotic phenomena of massless Dirac electrons. PMID:27466151

  18. Particular boundary condition ensures that a fermion in d=1+5, compactified on a finite disk, manifests in d=1+3 as massless spinor with a charge 1/2, mass protected and chirally coupled to the gauge field

    CERN Document Server

    Borstnik, Norma Susana Mankoc

    2008-01-01

    The genuine Kaluza-Klein-like theories--with no fields in addition to gravity--have difficulties with the existence of massless spinors after the compactification of some space dimensions \\cite{witten}. We proposed in previous paper a boundary condition for spinors in d=(1+5) compactified on a flat disk that ensures masslessness of spinors (with all positive half integer charges) in d=(1+3) as well as their chiral coupling to the corresponding background gauge gravitational field. In this paper we study the same toy model, proposing a boundary condition allowing a massless spinor of one handedness and only one charge (1/2) and infinitely many massive spinors of the same charge, allowing disc to be curved. We define the operator of momentum to be Hermitean on the vector space of spinor states--the solutions on a disc with the boundary.

  19. Direct and inverse scattering at fixed energy for massless charged Dirac fields by Kerr-Newman-de Sitter black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Daudé, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the direct and inverse scattering theory at fixed energy for massless charged Dirac fields evolving in the exterior region of a Kerr-Newman-de Sitter black hole. In the first part, they establish the existence and asymptotic completeness of time-dependent wave operators associated to our Dirac fields. This leads to the definition of the time-dependent scattering operator that encodes the far-field behavior (with respect to a stationary observer) in the asymptotic regions of the black hole: the event and cosmological horizons. The authors also use the miraculous property (quoting Chandrasekhar)-that the Dirac equation can be separated into radial and angular ordinary differential equations-to make the link between the time-dependent scattering operator and its stationary counterpart. This leads to a nice expression of the scattering matrix at fixed energy in terms of stationary solutions of the system of separated equations. In a second part, the authors use this expression of ...

  20. Perturbative self-interacting scalar field theory: a differential equation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, R; Coimbra-Araujo, C H

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the investigation about the partition function related to a \\phi^4-scalar field theory on a n-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, which is shown to be a self-interacting scalar field theory at least in 4-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. After rederiving the analytical calculation of the perturbative expansion coefficients and also the approximate values for suitable limits using Stirling's formulae, which consists of Witten's proposed questions, solved by P. Deligne, D. Freed, L. Jeffrey, and S. Wu, we investigate a spherically symmetric scalar field in a n-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. For the first perturbative expansion coefficient it is shown how it can be derived a modified Bessel equation (MBE), which solutions are investigated in one, four, and eleven-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The solutions of MBE are the first expansion coefficient of the series associated with the partition function of \\phi^4-scalar field theory.

  1. M-theory and G_2 Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Katrin; Robbins, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this talk we report on recent progress in describing compactifications of string theory and M-theory on G_2 and Spin(7) manifolds. We include the infinite set of alpha'-corrections and describe the entire tower of massless and massive Kaluza-Klein modes resulting from such compactifications.

  2. Gate-Tunable Landau Level Filling and Spectroscopy in Coupled Massive and Massless Electron Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bin; Wu, Yong; Wang, Peng; Pan, Cheng; Taniguchi, T; Watanabe, K; Bockrath, M

    2016-07-01

    We report transport studies on coupled massive and massless electron systems, realized using twisted monolayer-graphene-natural bilayer-graphene stacks. We incorporate the layers in a dual-gated transistor geometry enabling independently tuning their charge density and the perpendicular electric field. In a perpendicular magnetic field, we observe a distinct pattern of gate-tunable Landau level crossings. Screening and interlayer electron-electron interactions yield a nonlinear monolayer gate capacitance. Data analysis enables determination of the monolayer's Fermi velocity and the bilayer's effective mass. The mass obtained is larger than that expected for isolated bilayers, suggesting that the interlayer interactions renormalize the band structure.

  3. Gravitational waves induced by massless vector fields with non-minimal coupling to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Kaixi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the contribution of the late time mode of a massless vector field to the power spectrum of the primordial gravitational wave using retarded Green's propagator. We consider a non-trivial coupling between gravity and the vector field. We find that the correction is scale-invariant and of order $\\frac{H^4}{M_P^4}$. The non-minimal coupling leads to a dependence of $\\frac{H^2}{M^2}$, which can amplify the correlation function up to the level of $\\frac{H^2}{M^2_P}$.

  4. τ-lepton as a Composition of Massless Preons: an Alternative to Higgs Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Yuri P.

    2015-09-01

    Within the framework of the confinement mechanism proposed earlier by the author in QCD the problem of masses for fundamental fermions in particle physics is discussed by the example of τ-lepton τ -. It is shown that the observed parameters of τ-lepton such as its mass and magnetic moment can be obtained in a preon model dynamically due to a preon gauge interaction. The radius of τ-lepton is also estimated. Under the circumstances preons might be massless in virtue of existence of the nonzero chiral limit for the preon interaction energy.

  5. Quasineutral limit of the Vlasov-Poisson system with massless electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Han-Kwan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the quasineutral limit (in other words the limit when the Debye length tends to zero) of Vlasov-Poisson like equations describing the behaviour of ions in a plasma. We consider massless electrons, with a charge density following a Maxwell-Boltzmann law. For cold ions, using the relative entropy method, we derive the classical Isothermal Euler or the (inviscid) Shallow Water systems from fluid mechanics. In a second time, we study the combined quasineutral and strong magnetic field regime for such plasmas.

  6. Finite Size Corrections to the Excitation Energy Transfer in a Massless Scalar Interaction Model

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, N; Tobita, Y; Ishikawa, K

    2016-01-01

    We study the excitation energy transfer (EET) for a simple model in which a virtual massless scalar particle is exchanged between two molecules. If the time interval is finite, then the finite size effect generally appears in a transition amplitude through the regions where the wave nature of quanta remains. We calculated the transition amplitude for EET and obtained finite size corrections to the standard formula derived by using Fermi's golden rule. These corrections for the transition amplitude appear outside the resonance energy region. The estimation in a photosynthesis system indicates that the finite size correction could reduce the EET time considerably.

  7. On the origin of divergences in massless QED{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, Rodolfo [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Departamento de Campos e Particulas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: casana@cbpf.br; Dias, Sebastiao A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Departamento de Campos e Particulas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: tiao@cbpf.br

    2001-07-01

    We show that ultraviolet divergences found in fermionic Green functions of massless QED{sub 2} have an essentially non-perturbative nature. We investigate their origin both in the gauge invariant formalism (where we introduce Wess-Zumino fields to restore quantum gauge invariance) and in the gauge non-invariant formalism, mapping two different but equivalent mechanisms responsible for their appearance. We find the same results in both approaches, what contradicts a previous work of Jian-Ge, Qing-Hai and Yao-Yang, that found no divergences in the chiral Schwinger model considered in the gauge invariant formalism. (author)

  8. Solving the sign problems of the massless lattice Schwinger model with a dual formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Gattringer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We derive an exact representation of the massless Schwinger model on the lattice in terms of dual variables which are configurations of loops, dimers and plaquette occupation numbers. When expressed with the dual variables the partition sum has only real and positive terms also when a chemical potential or a topological term are added – situations where the conventional representation has a complex action problem. The dual representation allows for Monte Carlo simulations without restrictions on the values of the chemical potential or the vacuum angle.

  9. Computation of form factors in massless QCD with finite master integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Manteuffel, Andreas; Panzer, Erik; Schabinger, Robert M.

    2016-06-01

    We present the bare one-, two-, and three-loop form factors in massless quantum chromodynamics as linear combinations of finite master integrals. Using symbolic integration, we compute their ɛ expansions and thereby reproduce all known results with an independent method. Remarkably, in our finite basis, only integrals with a less-than-maximal number of propagators contribute to the cusp anomalous dimensions. We report on indications of this phenomenon at four loops, including the result for a finite, irreducible, twelve-propagator form factor integral. Together with this article, we provide our automated software setup for the computation of finite master integrals.

  10. On the Computation of Form Factors in Massless QCD with Finite Master Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    von Manteuffel, Andreas; Schabinger, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We present the bare one-, two-, and three-loop form factors in massless Quantum Chromodynamics as linear combinations of finite master integrals. Using symbolic integration, we compute their $\\epsilon$ expansions and thereby reproduce all known results with an independent method. Remarkably, in our finite basis, only integrals with a less-than-maximal number of propagators contribute to the cusp anomalous dimensions. We report on indications of this phenomenon at four loops, including the result for a finite, irreducible, twelve-propagator form factor integral. Together with this article, we provide our automated software setup for the computation of finite master integrals.

  11. On the Possibility of Non-Geodesic Motion of the Massless Spinning Top

    CERN Document Server

    Armaza, Cristóbal; Koch, Benjamin; Zalaquett, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    The motion of spinning massless particles in gravitationally curved backgrounds is revisited by considering new types of constraints. Those constraints guarantee zero mass ($P_\\mu P^\\mu=0$) and they allow for the possibility of trajectories which are not simply null geodesics. To exemplify this previously unknown possibility, the equations of motion are solved for radial motion in Schwarzschild background. It is found that the particle experiences a spin-induced energy shift, which is proportional to the Hawking temperature of the black hole background.

  12. Quantum Hall Effect of Massless Dirac Fermions and Free Fermions in Hofstadter's Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Masao

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new physical interpretation of the Diophantine equation of σxy for the Hofstadter problem. First, we divide the energy spectrum, or Hofstadter's butterfly, into smaller self-similar areas called "subcells", which were first introduced by Hofstadter to describe the recursive structure. We find that in the energy gaps between subcells, there are two ways to account for the quantization rule of σxy, that are consistent with the Diophantine equation: Landau quantization of (i) massless Dirac fermions or (ii) free fermions in Hofstadter's butterfly.

  13. Transport Phenomena in Multilayered Massless Dirac Fermion System α-(BEDT-TTF2I3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tajima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A zero-gap state with a Dirac cone type energy dispersion was discovered in an organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 under high hydrostatic pressures. This is the first two-dimensional (2D zero-gap state discovered in bulk crystals with a layered structure. In contrast to the case of graphene, the Dirac cone in this system is highly anisotropic. The present system, therefore, provides a new type of massless Dirac fermion system with anisotropic Fermi velocity. This system exhibits remarkable transport phenomena characteristic to electrons on the Dirac cone type energy structure.

  14. Solving the sign problems of the massless lattice Schwinger model with a dual formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gattringer, Christof; Sazonov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    We derive an exact representation of the massless Schwinger model on the lattice in terms of dual variables which are configurations of loops, dimers and plaquette occupation numbers. When expressed with the dual variables the partition sum has only real and positive terms also when a chemical potential or a topological term are added -- situations where the conventional representation has a complex action problem. The dual representation allows for Monte Carlo simulations without restrictions on the values of the chemical potential or the vacuum angle.

  15. Massless Dirac fermions trapping in a quasi-one-dimensional n p n junction of a continuous graphene monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ke-Ke; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Jiang, Hua; Liu, Haiwen; He, Lin

    2017-05-01

    Massless Dirac fermions in graphene provide unprecedented opportunities to realize the Klein paradox, which is one of the most exotic and striking properties of relativistic particles. In the seminal theoretical work [M. I. Katsnelson et al., Nat. Phys. 2, 620 (2006), 10.1038/nphys384], it was predicted that the massless Dirac fermions can pass through one-dimensional (1D) potential barriers unimpededly at normal incidence. Such a result seems to preclude confinement of the massless Dirac fermions in graphene by using 1D potential barriers. Here, we demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that massless Dirac fermions can be trapped in a quasi-1D n p n junction of a continuous graphene monolayer. Because of highly anisotropic transmission of the massless Dirac fermions at n-p junction boundaries (the so-called Klein tunneling in graphene), charge carriers incident at large oblique angles will be reflected from one edge of the junction with high probability and continue to bounce from the opposite edge. Consequently, these electrons are trapped for a finite time to form quasibound states in the quasi-1D n p n junction. The quasibound states seen as pronounced resonances are probed and the quantum interference patterns arising from these states are directly visualized in our scanning tunneling microscope measurements.

  16. Existence and uniqueness theorems for massless fields on a class of spacetimes with closed timelike curves

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, J L

    1997-01-01

    We study the massless scalar field on asymptotically flat spacetimes with closed timelike curves (CTC's), in which all future-directed CTC's traverse one end of a handle (wormhole) and emerge from the other end at an earlier time. For a class of static geometries of this type, and for smooth initial data with all derivatives in L_2 on {\\cI}^{-}, we prove existence of smooth solutions which are regular at null and spatial infinity (have finite energy and finite L_2-norm) and have the given initial data on \\cI^-. A restricted uniqueness theorem is obtained, applying to solutions that fall off in time at any fixed spatial position. For a complementary class of spacetimes in which CTC's are confined to a compact region, we show that when solutions exist they are unique in regions exterior to the CTC's. (We believe that more stringent uniqueness theorems hold, and that the present limitations are our own.) An extension of these results to Maxwell fields and massless spinor fields is sketched. Finally, we discuss a...

  17. Thermodynamic limit of particle-hole form factors in the massless XXZ Heisenberg chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanine, N. [Univ. de Bourgogne (France). IMB, UMR 5584 du CNRS; Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M.; Terras, V. [ENS Lyon (France). UMR 5672 du CNRS, Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    We study the thermodynamic limit of the particle-hole form factors of the XXZ Heisenberg chain in the massless regime. We show that, in this limit, such form factors decrease as an explicitly computed power-law in the system size. Moreover, the corresponding amplitudes can be obtained as a product of a ''smooth'' and a ''discrete'' part: the former depends continuously on the rapidities of the particles and holes, whereas the latter has an additional explicit dependence on the set of integer numbers that label each excited state in the associated logarithmic Bethe equations. We also show that special form factors corresponding to zero-energy excitations lying on the Fermi surface decrease as a power-law in the system size with the same critical exponents as in the longdistance asymptotic behavior of the related two-point correlation functions. The methods we develop in this article are rather general and can be applied to other massless integrable models associated to the six-vertex R-matrix and having determinant representations for their form factors. (orig.)

  18. The effect of backreaction of non-minimally coupled massless quintom fields in FLRW universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setare, M. R.; Sahraee, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the quantum backreaction of non-minimally coupled massless quintom fields in FLRW universe has been discussed. quintom model contains two massless scalar fields where one of scalar fields has positive kinetic energy and another one has negative kinetic energy term. In this model, we obtain the vacuum expectation value of the full energy-momentum tensor in different cosmological eras including inflation, radiation and matter dominated eras on FRLW universe with constant ɛ . This quantity is divergent in different cases. In order to renormalize it, we separate the vacuum expectation values of the full energy-momentum tensor to the UV and IR parts by using μ cutoff. Then we eliminate the UV divergences by introducing a counterterm action and adding it to the action of the model. Also we calculate the IR part of the energy-momentum tensor during inflation and different transitions. For this purpose, we assume that the transition from one period to the next happens fast. Therefore we use a sudden transition approximation at matching time. In order to study behavior of the backreaction, we obtain the ratio of the dominant contribution of quantum energy density to the corresponding background quantity in different cosmological eras. Moreover, we show that the one-loop fluctuations of quintom model on de Sitter space give a contribution to the cosmological constant. Finally we obtain the effect of the quantum backreaction on the background geometry leading to new scale factor for cosmological eras.

  19. Spectral functions for composite fields and viscosity in hot scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, E; Heinz, Ulrich W; Wang, Enke; Zhang, Xiaofei; Heinz, Ulrich

    1995-01-01

    We derive a spectral representation for the two-point Green function for arbitrary composite field operators in Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). A simple way for calculating the spectral density within TFD is pointed out and compared with known results from the imaginary time formalism. The method is applied to hot \\phi^4 theory. We give a compact derivation of the one-loop contribution to the shear viscosity and show that it is dominated by low-momentum plasmons.

  20. Black hole entropy arising from massless scalar field with Lorentz violation induced by the coupling to Einstein tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Songbai; Liao, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated quantum entropy of a static black hole arising from the massless scalar field with Lorentz violation induced by the coupling to Einstein tensor. Our results show that the coupled massless scalar field contributes to the classical Bekenstein-Hawking term in the black hole entropy. The corrected classical Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is not one quarter of the event horizon area of the original background black hole, but of a corresponding effective metric related to the coupling. It means that the classical Bekenstein-Hawking entropy depends not only on the black hole parameter, but also on the coupling which reduces Lorentz violation.

  1. Black hole entropy arising from massless scalar field with Lorentz violation induced by the coupling to Einstein tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbai Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated quantum entropy of a static black hole arising from the massless scalar field with Lorentz violation induced by the coupling to Einstein tensor. Our results show that the coupled massless scalar field contributes to the classical Bekenstein–Hawking term in the black hole entropy. The corrected classical Bekenstein–Hawking entropy is not one quarter of the event horizon area of the original background black hole, but of a corresponding effective metric related to the coupling. It means that the classical Bekenstein–Hawking entropy depends not only on the black hole parameter, but also on the coupling which reduces Lorentz violation.

  2. Unfolded Equations for Current Interactions of 4d Massless Fields as a Free System in Mixed Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfond, O A

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of massless fields of all spins in four dimensions with currents of any spin is shown to result from a solution of the linear problem that describes a gluing between rank-one (massless) system and rank-two (current) system in the unfolded dynamics approach. Since the rank-two system is dual to a free rank-one higher-dimensional system, that effectively describes conformal fields in six space-time dimensions, the constructed system can be interpreted as describing a mixture between linear conformal fields in four and six dimensions. Interpretation of the obtained results in spirit of AdS/CFT correspondence is discussed.

  3. Black hole entropy arising from massless scalar field with Lorentz violation induced by the coupling to Einstein tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Songbai, E-mail: csb3752@hunnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Liao, Hao [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-17

    We have investigated quantum entropy of a static black hole arising from the massless scalar field with Lorentz violation induced by the coupling to Einstein tensor. Our results show that the coupled massless scalar field contributes to the classical Bekenstein–Hawking term in the black hole entropy. The corrected classical Bekenstein–Hawking entropy is not one quarter of the event horizon area of the original background black hole, but of a corresponding effective metric related to the coupling. It means that the classical Bekenstein–Hawking entropy depends not only on the black hole parameter, but also on the coupling which reduces Lorentz violation.

  4. Nonassociative Field Theory on Non-Geometric Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mylonas, Dionysios

    2014-01-01

    We describe quasi-Hopf twist deformations of flat closed string compactifications with non-geometric R-flux using a suitable cochain twist, and construct nonassociative deformations of fields and differential calculus. We report on our new findings in using this formalism to construct perturbative nonassociative field theories on these backgrounds. We describe the modifications to the usual classification of Feynman diagrams into planar and non-planar graphs. The example of phi(4) theory is studied in detail and the one-loop contributions to the two-point function are calculated.

  5. Horizon-less Spherically Symmetric Vacuum-Solutions in a Higgs Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bezares-Roder, Nils M; Nandan, H; Bezares-Roder, Nils M.; Dehnen, Heinz; Nandan, Hemwati

    2006-01-01

    The exact static and spherically symmetric solutions of the vacuum field equations for a Higgs Scalar-Tensor theory (HSTT) are derived in Schwarzschild coordinates. It is shown that there exists no Schwarzschild horizon and that the massless scalar field acts like a massless field in the conventional theory of gravitation. Only in the center (point-particle) the fields are singular (as naked singularity). However, the Schwarzschild solution is obtained for the limit of vanishing excited Higgs fields.

  6. Massless sector of AdS_3 superstrings: a geometric interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We study the recently discovered q-deformed Poincare' supersymmetry of the AdS_3/CFT_2 integrable massless scattering, and demonstrate how the S-matrix is invariant under boosts. The boost generator has a non-local coproduct, which acts on the scattering matrix as a differential operator, annihilating it. We propose to reinterpret the boost action in terms of covariant derivatives on bundles, and derive an expression for the S-matrix as the path-ordered exponential of a flat connection. We provide a list of possible alternative interpretations of this emergent geometric picture, including a one-dimensional auxiliary Schroedinger problem. We support our claims by performing a simplified algebraic Bethe ansatz, which bears some resemblance to antiferromagnets.

  7. 2D massless QED Hall half-integer conductivity and graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A Perez; Querts, E Rodriguez; Rojas, H Perez [Instituto de Cibernetica Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), Calle E esq 15 No. 309 Vedado, Havana, 10400 (Cuba); Gaitan, R; Rodriguez-Romo, S, E-mail: aurora@icimaf.cu, E-mail: elizabeth@icimaf.cu, E-mail: hugo@icimaf.cu, E-mail: rgaitan@servidor.unam.mx, E-mail: suemi@servidor.unam.mx [Centro de Investigaciones Teoricas, FES-Cuatitlan-UNAM (Mexico)

    2011-11-04

    Starting from the photon self-energy tensor in a magnetized medium, the 3D complete antisymmetric form of the conductivity tensor is found in the static limit of a fermion system C-non-invariant under fermion-antifermion exchange. The massless relativistic 2D fermion limit in QED is derived by using the compactification along the dimension parallel to the magnetic field. In the static limit and at zero temperature, the main features of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) are obtained: the half-integer QHE and the minimum value proportional to e{sup 2}/h for the Hall conductivity. For typical values of graphene the plateaus of the Hall conductivity are also reproduced. (paper)

  8. Finite temperature Casimir effect for charged massless scalars in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Erdas, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The zeta function regularization technique is used to study the finite temperature Casimir effect for a charged and massless scalar field confined between parallel plates and satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions at the plates. A magnetic field perpendicular to the plates is included. Three equivalent expressions for the zeta function are obtained, which are exact to all orders in the magnetic field strength, temperature and plate distance. These expressions of the zeta function are used to calculate the Helmholtz free energy of the scalar field and the pressure on the plates, in the case of high temperature, small plate distance and strong magnetic field. In all cases, simple analytic expressions are obtained for the free energy and pressure which are accurate and valid for practically all values of temperature, plate distance and magnetic field.

  9. Diffeomorphism algebra of two dimensional free massless scalar field with signature change

    CERN Document Server

    Darabi, F; Rezaei-Aghdam, A

    1999-01-01

    We study a model of free massless scalar fields on a two dimensional cylinder with metric that admits a change of signature between Lorentzian and Euclidean type (ET), across the two timelike hypersurfaces (with respect to Lorentzian region). Considering a long strip-shaped region of the cylinder, denoted by an angle \\theta, as the signature changed region it is shown that the energy spectrum depends on the angle \\theta and in a sense differs from ordinary one for low energies. Morever diffeomorphism algebra of corresponding infinite conserved charges is different from '' Virasoro'' algebra and approaches to it at higher energies. The central term is also modified but does not approach to the ordinary one at higher energies.

  10. Constructing Scalar-Photon Three Point Vertex in Massless Quenched Scalar QED

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Rangel, L Albino; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L X; Concha-Sanchez, Y

    2016-01-01

    Non perturbative studies of Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) require their infnite, coupled tower to be truncated in order to reduce them to a practically solvable set. In this connection, a physically acceptable ansatz for the three point vertex is the most favorite choice. Scalar quantum electrodynamics (sQED) provides a simple and neat platform to address this problem. The most general form of the three point scalar-photon vertex can be expressed in terms of only two independent form factors, a longitudinal and a transverse one. Ball and Chiu have demonstrated that the longitudinal vertex is fixed by requiring the Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identity (WFGTI), while the transverse vertex remains undetermined. In massless quenched sQED, we construct the transverse part of the non perturbative scalar-photon vertex. This construction (i) ensures multiplicative renormalizability (MR) of the scalar propagator in keeping with the Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations (LKFTs), (ii) has the same transformatio...

  11. The scalar-photon 3-point vertex in massless quenched scalar QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Sánchez, Y.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Fernández-Rangel, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    Non perturbative studies of Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) require their infinite, coupled tower to be truncated in order to reduce them to a practically solvable set. In this connection, a physically acceptable ansatz for the three point vertex is the most favorite choice. Scalar quantum electrodynamics (sQED) provides a simple and neat platform to address this problem. The most general form of the scalar-photon three point vertex can be expressed in terms of only two independent form factors, longitudinal and transverse. Ball and Chiu have demonstrated that the longitudinal vertex is fixed by requiring the Ward-Fradkin-Green- Takahashi identity (WFGTI), while the transverse vertex remains undetermined. In massless quenched sQED, we propose the transverse part of the non perturbative scalar-photon vertex.

  12. No evidence for bilinear condensate in parity-invariant three-dimensional QED with massless fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Karthik, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    We present our numerical study of three-dimensional QED with 2, 4, 6 and 8 flavors of massless two-component fermions using a parity-preserving lattice regularization with Wilson fermions. We study the behavior of low-lying eigenvalues of the Hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator as a function of three-dimensional physical volume, after taking the continuum limit at fixed physical volumes. We find the following evidences against the presence of bilinear condensate: the eigenvalues do not scale as the inverse of the three-dimensional physical volume, and the number variance associated with these eigenvalues do not exhibit ergodic behavior. The inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the associated eigenvectors exhibits a multi-fractal volume scaling. The relation satisfied by number variance and IPR suggests critical behavior.

  13. Gravitational collapse of massless scalar field in $f(R)$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cheng-Yong; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We study the spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of massless scalar matter field in asymptotic flat spacetime in $f(R)$ gravity. In the Einstein frame of $f(R)$ gravity, an additional scalar field arises due to the conformal transformation. We find that besides the usual competition between gravitational energy and kinetic energy in the process of gravitational collapse, the new scalar field brought by the conformal transformation adds one more competing force in the dynamical system. The dynamical competition can be controlled by tuning the amplitudes of the initial perturbations of the new scalar field and the matter field. To understand the physical reasons behind these phenomena, we analyze the gravitational potential behavior and calculate the Ricci scalar at center with the change of initial amplitudes of perturbations. We find rich physics on the formation of black holes through gravitational collapse in $f(R)$ gravity.

  14. Effective Model for Massless Dirac Electrons on a Surface of Weak Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Takashi; Takane, Yositake

    2014-12-01

    In a typical situation, gapless surface states of a three-dimensional (3D) weak topological insulator (WTI) appear only on the sides, leaving the top and bottom surfaces gapped. To describe massless Dirac electrons emergent on such side surfaces of a WTI, a two-dimensional (2D) model consisting of a series of one-dimensional helical channels is usually employed. However, an explicit derivation of such a model from a 3D bulk Hamiltonian has been lacking. Here, we explicitly derive an effective 2D model for the WTI surface states starting from the Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian for the bulk WTI and establish a firm basis for the hitherto hypothesized 2D model. We show that the resulting 2D model accurately reproduces the excitation spectrum of surface Dirac electrons determined by the 3D model. We also show that the 2D model is applicable to a side surface with atomic steps.

  15. Direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing with a massless neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Stephen F.; Ludl, Patrick Otto [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-24

    We discuss the possibility of enforcing a massless Majorana neutrino in the direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing, in which the PMNS matrix is partly predicted by subgroups of a discrete family symmetry, extending previous group searches up to order 1535. We find a phenomenologically viable scheme for the semi-direct approach based on Q(648) which contains Δ(27) and the quaternion group as subgroups. This leads to novel predictions for the first column of the PMNS matrix corresponding to a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with m{sub 1}=0, and sum rules for the mixing angles and phase which are characterised by the solar angle being on the low side θ{sub 12}∼31{sup ∘} and the Dirac (oscillation) CP phase δ being either about ±45{sup ∘} or ±π.

  16. Generalized virial theorem for massless electrons in graphene and other Dirac materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, A. A.; Zabolotskiy, A. D.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2016-05-01

    The virial theorem for a system of interacting electrons in a crystal, which is described within the framework of the tight-binding model, is derived. We show that, in the particular case of interacting massless electrons in graphene and other Dirac materials, the conventional virial theorem is violated. Starting from the tight-binding model, we derive the generalized virial theorem for Dirac electron systems, which contains an additional term associated with a momentum cutoff at the bottom of the energy band. Additionally, we derive the generalized virial theorem within the Dirac model using the minimization of the variational energy. The obtained theorem is illustrated by many-body calculations of the ground-state energy of an electron gas in graphene carried out in Hartree-Fock and self-consistent random-phase approximations. Experimental verification of the theorem in the case of graphene is discussed.

  17. Radiative Decay Bc → Ds*γ in the Technicolor with a Massless Scalar Doublet Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yi-Gang; JIAO Zheng-Kuan

    2002-01-01

    Applying perturbative QCD, we study the process Bc → Dsγ in the technicolor with a massless scalar doublet model (TCMLSM). There are mainly two mechanisms contributing to the Bc → D*sγ process. One proceeds through the short distance b → sγ transition and the other through weak annihilation accompanied by a photon emission.We find that, compared with the standard model, the modification of Bc → D*sγ from πρ (the physical pions in the TCMLSM) is so small that can be neglected for the allowed mass ofπρ. The weak-annihilation contribution is found to be about one order larger than that of the electromagnetic penguin diagrams.

  18. Veiled singularities for the spherically symmetric massless Einstein-Vlasov system

    CERN Document Server

    Rendall, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    This paper continues the investigation of the formation of naked singularities in the collapse of collisionless matter initiated in [RV]. There the existence of certain classes of non-smooth solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system was proved. Those solutions are self-similar and hence not asymptotically flat. To obtain solutions which are more physically relevant it makes sense to attempt to cut off these solutions in a suitable way so as to make them asymptotically flat. This task, which turns out to be technically challenging, will be carried out in this paper. [RV] A. D. Rendall and J. J. L. Vel\\'{a}zquez, A class of dust-like self-similar solutions of the massless Einstein-Vlasov system. Annales Henri Poincare 12, 919-964, (2011).

  19. Direct and Semi-Direct Approaches to Lepton Mixing with a Massless Neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    King, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of enforcing a massless Majorana neutrino in the direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing, in which the PMNS matrix is partly predicted by subgroups of a discrete family symmetry, extending previous group searches up to order 1535. We find a phenomenologically viable scheme for the semi-direct approach based on $Q(648)$ which contains $\\Delta(27)$ and the quaternion group as subgroups. This leads to novel predictions for the first column of the PMNS matrix corresponding to a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with $m_1=0$, and sum rules for the mixing angles and phase which are characterised by the solar angle being on the low side $\\theta_{12}\\sim 31^{\\circ}$ and the Dirac (oscillation) CP phase $\\delta$ being either about $\\pm 45^\\circ$ or $\\pm \\pi$.

  20. Direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing with a massless neutrino

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen F.; Ludl, Patrick Otto

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the possibility of enforcing a massless Majorana neutrino in the direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing, in which the PMNS matrix is partly predicted by subgroups of a discrete family symmetry, extending previous group searches up to order 1535. We find a phenomenologically viable scheme for the semi-direct approach based on Q(648) which contains Δ(27) and the quaternion group as subgroups. This leads to novel predictions for the first column of the PMNS matrix corresponding to a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with m 1 = 0, and sum rules for the mixing angles and phase which are characterised by the solar angle being on the low side θ 12 ˜ 31° and the Dirac (oscillation) CP phase δ being either about ±45° or ±π.

  1. Field Theory Simulations on a Fuzzy Sphere - an Alternative to the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Medina, J; Hofheinz, F; O'Connor, D; Medina, Julieta; Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Hofheinz, Frank; Connor, Denjoe O'

    2005-01-01

    We explore a new way to simulate quantum field theory, without introducing a spatial lattice. As a pilot study we apply this method to the 3d \\lambda \\phi^4 model. The regularisation consists of a fuzzy sphere with radius R for the two spatial directions, plus a discrete Euclidean time. The fuzzy sphere approximates the algebra of functions of the sphere with a matrix algebra, and the scalar field is represented by a Hermitian N x N matrix at each time site. We evaluate the phase diagram, where we find a disordered phase and an ordered regime, which splits into phases of uniform and non-uniform order. We discuss the behaviour of the model in different limits of large N and R, which lead to a commutative or to a non-commutative \\lambda \\phi^4 model in flat space.

  2. Kaluza-Klein Theories Without Truncation

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Katrin; Robbins, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this note we present a closed expression for the space-time effective action for all bosonic fields (massless and massive) obtained from the compactification of gravity or supergravity theories (such as type II or eleven-dimensional supergravities) from $D$ to $d$ space-time dimensions.

  3. Renormalization problem in a class of nonrenormalizable theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symanzik, K.

    1975-08-01

    A possible way to approach a certain class of nonrenormalizable theories is described. The simplest theory of this class with a probability of existence is chosen, the massless phi$sup 4$ theory in more than four space-time dimensions. The problem of extension to other nonrenormalizable theories in the class considered, and the conclusons reached thus far are compared with the corresponding ones for renormalizable theories. (JFP)

  4. Loop amplitudes in gauge theories: modern analytic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.britto@cea.fr [IPhT, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-11-11

    This article reviews on-shell methods for analytic computation of loop amplitudes, emphasizing techniques based on unitarity cuts. Unitarity techniques are formulated generally but have been especially useful for calculating one-loop amplitudes in massless theories such as Yang-Mills theory, QCD and QED. (review)

  5. One loop radiative corrections to the translation-invariant noncommutative Yukawa Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchachia, Karim; Hachemane, Mahmoud; Schweda, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate in this paper a translation-invariant model for fermions in 4-dimensional noncommutative Euclidean space. The construction is done on the basis of the renormalizable noncommutative translation-invariant Phi4 theory introduced by R. Gurau et al. We combine our model with the scalar model, in order to study the noncommutative pseudo-scalar Yukawa theory. After we derive the Feynman rules of the theory, we perform an explicit calculation of the quantum corrections at one loop level to the propagators and vertices.

  6. Weyl-invariant Higher Curvature Gravity Theories in n Dimensions and Mass Generation by Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Dengiz, Suat

    2014-01-01

    Weyl-invariant extensions of three-dimensional New Massive Gravity, generic n-dimensional Quadratic Curvature Gravity theories and three-dimensional Born-Infeld gravity theory are analyzed in details. As required by Weyl-invariance, the actions of these gauge theories do not contain any dimensionful parameter hence the local symmetry is spontaneously broken in (Anti) de Sitter vacua in complete analogy with the Standard Model Higgs mechanism. In flat vacuum, symmetry breaking mechanism is more complicated: The dimensionful parameters come from dimensional transmutation in the quantum field theory; therefore, the conformal symmetry is radiatively broken (at two loop level in 3-dimensions and at one-loop level in 4-dimensions) \\`{a} la Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. In the broken phases, save for New Massive Gravity, the theories generically propagate with a unitary (tachyon and ghost-free) massless tensor, massive (or massless) vector and massless scalar particles for the particular intervals of the dimensionless...

  7. Quantum Finite Elements for Lattice Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Richard C; Gasbarro, Andrew; Raben, Timothy; Tan, Chung-I; Weinberg, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Viable non-perturbative methods for lattice quantum field theories on curved manifolds are difficult. By adapting features from the traditional finite element methods (FEM) and Regge Calculus, a new simplicial lattice Quantum Finite Element (QFE) Lagrangian is constructed for fields on a smooth Riemann manifold. To reach the continuum limit additional counter terms must be constructed to cancel the ultraviolet distortions. This is tested by the comparison of phi 4-th theory at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point with the exact Ising (c =1/2) CFT on a 2D Riemann sphere. The Dirac equation is also constructed on a simplicial lattice approximation to a Riemann manifold by introducing a lattice vierbein and spin connection on each link. Convergence of the QFE Dirac equation is tested against the exact solution for the 2D Riemann sphere. Future directions and applications to Conformal Field Theories are suggested.

  8. On the derivation of effective field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Uzunov, D I

    2004-01-01

    A general self-consistency approach allows a thorough treatment of the corrections to the standard mean-field approximation (MFA). The natural extension of standard MFA with the help of a cumulant expansion leads to a new point of view on the effective field theories. The proposed approach can be used for a systematic treatment of fluctuation effects of various length scales and, perhaps, for the development of a new coarse graining procedure. We outline and justify our method by some preliminary calculations. Concrete results are given for the critical temperature and the Landau parameters of the $\\phi^4_d$-theory - the field counterpart of the Ising model. An important unresolved problem of the modern theory of phase transitions - the problem for the calculation of the true critical temperature, is considered within the framework of the present approach. A comprehensive description of the ground state properties of many-body systems is also demonstrated.

  9. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the $(\\partial\\phi)^4$ coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning o...

  10. Quasi-attractor dynamics of lambda-phi^4-inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V

    2008-01-01

    At high e-foldings of expansion, the inflation with the quartic potential exhibits the parametric attractor governed by the slowly running Hubble rate. This quasi-attractor simplifies the analysis of predictions for the inhomogeneity generated by the quantum fluctuations of inflaton. The quartic inflation is still marginally consistent with observations, if one suggests an extended version of tachyonic preheating stage with passing the region of negative potential, for instance.

  11. Localization of scalar massless excitations in self-gravitating $SO(10)$ kinks

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Rafael; Rodriguez, R Omar

    2016-01-01

    Three self-gravitating $SO(10)$ kinks inducing asymptotically the breaking pattern $SO(10)\\rightarrow SU(5)$ are determined which can be distinguished by the unbroken group on each of them: $SO(10)$ for the first kink and $SO(6)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ and $SU(4)\\times SO(2)\\times U(1)$ for the second and third kink respectively. The scenarios are perturbed by considering small excitations on the fields; in particular, the metric fluctuations are parameterized in terms of tensor, vector and scalar modes. All these modes as well as the perturbations of the scalar field are rewritten as gauge-invariant variables. With regarding the tensor and vector fluctuations, for a four dimensional observer, the standard results are obtained: while the massless graviton is localized on the wall the graviphotons propagate freely in the bulk. On the other hand, for the scalar excitations in correspondence with the symmetry on the kink, both along the broken generators and along the some unbroken generators, normalizable zero ...

  12. Nonperturbative production of massless scalars during inflation and generation of gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby-Cole, Cody; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the possibility of a feature in the spectrum of inflationary gravitational waves sourced by a scalar field χ whose vacuum fluctuations are amplified by a rapidly time dependent mass. Unlike previous work which has focused on the case in which the mass of the field χ vanishes only for an instant before becoming massive again, we study a system where the scalar field becomes and remains massless through the end of inflation. After applying appropriate constraints to our parameters, we find, for future CMB experiments, a small contribution to the tensor-to-scalar ratio which can be at most of the order r ~ 10-5. At smaller scales probed by gravitational interferometers, on the other hand, the energy density in the gravitational waves produced this way might be above the projected sensitivity of LISA, ΩGW h2 ~ 10-13, in a narrow region of parameter space. If there is more than one χ species, then these amplitudes are enhanced by a factor equal to the number of those species.

  13. Consistent quantization of massless fields of any spin and the generalized Maxwell's equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A simplified formalism of first quantized massless fields of any spin is presented. The angular momentum basis for particles of zero mass and finite spin s of the D^(s-1/2,1/2) representation of the Lorentz group is used to describe the wavefunctions. The advantage of the formalism is that by equating to zero the s-1 components of the wave functions, the 2s-1 subsidiary conditions (needed to eliminate the non-forward and non-backward helicities) are automatically satisfied. Probability currents and Lagrangians are derived allowing a first quantized formalism. A simple procedure is derived for connecting the wave functions with potentials and gauge conditions. The spin 1 case is of particular interest and is described with the D^(1/2,1/2) vector representation of the well known self-dual representation of the Maxwell's equations. This representation allows us to generalize Maxwell's equations by adding the E_0 and B_0 components to the electric and magnetic four-vectors. Restrictions on their existence are dis...

  14. Temperature-driven massless Kane fermions in HgCdTe crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teppe, F.; Marcinkiewicz, M.; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Ruffenach, S.; Consejo, C.; Kadykov, A. M.; Desrat, W.; But, D.; Knap, W.; Ludwig, J.; Moon, S.; Smirnov, D.; Orlita, M.; Jiang, Z.; Morozov, S. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been shown that electronic states in bulk gapless HgCdTe offer another realization of pseudo-relativistic three-dimensional particles in condensed matter systems. These single valley relativistic states, massless Kane fermions, cannot be described by any other relativistic particles. Furthermore, the HgCdTe band structure can be continuously tailored by modifying cadmium content or temperature. At critical concentration or temperature, the bandgap collapses as the system undergoes a semimetal-to-semiconductor topological phase transition between the inverted and normal alignments. Here, using far-infrared magneto-spectroscopy we explore the continuous evolution of band structure of bulk HgCdTe as temperature is tuned across the topological phase transition. We demonstrate that the rest mass of Kane fermions changes sign at critical temperature, whereas their velocity remains constant. The velocity universal value of (1.07+/-0.05) × 106 m s-1 remains valid in a broad range of temperatures and Cd concentrations, indicating a striking universality of the pseudo-relativistic description of the Kane fermions in HgCdTe.

  15. Mechanical topological semimetals with massless quasiparticles and a finite Berry curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-06-01

    A topological quantum phase requires a finite momentum-space Berry curvature which, conventionally, can arise through breaking the inversion or the time-reversal symmetry so as to generate nontrivial, topologically invariant quantities associated with the underlying energy band structure (e.g., a finite Chern number). For conventional graphene or graphenelike two-dimensional (2D) systems with gapless Dirac cones, the symmetry breaking will make the system insulating due to lifting of the degeneracy. To design materials that simultaneously possess the two seemingly contradicting properties (i.e., a semimetal phase with gapless bulk Dirac-like cones and a finite Berry curvature) is of interest. We propose a 2D mechanical dice lattice system that exhibits precisely such properties. As a result, an intrinsic valley Hall effect can arise without compromising the carrier mobility as the quasiparticles remain massless. We also find that, with confinement along the zigzag edges, two distinct types of gapless edge states with opposite edge polarizations can arise, one with a finite but the other with zero group velocity.

  16. Noncommutative Field Theory With General Translation Invariant Star Products

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Manolo

    2015-01-01

    We compute the two-point and four-point Green's function of the noncommutative $\\phi^{4}$ field theory; first with the s-ordered star products and then with a general translation invariant star product. We derive the differential expression for any translation invariant star product, and with the help of this expression we show that any of these products can be written in terms of a twist. Finally, using the notion of the twisted action of the infinitesimal Poincar\\'e transformations, we show that the commutator between the coordinate functions is invariant under Poincar\\'e transformations at a deformed level.

  17. On the massless gap'' adjustment of detected energy for passive material in front of a calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, H.J.

    1992-01-31

    I have designed a correction scheme for energy losses in passive material in front of a calorimeter based on the massless gap'' idea. I use a flexible geometry model of a calorimeter design for SDC outside of a solenoidal coil made of aluminium cylinders of adjustable thickness. The signal from the first radiation length of active calorimetry is scaled dependent on the incoming and observed energies of the shower. A reasonable recovery of the resolution of an unobstructed calorimeter is achieved using correction factors that depend only upon the total thickness of passive material. Thus a useful correction may be built into the hardware by increasing the amount of scintillator in the first radiation length of the active calorimeter. The distribution of correction factors determined event-by-event indicate that an additional dependence on the observed signal in the massless gap and total incident energy is clearly present.

  18. Green's function of a massless scalar field in curved space-time and superluminal phase velocity of the retarded potential

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2012-01-01

    We study a retarded potential solution of a massless scalar field in curved space-time. In a special ansatz for a particle at rest whose magnitude of the (scalar) charge is changing with time, we found an exact analytic solution. The solution indicates that the phase velocity of the retarded potential of a non-moving scalar charge is position dependent, and may easily be greater than the speed of light at a given point. In the case of the Schwarzschild space-time, at the horizon, the phase velocity becomes infinitely faster than the coordinate speed of light at that point. Superluminal phase velocity is relatively common phenomenon, with the the phase velocity of the massive Klein-Gordon field as the best known example. We discuss why it is possible to have modes with superluminal phase velocity even for a massless field.

  19. On unitary evolution of a massless scalar field in a Schwarzschild background: Hawking radiation and the information paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, Kirill

    2002-08-08

    We develop a Hamiltonian formalism which can be used to discuss the physics of a massless scalar field in a gravitational background of a Schwarzschild black hole. Using this formalism we show that the time evolution of the system is unitary and yet all known results such as the existence of Hawking radiation can be readily understood. We then point out that the Hamiltonian formalism leads to interesting observations about black hole entropy and the information paradox.

  20. Particular boundary condition ensures that a fermion in d=1+5, compactified on a finite disk, manifests d=1+3 as a massless spinor with a charge 1/2, mass protected and chirally coupled to the gauge field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borstnik, N. M.; Nielsen, Holger Frits Bech

    2008-01-01

    The genuine Kaluza-Klein-like theories-with no fields in addition to gravity-have difficulties with the existence of massless spinors after the compactification of some space dimensions [E. Witten, Nucl. Phys. B 186 (1981) 412; E. Witten, Fermion quantum numbers in Kaluza-Klein theories, Princeton...... Technical Rep. PRINT-83-1056, October 1983]. We proposed in [N.S. Mankoc Borštnik, H.B. Nielsen, Phys. Lett. B 633 (2006) 771, hep-th/0509101; N.S. Mankoc Borštnik, H.B. Nielsen, hep-th/0311037] a boundary condition for spinors in (1+5) compactified on a flat disk that ensures masslessness of spinors (with...... all positive half integer charges) in d=(1+3) as well as their chiral coupling to the corresponding background gauge gravitational field. In this Letter we study the same toy model, proposing a boundary condition allowing a massless spinor of one handedness and only one charge (1/2) and infinitely...

  1. Circular Orbits in the Taub-NUT and mass-less Taub-NUT Space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the equatorial causal geodesics of the Taub-NUT(TN) space-time in comparison with \\emph{mass-less} TN space-time. We emphasized both on the null circular geodesics and time-like circular geodesics. From the effective potential diagram of null and time-like geodesics, we differentiate the geodesics structure between TN spacetime and mass-less TN space-time. It has been shown that there is a key role of the NUT parameter to changes the shape of pattern of the potential well in the NUT spacetime in comparison with mass-less NUT space-time. We compared the ISCO (innermost stable circular orbit), MBCO (marginally bound circular orbit) and CPO (circular photon orbit) of the said space-time with graphically in comparison with mass-less cases. Moreover, we compute the radius of ISCO, MBCO and CPO for \\emph{extreme} TN black hole. Interestingly, we show that these \\emph{three radii} coincides with the Killing horizon i.e. the null geodesic generators of the horizon. Finally in Appendix, we comput...

  2. The Model for Final Stage of Gravitational Collapse Massless Scalar Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladush, V. D.; Mironin, D. V.

    It is known that in General relativity, for some spherically symmetric initial conditions, the massless scalar field (SF) experience the gravitational collapse (Choptuik, 1989), and arise a black hole (BH). According Bekenstein, a BH has no "hair scalar", so the SF is completely under the horizon. Thus, the study of the final stage for the gravitational collapse of a SF is reduced to the construction of a solution of Einstein's equations describing the evolution of a SF inside the BH. In this work, we build the Lagrangian for scalar and gravitationalfields in the spherically symmetric case, when the metric coefficients and SF depends only on the time. In this case, it is convenient to use the methods of classical mechanics. Since the metric allows an arbitrary transformation of time, then the corresponding field variable (g00) is included in the Lagrangian without time derivative. It is a non-dynamic variable, and is included in the Lagrangian as a Lagrange multiplier. A variation of the action on this variable gives the constraint. It turns out that Hamiltonian is proportional to the constraint, and so it is zero. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation easily integrated. Hence, we find the relation between the SF and the metric. To restore of time dependence we using an equation dL / dq' = dS / dq After using a gauge condition, it allows us to find solution. Thus, we find the evolution of the SF inside the BH, which describes the final stage of the gravitational collapse of a SF. It turns out that the mass BH associated with a scalar charge G of the corresponding SF inside the BH ratio M = G/(2√ κ).

  3. Ambitwistor Strings: Worldsheet Approaches to perturbative Quantum Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Tree-level scattering amplitudes in massless theories not only exhibit a simplicity entirely unexpected from Feynman diagrams, but also an underlying structure remarkably reminiscent of worldsheet theory correlators. These features can be explained by ambitwistor strings - two-dimensional chiral conformal field theories in an auxiliary target space, the complexified phase space of null geodesics. The aim of this thesis is to explore the ambitwistor string approach to understand these structures in amplitudes, and thereby provide a new angle on quantum field theories. The first part of the thesis provides a user-friendly introduction to ambitwistor strings, as well as a condensed overview over the literature and some novel results. Emphasising the study of tree-level amplitudes, we then explore the wide-ranging impact of ambitwistor strings for an extensive family of massless theories, and discuss the duality between asymptotic symmetries and the low energy behaviour of a theory from the point of view of the w...

  4. Lattice Gauge Theory and the Origin of Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2013-08-01

    Most of the mass of everyday objects resides in atomic nuclei/ the total of the electrons' mass adds up to less than one part in a thousand. The nuclei are composed of nucleons---protons and neutrons---whose nuclear binding energy, though tremendous on a human scale, is small compared to their rest energy. The nucleons are, in turn, composites of massless gluons and nearly massless quarks. It is the energy of these confined objects, via $M=E/c^2$, that is responsible for everyday mass. This article discusses the physics of this mechanism and the role of lattice gauge theory in establishing its connection to quantum chromodynamics.

  5. Lattice Gauge Theory and the Origin of Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Kronfeld, Andreas S

    2012-01-01

    Most of the mass of everyday objects resides in atomic nuclei; the total of the electrons' mass adds up to less than one part in a thousand. The nuclei are composed of nucleons---protons and neutrons---whose nuclear binding energy, though tremendous on a human scale, is small compared to their rest energy. The nucleons are, in turn, composites of massless gluons and nearly massless quarks. It is the energy of these confined objects, via $M=E/c^2$, that is responsible for everyday mass. This article discusses the physics of this mechanism and the role of lattice gauge theory in establishing its connection to quantum chromodynamics.

  6. Low energy effective Lagrangians in open superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Ricardo [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The low energy effective Lagrangian describes the interactions of the massless modes of String Theory. Present work is being done to obtain all alpha'{sup 3} terms (bosonic and fermionic) by means of the known 5-point amplitudes and SUSY.

  7. The Breakdown of String Perturbation Theory for Many External Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sudip

    2016-01-01

    We consider massless string scattering amplitudes in a limit where the number of external particles becomes very large, while the energy of each particle remains small. Using the growth of the volume of the relevant moduli space, and by means of independent numerical evidence, we argue that string perturbation theory breaks down in this limit. We discuss some remarkable implications for the information paradox.

  8. Conformal higher-spin symmetries in twistor string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Uvarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that similarly to massless superparticle, classical global symmetry of the Berkovits twistor string action is infinite-dimensional. We identify its superalgebra, whose finite-dimensional subalgebra contains psl(4|4,R superalgebra. In quantum theory this infinite-dimensional symmetry breaks down to SL(4|4,R one.

  9. Breakdown of String Perturbation Theory for Many External Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip; Raju, Suvrat

    2017-03-31

    We consider massless string scattering amplitudes in a limit where the number of external particles becomes very large, while the energy of each particle remains small. Using the growth of the volume of the relevant moduli space, and by means of independent numerical evidence, we argue that string perturbation theory breaks down in this limit. We discuss some remarkable implications for the information paradox.

  10. Bimetric gravity doubly coupled to matter: theory and cosmological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akrami, Yashar; Koivisto, Tomi S.; Mota, David F.; Sandstad, Marit, E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no, E-mail: t.s.koivisto@astro.uio.no, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: marit.sandstad@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-10-01

    A ghost-free theory of gravity with two dynamical metrics both coupled to matter is shown to be consistent and viable. Its cosmological implications are studied, and the models, in particular in the context of partially massless gravity, are found to explain the cosmic acceleration without resorting to dark energy.

  11. Renormalization-group flows and fixed points in Yukawa theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Esben; Shrock, R.

    2014-01-01

    We study renormalization-group flows in Yukawa theories with massless fermions, including determination of fixed points and curves that separate regions of different flow behavior. We assess the reliability of perturbative calculations for various values of Yukawa coupling y and quartic scalar....... In the regime of weak couplings where the perturbative calculations are most reliable, we find that the theories have no nontrivial fixed points, and the flow is toward a free theory in the infrared....

  12. Scattering of massless scalar waves by magnetically charged black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gußmann, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The existence of classical solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations describing black holes inside 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopoles implies that not all stationary magnetically charged black holes can be uniquely described by their asymptotic characteristics. In fact, in a certain domain of parameters, there exist different spherically-symmetric, non-rotating and asymptotically-flat classical black hole solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations which have the same ADM mass and the same magnetic charge but significantly different geometries in the near-horizon regions. (These are black hole solutions which are described by a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om metric on the one hand and the "magnetic monopole black hole solutions" which can be interpreted as black holes inside 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopoles described by a metric which is not of Reissner-Nordstr\\"om form on the other hand.) One can experimentally distinguish such black holes with same asymptotic characteristics but different ne...

  13. Effective potential in the BET formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Bessa, A; Fraga, E S; Gelis, F

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature for a system of massless scalar fields with quartic interaction $\\lambda\\phi^4$ in the framework of the boundary effective theory (BET) formalism. The calculation relies on the solution of the classical equation of motion for the field, and Gaussian fluctuations around it. Our result is non-perturbative and differs from the standard one-loop effective potential for field values larger than $T/\\sqrt{\\lambda}$.

  14. Discussion on Lorentz invariance violation of noncommutative field theory and neutrino oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cui-Bai; Shi, Song; Du, Yi-Lun; Wang, Yong-Long; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-03-01

    Depending on deformed canonical anticommutation relations, massless neutrino oscillation based on Lorentz invariance violation in noncommutative field theory is discussed. It is found that the previous studies about massless neutrino oscillation within deformed canonical anticommutation relations should satisfy the condition of new Moyal product and new nonstandard commutation relations. Furthermore, comparing the Lorentz invariant violation parameters A in the previous studies with new Moyal product and new nonstandard commutation relations, we find that the orders of magnitude of noncommutative parameters (Lorentz invariant violation parameters A) is not self-consistent. This inconsistency means that the previous studies of Lorentz invariance violation in noncommutative field theory may not naturally explain massless neutrino oscillation. In other words, it should be impossible to explain neutrino oscillation by Lorentz invariance violation in noncommutative field theory. This conclusion is supported by the latest atmospheric neutrinos experimental results from the super-Kamiokande Collaboration, which show that no evidence of Lorentz invariance violation on atmospheric neutrinos was observed.

  15. Supersymmetric extended string field theory in NSn sector and NSn−1–R sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Asano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We construct a class of quadratic gauge invariant actions for extended string fields defined on the tensor product of open superstring state space for multiple open string Neveu–Schwarz (NS sectors with or without one Ramond (R sector. The basic idea is the same as for the bosonic extended string field theory developed by the authors [1]. The theory for NSn sector and NSn−1–R sector contains general n-th rank tensor fields and (n−1-th rank spinor–tensor fields in the massless spectrum respectively. In principle, consistent gauge invariant actions for any generic type of 10-dimensional massive or massless tensor or spinor–tensor fields can be extracted from the theory. We discuss some simple examples of bosonic and fermionic massless actions.

  16. Supersymmetric extended string field theory in NSn sector and NSn - 1-R sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masako; Kato, Mitsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    We construct a class of quadratic gauge invariant actions for extended string fields defined on the tensor product of open superstring state space for multiple open string Neveu-Schwarz (NS) sectors with or without one Ramond (R) sector. The basic idea is the same as for the bosonic extended string field theory developed by the authors [1]. The theory for NSn sector and NS n - 1-R sector contains general n-th rank tensor fields and (n - 1)-th rank spinor-tensor fields in the massless spectrum respectively. In principle, consistent gauge invariant actions for any generic type of 10-dimensional massive or massless tensor or spinor-tensor fields can be extracted from the theory. We discuss some simple examples of bosonic and fermionic massless actions.

  17. Renormalization Group Optimized Perturbation Theory at Finite Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kneur, J -L

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed variant of the so-called optimized perturbation theory (OPT), making it perturbatively consistent with renormalization group (RG) properties, RGOPT, was shown to drastically improve its convergence for zero temperature theories. Here the RGOPT adapted to finite temperature is illustrated with a detailed evaluation of the two-loop pressure for the thermal scalar $ \\lambda\\phi^4$ field theory. We show that already at the simple one-loop level this quantity is exactly scale-invariant by construction and turns out to qualitatively reproduce, with a rather simple procedure, results from more sophisticated resummation methods at two-loop order, such as the two-particle irreducible approach typically. This lowest order also reproduces the exact large-$N$ results of the $O(N)$ model. Although very close in spirit, our RGOPT method and corresponding results differ drastically from similar variational approaches, such as the screened perturbation theory or its QCD-version, the (resummed) hard therm...

  18. Conformal fixed point of SU(3) gauge theory with 12 fundamental fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Tatsumi; Itou, Etsuko; Kurachi, Masafumi; Lin, C -J David; Matsufuru, Hideo; Ogawa, Kenji; Ohki, Hiroshi; Onogi, Tetsuya; Shintani, Eigo; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    We study the infrared properties of SU(3) gauge theory coupled to 12 massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. The renormalized running coupling constant is calculated in the Twisted Polyakov loop scheme on the lattice. From the step-scaling analysis, we find that the infrared behavior of the theory is governed by a non-trivial fixed point.

  19. Oscillons in dilaton-scalar theories

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Gyula; Horváth, Zalán; Mezei, Márk

    2009-01-01

    It is shown by both analytical methods and numerical simulations that extremely long living spherically symmetric oscillons appear in virtually any real scalar field theory coupled to a massless dilaton (DS theories). In fact such ''dilatonic'' oscillons are already present in the simplest non-trivial DS theory -- a free massive scalar field coupled to the dilaton. It is shown that in analogy to the previously considered cases with a single nonlinear scalar field, in DS theories there are also time periodic quasibreathers (QB) associated to small amplitude oscillons. Exploiting the QB picture the radiation law of the small amplitude dilatonic oscillons is determined analytically.

  20. Lorentz contraction of the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radozycki, Tomasz [Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-09-15

    The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a 'meson') this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles ('quarks'), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties. (orig.)

  1. Lorentz contraction of the equal-time Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radożycki, Tomasz, E-mail: t.radozycki@uksw.edu.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, Wóycickiego 1/3, 01-938, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-09-24

    The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a ‘meson’) this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles (‘quarks’), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties.

  2. Massive scalar field on (A)dS space from a massless conformal field in $\\mathbb{R}^6$

    CERN Document Server

    Huguet, E; Renaud, J

    2016-01-01

    We show how the equations for the scalar field (including the massive, massless, minimally and conformally coupled cases) on de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter spaces can be obtained from both the SO$(2,4)$-invariant equation $\\square \\phi = 0$ in $\\mathbb{R}^6$ and two geometrical constraints defining the (A)dS space. Apart from the equation in $\\mathbb{R}^6$, the results only follow from the geometry. We also show how an interaction term in (A)dS space can be taken into account from $\\mathbb{R}^6$.

  3. Finite Temperature Matrix Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Meana, M L; Peñalba, J P; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente

    1998-01-01

    We present the way the Lorentz invariant canonical partition function for Matrix Theory as a light-cone formulation of M-theory can be computed. We explicitly show how when the eleventh dimension is decompactified, the N=1 eleven dimensional SUGRA partition function appears. From this particular analysis we also clarify the question about the discernibility problem when making statistics with supergravitons (the N! problem) in Matrix black hole configurations. We also provide a high temperature expansion which captures some structure of the canonical partition function when interactions amongst D-particles are on. The connection with the semi-classical computations thermalizing the open superstrings attached to a D-particle is also clarified through a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Some ideas about how Matrix Theory would describe the complementary degrees of freedom of the massless content of eleven dimensional SUGRA are also discussed.

  4. Extended vector-tensor theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Rampei; Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.

  5. Exploration of the Tree-Level S-Matrix of Massless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the BCFW construction provided a very powerful tool for computing scattering amplitudes as well as it shed light on the perturbation theory structure. In this talk, we discuss the long-standing issue of the boundary term arising when the amplitudes do not vanish as some momenta are taken to infinity along some complex direction. In particular, we provide a new set of on-shell recursion relations valid for such theories and discuss its consequences on our understanding on the perturbation theory structure of the S-Matrix.

  6. Exploration of the tree-level S-matrix of massless particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, P.

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the BCFW construction provided a very powerful tool for computing scattering amplitudes as well as it shed light on the perturbation theory structure. In this talk, we discuss the long-standing issue of the boundary term arising when the amplitudes do not vanish as some momenta are taken to infinity along some complex direction. In particular, we provide a new set of on-shell recursion relations valid for such theories and discuss its consequences on our understanding on the perturbation theory structure of the S-Matrix.

  7. Exploration of the tree-level S-matrix of massless particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benincasa, P. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-07-15

    In recent years, the BCFW construction provided a very powerful tool for computing scattering amplitudes as well as it shed light on the perturbation theory structure. In this talk, I discuss the long-standing issue of the boundary term arising when the amplitudes do not vanish as some momenta are taken to infinity along some complex direction. In particular, we provide a new set of on-shell recursion relations valid for such theories and discuss its consequences on our understanding on the perturbation theory structure of the S-matrix. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Higher Spin Theory -- Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Rakibur

    2013-01-01

    These notes comprise a part of the introductory lectures on Higher Spin Theory presented in the Eighth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics. We construct free higher-spin theories and turn on interactions to find that inconsistencies show up in general. Interacting massless fields in flat space are in tension with gauge invariance and this leads to various no-go theorems. While massive fields exhibit superluminal propagation, appropriate non-minimal terms may cure such pathologies as they do in String Theory -- a fact that we demonstrate. Given that any interacting massive higher-spin particle is described by an effective field theory, we compute a model independent upper bound on the ultraviolet cutoff in the case of electromagnetic coupling in flat space and discuss its implications. Finally, we consider various possibilities of evading the no-go theorems for massless fields, among which Vasiliev's higher-spin gauge theory is one. We work out a simple example of a higher-derivative cubic coupling in...

  9. Algebraic geometry informs perturbative quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, David

    2014-01-01

    Single-scale Feynman diagrams yield integrals that are periods, namely projective integrals of rational functions of Schwinger parameters. Algebraic geometry may therefore inform us of the types of number to which these integrals evaluate. We give examples at 3, 4 and 6 loops of massive Feynman diagrams that evaluate to Dirichlet $L$-series of modular forms and examples at 6, 7 and 8 loops of counterterms that evaluate to multiple zeta values or polylogarithms of the sixth root of unity. At 8 loops and beyond, algebraic geometry informs us that polylogs are insufficient for the evaluation of terms in the beta-function of $\\phi^4$ theory. Here, modular forms appear as obstructions to polylogarithmic evaluation.

  10. Supersymmetric extended string field theory in NS^n sector and NS^{n-1}-R sector

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, Masako

    2016-01-01

    We construct a class of quadratic gauge invariant actions for extended string fields defined on the tensor product of open superstring state space for multiple open string Neveu-Schwarz (NS) sectors with or without one Ramond (R) sector. The basic idea is the same as for the bosonic extended string field theory developed by the authors [arXiv:1309.3850]. The theory for NS^n sector and NS^{n-1}-R sector contains general n-th rank tensor fields and (n-1)-th rank spinor-tensor fields in the massless spectrum respectively. In principle, consistent gauge invariant actions for any generic type of 10-dimensional massive or massless tensor or spinor-tensor fields can be extracted from the theory. We discuss some simple examples of bosonic and fermionic massless actions.

  11. The Curious Case of an Effective Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ilhan, Ibrahim Burak

    2013-01-01

    We describe an effective theory of a scalar field, motivated by some features expected in the low energy theory of gluodynamics in 3+1 dimensions. The theory describes two propagating massless particles in a certain limit, which we identify with the Abelian QED limit, and has classical string solutions in the general case. The string solutions are somewhat unusual as they are multiply degenerate due to spontaneous breaking of diffeomorphism invariance. Nevertheless all solutions yield identical electric field and have the same string tension.

  12. Higher-Spin Geometry and String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Francia, D

    2006-01-01

    The theory of freely-propagating massless higher spins is usually formulated via gauge fields and parameters subject to trace constraints. We summarize a proposal allowing to forego them by introducing only a pair of additional fields in the Lagrangians. In this setting, external currents satisfy usual Noether-like conservation laws, the field equations can be nicely related to those emerging from Open String Field Theory in the low-tension limit, and if the additional fields are eliminated without reintroducing the constraints a geometric, non-local description of the theory manifests itself.

  13. String theory compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Graña, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The lectures in this book provide graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a concise introduction to the concepts and formalism required to reduce the ten-dimensional string theories to the observable four-dimensional space-time - a procedure called string compactification. The text starts with a very brief introduction to string theory, first working out its massless spectrum and showing how the condition on the number of dimensions arises. It then dwells on the different possible internal manifolds, from the simplest to the most relevant phenomenologically, thereby showing that the most elegant description is through an extension of ordinary Riemannian geometry termed generalized geometry, which was first introduced by Hitchin. Last but not least, the authors review open problems in string phenomenology, such as the embedding of the Standard Model and obtaining de Sitter solutions.

  14. Exploration of the Tree-Level S-Matrix of Massless Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Benincasa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the BCFW construction provided a very powerful tool for computing scattering amplitudes as well as it shed light on the perturbation theory structure. In this talk, we discuss the long-standing issue of the boundary term arising when the amplitudes do not vanish as some momenta are taken to infinity along some complex direction. In particular, we provide a new set of on-shell recursion relations valid for such theories and discuss its consequences on our understanding on the ...

  15. Anomalies in PT-Symmetric Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that a version of PT-symmetric electrodynamics based on an axial-vector current coupling massless fermions to the photon possesses anomalies and so is rendered nonrenormalizable. An alternative theory is proposed based on the conventional vector current constructed from massive Dirac fields, but in which the PT transformation properties of electromagnetic fields are reversed. Such a theory seems to possess many attractive features.

  16. Linear response approximation in effective field theory for the calculation of elastically mediated interactions in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleski, Goce; Fournier, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-05-01

    The linear response approximation, used within effective field theory to calculate mediated interactions between inclusions, is studied for an exactly solvable one-dimensional model. We show that it works poorly in the case of inclusions imposing absolute deformations to the field, while it works well for massless theories in the case of inclusions imposing relative deformations to the field.

  17. Vacuum for a massless quantum scalar field outside a collapsing shell in anti-de Sitter space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    We consider a massless quantum scalar field on a two-dimensional space-time describing a thin shell of matter collapsing to form a Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black hole. At early times, before the shell starts to collapse, the quantum field is in the vacuum state, corresponding to the Boulware vacuum on an eternal black hole space-time. The scalar field satisfies reflecting boundary conditions on the anti-de Sitter boundary. Using the Davies-Fulling-Unruh prescription for computing the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor, we find that at late times the black hole is in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath at the Hawking temperature, so the quantum field is in a state analogous to the Hartle-Hawking vacuum on an eternal black hole space-time.

  18. A Line Source In Minkowski For The de Sitter Spacetime Scalar Green's Function: Massless Minimally Coupled Case

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yi-Zen

    2013-01-01

    We show how, for certain classes of curved spacetimes, one might obtain its retarded or advanced minimally coupled massless scalar Green's function by using the corresponding Green's functions in the higher dimensional Minkowski spacetime where it is embedded. Analogous statements hold for certain classes of curved Riemannian spaces, with positive definite metrics, which may be embedded in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces. The general formula is applied to (d >= 2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime, and the scalar Green's function is demonstrated to be sourced by a line emanating infinitesimally close to the origin of the ambient (d+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and piercing orthogonally through the de Sitter hyperboloids of all finite sizes. This method does not require solving the de Sitter wave equation directly. Only the zero mode solution to an ordinary differential equation, the "wave equation" perpendicular to the hyperboloid -- followed by a one dimensional integral -- needs to be evaluated. A t...

  19. Eigen spectra and wave functions of the massless Dirac fermions under the nonuniform magnetic fields in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, M.; Mehraban, H.; Azar, I. Ahmadi

    2017-10-01

    In this research, firstly, by using the new form of Dirac-Weyl equation and the series method with submitting more suitable details, the energy spectrum and wave functions of the massless Dirac fermions are calculated under the inhomogeneous and q-deformed spatially magnetic fields. Although, we discussed about the results of the energy levels, further, we obtained the wave function as the Hessenberg determinant with calculating the elements of it as exact. On the other hand, by using the Mellin-Barnes integral representation and Hurwitz zeta function, we have achieved the thermodynamic physical quantities of the Dirac-Weyl fermions in the absence of a magnetic field for inside of the graphene quantum dot. Finally, our numerical results for the wave functions and probability densities are presented too.

  20. Landau level quantization for massless Dirac fermions in the spherical geometry: Graphene fractional quantum Hall effect on the Haldane sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniaga, Michael; Peterson, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    We derive the single-particle eigenenergies and eigenfunctions for massless Dirac fermions confined to the surface of a sphere in the presence of a magnetic monopole, i.e., we solve the Landau level problem for electrons in graphene on the Haldane sphere. With the single-particle eigenfunctions and eigenenergies we calculate the Haldane pseudopotentials for the Coulomb interaction in the second Landau level and calculate the effective pseudopotentials characterizing an effective Landau level mixing Hamiltonian entirely in the spherical geometry to be used in theoretical studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene. Our treatment is analogous to the formalism in the planar geometry and reduces to the planar results in the thermodynamic limit.

  1. Production of massless bottom jets in p anti p and pp collisions at next-to-leading order of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierenbaum, Isabella [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Kramer, Gustav [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2016-03-15

    We present predictions for the inclusive production of bottom jets in proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV and proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. The bottom quark is considered massless. In this scheme, we find that at small transverse momentum (p{sub T}) the ratio of the next-to-leading order to the leading-order cross section (K factor) is smaller than one. It increases with increasing p{sub T} and approaches one at larger p{sub T} at a value depending essentially on the choice of the renormalization scale. Adding non-perturbative corrections obtained from PYTHIA Monte Carlo calculations leads to reasonable agreement with experimental b-jet cross sections obtained by the CDF and the CMS collaborations.

  2. Magnetoinfrared Spectroscopy of Landau Levels and Zeeman Splitting of Three-Dimensional Massless Dirac Fermions in ZrTe(5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R Y; Chen, Z G; Song, X-Y; Schneeloch, J A; Gu, G D; Wang, F; Wang, N L

    2015-10-23

    We present a magnetoinfrared spectroscopy study on a newly identified three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal ZrTe(5). We observe clear transitions between Landau levels and their further splitting under a magnetic field. Both the sequence of transitions and their field dependence follow quantitatively the relation expected for 3D massless Dirac fermions. The measurement also reveals an exceptionally low magnetic field needed to drive the compound into its quantum limit, demonstrating that ZrTe(5) is an extremely clean system and ideal platform for studying 3D Dirac fermions. The splitting of the Landau levels provides direct, bulk spectroscopic evidence that a relatively weak magnetic field can produce a sizable Zeeman effect on the 3D Dirac fermions, which lifts the spin degeneracy of Landau levels. Our analysis indicates that the compound evolves from a Dirac semimetal into a topological line-node semimetal under the current magnetic field configuration.

  3. Split Supersymmetry in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2006-01-01

    Type I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with \\sin^2{\\theta_W}=3/8 at the compactification scale of M_{\\rm GUT}\\simeq 2 \\times 10^{16} GeV. I discuss mechanisms for generating gaugino and higgsino masses at the TeV scale, as well as generalizations to models with split extended supersymmetry in the gauge sector.

  4. Dimension dependence of the critical phenomena in gravitational collapse of massless scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Jason Bryan

    2007-12-01

    A study of the critical behaviour which is observed in numerical calculations of spherically symmetric scalar field collapse has been performed. The gravitational collapse calculations are carried out using the field equations of Einstein's general theory of relativity in the context of a two dimensional dilaton gravity theory. The problem is formulated by considering a spherically symmetric matter distribution in an arbitrary number of space-time dimensions greater than three. A spherical distribution will only depend on two space-time coordinates, therefore, the action of the model can be reduced to a specific case of a 1 + 1 dilaton gravity theory. The evolution equations of the problem are simplified by carrying out a conformal transformation of the metric field. The number of space-time dimensions then appears as an input parameter of the field equations. Initial data is defined on a discrete space-time grid and numerical simulations of gravitational collapse are carried out. The computer code is optimized to increase numerical stability near the critical solutions. Discrete self-similarity and mass scaling in the near critical solutions are observed for each of the dimensions studied. The critical phenomena are described with a high level of confidence by smooth functions of space-time dimension. It is hypothesized that the critical solution of the theory at the limit of large dimension is discretely self-similar with a period of 5/2 and contains critical scaling with a constant of 1/2. Evidence will also be presented which suggests the critical solution in three dimensions with zero cosmological constant is not discretely self-similar but contains a critical scaling constant of approximately 0.11.

  5. Hydrodynamic transport functions from quantum kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetta, E A; Ramsey, S

    2000-01-01

    Starting from the quantum kinetic field theory [E. Calzetta and B. L. Hu, Phys. Rev. D37, 2878 (1988)] constructed from the closed-time-path (CTP), two-particle-irreducible (2PI) effective action we show how to compute from first principles the shear and bulk viscosity functions in the hydrodynamic-thermodynamic regime. For a real scalar field with $\\lambda \\Phi ^{4}$ self-interaction we need to include 4 loop graphs in the equation of motion. This work provides a microscopic field-theoretical basis to the ``effective kinetic theory'' proposed by Jeon and Yaffe [S. Jeon and L. G. Yaffe, Phys. Rev. D53, 5799 (1996)], while our result for the bulk viscosity reproduces their expression derived from linear response theory and the imaginary-time formalism of thermal field theory. Though unavoidably involved in calculations of this sort, we feel that the approach using fundamental quantum kinetic field theory is conceptually clearer and methodically simpler than the effective kinetic theory approach, as the success...

  6. Analytic solutions in the acoustic black hole analogue of the conical Kerr metric: massless scalar fields and Hawking-Unruh radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, H S

    2016-01-01

    We study the sound perturbation of the rotating acoustic black hole in the presence of a disclination. The radial part of the massless Klein-Gordon equation is written into a Heun form, and its analytical solution is obtained. These solutions have an explicit dependence on the parameter of the disclination. We obtain the exact Hawking-Unruh radiation spectrum.

  7. Millicharged dark matter in quantum gravity and string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo; Ye, Fang

    2013-06-14

    We examine the millicharged dark matter scenario from a string theory perspective. In this scenario, kinetic and mass mixings of the photon with extra U(1) bosons are claimed to give rise to small electric charges, carried by dark matter particles, whose values are determined by continuous parameters of the theory. This seems to contradict folk theorems of quantum gravity that forbid the existence of irrational charges in theories with a single massless gauge field. By considering the underlying structure of the U(1) mass matrix that appears in type II string compactifications, we show that millicharges arise exclusively through kinetic mixing, and require the existence of at least two exactly massless gauge bosons.

  8. Renormalization group study of damping in nonequilibrium field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zanella, J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we shall study whether dissipation in a $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ may be described, in the long wavelength, low frequency limit, with a simple Ohmic term $\\kappa\\dot{\\phi}$, as it is usually done, for example, in studies of defect formation in nonequilibrium phase transitions. We shall obtain an effective theory for the long wavelength modes through the coarse graining of shorter wavelengths. We shall implement this coarse graining by iterating a Wilsonian renormalization group transformation, where infinitesimal momentum shells are coarse-grained one at a time, on the influence action describing the dissipative dynamics of the long wavelength modes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of the nonequilibrium renormalization group to the calculation of a damping coefficient in quantum field theory.

  9. A comment on continuous spin representations of the Poincare group and perturbative string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Quevedo, F. [Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); DAMTP/CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Theisen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm (Germany)

    2014-11-04

    We make a simple observation that the massless continuous spin representations of the Poincare group are not present in perturbative string theory constructions. This represents one of the very few model-independent low-energy consequences of these models. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. A comment on continuous spin representations of the Poincaré group and perturbative string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, A.; Quevedo, F.; Theisen, S.

    2014-11-01

    We make a simple observation that the massless continuous spin representations of the Poincar\\'e group are not present in perturbative string theory constructions. This represents one of the very few model-independent low-energy consequences of these models.

  11. Wald's gravitational entropy for ghost-free, infinite derivative theories of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Conroy, Aindriú; Teimouri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the Wald's entropy for any spherically symmetric blackhole within an infinite derivative theory of gravity is determined solely by the area law. Thus, the infrared behaviour of gravity is captured by the Einstein-Hilbert term, provided that the massless graviton remains the only propagating degree of freedom in the spacetime.

  12. Relativistic n-body wave equations in scalar quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami-Razavi, Mohsen [Centre for Research in Earth and Space Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada)]. E-mail: mohsen@yorku.ca

    2006-09-21

    The variational method in a reformulated Hamiltonian formalism of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is used to derive relativistic n-body wave equations for scalar particles (bosons) interacting via a massive or massless mediating scalar field (the scalar Yukawa model). Simple Fock-space variational trial states are used to derive relativistic n-body wave equations. The equations are shown to have the Schroedinger non-relativistic limits, with Coulombic interparticle potentials in the case of a massless mediating field and Yukawa interparticle potentials in the case of a massive mediating field. Some examples of approximate ground state solutions of the n-body relativistic equations are obtained for various strengths of coupling, for both massive and massless mediating fields.

  13. Monte Carlo Computation of Spectral Density Function in Real-Time Scalar Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, Navid

    2014-01-01

    Non-perturbative study of "real-time" field theories is difficult due to the sign problem. We use Bold Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equations to study the real-time $\\phi^4$ theory in $d=4$ beyond the perturbative regime. Combining SD equations in a particular way, we derive a non-linear integral equation for the two-point function. Then we introduce a new method by which one can analytically perform the momentum part of loop integrals in this equation. The price we must pay for such simplification is to numerically solve a non-linear integral equation for the spectral density function. Using Bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo method we find non-perturbative spectral function of theory and compare it with the one obtained from perturbation theory. At the end we utilize our Monte Carlo result to find the full vertex function as the basis for the computation of real-time scattering amplitudes.

  14. M-theory and G2 manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Robbins, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In this talk we report on recent progress in describing compactifications of string theory and M-theory on G2 and Spin(7) manifolds. We include the infinite set of α’-corrections and describe the entire tower of massless and massive Kaluza-Klein modes resulting from such compactifications. Contribution to the ‘Focus Issue on Gravity, Supergravity and Fundamental Physics: the Richard Arnowitt Symposium’, to be published in Physica Scripta. Based on a talk delivered by Becker at the workshop ‘Superstring Perturbation Theory’ at the Perimeter Institute, 22-24 April 2015.

  15. AdS twistors for higher spin theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cederwall, M

    2004-01-01

    We construct spectra of supersymmetric higher spin theories in D=4, 5 and 7 from twistors describing massless (super-)particles on AdS spaces. A massless twistor transform is derived in a geometric way from classical kinematics. Relaxing the spin-shell constraints on twistor space gives an infinite tower of massless states of a ``higher spin particle'', generalising previous work of Bandos et al. This can generically be done in a number of ways, each defining the states of a distinct higher spin theory, and the method provides a systematic way of finding these. We reproduce known results in D=4, minimal supersymmetric 5- and 7-dimensional models, as well as supersymmetrisations of Vasiliev's Sp-models as special cases. In the latter models a dimensional enhancement takes place, meaning that the theory lives on a space of higher dimension than the original AdS space, and becomes a theory of doubletons. This talk was presented at the XIXth Max Born Symposium ``Fundamental Interactions and Twistor-Like Methods''...

  16. Solution of the dilaton problem in open bosonic string theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Z. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Dunbar, D.C. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    One of the most remarkable features of string theories is that they seem to provide a framework for a consistent theory of quantum gravity which is unified with all other forces. String theories fall into the two basic, a priori equally interesting, categories of open and closed string theories. For the past five years virtually all attention has been focused on purely closed string theories even though the reincarnation of string theory began with the discovery of anomaly cancellation and finiteness in the Green-Schwarz open superstring. It is the authors' purpose in this essay to rekindle interest in open string theories as potential theories of nature, including gravity. All string theories naively contain a massless dilaton which couples with the strength of gravity in direct violation of experiment. They present a simple mechanism for giving the dilaton a mass in unoriented open bosonic string theories.

  17. Scalar Gravitational Waves in the Effective Theory of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mottola, Emil

    2016-01-01

    As a low energy effective field theory, classical General Relativity receives an infrared relevant modification from the conformal trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor of massless, or nearly massless, quantum fields. The local form of the effective action associated with the trace anomaly is expressed in terms of a dynamical scalar field that couples to the conformal factor of the spacetime metric, allowing it to propagate over macroscopic distances. Linearized around flat spacetime, this semi-classical EFT admits scalar gravitational wave solutions in addition to the transversely polarized tensor waves of the classical Einstein theory. The amplitude, Hamiltonian, energy flux, and quantization of the scalar wave modes are discussed. Astrophysical sources for scalar gravitational waves are considered, with the excited gluonic condensates in the interiors of neutron stars in merger events with other compact objects likely to provide the strongest burst signals.

  18. The phase structure of Einstein-Cartan theory

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, She-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    In the Einstein-Cardan theory for torsion-free gravitational coupling to massless fermion fields, four-fermion interaction is induced and its strength is a function of the gravitational and gauge couplings, as well as the Immirzi parameter. We study the dynamics of four-fermion interaction to determine whether effective bilinear terms of massive fermion fields are generated. Calculating one-particle-irreducible two-point functions of fermion fields, we identify three different phases and two critical points for phase transitions characterized by the strength of four-fermion interaction: (1) chiral symmetric phase for massive fermions in strong coupling regime; (2) chiral symmetric broken phase for massive fermions in intermediate coupling regime; (3) chiral symmetric phase for massless fermions in weak coupling regime. We discuss the scaling-invariant region for an effective theory of massive fermions coupled to torsion-free gravity in the {\\it low-energy limit}.

  19. On Duality Symmetry in Charged P-Form Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, R; Menezes, Roberto; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2004-01-01

    We study duality transformation and duality symmetry in the the electromagnetic-like charged p-form theories. It is shown that the dichotomic characterization of duality groups as $Z_2$ or SO(2) remains as the only possibilities but are now present in all dimensions even and odd. This is a property defined in the symplectic sector of the theory both for massive and massless tensors. It is shown that the duality groups depend, in general, both on the ranks of the fields and on the dimension of the spacetime. We search for the physical origin of this two-fold property and show that it is traceable to the dimensional and rank dependence of the parity of certain operator (a generalized-curl) that naturally decomposes the symplectic sector of the action. These operators are only slightly different in the massive and in the massless cases but their physical origin are quite distinct.

  20. Massless states and negative mass states of the coupled electron-positron system with completely symmetric representation of the particles

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonov, A I

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the free electron and positron can be considered as different, independent particles, each of which is characterized by the complete set of the Dirac plane waves. This completely symmetric representation of the particles makes it necessary to choose another solution of the Dirac equation for the free particle propagator as compared to that currently used in QED. Studying the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation with these free propagators, two new branches of electron-positron bound states which represent the composite bosons, have been found. The first branch corresponds to the negative mass boson whose mass is approximately equal to $-2m$ . These bound states have certain symmetry with respect to the Ps states. For the radiative transition from the Ps states into the negative mass boson states the total energy of the generated gamma quanta should be approximately equal to $4m$. The second branch describes the massless bosons which have been found for the real coupling equal to t...

  1. A relativistically interacting exactly solvable multi-time model for two massless Dirac particles in 1 + 1 dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienert, Matthias, E-mail: lienert@math.lmu.de [Mathematisches Institut, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstr. 39, 80333 München (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The question how to Lorentz transform an N-particle wave function naturally leads to the concept of a so-called multi-time wave function, i.e., a map from (space-time){sup N} to a spin space. This concept was originally proposed by Dirac as the basis of relativistic quantum mechanics. In such a view, interaction potentials are mathematically inconsistent. This fact motivates the search for new mechanisms for relativistic interactions. In this paper, we explore the idea that relativistic interaction can be described by boundary conditions on the set of coincidence points of two particles in space-time. This extends ideas from zero-range physics to a relativistic setting. We illustrate the idea at the simplest model which still possesses essential physical properties like Lorentz invariance and a positive definite density: two-time equations for massless Dirac particles in 1 + 1 dimensions. In order to deal with a spatio-temporally non-trivial domain, a necessity in the multi-time picture, we develop a new method to prove existence and uniqueness of classical solutions: a generalized version of the method of characteristics. Both mathematical and physical considerations are combined to precisely formulate and answer the questions of probability conservation, Lorentz invariance, interaction, and antisymmetry.

  2. Spontaneous excitation of a detector in circular motion coupled to massless Rarita–Schwinger fields in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing [Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Yu, Hongwei, E-mail: hwyu@hunnu.edu.cn [Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China)

    2015-12-15

    We study the spontaneous excitation of a detector (modeled by a two-level atom) in circular motion coupled nonlinearly to vacuum massless Rarita–Schwinger fields in the ultrarelativistic limit and demonstrate that the spontaneous excitation occurs for ground-state atoms in circular motion in vacuum but the excitation rate is not of a pure thermal form as that of the atoms in linear uniform acceleration. An interesting feature is that terms of odd powers in acceleration appear in the excitation rate whereas in the linear acceleration case there are only terms of even powers present. On the other hand, what makes the present case unique in comparison to the atom’s coupling to other fields that are previously studied is the appearance of the terms proportional to the seventh and ninth powers of acceleration in the mean rate of change of atomic energy which are absent in the scalar, electromagnetic and Dirac field cases. -- Highlights: •Circular Unruh effect for detector coupled to Rarita–Schwinger field. •Nonlinear coupling between the detector and the fields. •Detector in circular motion does not feel pure thermal bath. •Excitation rate contains terms of odd powers in acceleration.

  3. A line source in Minkowski for the de Sitter spacetime scalar Green's function: Massless minimally coupled case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yi-Zen [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Motivated by the desire to understand the causal structure of physical signals produced in curved spacetimes – particularly around black holes – we show how, for certain classes of geometries, one might obtain its retarded or advanced minimally coupled massless scalar Green's function by using the corresponding Green's functions in the higher dimensional Minkowski spacetime where it is embedded. Analogous statements hold for certain classes of curved Riemannian spaces, with positive definite metrics, which may be embedded in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces. The general formula is applied to (d ≥ 2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime, and the scalar Green's function is demonstrated to be sourced by a line emanating infinitesimally close to the origin of the ambient (d + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and piercing orthogonally through the de Sitter hyperboloids of all finite sizes. This method does not require solving the de Sitter wave equation directly. Only the zero mode solution to an ordinary differential equation, the “wave equation” perpendicular to the hyperboloid – followed by a one-dimensional integral – needs to be evaluated. A topological obstruction to the general construction is also discussed by utilizing it to derive a generalized Green's function of the Laplacian on the (d ≥ 2)-dimensional sphere.

  4. A line source in Minkowski for the de Sitter spacetime scalar Green's function: Massless minimally coupled case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yi-Zen

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the desire to understand the causal structure of physical signals produced in curved spacetimes - particularly around black holes - we show how, for certain classes of geometries, one might obtain its retarded or advanced minimally coupled massless scalar Green's function by using the corresponding Green's functions in the higher dimensional Minkowski spacetime where it is embedded. Analogous statements hold for certain classes of curved Riemannian spaces, with positive definite metrics, which may be embedded in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces. The general formula is applied to (d ≥ 2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime, and the scalar Green's function is demonstrated to be sourced by a line emanating infinitesimally close to the origin of the ambient (d + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and piercing orthogonally through the de Sitter hyperboloids of all finite sizes. This method does not require solving the de Sitter wave equation directly. Only the zero mode solution to an ordinary differential equation, the "wave equation" perpendicular to the hyperboloid - followed by a one-dimensional integral - needs to be evaluated. A topological obstruction to the general construction is also discussed by utilizing it to derive a generalized Green's function of the Laplacian on the (d ≥ 2)-dimensional sphere.

  5. Dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms coupled with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiming, E-mail: 465609785@qq.com [School of Economics and Management, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020 (China); Situ, Haozhen, E-mail: situhaozhen@gmail.com [College of Mathematics and Informatics, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this article, the dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms interacting with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar field in the Minkowski vacuum is investigated. We firstly derive the master equation that describes the system evolution with initial Bell-diagonal state. Then we discuss the system evolution for three cases of different initial states: non-zero correlation separable state, maximally entangled state and zero correlation state. For non-zero correlation initial separable state, quantum correlation and coherence can be protected from vacuum fluctuations during long time evolution when the separation between the two atoms is relatively small. For maximally entangled initial state, quantum correlation and coherence overall decrease with evolution time. However, for the zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence are firstly generated and then drop with evolution time; when separation is sufficiently small, they can survive from vacuum fluctuations. For three cases, quantum correlation and coherence first undergo decline and then fluctuate to relatively stable values with the increasing distance between the two atoms. Specially, for the case of zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence occur periodically revival at fixed zero points and revival amplitude declines gradually with increasing separation of two atoms.

  6. Comparing lattice Dirac operators with Random Matrix Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Farchioni, F; Lang, C B

    2000-01-01

    We study the eigenvalue spectrum of different lattice Dirac operators (staggered, fixed point, overlap) and discuss their dependence on the topological sectors. Although the model is 2D (the Schwinger model with massless fermions) our observations indicate possible problems in 4D applications. In particular misidentification of the smallest eigenvalues due to non-identification of the topological sector may hinder successful comparison with Random Matrix Theory (RMT).

  7. A gauge field theory of fermionic continuous-spin particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Bekaert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we suggest a local covariant action for a gauge field theory of fermionic Continuous-Spin Particles (CSPs. The action is invariant under gauge transformations without any constraint on both the gauge field and the gauge transformation parameter. The Fang–Fronsdal equations for a tower of massless fields with all half-integer spins arise as a particular limit of the equation of motion of fermionic CSPs.

  8. Random matrix theory and the spectra of overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcheredin, S.; Bietenholz, W.; Chiarappa, T.; Jansen, K.; Nagai, K.-I

    2004-03-01

    The application of Random Matrix Theory to the Dirac operator of QCD yields predictions for the probability distributions of the lowest eigenvalues. We measured Dirac operator spectra using massless overlap fermions in quenched QCD at topological charge {nu} = 0, {+-} 1 and {+-}2, and found agreement with those predictions -- at least for the first non-zero eigenvalue -- if the volume exceeds about (1.2 fm){sup 4}.

  9. Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yndurain, F.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica

    1996-12-01

    The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources.

  10. Massless correlators of vector, scalar and tensor currents in position space at orders alpha_s^3 and alpha_s^4: explicit analytical results

    OpenAIRE

    Chetyrkin, K. G.; Maier, A

    2010-01-01

    We present analytical results both in momentum and position space for the massless correlators of the vector and scalar currents to order alpha_s^4 as well as for the tensor currents to order alpha_s^3. The evolution equations for the correlators together with all relevant anomalous dimensions are discussed in detail. As an application we present explicit conversion formulas relating the MSbar-renormalized vector, scalar and tensor currents to their counterparts renormalized in the X-space re...

  11. Enhanced gauge symmetry and winding modes in double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, G. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Graña, M. [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/ Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Iguri, S. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mayo, M. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, C. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosabal, J.A. [Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-03-15

    We provide an explicit example of how the string winding modes can be incorporated in double field theory. Our guiding case is the closed bosonic string compactified on a circle of radius close to the self-dual point, where some modes with non-zero winding or discrete momentum number become massless and enhance the U(1)×U(1) symmetry to SU(2)×SU(2). We compute three-point string scattering amplitudes of massless and slightly massive states, and extract the corresponding effective low energy gauge field theory. The enhanced gauge symmetry at the self-dual point and the Higgs-like mechanism arising when changing the compactification radius are examined in detail. The extra massless fields associated to the enhancement are incorporated into a generalized frame with ((O(d+3,d+3))/(O(d+3)×O(d+3))) structure, where d is the number of non-compact dimensions. We devise a consistent double field theory action that reproduces the low energy string effective action with enhanced gauge symmetry. The construction requires a truly non-geometric frame which explicitly depends on both the compact coordinate along the circle and its dual.

  12. A note on vectorial AdS5/CFT4 duality for spin- j boundary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Joung, Euihun; Lal, Shailesh

    2016-12-01

    The vectorial holographic correspondences between higher-spin theories in AdS5 and free vector models on the boundary are extended to the cases where the latter is described by free massless spin- j field. The dual higher-spin theory in the bulk does not include gravity and can only be defined on rigid AdS5 background with S 4 boundary. We discuss various properties of these rather special higher-spin theories and calculate their one-loop free energies. We show that the result is proportional to the same quantity for spin- j doubleton treated as if it is a AdS5 field. Finally, we consider even more special case where the boundary theory itself is given by an infinite tower of massless higher-spin fields.

  13. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  14. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kanghoon

    2016-08-01

    We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  15. Towards Weakly Constrained Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kanghoon

    2015-01-01

    We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X- ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  16. Hitchin equation, singularity, and N = 2 superconformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanopoulos, Dimitri; Xie, Dan

    2010-03-01

    We argue that Hitchin’s equation determines not only the low energy effective theory but also describes the UV theory of four dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories when we compactify six dimensional A N (0, 2) theory on a punctured Riemann surface. We study singular solutions to Hitchin’s equation and the Highs field of equation has a simple pole at the punctures; We show that the massless theory is associated with Higgs field whose residue is a nilpotent element; We identify the flavor symmetry associated with the puncture by studying the singularity of closure of the moduli space of solutions with the appropriate boundary conditions. For mass-deformed theory the residue of the Higgs field is a semi-simple element, we identify the semi-simple element by arguing that the moduli space of solutions of mass-deformed theory must be a deformation of the closure of the moduli space of massless theory. We also study the Seiberg-Witten curve by identifying it as the spectral curve of the Hitchin’s system. The results are all in agreement with Gaiotto’s results derived from studying the Seiberg-Witten curve of four dimensional quiver gauge theory.

  17. Hitchin Equation, Singularity, and N=2 Superconformal Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nanopoulos, Dimitri

    2009-01-01

    We argue that Hitchin's equation determines not only the low energy effective theory but also describes the UV theory of four dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories when we compactify six dimensional $A_N$ $(0,2)$ theory on a punctured Riemann surface. We study the singular solution to Hitchin's equation and the Higgs field of solutions has a simple pole at the punctures; We show that the massless theory is associated with Higgs field whose residual is a nilpotent element; We identify the flavor symmetry associated with the puncture by studying the singularity of closure of the moduli space of solutions with the appropriate boundary conditions. For the mass-deformed theory the residual of the Higgs field is a semi-simple element, we identify the semi-simple element by arguing that the moduli space of solutions of mass-deformed theory must be a deformation of the closure of the moduli space of the massless theory. We also study the Seiberg-Witten curve by identifying it as the spectral curve of the Hitc...

  18. Faddeev-Jackiw Hamiltonian reduction for free and gauged Rarita-Schwinger theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dengiz, Suat [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Theoretical Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    We study the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic Hamiltonian reduction for 3 + 1-dimensional free and Abelian gauged Rarita-Schwinger theories that comprise Grassmannian fermionic fields. We obtain the relevant fundamental brackets and find that they are in convenient forms for quantization. The brackets are independent of whether the theories contain mass or gauge fields, and the structures of constraints and symplectic potentials largely determine characteristic behaviors of the theories. We also note that, in contrast to the free massive theory, the Dirac field equations for free massless Rarita-Schwinger theory cannot be obtained in a covariant way. (orig.)

  19. Faddeev-Jackiw Hamiltonian reduction for free and gauged Rarita-Schwinger theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengiz, Suat

    2016-10-01

    We study the Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic Hamiltonian reduction for 3+1-dimensional free and Abelian gauged Rarita-Schwinger theories that comprise Grassmannian fermionic fields. We obtain the relevant fundamental brackets and find that they are in convenient forms for quantization. The brackets are independent of whether the theories contain mass or gauge fields, and the structures of constraints and symplectic potentials largely determine characteristic behaviors of the theories. We also note that, in contrast to the free massive theory, the Dirac field equations for free massless Rarita-Schwinger theory cannot be obtained in a covariant way.

  20. Simple Recursion Relations for General Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Clifford; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    On-shell methods offer an alternative definition of quantum field theory at tree-level, replacing Feynman diagrams with recursion relations and interaction vertices with a handful of seed scattering amplitudes. In this paper we determine the simplest recursion relations needed to construct a general four-dimensional quantum field theory of massless particles. For this purpose we define a covering space of recursion relations which naturally generalizes all existing constructions, including those of BCFW and Risager. The validity of each recursion relation hinges on the large momentum behavior of an n-point scattering amplitude under an m-line momentum shift, which we determine solely from dimensional analysis, Lorentz invariance, and locality. We show that all amplitudes in a renormalizable theory are 5-line constructible. Amplitudes are 3-line constructible if an external particle carries spin or if the scalars in the theory carry equal charge under a global or gauge symmetry. Remarkably, this implies the 3-...

  1. Field redefinition invariance in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Apfeldorf, K M; Apfeldorf, Karyn M; Ordonez, Carlos

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of field redefinition invariance in quantum field theory by carefully performing nonlinear transformations in the path integral. We first present a ``paradox'' whereby a 1+1 freemassless scalar theory on a Minkowskian cylinder is reduced to an effectively quantum mechanical theory. We perform field redefinitions both before and after reduction to suggest that one should not ignore operator ordering issues in quantum field theory. We next employ a discretized version of the path integral for a free massless scalar quantum field in d dimensions to show that beyond the usual jacobian term, an infinite series of divergent ``extra'' terms arises in the action whenever a nonlinear field redefinition is made. The explicit forms for the first couple of these terms are derived. We evaluate Feynman diagrams to illustrate the importance of retaining the extra terms, and conjecture that these extra terms are the exact counterterms necessary to render physical quantities invariant under fie...

  2. Milli-Charged Dark Matter in Quantum Gravity and String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shiu, Gary; Ye, Fang

    2013-01-01

    We examine the milli-charged dark matter scenario from a string theory perspective. In this scenario, kinetic and mass mixings of the photon with extra U(1) bosons are claimed to give rise to small electric charges, carried by dark matter particles, whose values are determined by continuous parameters of the theory. This seems to contradict folk theorems of quantum gravity that forbid the existence of irrational charges in theories with a single massless gauge field. By considering the underlying structure of the U(1) mass matrix that appears in type II string compactifications, we show that milli-charges arise exclusively through kinetic mixing, and require the existence of at least two exactly massless gauge bosons.

  3. A Renormalizable 4-Dimensional Tensor Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geloun, Joseph Ben

    2011-01-01

    We prove that an integrated version of the Gurau colored tensor model supplemented with the usual Bosonic propagator on $U(1)^4$ is renormalizable to all orders in perturbation theory. The model is of the type expected for quantization of space-time in 4D Euclidean gravity and is the first example of a renormalizable model of this kind. Its vertex and propagator are four-stranded like in 4D group field theories, but without gauge averaging on the strands. Surprisingly perhaps, the model is of the $\\phi^6$ rather than of the $\\phi^4$ type, since two different $\\phi^6$-type interactions are log-divergent, i.e. marginal in the renormalization group sense. The renormalization proof relies on a multiscale analysis. It identifies all divergent graphs through a power counting theorem. These divergent graphs have internal and external structure of a particular kind called melonic. Melonic graphs dominate the 1/N expansion of colored tensor models and generalize the planar ribbon graphs of matrix models. A new localit...

  4. A Note on Vectorial AdS$_5$/CFT$_4$ Duality for Spin-$j$ Boundary Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Lal, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    The vectorial holographic correspondences between higher-spin theories in AdS$_5$ and free vector models on the boundary are extended to the cases where the latter is described by free massless spin-$j$ field. The dual higher-spin theory in the bulk does not include gravity and can only be defined on rigid AdS$_5$ background with $S^4$ boundary. We discuss various properties of these rather special higher-spin theories and calculate their one-loop free energies. We show that the result is proportional to the same quantity for spin-$j$ doubleton treated as if it is a AdS$_5$ field. Finally, we consider even more special case where the boundary theory itself is given by an infinite tower of massless higher-spin fields.

  5. Geometries from field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sinya; Kikuchi, Kengo; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    We propose a method to define a d+1-dimensional geometry from a d-dimensional quantum field theory in the 1/N expansion. We first construct a d+1-dimensional field theory from the d-dimensional one via the gradient-flow equation, whose flow time t represents the energy scale of the system such that trArr 0 corresponds to the ultraviolet and trArr infty to the infrared. We then define the induced metric from d+1-dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large-N limit, in the sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as 1/N due to the large-N factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) nonlinear σ model in two dimensions. We calculate the 3D induced metric, which is shown to describe an anti-de Sitter space in the massless limit. Finally, we discuss several open issues for future studies.

  6. Lattice Study of the Extent of the Conformal Window in Two-Color Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, Gennady

    2013-01-01

    We perform a lattice calculation of the Schr\\"odinger functional running coupling in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with six massless Wilson fermions in the fundamental representation. The aim of this work is to determine whether the above theory has an infrared fixed point. Due to sensitivity of the $SF$ renormalized coupling to the tuning of the fermion bare mass we were unable to reliably extract the running coupling for stronger bare couplings.

  7. Global F-theory GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Grimm, Thomas W.; /Bonn U.; Jurke, Benjamin; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    We construct global F-theory GUT models on del Pezzo surfaces in compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds realized as complete intersections of two hypersurface constraints. The intersections of the GUT brane and the flavour branes as well as the gauge flux are described by the spectral cover construction. We consider a split S[U(4) x U(1){sub X}] spectral cover, which allows for the phenomenologically relevant Yukawa couplings and GUT breaking to the MSSM via hypercharge flux while preventing dimension-4 proton decay. General expressions for the massless spectrum, consistency conditions and a new method for the computation of curvature-induced tadpoles are presented. We also provide a geometric toolkit for further model searches in the framework of toric geometry. Finally, an explicit global model with three chiral generations and all required Yukawa couplings is defined on a Calabi-Yau fourfold which is fibered over the del Pezzo transition of the Fano threefold P{sup 4}.

  8. Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    DeTar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first observation of magnetic catalysis at zero temperature in a fully nonperturbative simulation of the graphene effective field theory. Using lattice gauge theory, a nonperturbative analysis of the theory of strongly-interacting, massless, (2+1)-dimensional Dirac fermions in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. We show that in the zero-temperature limit, a nonzero value for the chiral condensate is obtained which signals the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. This result implies a nonzero value for the dynamical mass of the Dirac quasiparticle. This in turn has been posited to account for the quantum-Hall plateaus that are observed at large magnetic fields.

  9. Investigations In Higher Derivative Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Biswajit

    2015-01-01

    Canonical analysis leading to formal quantisation of the higher derivative theories are considered. The first order formalism is adopted where all the configuration space variables along with their higher time derivatives are considered to be independent fields. A systematic algorithm of abstracting the independent gauge symmetries is developed which is an extension of the method developed by Banerjee et al. for the usual first order theories. For the massive relativistic particle model with curvature, we solve the mismatch in the no of independent gauge parameters and no of independent primary fist class constarints. In addition, we show a direct connection between the gauge symmetry and the $W_3$-algebra for the rigid relativistic particle. Also, BRST symmetries for both the massive and massless particle models have been considered and its connection to $W_3$-algebras is demonstrated. The exact mapping of this gauge symmetry is shown with the reparametrisation invariance. Different models from field theory,...

  10. Study of the conformal region of the SU(3) gauge theory with domain-wall fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Noaki, J; Ishikawa, K-I; Iwasaki, Y; Yoshie, T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phase structure of the SU(3) gauge theory with $N_f=8$ by numerical simulations employing the massless Domain-Wall fermions.Our aim is to study directly the massless quark region, since it is the most important region to clarify the properties of conformal theories. When the number of flavor is within the conformal window, it is claimed recently with Wilson quarks that there is the conformal region at the small quark mass region in the parameter space in addition to the confining phase and the deconfining phase. We study the properties of the conformal region investing the spatial Polyakov loops and the temporal meson propagators. Our data imply that there is the conformal region, and a phase transition between the confining phase and the conformal region takes place. These results are consistent with the claim that the conformal window is between $7$ and $16$. Progress reports on other related studies are also presented.

  11. Realistic three-generation models from SO(32) heterotic string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Hajime; Takano, Yasufumi

    2015-01-01

    We search for realistic supersymmetric standard-like models from SO(32) heterotic string theory on factorizable tori with multiple magnetic fluxes. Three chiral ganerations of quarks and leptons are derived from the adjoint and vector representations of SO(12) gauge groups embedded in SO(32) adjoint representation. Massless spectra of our models also include Higgs fields, which have desired Yukawa couplings to quarks and leptons at the tree-level.

  12. The orbifolder. A tool to study the low energy effective theory of heterotic orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, H.P. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut; Ramos-Sanchez, S. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Vaudrevange, P.K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics, Muenchen (Germany); Wingerter, A. [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2011-10-15

    The orbifolder is a program developed in C{sup ++} that computes and analyzes the low-energy effective theory of heterotic orbifold compactifications. The program includes routines to compute the massless spectrum, to identify the allowed couplings in the superpotential, to automatically generate large sets of orbifold models, to identify phenomenologically interesting models (e.g. MSSM-like models) and to analyze their vacuum-configurations. (orig.)

  13. Topological symmetry breaking of self-interacting fractional Klein-Gordon field theories on toroidal spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S C [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Teo, L P [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: sclim@mmu.edu.my, E-mail: lpteo@mmu.edu.my

    2008-04-11

    Quartic self-interacting fractional Klein-Gordon scalar massive and massless field theories on toroidal spacetime are studied. The effective potential and topologically generated mass are determined using zeta-function regularization technique. Renormalization of these quantities are derived. Conditions for symmetry breaking are obtained analytically. Simulations are carried out to illustrate regions or values of compactified dimensions where symmetry-breaking mechanisms appear.

  14. Theory of the dynamics of first-order phase transitions: unstable fixed points, exponents, and dynamical scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fan; Chen, Qizhou

    2005-10-21

    Phase transitions are of great importance in a diversity of fields. They are usually classified into continuous phase transitions and first-order phase transitions (FOPTs). Whereas the former has a well-developed theoretical framework of the renormalization-group (RG) theory, no general theory has yet been developed for the latter that appear far more frequently. Focusing on the dynamics of a generic FOPT in the phi4 model below its critical point, we show by a field-theoretic RG method that it is governed by an unexpected unstable fixed point of the corresponding phi3 model. Accordingly, it exhibits a distinct scaling and universality behavior with unstable exponents different from the critical ones.

  15. Solar System constraints on massless scalar-tensor gravity with positive coupling constant upon cosmological evolution of the scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-09-01

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity modify general relativity by introducing a scalar field that couples nonminimally to the metric tensor, while satisfying the weak-equivalence principle. These theories are interesting because they have the potential to simultaneously suppress modifications to Einstein's theory on Solar System scales, while introducing large deviations in the strong field of neutron stars. Scalar-tensor theories can be classified through the choice of conformal factor, a scalar that regulates the coupling between matter and the metric in the Einstein frame. The class defined by a Gaussian conformal factor with a negative exponent has been studied the most because it leads to spontaneous scalarization (i.e. the sudden activation of the scalar field in neutron stars), which consequently leads to large deviations from general relativity in the strong field. This class, however, has recently been shown to be in conflict with Solar System observations when accounting for the cosmological evolution of the scalar field. We here study whether this remains the case when the exponent of the conformal factor is positive, as well as in another class of theories defined by a hyperbolic conformal factor. We find that in both of these scalar-tensor theories, Solar System tests are passed only in a very small subset of coupling parameter space, for a large set of initial conditions compatible with big bang nucleosynthesis. However, while we find that it is possible for neutron stars to scalarize, one must carefully select the coupling parameter to do so, and even then, the scalar charge is typically 2 orders of magnitude smaller than in the negative-exponent case. Our study suggests that future work on scalar-tensor gravity, for example in the context of tests of general relativity with gravitational waves from neutron star binaries, should be carried out within the positive coupling parameter class.

  16. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality of the soft behavior of the dilaton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Vecchia, Paolo; Marotta, Raffaele; Mojaza, Matin

    2016-01-01

    the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string....... Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory....

  17. Vacuum Structure of Twisted Scalar Field Theories on $M^{D-1} \\otimes S^{1}$

    CERN Document Server

    Hatanaka, H; Ohnishi, K; Sakamoto, M

    2001-01-01

    We study scalar field theories on M^{D-1} \\otimes S^1, which allow to impose twisted boundary conditions for the S^1 direction, in detail and report several interesting properties overlooked so far. One of characteristic features is the appearance of critical radii of the circle S^1. A phase transition can occur at the classical level or can be caused by quantum effects. Radiative corrections can restore broken symmetries or can break symmetries for small radius. A surprising feature is that the translational invariance for the S^1 direction can spontaneously be broken. A particular class of coordinate-dependent vacuum configurations is clarified and the O(N) \\phi^4 model on M^{D-1}\\otimes S^1 is extensively studied, as an illustrative example.

  18. The effect of memory on relaxation in a scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, T

    2004-01-01

    We derive a kinetic equation with a non-Markovian collision term which includes a memory effect, from Kadanoff-Baym equations in $\\phi^4$ theory within the three-loop level for the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action. The memory effect is incorporated into the kinetic equation by a generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz.Based on the kinetic equations with and without the memory effect, we investigate an influence of this effect on decay of a single particle excitation with zero momentum in 3+1 dimensions and the spatially homogeneous case. Numerical results show that, while the time evolution of the zero mode is completely unaffected by the memory effect due to a separation of scales in the weak coupling regime, this effect leads first to faster relaxation than the case without it and then to slower relaxation as the coupling constant increases.

  19. A supersymmetric exotic field theory in (1+1) dimensions. One loop soliton quantum mass corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, A R

    2016-01-01

    We consider one loop quantum corrections to soliton mass for the $N=1$ supersymmetric extension of the $\\phi^2 \\cos^2(\\ln \\phi^2)$ scalar field theory in (1+1) dimensions. First, we compute the one loop quantum soliton mass correction of the bosonic sector by using a mixture of the scattering phase shift and the Euclidean effective action technique. Afterwards the computation in the supersymmetric case is naturally extended by considering the fermionic phase shifts associated to the Majorana fields. As a result we derive a general formula for the one loop quantum corrections to the soliton mass of the SUSY kink, and obtain for this exotic model the same value as for the SUSY sine-Gordon and $\\phi^4$ models.

  20. Schwinger-Fronsdal Theory of Abelian Tensor Gauge Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Guttenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the Schwinger and Fronsdal theory of Abelian tensor gauge fields. The theory describes the propagation of free massless gauge bosons of integer helicities and their interaction with external currents. Self-consistency of its equations requires only the traceless part of the current divergence to vanish. The essence of the theory is given by the fact that this weaker current conservation is enough to guarantee the unitarity of the theory. Physically this means that only waves with transverse polarizations are propagating very far from the sources. The question whether such currents exist should be answered by a fully interacting theory. We also suggest an equivalent representation of the corresponding action.

  1. All static and electrically charged solutions with Einstein base manifold of Einstein-Maxwell massless scalar field system in arbitrary dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple and complete classification of static solutions in the Einstein-Maxwell system with a massless scalar field in arbitrary $n(\\ge 3)$ dimensions. We consider spacetimes which correspond to a warped product $M^2 \\times K^{n-2}$, where $K^{n-2}$ is a $(n-2)$-dimensional Einstein space. The scalar field is assumed to depend only on the radial coordinate and the electromagnetic field is purely electric. The general solution with a non-constant real scalar field consists of seven solutions for $n\\ge 4$ and three solutions for $n=3$. None of them is endowed of a Killing horizon in accordance with the no-hair theorem.

  2. Fuzzy Scalar Field Theories: Numerical and Analytical Investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Medina, Julieta

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of Quantum Field Theories (QFT) on fuzzy spaces. Fuzzy spaces are approximations to the algebra of functions of a continuous space by a finite matrix algebra. In the limit of infinitely large matrices the formulation is exact. An attractive feature of this approach is that it transparently shows how the geometrical properties of the continuous space are preserved. In the study of the non-perturbative regime of QFT, fuzzy spaces provide a possible alternative to the lattice as a regularisation method. The thesis is divided into two parts. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of a $\\lambda \\phi^4$ theory on a 3-dimensional Euclidean space. We identify the phase diagram of this model. In addition to the usual disordered and uniform ordered phases we find a third phase of non-uniform ordering. This indicates the existence of the phenomenon called UV-IR mixing in the strong coupling regime. Second we present a geometrical analysis of the scalar field theory on a 4-dimensional fuzz...

  3. On the duality in CPT-even Lorentz-breaking theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, A.P.B. [Departamento de Policia Federal, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.F.; Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    We generalize the duality between self-dual and Maxwell-Chern-Simons theories for the case of a CPT-even Lorentz-breaking extension of these theories. The duality is shown using the gauge embedding procedure, both in free and coupled cases, and with the master action approach. The physical spectra of both Lorentz-breaking theories are studied. The massive poles are shown to coincide and to respect the requirements for unitarity and causality at tree level. The extra massless poles which are present in the dualized model are shown to be nondynamical. (orig.)

  4. Instability of Chern-Simons Theory with Fermions at Large N

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    We study the (in)stability around the dynamical gap solution of the $U(N)$ Chern-Simons gauge theory with fundamental fermions (massless or massive) coupled in $D=3$ at large $N$. Explicit analyses on both the Auxiliary-Field (AF) and the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective potentials are given. In both approaches we manage to analytically identify the saddle-point instability around the gap solution. We also give a comparison with the QCD-like theories. This study can help understanding the scale symmetry breaking picture of this theory.

  5. Integrable Models, SUSY Gauge Theories, and String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, S

    1996-01-01

    We consider the close relation between duality in N=2 SUSY gauge theories and integrable models. Vario us integrable models ranging from Toda lattices, Calogero models, spinning tops, and spin chains are re lated to the quantum moduli space of vacua of N=2 SUSY gauge theories. In particular, SU(3) gauge t heories with two flavors of massless quarks in the fundamental representation can be related to the spec tral curve of the Goryachev-Chaplygin top, which is a Nahm's equation in disguise. This can be generaliz ed to the cases with massive quarks, and N_f = 0,1,2, where a system with seven dimensional phas e space has the relevant hyperelliptic curve appear in the Painlevé test. To understand the stringy o rigin of the integrability of these theories we obtain exact nonperturbative point particle limit of ty pe II string compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold, which gives the hyperelliptic curve of SU(2) QCD w ith N_f =1 hypermultiplet.

  6. Argyres-Douglas Loci, Singularity Structures and Wall-Crossings in Pure N=2 Gauge Theories with Classical Gauge Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Jihye

    2012-01-01

    N=2 Seiberg-Witten theories allow an interesting interplay between the Argyres-Douglas loci, singularity structures and wall-crossing formulae. In this paper we investigate this connection by first studying the singularity structures of hyper-elliptic Seiberg-Witten curves for pure N=2 gauge theories with SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups, and propose new methods to locate the Argyres-Douglas loci in the moduli space, where multiple mutually non-local BPS states become massless. In a region of the moduli space, we compute dyon charges for all 2r+2 and 2r+1 massless dyons for SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups respectively for rank r>1. From here we elucidate the connection to the wall-crossing phenomena for pure Sp(4) Seiberg-Witten theory near the Argyres-Douglas loci, despite our emphasis being only at the massless sector of the BPS spectra. We also present 2r-1 candidates for the maximal Argyres-Douglas points for pure SO(2r+1) Seiberg-Witten theory.

  7. D-Theory: Field Quantization by Dimensional Reduction of Discrete Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, R; Riederer, S; Wiese, U J

    2003-01-01

    D-theory is an alternative non-perturbative approach to quantum field theory formulated in terms of discrete quantized variables instead of classical fields. Classical scalar fields are replaced by generalized quantum spins and classical gauge fields are replaced by quantum links. The classical fields of a d-dimensional quantum field theory reappear as low-energy effective degrees of freedom of the discrete variables, provided the (d+1)-dimensional D-theory is massless. When the extent of the extra Euclidean dimension becomes small in units of the correlation length, an ordinary d-dimensional quantum field theory emerges by dimensional reduction. The D-theory formulation of scalar field theories with various global symmetries and of gauge theories with various gauge groups is constructed explicitly and the mechanism of dimensional reduction is investigated.

  8. Graviton Propagators in Supergravity and Noncommutative Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, Y; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the graviton propagator in the type IIB supergravity background which is dual to 4 dimensional noncommutative gauge theory. We assume that the boundary is located not at the infinity but at the noncommutative scale where the string frame metric exhibits the maximum. We argue that the Neumann boundary condition is the appropriate boundary condition to be adopted at the boundary. We find that the graviton propagator behaves just as that of the 4 dimensional massless graviton. On the other hand, the non-analytic behaviors of the other Kaluza-Klein modes are not significantly affected by the Neumann boundary condition.

  9. Alien calculus and non perturbative effects in Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Marc P.

    2016-12-01

    In many domains of physics, methods for dealing with non-perturbative aspects are required. Here, I want to argue that a good approach for this is to work on the Borel transforms of the quantities of interest, the singularities of which give non-perturbative contributions. These singularities in many cases can be largely determined by using the alien calculus developed by Jean Écalle. My main example will be the two point function of a massless theory given as a solution of a renormalization group equation.

  10. Confinement-Deconfinement transition in $SU(2)+$Higgs Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Biswal, Minati; Digal, Sanatan; Saumia, P S

    2016-01-01

    We study the confinement-deconfinement transition in $SU(2)$ gauge theory in the presence of massless bosons using lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The nature of this transition depends on the temporal extent ($N_\\tau$) of the Euclidean lattice. We find that the transition is a cross-over for $N_\\tau=2,4$ and second order with $3D$ Ising universality class for $N_\\tau=8$. Our results show that the second order transition is accompanied by realization of the $Z_2$ symmetry.

  11. Casimir Effect in Horava-Lifshitz-like theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ulion, I J Morales; Petrov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider a Lorentz-breaking scalar field theory within the Horava-Lifshtz approach. We investigate the changes that a space-time anisotropy produces in the Casimir effect. A massless real quantum scalar field is considered in two distinct situations: between two parallel plates and inside a rectangular two-dimensional box. In both cases we have adopted specific boundary conditions on the field at the boundary. As we shall see, the energy and the Casimir force strongly depends on the parameter associated with the breaking of Lorentz symmetry and also on the boundary conditions.

  12. D3-D5 theories with unquenched flavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Eduardo; Lin, Hai; Penín, José Manuel; Ramallo, Alfonso V.; Zoakos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    We construct the string duals of the defect theories generated when Nf flavor D5-branes intersect Nc color D3-branes along a 2 + 1 dimensional subspace. We work in the Veneziano limit in which Nc and Nf are large and Nf /Nc is fixed. By smearing the D5-branes, we find supergravity solutions that take into account the backreaction of the flavor branes and preserve two supercharges. When the flavors are massless the resulting metric displays an anisotropic Lifshitz-like scale invariance. The case of massive quarks is also considered.

  13. Critical behavior in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, T; Chiba, Takeshi; Soda, Jiro

    1996-01-01

    The collapse of a massless scalar field in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation is studied in the analysis of both analytical solution and numerical one. By conformally transforming the Roberts's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that a continuous self-similarity continues and that the critical exponent does depend on \\omega. By conformally transforming the Choptuik's solution into the Brans-Dicke frame, we find for \\omega > -3/2 that at the critical solution shows discrete self-similarity, however, the critical exponent depends strongly on \\omega while the echoing parameter weakly on it.

  14. Probing finite size effects in $(\\lambda \\Phi^{4})_4$ MonteCarlo calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, A

    1999-01-01

    The Constrained Effective Potential (CEP) is known to be equivalent to the usual Effective Potential (EP) in the infinite volume limit. We have carried out MonteCarlo calculations based on the two different definitions to get informations on finite size effects. We also compared these calculations with those based on an Improved CEP (ICEP) which takes into account the finite size of the lattice. It turns out that ICEP actually reduces the finite size effects which are more visible near the vanishing of the external source.

  15. Modified $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory towards realistic lattice QED

    CERN Document Server

    Bornyakov, V G; Müller-Preussker, M

    1992-01-01

    We study properties of the compact $~4D~$ $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory with monopoles {\\it removed}. Employing Monte Carlo simulations we calculate correlators of scalar, vector and tensor operators at zero and nonzero momenta $~\\vec{p}~$. We confirm that the theory without monopoles has no phase transition, at least, in the interval $~0 < \\beta \\leq 2~$. There the photon becomes massless and fits the lattice free field theory dispersion relation very well. The energies of the $~0^{++}~$, $~1^{+-}~$ and $~2^{++}~$ states show a rather weak dependence on the coupling in the interval of $~\\beta~$ investigated, and their ratios are practically constant. We show also a further modification of the theory suppressing the negative plaquettes to improve drastically the overlap with the lowest states (at least, for $~J=1$).

  16. Holographic Fermions in Anisotropic Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qing Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the holographic Fermionic system dual to an anisotropic charged black brane bulk in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion gravity theory. We consider the minimal coupling between the Dirac field and the gauge field in the bulk gravity theory and mainly explore the dispersion relation exponents of the Green functions of the dual Fermionic operators in the dual field theory. We find that along both the anisotropic and the isotropic directions the Fermi momentum will be effected by the anisotropy of the bulk theory. However, the anisotropy has influence on the dispersion relation which is almost linear for massless Fermions with charge q=2. The universal properties that the mass and the charge of the Fermi possibly correspond to nonlinear dispersion relation are also investigated.

  17. Second order higher-derivative corrections in Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lescano, Eric

    2016-01-01

    HSZ Double Field Theory is a higher-derivative theory of gravity with exact and manifest T-duality symmetry. The first order corrections in the massless sector were shown to be governed solely by Chern-Simons deformations of the three-form field strength. We compute the full action with up to six derivatives ${\\cal O} (\\alpha'{}^2)$ for the universal sector containing the metric, two-form and dilaton fields. The Green-Schwarz transformation of the two-form field remains uncorrected to second order. In addition to the expected Chern-Simons-squared and Riemann-cubed terms the theory contains a cubic Gauss-Bonnet interaction, plus other six-derivative unambiguous terms involving the three-form field strength whose presence indicates that the theory must contain further higher-derivative corrections.

  18. Relativistic stars in scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Minamitsuji, Masato

    2016-01-01

    We present a general formulation to analyze the structure of slowly rotating relativistic stars in a broad class of scalar-tensor theories with disformal coupling to matter. Our approach includes theories with generalized kinetic terms, generic scalar field potentials and contains theories with conformal coupling as particular limits. In order to investigate how the disformal coupling affects the structure of relativistic stars, we propose a minimal model of a massless scalar-tensor theory and investigate in detail how the disformal coupling affects the spontaneous scalarization of slowly rotating neutron stars. We show that for negative values of the disformal coupling parameter between scalar field and matter, scalarization can be suppressed, while for large positive values of the disformal coupling parameter stellar models cannot be obtained. This allows us to put a mild upper bound on this parameter. We also show that these properties can be qualitatively understood by linearizing the scalar field equatio...

  19. Interacting scale but non-conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Yu

    2016-01-01

    There is a dilemma in constructing interacting scale invariant but not conformal invariant Euclidean field theories. On one hand, scale invariance without conformal invariance seems more generic by requiring only a smaller symmetry. On the other hand, the existence of a non-conserved current with exact scaling dimension $d-1$ in $d$ dimensions seems to require extra fine-tuning. To understand the competition better, we explore some examples without the reflection positivity. We show that a theory of elasticity (a.k.a Riva-Cardy theory) coupled with massless fermions in $d=4-\\epsilon$ dimensions never possess an interacting scale invariant fixed point. We do, however, find interacting scale invariant but non-conformal field theories in gauge fixed versions of the Banks-Zaks fixed points in $d=4$ dimensions.

  20. Second order higher-derivative corrections in Double Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Eric; Marqués, Diego

    2017-06-01

    HSZ Double Field Theory is a higher-derivative theory of gravity with exact and manifest T-duality symmetry. The first order corrections in the massless sector were shown to be governed solely by Chern-Simons deformations of the three-form field strength. We compute the full action with up to six derivatives O({α}^' 2}) for the universal sector containing the metric, two-form and dilaton fields. The Green-Schwarz transformation of the two-form field remains uncorrected to second order. In addition to the expected Chern-Simons-squared and Riemann-cubed terms the theory contains a cubic Gauss-Bonnet interaction, plus other six-derivative unambiguous terms involving the three-form field strength whose presence indicates that the theory must contain further higher-derivative corrections.

  1. Two-Color Theory with Novel Infrared Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Appelquist, T; Buchoff, M I; Cheng, M; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Lin, M F; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Schroeder, C; Syritsyn, S; Voronov, G; Vranas, P; Witzel, O

    2013-01-01

    Using lattice simulations, we study the infrared behavior of a particularly interesting SU(2) gauge theory, with six massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. We compute the running gauge coupling derived non-perturbatively from the Schrodinger functional of the theory, finding no evidence for an infrared fixed point up through gauge couplings of order 20. This implies that the theory either is governed in the infrared by a fixed point of considerable strength, unseen so far in non-supersymmetric gauge theories, or breaks its global chiral symmetries producing a large number of composite Nambu-Goldstone bosons relative to the number of underlying degrees of freedom. Thus either of these phases exhibits novel behavior.

  2. Two-color gauge theory with novel infrared behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelquist, T; Brower, R C; Buchoff, M I; Cheng, M; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Lin, M F; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Schroeder, C; Syritsyn, S; Voronov, G; Vranas, P; Witzel, O

    2014-03-21

    Using lattice simulations, we study the infrared behavior of a particularly interesting SU(2) gauge theory, with six massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. We compute the running gauge coupling derived nonperturbatively from the Schrödinger functional of the theory, finding no evidence for an infrared fixed point up through gauge couplings g(2) of order 20. This implies that the theory either is governed in the infrared by a fixed point of considerable strength, unseen so far in nonsupersymmetric gauge theories, or breaks its global chiral symmetries producing a large number of composite Nambu-Goldstone bosons relative to the number of underlying degrees of freedom. Thus either of these phases exhibits novel behavior.

  3. Deconstructing the E_0 SCFT to Solve the Orbifold Paradox of the Heterotic M Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Claussen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Many heterotic orbifold models have massless twisted-sector particles with simultaneous E8_1 and E8_2 charges. In the strong-coupling M-theory dual of the heterotic string this poses a paradox: Since the E8_1 and E8_2 live at opposite ends of the x^10 dimension, where could a massless particle with both types of charges possible live? To key to this question are the 5D SCFTs living at the orbifold fixed planes going through the bulk of the M theory. We use dimensional deconstruction to understand how such a 5D SCFT (specifically, the E_0 SCFT at the Z_3 fixed point) works at the superconformal point (rather that at the Coulomb branch) and how it interacts with the boundaries of the x^10. We find that the massless twisted states are not localized in the x^10. Instead, they are non-local meson-like composite particles comprised of a quark living at one boundary of the x^10, and antiquark living at the other boundary, and the string of strongly-interacting 5D gluons connecting the quark to the antiquark.

  4. Vacuum Radiation and Symmetry Breaking in Conformally Invariant Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aldaya, V; Cerveró, J M

    1999-01-01

    The underlying reasons for the difficulty of unitarily implementing the whole conformal group $SO(4,2)$ in a massless Quantum Field Theory (QFT) are investigated in this paper. Firstly, we demonstrate that the singular action of the subgroup of special conformal transformations (SCT), on the standard Minkowski space $M$, cannot be primarily associated with the vacuum radiation problems, the reason being more profound and related to the dynamical breakdown of part of the conformal symmetry (the SCT subgroup, to be more precise) when representations of null mass are selected inside the representations of the whole conformal group. Then we show how the vacuum of the massless QFT radiates under the action of SCT (usually interpreted as transitions to a uniformly accelerated frame) and we calculate exactly the spectrum of the outgoing particles, which proves to be a generalization of the Planckian one, this recovered as a given limit.

  5. A note on the fate of the Landau–Yang theorem in non-Abelian gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Espinosa, José R.; Polosa, Antonio D.; Testa, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Using elementary considerations of Lorentz invariance, Bose symmetry and BRST invariance, we argue why the decay of a massive color-octet vector state into a pair of on-shell massless gluons is possible in a non-Abelian SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, we constrain the form of the amplitude of the process and offer a simple understanding of these results in terms of effective-action operators.

  6. A note on the fate of the Landau–Yang theorem in non-Abelian gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Cacciari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using elementary considerations of Lorentz invariance, Bose symmetry and BRST invariance, we argue why the decay of a massive color-octet vector state into a pair of on-shell massless gluons is possible in a non-Abelian SU(N Yang–Mills theory, we constrain the form of the amplitude of the process and offer a simple understanding of these results in terms of effective-action operators.

  7. Universal structure of subleading infrared poles in gauge theory amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lance J; Sterman, George

    2008-01-01

    We study the origin of subleading soft and collinear poles of form factors and amplitudes in dimensionally-regulated massless gauge theories. In the case of form factors of fundamental fields, these poles originate from a single function of the coupling, denoted G(alpha_s), depending on both the spin and gauge quantum numbers of the field. We relate G(alpha_s) to gauge-theory matrix elements involving the gluon field strength. We then show that G(alpha_s) is the sum of three terms: a universal eikonal anomalous dimension, a universal non-eikonal contribution, given by the coefficient B_delta (alpha_s) of delta(1 - z) in the collinear evolution kernel, and a process-dependent short-distance coefficient function, which does not contribute to infrared poles. Using general results on the factorization of soft and collinear singularities in fixed-angle massless gauge theory amplitudes, we conclude that all such singularities are captured by the eikonal approximation, supplemented only by the knowledge of B_delta (...

  8. Gauge-ready formulation of the cosmological kinetic theory in generalized gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    2002-01-01

    We present cosmological perturbations of kinetic components based on relativistic Boltzmann equations in the context of generalized gravity theories. Our general theory considers an arbitrary number of scalar fields generally coupled with the gravity, an arbitrary number of mutually interacting hydrodynamic fluids, and components described by the relativistic Boltzmann equations like massive/massless collisionless particles and the photon. The model includes the general background spatial curvature and the cosmological constant. We consider three different types of perturbations, and all the scalar-type perturbation equations are arranged in a gauge-ready form so that one can implement easily the convenient gauge conditions depending on the situation. In the numerical calculation of the Boltzmann equations we found two new gauge conditions (the uniform-expansion gauge and the uniform-curvature gauge) which show better behavior than the previously employed gauge conditions in the literature. In particular, we ...

  9. The gravitational sector of 2d (0, 2) F-theory vacua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Craig; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Weigand, Timo

    2017-05-01

    F-theory compactifications on Calabi-Yau fivefolds give rise to two-dimensional N = (0, 2) supersymmetric field theories coupled to gravity. We explore the dilaton supergravity defined by the moduli sector of such compactifications. The massless moduli spectrum is found by uplifting Type IIB compactifications on Calabi-Yau fourfolds. This spectrum matches expectations from duality with M-theory on the same elliptic fibration. The latter defines an N = 2 Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics related to the 2d (0, 2) F-theory supergravity via circle reduction. Using our recent results on the gravitational anomalies of duality twisted D3-branes wrapping curves in Calabi-Yau fivefolds we show that the F-theory spectrum is anomaly free. We match the classical Chern-Simons terms of the M-theory Super Quantum Mechanics to one-loop contributions to the effective action by S 1 reduction of the dual F-theory.

  10. Successive Phase Transitions and Kink Solutions in $\\phi^{8}$, $\\phi^{10}$ and $\\phi^{12}$ Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-01-01

    We obtain exact solutions for kinks in $\\phi^{8}$, $\\phi^{10}$ and $\\phi^{12}$ field theories with degenerate minima, which can describe a second-order phase transition followed by a first-order one, a succession of two first-order phase transitions and a second-order phase transition followed by two first-order phase transitions, respectively. Such phase transitions are known to occur in ferroelastic and ferroelectric crystals and in meson physics. In particular, we find that the higher-order field theories have kink solutions with algebraically-decaying tails and also asymmetric cases with mixed exponential-algebraic tail decay, unlike the lower-order $\\phi^4$ and $\\phi^6$ theories. Additionally, we construct distinct kinks with equal energies in all three field theories considered, and we show the co-existence of up to three distinct kinks (for a $\\phi^{12}$ potential with six degenerate minima). We also summarize phonon dispersion relations for these systems, showing that the higher-order field theories h...

  11. Form factors in the massless coset models su(2)_k+1 \\otimes su(2)_k /su(2)_2k+1 - Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Grinza, P

    2004-01-01

    Massless flows from the coset model su(2)_k+1 \\otimes su(2)_k /su(2)_2k+1 to the minimal model M_k+2 are studied from the viewpoint of form factors. These flows include in particular the flow from the Tricritical Ising model to the Ising model. By analogy with the magnetization operator in the flow TIM -> IM, we construct all form factors of an operator that flows to \\Phi_1,2 in the IR. We make a numerical estimation of the difference of conformal weights between the UV and the IR thanks to the \\Delta-sum rule; the results are consistent with the conformal weight of the operator \\Phi_2,2 in the UV. By analogy with the energy operator in the flow TIM -> IM, we construct all form factors of an operator that flows to \\Phi_2,1. We propose to identify the operator in the UV with \\sigma_1\\Phi_1,2.

  12. Hydraulic paths and estimation of the real residence time of the water in Lago Maggiore (N. Italy: application of massless markers transported in 3D motion fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Sala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted using the TRIM_LM model, is a continuation of work on the movement of the water mass at different depths in Lago Maggiore, and thus on the estimation of the real residence time of the water in the lake. Three-dimensional CFD numerical simulations were extended to a 4-year period, focusing on the movements of 202 (two hundred and two massless markers inserted at different points in Lago Maggiore and at the mouths of 11 of its tributaries, enabling us to establish more realistic water renewal times for Lago Maggiore. By crossing the data of the horizontal trajectories of the environmental markers with those of their vertical variations, we reconstructed their movements over the four years of the simulation programme. An analysis of the results shows that the water mass in the layers of the upper 100 m has residence times between a minimum of 1 y and a maximum of 4-5 y. The water from the tributaries has residence times between 250 and 1000 days, depending on the distance of the tributaries from the closing section of the lake. The water in the layers below 100 m has residence times that still cannot be quantified with precision, but that can certainly be estimated at a number of years in two figures. These times are strongly conditioned by the depth of the late winter mixing, which in the last 40 y has not exceeded 200 m.

  13. The Einstein-Vlasov system in spherical symmetry: reduction of the equations of motion and classification of single-shell static solutions, in the limit of massless particles

    CERN Document Server

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We express the Einstein-Vlasov system in spherical symmetry in terms of a dimensionless momentum variable $z$ (radial over angular momentum). This regularises the limit of massless particles, and in that limit allows us to obtain a reduced system in independent variables $(t,r,z)$ only. Similarly, in this limit the Vlasov density function $f$ for static solutions depends on a single variable $Q$ (energy over angular momentum). This reduction allows us to show that any given static metric which has vanishing Ricci scalar, is vacuum at the centre and for $r>3M$ and obeys certain energy conditions uniquely determines a consistent $f=\\bar k(Q)$ (in closed form). Vice versa, any $\\bar k(Q)$ within a certain class uniquely determines a static metric (as the solution of a system of two first-order quasilinear ODEs). Hence the space of static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein-Vlasov is locally a space of functions of one variable. For a simple 2-parameter family of functions $\\bar k(Q)$, we construct the co...

  14. A Quantum Theory of Magnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new Quantum Theory of Magnetic Interaction is proposed. This is done under a relaxation of the requirement of covariance for Lorentz Boost Transformations. A modified form of local gauge invariance in which fermion field phase is allowed to vary with each space point but not each time point, leads to the introduction of a new compensatory field different from the electromagnetic field associated with the photon. This new field is coupled to the magnetic flux of the fermions and has quanta called magnatons, which are massless spin 1 particles. The associated equation of motion yields the Poisson equation for magnetostatic potentials. The magnatons mediate the magnetic interaction between magnetic dipoles including magnets and provide plausi- ble explanations for the Pauli exclusion principle, Chemical Reactivity and Chemical Bonds. This new interaction has been confirmed by numerical experiments. It estab- lishes magnetism as a force entirely separate from the electromagnetic interaction and converts all of classical magnetism into a quantum theory.

  15. A Proposal for the Vector State in Vacuum String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rashkov, R; Rashkov, Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    A previous calculation on the tachyon state arising as fluctuations of a $D$ brane in vacuum string field theory is extended to include the vector state. We use the boundary conformal field theory approach of Rastelli, Sen and Zwiebach to construct a vector state. It is shown that the vector field satisfies the linearized equations of motion provided the two conditions $k^2=0$ and $k^\\mu A_\\mu=0$ are satisfied. Earlier calculations using Fock space techniques by Hata and Kawano have found massless vector states that are not necessarily transverse.

  16. Non-Hermitian extension of gauge theories and implications for neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean; Millington, Peter

    2015-01-01

    An extension of QED is considered in which the Dirac fermion has both Hermitian and anti-Hermitian mass terms, as well as both vector and axial-vector couplings to the gauge field. Gauge invariance is restored when the Hermitian and anti-Hermitian masses are of equal magnitude, and the theory reduces to that of a single massless Weyl fermion. An analogous non-Hermitian Yukawa theory is considered and it is shown that this model can explain the smallness of the light-neutrino masses and provide an additional source of leptonic CP violation.

  17. New torsion black hole solutions in Poincaré gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembranos, Jose A. R.; Gigante Valcarcel, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    We derive a new exact static and spherically symmetric vacuum solution in the framework of the Poincaré gauge field theory with dynamical massless torsion. This theory is built in such a form that allows to recover General Relativity when the first Bianchi identity of the model is fulfilled by the total curvature. The solution shows a Reissner-Nordström type geometry with a Coulomb-like curvature provided by the torsion field. It is also shown the existence of a generalized Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter solution when additional electromagnetic fields and/or a cosmological constant are coupled to gravity.

  18. PPN parameters in gravitational theory with non-minimally derivative coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The non-minimal coupling of the kinetic term to Einstein's tensor helps the implementation of inflationary models due to the gravitationally enhanced friction. We calculate the parameterized post-Newtonian parameters for the scalar-tensor theory of gravity with non-minimally derivative coupling. We find that under experiment constraint from the orbits of millisecond pulsars in our galaxy, the theory deviates from Einstein's general relativity in the order of $10^{-20}$, and the effect of the non-minimal coupling is negligible if we take the scalar field as dynamical dark energy. Under the assumed conditions, the scalar field is required to be massless.

  19. Hadronic tau decays into two and three meson modes within Resonance Chiral Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roig, P

    2009-01-01

    We study two and three meson decays of the tau lepton within the framework of the Resonance Chiral Theory, that is based on the following properties of QCD: its chiral symmetry in the massless case, its large-N_C limit, and the asymptotic behaviour it demands to the relevant form factors. Most of the couplings in the Lagrangian are determined this way rendering the theory predictive. Our outcomes can be tested thanks to the combination of a very good experimental effort (current and forthcoming, at B- and tau-charm-factories) and the very accurate devoted Monte Carlo generators.

  20. New torsion black hole solutions in Poincar\\'e gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, Jose A R

    2016-01-01

    We derive a new exact static and spherically symmetric vacuum solution in the framework of the Poincar\\'e gauge field theory with dynamical massless torsion. This theory is built in such a form that allows to recover General Relativity when the first Bianchi identity of the model is fulfilled by the total curvature. The solution shows a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om type geometry with a Coulomb-like curvature provided by the torsion field. It is also shown the existence of a generalized Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-de Sitter solution when additional electromagnetic fields and/or a cosmological constant are coupled to the gravity.

  1. Anomaly cancelation in field theory and F-theory on a circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Kapfer, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    We study the manifestation of local gauge anomalies of four- and six-dimensional field theories in the lower-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory obtained after circle compactification. We identify a convenient set of transformations acting on the whole tower of massless and massive states and investigate their action on the low-energy effective theories in the Coulomb branch. The maps employ higher-dimensional large gauge transformations and precisely yield the anomaly cancelation conditions when acting on the one-loop induced Chern-Simons terms in the three- and five-dimensional effective theory. The arising symmetries are argued to play a key role in the study of the M-theory to F-theory limit on Calabi-Yau manifolds. For example, using the fact that all fully resolved F-theory geometries inducing multiple Abelian gauge groups or non-Abelian groups admit a certain set of symmetries, we are able to generally show the cancelation of pure Abelian or pure non-Abelian anomalies in these models.

  2. Analytic Multi-Regge Theory and the Pomeron in QCD; 2, Gauge Theory Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    White, Alan R

    1993-01-01

    The high-energy Regge behavior of gauge theories is studied via the formalism of Analytic Multi-Regge Theory. Perturbative results for spontaneously-broken theories are first organised into reggeon diagrams. Unbroken gauge theories are studied via a reggeon diagram infra-red analysis of symmetry restoration. Massless fermions play a crucial role and the case of QCD involves the Super-Critical Pomeron as an essential intermediate stage. An introductory review of the build up of transverse momentum diagrams and reggeon diagrams from leading log calculations in gauge theories is presented first. It is then shown that the results closely reproduce the general structure for multi-regge amplitudes derived in Part I of the article, allowing the construction of general reggeon diagrams for spontaneously-broken theories. Next it is argued that, with a transverse-momentum cut-off, unbroken gauge theories can be reached through an infra-red limiting process which successively decouples fundamental representation Higgs f...

  3. Anomaly Cancelation in Field Theory and F-theory on a Circle

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    We study the manifestation of local gauge anomalies of four- and six-dimensional field theories in the lower-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory obtained after circle compactification. We identify a convenient set of transformations acting on the whole tower of massless and massive states and investigate their action on the low-energy effective theories in the Coulomb branch. The maps employ higher-dimensional large gauge transformations and precisely yield the anomaly cancelation conditions when acting on the one-loop induced Chern-Simons terms in the three- and five-dimensional effective theory. The arising symmetries are argued to play a key role in the study of the M-theory to F-theory limit on Calabi-Yau manifolds. For example, using the fact that all fully resolved F-theory geometries inducing multiple Abelian gauge groups or non-Abelian groups admit a certain set of symmetries, we are able to generally show the cancelation of pure Abelian or pure non-Abelian anomalies in these models.

  4. Casimir effect in Extended Theories of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lambiase, G; Stabile, An

    2016-01-01

    We study the Casimir vacuum energy density and the Casimir pressure for a massless scalar field confined between two nearby parallel plates in a slightly curved, static spacetime background, employing the weak field approximation in the framework of Extended Theories of Gravity (ETG). Following a perturbative approach upto second order, we find the gravity correction in the ETG to Casimir vacuum energy density and pressure. The corrections to the vacuum energy density in presence of curved spacetime in the framework of General Relativity (GR) are small and today they are still undetected with the current technology. However, future sensitivity improvement in gravitational interferometer experiments will give an useful tool to detect such effect induced by gravity. For these reason we retain interesting from a theoretical point of view generalize the outcomes of GR in the context of ETG. Finally, we find the general relation to constraining the free parameters of the ETG.

  5. Dimensionally continued multi-loop gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J

    1999-01-01

    A dimensionally continued background-field method makes the rationality of the 4-loop quenched QED beta function far more reasonable than had previously appeared. After 33 years of quest, dating from Rosner's discovery of 3-loop rationality, one finally sees cancellation of zeta values by the trace structure of individual diagrams. At 4-loops, diagram-by-diagram cancellation of $\\zeta(5)$ does not even rely on the values of integrals at d=4. Rather, it is a property of the rational functions of $d$ that multiply elements of the full d-dimensional basis. We prove a lemma: the basis consists of slices of wheels. We explain the previously mysterious suppression of $\\pi^4$ in massless gauge theory. The 4-loop QED result $\\beta_4=-46$ is obtained by setting d=4 in a precisely defined rational polynomial of d, with degree 11. The other 5 rational functions vanish at d=4.

  6. String theory, cosmology and varying constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Thibault

    In string theory the coupling `constants' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently `observed' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP.

  7. String theory, cosmology and varying constants

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2002-01-01

    In string theory the coupling ``constants'' appearing in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are determined by the vacuum expectation values of some (a priori) massless scalar fields (dilaton, moduli). This naturally leads one to expect a correlated variation of all the coupling constants, and an associated violation of the equivalence principle. We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate such a spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring a very unnatural fine-tuning of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently ``observed'' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universa...

  8. Quantum graphs and random-matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.

    2015-07-01

    For simple connected graphs with incommensurate bond lengths and with unitary symmetry we prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit (BGS) conjecture in its most general form. Using supersymmetry and taking the limit of infinite graph size, we show that the generating function for every (P,Q) correlation function for both closed and open graphs coincides with the corresponding expression of random-matrix theory. We show that the classical Perron-Frobenius operator is bistochastic and possesses a single eigenvalue +1. In the quantum case that implies the existence of a zero (or massless) mode of the effective action. That mode causes universal fluctuation properties. Avoiding the saddle-point approximation we show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e. for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap) and that do not carry a special class of bound states, the zero mode dominates in the limit of infinite graph size.

  9. Integrable Structure in SUSY Gauge Theories, and String Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, S

    1996-01-01

    There is a close relation between duality in $N=2$ SUSY gauge theories and integrable models. In particular, the quantum moduli space of vacua of $N=2$ SUSY $SU(3)$ gauge theories coupled to two flavors of massless quarks in the fundamental representation can be related to the spectral curve of the Goryachev-Chaplygin top. Generalizing this to the cases with {\\it massive} quarks, and $N_f = 0,1,2$, we find a corresponding integrable system in seven dimensional phase space where a hyperelliptic curve appears in the Painlevé test. To understand the stringy origin of the integrability of these theories we obtain exact nonperturbative point particle limit of type II string compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold, which gives the hyperelliptic curve of $SU(2)$ QCD with $N_f =1$ hypermultiplet.

  10. Quantum entanglement of local operators in conformal field theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Masahiro; Numasawa, Tokiro; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2014-03-21

    We introduce a series of quantities which characterize a given local operator in any conformal field theory from the viewpoint of quantum entanglement. It is defined by the increased amount of (Rényi) entanglement entropy at late time for an excited state defined by acting the local operator on the vacuum. We consider a conformal field theory on an infinite space and take the subsystem in the definition of the entanglement entropy to be its half. We calculate these quantities for a free massless scalar field theory in two, four and six dimensions. We find that these results are interpreted in terms of quantum entanglement of a finite number of states, including Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states. They agree with a heuristic picture of propagations of entangled particles.

  11. Conformal field theories with infinitely many conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, Ivan [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques F-91440, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-02-15

    Globally conformal invariant quantum field theories in a D-dimensional space-time (D even) have rational correlation functions and admit an infinite number of conserved (symmetric traceless) tensor currents. In a theory of a scalar field of dimension D-2 they were demonstrated to be generated by bilocal normal products of free massless scalar fields with an O(N), U(N), or Sp(2N) (global) gauge symmetry [B. Bakalov, N. M. Nikolov, K.-H. Rehren, and I. Todorov, 'Unitary positive energy representations of scalar bilocal fields,' Commun. Math. Phys. 271, 223-246 (2007); e-print arXiv:math-ph/0604069v3; and 'Infinite dimensional Lie algebras in 4D conformal quantum field theory,' J. Phys. A Math Theor. 41, 194002 (2008); e-print arXiv:0711.0627v2 [hep-th

  12. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-07-15

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  13. Classification of N=2 Superconformal Field Theories with Two-Dimensional Coulomb Branches

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, P C; Shapere, A D; Wittig, J R; Argyres, Philip C.; Crescimanno, Michael; Shapere, Alfred D.; Wittig, John R.

    2005-01-01

    We study the classification of 2-dimensional scale-invariant rigid special Kahler (RSK) geometries, which potentially describe the Coulomb branches of N=2 supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions. We show that this classification is equivalent to the solution of a set of polynomial equations by using an integrability condition for the central charge, scale invariance, constraints coming from demanding single-valuedness of physical quantities on the Coulomb branch, and properties of massless BPS states at singularities. We find solutions corresponding to lagrangian scale invariant theories--including the scale invariant G_2 theory not found before in the literature--as well as many new isolated solutions (having no marginal deformations). All our scale-invariant RSK geometries are consistent with an interpretation as effective theories of N=2 superconformal field theories, and, where we can check, turn out to exist as quantum field theories.

  14. Formulation of Free Higher Spin Supersymmetric Theories in Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, J

    2005-01-01

    The N = 1 superfield formalism in four-dimensions is well formulated and understood, yet there remain unsolved problems. In this thesis, superfield actions for free massless and massive higher spin superfield theories are formulated in four dimensions. The discussion of massless models is restricted to half integer superhelicity. These models describe multiplets with helicities (s, s-1/2) where s is an integer. The investigation of massive models covers recent work on superspin-3/2 and superspin-1 multiplets. Superspin-3/2 multiplets contain component fields with spins (2, 3/2, 3/2, 1) and superspin-1 multiplets contain component fields with spins (3/2, 1, 1, 1/2). The super projector method is used to distinguish supersymmetric subspaces. Here, this method is used to write general superspace actions. The underlying geometrical structure of superspace actions is elucidated when they are written in terms of super projectors. This thesis also discusses the connection between four-dimensional massive theories an...

  15. $T \\bar{T}$-deformed 2D Quantum Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaglià, Andrea; Szécsényi, István M; Tateo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was noticed many years ago, in the framework of massless RG flows, that the irrelevant composite operator $T \\bar{T}$, built with the components of the energy-momentum tensor, enjoys very special properties in 2D quantum field theories, and can be regarded as a peculiar kind of integrable perturbation. Novel interesting features of this operator have recently emerged from the study of effective string theory models.In this paper we study further properties of this distinguished perturbation. We discuss how it affects the energy levels and one-point functions of a general 2D QFT in finite volume through a surprising relation with a simple hydrodynamic equation. In the case of the perturbation of CFTs, adapting a result by L\\"uscher and Weisz we give a compact expression for the partition function on a finite-length cylinder and make a connection with the exact $g$-function method. We argue that, at the classical level, the deformation naturally maps the action of $N$ massless free bosons into the Nambu-Goto...

  16. Higher spin approaches to quantum field theory and (psuedo)-Riemannian geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Karl Evan

    In this thesis, we study a number of higher spin quantum field theories and some of their algebraic and geometric consequences. These theories apply mostly either over constant curvature or more generally symmetric pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. The first part of this dissertation covers a superalgebra coming from a family of particle models over symmetric spaces. These theories are novel in that the symmetries of the (super)algebra osp( Q|2p) are larger and more elaborate than traditional symmetries. We construct useful (super)algebras related to and generalizing old work by Lichnerowicz and describe their role in developing the geometry of massless models with osp(Q|2 p) symmetry. The result is two practical applications of these (super)algebras: (1) a lunch more concise description of a family of higher spin quantum field theories; and (2) an interesting algebraic probe of underlying background geometries. We also consider massive models over constant curvature spaces. We use a radial dimensional reduction process which converts massless models into massive ones over a lower dimensional space. In our case, we take from the family of theories above the particular free, massless model over flat space associated with sp(2, R ) and derive a massive model. In the process, we develop a novel associative algebra, which is a deformation of the original differential operator algebra associated with the sp(2, R ) model. This algebra is interesting in its own right since its operators realize the representation structure of the sp(2, R ) group. The massive model also has implications for a sequence of unusual, "partially massless" theories. The derivation illuminates how reduced degrees of freedom become manifest in these particular models. Finally, we study a Yang-Mills model using an on-shell Poincare Yang-Mills twist of the Maxwell complex along with a non-minimal coupling. This is a special, higher spin case of a quantum field theory called a Yang-Mills detour complex

  17. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and refle......Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism...... and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory...

  18. A simple connection of the (electroweak) anapole moment with the (electroweak) charge radius of a massless left-handed Dirac neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Assuming that the neutrino is a massless left-handed Dirac particle, we show that the neutrino anapole moment and the neutrino charge radius satisfy the simple relation a{sub v} =(r{sup 2}{sub v}) /6, in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions. We also show that the neutrino electroweak anapole moment a{sub v}l{sup E}W and the neutrino electroweak charge radius (r{sup 2}{sub v}){sup E}W, which have been defined through the v{sub l}l' scattering at the one-loop level and are physical quantities, also obey the relation a{sub v}l{sup E}W =(r{sup 2}{sub v}){sup E}W/6. [Spanish] Suponiendo que el neutrino es una particula de Dirac, sin masa y con helicidad izquierda, mostramos que el momento anapolar a{sub v} y el radio de carga (r{sub v}{sup 2}) del neutrino satisfacen la relacion simple a{sub v} =(r{sup 2}{sub v}) /6, en el contexto del Modelo Estandar de las interacciones electrodebiles. Ademas, mostramos que el momento anapolar electrodebil a{sub v}l{sup E}W y el radio de carga electrodebil (r{sup 2}{sub v}){sup E}W del neutrino, los cuales han sido definidos a traves de la dispersion v{sub l}l' a nivel de un lazo y que son cantidades fisicas, tambien obedecen la relacion a{sub v}l{sup E}W =(r{sup 2}{sub v}){sup E}W/6.

  19. Einstein-Vlasov system in spherical symmetry: Reduction of the equations of motion and classification of single-shell static solutions in the limit of massless particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    We express the Einstein-Vlasov system in spherical symmetry in terms of a dimensionless momentum variable z (radial over angular momentum). This regularizes the limit of massless particles, and in that limit allows us to obtain a reduced system in independent variables (t ,r ,z ) only. Similarly, in this limit the Vlasov density function f for static solutions depends on a single variable Q (energy over angular momentum). This reduction allows us to show that any given static metric that has vanishing Ricci scalar, is vacuum at the center and for r >3 M and obeys certain energy conditions uniquely determines a consistent f =k ¯(Q ) (in closed form). Vice versa, any k ¯(Q ) within a certain class uniquely determines a static metric (as the solution of a system of two first-order quasilinear ordinary differential equations). Hence the space of static spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system is locally a space of functions of one variable. For a simple two-parameter family of functions k ¯(Q ), we construct the corresponding static spherically symmetric solutions, finding that their compactness is in the interval 0.7 ≲maxr(2 M /r )≤8 /9 . This class of static solutions includes one that agrees with the approximately universal type-I critical solution recently found by Akbarian and Choptuik (AC) in numerical time evolutions. We speculate on what singles it out as the critical solution found by fine-tuning generic data to the collapse threshold, given that AC also found that all static solutions are one-parameter unstable and sit on the threshold of collapse.

  20. Slowly rotating neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories with a massive scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S; Popchev, Dimitar

    2016-01-01

    In the scalar-tensor theories with a massive scalar field the coupling constants, and the coupling functions in general, which are observationally allowed, can differ significantly from those in the massless case. This fact naturally implies that the scalar-tensor neutron stars with a massive scalar field can have rather different structure and properties in comparison with their counterparts in the massless case and in general relativity. In the present paper we study slowly rotating neutron stars in scalar-tensor theories with a massive gravitational scalar. Two examples of scalar-tensor theories are examined - the first example is the massive Brans-Dicke theory and the second one is a massive scalar-tensor theory indistinguishable from general relativity in the weak field limit. In the later case we study the effect of the scalar field mass on the spontaneous scalarization of neutron stars. Our numerical results show that the inclusion of a mass term for the scalar field indeed changes the picture drastica...

  1. Highly nonlinear wave solutions in a dual to the chiral model

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeev, S G

    2016-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional scalar field theory with a nilpotent current algebra, which is dual to the Principal Chiral Model. The quantum theory is renormalizable and not asymptotically free: the theory is strongly coupled at short distances (encountering a Landau pole). We suggest it can serve as a toy model for $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory in four dimensions, just as the principal chiral model is a useful toy model for Yang-Mills theory. We find some classical wave solutions that survive the strong coupling limit and quantize them by the collective variable method. They describe excitations with an unusual dispersion relation $\\omega\\propto|k|^{\\frac{2}{3}}$ . Perhaps they are the "preons" at strong coupling, whose bound states form massless particles over long distances.

  2. Study of the Renormalization-Group Evolution of ${\\cal N}=1$ Supersymmetric Gauge Theories Using Pad\\'e Approximants

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Gongjun

    2015-01-01

    We study asymptotically free SU($N_c$) gauge theories with ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetry, including the purely gluonic theory and theories with $N_f$ copies of a pair of massless chiral superfields in the respective representations $R$ and $\\bar R$ of SU($N_c$). The cases in which $R$ is the fundamental representation and the symmetric and antisymmetric rank-2 tensor representation are considered. We calculate Pad\\'e approximants to the beta functions for these theories in the $\\overline{\\rm DR}$ scheme up to four-loop order for the gluonic theory and up to three-loop order for the theories with matter superfields and compare results for IR zeros and poles with results from the NSVZ beta function. Our calculations provide a quantitative measure, for these theories, of how well finite-order perturbative results calculated in one scheme reproduce properties of a known beta function calculated in a different scheme.

  3. Double Field Theory on Group Manifolds (Thesis)

    CERN Document Server

    Hassler, Falk

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with Double Field Theory (DFT), an effective field theory capturing the low energy dynamics of closed strings on a torus. It renders T-duality on a torus manifest by adding $D$ winding coordinates in addition to the $D$ space time coordinates. An essential consistency constraint of the theory, the strong constraint, only allows for field configurations which depend on half of the coordinates of the arising doubled space. I derive DFT${}_\\mathrm{WZW}$, a generalization of the current formalism. It captures the low energy dynamics of a closed bosonic string propagating on a compact group manifold. Its classical action and the corresponding gauge transformations arise from Closed String Field Theory up to cubic order in the massless fields. These results are rewritten in terms of a generalized metric and extended to all orders in the fields. There is an explicit distinction between background and fluctuations. For the gauge algebra to close, the latter have to fulfill a modified strong constrai...

  4. The thermodynamics of quantum Yang-Mills theory theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    This latest edition enhances the material of the first edition with a derivation of the value of the action for each of the Harrington-Shepard calorons/anticalorons that are relevant for the emergence of the thermal ground state. Also included are discussions of the caloron center versus its periphery, the role of the thermal ground state in U(1) wave propagation, photonic particle-wave duality, and calculational intricacies and book-keeping related to one-loop scattering of massless modes in the deconfining phase of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Moreover, a derivation of the temperature-redshift relation of the CMB in deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics and its application to explaining an apparent early re-ionization of the Universe are given. Finally, a mechanism of mass generation for cosmic neutrinos is proposed.

  5. Localisation in Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Balachandran, A P

    2016-01-01

    In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics , Born's principle of localisation is as follows: For a single particle, if a wave function $\\psi_K$ vanishes outside a spatial region $K$, it is said to be localised in $K$. In particular if a spatial region $K'$ is disjoint from $K$, a wave function $\\psi_{K'}$ localised in $K'$ is orthogonal to $\\psi_K$. Such a principle of localisation does not exist compatibly with relativity and causality in quantum field theory (Newton and Wigner) or interacting point particles (Currie,Jordan and Sudarshan).It is replaced by symplectic localisation of observables as shown by Brunetti, Guido and Longo, Schroer and others. This localisation gives a simple derivation of the spin-statistics theorem and the Unruh effect, and shows how to construct quantum fields for anyons and for massless particles with `continuous' spin. This review outlines the basic principles underlying symplectic localisation and shows or mentions its deep implications. In particular, it has the potential to affect...

  6. Encoding field theories into gravities

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Sinya; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to give a $d+1$ geometry from a $d$ dimensional quantum field theory in the large N expansion. We first construct a $d+1$ dimensional field from the $d$ dimensional one using the gradient flow equation, whose flow time $t$ represents the energy scale of the system such that $t\\rightarrow 0$ corresponds to the ultra-violet (UV) while $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ to the infra-red (IR). We define the induced metric using $d+1$ dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large N limit: quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as 1/N due to the large $N$ factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) non-linear $\\sigma$ model in two dimensions. We calculate the three dimensional induced metric, which describes an AdS space in the massless limit. We finally discuss several open issues for future investigations.

  7. Thimble regularization at work: from toy models to chiral random matrix theories

    CERN Document Server

    Di Renzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Lefschetz thimble formulation of field theories to a couple of different problems. We first address the solution of a complex 0-dimensional phi^4 theory. Although very simple, this toy-model makes us appreciate a few key issues of the method. In particular, we will solve the model by a correct accounting of all the thimbles giving a contribution to the partition function and we will discuss a number of algorithmic solutions to simulate this (simple) model. We will then move to a chiral random matrix (CRM) theory. This is a somehow more realistic setting, giving us once again the chance to tackle the same couple of fundamental questions: how many thimbles contribute to the solution? how can we make sure that we correctly sample configurations on the thimble? Since the exact result is known for the observable we study (a condensate), we can verify that, in the region of parameters we studied, only one thimble contributes and that the algorithmic solution that we set up works well, despite its very ...

  8. A numerical comparison of theories of violent relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Arad, I

    2005-01-01

    Using N-body simulations with a large set of massless test particles we compare the predictions of two theories of violent relaxation, the well known Lynden-Bell theory and the more recent theory by Nakamura. We derive ``weaken'' versions of both theories in which we use the whole equilibrium coarse-grained distribution function as a constraint instead of the total energy constraint. We use these weaken theories to construct expressions for the conditional probability $K_i(\\tau)$ that a test particle initially at the phase-space coordinate $\\tau$ would end-up in the $i$'th macro-cell at equilibrium. We show that the logarithm of the ratio $R_{ij}(\\tau) \\equiv K_i(\\tau)/K_j(\\tau)$ is directly proportional to the initial phase-space density $f_0(\\tau)$ for the Lynden-Bell theory and inversely proportional to $f_0(\\tau)$ for the Nakamura theory. We then measure $R_{ij}(\\tau)$ using a set of N-body simulations of a system undergoing a gravitational collapse to check the validity of the two theories of violent rel...

  9. Gravitational wave polarization modes in $f(R)$ theories

    CERN Document Server

    Rizwana, Kausar H; Philippe, Jetzer

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out in the literature to evaluate the number of polarization modes of gravitational waves in modified theories, in particular in $f(R)$ theories. In the latter ones, besides the usual two transverse-traceless tensor modes present in general relativity, there are two additional scalar ones: a massive longitudinal mode and a massless transverse mode (the so-called breathing mode). This last mode has often been overlooked in the literature, due to the assumption that the application of the Lorenz gauge implies transverse-traceless wave solutions. We however show that this is in general not possible and, in particular, that the traceless condition cannot be imposed due to the fact that we no longer have a Minkowski background metric. Our findings are in agreement with the results found using the Newman-Penrose formalism, and thus clarify the inconsistencies found so far in the literature.

  10. Regge behavior saves String Theory from causality violations

    CERN Document Server

    D'Appollonio, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Higher-derivative corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action are present in bosonic string theory leading to the potential causality violations recently pointed out by Camanho et al. We analyze in detail this question by considering high-energy string-brane collisions at impact parameters $b \\le l_s$ (the string-length parameter) with $l_s \\gg R_p$ (the characteristic scale of the D$p$-brane geometry). If we keep only the contribution of the massless states causality is violated for a set of initial states whose polarization is suitably chosen with respect to the impact parameter vector. Such violations are instead neatly avoided when the full structure of string theory - and in particular its Regge behavior - is taken into account.

  11. Regge behavior saves string theory from causality violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Vecchia, Paolo; Giuseppe, D'Appollonio; Russo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Higher-derivative corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action are present in bosonic string theory leading to the potential causality violations recently pointed out by Camanho et al. [1]. We analyze in detail this question by considering high-energy string-brane collisions at impact parameters b....... Such violations are instead neatly avoided when the full structure of string theory — and in particular its Regge behavior — is taken into account....... ≤ l s (the string-length parameter) with l s ≫ R p (the characteristic scale of the Dp-brane geometry). If we keep only the contribution of the massless states causality is violated for a set of initial states whose polarization is suitably chosen with respect to the impact parameter vector...

  12. Momentum dissipation and effective theories of coherent and incoherent transport

    CERN Document Server

    Davison, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    We study heat transport in two systems without momentum conservation: a hydrodynamic system, and a holographic system with spatially dependent, massless scalar fields. When momentum dissipates slowly, there is a well-defined, coherent collective excitation in the AC heat conductivity, and a crossover between sound-like and diffusive transport at small and large distance scales. When momentum dissipates quickly, there is no such excitation in the incoherent AC heat conductivity, and diffusion dominates at all distance scales. For a critical value of the momentum dissipation rate, we compute exact expressions for the Green's functions of our holographic system due to an emergent gravitational self-duality, similar to electric/magnetic duality, and SL(2,R) symmetries. We extend the coherent/incoherent classification to examples of charge transport in other holographic systems: probe brane theories and neutral theories with non-Maxwell actions.

  13. Integrable structure in supersymmetric gauge theories with massive hypermultiplets

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, C; Ahn, Changhyun; Nam, Soonkeon

    1996-01-01

    We study the quantum moduli space of vacua of N=2 supersymmetric SU(N_c) gauge theories coupled to N_f flavors of quarks in the fundamental representation. We identify the moduli space of the N_c = 3 and N_f=2 massless case with the full spectral curve obtained from the Lax representation of the Goryachev-Chaplygin top. For the case with {\\it massive} quarks, we present an integrable system where the corresponding hyperelliptic curve parametrizing the Laurent solution coincides with that of the moduli space of N_{c}=3 with N_{f}=0, 1, 2. We discuss possible generalizations of the integrable systems relevant to gauge theories with N_c \

  14. Massive "spin-2" theories in arbitrary $D \\ge 3$ dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Dalmazi, D; Mendonça, E L

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that in arbitrary dimensions $D\\ge 3$ there are two families of second order Lagrangians describing massive "spin-2" particles via a nonsymmetric rank-2 tensor. They differ from the usual Fierz-Pauli theory in general. At zero mass one of the families is Weyl invariant. Such massless theory has no particle content in $D=3$ and gives rise, via master action, to a dual higher order (in derivatives) description of massive spin-2 particles in $D=3$ where both the second and the fourth order terms are Weyl invariant, contrary to the linearized New Massive Gravity. However, only the fourth order term is invariant under arbitrary antisymmetric shifts. Consequently, the antisymmetric part of the tensor $e_{[\\mu\

  15. Regge behavior saves string theory from causality violations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Appollonio, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari andINFN, Sezione di Cagliari,Cittadella Universitaria, Monserrato, 09042 (Italy); Vecchia, Paolo Di [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen, DK-2100 (Denmark); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology andStockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, Stockholm, SE-10691 (Sweden); Russo, Rodolfo [Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Veneziano, Gabriele [Collège de France,11 place M. Berthelot, Paris, 75005 (France); Theory Division, CERN,Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2015-05-27

    Higher-derivative corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action are present in bosonic string theory leading to the potential causality violations recently pointed out by Camanho et al. http://arxiv.org/abs/1407.5597. We analyze in detail this question by considering high-energy string-brane collisions at impact parameters b≤l{sub s} (the string-length parameter) with l{sub s}≫R{sub p} (the characteristic scale of the Dp-brane geometry). If we keep only the contribution of the massless states causality is violated for a set of initial states whose polarization is suitably chosen with respect to the impact parameter vector. Such violations are instead neatly avoided when the full structure of string theory — and in particular its Regge behavior — is taken into account.

  16. Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance in U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge Theories in Three Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardeen, William [Fermilab

    2014-10-24

    I explore the existence of a massive phase in a conformally invariant U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theories in D = 3 with matter fields in the fundamental representation. These models have attracted recent attention as being dual, in the conformal phase, to theories of higher spin gravity on AdS 4. Using the 1t Hooft large N expansion, exact solutions are obtained for scalar current correlators in the massive phase where the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. A massless dilaton appears as a composite state, and its properties are discussed. Solutions exist for matters field that are either bosons or fermions.

  17. Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance in U(N) Chern-Simons Gauge Theories in Three Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardeen, William A. [Fermilab

    2015-09-24

    I explore the existence of a massive phase in a conformally invariant U(N) Chern-Simons gauge theories in D = 3 with matter fields in the fundamental representation. These models have attracted recent attention as being dual, in the conformal phase, to theories of higher spin gravity on AdS 4. Using the 0t Hooft large N expansion, exact solutions are obtained for scalar current correlators in the massive phase where the conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. A massless dilaton appears as a composite state, and its properties are discussed. Solutions exist for matters field that are either bosons or fermions.

  18. Tricritical points in a compact $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory at strong coupling

    CERN Document Server

    De, Asit K

    2016-01-01

    Pure compact $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory exhibits a phase transition at gauge coupling $g \\sim {\\cal{O}}(1)$ separating a familiar weak coupling Coulomb phase, having free massless photons, from a strong coupling phase. However, the phase transition was found to be of first order, ruling out any non-trivial theory resulting from a continuum limit from the strong coupling side. In this work, a compact $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory is studied with addition of a dimension-two mass counter-term and a higher derivative (HD) term that ensures a unique vacuum and produces a covariant gauge-fixing term in the naive continuum limit. For a reasonably large coefficient of the HD term, now there exists a continuous transition from a regular ordered phase to a spatially modulated ordered phase which breaks Euclidean rotational symmetry. For weak gauge couplings, a continuum limit from the regular ordered phase results in a familiar theory consisting of free massless photons. For strong gauge couplings with $g\\ge {\\cal{O}}(1...

  19. Domain wall solitons and Hopf algebraic translational symmetries in noncommutative field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Yuya; Sasakura, Naoki

    2008-02-01

    Domain wall solitons are the simplest topological objects in field theories. The conventional translational symmetry in a field theory is the generator of a one-parameter family of domain wall solutions, and induces a massless moduli field which propagates along a domain wall. We study similar issues in braided noncommutative field theories possessing Hopf algebraic translational symmetries. As a concrete example, we discuss a domain wall soliton in the scalar ϕ4 braided noncommutative field theory in Lie-algebraic noncommutative space-time, [xi,xj]=2iκγijkxk (i,j,k=1,2,3), which has a Hopf algebraic translational symmetry. We first discuss the existence of a domain wall soliton in view of Derrick’s theorem, and construct explicitly a one-parameter family of solutions in perturbation of the noncommutativity parameter κ. We then find the massless moduli field which propagates on the domain wall soliton. We further extend our analysis to the general Hopf algebraic translational symmetry.

  20. Z Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nekrasov, Nikita

    2004-01-01

    We present the evidence for the existence of the topological string analogue of M-theory, which we call Z-theory. The corners of Z-theory moduli space correspond to the Donaldson-Thomas theory, Kodaira-Spencer theory, Gromov-Witten theory, and Donaldson-Witten theory. We discuss the relations of Z-theory with Hitchin's gravities in six and seven dimensions, and make our own proposal, involving spinor generalization of Chern-Simons theory of three-forms. Based on the talk at Strings'04 in Paris.