WorldWideScience

Sample records for massive stars ii

  1. SPITZER VIEW OF YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD H II COMPLEXES. II. N 159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Seale, Jonathan P.; Testor, Gerard; Heitsch, Fabian; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The H II complex N 159 in the Large Magellanic Cloud is used to study massive star formation in different environments, as it contains three giant molecular clouds (GMCs) that have similar sizes and masses but exhibit different intensities of star formation. We identify candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs) using infrared photometry, and model their spectral energy distributions to constrain mass and evolutionary state. Good fits are obtained for less evolved Type I, I/II, and II sources. Our analysis suggests that there are massive embedded YSOs in N 159B, a maser source, and several ultracompact H II regions. Massive O-type YSOs are found in GMCs N 159-E and N 159-W, which are associated with ionized gas, i.e., where massive stars formed a few Myr ago. The third GMC, N 159-S, has neither O-type YSOs nor evidence of previous massive star formation. This correlation between current and antecedent formation of massive stars suggests that energy feedback is relevant. We present evidence that N 159-W is forming YSOs spontaneously, while collapse in N 159-E may be triggered. Finally, we compare star formation rates determined from YSO counts with those from integrated Hα and 24 μm luminosities and expected from gas surface densities. Detailed dissection of extragalactic GMCs like the one presented here is key to revealing the physics underlying commonly used star formation scaling laws.

  2. Massive stars in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the morphologic type of a galaxy and the evolution of its massive stars is explored, reviewing observational results for nearby galaxies. The data are presented in diagrams, and it is found that the massive-star populations of most Sc spiral galaxies and irregular galaxies are similar, while those of Sb spirals such as M 31 and M 81 may be affected by morphology (via differences in the initial mass function or star-formation rate). Consideration is also given to the stability-related upper luminosity limit in the H-R diagram of hypergiant stars (attributed to radiation pressure in hot stars and turbulence in cool stars) and the goals of future observation campaigns. 88 references

  3. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  4. Massive star formation by accretion. II. Rotation: how to circumvent the angular momentum barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Klessen, R. S.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Rotation plays a key role in the star-formation process, from pre-stellar cores to pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects. Understanding the formation of massive stars requires taking into account the accretion of angular momentum during their PMS phase. Aims: We study the PMS evolution of objects destined to become massive stars by accretion, focusing on the links between the physical conditions of the environment and the rotational properties of young stars. In particular, we look at the physical conditions that allow the production of massive stars by accretion. Methods: We present PMS models computed with a new version of the Geneva Stellar Evolution code self-consistently including accretion and rotation according to various accretion scenarios for mass and angular momentum. We describe the internal distribution of angular momentum in PMS stars accreting at high rates and we show how the various physical conditions impact their internal structures, evolutionary tracks, and rotation velocities during the PMS and the early main sequence. Results: We find that the smooth angular momentum accretion considered in previous studies leads to an angular momentum barrier and does not allow the formation of massive stars by accretion. A braking mechanism is needed in order to circumvent this angular momentum barrier. This mechanism has to be efficient enough to remove more than two thirds of the angular momentum from the inner accretion disc. Due to the weak efficiency of angular momentum transport by shear instability and meridional circulation during the accretion phase, the internal rotation profiles of accreting stars reflect essentially the angular momentum accretion history. As a consequence, careful choice of the angular momentum accretion history allows circumvention of any limitation in mass and velocity, and production of stars of any mass and velocity compatible with structure equations.

  5. THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION CYGNUS OB2. II. INTEGRATED STELLAR PROPERTIES AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Drew, J. E.; Vink, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star-forming region (SFR), containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analyzed the properties of young stars in two fields in Cyg OB2 using the recently published deep catalog of Chandra X-ray point sources with complementary optical and near-IR photometry. Our sample is complete to ∼1 M sun (excluding A- and B-type stars that do not emit X-rays), making this the deepest study of the stellar properties and star formation history in Cyg OB2 to date. From Siess et al. isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, we derive ages of 3.5 +0.75 -1.0 and 5.25 +1.5 -1.0 Myr for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-main-sequence isochrones. The presence of a stellar population somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, also fits in with the low fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) that we find to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ∼5 Myr. We also find that the region lacks a population of highly embedded sources that is often observed in young SFRs, suggesting star formation in the vicinity has declined. We measure the stellar mass functions (MFs) in this limit and find a power-law slope of Γ = -1.09 ± 0.13, in good agreement with the global mean value estimated by Kroupa. A steepening of the slope at higher masses is observed and suggested as due to the presence of the previous generation of stars that have lost their most massive members. Finally, combining our MF and an estimate of the radial density profile of the association suggests a total mass of Cyg OB2 of ∼3 x 10 4 M sun , similar to that of many of our Galaxy's most massive SFRs.

  6. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. II. Discovery of six clusters with Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chené, A.-N.; Borissova, J.; Bonatto, C.; Majaess, D. J.; Baume, G.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Kurtev, R.; Schnurr, O.; Bouret, J.-C.; Catelan, M.; Emerson, J. P.; Feinstein, C.; Geisler, D.; de Grijs, R.; Hervé, A.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Lucas, P.; Mahy, L.; Martins, F.; Mauro, F.; Minniti, D.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The ESO Public Survey "VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea" (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for an unprecedented 562 sq. degrees of the Galactic bulge, and adjacent regions of the disk. Nearly 150 new open clusters and cluster candidates have been discovered in this survey. Aims: This is the second in a series of papers about young, massive open clusters observed using the VVV survey. We present the first study of six recently discovered clusters. These clusters contain at least one newly discovered Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Methods: Following the methodology presented in the first paper of the series, wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters for a subset of clusters. Results: We find that the six studied stellar groups are real young (2-7 Myr) and massive (between 0.8 and 2.2 × 103 M⊙) clusters. They are highly obscured (AV ~ 5-24 mag) and compact (1-2 pc). In addition to WR stars, two of the six clusters also contain at least one red supergiant star, and one of these two clusters also contains a blue supergiant. We claim the discovery of 8 new WR stars, and 3 stars showing WR-like emission lines which could be classified WR or OIf. Preliminary analysis provides initial masses of ~30-50 M⊙ for the WR stars. Finally, we discuss the spiral structure of the Galaxy using the six new clusters as tracers, together with the previously studied VVV clusters. Based on observations with ISAAC, VLT, ESO (programme 087.D-0341A), New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory (programme 087.D-0490A) and with the Clay telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory (programme CN2011A-086). Also based on data from the VVV survey (programme 172.B-2002).

  7. Supernovae from massive AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, A.J.T.; Izzard, R.G.; Herwig, F.; Langer, N.; Heger, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present new computations of the final fate of massive AGB-stars. These stars form ONeMg cores after a phase of carbon burning and are called Super AGB stars (SAGB). Detailed stellar evolutionary models until the thermally pulsing AGB were computed using three di erent stellar evolution codes. The

  8. The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is

  9. The death of massive stars - I. Observational constraints on the progenitors of Type II-P supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S. J.; Eldridge, J. J.; Crockett, R. M.; Maund, J. R.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results of a 10.5-yr, volume-limited (28-Mpc) search for supernova (SN) progenitor stars. In doing so we compile all SNe discovered within this volume (132, of which 27 per cent are Type Ia) and determine the relative rates of each subtype from literature studies. The core-collapse SNe break down into 59 per cent II-P and 29 per cent Ib/c, with the remainder being IIb (5 per cent), IIn (4 per cent) and II-L (3 per cent). There have been 20 II-P SNe with high-quality optical or near-infrared pre-explosion images that allow a meaningful search for the progenitor stars. In five cases they are clearly red supergiants, one case is unconstrained, two fall on compact coeval star clusters and the other twelve have no progenitor detected. We review and update all the available data for the host galaxies and SN environments (distance, metallicity and extinction) and determine masses and upper mass estimates for these 20 progenitor stars using the STARS stellar evolutionary code and a single consistent homogeneous method. A maximum likelihood calculation suggests that the minimum stellar mass for a Type II-P to form is mmin = 8.5+1-1.5Msolar and the maximum mass for II-P progenitors is mmax = 16.5 +/- 1.5Msolar, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function holds for the progenitor population (in the range Γ = -1.35+0.3-0.7). The minimum mass is consistent with current estimates for the upper limit to white dwarf progenitor masses, but the maximum mass does not appear consistent with massive star populations in Local Group galaxies. Red supergiants in the Local Group have masses up to 25Msolar and the minimum mass to produce a Wolf-Rayet star in single star evolution (between solar and LMC metallicity) is similarly 25-30Msolar. The reason we have not detected any high-mass red supergiant progenitors above 17Msolar is unclear, but we estimate that it is statistically significant at 2.4σ confidence. Two simple reasons for this could be that we have systematically

  10. A WIDE AREA SURVEY FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT MASSIVE GALAXIES. II. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF BzK-SELECTED MASSIVE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Masato; Daddi, Emanuele; Arimoto, Nobuo; Renzini, Alvio; Kong Xu; Cimatti, Andrea; Broadhurst, Tom; Alexander, Dave M.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented from near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of BzK-selected, massive star-forming galaxies (sBzKs) at 1.5 < z < 2.3 that were obtained with OHS/CISCO at the Subaru telescope and with SINFONI at the Very Large Telescope. Among the 28 sBzKs observed, Hα emission was detected in 14 objects, and for 11 of them the [N II] λ6583 flux was also measured. Multiwavelength photometry was also used to derive stellar masses and extinction parameters, whereas Hα and [N II] emissions have allowed us to estimate star formation rates (SFRs), metallicities, ionization mechanisms, and dynamical masses. In order to enforce agreement between SFRs from Hα with those derived from rest-frame UV and mid-infrared, additional obscuration for the emission lines (that originate in H II regions) was required compared to the extinction derived from the slope of the UV continuum. We have also derived the stellar mass-metallicity relation, as well as the relation between stellar mass and specific SFR (SSFR), and compared them to the results in other studies. At a given stellar mass, the sBzKs appear to have been already enriched to metallicities close to those of local star-forming galaxies of similar mass. The sBzKs presented here tend to have higher metallicities compared to those of UV-selected galaxies, indicating that near-infrared selected galaxies tend to be a chemically more evolved population. The sBzKs show SSFRs that are systematically higher, by up to ∼2 orders of magnitude, compared to those of local galaxies of the same mass. The empirical correlations between stellar mass and metallicity, and stellar mass and SSFR are then compared with those of evolutionary population synthesis models constructed either with the simple closed-box assumption, or within an infall scenario. Within the assumptions that are built-in such models, it appears that a short timescale for the star formation (≅100 Myr) and large initial gas mass appear to be required

  11. Search of massive star formation with COMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko K.

    2004-04-01

    Mid-infrared observations is useful for studies of massive star formation. Especially COMICS offers powerful tools: imaging survey of the circumstellar structures of forming massive stars such as massive disks and cavity structures, mass estimate from spectroscopy of fine structure lines, and high dispersion spectroscopy to census gas motion around formed stars. COMICS will open the next generation infrared studies of massive star formation.

  12. The evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of stars with masses between 15 M 0 and 100 M 0 is considered. Stars in this mass range lose a considerable fraction of their matter during their evolution. The treatment of convection, semi-convection and the influence of mass loss by stellar winds at different evolutionary phases are analysed as well as the adopted opacities. Evolutionary sequences computed by various groups are examined and compared with observations, and the advanced evolution of a 15 M 0 and a 25 M 0 star from zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) through iron collapse is discussed. The effect of centrifugal forces on stellar wind mass loss and the influence of rotation on evolutionary models is examined. As a consequence of the outflow of matter deeper layers show up and when the mass loss rates are large enough layers with changed composition, due to interior nuclear reactions, appear on the surface. The evolution of massive close binaries as well during the phase of mass loss by stellar wind as during the mass exchange and mass loss phase due to Roche lobe overflow is treated in detail, and the value of the parameters governing mass and angular momentum losses are discussed. The problem of the Wolf-Rayet stars, their origin and the possibilities of their production either as single stars or as massive binaries is examined. Finally, the origin of X-ray binaries is discussed and the scenario for the formation of these objects (starting from massive ZAMS close binaries, through Wolf-Rayet binaries leading to OB-stars with a compact companion after a supernova explosion) is reviewed and completed, including stellar wind mass loss. (orig.)

  13. TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS. II. CEP A AND NGC 7538

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscadelli, L.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Xu, Y.; Zheng, X. W.

    2009-01-01

    We report trigonometric parallaxes for the sources NGC 7538 and Cep A, corresponding to distances of 2.65 +0.12 -0.11 and 0.70 +0.04 -0.04 kpc, respectively. The distance to NGC 7538 is considerably smaller than its kinematic distance and places it in the Perseus spiral arm. The distance to Cep A is also smaller than its kinematic distance and places it in the L ocalarm or spur. Combining the distance and proper motions with observed radial velocities gives the location and full space motion of the star-forming regions. We find significant deviations from circular galactic orbits for these sources: both sources show large peculiar motions (greater than 10 km s -1 ) counter to galactic rotation and NGC 7538 has a comparable peculiar motion toward the Galactic center.

  14. Massive Star Burps, Then Explodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Berkeley -- In a galaxy far, far away, a massive star suffered a nasty double whammy. On Oct. 20, 2004, Japanese amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki saw the star let loose an outburst so bright that it was initially mistaken for a supernova. The star survived, but for only two years. On Oct. 11, 2006, professional and amateur astronomers witnessed the star actually blowing itself to smithereens as Supernova 2006jc. Swift UVOT Image Swift UVOT Image (Credit: NASA / Swift / S.Immler) "We have never observed a stellar outburst and then later seen the star explode," says University of California, Berkeley, astronomer Ryan Foley. His group studied the event with ground-based telescopes, including the 10-meter (32.8-foot) W. M. Keck telescopes in Hawaii. Narrow helium spectral lines showed that the supernova's blast wave ran into a slow-moving shell of material, presumably the progenitor's outer layers ejected just two years earlier. If the spectral lines had been caused by the supernova's fast-moving blast wave, the lines would have been much broader. artistic rendering This artistic rendering depicts two years in the life of a massive blue supergiant star, which burped and spewed a shell of gas, then, two years later, exploded. When the supernova slammed into the shell of gas, X-rays were produced. (Credit: NASA/Sonoma State Univ./A.Simonnet) Another group, led by Stefan Immler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., monitored SN 2006jc with NASA's Swift satellite and Chandra X-ray Observatory. By observing how the supernova brightened in X-rays, a result of the blast wave slamming into the outburst ejecta, they could measure the amount of gas blown off in the 2004 outburst: about 0.01 solar mass, the equivalent of about 10 Jupiters. "The beautiful aspect of our SN 2006jc observations is that although they were obtained in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the optical and in X-rays, they lead to the same conclusions," says Immler. "This

  15. Presupernova evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Woosley, S.E.

    1977-01-01

    Population I stars of 15 M/sub mass/ and 25 M/sub mass/ have been evolved from the zero-age main sequence through iron core collapse utilizing a numerical model that incorporates both implicit hydrodynamics and a detailed treatment of nuclear reactions. The stars end their presupernova evolution as red supergiants with photospheric radii of 3.9 x 10 13 cm and 6.7 x 10 13 cm, respectively, and density structures similar to those invoked to explain Type II supernova light curves on a strictly hydrodynamic basis. Both stars are found to form substantially neutronized ''iron'' cores of 1.56 M/sub mass/ and 1.61 M/sub mass/, and central electron abundances of 0.427 and 0.439 moles/g, respectively, during hydrostatic silicon burning. Just prior to collapse, the abundances of the elements in the 25 M/sub mass/ star (excluding the neutronized iron core) have ratios strikingly close to their solar system values over the mass range from oxygen to calcium, while the 15 M/sub mass/ star is characterized by large enhancements of Ne, Mg, and Si. It is pointed out on nucleosynthetic grounds that the mass of the neutronized core must represent a lower limit to the mass of the neutron star or black hole remnant that stars in this mass range can normally produce

  16. Massive stars, successes and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Meynet, Georges; Maeder, André; Georgy, Cyril; Ekström, Sylvia; Eggenberger, Patrick; Barblan, Fabio; Song, Han Feng

    2017-01-01

    We give a brief overview of where we stand with respect to some old and new questions bearing on how massive stars evolve and end their lifetime. We focus on the following key points that are further discussed by other contributions during this conference: convection, mass losses, rotation, magnetic field and multiplicity. For purpose of clarity, each of these processes are discussed on its own but we have to keep in mind that they are all interacting between them offering a large variety of ...

  17. Massive stars, successes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynet, Georges; Maeder, André; Georgy, Cyril; Ekström, Sylvia; Eggenberger, Patrick; Barblan, Fabio; Song, Han Feng

    2017-11-01

    We give a brief overview of where we stand with respect to some old and new questions bearing on how massive stars evolve and end their lifetime. We focus on the following key points that are further discussed by other contributions during this conference: convection, mass losses, rotation, magnetic field and multiplicity. For purpose of clarity, each of these processes are discussed on its own but we have to keep in mind that they are all interacting between them offering a large variety of outputs, some of them still to be discovered.

  18. Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhler, K.; Borzyszkowski, M.; Brott, I.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. Aims. We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity,

  19. Modeling UV Radiation Feedback from Massive Stars. II. Dispersal of Star-forming Giant Molecular Clouds by Photoionization and Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2018-05-01

    UV radiation feedback from young massive stars plays a key role in the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) by photoevaporating and ejecting the surrounding gas. We conduct a suite of radiation hydrodynamic simulations of star cluster formation in marginally bound, turbulent GMCs, focusing on the effects of photoionization and radiation pressure on regulating the net star formation efficiency (SFE) and cloud lifetime. We find that the net SFE depends primarily on the initial gas surface density, Σ0, such that the SFE increases from 4% to 51% as Σ0 increases from 13 to 1300 {M}ȯ {pc}}-2. Cloud destruction occurs within 2–10 Myr after the onset of radiation feedback, or within 0.6–4.1 freefall times (increasing with Σ0). Photoevaporation dominates the mass loss in massive, low surface density clouds, but because most photons are absorbed in an ionization-bounded Strömgren volume, the photoevaporated gas fraction is proportional to the square root of the SFE. The measured momentum injection due to thermal and radiation pressure forces is proportional to {{{Σ }}}0-0.74, and the ejection of neutrals substantially contributes to the disruption of low mass and/or high surface density clouds. We present semi-analytic models for cloud dispersal mediated by photoevaporation and by dynamical mass ejection, and show that the predicted net SFE and mass loss efficiencies are consistent with the results of our numerical simulations.

  20. How Massive Single Stars End Their Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Woosley, S. E.; Langer, N.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    How massive stars die-what sort of explosion and remnant each produces-depends chiefly on the masses of their helium cores and hydrogen envelopes at death. For single stars, stellar winds are the only means of mass loss, and these are a function of the metallicity of the star. We discuss how metallicity, and a simplified prescription for its effect on mass loss, affects the evolution and final fate of massive stars. We map, as a function of mass and metallicity, where black holes and neutron stars are likely to form and where different types of supernovae are produced. Integrating over an initial mass function, we derive the relative populations as a function of metallicity. Provided that single stars rotate rapidly enough at death, we speculate on stellar populations that might produce gamma-ray bursts and jet-driven supernovae.

  1. The Final Stages of Massive Star Evolution and Their Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Alexander

    In this chapter I discuss the final stages in the evolution of massive stars - stars that are massive enough to burn nuclear fuel all the way to iron group elements in their core. The core eventually collapses to form a neutron star or a black hole when electron captures and photo-disintegration reduce the pressure support to an extent that it no longer can hold up against gravity. The late burning stages of massive stars are a rich subject by themselves, and in them many of the heavy elements in the universe are first generated. The late evolution of massive stars strongly depends on their mass, and hence can be significantly effected by mass loss due to stellar winds and episodic mass loss events - a critical ingredient that we do not know as well as we would like. If the star loses all the hydrogen envelope, a Type I supernova results, if it does not, a Type II supernova is observed. Whether the star makes neutron star or a black hole, or a neutron star at first and a black hole later, and how fast they spin largely affects the energetics and asymmetry of the observed supernova explosion. Beyond photon-based astronomy, other than the sun, a supernova (SN 1987) has been the only object in the sky we ever observed in neutrinos, and supernovae may also be the first thing we will ever see in gravitational wave detectors like LIGO. I conclude this chapter reviewing the deaths of the most massive stars and of Population III stars.

  2. SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  3. Massive stars and X-ray pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrichs, H.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of 7 separate articles entitled: long term changes in ultraviolet lines in γ CAS, UV observations of γ CAS: intermittent mass-loss enhancement, episodic mass loss in γ CAS and in other early-type stars, spin-up and spin-down of accreting neutron stars, an excentric close binary model for the X Persei system, has a 97 minute periodicity in 4U 1700-37/HD 153919 really been discovered, and, mass loss and stellar wind in massive X-ray binaries. (Articles 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 have been previously published). The first three articles are concerned with the irregular mass loss in massive stars. The fourth critically reviews thoughts since 1972 on the origin of the changes in periodicity shown by X-ray pulsars. The last articles indicate the relation between massive stars and X-ray pulsars. (C.F.)

  4. Evolution of massive close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masevich, A.G.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Some problems of the evolution of massive close binary stars are discussed. Most of them are nonevolutionized stars with close masses of components. After filling the Roche cavity and exchange of matter between the components the Wolf-Rayet star is formed. As a result of the supernovae explosion a neutron star or a black hole is formed in the system. The system does not disintegrate but obtains high space velocity owing to the loss of the supernovae envelope. The satellite of the neutron star or black hole - the star of the O or B spectral class loses about 10 -6 of the solar mass for a year. Around the neighbouring component a disc of this matter is formed the incidence of which on a compact star leads to X radiation appearance. The neutron star cannot absorb the whole matter of the widening component and the binary system submerges into the common envelope. As a result of the evolution of massive close binary systems single neutron stars can appear which after the lapse of some time become radiopulsars. Radiopulsars with such high space velocities have been found in our Galaxy [ru

  5. Hyperfast pulsars as the remnants of massive stars ejected from young star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2008-04-01

    Recent proper motion and parallax measurements for the pulsar PSR B1508+55 indicate a transverse velocity of ~1100kms-1, which exceeds earlier measurements for any neutron star. The spin-down characteristics of PSR B1508+55 are typical for a non-recycled pulsar, which implies that the velocity of the pulsar cannot have originated from the second supernova disruption of a massive binary system. The high velocity of PSR B1508+55 can be accounted for by assuming that it received a kick at birth or that the neutron star was accelerated after its formation in the supernova explosion. We propose an explanation for the origin of hyperfast neutron stars based on the hypothesis that they could be the remnants of a symmetric supernova explosion of a high-velocity massive star which attained its peculiar velocity (similar to that of the pulsar) in the course of a strong dynamical three- or four-body encounter in the core of dense young star cluster. To check this hypothesis, we investigated three dynamical processes involving close encounters between: (i) two hard massive binaries, (ii) a hard binary and an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) and (iii) a single stars and a hard binary IMBH. We find that main-sequence O-type stars cannot be ejected from young massive star clusters with peculiar velocities high enough to explain the origin of hyperfast neutron stars, but lower mass main-sequence stars or the stripped helium cores of massive stars could be accelerated to hypervelocities. Our explanation for the origin of hyperfast pulsars requires a very dense stellar environment of the order of 106- 107starspc-3. Although such high densities may exist during the core collapse of young massive star clusters, we caution that they have never been observed.

  6. Revealing evolved massive stars with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Fabrika, S.

    2010-06-01

    Massive evolved stars lose a large fraction of their mass via copious stellar wind or instant outbursts. During certain evolutionary phases, they can be identified by the presence of their circumstellar nebulae. In this paper, we present the results of a search for compact nebulae (reminiscent of circumstellar nebulae around evolved massive stars) using archival 24-μm data obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. We have discovered 115 nebulae, most of which bear a striking resemblance to the circumstellar nebulae associated with luminous blue variables (LBVs) and late WN-type (WNL) Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We interpret this similarity as an indication that the central stars of detected nebulae are either LBVs or related evolved massive stars. Our interpretation is supported by follow-up spectroscopy of two dozen of these central stars, most of which turn out to be either candidate LBVs (cLBVs), blue supergiants or WNL stars. We expect that the forthcoming spectroscopy of the remaining objects from our list, accompanied by the spectrophotometric monitoring of the already discovered cLBVs, will further increase the known population of Galactic LBVs. This, in turn, will have profound consequences for better understanding the LBV phenomenon and its role in the transition between hydrogen-burning O stars and helium-burning WR stars. We also report on the detection of an arc-like structure attached to the cLBV HD 326823 and an arc associated with the LBV R99 (HD 269445) in the LMC. Partially based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). E-mail: vgvaram@mx.iki.rssi.ru (VVG); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); fabrika@sao.ru (SF)

  7. Post-main-sequence Evolution of Icy Minor Planets. II. Water Retention and White Dwarf Pollution around Massive Progenitor Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Uri; Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: uri.mal@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel)

    2017-06-10

    Most studies suggest that the pollution of white dwarf (WD) atmospheres arises from the accretion of minor planets, but the exact properties of polluting material, and in particular the evidence for water in some cases, are not yet understood. Here we study the water retention of small icy bodies in exo-solar planetary systems, as their respective host stars evolve through and off the main sequence and eventually become WDs. We explore, for the first time, a wide range of star masses and metallicities. We find that the mass of the WD progenitor star is of crucial importance for the retention of water, while its metallicity is relatively unimportant. We predict that minor planets around lower-mass WD progenitors would generally retain more water and would do so at closer distances from the WD than compared with high-mass progenitors. The dependence of water retention on progenitor mass and other parameters has direct implications for the origin of observed WD pollution, and we discuss how our results and predictions might be tested in the future as more observations of WDs with long cooling ages become available.

  8. MASSIVE INFANT STARS ROCK THEIR CRADLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely intense radiation from newly born, ultra-bright stars has blown a glowing spherical bubble in the nebula N83B, also known as NGC 1748. A new NASA Hubble Space Telescope image has helped to decipher the complex interplay of gas and radiation of a star-forming region in a nearby galaxy. The image graphically illustrates just how these massive stars sculpt their environment by generating powerful winds that alter the shape of the parent gaseous nebula. These processes are also seen in our Milky Way in regions like the Orion Nebula. The Hubble telescope is famous for its contribution to our knowledge about star formation in very distant galaxies. Although most of the stars in the Universe were born several billions of years ago, when the Universe was young, star formation still continues today. This new Hubble image shows a very compact star-forming region in a small part of one of our neighboring galaxies - the Large Magellanic Cloud. This galaxy lies only 165,000 light-years from our Milky Way and can easily be seen with the naked eye from the Southern Hemisphere. Young, massive, ultra-bright stars are seen here just as they are born and emerge from the shelter of their pre-natal molecular cloud. Catching these hefty stars at their birthplace is not as easy as it may seem. Their high mass means that the young stars evolve very rapidly and are hard to find at this critical stage. Furthermore, they spend a good fraction of their youth hidden from view, shrouded by large quantities of dust in a molecular cloud. The only chance is to observe them just as they start to emerge from their cocoon - and then only with very high-resolution telescopes. Astronomers from France, the U.S., and Germany have used Hubble to study the fascinating interplay between gas, dust, and radiation from the newly born stars in this nebula. Its peculiar and turbulent structure has been revealed for the first time. This high-resolution study has also uncovered several individual stars

  9. Bulk yields of nucleosynthesis from massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are made of the absolute yields of abundant nuclei synthesized in observed stars. The compositions of nine helium stars of mass 3 or =10M/sub sun/ is estimated. A variety of choices for the initial mass function (IMF) are used to calculate the yield per stellar generation. For standard choices of the (IMF) the absolute and relative yields of 12 C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg, the Si to Ca group, and the iron group agree with solar system values, to the accuracy of the calculations. The relative yields are surprisingly insensitive to the slope of the IMF. In a second approach, using standard estimates (Ostriker, Richstone, and Thuan) for the current rate of stellar death, I find the present rate of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood to be about 10%of the average rate over galactic history. This result is consistent with many standard models of galactic evolution (for example, the Schmidt model in which star formation goes as gas density squared). It appears that if the star formation rate is high enough to produce the stars we see around us, then the nucleosynthesis rate is large enough to produce the processed nuclei (except 4 He) seen in those stars. The typical nucleosynthesis source is massive (Mapprox. =30 M/sub sun/); the death rate of such stars is a small fraction (3-10%) of recent estimates of the total rate of supernovae

  10. Multi-wavelength investigations on feedback of massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinghua

    2014-05-01

    In the course of massive star formation, outflows, ionizing radiation and intense stellar winds could heavily affect their adjacent environs and natal clouds. There are several outstanding open questions related to these processes: i) whether they can drive turbulence in molecular clouds; ii) whether they are able to trigger star formation; iii) whether they can destroy natal clouds to terminate star formation at low efficiencies. This thesis investigates feedback in different stages of massive star formation. Influence of such feedback to the ambient medium has been revealed. A new type of millimeter methanol maser is detected for the first time. An uncommon bipolar outflow prominent in the mid-infrared is discovered. And features of triggered star formation are found on the border of an infrared bubble and in the surroundings of a Herbig Be star. Extended green objects (EGOs) are massive outflow candidates showing prominent shocked features in the mid-infrared. We have carried out a high resolution study of the EGO G22.04+0.22 (hereafter, G22) based on archived SMA data. Continuum and molecular lines at 1.3 mm reveal that G22 is still at a hot molecular core stage. A very young multi-polar outflow system is detected, which is interacting with the adjacent dense gas. Anomalous emission features from CH3OH (8,-1,8 - 7,0,7) and CH3OH (4,2,2 - 3,1,2) are proven to be millimeter masers. It is the first time that maser emission of CH3OH (8,-1,8 - 7,0,7) at 218.440 GHz is detected in a massive star-forming region. Bipolar outflows have been revealed and investigated almost always in the microwave or radio domain. It's sort of rare that hourglass-shaped morphology be discovered in the mid-infrared. Based on GLIMPSE data, we have discovered a bipolar object resembling an hourglass at 8.0 um. It is found to be associated with IRAS 18114-1825. Analysis based on fitted SED, optical spectroscopy, and infrared color indices suggests IRAS 18114-1825 is an uncommon bipolar

  11. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  12. The coupling between pulsation and mass loss in massive stars

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Rich

    2007-01-01

    To what extent can pulsational instabilities resolve the mass-loss problem of massive stars? How important is pulsation in structuring and modulating the winds of these stars? What role does pulsation play in redistributing angular momentum in massive stars? Although I cannot offer answers to these questions, I hope at the very least to explain how they come to be asked.

  13. The VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Langer, N.; Brott, I.; Hunter, I.; Smartt, S.J.; Lennon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars was an ESO Large Programme to understand rotational mixing and stellar mass loss in different metallicity environments, in order to better constrain massive star evolution. We gathered high-quality spectra of over 800 stars in the Galaxy and in the Magellanic

  14. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg

    2010-08-25

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  15. Three-dimensional Boltzmann-Hydro Code for Core-collapse in Massive Stars. II. The Implementation of Moving-mesh for Neutron Star Kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagakura, Hiroki [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Iwakami, Wakana [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Furusawa, Shun [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronimical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke [Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Matsufuru, Hideo [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 308-0801 (Japan); Imakura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    We present a newly developed moving-mesh technique for the multi-dimensional Boltzmann-Hydro code for the simulation of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). What makes this technique different from others is the fact that it treats not only hydrodynamics but also neutrino transfer in the language of the 3 + 1 formalism of general relativity (GR), making use of the shift vector to specify the time evolution of the coordinate system. This means that the transport part of our code is essentially general relativistic, although in this paper it is applied only to the moving curvilinear coordinates in the flat Minknowski spacetime, since the gravity part is still Newtonian. The numerical aspect of the implementation is also described in detail. Employing the axisymmetric two-dimensional version of the code, we conduct two test computations: oscillations and runaways of proto-neutron star (PNS). We show that our new method works fine, tracking the motions of PNS correctly. We believe that this is a major advancement toward the realistic simulation of CCSNe.

  16. Three-dimensional Boltzmann-Hydro Code for Core-collapse in Massive Stars. II. The Implementation of Moving-mesh for Neutron Star Kicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Iwakami, Wakana; Furusawa, Shun; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi; Matsufuru, Hideo; Imakura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We present a newly developed moving-mesh technique for the multi-dimensional Boltzmann-Hydro code for the simulation of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). What makes this technique different from others is the fact that it treats not only hydrodynamics but also neutrino transfer in the language of the 3 + 1 formalism of general relativity (GR), making use of the shift vector to specify the time evolution of the coordinate system. This means that the transport part of our code is essentially general relativistic, although in this paper it is applied only to the moving curvilinear coordinates in the flat Minknowski spacetime, since the gravity part is still Newtonian. The numerical aspect of the implementation is also described in detail. Employing the axisymmetric two-dimensional version of the code, we conduct two test computations: oscillations and runaways of proto-neutron star (PNS). We show that our new method works fine, tracking the motions of PNS correctly. We believe that this is a major advancement toward the realistic simulation of CCSNe.

  17. Stellar Feedback in Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jack; Pellegrini, Eric; Ferland, Gary; Murray, Norm; Hanson, Margaret

    2008-02-01

    Star formation rates and chemical evolution are controlled in part by the interaction of stellar radiation and winds with the remnant molecular gas from which the stars have formed. We are carrying out a detailed, panchromatic study in the two nearest giant star-forming regions to nail down the physics that produces the 10-20 parsec bubbles seen to surround young massive clusters in the Milky Way. This will determine if and how the clusters disrupt their natal giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Here we request 4 nights on the Blanco telescope to obtain dense grids of optical long-slit spectra criss-crossing each nebula. These will cover the [S II] doublet (to measure N_e) and also [O III], H(beta), [O I], H(alpha) and [N II] to measure the ionization mechanism and ionization parameter, at ~3000 different spots in each nebula. From this we can determine a number of dynamically important quantities, such as the gas density and temperature, hence pressure in and around these bubbles. These quantities can be compared to the dynamical (gravitationally induced) pressure, and the radiation pressure. All can be employed in dynamical models for the evolution of a GMC under the influence of an embedded massive star cluster. This research will elucidate the detailed workings of the star-forming regions which dominate the star formation rate in the Milky Way, and also will steadily improve our calibration and understanding of more distant, less well-resolved objects such as ULIRGS, Lyman break, and submillimeter galaxies.

  18. How massive the Wolf-Rayet stars are

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemela, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    If the Wolf-Rayet stars are produced by the evolution of massive stars with mass loss (Paczynski 1967, Conti 1976) from O stars to WN stars and thereafter to WC stars, then we may expect to observe a correlation of decreasing mean masses in the same sense as the evolution. Information about the masses of WR stars are obtained from studies of binary systems with WR components. (Auth.)

  19. Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H.; Bordbar, G.H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: ghbordbar@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: behzad.eslampanah@gmail.com, E-mail: sh.panahiyan@gmail.com [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the recent interests in spin−2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.

  20. Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Bordbar, G. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the recent interests in spin-2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.

  1. Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Bordbar, G.H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the recent interests in spin−2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.

  2. Very massive runaway stars from three-body encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia

    2011-01-01

    Very massive stars preferentially reside in the cores of their parent clusters and form binary or multiple systems. We study the role of tight very massive binaries in the origin of the field population of very massive stars. We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between single (massive) stars and a very massive binary with parameters similar to those of the most massive known Galactic binaries, WR 20a and NGC 3603-A1. We found that these three-body encounters could be responsible for the origin of high peculiar velocities (≥70 km s-1) observed for some very massive (≥60-70 M⊙) runaway stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (e.g. λ Cep, BD+43°3654, Sk -67°22, BI 237, 30 Dor 016), which can hardly be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario. The production of high-velocity massive stars via three-body encounters is accompanied by the recoil of the binary in the opposite direction to the ejected star. We show that the relative position of the very massive binary R145 and the runaway early B-type star Sk-69°206 on the sky is consistent with the possibility that both objects were ejected from the central cluster, R136, of the star-forming region 30 Doradus via the same dynamical event - a three-body encounter.

  3. Peering to the Heart of Massive Star Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    We propose a small survey of massive/intermediate-mass protostars with WFC3/IR to probe J and H band continuum emission, the Pa-beta and the [FeII] emission. The protostar sample is already the subject of approved SOFIA-FORCAST observations from 10-40 microns. Combined with sophisticated radiative transfer models, these observations are providing the most detailed constraints on the nature of massive protostars, their luminosities, outflow cavity structures and orientations, and distribution of surrounding dense core gas and dust. Recently, we were also awarded ALMA Cycle 3 time to study these sources at up to 0.14 resolution. The proposed HST observations, with very similar resolution, have three main goals: 1) Detect and characterize J and H band continuum emission from the massive/intermediate-mass protostars, which is expected to arise from jet and outflow knot features and from scattered light emerging from the outflow cavities; 2) Detect and characterize Pa-beta and [FeII] line emission tracing ionized and FUV-illuminated regions around the massive protostars, important diagnostics of the protostellar source and its outflow structure; 3) Search for lower-mass protostars that may be clustered around the forming massive protostar. All of these objectives will help test massive star formation theories. The high sensitivity and angular resolution of WFC3/IR enables these observations to be carried out efficiently in a timely fashion. Mid-Cycle observations are critical for near contemporaneous observation with ALMA, since jet/outflow knots may have large proper motions, and to maximize the potential time baseline for a future HST study of jet/outflow proper motions.

  4. Massive Stars as Progenitors of Supernovae and GRBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langer, N.; van Marle, A.J.; Poelarends, A.J.T.; Yoon, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary fate of massive stars in our Milky Way is thought to be reasonably well understood: stars above ˜ 8 M_o produce neutron stars and supernovae, while those above ˜ 20...30 M_o are presumed to form black holes. At metallicities below that of the SMC, however, our knowledge becomes

  5. THE VERY MASSIVE STAR CONTENT OF THE NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS IN NGC 5253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Crowther, P. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts—Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Sidoli, F., E-mail: lsmith@stsci.edu [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-20

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a very young starburst containing twin nuclear star clusters, separated by a projected distance of 5 pc. One cluster (#5) coincides with the peak of the H α emission and the other (#11) with a massive ultracompact H ii region. A recent analysis of these clusters shows that they have a photometric age of 1 ± 1 Myr, in apparent contradiction with the age of 3–5 Myr inferred from the presence of Wolf-Rayet features in the cluster #5 spectrum. We examine Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of #5 and show that the stellar features arise from very massive stars (VMSs), with masses greater than 100 M {sub ⊙}, at an age of 1–2 Myr. We further show that the very high ionizing flux from the nuclear clusters can only be explained if VMSs are present. We investigate the origin of the observed nitrogen enrichment in the circumcluster ionized gas and find that the excess N can be produced by massive rotating stars within the first 1 Myr. We find similarities between the NGC 5253 cluster spectrum and those of metal-poor, high-redshift galaxies. We discuss the presence of VMSs in young, star-forming galaxies at high redshift; these should be detected in rest-frame UV spectra to be obtained with the James Webb Space Telescope . We emphasize that population synthesis models with upper mass cutoffs greater than 100 M {sub ⊙} are crucial for future studies of young massive star clusters at all redshifts.

  6. WHAT SETS THE INITIAL ROTATION RATES OF MASSIVE STARS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Anna L.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that set the initial rotation rates in massive stars are a crucial unknown in current star formation theory. Observations of young, massive stars provide evidence that they form in a similar fashion to their low-mass counterparts. The magnetic coupling between a star and its accretion disk may be sufficient to spin down low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to well below breakup at the end stage of their formation when the accretion rate is low. However, we show that these magnetic torques are insufficient to spin down massive PMS stars due to their short formation times and high accretion rates. We develop a model for the angular momentum evolution of stars over a wide range in mass, considering both magnetic and gravitational torques. We find that magnetic torques are unable to spin down either low-mass or high-mass stars during the main accretion phase, and that massive stars cannot be spun down significantly by magnetic torques during the end stage of their formation either. Spin-down occurs only if massive stars' disk lifetimes are substantially longer or their magnetic fields are much stronger than current observations suggest.

  7. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: A STATISTICAL STUDY OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH INFRARED BUBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrew, S.; Robitaille, T. P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Simpson, R.; Lintott, C. J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bressert, E. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Povich, M. S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sherman, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Schawinski, K. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wolf-Chase, G., E-mail: kendrew@mpia.de [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The Milky Way Project citizen science initiative recently increased the number of known infrared bubbles in the inner Galactic plane by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. We present a detailed statistical analysis of this data set with the Red MSX Source (RMS) catalog of massive young stellar sources to investigate the association of these bubbles with massive star formation. We particularly address the question of massive triggered star formation near infrared bubbles. We find a strong positional correlation of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions with Milky Way Project bubbles at separations of <2 bubble radii. As bubble sizes increase, a statistically significant overdensity of massive young sources emerges in the region of the bubble rims, possibly indicating the occurrence of triggered star formation. Based on numbers of bubble-associated RMS sources, we find that 67% {+-} 3% of MYSOs and (ultra-)compact H II regions appear to be associated with a bubble. We estimate that approximately 22% {+-} 2% of massive young stars may have formed as a result of feedback from expanding H II regions. Using MYSO-bubble correlations, we serendipitously recovered the location of the recently discovered massive cluster Mercer 81, suggesting the potential of such analyses for discovery of heavily extincted distant clusters.

  8. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: A STATISTICAL STUDY OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH INFRARED BUBBLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrew, S.; Robitaille, T. P.; Simpson, R.; Lintott, C. J.; Bressert, E.; Povich, M. S.; Sherman, R.; Schawinski, K.; Wolf-Chase, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Milky Way Project citizen science initiative recently increased the number of known infrared bubbles in the inner Galactic plane by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. We present a detailed statistical analysis of this data set with the Red MSX Source (RMS) catalog of massive young stellar sources to investigate the association of these bubbles with massive star formation. We particularly address the question of massive triggered star formation near infrared bubbles. We find a strong positional correlation of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions with Milky Way Project bubbles at separations of <2 bubble radii. As bubble sizes increase, a statistically significant overdensity of massive young sources emerges in the region of the bubble rims, possibly indicating the occurrence of triggered star formation. Based on numbers of bubble-associated RMS sources, we find that 67% ± 3% of MYSOs and (ultra-)compact H II regions appear to be associated with a bubble. We estimate that approximately 22% ± 2% of massive young stars may have formed as a result of feedback from expanding H II regions. Using MYSO-bubble correlations, we serendipitously recovered the location of the recently discovered massive cluster Mercer 81, suggesting the potential of such analyses for discovery of heavily extincted distant clusters.

  9. Observations of Bright Massive Stars Using Small Size Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beradze, Sopia; Kochiashvili, Nino

    2017-11-01

    The size of a telescope determines goals and objects of observations. During the latest decades it becomes more and more difficult to get photometric data of bright stars because most of telescopes of small sizes do not operate already. But there are rather interesting questions connected to the properties and evolution ties between different types of massive stars. Multi-wavelength photometric data are needed for solution of some of them. We are presenting our observational plans of bright Massive X-ray binaries, WR and LBV stars using a small size telescope. All these stars, which are presented in the poster are observational targets of Sopia Beradze's future PhD thesis. We already have got very interesting results on the reddening and possible future eruption of the massive hypergiant star P Cygni. Therefore, we decided to choose some additional interesting massive stars of different type for future observations. All Massive stars play an important role in the chemical evolution of galaxies because of they have very high mass loss - up to 10-4M⊙/a year. Our targets are on different evolutionary stages and three of them are the members of massive binaries. We plan to do UBVRI photometric observations of these stars using the 48 cm Cassegrain telescope of the Abastumani Astrophisical Observatory.

  10. A Massive Star Census of the Starburst Cluster R136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Paul

    2012-10-01

    We propose to carry out a comprehensive census of the most massive stars in the central parsec {4"} of the starburst cluster, R136, which powers the Tarantula Nebula in the LMC. R136 is both sufficiently massive that the upper mass function is richly populated and young enough that its most massive stars have yet to explode as supernovae. The identification of very massive stars in R136, up to 300 solar masses, raises general questions of star formation, binarity and feedback in young massive clusters. The proposed STIS spectral survey of 36 stars more massive than 50 solar masses within R136 is ground-breaking, of legacy value, and is specifically tailored to a} yield physical properties; b} detect the majority of binaries by splitting observations between Cycles 19 and 20; c} measure rotational velocities, relevant for predictions of rotational mixing; d} quantify mass-loss properties for very massive stars; e} determine surface compositions; f} measure radial velocities, relevant for runaway stars and cluster dynamics; g} quantify radiative and mechanical feedback. This census will enable the mass function of very massive stars to be measured for the first time, as a result of incomplete and inadequate spectroscopy to date. It will also perfectly complement our Tarantula Survey, a ground-based VLT Large Programme, by including the most massive stars that are inaccessible to ground-based visual spectroscopy due to severe crowding. These surveys, together with existing integrated UV and optical studies will enable 30 Doradus to serve as a bona-fide template for unresolved extragalactic starburst regions.

  11. How Very Massive Metal Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include non-equilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the Case B approximation using adaptively ray traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of ∼10 6 . These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small scales voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately 5 ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10 6 M · halos are dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than ∼10 7 M # circle d ot#, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15--50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Supernova feedback in these more massive halos creates a more diffuse medium, allowing the stellar radiation to escape more easily and maintaining the ratio of 5 ionizing photons per sustained ionization

  12. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  13. Ionizing feedback from massive stars in massive clusters: fake bubbles and untriggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dale, James E.; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 414, č. 1 (2011), s. 321-328 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars formation * H II regions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2011

  14. THE PREVALENCE AND IMPACT OF WOLF–RAYET STARS IN EMERGING MASSIVE STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Indebetouw, Rémy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Massey, Philip, E-mail: krs9tb@virginia.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We investigate Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars as a source of feedback contributing to the removal of natal material in the early evolution of massive star clusters. Despite previous work suggesting that massive star clusters clear out their natal material before the massive stars evolve into the WR phase, WR stars have been detected in several emerging massive star clusters. These detections suggest that the timescale for clusters to emerge can be at least as long as the time required to produce WR stars (a few million years), and could also indicate that WR stars may be providing the tipping point in the combined feedback processes that drive a massive star cluster to emerge. We explore the potential overlap between the emerging phase and the WR phase with an observational survey to search for WR stars in emerging massive star clusters hosting WR stars. We select candidate emerging massive star clusters from known radio continuum sources with thermal emission and obtain optical spectra with the 4 m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the 6.5 m MMT.{sup 4} We identify 21 sources with significantly detected WR signatures, which we term “emerging WR clusters.” WR features are detected in ∼50% of the radio-selected sample, and thus we find that WR stars are commonly present in currently emerging massive star clusters. The observed extinctions and ages suggest that clusters without WR detections remain embedded for longer periods of time, and may indicate that WR stars can aid, and therefore accelerate, the emergence process.

  15. Molecular line study of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we have selected a sample of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey, in order to study star formation activities (mainly outflow and inflow signatures). We have focused on three molecular lines from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz: HCO+(1-0), H13CO+(1-0) and SiO(2-1). According to previous observations, our sources can be divided into two groups: nine massive young stellar object candidates (radio-quiet) and 10 H II regions (which have spherical or unresolved radio emissions). Outflow activities have been found in 11 sources, while only three show inflow signatures in all. The high outflow detection rate means that outflows are common in massive star-forming regions. The inflow detection rate was relatively low. We suggest that this was because of the beam dilution of the telescope. All three inflow candidates have outflow(s). The outward radiation and thermal pressure from the central massive star(s) do not seem to be strong enough to halt accretion in G345.0034-00.2240. Our simple model of G318.9480-00.1969 shows that it has an infall velocity of about 1.8 km s-1. The spectral energy distribution analysis agrees our sources are massive and intermediate-massive star formation regions.

  16. MASSIVE STARS IN THE Cl 1813-178 CLUSTER: AN EPISODE OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE W33 COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, Maria; Davies, Ben; Figer, Donald F.; Trombley, Christine; Kudritzki, R. P.; Valenti, Elena; Najarro, F.; Michael Rich, R.

    2011-01-01

    Young massive (M > 10 4 M sun ) stellar clusters are a good laboratory to study the evolution of massive stars. Only a dozen of such clusters are known in the Galaxy. Here, we report about a new young massive stellar cluster in the Milky Way. Near-infrared medium-resolution spectroscopy with UIST on the UKIRT telescope and NIRSPEC on the Keck telescope, and X-ray observations with the Chandra and XMM satellites, of the Cl 1813-178 cluster confirm a large number of massive stars. We detected 1 red supergiant, 2 Wolf-Rayet stars, 1 candidate luminous blue variable, 2 OIf, and 19 OB stars. Among the latter, twelve are likely supergiants, four giants, and the faintest three dwarf stars. We detected post-main-sequence stars with masses between 25 and 100 M sun . A population with age of 4-4.5 Myr and a mass of ∼10, 000 M sun can reproduce such a mixture of massive evolved stars. This massive stellar cluster is the first detection of a cluster in the W33 complex. Six supernova remnants and several other candidate clusters are found in the direction of the same complex.

  17. How Very Massive Metal-Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include nonequilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the case B approximation using adaptively ray-traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of approx.10(exp 6). These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small-scale voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf-sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies, making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately five ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10(exp 6) stellar Mass halos is dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than approx.10(exp 7) Stellar Mass, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15-50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Radiative feedback decreases clumping factors by 25% when compared to simulations without star formation and increases the average temperature of ionized gas to values between 3000 and 10,000 K.

  18. Formation of massive stars in OB associations and giant molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Certain interesting patterns are being perceived in the morphology of the regions which have recently produced massive OB stars. In particular, current evidence seems to favour the notion that the formation of massive stars takes place at the edges and not the centres of large molecular cloud complexes. It is this aspect of the observations that is discussed in the present paper. The phenomena described here will pertain to massive stars only. Specifically, stars with spectral types earlier than B3 will be considered since it is usually only these stars that produce sufficient havoc (e.g., maser sources, CO bright spots, H II regions) to noticeably affect their early environments. The corresponding phenomena for lower mass stars could be entirely different. A review is first presented of what has been learned about the OB star formation process from studies of the visible OB stars themselves. Then, newly derived information pertaining to the most recent episodes of OB star birth in galactic molecular clouds is discussed. Finally, a short discussion of the significance of the results and their implications for possible star formation mechanisms will be made. (U.K.)

  19. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L.; Rebull, L. M.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  20. Small scale kinematics of massive star-forming cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kuo-Song

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the formation of Solar-type stars, the formation of massive stars (M>8 Msun) is not yet well understood. For Solar-type protostars, the presence of circumstellar or protoplanetary disks which provide a path for mass accretion onto protostars is well established. However, to date only few

  1. Metallicity dependence of envelope inflation in massive stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanyal, D.; Langer, N.; Szécsi, Dorottya; Yoon, S.-C.; Grassitelli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 597, January (2017), A71/1-A71/16 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02385S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars evolution * stars massive * stars interiors Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  2. Massive stars in the Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Miriam

    2018-02-01

    Low metallicity massive stars hold the key to interpret numerous processes in the past Universe including re-ionization, starburst galaxies, high-redshift supernovae, and γ-ray bursts. The Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy [SagDIG, 12+log(O/H) = 7.37] represents an important landmark in the quest for analogues accessible with 10-m class telescopes. This Letter presents low-resolution spectroscopy executed with the Gran Telescopio Canarias that confirms that SagDIG hosts massive stars. The observations unveiled three OBA-type stars and one red supergiant candidate. Pending confirmation from high-resolution follow-up studies, these could be the most metal-poor massive stars of the Local Group.

  3. Massive stars on the verge of exploding: the properties of oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, F.; Straal, S.M.; Sanyal, D.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Gräfener, G.; Langer, N.; Vink, J.S.; de Mink, S.E.; Kaper, L.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet (WO) stars are a very rare stage in the evolution of massive stars. Their spectra show strong emission lines of helium-burning products, in particular highly ionized carbon and oxygen. The properties of WO stars can be used to provide unique constraints on the

  4. Supernova explosion in a very massive star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Eid, M.F.

    1986-07-01

    We describe the final evolution of a 100 solar mass following an evolutionary scenario during which the star evolves from a Wolf-Rayet stage through the electron- positron pair creation supernova. We find that the star is completely disrupted by explosive oxygen burning, and this type of explosion as a possible scenario for the Cassiopeia A remnant. This scenario seems to be also applicable to the supernova 1985f according to the recent observations of this object

  5. Massive runaway stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2010-09-01

    The origin of massive field stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has long been an enigma. The recent measurements of large offsets (˜ 100 km s-1) between the heliocentric radial velocities of some very massive (O2-type) field stars and the systemic LMC velocity provides a possible explanation of this enigma and suggests that the field stars are runaway stars ejected from their birthplaces at the very beginning of their parent cluster's dynamical evolution. A straightforward way to prove this explanation is to measure the proper motions of the field stars and to show that they are moving away from one of the nearby star clusters or OB associations. This approach is, however, complicated by the long distance to the LMC, which makes accurate proper motion measurements difficult. We used an alternative approach for solving the problem (first applied for Galactic field stars), based on the search for bow shocks produced by runaway stars. The geometry of detected bow shocks would allow us to infer the direction of stellar motion, thereby determining their possible parent clusters. In this paper we present the results of a search for bow shocks around six massive field stars that have been proposed as candidate runaway stars. Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we found a bow shock associated with one of our programme stars, the O2 V((f*)) star BI 237, which is the first-ever detection of bow shocks in the LMC. Orientation of the bow shock suggests that BI 237 was ejected from the OB association LH 82 (located at ≃ 120 pc in projection from the star). A by-product of our search is the detection of bow shocks generated by four OB stars in the field of the LMC and an arc-like structure attached to the candidate luminous blue variable R81 (HD 269128). The geometry of two of these bow shocks is consistent with the possibility that their associated stars were ejected from the 30 Doradus star-forming complex. We discuss implications of our findings for the

  6. The Evolution of Low-Metallicity Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szécsi, Dorottya

    2016-07-01

    Massive star evolution taking place in astrophysical environments consisting almost entirely of hydrogen and helium - in other words, low-metallicity environments - is responsible for some of the most intriguing and energetic cosmic phenomena, including supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and gravitational waves. This thesis aims to investigate the life and death of metal-poor massive stars, using theoretical simulations of the stellar structure and evolution. Evolutionary models of rotating, massive stars (9-600 Msun) with an initial metal composition appropriate for the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18 are presented and analyzed. We find that the fast rotating models (300 km/s) become a particular type of objects predicted only at low-metallicity: the so-called Transparent Wind Ultraviolet INtense (TWUIN) stars. TWUIN stars are fast rotating massive stars that are extremely hot (90 kK), very bright and as compact as Wolf-Rayet stars. However, as opposed to Wolf-Rayet stars, their stellar winds are optically thin. As these hot objects emit intense UV radiation, we show that they can explain the unusually high number of ionizing photons of the dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18, an observational quantity that cannot be understood solely based on the normal stellar population of this galaxy. On the other hand, we find that the most massive, slowly rotating models become another special type of object predicted only at low-metallicity: core-hydrogen-burning cool supergiant stars. Having a slow but strong stellar wind, these supergiants may be important contributors in the chemical evolution of young galactic globular clusters. In particular, we suggest that the low mass stars observed today could form in a dense, massive and cool shell around these, now dead, supergiants. This scenario is shown to explain the anomalous surface abundances observed in these low mass stars, since the shell itself, having been made of the mass ejected by the supergiant’s wind, contains nuclear

  7. Massive-Star Magnetospheres: Now in 3-D!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Richard

    Magnetic fields are unexpected in massive stars, due to the absence of a dynamo convection zone beneath their surface layers. Nevertheless, kilogauss-strength, ordered fields were detected in a small subset of these stars over three decades ago, and the intervening years have witnessed the steady expansion of this subset. A distinctive feature of magnetic massive stars is that they harbor magnetospheres --- circumstellar environments where the magnetic field interacts strongly with the star's radiation-driven wind, confining it and channelling it into energetic shocks. A wide range of observational signatures are associated with these magnetospheres, in diagnostics ranging from X-rays all the way through to radio emission. Moreover, these magnetospheres can play an important role in massive-star evolution, by amplifying angular momentum loss in the wind. Recent progress in understanding massive-star magnetospheres has largely been driven by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. However, these have been restricted to two- dimensional axisymmetric configurations, with three-dimensional configurations possible only in certain special cases. These restrictions are limiting further progress; we therefore propose to develop completely general three-dimensional models for the magnetospheres of massive stars, on the one hand to understand their observational properties and exploit them as plasma-physics laboratories, and on the other to gain a comprehensive understanding of how they influence the evolution of their host star. For weak- and intermediate-field stars, the models will be based on 3-D MHD simulations using a modified version of the ZEUS-MP code. For strong-field stars, we will extend our existing Rigid Field Hydrodynamics (RFHD) code to handle completely arbitrary field topologies. To explore a putative 'photoionization-moderated mass loss' mechanism for massive-star magnetospheres, we will also further develop a photoionization code we have recently

  8. Grain processes in massive star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfire, M.G.; Cassinelli, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that stars greater than 100 M(solar) exist in the Galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), however classical star formation theory predicts stellar mass limits of only approx. 60 M(solar). A protostellar accretion flow consists of inflowing gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they are near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grain can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. We first consider rather general constraints on the initial grain to gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. We further constrain these results by constructing a numerical model. Radiative deceleration of grains and grain destruction processes are explicitly accounted for in an iterative solution of the radiation-hydrodynamic equations. Findings seem to suggest that star formation by spherical accretion requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment

  9. Effects of stellar evolution and ionizing radiation on the environments of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Mohamed, S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Neilson, H. R.; Meyer, D. M.-A.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss two important effects for the astrospheres of runaway stars: the propagation of ionizing photons far beyond the astropause, and the rapid evolution of massive stars (and their winds) near the end of their lives. Hot stars emit ionizing photons with associated photoheating that has a significant dynamical effect on their surroundings. 3-D simulations show that H ii regions around runaway O stars drive expanding conical shells and leave underdense wakes in the medium they pass through. For late O stars this feedback to the interstellar medium is more important than that from stellar winds. Late in life, O stars evolve to cool red supergiants more rapidly than their environment can react, producing transient circumstellar structures such as double bow shocks. This provides an explanation for the bow shock and linear bar-shaped structure observed around Betelgeuse.

  10. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-18

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  11. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  12. An unstable truth: how massive stars get their mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anna L.; Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    2016-12-01

    The pressure exerted by massive stars' radiation fields is an important mechanism regulating their formation. Detailed simulation of massive star formation therefore requires an accurate treatment of radiation. However, all published simulations have either used a diffusion approximation of limited validity; have only been able to simulate a single star fixed in space, thereby suppressing potentially important instabilities; or did not provide adequate resolution at locations where instabilities may develop. To remedy this, we have developed a new, highly accurate radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channelled to the stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities, in agreement with previous results using stars capable of moving, but in disagreement with methods where the star is held fixed or with simulations that do not adequately resolve the development of RT instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. Instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. Our results suggest that RT features should be present around accreting massive stars throughout their formation.

  13. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion X. Chen1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the possible accretion from companion in the mas- sive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO ...

  14. Late stages of massive star evolution and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of massive stars in the mass range of 8 to 25 M solar mass is reviewed. The effect of electron degeneracy on the gravothermal nature of stars is discussed. Depending on the stellar mass, the stars form three types of cores, namely, non-degenerate, semi-degenerate, and strongly degenerate cores. The evolution for these cases is quite distinct from each other and leads to the three different types of final fate. It is suggested that our helium star model, which is equivalent to a 25 M solar mass star, will form a relatively small mass iron core despite the faster 12 C(α,γ) 16 O reaction. 50 refs., 21 figs

  15. Massive stars in colliding wind systems: the GLAST perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Colliding winds of massive stars in binary systems arc considered as candidate sites of high-energy non-thermal photon emission. They are already among the suggested counterparts for a few individual unidentified EGRET sources, but may constitute a detectable source population for the GLAST observatory.The present work investigates such population study of massive colliding wind systems at high-energy gamma-rays. Based on the recent detailed model (Reimer et al. 2006) for non-thermal photon production in prime candidate systems, we unveil the expected characteristics of this source class in the observables accessible at LAT energies. Combining the broadband emission model with the presently cataloged distribution of such systems and their individual parameters allows us to conclude on the expected maximum number of LAT-detections among massive stars in colliding wind binary systems

  16. Evolution of massive stars in very young clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothers, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The stellar content of very young galactic clusters and associations with well-determined ages has been analyzed statistically to derive information about stellar evolution at high masses. The adopted approach is semiempirical and uses natural spectroscopic groups of stars on the H-R diagram, together with the stars' apparent magnitudes. Cluster distance moduli are not used. Only the most basic elements of stellar evolution theory are required as input. For stellar aggregates with main-sequence turnups at spectral types between O9 and B2, the following conclusions have emerged: (1) O-type main-sequence stars evolve to a spectral type of B1 during core hydrogen burning; (2) most of the O-type blue stragglers are newly formed massive stars, burning core hydrogen; (3) supergiants lying redward of the turnup, as well as most, or all, of the Wolf-Rayet stars, are burning core helium; (4) Wolf-Rayet stars originally had masses greater than 30--40 M/sub sun/, while known M-type supergiants evolved from star less massive than approx.30 M/sub sun/; (5) phases of evolution following core helium burning are unobservably rapid, presumably on account of copious neutrino emission; and (6) formation of stars of high mass continues vigorously in most young clusters and association for approx.8 x 10 6 yr. The important result concerning the evolutionary status of the supergiants depends only on the total number of these stars and not on how they are distributed between blue and red types; the result, however, may be sensitive to the assumed amount of convective core overshooting. Conclusions in the present work refer chiefly to luminous stars in the mass range 10--40 M/sub sun/, belonging to aggregates in the age range (6--25) x 10 6 yr

  17. EARLY-STAGE MASSIVE STAR FORMATION NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: Sgr C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrew, S.; Johnston, K.; Beuther, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C. [CASA, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cyganowski, C. J., E-mail: kendrew@mpia.de [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved H II region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object (EGO) measuring ∼10'' in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C H II region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H{sub 2} and Brackett γ emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ∼10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}, with column densities of 1-2 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favorable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star formation outside of the EGO, indicating that the cloud is predominantly quiescent. Given its mass, density, and temperature, the cloud is comparable to other remarkable non-star-forming clouds such as G0.253 in the eastern CMZ.

  18. GRAVITATIONAL SLINGSHOT OF YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: s.chatterjee@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is the nearest region of massive star formation and thus a crucial testing ground for theoretical models. Of particular interest among the ONC's {approx}1000 members are: {theta}{sup 1} Ori C, the most massive binary in the cluster with stars of masses 38 and 9 M{sub Sun }; the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) object, a 30 km s{sup -1} runaway star of {approx}8 M{sub Sun }; and the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula protostar, a highly obscured, {approx}15 M{sub Sun} object still accreting gas while also driving a powerful, apparently 'explosive' outflow. The unusual behavior of BN and KL is much debated: How did BN acquire its high velocity? How is this related to massive star formation in the KL nebula? Here, we report the results of a systematic survey using {approx}10{sup 7} numerical experiments of gravitational interactions of the {theta}{sup 1}C and BN stars. We show that dynamical ejection of BN from this triple system at its observed velocity leaves behind a binary with total energy and eccentricity matching those observed for {theta}{sup 1}C. Five other observed properties of {theta}{sup 1}C are also consistent with it having ejected BN and altogether we estimate that there is only a {approx}< 10{sup -5} probability that {theta}{sup 1}C has these properties by chance. We conclude that BN was dynamically ejected from the {theta}{sup 1}C system about 4500 years ago. BN then plowed through the KL massive star-forming core within the last 1000 years causing its recently enhanced accretion and outflow activity.

  19. Millimetre wavelength methanol masers survey towards massive star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, T.; Mochizuki, N.; Shibata, K. M.; Roh, D.-G.; Chung, H.-S.

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of a mm wavelength methanol maser survey towards massive star forming regions. We have carried out Class II methanol maser observations at 86.6 GHz, 86.9 GHz and 107.0 GHz, simultaneously, using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We selected 108 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources with declinations above -25 degrees and fluxes above 20 Jy. The detection limit of maser observations was ~3 Jy. Of the 93 sources surveyed so far, we detected methanol emission in 25 sources (27%) and “maser” emission in nine sources (10%), of which thre “maser” sources are new detections. The detection rate for maser emission is about half that of a survey of the southern sky (Caswell et al. 2000). There is a correlation between the maser flux of 107 GHz and 6.7 GHz/12 GHz emission, but no correlation with the “thermal” (non maser) emission. From results of other molecular line observations, we found that the sources with methanol emission show higher gas temperatures and twice the detection rate of SiO emission. This may suggest that dust evaporation and destruction by shock are responsible for the high abundance of methanol molecules, one of the required physical conditions for maser emission.

  20. Stellar Wind Retention and Expulsion in Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2018-05-01

    Mass and energy injection throughout the lifetime of a star cluster contributes to the gas reservoir available for subsequent episodes of star formation and the feedback energy budget responsible for ejecting material from the cluster. In addition, mass processed in stellar interiors and ejected as winds has the potential to augment the abundance ratios of currently forming stars, or stars which form at a later time from a retained gas reservoir. Here we present hydrodynamical simulations that explore a wide range of cluster masses, compactnesses, metallicities and stellar population age combinations in order to determine the range of parameter space conducive to stellar wind retention or wind powered gas expulsion in star clusters. We discuss the effects of the stellar wind prescription on retention and expulsion effectiveness, using MESA stellar evolutionary models as a test bed for exploring how the amounts of wind retention/expulsion depend upon the amount of mixing between the winds from stars of different masses and ages. We conclude by summarizing some implications for gas retention and expulsion in a variety of compact (σv ≳ 20 kms-1) star clusters including young massive star clusters (105 ≲ M/M⊙ ≲ 107, age ≲ 500 Myrs), intermediate age clusters (105 ≲ M/M⊙ ≲ 107, age ≈ 1 - 4 Gyrs), and globular clusters (105 ≲ M/M⊙ ≲ 107, age ≳ 10 Gyrs).

  1. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION W49

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saral, G.; Hora, J. L.; Willis, S. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koenig, X. P. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Saygac, A. T., E-mail: gsaral@cfa.harvard.edu [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Istanbul-Turkey (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    We present the initial results of our investigation of the star-forming complex W49, one of the youngest and most luminous massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data to investigate massive star formation with the primary objective of locating a representative set of protostars and the clusters of young stars that are forming around them. We present our source catalog with the mosaics from the IRAC data. In this study we used a combination of IRAC, MIPS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) data to identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs). We identified 232 Class 0/I YSOs, 907 Class II YSOs, and 74 transition disk candidate objects using color–color and color–magnitude diagrams. In addition, to understand the evolution of star formation in W49, we analyzed the distribution of YSOs in the region to identify clusters using a minimal spanning tree method. The fraction of YSOs that belong to clusters with ≥7 members is found to be 52% for a cutoff distance of 96″, and the ratio of Class II/I objects is 2.1. We compared the W49 region to the G305 and G333 star-forming regions and concluded that W49 has the richest population, with seven subclusters of YSOs.

  2. Molecular Cloud Structures and Massive Star Formation in N159

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, O.; Meixner, M.; Fukui, Y.; Tachihara, K.; Onishi, T.; Saigo, K.; Tokuda, K.; Harada, R.

    2018-02-01

    The N159 star-forming region is one of the most massive giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We show the 12CO, 13CO, CS molecular gas lines observed with ALMA in N159 west (N159W) and N159 east (N159E). We relate the structure of the gas clumps to the properties of 24 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) that include 10 newly identified YSOs based on our search. We use dendrogram analysis to identify properties of the molecular clumps, such as flux, mass, linewidth, size, and virial parameter. We relate the YSO properties to the molecular gas properties. We find that the CS gas clumps have a steeper size–linewidth relation than the 12CO or 13CO gas clumps. This larger slope could potentially occur if the CS gas is tracing shocks. The virial parameters of the 13CO gas clumps in N159W and N159E are low (<1). The threshold for massive star formation in N159W is 501 M ⊙ pc‑2, and the threshold for massive star formation in N159E is 794 M ⊙ pc‑2. We find that 13CO is more photodissociated in N159E than N159W. The most massive YSO in N159E has cleared out a molecular gas hole in its vicinity. All the massive YSO candidates in N159E have a more evolved spectral energy distribution type in comparison to the YSO candidates in N159W. These differences lead us to conclude that the giant molecular cloud complex in N159E is more evolved than the giant molecular cloud complex in N159W.

  3. One of the most massive stars in the Galaxy may have formed in isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Oskinova, L. M.; Steinke, M.; Hamann, W. -R.; Sander, A.; Todt, H.; Liermann, A.

    2013-01-01

    Very massive stars, 100 times heavier than the sun, are rare. It is not yet known whether such stars can form in isolation or only in star clusters. The answer to this question is of fundamental importance. The central region of our Galaxy is ideal for investigating very massive stars and clusters located in the same environment. We used archival infrared images to investigate the surroundings of apparently isolated massive stars presently known in the Galactic Center. We find that two such i...

  4. Explosive Outflows from Forming Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Bally, J.; Ginsburg, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    AO imaging of the near IR [Fe ii] and H_2 lines and ALMA CO J = 2 − 1 data confirms the explosive nature of the BN/KL outflow in Orion. N-body interactions in compact groups may be responsible for the production of powerful, explosive protostellar outflows and luminous infrared flares. The Orion event may have been triggered by a protostellar merger. First results of a search for Orion-like events in 200 nearby galaxies with the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) are brief...

  5. Dynamics of H II regions around exiled O stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Langer, Norbert; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.

    2013-11-01

    At least 25 per cent of massive stars are ejected from their parent cluster, becoming runaways or exiles, travelling with often-supersonic space velocities through the interstellar medium (ISM). Their overpressurized H II regions impart kinetic energy and momentum to the ISM, compress and/or evaporate dense clouds, and can constrain properties of both the star and the ISM. Here, we present one-, two- and (the first) three-dimensional simulations of the H II region around a massive star moving supersonically through a uniform, magnetized ISM, with properties appropriate for the nearby O star ζ Oph. The H II region leaves an expanding overdense shell behind the star and, inside this, an underdense wake that should be filled with hot gas from the shocked stellar wind. The gas column density in the shell is strongly influenced by the ISM magnetic field strength and orientation. Hα emission maps show that H II region remains roughly circular, although the star is displaced somewhat from the centre of emission. For our model parameters, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region is comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the stellar wind, and the momentum feedback rate is >100 times larger than that from the wind and ≈10 times larger than the total momentum input rate available from radiation pressure. Compared to the star's eventual supernova explosion, the kinetic energy feedback from the H II region over the star's main-sequence lifetime is >100 times less, but the momentum feedback is up to 4 times larger. H II region dynamics are found to have only a small effect on the ISM conditions that a bow shock close to the star would encounter.

  6. The Formation and Early Evolution of Embedded Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter

    We propose to combine Spitzer, WISE, Herschel, and other archival spacecraft data with an existing ground- and space-based mm-wave to near-IR survey of molecular clouds over a large portion of the Milky Way, in order to systematically study the formation and early evolution of massive stars and star clusters, and provide new observational calibrations for a theoretical paradigm of this key astrophysical problem. Central Objectives: The Galactic Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP) is a large, unbiased, uniform, and panchromatic survey of massive star and cluster formation and early evolution, covering 20°x6° of the Galactic Plane. Its uniqueness lies in the comprehensive molecular spectroscopy of 303 massive dense clumps, which have also been included in several archival spacecraft surveys. Our objective is a systematic demographic analysis of massive star and cluster formation, one which has not been possible without knowledge of our CHaMP cloud sample, including all clouds with embedded clusters as well as those that have not yet formed massive stars. For proto-clusters deeply embedded within dense molecular clouds, analysis of these space-based data will: 1. Yield a complete census of Young Stellar Objects in each cluster. 2. Allow systematic measurements of embedded cluster properties: spectral energy distributions, luminosity functions, protostellar and disk fractions, and how these vary with cluster mass, age, and density. Combined with other, similarly complete and unbiased infrared and mm data, CHaMP's goals include: 3. A detailed comparison of the embedded stellar populations with their natal dense gas to derive extinction maps, star formation efficiencies and feedback effects, and the kinematics, physics, and chemistry of the gas in and around the clusters. 4. Tying the demographics, age spreads, and timescales of the clusters, based on pre-Main Sequence evolution, to that of the dense gas clumps and Giant Molecular Clouds. 5. A

  7. Stellar and wind parameters of massive stars from spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Ignacio; Curé, Michel

    2017-11-01

    The only way to deduce information from stars is to decode the radiation it emits in an appropriate way. Spectroscopy can solve this and derive many properties of stars. In this work we seek to derive simultaneously the stellar and wind characteristics of a wide range of massive stars. Our stellar properties encompass the effective temperature, the surface gravity, the stellar radius, the micro-turbulence velocity, the rotational velocity and the Si abundance. For wind properties we consider the mass-loss rate, the terminal velocity and the line-force parameters α, k and δ (from the line-driven wind theory). To model the data we use the radiative transport code Fastwind considering the newest hydrodynamical solutions derived with Hydwind code, which needs stellar and line-force parameters to obtain a wind solution. A grid of spectral models of massive stars is created and together with the observed spectra their physical properties are determined through spectral line fittings. These fittings provide an estimation about the line-force parameters, whose theoretical calculations are extremely complex. Furthermore, we expect to confirm that the hydrodynamical solutions obtained with a value of δ slightly larger than ~ 0.25, called δ-slow solutions, describe quite reliable the radiation line-driven winds of A and late B supergiant stars and at the same time explain disagreements between observational data and theoretical models for the Wind-Momentum Luminosity Relationship (WLR).

  8. Simulating the Birth of Massive Star Clusters: Is Destruction Inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Very early in its operation, the Hubble Space Telescope {HST} opened an entirely new frontier: study of the demographics and properties of star clusters far beyond the Milky Way. However, interpretation of HST's observations has proven difficult, and has led to the development of two conflicting models. One view is that most massive star clusters are disrupted during their infancy by feedback from newly formed stars {i.e., "infant mortality"}, independent of cluster mass or environment. The other model is that most star clusters survive their infancy and are disrupted later by mass-dependent dynamical processes. Since observations at present have failed to discriminate between these views, we propose a theoretical investigation to provide new insight. We will perform radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive star clusters, including for the first time a realistic treatment of the most important stellar feedback processes. These simulations will elucidate the physics of stellar feedback, and allow us to determine whether cluster disruption is mass-dependent or -independent. We will also use our simulations to search for observational diagnostics that can distinguish bound from unbound clusters, and to predict how cluster disruption affects the cluster luminosity function in a variety of galactic environments.

  9. Induced massive star formation in the trifid nebula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicharo; Lefloch; Cox; Cesarsky; Esteban; Yusef-Zadeh; Mendez; Acosta-Pulido; Garcia Lopez RJ; Heras

    1998-10-16

    The Trifid nebula is a young (10(5) years) galactic HII region where several protostellar sources have been detected with the infrared space observatory. The sources are massive (17 to 60 solar masses) and are associated with molecular gas condensations at the edges or inside the nebula. They appear to be in an early evolutionary stage and may represent the most recent generation of stars in the Trifid. These sources range from dense, apparently still inactive cores to more evolved sources, undergoing violent mass ejection episodes, including a source that powers an optical jet. These observations suggest that the protostellar sources may have evolved by induced star formation in the Trifid nebula.

  10. Multidimensional Simulations of Colliding Outbursts from very Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan

    2015-08-01

    Massive stars that end their lives with helium cores in the range of 35 to 65 solar masses are known to produce repeated thermonuclear outbursts due to a recurring pair-instability. In some of these events, solar masses of material are ejected in repeated outbursts of several times 1050 erg each. Such models can be used to explain the strong mass loss rates at the last moment before the massive stars die. Collisions between these shells can sometimes produce very luminous transients. Previous 1D studies of these events produce thin,high-density shells as one ejection plows into another. We present the first multidimensional simulations of these collisions, we show that the development of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability truncates the growth of the high density spike and drives mixing between the shells.

  11. Winds of Massive Magnetic Stars: Interacting Fields and Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.

    2018-01-01

    We present results of 3D numerical simulations of magnetically confined, radiatively driven stellar winds of massive stars, conducted using the astrophysical MHD code Pluto, with a focus on understanding the rotational variability of radio and sub-mm emission. Radiative driving is implemented according to the Castor, Abbott and Klein theory of radiatively driven winds. Many magnetic massive stars posses a magnetic axis which is inclined with respect to the rotational axis. This misalignment leads to a complex wind structure as magnetic confinement, centrifugal acceleration and radiative driving act to channel the circumstellar plasma into a warped disk whose observable properties should be apparent in multiple wavelengths. This structure is analysed to calculate free-free thermal radio emission and determine the characteristic intensity maps and radio light curves.

  12. The role of rotation in the evolution of massive stars losing mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, S.R.; Wilson, W.J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The role of differential and solid body rotation in the evolution of massive stars undergoing mass loss is discussed. The implications for Of, WR, β Cephei stars and shell stars are brought out. (Auth.)

  13. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ∼60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres

  14. Massive binary stars and self-enrichment of Massive binary stars and self-enrichment of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izzard, R.G.; de Mink, S.E.; Pols, O.R.; Langer, N.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters contain many stars with surface abundance patterns indicating contributions from hydrogen burning products, as seen in the anti-correlated elemental abundances of e.g. sodium and oxygen, and magnesium and aluminium. Multiple generations of stars can explain this phenomenon, with

  15. B fields in OB stars (BOB): Low-resolution FORS2 spectropolarimetry of the first sample of 50 massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fossati, L.; Castro, N.; Schöller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Langer, N.; Morel, T.; Briquet, M.; Herrero, A.; Przybilla, N.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F.R.N.; de Koter, A.

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of the collaboration "B fields in OB stars" (BOB), we used the FORS2 low-resolution spectropolarimeter to search for a magnetic field in 50 massive stars, including two reference magnetic massive stars. Because of the many controversies of magnetic field detections obtained with

  16. Evolution of a massive binary in a star field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The orbital evolution of a massive binary system interacting with a background field of single stars whose phase density is homogeneous in configuration space is considered. The velocity distribution is assumed isotropic up to some limiting value, and a typical field star is regarded as having a velocity much higher than the orbital speed of the pair components. An expression is derived for the transfer of energy from the binary to the field stars. The time evolution of the orbit parameters a, e is established, and the evolution rate is estimated for Kardashev's (1983) model galactic nucleus containing a central black-hole binary. On the above assumptions the components should become twice as close together within only a few tens of millennia, although the picture may change fundamentally if the nucleus is rotating. 13 references

  17. Galactic Winds and the Role Played by Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; Thompson, Todd A.

    Galactic winds from star-forming galaxies play at key role in the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium. They transport metals out of galaxies, chemically enriching the intergalactic medium and modifying the chemical evolution of galaxies. They affect the surrounding interstellar and circumgalactic media, thereby influencing the growth of galaxies though gas accretion and star formation. In this contribution we first summarize the physical mechanisms by which the momentum and energy output from a population of massive stars and associated supernovae can drive galactic winds. We use the prototypical example of M 82 to illustrate the multiphase nature of galactic winds. We then describe how the basic properties of galactic winds are derived from the data, and summarize how the properties of galactic winds vary systematically with the properties of the galaxies that launch them. We conclude with a brief discussion of the broad implications of galactic winds.

  18. Young Stellar Objects in the Massive Star-forming Regions W51 and W43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saral, G.; Audard, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Ch. d’Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Hora, J. L.; Martínez-Galarza, J. R.; Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koenig, X. P. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Motte, F. [Institut de Plantologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, Univ. Grenoble Alpes—CNRS-INSU, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Nguyen-Luong, Q. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Chile Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saygac, A. T. [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Istanbul-Turkey (Turkey)

    2017-04-20

    We present the results of our investigation of the star-forming complexes W51 and W43, two of the brightest in the first Galactic quadrant. In order to determine the young stellar object (YSO) populations in W51 and W43 we used color–magnitude relations based on Spitzer mid-infrared and 2MASS/UKIDSS near-infrared data. We identified 302 Class I YSOs and 1178 Class II/transition disk candidates in W51, and 917 Class I YSOs and 5187 Class II/transition disk candidates in W43. We also identified tens of groups of YSOs in both regions using the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. We found similar cluster densities in both regions, even though Spitzer was not able to probe the densest part of W43. By using the Class II/I ratios, we traced the relative ages within the regions and, based on the morphology of the clusters, we argue that several sites of star formation are independent of one another in terms of their ages and physical conditions. We used spectral energy distribution-fitting to identify the massive YSO (MYSO) candidates since they play a vital role in the star formation process, and then examined them to see if they are related to any massive star formation tracers such as UCH ii regions, masers, or dense fragments. We identified 17 MYSO candidates in W51, and 14 in W43, respectively, and found that groups of YSOs hosting MYSO candidates are positionally associated with H ii regions in W51, though we do not see any MYSO candidates associated with previously identified massive dense fragments in W43.

  19. Gravitational waves from remnant massive neutron stars of binary neutron star merger: Viscous hydrodynamics effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masaru; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2017-06-01

    Employing a simplified version of the Israel-Stewart formalism of general-relativistic shear-viscous hydrodynamics, we explore the evolution of a remnant massive neutron star of binary neutron star merger and pay special attention to the resulting gravitational waveforms. We find that for the plausible values of the so-called viscous alpha parameter of the order 10-2 the degree of the differential rotation in the remnant massive neutron star is significantly reduced in the viscous time scale, ≲5 ms . Associated with this, the degree of nonaxisymmetric deformation is also reduced quickly, and as a consequence, the amplitude of quasiperiodic gravitational waves emitted also decays in the viscous time scale. Our results indicate that for modeling the evolution of the merger remnants of binary neutron stars we would have to take into account magnetohydrodynamics effects, which in nature could provide the viscous effects.

  20. The formation of massive molecular filaments and massive stars triggered by a magnetohydrodynamic shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hennebelle, Patrick; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2018-05-01

    Recent observations suggest an that intensive molecular cloud collision can trigger massive star/cluster formation. The most important physical process caused by the collision is a shock compression. In this paper, the influence of a shock wave on the evolution of a molecular cloud is studied numerically by using isothermal magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity. Adaptive mesh refinement and sink particle techniques are used to follow the long-time evolution of the shocked cloud. We find that the shock compression of a turbulent inhomogeneous molecular cloud creates massive filaments, which lie perpendicularly to the background magnetic field, as we have pointed out in a previous paper. The massive filament shows global collapse along the filament, which feeds a sink particle located at the collapse center. We observe a high accretion rate \\dot{M}_acc> 10^{-4} M_{⊙}yr-1 that is high enough to allow the formation of even O-type stars. The most massive sink particle achieves M > 50 M_{⊙} in a few times 105 yr after the onset of the filament collapse.

  1. Global Infrared–Radio Spectral Energy Distributions of Galactic Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene

    2018-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of 30 Galactic massive star-forming regions. We fit multicomponent dust, blackbody, and power-law continuum models to 3.6 µm through 10 mm spectral energy distributions obtained from Spitzer, MSX, IRAS, Herschel, and Planck archival survey data. Averaged across our sample, ~20% of Lyman continuum photons emitted by massive stars are absorbed by dust before contributing to the ionization of H II regions, while ~50% of the stellar bolometric luminosity is absorbed and reprocessed by dust in the H II regions and surrounding photodissociation regions. The most luminous, infrared-bright regions that fully sample the upper stellar initial mass function (ionizing photon rates NC ≥ 1050 s–1 and total infrared luminosity LTIR ≥ 106.8 L⊙) have higher percentages of absorbed Lyman continuum photons (~40%) and dust-reprocessed starlight (~80%). The monochromatic 70-µm luminosity L70 is linearly correlated with LTIR, and on average L70/LTIR = 50%, in good agreement with extragalactic studies. Calibrated against the known massive stellar content in our sampled H II regions, we find that star formation rates based on L70 are in reasonably good agreement with extragalactic calibrations, when corrected for the smaller physical sizes of the Galactic regions. We caution that absorption of Lyman continuum photons prior to contributing to the observed ionizing photon rate may reduce the attenuation-corrected Hα emission, systematically biasing extragalactic calibrations toward lower star formation rates when applied to spatially-resolved studies of obscured star formation.This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under award CAREER-1454333.

  2. Evolution of massive stars with mass loss: surface abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greggio, L.

    1984-01-01

    The location of theoretical stellar models in the upper part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram depends on a variety of poorly understood physical processes which may occur during the evolution of massive stars. The comparison between theoretical predictions and observations of the surface chemical composition of these objects can help in understanding their evolution and to set more stringent limits to the mentioned parameters. To this end, evolutionary sequences corresponding to 20, 40 and 60 solar masses have been computed up to core He exhaustion, following in detail the abundance variations of CNO, Ne and Mg isotopes. (Auth.)

  3. Diffuse remnants of supernova explosions of moving massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The modification of the ambient interstellar medium by the wind of massive stars (the progenitors of most of supernovae) results in that the structure and evolution of diffuse supernova remnants (SNRs) significantly deviate from those derived from standard models of SNRs based of the Sedov-Taylor solution. The stellar proper motion and the regular interstellar magnetic field affect the symmetry of the processed medium and cause the SNR to be non-spherically-symmetric. We show that taking into account these effects allows us to explain the diverse morphologies of the known SNRs (the particular attention is paid to the elongated axisymmetric SNRs and the SNRs consisting of two partially overlapping shells) and to infer the ``true" supernova explosion sites in some peculiar SNRs (therefore to search for new neutron stars associated with them).

  4. Ionizing feedback from massive stars in massive clusters - III. Disruption of partially unbound clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J. E.; Ercolano, B.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2013-03-01

    We extend our previous smoothed particle hydrodynamics parameter study of the effects of photoionization from O-stars on star-forming clouds to include initially unbound clouds. We generate a set of model clouds in the mass range 104-106 M⊙ with initial virial ratios Ekin/Epot = 2.3, allow them to form stars and study the impact of the photoionizing radiation produced by the massive stars. We find that, on the 3 Myr time-scale before supernovae are expected to begin detonating, the fraction of mass expelled by ionizing feedback is a very strong function of the cloud escape velocities. High-mass clouds are largely unaffected dynamically, while low-mass clouds have large fractions of their gas reserves expelled on this time-scale. However, the fractions of stellar mass unbound are modest and significant portions of the unbound stars are so only because the clouds themselves are initially partially unbound. We find that ionization is much more able to create well-cleared bubbles in the unbound clouds, owing to their intrinsic expansion, but that the presence of such bubbles does not necessarily indicate that a given cloud has been strongly influenced by feedback. We also find, in common with the bound clouds from our earlier work, that many of the systems simulated here are highly porous to photons and supernova ejecta, and that most of them will likely survive their first supernova explosions.

  5. Asymmetric core collapse of rapidly rotating massive star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkis, Avishai

    2018-02-01

    Non-axisymmetric features are found in the core collapse of a rapidly rotating massive star, which might have important implications for magnetic field amplification and production of a bipolar outflow that can explode the star, as well as for r-process nucleosynthesis and natal kicks. The collapse of an evolved rapidly rotating MZAMS = 54 M⊙ star is followed in three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the FLASH code with neutrino leakage. A rotating proto-neutron star (PNS) forms with a non-zero linear velocity. This can contribute to the natal kick of the remnant compact object. The PNS is surrounded by a turbulent medium, where high shearing is likely to amplify magnetic fields, which in turn can drive a bipolar outflow. Neutron-rich material in the PNS vicinity might induce strong r-process nucleosynthesis. The rapidly rotating PNS possesses a rotational energy of E_rot ≳ 10^{52} erg. Magnetar formation proceeding in a similar fashion will be able to deposit a portion of this energy later on in the supernova ejecta through a spin-down mechanism. These processes can be important for rare supernovae generated by rapidly rotating progenitors, even though a complete explosion is not simulated in the present study.

  6. THE HCN/HNC ABUNDANCE RATIO TOWARD DIFFERENT EVOLUTIONARY PHASES OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mihwa; Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee-Tae, E-mail: mihwajin.sf@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ktkim@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    Using the H{sup 13}CN and HN{sup 13}C J = 1–0 line observations, the abundance ratio of HCN/HNC has been estimated for different evolutionary stages of massive star formation: infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), and ultracompact H ii regions (UCH iis). IRDCs were divided into “quiescent IRDC cores (qIRDCc)” and “active IRDC cores (aIRDCc),” depending on star formation activity. The HCN/HNC ratio is known to be higher at active and high temperature regions related to ongoing star formation, compared to cold and quiescent regions. Our observations toward 8 qIRDCc, 16 aIRDCc, 23 HMPOs, and 31 UCH iis show consistent results; the ratio is 0.97 (±0.10), 2.65 (±0.88), 4.17 (±1.03), and 8.96 (±3.32) in these respective evolutionary stages, increasing from qIRDCc to UCH iis. The change of the HCN/HNC abundance ratio, therefore, seems directly associated with the evolutionary stages of star formation, which have different temperatures. One suggested explanation for this trend is the conversion of HNC to HCN, which occurs effectively at higher temperatures. To test the explanation, we performed a simple chemical model calculation. In order to fit the observed results, the energy barrier of the conversion must be much lower than the value provided by theoretical calculations.

  7. How the First Stars Regulated Star Formation. II. Enrichment by Nearby Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ke-Jung [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Whalen, Daniel J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth University, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Wollenberg, Katharina M. J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: ken.chen@nao.ac.jp [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Metals from Population III (Pop III) supernovae led to the formation of less massive Pop II stars in the early universe, altering the course of evolution of primeval galaxies and cosmological reionization. There are a variety of scenarios in which heavy elements from the first supernovae were taken up into second-generation stars, but cosmological simulations only model them on the largest scales. We present small-scale, high-resolution simulations of the chemical enrichment of a primordial halo by a nearby supernova after partial evaporation by the progenitor star. We find that ejecta from the explosion crash into and mix violently with ablative flows driven off the halo by the star, creating dense, enriched clumps capable of collapsing into Pop II stars. Metals may mix less efficiently with the partially exposed core of the halo, so it might form either Pop III or Pop II stars. Both Pop II and III stars may thus form after the collision if the ejecta do not strip all the gas from the halo. The partial evaporation of the halo prior to the explosion is crucial to its later enrichment by the supernova.

  8. Are Nuclear Star Clusters the Precursors of Massive Black Holes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new upper limits for black hole masses in extremely late type spiral galaxies. We confirm that this class of galaxies has black holes with masses less than 106M⊙, if any. We also derive new upper limits for nuclear star cluster masses in massive galaxies with previously determined black hole masses. We use the newly derived upper limits and a literature compilation to study the low mass end of the global-to-nucleus relations. We find the following. (1 The MBH-σ relation cannot flatten at low masses, but may steepen. (2 The MBH-Mbulge relation may well flatten in contrast. (3 The MBH-Sersic n relation is able to account for the large scatter in black hole masses in low-mass disk galaxies. Outliers in the MBH-Sersic n relation seem to be dwarf elliptical galaxies. When plotting MBH versus MNC we find three different regimes: (a nuclear cluster dominated nuclei, (b a transition region, and (c black hole-dominated nuclei. This is consistent with the picture, in which black holes form inside nuclear clusters with a very low-mass fraction. They subsequently grow much faster than the nuclear cluster, destroying it when the ratio MBH/MNC grows above 100. Nuclear star clusters may thus be the precursors of massive black holes in galaxy nuclei.

  9. EVIDENCE FOR DELAYED MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE M17 PROTO-OB ASSOCIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povich, Matthew S.; Whitney, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Through analysis of archival images and photometry from the Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys combined with Two Micron All Sky Survey and MSX data, we have identified 488 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the giant molecular cloud M17 SWex, which extends ∼50 pc southwest from the prominent Galactic H II region M17. Our sample includes >200 YSOs with masses >3 M sun that will become B-type stars on the main sequence. Extrapolating over the stellar initial mass function (IMF), we find that M17 SWex contains >1.3 x 10 4 young stars, representing a proto-OB association. The YSO mass function is significantly steeper than the Salpeter IMF, and early O stars are conspicuously absent from M17 SWex. Assuming M17 SWex will form an OB association with a Salpeter IMF, these results reveal the combined effects of (1) more rapid circumstellar disk evolution in more massive YSOs and (2) delayed onset of massive star formation.

  10. Nucleosynthesis and remnants in massive stars of solar metallicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Heger, A.

    2007-01-01

    Hans Bethe contributed in many ways to our understanding of the supernovae that happen in massive stars, but, to this day, a first principles model of how the explosion is energized is lacking. Nevertheless, a quantitative theory of nucleosynthesis is possible. We present a survey of the nucleosynthesis that occurs in 32 stars of solar metallicity in the mass range 12-120M sun . The most recent set of solar abundances, opacities, mass loss rates, and current estimates of nuclear reaction rates are employed. Restrictions on the mass cut and explosion energy of the supernovae based upon nucleosynthesis, measured neutron star masses, and light curves are discussed and applied. The nucleosynthetic results, when integrated over a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF), agree quite well with what is seen in the sun. We discuss in some detail the production of the long lived radioactivities, 26 Al and 60 Fe, and why recent model-based estimates of the ratio 60 Fe/ 26 Al are overly large compared with what satellites have observed. A major source of the discrepancy is the uncertain nuclear cross sections for the creation and destruction of these unstable isotopes

  11. A Massive-born Neutron Star with a Massive White Dwarf Companion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognard, Ismaël; Guillemot, Lucas; Theureau, Gilles [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, Université d’Orléans/CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02 (France); Freire, Paulo C. C. [Station de radioastronomie de Nançay, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS/INSU, F-18330 Nançay (France); Tauris, Thomas M.; Wex, Norbert; Graikou, Eleni; Kramer, Michael; Desvignes, Gregory; Lazarus, Patrick [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Stappers, Benjamin; Lyne, Andrew G. [Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bassa, Cees [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radioastronomy, Postbus 2, 7900 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    We report on the results of a 4 year timing campaign of PSR J2222−0137, a 2.44 day binary pulsar with a massive white dwarf (WD) companion, with the Nançay, Effelsberg, and Lovell radio telescopes. Using the Shapiro delay for this system, we find a pulsar mass m {sub p} = 1.76 ± 0.06 M {sub ⊙} and a WD mass m {sub c} = 1.293 ± 0.025 M {sub ⊙}. We also measure the rate of advance of periastron for this system, which is marginally consistent with the general relativity prediction for these masses. The short lifetime of the massive WD progenitor star led to a rapid X-ray binary phase with little (< 10{sup −2} M {sub ⊙}) mass accretion onto the neutron star; hence, the current pulsar mass is, within uncertainties, its birth mass, which is the largest measured to date. We discuss the discrepancy with previous mass measurements for this system; we conclude that the measurements presented here are likely to be more accurate. Finally, we highlight the usefulness of this system for testing alternative theories of gravity by tightly constraining the presence of dipolar radiation. This is of particular importance for certain aspects of strong-field gravity, like spontaneous scalarization, since the mass of PSR J2222−0137 puts that system into a poorly tested parameter range.

  12. Kinematics of the inner thousand AU region around the young massive star AFGL 2591-VLA3: a massive disk candidate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K. -S.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.

    Context. Recent detections of disks around young high-mass stars support the idea of massive star formation through accretion rather than coalescence, but the detailed kinematics in the equatorial region of the disk candidates is not well known, which limits our understanding of the accretion

  13. Supernovae from massive stars with extended tenuous envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni

    2018-04-01

    Massive stars with a core-halo structure are interesting objects for stellar physics and hydrodynamics. Using simulations for stellar evolution, radiation hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer, we study the explosion of stars with an extended and tenuous envelope (i.e. stars in which 95% of the mass is contained within 10% or less of the surface radius). We consider both H-rich supergiant and He-giant progenitors resulting from close-binary evolution and dying with a final mass of 2.8-5 M⊙. An extended envelope causes the supernova (SN) shock to brake and a reverse shock to form, sweeping core material into a dense shell. The shock-deposited energy, which suffers little degradation from expansion, is trapped in ejecta layers of moderate optical depth, thereby enhancing the SN luminosity at early times. With the delayed 56Ni heating, we find that the resulting optical and near-IR light curves all exhibit a double-peak morphology. We show how an extended progenitor can explain the blue and featureless optical spectra of some Type IIb and Ib SNe. The dense shell formed by the reverse shock leads to line profiles with a smaller and near-constant width. This ejecta property can explain the statistically narrower profiles of Type IIb compared to Type Ib SNe, as well as the peculiar Hα profile seen in SN 1993J. At early times, our He-giant star explosion model shows a high luminosity, a blue colour, and featureless spectra reminiscent of the Type Ib SN 2008D, suggesting a low-mass progenitor.

  14. A rare encounter with very massive stars in NGC 3125-A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofford, Aida [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [University of Toledo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bouret, Jean-Claude, E-mail: wofford@iap.edu [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France)

    2014-02-01

    Super star cluster A1 in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 3125 is characterized by broad He II λ1640 emission (FWHM ∼ 1200 km s{sup –1}) of unprecedented strength (equivalent width, EW = 7.1 ± 0.4 Å). Previous attempts to characterize the massive star content in NGC 3125-A1 were hampered by the low resolution of the UV spectrum and the lack of co-spatial panchromatic data. We obtained far-UV to near-IR spectroscopy of the two principal emitting regions in the galaxy with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We use these data to study three clusters in the galaxy, A1, B1, and B2. We derive cluster ages of 3-4 Myr, intrinsic reddenings of E(B – V) = 0.13, 0.15, and 0.13, and cluster masses of 1.7 × 10{sup 5}, 1.4 × 10{sup 5}, and 1.1 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, respectively. A1 and B2 show O V λ1371 absorption from massive stars, which is rarely seen in star-forming galaxies, and have Wolf-Rayet (WR) to O star ratios of N(WN5-6)/N(O) = 0.23 and 0.10, respectively. The high N(WN5-6)/N(O) ratio of A1 cannot be reproduced by models that use a normal initial mass function (IMF) and generic WR star line luminosities. We rule out that the extraordinary He II λ1640 emission and O V λ1371 absorption of A1 are due to an extremely flat upper IMF exponent, and suggest that they originate in the winds of very massive (>120 M {sub ☉}) stars. In order to reproduce the properties of peculiar clusters such as A1, the present grid of stellar evolution tracks implemented in Starburst99 needs to be extended to masses >120 M {sub ☉}.

  15. Massive stars and miniature robots: today's research and tomorrow's technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William David

    2013-03-01

    This thesis documents the reduction of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) data set, whilst also describing the analysis for one of the serendipitous discoveries: the massive binary R139. This high-mass binary will provide an excellent future calibration point for stellar models, in part as it seems to defy certain expectations about its evolution. Out with the VFTS, a search for binary companions around a trio of B-type supergiants is presented. These stars are surrounded by nebulae that closely resemble the triple-ring structure associated with the poorly-understood SN1987A. Do these stars share a similar evolutionary fate? While strong evidence is found for periodic pulsations in one of the stars, there appears to be no indication of a short-period binary companion suggested in the literature. Gathering observations from a wide range of environments builds a fuller picture of massive stars, but the samples remain somewhat limited. The coming generation of extremely large telescopes will open new regions for studies like the VFTS. Fully utilising these remarkable telescopes will require many new technologies, and this thesis presents one such development project. For adaptive-optics corrected, multi-object instruments it will be necessary to position small pick-off mirrors in the telescope¿s focal plane to select the sub-fields on the sky. This could be most efficiently achieved if the mirrors were self-propelled, which has led to a miniature robot project called MAPS - the Micro Autonomous Positioning System. A number of robots have been built with a footprint of only 30 x 30mm. These wirelessly-controlled robots draw their power from the floor on which they operate and have shown the potential to be positioned to an accuracy of tens of microns. This thesis details much of the early design work and testing of the robots, and also the development of the camera imaging system used to determine the position of the robots. The MAPS project is ongoing and a

  16. Models of the circumstellar medium of evolving, massive runaway stars moving through the Galactic plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, D.M.-A.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Gvaramadze, V.V.; Mignone, A.; Izzard, R.G.; Kaper, L.

    2014-01-01

    At least 5 per cent of the massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM) and are expected to produce a stellar wind bow shock. We explore how the mass-loss and space velocity of massive runaway stars affect the morphology of their bow shocks. We run two-dimensional

  17. Stellar neutron sources and s-process in massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Rashi

    The s-process or the slow neutron capture process is a nucleosynthesis process taking place at relatively low neutron densities in stars. It runs along the valley of beta stability since the neutron capture rate is much slower compared to the beta decay rate. The s-process occurs mainly during core helium burning and shell carbon burning phase in massive stars and during thermally pulsing helium burning phase in asymptotic giant-branch stars. The potential stellar neutron source for the s-process is associated with alpha-capture reactions on light nuclei. The capture-reaction rates provide the reaction flow for the build-up of22Ne neutron source during the heliumburning phase in these stars. The low energy 26Mg resonances at stellar energies below 800 keV are predicted to have a critical influence on the alpha-capture rates on 22Ne. Some of these resonances may also correspond to pronounced alpha cluster structure near the alpha-threshold. However, these resonances have remained elusive during direct alpha capture measurements owing to the high Coulomb barrier and background from cosmic rays and beam induced reactions. Hence, in the present work, alpha-inelastic scattering and alpha- transfer measurements have been performed to probe the level structure of 26Mg nucleus in order to determine the 22Ne+alpha-capture rates. Both experiments have been performed using the high-resolution Grand Raiden Spectrometer at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, Japan. For the alpha-inelastic scattering measurement, a self-supporting solid 26Mg target was used and for the alpha-transfer study via the (6Li,d) reaction, 22Ne gas enclosed in a gas cell with Aramid windows was used. The reaction products were momentum analysed by the spectrometer and detected at the focal plane equipped with two multi-wire drift chambers and two plastic-scintillation detectors. The focal plane detection system provided information on the position, the angle, the time of flight and

  18. Wind bubbles within H ii regions around slowly moving stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar bubbles around O stars are driven by a combination of the star's wind and ionizing radiation output. The wind contribution is uncertain because the boundary between the wind and interstellar medium is difficult to observe. Mid-infrared observations (e.g., of the H ii region RCW 120) show arcs of dust emission around O stars, contained well within the H ii region bubble. These arcs could indicate the edge of an asymmetric stellar wind bubble, distorted by density gradients and/or stellar motion. We present two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations investigating the evolution of wind bubbles and H ii regions around massive stars moving through a dense (nH = 3000 cm-3), uniform medium with velocities ranging from 4 to 16 km s-1. The H ii region morphology is strongly affected by stellar motion, as expected, but the wind bubble is also very aspherical from birth, even for the lowest space velocity considered. Wind bubbles do not fill their H ii regions (we find filling factors of 10-20 per cent), at least for a main sequence star with mass M⋆ ~ 30 M⊙. Furthermore, even for supersonic velocities the wind bow shock does not significantly trap the ionization front. X-ray emission from the wind bubble is soft, faint, and comes mainly from the turbulent mixing layer between the wind bubble and the H ii region. The wind bubble radiates <1 per cent of its energy in X-rays; it loses most of its energy by turbulent mixing with cooler photoionized gas. Comparison of the simulations with the H ii region RCW 120 shows that its dynamical age is ≲0.4 Myr and that stellar motion ≲4 km s-1 is allowed, implying that the ionizing source is unlikely to be a runaway star but more likely formed in situ. The region's youth, and apparent isolation from other O or B stars, makes it very interesting for studies of massive star formation and of initial mass functions. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. The Evolution of Massive Stars: a Selection of Facts and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbeveren, D.

    In the present paper we discuss a selection of facts and questions related to observations and evolutionary calculations of massive single stars and massive stars in interacting binaries. We focus on the surface chemical abundances, the role of stellar winds, the early Be-stars, the high mass X-ray binaries and the effects of rotation on stellar evolution. Finally, we present an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) of WR binaries in dense stellar environments.

  20. WO-Type Wolf-Rayet Stars: the Last Hurrah of the Most Massive Stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip

    2014-10-01

    WO-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are considered the final evolutionary stage of the highest mass stars, immediate precursors to Type Ic (He-poor) core-collapse supernovae. These WO stars are rare, and until recently only 6 were known. Our knowledge about their physical properties is mostly based on a single object, Sand 2 in the LMC. It was the only non-binary WO star both bright and unreddened enough that its FUV and NUV spectra could be obtained by FUSE and HST/FOS. A non-LTE analysis showed that Sand 2 is very hot and its (C+O)/He abundance ratio is higher than that found in WC-type WRs, suggesting it is indeed highly evolved. However, the O VI resonance doublet in the FUV required a considerably cooler temperature (120,000 K) model than did the optical O VI lines (170,000 K). Further, the enhanced chemical abundances did not match the predictions of stellar evolutionary models. Another non-LTE study found a 3x higher (C+O)/He abundance ratio and a cooler temperature. We have recently discovered two other bright, single, and lightly reddened WOs in the LMC, allowing us to take a fresh look at these important objects. Our newly found WOs span a range in excitation type, from WO1 (the highest) to WO4 (the lowest). Sand 2 is intermediate (WO3). We propose to use COS to obtain FUV and NUV data of all three stars for as comprehensive a study as is currently possible. These UV data will be combined with our optical Magellan spectra for a detailed analysis with CMFGEN with the latest atomic data. Knowing the degree of chemical evolution of these WO stars is crucial to determining their evolutionary status, and thus in understanding the final stages of the most massive stars.

  1. Low-metallicity massive single stars with rotation. Evolutionary models applicable to I Zwicky 18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szécsi, D.; Langer, N.; Yoon, S.C.; Sanyal, D.; de Mink, S.; Evans, C.J.; Dermine, T.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Low-metallicity environments such as the early Universe and compact star-forming dwarf galaxies contain many massive stars. These stars influence their surroundings through intense UV radiation, strong winds and explosive deaths. A good understanding of low-metallicity environments requires

  2. RECOVERY FROM GIANT ERUPTIONS IN VERY MASSIVE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashi, Amit; Davidson, Kris; Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a hydro-and-radiative-transfer code to explore the behavior of a very massive star (VMS) after a giant eruption—i.e., following a supernova impostor event. Beginning with reasonable models for evolved VMSs with masses of 80 M ⊙ and 120 M ⊙ , we simulate the change of state caused by a giant eruption via two methods that explicitly conserve total energy. (1) Synthetically removing outer layers of mass of a few M ⊙ while reducing the energy of the inner layers. (2) Synthetically transferring energy from the core to the outer layers, an operation that automatically causes mass ejection. Our focus is on the aftermath, not the poorly understood eruption itself. Then, using a radiation-hydrodynamic code in 1D with realistic opacities and convection, the interior disequilibrium state is followed for about 200 years. Typically the star develops a ∼400 km s −1 wind with a mass loss rate that begins around 0.1 M ⊙  yr −1 and gradually decreases. This outflow is driven by κ-mechanism radial pulsations. The 1D models have regular pulsations but 3D models will probably be more chaotic. In some cases a plateau in the mass-loss rate may persist about 200 years, while other cases are more like η Car which lost >10 M ⊙ and then had an abnormal mass loss rate for more than a century after its eruption. In our model, the post-eruption outflow carried more mass than the initial eruption. These simulations constitute a useful preliminary reconnaissance for 3D models which will be far more difficult

  3. RECOVERY FROM GIANT ERUPTIONS IN VERY MASSIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashi, Amit; Davidson, Kris; Humphreys, Roberta M., E-mail: kashi@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE. Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We use a hydro-and-radiative-transfer code to explore the behavior of a very massive star (VMS) after a giant eruption—i.e., following a supernova impostor event. Beginning with reasonable models for evolved VMSs with masses of 80 M{sub ⊙} and 120 M{sub ⊙}, we simulate the change of state caused by a giant eruption via two methods that explicitly conserve total energy. (1) Synthetically removing outer layers of mass of a few M{sub ⊙} while reducing the energy of the inner layers. (2) Synthetically transferring energy from the core to the outer layers, an operation that automatically causes mass ejection. Our focus is on the aftermath, not the poorly understood eruption itself. Then, using a radiation-hydrodynamic code in 1D with realistic opacities and convection, the interior disequilibrium state is followed for about 200 years. Typically the star develops a ∼400 km s{sup −1} wind with a mass loss rate that begins around 0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and gradually decreases. This outflow is driven by κ-mechanism radial pulsations. The 1D models have regular pulsations but 3D models will probably be more chaotic. In some cases a plateau in the mass-loss rate may persist about 200 years, while other cases are more like η Car which lost >10 M{sub ⊙} and then had an abnormal mass loss rate for more than a century after its eruption. In our model, the post-eruption outflow carried more mass than the initial eruption. These simulations constitute a useful preliminary reconnaissance for 3D models which will be far more difficult.

  4. Confirming the least massive members of the Pleiades star cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Lodieu, N.; Manjavacas, E.

    2018-03-01

    We present optical photometry (i and Z band) and low-resolution spectroscopy (640-1015 nm) of very faint candidate members (J = 20.2-21.2 mag) of the Pleiades star cluster (120 Myr). The main goal is to address their cluster membership via photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic studies, and to determine the properties of the least massive population of the cluster through the comparison of the data with younger and older spectral counterparts and state-of-the art model atmospheres. We confirm three bona fide Pleiades members that have extremely red optical and infrared colours, effective temperatures of ≈1150 and ≈1350 K, and masses in the interval 11-20 MJup, and one additional likely member that shares the same motion as the cluster but does not appear to be as red as the other members with similar brightness. This latter object requires further near-infrared spectroscopy to fully address its membership in the Pleiades. The optical spectra of two bona fide members were classified as L6-L7 and show features of K I, a tentative detection of Cs I, hydrides, and water vapour with an intensity similar to high-gravity dwarfs of related classification despite their young age. The properties of the Pleiades L6-L7 members clearly indicate that very red colours of L dwarfs are not a direct evidence of ages younger than ≈100 Myr. We also report on the determination of the bolometric corrections for the coolest Pleiades members. These data can be used to interpret the observations of the atmospheres of exoplanets orbiting stars.

  5. Atomic Physics of Shocked Plasma in Winds of Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Cohen, David H.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution diffraction grating spectra of X-ray emission from massive stars obtained with Chandra and XMM-Newton have revolutionized our understanding of their powerful, radiation-driven winds. Emission line shapes and line ratios provide diagnostics on a number of key wind parameters. Modeling of resolved emission line velocity profiles allows us to derive independent constraints on stellar mass-loss rates, leading to downward revisions of a factor of a few from previous measurements. Line ratios in He-like ions strongly constrain the spatial distribution of Xray emitting plasma, confirming the expectations of radiation hydrodynamic simulations that X-ray emission begins moderately close to the stellar surface and extends throughout the wind. Some outstanding questions remain, including the possibility of large optical depths in resonance lines, which is hinted at by differences in line shapes of resonance and intercombination lines from the same ion. Resonance scattering leads to nontrivial radiative transfer effects, and modeling it allows us to place constraints on shock size, density, and velocity structure

  6. Massive stars and the energy balance of the ISM: I. The imapct of an isolated 60 M star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, H. W.; Freyer, T.; Hensler, G.

    2002-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations carried out with a 2D radiation hydrodynamics code in order to study the impact of massive stars on their surrounding interstellar medium. This first paper deals with the evolution of the circumstellar gas around an isolated 60 M star.

  7. Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Cristina; Frischknecht, Urs; Meynet, Georges; Hirschi, Raphael; Barbuy, Beatriz; Pignatari, Marco; Decressin, Thibaut; Maeder, André

    2011-04-28

    The first stars that formed after the Big Bang were probably massive, and they provided the Universe with the first elements heavier than helium ('metals'), which were incorporated into low-mass stars that have survived to the present. Eight stars in the oldest globular cluster in the Galaxy, NGC 6522, were found to have surface abundances consistent with the gas from which they formed being enriched by massive stars (that is, with higher α-element/Fe and Eu/Fe ratios than those of the Sun). However, the same stars have anomalously high abundances of Ba and La with respect to Fe, which usually arises through nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars (via the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process). Recent theory suggests that metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars are able to boost the s-process yields by up to four orders of magnitude, which might provide a solution to this contradiction. Here we report a reanalysis of the earlier spectra, which reveals that Y and Sr are also overabundant with respect to Fe, showing a large scatter similar to that observed in extremely metal-poor stars, whereas C abundances are not enhanced. This pattern is best explained as originating in metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars, which might point to a common property of the first stellar generations and even of the 'first stars'.

  8. Observational tests for the evolution of massive stars in nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitherer, C.

    1990-01-01

    Population synthesis calculations applicable to the massive stellar content in nearby galaxies are presented. Stellar evolution calculations are combined with mass loss, model atmospheres with line blanketing, and a spectral type calibration to compute observable parameters of massive stars as a function of the star formation rate and the initial mass function slope. The number of O stars of given spectral types, the number of W-R stars, supernova rates, and fluxes of ionizing photons are predicted. Important constraints for the theories of stellar atmospheres and stellar evolution can be derived from observations if stellar number counts and ionizing flux data are available. 94 refs

  9. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. III. A very massive star in apparent isolation from the massive cluster R136

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestenlehner, J.M.; Vink, J.S.; Gräfener, G.; Najarro, F.; Evans, C.J.; Bastian, N.; Bonanos, A.Z.; Bressert, E.; Crowther, P.A.; Doran, E.; Friedrich, K.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sana, H.; Soszynski, I.; Taylor, W.D.

    2011-01-01

    VFTS 682 is located in an active star-forming region, at a projected distance of 29 pc from the young massive cluster R136 in the Tarantula Nebula of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was previously reported as a candidate young stellar object, and more recently spectroscopically revealed as a

  10. Small Galactic H II regions. II. The molecular clouds and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.A.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Wilton, C.

    1990-01-01

    CO maps of molecular clouds associated with 11 small Galactic H II regions are presented and compared with IR images obtained by IRAS. The molecular masses of the clouds are computed and compared with the masses of the stellar content. The mapped clouds have masses of 1000-60,000 solar and are typical of the more numerous, smaller Galactic molecular clouds. All of the clouds have recently made massive OB stars, and many have complex spatial and kinematic structures. The coincidence of IRAS sources and CO peaks suggests that many of the clouds have sites of star formation other than the optically visible H II region. Star-formation efficiencies are uncertain, with values for the clouds ranging from 0.02 to 0.6 with an average value of 0.2. There is no trend of the upper stellar mass limit with Galactic radius and with molecular cloud mass. 53 refs

  11. NGC 346: Looking in the Cradle of a Massive Star Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Hony, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    How does a star cluster of more than few 10,000 solar masses form? We present the case of the cluster NGC 346 in the Small Magellanic Cloud, still embedded in its natal star-forming region N66, and we propose a scenario for its formation, based on observations of the rich stellar populations in the region. Young massive clusters host a high fraction of early-type stars, indicating an extremely high star formation efficiency. The Milky Way galaxy hosts several young massive clusters that fill the gap between young low-mass open clusters and old massive globular clusters. Only a handful, though, are young enough to study their formation. Moreover, the investigation of their gaseous natal environments suffers from contamination by the Galactic disk. Young massive clusters are very abundant in distant starburst and interacting galaxies, but the distance of their hosting galaxies do not also allow a detailed analysis of their formation. The Magellanic Clouds, on the other hand, host young massive clusters in a wide range of ages with the youngest being still embedded in their giant HII regions. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of such star-forming complexes provide a stellar sampling with a high dynamic range in stellar masses, allowing the detailed study of star formation at scales typical for molecular clouds. Our cluster analysis on the distribution of newly-born stars in N66 shows that star formation in the region proceeds in a clumpy hierarchical fashion, leading to the formation of both a dominant young massive cluster, hosting about half of the observed pre-main-sequence population, and a self-similar dispersed distribution of the remaining stars. We investigate the correlation between stellar surface density (and star formation rate derived from star-counts) and molecular gas surface density (derived from dust column density) in order to unravel the physical conditions that gave birth to NGC 346. A power law fit to the data yields a steep correlation between these

  12. Effects of a new 3-alpha reaction on the s-process in massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuch, Yukihiro; Ono, Masaomi; Matsuo, Yasuhide; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Effect of a new 3-alpha reaction rate on the s-process during the evolution of a massive star of 25 solar mass is investigated for the first time, because the s-process in massive stars have been believed to be established with only minor change. We find that the s-process with use of the new rate during the core helium burning is very inefficient compared to the case with the previous 3-alpha rate. However, the difference of the overproduction is found to be largely compensated by the subsequent carbon burning. Since the s-process in massive stars has been attributed so far to the neutron irradiation during core helium burning, our finding reveals for the first time the importance of the carbon burning for the s-process during the evolution of massive stars.

  13. SELF-REGULATED SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, E. R.; Sim, S. A., E-mail: parkin@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: s.sim@qub.ac.uk [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-04-20

    In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady-state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, L{sub X}, remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind driving, we term this scenario as self-regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the momenta of the two winds are significantly different. Furthermore, the excessive levels of X-ray ionization close to the shocks completely suppress the line force, and we suggest that this may render radiative braking less effective. Comparisons of model results against observations reveal reasonable agreement in terms of log (L{sub X}/L{sub bol}). The inclusion of self-regulated shocks improves the match for kT values in roughly equal wind momenta systems, but there is a systematic offset for systems with unequal wind momenta (if considered to be a wind-photosphere collision).

  14. 3D hydrodynamic simulations of carbon burning in massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristini, A.; Meakin, C.; Hirschi, R.; Arnett, D.; Georgy, C.; Viallet, M.; Walkington, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present the first detailed 3D hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of turbulent convection of carbon burning in massive stars. Simulations begin with radial profiles mapped from a carbon-burning shell within a 15 M⊙ 1D stellar evolution model. We consider models with 1283, 2563, 5123, and 10243 zones. The turbulent flow properties of these carbon-burning simulations are very similar to the oxygen-burning case. We performed a mean field analysis of the kinetic energy budgets within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes framework. For the upper convective boundary region, we find that the numerical dissipation is insensitive to resolution for linear mesh resolutions above 512 grid points. For the stiffer, more stratified lower boundary, our highest resolution model still shows signs of decreasing sub-grid dissipation suggesting it is not yet numerically converged. We find that the widths of the upper and lower boundaries are roughly 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the local pressure scaleheights, respectively. The shape of the boundaries is significantly different from those used in stellar evolution models. As in past oxygen-shell-burning simulations, we observe entrainment at both boundaries in our carbon-shell-burning simulations. In the large Péclet number regime found in the advanced phases, the entrainment rate is roughly inversely proportional to the bulk Richardson number, RiB (∝RiB-α, 0.5 ≲ α ≲ 1.0). We thus suggest the use of RiB as a means to take into account the results of 3D hydrodynamics simulations in new 1D prescriptions of convective boundary mixing.

  15. SELF-REGULATED SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, E. R.; Sim, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady-state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, L X , remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind driving, we term this scenario as self-regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the momenta of the two winds are significantly different. Furthermore, the excessive levels of X-ray ionization close to the shocks completely suppress the line force, and we suggest that this may render radiative braking less effective. Comparisons of model results against observations reveal reasonable agreement in terms of log (L X /L bol ). The inclusion of self-regulated shocks improves the match for kT values in roughly equal wind momenta systems, but there is a systematic offset for systems with unequal wind momenta (if considered to be a wind-photosphere collision).

  16. The incidence of stellar mergers and mass gainers among massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mink, S. E.; Sana, H.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R. G.; Schneider, F. R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Because the majority of massive stars are born as members of close binary systems, populations of massive main-sequence stars contain stellar mergers and products of binary mass transfer. We simulate populations of massive stars accounting for all major binary evolution effects based on the most recent binary parameter statistics and extensively evaluate the effect of model uncertainties. Assuming constant star formation, we find that 8 −4 +9 % of a sample of early-type stars are the products of a merger resulting from a close binary system. In total we find that 30 −15 +10 % of massive main-sequence stars are the products of binary interaction. We show that the commonly adopted approach to minimize the effects of binaries on an observed sample by excluding systems detected as binaries through radial velocity campaigns can be counterproductive. Systems with significant radial velocity variations are mostly pre-interaction systems. Excluding them substantially enhances the relative incidence of mergers and binary products in the non-radial velocity variable sample. This poses a challenge for testing single stellar evolutionary models. It also raises the question of whether certain peculiar classes of stars, such as magnetic O stars, are the result of binary interaction and it emphasizes the need to further study the effect of binarity on the diagnostics that are used to derive the fundamental properties (star-formation history, initial mass function, mass-to-light ratio) of stellar populations nearby and at high redshift.

  17. HD 179821 (V1427 Aql, IRAS 19114+0002) - a massive post-red supergiant star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, T.; Lambert, David L.; Klochkova, Valentina G.; Panchuk, Vladimir E.

    2016-10-01

    We have derived elemental abundances of a remarkable star, HD 179821, with unusual composition (e.g. [Na/Fe] = 1.0 ± 0.2 dex) and extra-ordinary spectral characteristics. Its metallicity at [Fe/H] = 0.4 dex places it among the most metal-rich stars yet analysed. The abundance analysis of this luminous star is based on high-resolution and high-quality (S/N ≈ 120-420) optical echelle spectra from McDonald Observatory and Special Astronomy Observatory. The data includes five years of observations over 21 epochs. Standard 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis provides a fresh determination of the atmospheric parameters over all epochs: Teff = 7350 ± 200 K, log g= +0.6 ± 0.3, and a microturbulent velocity ξ = 6.6 ± 1.6 km s-1 and [Fe/H] = 0.4 ± 0.2, and a carbon abundance [C/Fe] = -0.19 ± 0.30. We find oxygen abundance [O/Fe] = -0.25 ± 0.28 and an enhancement of 0.9 dex in N. A supersonic macroturbulent velocity of 22.0 ± 2.0 km s-1 is determined from both strong and weak Fe I and Fe II lines. Elemental abundances are obtained for 22 elements. HD 179821 is not enriched in s-process products. Eu is overabundant relative to the anticipated [X/Fe] ≈ 0.0. Some peculiarities of its optical spectrum (e.g. variability in the spectral line shapes) is noticed. This includes the line profile variations for H α line. Based on its estimated luminosity, effective temperature and surface gravity, HD 179821 is a massive star evolving to become a red supergiant and finally a Type II supernova.

  18. Thermal generation of the magnetic field in the surface layers of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpin, V.

    2017-11-01

    A new magnetic field-generation mechanism based on the Nernst effect is considered in hot massive stars. This mechanism can operate in the upper atmospheres of O and B stars where departures from the LTE form a region with the inverse temperature gradient.

  19. Constraining the Final Fates of Massive Stars by Oxygen and Iron Enrichment History in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Maeda, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Recent observational studies of core-collapse supernovae suggest that only stars with zero-age main-sequence masses smaller than 16–18 {M}ȯ explode when they are red supergiants, producing Type IIP supernovae. This may imply that more massive stars produce other types of supernovae or they simply collapse to black holes without giving rise to bright supernovae. This failed supernova hypothesis can lead to significantly inefficient oxygen production because oxygen abundantly produced in inner layers of massive stars with zero-age main-sequence masses around 20–30 {M}ȯ might not be ejected into the surrounding interstellar space. We first assume an unspecified population of oxygen injection events related to massive stars and obtain a model-independent constraint on how much oxygen should be released in a single event and how frequently such events should happen. We further carry out one-box galactic chemical enrichment calculations with different mass ranges of massive stars exploding as core-collapse supernovae. Our results suggest that the model assuming that all massive stars with 9–100 {M}ȯ explode as core-collapse supernovae is still most appropriate in explaining the solar abundances of oxygen and iron and their enrichment history in the Galaxy. The oxygen mass in the Galaxy is not explained when assuming that only massive stars with zero-age main-sequence masses in the range of 9–17 {M}ȯ contribute to the galactic oxygen enrichment. This finding implies that a good fraction of stars more massive than 17 {M}ȯ should eject their oxygen layers in either supernova explosions or some other mass-loss processes.

  20. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey IV. WR 62-2, a new very massive star in the core of the VVV CL041 cluster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chene, A.-N.; Alegria, S.R.; Borissova, J.; O'Leary, E.; Martins, F.; Hervé, Anthony; Kuhn, M.; Kurtev, R.; Consuelo Amigo Fuentes, P.; Bonatto, C.; Minniti, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 584, December (2015), A31/1-A31/8 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02385S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : open clusters and associations * VVV CL041 * massive star s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  1. Ages of Young Star Clusters, Massive Blue Stragglers, and the Upper Mass Limit of Stars: Analyzing Age-dependent Stellar Mass Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, F.R.N.; Izzard, R.G.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V.V.; Huβman, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass

  2. The low-metallicity starburst NGC346: massive-star population and feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskinova, Lida

    2017-08-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is ideal to study young, massive stars at low metallicity. The compact cluster NGC346 contains about half of all O-type stars in the entire SMC. The massive-star population of this cluster powers N66, the brightest and largest HII region in the SMC. We propose to use HST-STIS to slice NGC346 with 20 long-slit exposures, in order to obtain the UV spectra of most of the massive early-type stars of this cluster. Archival data of 13 exposures that cover already a minor part of this cluster will be included in our analyses. Our aim is to quantitatively analyze virtually the whole massive-star population of NGC346. We have already secured the optical spectra of all massive stars in the field with the integral-field spectrograph MUSE at the ESO-VLT. However, for the determination of the stellar-wind parameters, i.e. the mass-loss rates and the wind velocities, ultraviolet spectra are indispensable. Our advanced Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) code will be used for modeling the stellar and wind spectra in the course of the analysis. Finally, we will obtain:(a) the fundamental stellar and wind parameters of all stars brighter than spectral type B2V in the field, which, e,g,, will constrain the initial mass function in this young low-metallicity starburst;(b) mass-loss rates of many more OB-type stars at SMC metallicity than hitherto known, allowing to better constrain their metallicity dependence;(c) the integrated feedback by ionizing radiation and stellar winds of the whole massive-star population of NGC346, which will be used as input to model the ecology of the giant HII region N66.These HST UV data will be of high legacy value.

  3. Massive stars with mass loss: Evolution, nucleosynthesis, and astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prantzos, N.

    1986-06-01

    Evolution and nucleosynthesis of mass loss WR stars is studied, particularly evolution of stars with initial mass between 50 and 100 solar masses, during combustion of H and He. A semi-empirical mass loss formalism, the Roxburgh criterion for convection, and nuclear data are used. Composition of the stellar surface and ejecta (and ejecta contribution to cosmic ray composition) are derived. The contribution of these stars to s elements in our solar system is shown. Their production of 26 Al is compared to the quantity in the galaxy. Gamma ray emission at 1.8 MeV from the decay of this radionuclide is estimated in galactic longitude. The stars evolve as 0 and 0f stars during H combustion and spend 20% of their He combustion period as WN stars and 80% as WC-W0. Evolution always occurs in the blue part of the HR diagram, and satisfies observational constraints on its upper part [fr

  4. A CATALOG OF NEW SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED MASSIVE OB STARS IN CARINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Michael J.; Hanes, Richard J.; McSwain, M. Virginia [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: alexamic@lafayette.edu, E-mail: rjh314@lehigh.edu, E-mail: mcswain@lehigh.edu, E-mail: mspovich@cpp.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Carina star-forming region is one of the largest in the Galaxy, and its massive star population is still being unveiled. The large number of stars combined with high, and highly variable, interstellar extinction makes it inherently difficult to find OB stars in this type of young region. We present the results of a spectroscopic campaign to study the massive star population of the Carina Nebula, with the primary goal to confirm or reject previously identified Carina OB star candidates. A total of 141 known O- and B-type stars and 94 candidates were observed, of which 73 candidates had high enough signal-to-noise ratio to classify. We find 23 new OB stars within the Carina Nebula, a 32% confirmation rate. One of the new OB stars has blended spectra and is suspected to be a double-lined spectroscopic binary (SB2). We also reclassify the spectral types of the known OB stars and discover nine new SB2s among this population. Finally, we discuss the spatial distribution of these new OB stars relative to known structures in the Carina Nebula.

  5. Formation of the First Star Clusters and Massive Star Binaries by Fragmentation of Filamentary Primordial Gas Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki; Sakurai, Yuya; Fujii, Michiko S.

    2018-03-01

    We perform a set of cosmological simulations of early structure formation incorporating baryonic streaming motions. We present a case where a significantly elongated gas cloud with ∼104 solar mass (M ⊙) is formed in a pre-galactic (∼107 M ⊙) dark halo. The gas streaming into the halo compresses and heats the massive filamentary cloud to a temperature of ∼10,000 Kelvin. The gas cloud cools rapidly by atomic hydrogen cooling, and then by molecular hydrogen cooling down to ∼400 Kelvin. The rapid decrease of the temperature and hence of the Jeans mass triggers fragmentation of the filament to yield multiple gas clumps with a few hundred solar masses. We estimate the mass of the primordial star formed in each fragment by adopting an analytic model based on a large set of radiation hydrodynamics simulations of protostellar evolution. The resulting stellar masses are in the range of ∼50–120 M ⊙. The massive stars gravitationally attract each other and form a compact star cluster. We follow the dynamics of the star cluster using a hybrid N-body simulation. We show that massive star binaries are formed in a few million years through multi-body interactions at the cluster center. The eventual formation of the remnant black holes will leave a massive black hole binary, which can be a progenitor of strong gravitational wave sources similar to those recently detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO).

  6. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  7. Formation and pre-MS Evolution of Massive Stars with Growing Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, A.; Behrend, R.

    2002-10-01

    We briefly describe the three existing scenarios for forming massive stars and emphasize that the arguments often used to reject the accretion scenario for massive stars are misleading. It is usually not accounted for the fact that the turbulent pressure associated to large turbulent velocities in clouds necessarily imply relatively high accretion rates for massive stars. We show the basic difference between the formation of low and high mass stars based on the values of the free fall time and of the Kelvin-Helmholtz timescale, and define the concept of birthline for massive stars. Due to D-burning, the radius and location of the birthline in the HR diagram, as well as the lifetimes are very sensitive to the accretion rate dM/dt(accr). If a form dM/dt(accr) propto A(M/Msun)phi is adopted, the observations in the HR diagram and the lifetimes support a value of A approx 10-5 Msun/yr and a value of phi > 1. Remarkably, such a law is consistent with the relation found by Churchwell and Henning et al. between the outflow rates and the luminosities of ultracompact HII regions, if we assume that a fraction 0.15 to 0.3 of the global inflow is accreted. The above relation implies high dM/dt(accr) approx 10-3 Msun/yr for the most massive stars. The physical possibility of such high dM/dt(accr) is supported by current numerical models. Finally, we give simple analytical arguments in favour of the growth of dM/dt(accr) with the already accreted mass. We also suggest that due to Bondi-Hoyle accretion, the formation of binary stars is largely favoured among massive stars in the accretion scenario.

  8. The High Angular Resolution Multiplicity of Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    binaries: visual – stars: early-type – stars: individual ( iota Ori, delta Ori, delta Sco) – techniques: interferometric Online-only material...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY

  9. Massive runaway stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.

    2011-01-01

    Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we identified for the first time a dozen runaway OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) through the detection of their bow shocks. The geometry of detected bow shocks allows us to infer the direction of motion of the associated stars and to determine their possible parent clusters and associations. One of the identified runaway stars, AzV 471, was already known as a high-velocity star on the basis of its high peculiar radial velocity, which is offset by ≃ 40 km s-1 from the local systemic velocity. We discuss implications of our findings for the problem of the origin of field OB stars. Several of the bow shock-producing stars are found in the confines of associations, suggesting that these may be “alien” stars contributing to the age spread observed for some young stellar systems. We also report the discovery of a kidney-shaped nebula attached to the early WN-type star SMC-WR3 (AzV 60a). We interpreted this nebula as an interstellar structure created owing to the interaction between the stellar wind and the ambient interstellar medium.

  10. Evolution of massive close binaries and formation of neutron stars and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massevitch, A.G.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungelson, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Main results of computations of evolution for massive close binaries (10 M(Sun)+9.4 M(Sun), 16 M(Sun)+15 M(Sun), 32 M(Sun)+30 M(Sun), 64 M(Sun)+60 M(Sun)) up to oxygen exhaustion in the core are described. Mass exchange starting in core hydrogen, shell hydrogen and core helium burning stages was studied. Computations were performed assuming both the Ledoux and Schwarzschild stability criteria for semiconvection. The influence of UFI-neutrino emission on evolution of close binaries was investigated. The results obtained allow to outline the following evolutionary chain: two detached Main-Sequence stars - mass exchange - Wolf-Rayet star or blue supergiant plus main sequence star - explosion of the initially more massive star appearing as a supernova event - collapsed or neutron star plus Main-Sequence star, that may be observed as a 'runaway star' - mass exchange leading to X-rays emission - collapsed or neutron star plus WR-star or blue supergiant - second explosion of supernova that preferentially disrupts the system and gives birth to two single high spatial velocity pulsars. Numerical estimates concerning the number and properties of WR-stars, pulsars and X-ray sources are presented. The results are in favour of the existence of UFI-neutrino and of the Ledoux criterion for describing semiconvection. Properties of several well-known X-ray sources and the binary pulsar are discussed on base of evolutionary chain of close binaries. (Auth.)

  11. Chemical abundances of fast-rotating massive stars. I. Description of the methods and individual results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Constantin; Morel, Thierry; Nazé, Yaël; Rauw, Gregor; Semaan, Thierry; Daflon, Simone; Oey, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: Recent observations have challenged our understanding of rotational mixing in massive stars by revealing a population of fast-rotating objects with apparently normal surface nitrogen abundances. However, several questions have arisen because of a number of issues, which have rendered a reinvestigation necessary; these issues include the presence of numerous upper limits for the nitrogen abundance, unknown multiplicity status, and a mix of stars with different physical properties, such as their mass and evolutionary state, which are known to control the amount of rotational mixing. Methods: We have carefully selected a large sample of bright, fast-rotating early-type stars of our Galaxy (40 objects with spectral types between B0.5 and O4). Their high-quality, high-resolution optical spectra were then analysed with the stellar atmosphere modelling codes DETAIL/SURFACE or CMFGEN, depending on the temperature of the target. Several internal and external checks were performed to validate our methods; notably, we compared our results with literature data for some well-known objects, studied the effect of gravity darkening, or confronted the results provided by the two codes for stars amenable to both analyses. Furthermore, we studied the radial velocities of the stars to assess their binarity. Results: This first part of our study presents our methods and provides the derived stellar parameters, He, CNO abundances, and the multiplicity status of every star of the sample. It is the first time that He and CNO abundances of such a large number of Galactic massive fast rotators are determined in a homogeneous way. Based on observations obtained with the Heidelberg Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (HEROS) at the Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato (TIGRE) with the SOPHIE échelle spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP; Institut Pytheas; CNRS, France), and with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the Magellan II Clay telescope

  12. Two massive stars possibly ejected from NGC 3603 via a three-body encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Chené, A.-N.; Schnurr, O.

    2013-03-01

    We report the discovery of a bow-shock-producing star in the vicinity of the young massive star cluster NGC 3603 using archival data of the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of this star with Gemini-South led to its classification as O6 V. The orientation of the bow shock and the distance to the star (based on its spectral type) suggest that the star was expelled from the cluster, while the young age of the cluster (˜2 Myr) implies that the ejection was caused by a dynamical few-body encounter in the cluster's core. The relative position on the sky of the O6 V star and a recently discovered O2 If*/WN6 star (located on the opposite side of NGC 3603) allows us to propose that both objects were ejected from the cluster via the same dynamical event - a three-body encounter between a single (O6 V) star and a massive binary (now the O2 If*/WN6 star). If our proposal is correct, then one can `weigh' the O2 If*/WN6 star using the conservation of the linear momentum. Given a mass of the O6 V star of ≈30 M⊙, we found that at the moment of ejection the mass of the O2 If*/WN6 star was ≈175 M⊙. Moreover, the observed X-ray luminosity of the O2 If*/WN6 star (typical of a single star) suggests that the components of this originally binary system have merged (e.g., because of encounter hardening).

  13. A RAPIDLY EVOLVING REGION IN THE GALACTIC CENTER: WHY S-STARS THERMALIZE AND MORE MASSIVE STARS ARE MISSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau, E-mail: Xian.Chen@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: Pau.Amaro-Seoane@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-05-10

    The existence of ''S-stars'' within a distance of 1'' from Sgr A* contradicts our understanding of star formation, due to Sgr A* 's forbiddingly violent environment. A suggested possibility is that they form far away and were brought in by some fast dynamical process, since they are young. Nonetheless, all conjectured mechanisms either fail to reproduce their eccentricities—without violating their young age—or cannot explain the problem of {sup i}nverse mass segregation{sup :} the fact that lighter stars (the S-stars) are closer to Sgr A* and more massive ones, Wolf-Rayet (WR) and O-stars, are farther out. In this Letter we propose that the mechanism responsible for both the distribution of the eccentricities and the paucity of massive stars is the Kozai-Lidov-like resonance induced by a sub-parsec disk recently discovered in the Galactic center. Considering that the disk probably extended to a smaller radius in the past, we show that in as short as (a few) 10{sup 6} yr, the stars populating the innermost 1'' region would redistribute in angular-momentum space and recover the observed ''super-thermal'' distribution. Meanwhile, WR and O-stars in the same region intermittently attain ample eccentricities that will lead to their tidal disruptions by the central massive black hole. Our results provide new evidences that Sgr A* was powered several millions years ago by an accretion disk as well as by tidal stellar disruptions.

  14. The multiplicity of massive stars: A high angular resolution survey with the HST fine guidance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldoretta, E. J.; Gies, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Norris, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.″01 and 1.″0 and brighter than △m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of logP. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.

  15. Spontaneous scalarization with an extremely massive field and heavy neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Soichiro; Suyama, Teruaki

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the internal structure and the mass-radius relation of neutron stars in a recently proposed scalar-tensor theory dubbed asymmetron in which a massive scalar field undergoes spontaneous scalarization inside neutron stars. We focus on the case where the Compton wavelength is shorter than 10 km, which has not been investigated in the literature. By solving the modified Einstein equations, either purely numerically or by partially using a semianalytic method, we find that not only the weakening of gravity by spontaneous scalarization but also the scalar force affect the internal structure significantly in the massive case. We also find that the maximum mass of neutron stars is larger for certain parameter sets than that in general relativity and reaches 2 M⊙ even if the effect of strange hadrons is taken into account. There is even a range of parameters where the maximum mass of neutron stars largely exceeds the threshold that violates the causality bound in general relativity.

  16. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS AND EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE METAL-FREE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, Alexander; Woosley, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution and explosion of metal-free stars with masses 10-100 M sun are followed, and their nucleosynthetic yields, light curves, and remnant masses determined. Such stars would have been the first to form after the big bang and may have left a distinctive imprint on the composition of the early universe. When the supernova yields are integrated over a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF), the resulting elemental abundance pattern is qualitatively solar, but with marked deficiencies of odd-Z elements with 7 ≤ Z ≤ 13. Neglecting the contribution of the neutrino wind from the neutron stars that they form, no appreciable abundances are made for elements heavier than germanium. The computed pattern compares favorably with what has been observed in metal-deficient stars with [Z] ∼ sun ; where 1 B = 1 Bethe = 10 51 erg) for a Salpeter IMF, and may have played a role in reionizing the universe. Neglecting rotation, most of the stars end their lives as blue supergiants and form supernovae with distinctive light curves resembling SN 1987A, but some produce primary nitrogen due to dredge-up and become red supergiants. These make brighter supernovae like typical Type IIp's. For the lower mass supernovae considered, the distribution of remnant masses clusters around typical modern neutron star masses, but above 20-30 M sun , with the value depending on explosion energy, black holes are copiously formed by fallback, with a maximum hole mass of ∼40 M sun . A novel automated fitting algorithm is developed for determining optimal combinations of explosion energy, mixing, and IMF in the large model database to agree with specified data sets. The model is applied to the low-metallicity sample of Cayrel et al. and the two ultra-iron-poor stars HE0107-5240 and HE1327-2326. Best agreement with these very low metallicity stars is achieved with very little mixing, and none of the metal-deficient data sets considered show the need for a high-energy explosion component. In

  17. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

  18. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ∼4: 1 occurring ∼200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and Hα narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 μm [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous Hα sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter Hα source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation

  19. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-forming Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Assef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from th...

  20. THE MASSIVE STAR POPULATION IN M101. I. THE IDENTIFICATION AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VISUALLY LUMINOUS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of non-terminal giant eruptions are being observed by modern supernova and transient surveys. But very little is known about the origin of these giant eruptions and their progenitors, many of which are presumably very massive, evolved stars. Motivated by the small number of progenitors positively associated with these giant eruptions, we have begun a survey of the evolved massive star populations in nearby galaxies. The nearby, nearly face-on, giant spiral M101 is an excellent laboratory for studying a large population of very massive stars. In this paper, we present BVI photometry obtained from archival HST/ACS Wide Field Camera images of M101. We have produced a catalog of luminous stars with photometric errors <10% for V < 24.5 and 50% completeness down to V ∼ 26.5 even in regions of high stellar crowding. Using color and luminosity criteria, we have identified candidate luminous OB-type stars and blue supergiants, yellow supergiants, and red supergiants for future observation. We examine their spatial distributions across the face of M101 and find that the ratio of blue to red supergiants decreases by two orders of magnitude over the radial extent of M101 corresponding to 0.5 dex in metallicity. We discuss the resolved stellar content in the giant star-forming complexes NGC 5458, 5453, 5461, 5451, 5462, and 5449 and discuss their color-magnitude diagrams in conjunction with the spatial distribution of the stars to determine their spatio-temporal formation histories

  1. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-28

    Stars in clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old 'globular' clusters--those with ages greater than ten billion years and masses several hundred thousand times that of the Sun--often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often suggested to be triggers of second-generation star formation. For this to occur, the initial cluster masses need to be greater than a few million solar masses. Here we report observations of three massive relatively young star clusters (1-2 billion years old) in the Magellanic Clouds that show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars if they had orbited in their host galaxies' gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial formation and the more recent bursts of star formation. This process may eventually give rise to the ubiquitous multiple stellar populations in globular clusters.

  2. The Galactic Distribution of Massive Star Formation from the Red MSX Source Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars inject enormous amounts of energy into their environments in the form of UV radiation and molecular outflows, creating HII regions and enriching local chemistry. These effects provide feedback mechanisms that aid in regulating star formation in the region, and may trigger the formation of subsequent generations of stars. Understanding the mechanics of massive star formation presents an important key to understanding this process and its role in shaping the dynamics of galactic structure. The Red MSX Source (RMS) survey is a multi-wavelength investigation of ~1200 massive young stellar objects (MYSO) and ultra-compact HII (UCHII) regions identified from a sample of colour-selected sources from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) point source catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey. We present a study of over 900 MYSO and UCHII regions investigated by the RMS survey. We review the methods used to determine distances, and investigate the radial galactocentric distribution of these sources in context with the observed structure of the galaxy. The distribution of MYSO and UCHII regions is found to be spatially correlated with the spiral arms and galactic bar. We examine the radial distribution of MYSOs and UCHII regions and find variations in the star formation rate between the inner and outer Galaxy and discuss the implications for star formation throughout the galactic disc.

  3. SOUTHERN MASSIVE STARS AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION: OBSERVATIONAL CAMPAIGN AND COMPANION DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sana, H. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Duvert, G.; Zins, G. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Lacour, S.; Gauchet, L.; Pickel, D. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris-Diderot, Paris Sciences et Lettres, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Berger, J.-P. [European Southern Observatory, Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Norris, B. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Olofsson, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Absil, O. [Département d' Astrophysique, Géophysique et Océanographie, Université de Liège, 17 Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); De Koter, A. [Astrophysical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kratter, K. [JILA, 440 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Schnurr, O. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Zinnecker, H., E-mail: hsana@stsci.edu [Deutsches SOFIA Instituut, SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Multiplicity is one of the most fundamental observable properties of massive O-type stars and offers a promising way to discriminate between massive star formation theories. Nevertheless, companions at separations between 1 and 100 milliarcsec (mas) remain mostly unknown due to intrinsic observational limitations. At a typical distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to projected physical separations of 2-200 AU. The Southern MAssive Stars at High angular resolution survey (SMaSH+) was designed to fill this gap by providing the first systematic interferometric survey of Galactic massive stars. We observed 117 O-type stars with VLTI/PIONIER and 162 O-type stars with NACO/Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM), probing the separation ranges 1-45 and 30-250 mas and brightness contrasts of ΔH < 4 and ΔH < 5, respectively. Taking advantage of NACO's field of view, we further uniformly searched for visual companions in an 8'' radius down to ΔH = 8. This paper describes observations and data analysis, reports the discovery of almost 200 new companions in the separation range from 1 mas to 8'' and presents a catalog of detections, including the first resolved measurements of over a dozen known long-period spectroscopic binaries. Excluding known runaway stars for which no companions are detected, 96 objects in our main sample (δ < 0°; H < 7.5) were observed both with PIONIER and NACO/SAM. The fraction of these stars with at least one resolved companion within 200 mas is 0.53. Accounting for known but unresolved spectroscopic or eclipsing companions, the multiplicity fraction at separation ρ < 8'' increases to f {sub m} = 0.91 ± 0.03. The fraction of luminosity class V stars that have a bound companion reaches 100% at 30 mas while their average number of physically connected companions within 8'' is f {sub c} = 2.2 ± 0.3. This demonstrates that massive stars form nearly exclusively in multiple systems. The nine non-thermal radio

  4. Star clusters containing massive, central black holes: evolution calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents a detailed, two-dimensional simulations of star cluster evolution. A Monte-Carlo method is adapted to simulate the development with time of isolated star clusters. Clusters which evolve on relaxation timescales with and without central black holes are treated. The method is flexible and rugged, rather than highly accurate. It treats the boundary conditions of stellar evaporation and tidal disruption by a central black hole in a precise, stochastic fashion. Dynamical cloning and renormalization and the use of a time-step adjustment algorithm enhance the feasibility of the method which simulates systems with wide ranges of intrinsic length and time scales. First, the method is applied to follow the development and core collapse of an initial Plummer-model cluster without a central black hole. Agreement of these results for early times with the results of previous authors serves as a verification of this method. Three calculations of cluster re-expansion, each beginning with the insertion of a black hole at the center of a highly collapsed cluster core is presented. Each case is characterized by a different value of initial black hole mass or black hole accretion efficiency for the consumption of debris from disrupted stars. It is found that for the special cases examined here substantial, but not catastrophic, growth of the central black hole may accompany core re-expansion. Also, the observability of the evolutionary phases associated with core collapse and re-expansion, constraints on x-ray sources which could be associated with growing black holes, and the observable signature of the cusp of stars surrounding a central black hole are discussed

  5. SPITZER SAGE-SMC INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Lennon, D. J.; Massa, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of 5324 massive stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 3654 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE-SMC survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3to24 μm in the UBVIJHK s +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. We compare the color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to those of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), finding that the brightest infrared sources in the SMC are also the red supergiants, supergiant B[e] (sgB[e]) stars, luminous blue variables, and Wolf-Rayet stars, with the latter exhibiting less infrared excess, the red supergiants being less dusty and the sgB[e] stars being on average less luminous. Among the objects detected at 24 μm in the SMC are a few very luminous hypergiants, four B-type stars with peculiar, flat spectral energy distributions, and all three known luminous blue variables. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and suggest a novel method of confirming Be star candidates photometrically. We find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in our SMC catalog, respectively, when compared to the LMC catalog, and that the SMC Be stars occur at higher luminosities. We estimate mass-loss rates for the red supergiants, confirming the correlation with luminosity even at the metallicity of the SMC. Finally, we confirm the new class of stars displaying composite A and F type spectra, the sgB[e] nature of 2dFS1804 and find the F0 supergiant 2dFS3528 to be a candidate luminous blue variable with cold dust.

  6. DECIPHERING THE IONIZED GAS CONTENT IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX G75.78+0.34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kurtz, Stan; Lizano, Susana [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Palau, Aina [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Dpt d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Shepherd, Debra [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Franco, Jose [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garay, Guido, E-mail: asanchez@arcetri.astro.it [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-04-01

    We present subarcsecond observations toward the massive star-forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 3}OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40{alpha} and H30{alpha}). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) H II region with an electron density {approx}3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCH II region (EAST), located {approx}6'' to the east of the cometary UCH II region, with an electron density {approx}1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located {approx}2'' to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 M{sub Sun }. The CORE source is resolved into two compact and unresolved sources which can be well fit by two homogeneous hypercompact H II regions each one photoionized by a B0.5 zero-age main sequence star, or by free-free radiation from shock-ionized gas resulting from the interaction of a jet/outflow system with the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution and kinematics of water masers close to the CORE-N and S sources, together with excess emission at 4.5 {mu}m and the detected dust emission, suggest that the CORE source is a massive protostar driving a jet/outflow.

  7. DECIPHERING THE IONIZED GAS CONTENT IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX G75.78+0.34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Kurtz, Stan; Lizano, Susana; Palau, Aina; Estalella, Robert; Shepherd, Debra; Franco, José; Garay, Guido

    2013-01-01

    We present subarcsecond observations toward the massive star-forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H 2 O and CH 3 OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40α and H30α). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) H II region with an electron density ∼3.7 × 10 4 cm –3 , excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCH II region (EAST), located ∼6'' to the east of the cometary UCH II region, with an electron density ∼1.3 × 10 5 cm –3 , and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located ∼2'' to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 M ☉ . The CORE source is resolved into two compact and unresolved sources which can be well fit by two homogeneous hypercompact H II regions each one photoionized by a B0.5 zero-age main sequence star, or by free-free radiation from shock-ionized gas resulting from the interaction of a jet/outflow system with the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution and kinematics of water masers close to the CORE-N and S sources, together with excess emission at 4.5 μm and the detected dust emission, suggest that the CORE source is a massive protostar driving a jet/outflow.

  8. Hot stars in young massive clusters: Mapping the current Galactic metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Diego; Najarro, Francisco; Davies, Ben; Trombley, Christine; Figer, Donald F.; Herrero, Artemio

    2013-06-01

    Young Massive Clusters (YMCs) with ages guarantee that these objects present the same chemical composition than the surrounding environment where they are recently born. Finally, the YMCs host very massive stars whose extreme luminosities allow to accomplish detailed spectroscopic analyses even in the most distant regions of the Milky Way. Our group has carried out ISAAC/VLT spectroscopic observations of hot massive stars belonging to several YMCs in different locations around the Galactic disk. As a result, high signal-to-noise, near-infrared spectra of dozens of blue massive stars (including many OB supergiants, Wolf-Rayet stars and a B hypergiant) have been obtained. These data are fully reduced, and NLTE spherical atmosphere modeling is in process. Several line diagnostics will be combined in order to calculate metal abundances accurately for each cluster. The diverse locations of the clusters will allow us to draw a two-dimensional chemical map of the Galactic disk for the first time. The study of the radial and azimuthal variations of elemental abundances will be crucial for understanding the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. Particularly, the ratio between Fe-peak and alpha elements will constitute a powerful tool to investigate the past stellar populations that originated the current Galactic chemistry.

  9. The evolution of massive stars with mass loss: the H- and the He-burning phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieffi, Alessandro; Limongi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of a massive star to its final fate is strongly modified by the efficient mass loss episodes it experiences during its lifetime. In the following, we will briefly summarize how the H- and the He- burning phases depend on the adopted mass loss rate.

  10. An infrared view of (candidate accretion) disks around massive young stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bik, A.; Lenorzer, A.; Thi, W.F.; Puga Antolín, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Kaper, L.; Martín-Hernández, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared surveys of high-mass star-forming regions start to shed light onto their stellar content. A particular class of objects found in these regions, the so-called massive Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) are surrounded by dense circumstellar material. Several near- and mid-infrared diagnostic

  11. Collisions Between Single Stars in Dense Clusters: Runaway Formation of a Massive Object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitag, M.; Gürkan, M.A.; Rasio, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo codes, we follow the collisional evolution of clusters in a variety of scenarios. We consider the conditions under which a cluster of main-sequence stars may undergo rapid core collapse due to mass segregation, thus entering a phase of runaway collisions, forming a very massive

  12. Stationary bound-state massive scalar field configurations supported by spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-12-15

    It has recently been demonstrated that asymptotically flat neutral reflecting stars are characterized by an intriguing no-hair property. In particular, it has been proved that these horizonless compact objects cannot support spatially regular static matter configurations made of scalar (spin-0) fields, vector (spin-1) fields and tensor (spin-2) fields. In the present paper we shall explicitly prove that spherically symmetric compact reflecting stars can support stationary (rather than static) bound-state massive scalar fields in their exterior spacetime regions. To this end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a linearized scalar field of mass μ and proper frequency ω in the curved background of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star of mass M and radius R{sub s}. It is proved that the regime of existence of these stationary composed star-field configurations is characterized by the simple inequalities 1 - 2M/R{sub s} < (ω/μ){sup 2} < 1. Interestingly, in the regime M/R{sub s} << 1 of weakly self-gravitating stars we derive a remarkably compact analytical equation for the discrete spectrum {ω(M,R_s, μ)}{sup n=∞}{sub n=1} of resonant oscillation frequencies which characterize the stationary composed compact-reflecting-star-linearized-massive-scalar-field configurations. Finally, we verify the accuracy of the analytically derived resonance formula of the composed star-field configurations with direct numerical computations. (orig.)

  13. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. II. The NGC 6357 star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S.

    2011-11-01

    Dynamical few-body encounters in the dense cores of young massive star clusters are responsible for the loss of a significant fraction of their massive stellar content. Some of the escaping (runaway) stars move through the ambient medium supersonically and can be revealed via detection of their bow shocks (visible in the infrared, optical or radio). In this paper, which is the second of a series of papers devoted to the search for OB stars running away from young ( ≲ several Myr) Galactic clusters and OB associations, we present the results of the search for bow shocks around the star-forming region NGC 6357. Using the archival data of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite and the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the preliminary data release of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered seven bow shocks, whose geometry is consistent with the possibility that they are generated by stars expelled from the young (~1-2 Myr) star clusters, Pismis 24 and AH03 J1725-34.4, associated with NGC 6357. Two of the seven bow shocks are driven by the already known OB stars, HD 319881 and [N78] 34. Follow-up spectroscopy of three other bow-shock-producing stars showed that they are massive (O-type) stars as well, while the 2MASS photometry of the remaining two stars suggests that they could be B0 V stars, provided that both are located at the same distance as NGC 6357. Detection of numerous massive stars ejected from the very young clusters is consistent with the theoretical expectation that star clusters can effectively lose massive stars at the very beginning of their dynamical evolution (long before the second mechanism for production of runaway stars, based on a supernova explosion in a massive tight binary system, begins to operate) and lends strong support to the idea that probably all field OB stars have been dynamically ejected from their birth clusters. A by-product of our search for bow shocks around NGC 6357 is the detection of three circular

  14. Gravitational waves from the collision of tidally disrupted stars with massive black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, William E.

    2014-01-01

    We use simulations of hydrodynamics coupled with full general relativity to investigate the gravitational waves produced by a star colliding with a massive black hole when the star's tidal disruption radius lies far outside of the black hole horizon. We consider both main-sequence and white-dwarf compaction stars, and nonspinning black holes, as well as those with near-extremal spin. We study the regime in between where the star can be accurately modeled by a point particle, and where tidal effects completely suppress the gravitational wave signal. We find that nonnegligible gravitational waves can be produced even when the star is strongly affected by tidal forces, as well as when it collides with large angular momentum. We discuss the implications that these results have for the potential observation of gravitational waves from these sources with future detectors.

  15. Uncertainties in s-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars determined by Monte Carlo variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, N.; Hirschi, R.; Rauscher, T.; St. J. Murphy, A.; Cescutti, G.

    2017-08-01

    The s-process in massive stars produces the weak component of the s-process (nuclei up to A ˜ 90), in amounts that match solar abundances. For heavier isotopes, such as barium, production through neutron capture is significantly enhanced in very metal-poor stars with fast rotation. However, detailed theoretical predictions for the resulting final s-process abundances have important uncertainties caused both by the underlying uncertainties in the nuclear physics (principally neutron-capture reaction and β-decay rates) as well as by the stellar evolution modelling. In this work, we investigated the impact of nuclear-physics uncertainties relevant to the s-process in massive stars. Using a Monte Carlo based approach, we performed extensive nuclear reaction network calculations that include newly evaluated upper and lower limits for the individual temperature-dependent reaction rates. We found that most of the uncertainty in the final abundances is caused by uncertainties in the neutron-capture rates, while β-decay rate uncertainties affect only a few nuclei near s-process branchings. The s-process in rotating metal-poor stars shows quantitatively different uncertainties and key reactions, although the qualitative characteristics are similar. We confirmed that our results do not significantly change at different metallicities for fast rotating massive stars in the very low metallicity regime. We highlight which of the identified key reactions are realistic candidates for improved measurement by future experiments.

  16. THE SECOND SURVEY OF THE MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD BY NANTEN. II. STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Fukui, Yasuo; Fillipovic, Miroslav D.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Kim, Sungeun; Mizuno, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied star formation activities in the molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have utilized the second catalog of 272 molecular clouds obtained by NANTEN to compare the cloud distribution with signatures of massive star formation including stellar clusters, and optical and radio H II regions. We find that the molecular clouds are classified into three types according to the activities of massive star formation: Type I shows no signature of massive star formation; Type II is associated with relatively small H II region(s); and Type III with both H II region(s) and young stellar cluster(s). The radio continuum sources were used to confirm that Type I giant molecular clouds (GMCs) do not host optically hidden H II regions. These signatures of massive star formation show a good spatial correlation with the molecular clouds in the sense that they are located within ∼100 pc of the molecular clouds. Among possible ideas to explain the GMC types, we favor that the types indicate an evolutionary sequence; i.e., the youngest phase is Type I, followed by Type II, and the last phase is Type III, where the most active star formation takes place leading to cloud dispersal. The number of the three types of GMCs should be proportional to the timescale of each evolutionary stage if a steady state of massive star and cluster formation is a good approximation. By adopting the timescale of the youngest stellar clusters, 10 Myr, we roughly estimate the timescales of Types I, II, and III to be 6 Myr, 13 Myr, and 7 Myr, respectively, corresponding to a lifetime of 20-30 Myr for the GMCs with a mass above the completeness limit, 5 x 10 4 M sun .

  17. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE LMC. I. N159 AND N160 COMPLEXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Jones, Terry J.; Gehrz, Robert D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy 116 Church St SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Helton, L. Andrew [USRA–SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We present images and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in three star-forming H ii regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud: N159A, N159 Papillon, and N160. We use photometry from SOFIA/FORCAST at 25.3–37.1 μ m to constrain model fits to the SEDs and determine luminosities, ages, and dust content of the embedded YSOs and their local environments. By placing these sources on mid-infrared color–magnitude and color–color diagrams, we analyze their dust properties and consider their evolutionary status. Since each object in the FORCAST images has an obvious bright near-infrared counterpart in Spitzer Space Telescope images, we do not find any evidence for new, very cool, previously undiscovered Class 0 YSOs. Additionally, based on its mid-infrared colors and model parameters, N159A is younger than N160 and the Papillon. The nature of the first extragalactic protostars in N159, P1, and P2, is also discussed.

  18. LINEAR POLARIZATION OF CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji-hyun; Byun, Do-Young; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Jongsoo; Lyo, A-Ran; Vlemmings, W. H. T.

    2016-01-01

    Class I methanol masers are found to be good tracers of the interaction between outflows from massive young stellar objects with their surrounding media. Although polarization observations of Class II methanol masers have been able to provide information about magnetic fields close to the central (proto)stars, polarization observations of Class I methanol masers are rare, especially at 44 and 95 GHz. We present the results of linear polarization observations of 39 Class I methanol maser sources at 44 and 95 GHz. These two lines are observed simultaneously with one of the 21 m Korean VLBI Network telescopes in single-dish mode. Approximately 60% of the observed sources have fractional polarizations of a few percent in at least one transition. This is the first reported detection of linear polarization of the 44 GHz methanol maser. The two maser transitions show similar polarization properties, indicating that they trace similar magnetic environments, although the fraction of the linear polarization is slightly higher at 95 GHz. We discuss the association between the directions of polarization angles and outflows. We also discuss some targets having different polarization properties at both lines, including DR21(OH) and G82.58+0.20, which show the 90° polarization angle flip at 44 GHz.

  19. A SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF MASSIVE STARS IN M31 AND M33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F.; Smart, Brianna M., E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: bsmart@astro.wisc.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We describe our spectroscopic follow-up to the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS) photometry of M31 and M33. We have obtained new spectroscopy of 1895 stars, allowing us to classify 1496 of them for the first time. Our study has identified many foreground stars, and established membership for hundreds of early- and mid-type supergiants. We have also found nine new candidate luminous blue variables and a previously unrecognized Wolf–Rayet star. We republish the LGGS M31 and M33 catalogs with improved coordinates, and including spectroscopy from the literature and our new results. The spectroscopy in this paper is responsible for the vast majority of the stellar classifications in these two nearby spiral neighbors. The most luminous (and hence massive) of the stars in our sample are early-type B supergiants, as expected; the more massive O stars are more rare and fainter visually, and thus mostly remain unobserved so far. The majority of the unevolved stars in our sample are in the 20–40 M {sub ⊙} range.

  20. Super massive black hole in galactic nuclei with tidal disruption of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Shiyan; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Tidal disruption of stars by super massive central black holes from dense star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. The time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate, the effect of tidal disruption on the stellar density profile, and, for the first time, the detailed origin of tidally disrupted stars are carefully examined and compared with classic papers in the field. Up to 128k particles are used in simulation to model the star cluster around a super massive black hole, and we use the particle number and the tidal radius of the black hole as free parameters for a scaling analysis. The transition from full to empty loss-cone is analyzed in our data, and the tidal disruption rate scales with the particle number, N, in the expected way for both cases. For the first time in numerical simulations (under certain conditions) we can support the concept of a critical radius of Frank and Rees, which claims that most stars are tidally accreted on highly eccentric orbits originating from regions far outside the tidal radius. Due to the consumption of stars moving on radial orbits, a velocity anisotropy is found inside the cluster. Finally we estimate the real galactic center based on our simulation results and the scaling analysis.

  1. Super Massive Black Hole in Galactic Nuclei with Tidal Disruption of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyan; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Tidal disruption of stars by super massive central black holes from dense star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. The time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate, the effect of tidal disruption on the stellar density profile, and, for the first time, the detailed origin of tidally disrupted stars are carefully examined and compared with classic papers in the field. Up to 128k particles are used in simulation to model the star cluster around a super massive black hole, and we use the particle number and the tidal radius of the black hole as free parameters for a scaling analysis. The transition from full to empty loss-cone is analyzed in our data, and the tidal disruption rate scales with the particle number, N, in the expected way for both cases. For the first time in numerical simulations (under certain conditions) we can support the concept of a critical radius of Frank & Rees, which claims that most stars are tidally accreted on highly eccentric orbits originating from regions far outside the tidal radius. Due to the consumption of stars moving on radial orbits, a velocity anisotropy is found inside the cluster. Finally we estimate the real galactic center based on our simulation results and the scaling analysis.

  2. OGLE-2008-BLG-355Lb: A massive planet around a late-type star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshimoto, N.; Sumi, T.; Fukagawa, M.; Shibai, H. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Rattenbury, N.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); Fukui, A. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Muraki, Y. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Nishiokamoto 8-9-1, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Ohnishi, K. [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Saito, To. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, Tokyo 116-8523 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; and others

    2014-06-20

    We report the discovery of a massive planet, OGLE-2008-BLG-355Lb. The light curve analysis indicates a planet:host mass ratio of q = 0.0118 ± 0.0006 at a separation of 0.877 ± 0.010 Einstein radii. We do not measure a significant microlensing parallax signal and do not have high angular resolution images that could detect the planetary host star. Therefore, we do not have a direct measurement of the host star mass. A Bayesian analysis, assuming that all host stars have equal probability to host a planet with the measured mass ratio, implies a host star mass of M{sub h}=0.37{sub −0.17}{sup +0.30} M{sub ⊙} and a companion of mass M{sub P}=4.6{sub −2.2}{sup +3.7}M{sub J}, at a projected separation of r{sub ⊥}=1.70{sub −0.30}{sup +0.29} AU. The implied distance to the planetary system is D {sub L} = 6.8 ± 1.1 kpc. A planetary system with the properties preferred by the Bayesian analysis may be a challenge to the core accretion model of planet formation, as the core accretion model predicts that massive planets are far more likely to form around more massive host stars. This core accretion model prediction is not consistent with our Bayesian prior of an equal probability of host stars of all masses to host a planet with the measured mass ratio. Thus, if the core accretion model prediction is right, we should expect that follow-up high angular resolution observations will detect a host star with a mass in the upper part of the range allowed by the Bayesian analysis. That is, the host would probably be a K or G dwarf.

  3. Massive stars dying alone: Extremely remote environments of SN2009ip and SN2010jp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2014-10-01

    We propose an imaging study of the astonishingly remote environments of two recent supernovae (SNe): SN2009ip and SN2010jp. Both were unusual Type IIn explosions that crashed into dense circumstellar material (CSM) ejected by the star shortly before explosion. The favored progenitors of these SNe are very massive luminous blue variable (LBV) stars. In fact, SN2009ip presents an extraordinay case where the LBV-like progenitor was actually detected directly in archival HST data, and where we obtained spectra and photometry for numerous pre-SN eruptions. No other SN has this treasure trove of detailed information about the progenitor (not even SN1987A). SN2010jp represents a possible collapsar-powered event, since it showed evidence of a fast bipolar jet in spectra and a low 56Ni mass; this would be an analog of the black-hole forming explosions that cause gamma ray bursts, but where the relativistic jet is damped by a residual H envelope on the star. In both cases, the only viable models for these SNe involve extremely massive (initial masses of 40-100 Msun) progenitor stars. This seems at odds with their extremely remote environments in the far outskirts of their host galaxies, with no detected evidence for an underlying massive star population in ground-based data (nor in the single shallow WFPC2/F606W image of SN2009ip). Here we propose deep UV HST images to search for any mid/late O-type stars nearby, deep red images to detect any red supergiants, and an H-alpha image to search for any evidence of ongoing star formation in the vicinity. These observations will place important and demanding constraints on the initial masses and ages of these progenitors.

  4. Models of the circumstellar medium of evolving, massive runaway stars moving through the Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Mignone, A.; Izzard, R. G.; Kaper, L.

    2014-11-01

    At least 5 per cent of the massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM) and are expected to produce a stellar wind bow shock. We explore how the mass-loss and space velocity of massive runaway stars affect the morphology of their bow shocks. We run two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations following the evolution of the circumstellar medium of these stars in the Galactic plane from the main sequence to the red supergiant phase. We find that thermal conduction is an important process governing the shape, size and structure of the bow shocks around hot stars, and that they have an optical luminosity mainly produced by forbidden lines, e.g. [O III]. The Hα emission of the bow shocks around hot stars originates from near their contact discontinuity. The Hα emission of bow shocks around cool stars originates from their forward shock, and is too faint to be observed for the bow shocks that we simulate. The emission of optically thin radiation mainly comes from the shocked ISM material. All bow shock models are brighter in the infrared, i.e. the infrared is the most appropriate waveband to search for bow shocks. Our study suggests that the infrared emission comes from near the contact discontinuity for bow shocks of hot stars and from the inner region of shocked wind for bow shocks around cool stars. We predict that, in the Galactic plane, the brightest, i.e. the most easily detectable bow shocks are produced by high-mass stars moving with small space velocities.

  5. FAKE STAR FORMATION BURSTS: BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS MASQUERADE AS YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN OPTICAL INTEGRATED LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocvirk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Model color-magnitude diagrams of low-metallicity globular clusters (GCs) usually show a deficit of hot evolved stars with respect to observations. We investigate quantitatively the impact of such modeling inaccuracies on the significance of star formation history reconstructions obtained from optical integrated spectra. To do so, we analyze the sample of spectra of galactic globular clusters of Schiavon et al. with STECKMAP (Ocvirk et al.), and the stellar population models of Vazdekis et al. and Bruzual and Charlot, and focus on the reconstructed stellar age distributions. First, we show that background/foreground contamination correlates with E(B - V), which allows us to define a clean subsample of uncontaminated GCs, on the basis of an E(B - V) filtering. We then identify a 'confusion zone' where fake young bursts of star formation pop up in the star formation history although the observed population is genuinely old. These artifacts appear for 70%-100% of cases depending on the population model used, and contribute up to 12% of the light in the optical. Their correlation with the horizontal branch (HB) ratio indicates that the confusion is driven by HB morphology: red HB clusters are well fitted by old stellar population models while those with a blue HB require an additional hot component. The confusion zone extends over [Fe/H] = [ - 2, - 1.2], although we lack the data to probe extreme high and low metallicity regimes. As a consequence, any young starburst superimposed on an old stellar population in this metallicity range could be regarded as a modeling artifact, if it weighs less than 12% of the optical light, and if no emission lines typical of an H II region are present. This work also provides a practical method for constraining HB morphology from high signal to noise integrated light spectroscopy in the optical. This will allow post-asymptotic giant branch evolution studies in a range of environments and at distances where resolving stellar populations

  6. Star Formation and Young Population of the H II Complex Sh2-294

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Pandey, B.

    2012-08-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass (<4 M ⊙) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (~9 M ⊙) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ~24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ~ 4.5 × 106 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ~4 × 106 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  7. STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG POPULATION OF THE H II COMPLEX Sh2-294

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Ojha, D. K.; Pandey, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H 2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H 2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass ( ☉ ) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (∼9 M ☉ ) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ∼24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ∼ 4.5 × 10 6 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ∼4 × 10 6 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  8. BINARY DISRUPTION BY MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: HYPERVELOCITY STARS, S STARS, AND TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Benjamin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Brown, Warren R., E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    We examine whether disrupted binary stars can fuel black hole growth. In this mechanism, tidal disruption produces a single hypervelocity star (HVS) ejected at high velocity and a former companion star bound to the black hole. After a cluster of bound stars forms, orbital diffusion allows the black hole to accrete stars by tidal disruption at a rate comparable to the capture rate. In the Milky Way, HVSs and the S star cluster imply similar rates of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} for binary disruption. These rates are consistent with estimates for the tidal disruption rate in nearby galaxies and imply significant black hole growth from disrupted binaries on 10 Gyr timescales.

  9. AN APPARENT PRECESSING HELICAL OUTFLOW FROM A MASSIVE EVOLVED STAR: EVIDENCE FOR BINARY INTERACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mills, E. A. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O 1009, Lopezville Drive, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Ressler, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Massive, evolved stars play a crucial role in the metal enrichment, dust budget, and energetics of the interstellar medium; however, the details of their evolution are uncertain because of their rarity and short lifetimes before exploding as supernovae. Discrepancies between theoretical predictions from single-star evolutionary models and observations of massive stars have evoked a shifting paradigm that implicates the importance of binary interaction. We present mid- to far-infrared observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy of a conical “helix” of warm dust (∼180 K) that appears to extend from the Wolf–Rayet star WR102c. Our interpretation of the helix is a precessing, collimated outflow that emerged from WR102c during a previous evolutionary phase as a rapidly rotating luminous blue variable. We attribute the precession of WR102c to gravitational interactions with an unseen compact binary companion whose orbital period can be constrained to 800 days < P < 1400 days from the inferred precession period, τ{sub p} ∼ 1.4 × 10{sup 4} yr, and limits imposed on the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. Our results concur with the range of orbital periods (P ≲ 1500 days) where spin-up via mass exchange is expected to occur for massive binary systems.

  10. A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anna F.; Reiter, Megan; Kuiper, Rolf; Klaassen, Pamela D.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2018-02-01

    Highly collimated parsec-scale jets, which are generally linked to the presence of an accretion disk, are commonly observed in low-mass young stellar objects. In the past two decades, a few of these jets have been directly (or indirectly) observed from higher-mass (larger than eight solar masses) young stellar objects, adding to the growing evidence that disk-mediated accretion also occurs in high-mass stars, the formation mechanism of which is still poorly understood. Of the observed jets from massive young stars, none is in the optical regime (massive young stars are typically highly obscured by their natal material), and none is found outside of the Milky Way. Here we report observations of HH 1177, an optical ionized jet that originates from a massive young stellar object located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The jet is highly collimated over its entire measured length of at least ten parsecs and has a bipolar geometry. The presence of a jet indicates ongoing, disk-mediated accretion and, together with the high degree of collimation, implies that this system is probably formed through a scaled-up version of the formation mechanism of low-mass stars. We conclude that the physics that govern jet launching and collimation is independent of stellar mass.

  11. A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anna F; Reiter, Megan; Kuiper, Rolf; Klaassen, Pamela D; Evans, Christopher J

    2018-02-15

    Highly collimated parsec-scale jets, which are generally linked to the presence of an accretion disk, are commonly observed in low-mass young stellar objects. In the past two decades, a few of these jets have been directly (or indirectly) observed from higher-mass (larger than eight solar masses) young stellar objects, adding to the growing evidence that disk-mediated accretion also occurs in high-mass stars, the formation mechanism of which is still poorly understood. Of the observed jets from massive young stars, none is in the optical regime (massive young stars are typically highly obscured by their natal material), and none is found outside of the Milky Way. Here we report observations of HH 1177, an optical ionized jet that originates from a massive young stellar object located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The jet is highly collimated over its entire measured length of at least ten parsecs and has a bipolar geometry. The presence of a jet indicates ongoing, disk-mediated accretion and, together with the high degree of collimation, implies that this system is probably formed through a scaled-up version of the formation mechanism of low-mass stars. We conclude that the physics that govern jet launching and collimation is independent of stellar mass.

  12. Globular Cluster Formation at High Density: A Model for Elemental Enrichment with Fast Recycling of Massive-star Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    The self-enrichment of massive star clusters by p -processed elements is shown to increase significantly with increasing gas density as a result of enhanced star formation rates and stellar scatterings compared to the lifetime of a massive star. Considering the type of cloud core where a globular cluster (GC) might have formed, we follow the evolution and enrichment of the gas and the time dependence of stellar mass. A key assumption is that interactions between massive stars are important at high density, including interactions between massive stars and massive-star binaries that can shred stellar envelopes. Massive-star interactions should also scatter low-mass stars out of the cluster. Reasonable agreement with the observations is obtained for a cloud-core mass of ∼4 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙} and a density of ∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}. The results depend primarily on a few dimensionless parameters, including, most importantly, the ratio of the gas consumption time to the lifetime of a massive star, which has to be low, ∼10%, and the efficiency of scattering low-mass stars per unit dynamical time, which has to be relatively large, such as a few percent. Also for these conditions, the velocity dispersions of embedded GCs should be comparable to the high gas dispersions of galaxies at that time, so that stellar ejection by multistar interactions could cause low-mass stars to leave a dwarf galaxy host altogether. This could solve the problem of missing first-generation stars in the halos of Fornax and WLM.

  13. Magnetic massive stars as progenitors of `heavy' stellar-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, V.; Keszthelyi, Z.; MacInnis, R.; Cohen, D. H.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Wade, G. A.; Thomas, S. L.; Owocki, S. P.; Puls, J.; ud-Doula, A.

    2017-04-01

    The groundbreaking detection of gravitational waves produced by the inspiralling and coalescence of the black hole (BH) binary GW150914 confirms the existence of 'heavy' stellar-mass BHs with masses >25 M⊙. Initial characterization of the system by Abbott et al. supposes that the formation of BHs with such large masses from the evolution of single massive stars is only feasible if the wind mass-loss rates of the progenitors were greatly reduced relative to the mass-loss rates of massive stars in the Galaxy, concluding that heavy BHs must form in low-metallicity (Z ≲ 0.25-0.5 Z⊙) environments. However, strong surface magnetic fields also provide a powerful mechanism for modifying mass-loss and rotation of massive stars, independent of environmental metallicity. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that some heavy BHs, with masses >25 M⊙ such as those inferred to compose GW150914, could be the natural end-point of evolution of magnetic massive stars in a solar-metallicity environment. Using the MESA code, we developed a new grid of single, non-rotating, solar-metallicity evolutionary models for initial zero-age main sequence masses from 40 to 80 M⊙ that include, for the first time, the quenching of the mass-loss due to a realistic dipolar surface magnetic field. The new models predict terminal-age main-sequence (TAMS) masses that are significantly greater than those from equivalent non-magnetic models, reducing the total mass lost by a strongly magnetized 80 M⊙ star during its main-sequence evolution by 20 M⊙. This corresponds approximately to the mass-loss reduction expected from an environment with metallicity Z = 1/30 Z⊙.

  14. Effects of mass loss on the evolution of massive stars. I. Main-sequence evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Blake, J.B.; Hainebach, K.L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mass loss on the evolution and surface composition of massive stars during main-sequence evolution are examined. While some details of the evolutionary track depend on the formula used for the mass loss, the results appear most sensitive to the total mass removed during the main-sequence lifetime. It was found that low mass-loss rates have very little effect on the evolution of a star; the track is slightly subluminous, but the lifetime is almost unaffected. High rates of mass loss lead to a hot, high-luminosity stellar model with a helium core surrounded by a hydrogen-deficient (Xapprox.0.1) envelope. The main-sequence lifetime is extended by a factor of 2--3. These models may be identified with Wolf-Rayet stars. Between these mass-loss extremes are intermediate models which appear as OBN stars on the main sequence. The mass-loss rates required for significant observable effects range from 8 x 10 -7 to 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 , depending on the initial stellar mass. It is found that observationally consistent mass-loss rates for stars with M> or =30 M/sub sun/ may be sufficiently high that these stars lose mass on a time scale more rapidly than their main-sequence core evolution time. This result implies that the helium cores resulting from the main-sequence evolution of these massive stars may all be very similar to that of a star of Mapprox.30 M/sub sun/ regardless of the zero-age mass

  15. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) ''CRover'', which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ 0 ), it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M CircleDot can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ 0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M CircleDot . The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated. (orig.)

  16. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Kota [The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan); Hatsuda, Tetsuo [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan); The University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), Chiba (Japan); Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) ''CRover'', which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ{sub 0}), it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M {sub CircleDot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ{sub 0} and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M {sub CircleDot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated. (orig.)

  17. Polarized bow shocks reveal features of the winds and environments of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha

    2018-01-01

    Massive stars strongly affect their surroundings through their energetic stellar winds and deaths as supernovae. The bow shock structures created by fast-moving massive stars contain important information about the winds and ultimate fates of these stars as well as their local interstellar medium (ISM). Since bow shocks are aspherical, the light scattered in the dense shock material becomes polarized. Analyzing this polarization reveals details of the bow shock geometry as well as the composition, velocity, density, and albedo of the scattering material. With these quantities, we can constrain the properties of the stellar wind and thus the evolutionary state of the star, as well as the dust composition of the local ISM.In my dissertation research, I use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that I optimized to simulate the polarization signatures produced by both resolved and unresolved stellar wind bow shocks (SWBS) illuminated by a central star and by shock emission. I derive bow shock shapes and densities from published analytical calculations and smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) models. In the case of the analytical SWBS and electron scattering, I find that higher optical depths produce higher polarization and position angle rotations at specific viewing angles compared to theoretical predictions for low optical depths. This is due to the geometrical properties of the bow shock combined with multiple scattering effects. For dust scattering, the polarization signature is strongly affected by wavelength, dust grain properties, and viewing angle. The behavior of the polarization as a function of wavelength in these cases can distinguish among different dust models for the local ISM. In the case of SPH density structures, I investigate how the polarization changes as a function of the evolutionary phase of the SWBS. My dissertation compares these simulations with polarization data from Betelgeuse and other massive stars with bow shocks. I discuss the

  18. Global and radial variations in the efficiency of massive star formation among galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.E.; Young, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the regions within galaxies which give rise to the most efficient star formation and to test the hypothesis that galaxies with high infrared luminosities per unit molecular mass are efficiently producing high mass stars, researchers have undertaken an H alpha imaging survey in galaxies whose CO distributions have been measured as part of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) Extragalactic CO Survey. From these images researchers have derived global H alpha fluxes and distributions for comparison with far infrared radiation (FIR) fluxes and CO fluxes and distributions. Here, researchers present results on the global massive star formation efficiency (SFE = L sub H sub alpha/M(H2)) as a function of morphological type and environment, and on the radial distribution of the SFE within both peculiar and isolated galaxies. On the basis of comparison of the global L sub H sub alpha/M(H2) and L sub FIR/M(H2) for 111 galaxies, researchers conclude that environment rather than morphological type has the strongest effect on the global efficiency of massive star formation. Based on their study of a small sample, they find that the largest radial gradients are observed in the interacting/peculiar galaxies, indicating that environment affects the star formation efficiency within galaxies as well

  19. Convective shells and the core He-burning phase of massive stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Nasi, E [Osservatorio Astronomico, Padova, Italy

    1978-07-01

    In this paper the effect of complete homogenization in the intermediate unstable layers of massive stars is briefly discussed on the effective temperature of the core He-burning models. To this end, a 20 solar masses star of Population I chemical composition (X=0.700, Z=0.020) has been allowed to evolve from the Main Sequence into the core He-exhaustion stage without taking into account semiconvective mixing. The results show that the models are systematically bluer than those computed with the same physical parameters but with the inclusion of semiconvection.

  20. HST/STIS ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE MASSIVE TRIPLE STAR δ ORI A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Noel D.; Moffat, Anthony F. J. [Département de physique and Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Québec (CRAQ), Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Gull, Theodore R.; Lindler, Don J. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gies, Douglas R. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Corcoran, Michael F. [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chené, André-Nicolas, E-mail: richardson@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: theodore.r.gull@nasa.gov, E-mail: don.j.lindler@nasa.gov, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: michael.f.corcoran@nasa.gov, E-mail: achene@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The multiple star system of δ Orionis is one of the closest examples of a system containing a luminous O-type, bright giant star (component Aa1). It is often used as a spectral-type standard and has the highest observed X-ray flux of any hot-star binary. The main component Aa1 is orbited by two lower mass stars, faint Aa2 in a 5.7 day eclipsing binary, and Ab, an astrometric companion with an estimated period of 346 years. Generally the flux from all three stars is recorded in ground-based spectroscopy, and the spectral decomposition of the components has proved difficult. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph ultraviolet spectroscopy of δ Ori A that provides us with spatially separated spectra of Aa and Ab for the first time. We measured radial velocities for Aa1 and Ab in two observations made near the velocity extrema of Aa1. We show tentative evidence for the detection of the Aa2 component in cross-correlation functions of the observed and model spectra. We discuss the appearance of the UV spectra of Aa1 and Ab with reference to model spectra. Both stars have similar effective temperatures, but Ab is fainter and is a rapid rotator. The results will help in the interpretation of ground-based spectroscopy and in understanding the physical and evolutionary parameters of these massive stars.

  1. Massive star populations in I Zw 18: A probe of stellar evolution in the early universe

    OpenAIRE

    Schaerer, Daniel; de Mello, Duilia; Leitherer, Claus; Heldmann, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    We present a study of the gaseous and stellar emission in I Zw18, the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy known. Archival HST WFPC2 and FOS data have been used to analyze the spatial distribution of [OIII], Halpha, and HeII 4686. The latter is used to identify Wolf-Rayet stars found by ground-based spectroscopy and to locate nebular HeII emission. Most of the HeII emission is associated with the NW stellar cluster, displaced from the surrounding shell-like [OIII] and Halpha emission. We found...

  2. SPITZER SAGE INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 1750 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 1268 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3 to 24 μm in the UBVIJHK s +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. The resulting infrared color-magnitude diagrams illustrate that the supergiant B[e], red supergiant, and luminous blue variable (LBV) stars are among the brightest infrared point sources in the LMC, due to their intrinsic brightness, and at longer wavelengths, due to dust. We detect infrared excesses due to free-free emission among ∼900 OB stars, which correlate with luminosity class. We confirm the presence of dust around 10 supergiant B[e] stars, finding the shape of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to be very similar, in contrast to the variety of SED shapes among the spectrally variable LBVs. The similar luminosities of B[e] supergiants (log L/L sun ≥ 4) and the rare, dusty progenitors of the new class of optical transients (e.g., SN 2008S and NGC 300 OT), plus the fact that dust is present in both types of objects, suggests a common origin for them. We find the infrared colors for Wolf-Rayet stars to be independent of spectral type and their SEDs to be flatter than what models predict. The results of this study provide the first comprehensive roadmap for interpreting luminous, massive, resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies at infrared wavelengths.

  3. Documentation for delivery of Star Tracker to ADEOS II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Betto, Maurizio; Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The documentation EIDP (End Item Data Package) describes all the tests which have been performed on the Flight Hardware of the Star Tracker for the Japanese satellite ADEOS II.......The documentation EIDP (End Item Data Package) describes all the tests which have been performed on the Flight Hardware of the Star Tracker for the Japanese satellite ADEOS II....

  4. A BUTTERFLY-SHAPED 'PAPILLON' NEBULA YIELDS SECRETS OF MASSIVE STAR BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope view of a turbulent cauldron of starbirth, called N159, taking place 170,000 light-years away in our satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Torrential stellar winds from hot newborn massive stars within the nebula sculpt ridges, arcs, and filaments in the vast cloud, which is over 150 light-years across. A rare type of compact ionized 'blob' is resolved for the first time to be a butterfly-shaped or 'Papillon' (French for 'butterfly') nebula, buried in the center of the maelstrom of glowing gases and dark dust. The unprecedented details of the structure of the Papillon, itself less than 2 light-years in size (about 2 arcseconds in the sky), are seen in the inset. A possible explanation of this bipolar shape is the outflow of gas from massive stars (over 10 times the mass of our sun) hidden in the central absorption zone. Such stars are so hot that their radiation pressure halts the infall of gas and directs it away from the stars in two opposite directions. Presumably, a dense equatorial disk formed by matter still trying to fall in onto the stars focuses the outstreaming matter into the bipolar directions. This observation is part of a search for young massive stars in the LMC. Rare are the cases where we can see massive stars so early after their birth. The red in this true-color image is from the emission of hydrogen and the yellow from high excitation ionized oxygen. The picture was taken on September 5, 1998 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The Hubble observations of the Papillon nebula were conducted by the European astronomers Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France) and co-investigators Michael Rosa (Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, European Southern Observatory, Germany), Vassilis Charmandaris (Paris Observatory), Lise Deharveng (Marseille Observatory, France), and Hans Zinnecker (Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam, Germany). Their work is submitted for publication in the European

  5. MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS IN STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS (MESA): PLANETS, OSCILLATIONS, ROTATION, AND MASSIVE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, Bill; Cantiello, Matteo; Bildsten, Lars; Arras, Phil; Brown, Edward F.; Dotter, Aaron; Mankovich, Christopher; Montgomery, M. H.; Stello, Dennis; Timmes, F. X.; Townsend, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open source software package Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and its one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESA star. Improvements in MESA star's ability to model the evolution of giant planets now extends its applicability down to masses as low as one-tenth that of Jupiter. The dramatic improvement in asteroseismology enabled by the space-based Kepler and CoRoT missions motivates our full coupling of the ADIPLS adiabatic pulsation code with MESA star. This also motivates a numerical recasting of the Ledoux criterion that is more easily implemented when many nuclei are present at non-negligible abundances. This impacts the way in which MESA star calculates semi-convective and thermohaline mixing. We exhibit the evolution of 3-8 M ☉ stars through the end of core He burning, the onset of He thermal pulses, and arrival on the white dwarf cooling sequence. We implement diffusion of angular momentum and chemical abundances that enable calculations of rotating-star models, which we compare thoroughly with earlier work. We introduce a new treatment of radiation-dominated envelopes that allows the uninterrupted evolution of massive stars to core collapse. This enables the generation of new sets of supernovae, long gamma-ray burst, and pair-instability progenitor models. We substantially modify the way in which MESA star solves the fully coupled stellar structure and composition equations, and we show how this has improved the scaling of MESA's calculational speed on multi-core processors. Updates to the modules for equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, and atmospheric boundary conditions are also provided. We describe the MESA Software Development Kit that packages all the required components needed to form a unified, maintained, and well-validated build environment for MESA. We also highlight a few tools developed by the community for rapid visualization of MESA star results

  6. MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS IN STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS (MESA): PLANETS, OSCILLATIONS, ROTATION, AND MASSIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Bill; Cantiello, Matteo; Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Arras, Phil [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Brown, Edward F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Dotter, Aaron [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Mankovich, Christopher [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Montgomery, M. H. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Stello, Dennis [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Timmes, F. X. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Townsend, Richard, E-mail: matteo@kitp.ucsb.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open source software package Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and its one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESA star. Improvements in MESA star's ability to model the evolution of giant planets now extends its applicability down to masses as low as one-tenth that of Jupiter. The dramatic improvement in asteroseismology enabled by the space-based Kepler and CoRoT missions motivates our full coupling of the ADIPLS adiabatic pulsation code with MESA star. This also motivates a numerical recasting of the Ledoux criterion that is more easily implemented when many nuclei are present at non-negligible abundances. This impacts the way in which MESA star calculates semi-convective and thermohaline mixing. We exhibit the evolution of 3-8 M{sub Sun} stars through the end of core He burning, the onset of He thermal pulses, and arrival on the white dwarf cooling sequence. We implement diffusion of angular momentum and chemical abundances that enable calculations of rotating-star models, which we compare thoroughly with earlier work. We introduce a new treatment of radiation-dominated envelopes that allows the uninterrupted evolution of massive stars to core collapse. This enables the generation of new sets of supernovae, long gamma-ray burst, and pair-instability progenitor models. We substantially modify the way in which MESA star solves the fully coupled stellar structure and composition equations, and we show how this has improved the scaling of MESA's calculational speed on multi-core processors. Updates to the modules for equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, and atmospheric boundary conditions are also provided. We describe the MESA Software Development Kit that packages all the required components needed to form a unified, maintained, and well-validated build environment for MESA. We also highlight a few tools developed by the community for rapid visualization of MESA star

  7. THE ROTATION RATES OF MASSIVE STARS: THE ROLE OF BINARY INTERACTION THROUGH TIDES, MASS TRANSFER, AND MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mink, S. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Langer, N.; Izzard, R. G. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Sana, H.; De Koter, A. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-20

    Rotation is thought to be a major factor in the evolution of massive stars-especially at low metallicity-with consequences for their chemical yields, ionizing flux, and final fate. Deriving the birth spin distribution is of high priority given its importance as a constraint on theories of massive star formation and as input for models of stellar populations in the local universe and at high redshift. Recently, it has become clear that the majority of massive stars interact with a binary companion before they die. We investigate how this affects the distribution of rotation rates, through stellar winds, expansion, tides, mass transfer, and mergers. For this purpose, we simulate a massive binary-star population typical for our Galaxy assuming continuous star formation. We find that, because of binary interaction, 20{sup +5} {sub -10}% of all massive main-sequence stars have projected rotational velocities in excess of 200 km s{sup -1}. We evaluate the effect of uncertain input distributions and physical processes and conclude that the main uncertainties are the mass transfer efficiency and the possible effect of magnetic braking, especially if magnetic fields are generated or amplified during mass accretion and stellar mergers. The fraction of rapid rotators we derive is similar to that observed. If indeed mass transfer and mergers are the main cause for rapid rotation in massive stars, little room remains for rapidly rotating stars that are born single. This implies that spin-down during star formation is even more efficient than previously thought. In addition, this raises questions about the interpretation of the surface abundances of rapidly rotating stars as evidence for rotational mixing. Furthermore, our results allow for the possibility that all early-type Be stars result from binary interactions and suggest that evidence for rotation in explosions, such as long gamma-ray bursts, points to a binary origin.

  8. THE FRAGMENTATION OF MAGNETIZED, MASSIVE STAR-FORMING CORES WITH RADIATIVE FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Andrew T.; McKee, Christopher F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cunningham, Andrew J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-23, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Klein, Richard I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: atmyers@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We present a set of three-dimensional, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic calculations of the gravitational collapse of massive (300 M{sub Sun }), star-forming molecular cloud cores. We show that the combined effects of magnetic fields and radiative feedback strongly suppress core fragmentation, leading to the production of single-star systems rather than small clusters. We find that the two processes are efficient at suppressing fragmentation in different regimes, with the feedback most effective in the dense, central region and the magnetic field most effective in more diffuse, outer regions. Thus, the combination of the two is much more effective at suppressing fragmentation than either one considered in isolation. Our work suggests that typical massive cores, which have mass-to-flux ratios of about 2 relative to critical, likely form a single-star system, but that cores with weaker fields may form a small star cluster. This result helps us understand why the observed relationship between the core mass function and the stellar initial mass function holds even for {approx}100 M{sub Sun} cores with many thermal Jeans masses of material. We also demonstrate that a {approx}40 AU Keplerian disk is able to form in our simulations, despite the braking effect caused by the strong magnetic field.

  9. Massive stars, x-ray ridge, and galactic 26Al gamma-ray line emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmerle, T.

    1986-07-01

    Massive stars interact with their parent molecular cloud by means of their ionizing flux and strong winds, thereby creating giant, hollow HII regions. To account for the observed structure of these HII regions, it appears necessary that all the wind energy be dissipated. Dorland and Montmerle have recently proposed a new dissipation mechanism, in the process, diffuse hard X-rays are emitted. If the observed galactic X-ray ''ridge'' results from this process on a galactic scale, it can be accounted for by the interaction of ∼3000 Wolf-Rayet stars (mostly within a ∼6.5 kpc ring) with their surrounding interstellar gas. This result is essentially consistent with the suggestion by Prantzos and Casse that the galactic 26 Al γ-ray line emission originates in Wolf-Rayet stars

  10. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff < 47 d can be rejected at the 5%-significance level. Both constraints are in stark contrast with the high binary fraction and plethora of short-period systems in few Myr-old, well characterized OB-type populations. To explain the difference in the context of the first scenario would require a variation of the outcome of the massive star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period

  11. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Mink, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); De Koter, A.; Sana, H. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek" , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gvaramadze, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskij Pr. 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Liermann, A., E-mail: fschneid@astro.uni-bonn.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M {sub ☉} limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M {sub ☉} in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M {sub ☉} star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range

  12. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B.; De Mink, S. E.; Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" >De Koter, A.; Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" >Sana, H.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Liermann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ☉ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ☉ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ☉ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ☉ .

  13. Ages of Young Star Clusters, Massive Blue Stragglers, and the Upper Mass Limit of Stars: Analyzing Age-dependent Stellar Mass Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; de Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Hußmann, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ⊙ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ⊙ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ⊙ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ⊙.

  14. Hyperfast pulsars as the remnants of massive stars ejected from young star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent proper motion and parallax measurements for the pulsar PSR B1508+55 indicate a transverse velocity of similar to 1100 km s(-1), which exceeds earlier measurements for any neutron star. The spin-down characteristics of PSR B1508+55 are typical for a non-recycled pulsar, which implies that the

  15. BVR PHOTOMETRY OF SUPERGIANT STARS IN HOLMBERG II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-J. Sohn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the photometric properties in BVR bands for the resolved bright supergiant stars in the dwarf galaxy Holmberg II. The color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagram of 374 resolved stars indicate that the majority of the member stars are supergiant stars with a wide range of spectral type between B-K. A comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks indicates that the supergiant stars in the observed field have progenitor masses between ~10M_⨀ and 20M_⨀. The exponent of luminosity function in V is in good agreement with those of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds.

  16. Proca stars: Gravitating Bose–Einstein condensates of massive spin 1 particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish that massive complex Abelian vector fields (mass μ can form gravitating solitons, when minimally coupled to Einstein's gravity. Such Proca stars (PSs have a stationary, everywhere regular and asymptotically flat geometry. The Proca field, however, possesses a harmonic time dependence (frequency w, realizing Wheeler's concept of geons for an Abelian spin 1 field. We obtain PSs with both a spherically symmetric (static and an axially symmetric (stationary line element. The latter form a countable number of families labelled by an integer m∈Z+. PSs, like (scalar boson stars, carry a conserved Noether charge, and are akin to the latter in many ways. In particular, both types of stars exist for a limited range of frequencies and there is a maximal ADM mass, Mmax, attained for an intermediate frequency. For spherically symmetric PSs (rotating PSs with m=1,2,3, Mmax≃1.058MPl2/μ (Mmax≃1.568,2.337,3.247MPl2/μ, slightly larger values than those for (mini-boson stars. We establish perturbative stability for a subset of solutions in the spherical case and anticipate a similar conclusion for fundamental modes in the rotating case. The discovery of PSs opens many avenues of research, reconsidering five decades of work on (scalar boson stars, in particular as possible dark matter candidates.

  17. Massive scalar counterpart of gravitational waves in scalarized neutron star binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-09-15

    In analogy with spontaneous magnetization of ferromagnets below the Curie temperature, a neutron star (NS), with a compactness above a certain critical value, may undergo spontaneous scalarization and exhibit an interior nontrivial scalar configuration. Consequently, the exterior spacetime is changed, and an external scalar field appears, which subsequently triggers a scalarization of its companion. The dynamical interplay produces a gravitational scalar counterpart of tensor gravitational waves. In this paper, we resort to scalar-tensor theory and demonstrate that the gravitational scalar counterpart from a double neutron star (DNS) and a neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) system become massive. We report that (1) a gravitational scalar background field, arising from convergence of external scalar fields, plays the role of gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized DNS binary, and the appearance of a mass-dimensional constant in a Higgs-like gravitational scalar potential is responsible for a massive gravitational scalar counterpart with a mass of the order of the Planck scale; (2) a dipolar gravitational scalar radiated field, resulting from differing binding energies of NS and WD, plays the role of a gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized orbital shrinking NS-WDs, which oscillates around a local and scalar-energy-density-dependent minimum of the gravitational scalar potential and obtains a mass of the order of about 10{sup -21} eV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)

  18. Big Fish in Small Ponds: massive stars in the low-mass clusters of M83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; McElwee, Sean [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Kim, Hwihyun [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O' Connell, R. W., E-mail: jandrews@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages ≤ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the ∼<10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  19. ENHANCED STAR FORMATION OF LESS MASSIVE GALAXIES IN A PROTOCLUSTER AT z = 2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masao; Kodama, Tadayuki [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Ichi; Koyama, Yusei [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shimakawa, Rhythm; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Yamamoto, Moegi [Department of Astronomical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tadaki, Ken-ichi, E-mail: masao.hayashi@nao.ac.jp [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    We investigate a correlation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass for H α emission-line galaxies (HAEs) in one of the richest protoclusters ever known at z∼2.5, the USS 1558-003 protocluster. This study is based on a 9.7 hr narrowband imaging data with MOIRCS on the Subaru telescope. We are able to construct a sample in combination with additional H -band data taken with WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope , of 100 HAEs reaching the dust-corrected SFRs down to 3 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and the stellar masses down to 10{sup 8.0} M {sub ⊙}. We find that while the star-forming galaxies with ≳10{sup 9.3} M {sub ⊙} are located on the universal SFR-mass main sequence (MS) irrespective of the environment, less massive star-forming galaxies with ≲10{sup 9.3} M {sub ⊙} show a significant upward scatter from the MS in this protocluster. This suggests that some less massive galaxies are in a starburst phase, although we do not know yet if this is due to environmental effects.

  20. Supernova SN1961v - an explosion of a very massive star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utrobin, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the outburst of the unique supernova SN1961v in the galaxy NGC 1058 is carried out. An analysis of hydrodynamical models of supernoVa outbursts and a comparison with a considerable body of observational data on SN1961v clearly show that the SN1961v phenomenon is an explosion of a very massive star-with the mass of 2000 M and radiUs of about 100 R that results in expelling the envelope with the kinetic energy of 1.8x10 52 erg. The light curve of SN1961v furnishes direct evidence for a heterogeneity of the presupernova interior. The chemical composition produced during the evolution of the very massive star and in the final eXplosion must have a number of the essential features. In particular, hydrogen has to be underabundant relative to the solar content and distributed in the specific manner through the star. At late stages from February 1963 to February 1967, the light curve of SN1961v may be accoUnted for as interaction of the expelled envelope with the stellar wind of presupernova

  1. Spitzer view of massive star formation in the tidally stripped Magellanic Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Seale, Jonathan P.; Shiao, Bernie; Sewiło, Marta; Whitney, Barbara A.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Fukui, Yasuo; Madden, Suzanne C.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The Magellanic Bridge is the nearest low-metallicity, tidally stripped environment, offering a unique high-resolution view of physical conditions in merging and forming galaxies. In this paper, we present an analysis of candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs), i.e., in situ, current massive star formation (MSF) in the Bridge using Spitzer mid-IR and complementary optical and near-IR photometry. While we definitely find YSOs in the Bridge, the most massive are ∼10 M ☉ , <<45 M ☉ found in the LMC. The intensity of MSF in the Bridge also appears to be decreasing, as the most massive YSOs are less massive than those formed in the past. To investigate environmental effects on MSF, we have compared properties of massive YSOs in the Bridge to those in the LMC. First, YSOs in the Bridge are apparently less embedded than in the LMC: 81% of Bridge YSOs show optical counterparts, compared to only 56% of LMC sources with the same range of mass, circumstellar dust mass, and line-of-sight extinction. Circumstellar envelopes are evidently more porous or clumpy in the Bridge's low-metallicity environment. Second, we have used whole samples of YSOs in the LMC and the Bridge to estimate the probability of finding YSOs at a given H I column density, N(H I). We found that the LMC has ∼3 × higher probability than the Bridge for N(H I) >12 × 10 20 cm –2 , but the trend reverses at lower N(H I). Investigating whether this lower efficiency relative to H I is due to less efficient molecular cloud formation or to less efficient cloud collapse, or to both, will require sensitive molecular gas observations.

  2. Spitzer view of massive star formation in the tidally stripped Magellanic Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Seale, Jonathan P.; Shiao, Bernie [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sewiło, Marta [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Whitney, Barbara A.; Meade, Marilyn R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusaku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Madden, Suzanne C. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oliveira, Joana M.; Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Robitaille, Thomas P., E-mail: rchen@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-04-20

    The Magellanic Bridge is the nearest low-metallicity, tidally stripped environment, offering a unique high-resolution view of physical conditions in merging and forming galaxies. In this paper, we present an analysis of candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs), i.e., in situ, current massive star formation (MSF) in the Bridge using Spitzer mid-IR and complementary optical and near-IR photometry. While we definitely find YSOs in the Bridge, the most massive are ∼10 M {sub ☉}, <<45 M {sub ☉} found in the LMC. The intensity of MSF in the Bridge also appears to be decreasing, as the most massive YSOs are less massive than those formed in the past. To investigate environmental effects on MSF, we have compared properties of massive YSOs in the Bridge to those in the LMC. First, YSOs in the Bridge are apparently less embedded than in the LMC: 81% of Bridge YSOs show optical counterparts, compared to only 56% of LMC sources with the same range of mass, circumstellar dust mass, and line-of-sight extinction. Circumstellar envelopes are evidently more porous or clumpy in the Bridge's low-metallicity environment. Second, we have used whole samples of YSOs in the LMC and the Bridge to estimate the probability of finding YSOs at a given H I column density, N(H I). We found that the LMC has ∼3 × higher probability than the Bridge for N(H I) >12 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, but the trend reverses at lower N(H I). Investigating whether this lower efficiency relative to H I is due to less efficient molecular cloud formation or to less efficient cloud collapse, or to both, will require sensitive molecular gas observations.

  3. Wolf-Rayet stars and O-star runaways with HIPPARCOS - II. Photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, SV; Moffat, AFJ; van der Hucht, KA; Seggewiss, W; Schrijver, H; Stenholm, B; Lundstrom, [No Value; Setia Gunawan, DYA; Sutantyo, W; van den Heuvel, EPJ; De Cuyper, JP; Gomez, AE

    Abundant HIPPARCOS photometry over 3 years of 141 O and Wolf-Rayet stars, including 8 massive X-ray binaries, provides a magnificent variety of light curves at the sigma similar to 1-5% level. Among the most interesting results, we mention: optical outbursts in HD 102567 (MXRB), coinciding with

  4. Rapidly rotating neutron stars with a massive scalar field—structure and universal relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2016-01-01

    We construct rapidly rotating neutron star models in scalar-tensor theories with a massive scalar field. The fact that the scalar field has nonzero mass leads to very interesting results since the allowed range of values of the coupling parameters is significantly broadened. Deviations from pure general relativity can be very large for values of the parameters that are in agreement with the observations. We found that the rapid rotation can magnify the differences several times compared to the static case. The universal relations between the normalized moment of inertia and quadrupole moment are also investigated both for the slowly and rapidly rotating cases. The results show that these relations are still EOS independent up to a large extend and the deviations from pure general relativity can be large. This places the massive scalar-tensor theories amongst the few alternative theories of gravity that can be tested via the universal I -Love- Q relations.

  5. Rapidly rotating neutron stars with a massive scalar field—structure and universal relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S., E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: yazad@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    We construct rapidly rotating neutron star models in scalar-tensor theories with a massive scalar field. The fact that the scalar field has nonzero mass leads to very interesting results since the allowed range of values of the coupling parameters is significantly broadened. Deviations from pure general relativity can be very large for values of the parameters that are in agreement with the observations. We found that the rapid rotation can magnify the differences several times compared to the static case. The universal relations between the normalized moment of inertia and quadrupole moment are also investigated both for the slowly and rapidly rotating cases. The results show that these relations are still EOS independent up to a large extend and the deviations from pure general relativity can be large. This places the massive scalar-tensor theories amongst the few alternative theories of gravity that can be tested via the universal I -Love- Q relations.

  6. MMT HYPERVELOCITY STAR SURVEY. II. FIVE NEW UNBOUND STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of five new unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) in the outer Milky Way halo. Using a conservative estimate of Galactic escape velocity, our targeted spectroscopic survey has now identified 16 unbound HVSs as well as a comparable number of HVSs ejected on bound trajectories. A Galactic center origin for the HVSs is supported by their unbound velocities, the observed number of unbound stars, their stellar nature, their ejection time distribution, and their Galactic latitude and longitude distribution. Other proposed origins for the unbound HVSs, such as runaway ejections from the disk or dwarf galaxy tidal debris, cannot be reconciled with the observations. An intriguing result is the spatial anisotropy of HVSs on the sky, which possibly reflects an anisotropic potential in the central 10-100 pc region of the Galaxy. Further progress requires measurement of the spatial distribution of HVSs over the southern sky. Our survey also identifies seven B supergiants associated with known star-forming galaxies; the absence of B supergiants elsewhere in the survey implies there are no new star-forming galaxies in our survey footprint to a depth of 1-2 Mpc.

  7. Structure of massive star forming clumps from the Red MSX Source Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, J. S.; Morgan, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) emission maps of 61 high-mass star forming regions drawn from the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey and observed with the Green Bank Telescope's K-Band Focal Plane Array. We use these observations to investigate the spatial distribution of the environmental conditions associated with this sample of embedded massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). Ammonia is an excellent high-density tracer of star-forming regions as its hyperfine structure allows relatively simple characterisation of the molecular environment. These maps are used to measure the column density, kinetic gas temperature distributions and velocity structure across these regions. We compare the distribution of these properties to that of the associated dust and mid-infrared emission traced by the ATLASGAL 870 micron emission maps and the Spitzer GLIMPSE IRAC images. We present a summary of these results and highlight some of more interesting finds.

  8. A circumstellar molecular gas structure associated with the massive young star Cepheus A-HW 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge; Ho, Paul T. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the detection via VLA-D observations of ammonia of a circumstellar high-density molecular gas structure toward the massive young star related to the object Cepheus A-HW 2, a firm candidate for the powering source of the high-velocity molecular outflow in the region. We suggest that the circumstellar molecular gas structure could be related to the circumstellar disk previously suggested from infrared, H2O, and OH maser observations. We consider as a plausible scenario that the double radio continuum source of HW 2 could represent the ionized inner part of the circumstellar disk, in the same way as proposed to explain the double radio source in L1551. The observed motions in the circumstellar molecular gas can be produced by bound motions (e.g., infall or rotation) around a central mass of about 10-20 solar masses (B0.5 V star or earlier).

  9. Effect of mass loss on the chemical yields from massive stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C; Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1979-01-01

    Recent results on the calculation of the chemical yields from massive stars, are rediscussed by taking into account the occurrence of mass loss by stellar wind during the core H- and He-burning phases. The new yields are found to be compatible with the observed distribution of chemical abundances in the solar system, except for He. The net enrichment of several elements over the galaxy's lifetime is found to be consistent with the current estimate of the star formation rate, if we adopt a two phase process of galaxy formation (halodisk). The relative He to heavy element enrichment rate ..delta..Y/..delta..Z turns out to agree with the observational value when mass loss by stellar wind is taken into account.

  10. Tables and intercomparisons of evolutionary sequences of models for massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Chaowen; Stothers, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Tables of evolutionary sequences of models for massive stars have been prepared for a variety of physical input parameters that are normally treated as free. These parameters include the interior convective mixing scheme, the mixing length in the outer convective envelope, the rate of stellar-wind mass loss, the initial stellar mass, and the initial chemical composition. Ranges of specified initial mass and initial chemical composition are M = 10-120 solar masses, Xe = 0.602-0.739, and Ze = 0.021-0.044. The tables cover evolution of the star from the ZAMS to either the end of core H burning or the end of core He burning. Differences among the evolutionary tracks are illustrated primarily in terms of the interior mixing scheme, since the amount and timing of stellar wind mass loss are still very uncertain for initial masses above about 30 solar masses. 52 refs

  11. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING CORE MM1 OF W75N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Su, Y.-N.; Liu, S.-Y.; Yan, C.-H.; Chen, H.-R.; Kim, S.-J.

    2010-01-01

    The massive star-forming core MM1 of W75N was observed using the Submillimeter Array with ∼1'' and 2'' spatial resolutions at 217 and 347 GHz, respectively. From the 217 GHz continuum we found that the MM1 core consists of two sources, separated by about 1'': MM1a (∼0.6 M sun ) and MM1b (∼1.4 M sun ), located near the radio continuum sources VLA 2/VLA 3 and VLA 1, respectively. Within MM1b, two gas clumps were found to be expanding away from VLA 1 at about ±3 km s -1 , as a result of the most recent star formation activity in the region. Observed molecular lines show emission peaks at two positions, MM1a and MM1b: sulfur-bearing species have emission peaks toward MM1a, but methanol and saturated species at MM1b. We identified high-temperature (∼200 K) gas toward MM1a and the hot core in MM1b. This segregation may result from the evolution of the massive star-forming core. In the very early phase of star formation, the hot core is seen through the evaporation of dust ice-mantle species. As the mantle species are consumed via evaporation the high-temperature gas species (such as the sulfur-bearing molecules) become bright. The SiO molecule is unique in having an emission peak exactly at the VLA 2 position, probably tracing a shock powered by VLA 2. The observed sulfur-bearing species show similar abundances both in MM1a and MM1b, whereas the methanol and saturated species show significant abundance enhancement toward MM1b, by about an order of magnitude, compared to MM1a.

  12. Stellar Population and Star Formation History of the Distant Galactic H II Regions NGC 2282 and Sh2-149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Mondal, S.; Jose, J.; Das, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the recent results on two distant Galactic H II regions, namely NGC 2282 and Sh2-149, obtained with multiwavelength observations. Our optical spectroscopic analysis of the bright sources have been used to identify the massive members, and to derive the fundamental parameters such as age and distance of these regions. Using IR color-color criteria and Hα-emission properties, we have identified and classified the candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in these regions. The 12CO(1-0) continuum maps along with the K-band extinction maps, and spatial distribution of YSOs are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the molecular cloud associated with these H II regions. Overall analysis of these regions suggests that the star formation occurs at the locations of the denser gas, and we also find possible evidences of the induced star formation due to the feedback from massive stars to its surrounding molecular medium.

  13. Confronting Models of Massive Star Evolution and Explosions with Remnant Mass Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Carolyn A.; Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Özel, Feryal

    2018-03-01

    The mass distribution of compact objects provides a fossil record that can be studied to uncover information on the late stages of massive star evolution, the supernova explosion mechanism, and the dense matter equation of state. Observations of neutron star masses indicate a bimodal Gaussian distribution, while the observed black hole mass distribution decays exponentially for stellar-mass black holes. We use these observed distributions to directly confront the predictions of stellar evolution models and the neutrino-driven supernova simulations of Sukhbold et al. We find strong agreement between the black hole and low-mass neutron star distributions created by these simulations and the observations. We show that a large fraction of the stellar envelope must be ejected, either during the formation of stellar-mass black holes or prior to the implosion through tidal stripping due to a binary companion, in order to reproduce the observed black hole mass distribution. We also determine the origins of the bimodal peaks of the neutron star mass distribution, finding that the low-mass peak (centered at ∼1.4 M ⊙) originates from progenitors with M ZAMS ≈ 9–18 M ⊙. The simulations fail to reproduce the observed peak of high-mass neutron stars (centered at ∼1.8 M ⊙) and we explore several possible explanations. We argue that the close agreement between the observed and predicted black hole and low-mass neutron star mass distributions provides new, promising evidence that these stellar evolution and explosion models capture the majority of relevant stellar, nuclear, and explosion physics involved in the formation of compact objects.

  14. On the Ultimate Fate of Massive Neutron Stars in an Ever Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujeirat, Ahmad A.

    2018-01-01

    General theory of relativity predicts the central densities of massive neutron stars (-MANs) to be much larger than the nuclear density. In the absence of energy production, the lifetimes of MANs should be shorter that their low-mass counterparts. Yet neither black holes nor neutron stars, whose masses are between two and five solar masses have ever been observed. Also, it is not clear what happened to the old MANs that were created through the collapse of first generation of stars shortly after the Big Bang. In this article, it is argued that MANs must end as completely invisible objects, whose cores are made of incompressible quark-gluon-superfluids and that their effective masses must have doubled through the injection of dark energy by a universal scalar field at the background of supranuclear density. It turns out that recent glitch observations of pulsars and young neutron star systems and data from particle collisions at the LHC and RHIC are in line with the presen! t scenario.

  15. Curtain-Lifting Winds Allow Rare Glimpse into Massive Star Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Formation of Exceedingly Luminous and Hot Stars in Young Stellar Cluster Observed Directly Summary Based on a vast observational effort with different telescopes and instruments, ESO-astronomer Dieter Nürnberger has obtained a first glimpse of the very first stages in the formation of heavy stars. These critical phases of stellar evolution are normally hidden from the view, because massive protostars are deeply embedded in their native clouds of dust and gas, impenetrable barriers to observations at all but the longest wavelengths. In particular, no visual or infrared observations have yet "caught" nascent heavy stars in the act and little is therefore known so far about the related processes. Profiting from the cloud-ripping effect of strong stellar winds from adjacent, hot stars in a young stellar cluster at the center of the NGC 3603 complex, several objects located near a giant molecular cloud were found to be bona-fide massive protostars, only about 100,000 years old and still growing. Three of these objects, designated IRS 9A-C, could be studied in more detail. They are very luminous (IRS 9A is about 100,000 times intrinsically brighter than the Sun), massive (more than 10 times the mass of the Sun) and hot (about 20,000 degrees). They are surrounded by relative cold dust (about 0°C), probably partly arranged in disks around these very young objects. Two possible scenarios for the formation of massive stars are currently proposed, by accretion of large amounts of circumstellar material or by collision (coalescence) of protostars of intermediate masses. The new observations favour accretion, i.e. the same process that is active during the formation of stars of smaller masses. PR Photo 16a/03: Stellar cluster and star-forming region NGC 3603. PR Photo 16b/03: Region near very young, massive stars IRS 9A-C in NGC 3603 (8 bands from J to Q). How do massive stars form? This question is easy to pose, but so far very difficult to answer. In fact, the processes

  16. Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Multiple Merger, Extended Massive Star Formation, Galactic Wind, and Nuclear Inflow in NGC 3256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lípari, S.; Díaz, R.; Taniguchi, Y.; Terlevich, R.; Dottori, H.; Carranza, G.

    2000-08-01

    -line ratios (N II/Hα, S II/Hα, S II/S II), and FWHM (Hα) maps for the central region (30''×30'' rmax~22''~4 kpc), with a spatial resolution of 1". In the central region (r~5-6 kpc) we detected that the nuclear starburst and the extended giant H II regions (in the spiral arms) have very similar properties, i.e., high metallicity and low-ionization spectra, with Teff=35,000 K, solar abundance, a range of Te~6000-7000 K, and Ne~100-1000 cm-3. The nuclear and extended outflow shows properties typical of galactic wind/shocks, associated with the nuclear starburst. We suggest that the interaction between dynamical effects, the galactic wind (outflow), low-energy cosmic rays, and the molecular+ionized gas (probably in the inflow phase) could be the possible mechanism that generate the ``similar extended properties in the massive star formation, at a scale of 5-6 kpc!'' We have also studied the presence of the close merger/interacting systems NGC 3256C (at ~150 kpc, ΔV=-100 km s-1) and the possible association between the NGC 3256 and 3263 groups of galaxies. In conclusion, these results suggest that NGC 3256 is the product of a multiple merger, which generated an extended massive star formation process with an associated galactic wind plus a nuclear inflow. Therefore, NGC 3256 is another example in which the relation between mergers and extreme starburst (and the powerful galactic wind, ``multiple'' Type II supernova explosions) play an important role in the evolution of galaxies (the hypothesis of Rieke et al., Joseph et al., Terlevich et al., Heckman et al., and Lípari et al.). Based on observations obtained at the Hubble Space Telescope (HST; Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 [WFPC2] and NICMOS) satellite; International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite; European Southern Observatory (ESO, NTT); Chile, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), Chile; Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), Argentina; Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre (BALEGRE), Argentina.

  17. Radiative Feedback from Massive Stars as Traced by Multiband Imaging and Spectroscopic Mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielens, Alexander; "PDRs4ever" team

    2018-06-01

    Massive stars disrupt their natal molecular cloud material by dissociating molecules, ionizing atoms and molecules, and heating the gas and dust. These processes drive the evolution of interstellar matter in our Galaxy and throughout the Universe from the era of vigorous star formation at redshifts of 1-3, to the present day. Much of this interaction occurs in Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) where far-ultraviolet photons of these stars create a largely neutral, but warm region of gas and dust. PDR emission dominates the IR spectra of star-forming galaxies and also provides a unique tool to study in detail the physical and chemical processes that are relevant for inter- and circumstellar media including diffuse clouds, molecular cloud and protoplanetary disk surfaces, globules, planetary nebulae, and starburst galaxies.We propose to provide template datasets designed to identify key PDR characteristics in the full 1-28 μm JWST spectra in order to guide the preparation of Cycle 2 proposals on star-forming regions in our Galaxy and beyond. We plan to obtain the first spatially resolved, high spectral resolution IR observations of a PDR using NIRCam, NIRSpec and MIRI. We will observe a nearby PDR with well-defined UV illumination in a typical massive star-forming region. JWST observations will, for the first time, spatially resolve and perform a tomography of the PDR, revealing the individual IR spectral signatures from the key zones and sub-regions within the ionized gas, the PDR and the molecular cloud. These data will test widely used theoretical models and extend them into the JWST era. We will assist the community interested in JWST observations of PDRs through several science-enabling products (maps of spectral features, template spectra, calibration of narrow/broad band filters in gas lines and PAH bands, data-interpretation tools e.g. to infer gas physical conditions or PAH and dust characteristics). This project is supported by a large international team of

  18. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL EVOLUTION TO CORE COLLAPSE OF A MASSIVE STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, Sean M. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Arnett, W. David [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Timmes, F. X., E-mail: smc@tapir.caltech.edu [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We present the first three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the final minutes of iron core growth in a massive star, up to and including the point of core gravitational instability and collapse. We capture the development of strong convection driven by violent Si burning in the shell surrounding the iron core. This convective burning builds the iron core to its critical mass and collapse ensues, driven by electron capture and photodisintegration. The non-spherical structure and motion generated by 3D convection is substantial at the point of collapse, with convective speeds of several hundreds of km s{sup −1}. We examine the impact of such physically realistic 3D initial conditions on the core-collapse supernova mechanism using 3D simulations including multispecies neutrino leakage and find that the enhanced post-shock turbulence resulting from 3D progenitor structure aids successful explosions. We conclude that non-spherical progenitor structure should not be ignored, and should have a significant and favorable impact on the likelihood for neutrino-driven explosions. In order to make simulating the 3D collapse of an iron core feasible, we were forced to make approximations to the nuclear network making this effort only a first step toward accurate, self-consistent 3D stellar evolution models of the end states of massive stars.

  19. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL EVOLUTION TO CORE COLLAPSE OF A MASSIVE STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couch, Sean M.; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Arnett, W. David; Timmes, F. X.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the final minutes of iron core growth in a massive star, up to and including the point of core gravitational instability and collapse. We capture the development of strong convection driven by violent Si burning in the shell surrounding the iron core. This convective burning builds the iron core to its critical mass and collapse ensues, driven by electron capture and photodisintegration. The non-spherical structure and motion generated by 3D convection is substantial at the point of collapse, with convective speeds of several hundreds of km s −1 . We examine the impact of such physically realistic 3D initial conditions on the core-collapse supernova mechanism using 3D simulations including multispecies neutrino leakage and find that the enhanced post-shock turbulence resulting from 3D progenitor structure aids successful explosions. We conclude that non-spherical progenitor structure should not be ignored, and should have a significant and favorable impact on the likelihood for neutrino-driven explosions. In order to make simulating the 3D collapse of an iron core feasible, we were forced to make approximations to the nuclear network making this effort only a first step toward accurate, self-consistent 3D stellar evolution models of the end states of massive stars

  20. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization II: Massive fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the perturbative computation of the N-point function of chiral densities of massive free fermions at finite temperature within the thermofield dynamics approach. The infinite series in the mass parameter for the N-point functions are computed in the fermionic formulation and compared with the corresponding perturbative series in the interaction parameter in the bosonized thermofield formulation. Thereby we establish in thermofield dynamics the formal equivalence of the massive free fermion theory with the sine-Gordon thermofield model for a particular value of the sine-Gordon parameter. We extend the thermofield bosonization to include the massive Thirring model

  1. Strained coordinate methods in rotating stars. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    It was shown in a previous paper (Smith, 1976) that the method of strained coordinates may be usefully employed in the determination of the structure of rotating polytropes. In the present work this idea is extended to Main-Sequence stars with conservative centrifugal fields. The structure variables, pressure, density and temperature are considered pure functions of an auxiliary coordinate s (the strained coordinate) and the governing equations written in a form that closely resembles the structure equations for spherical stars but with the correction factors that are functions of s. A systematic, order-by-order derivation of these factors is outlined and applied in detail to a Cowling-model star in uniform rotation. The techniques can be extended beyond first order and external boundary conditions are applied, as they should be, at the true surface of the star. Roche approximations are not needed. (Auth.)

  2. STAR CLUSTER COMPLEXES AND THE HOST GALAXY IN THREE H II GALAXIES: Mrk 36, UM 408, AND UM 461

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, P. [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Telles, E. [Observatorio Nacional, Rua Jose Cristino, 77, Rio de Janeiro 20921-400 (Brazil); Nigoche-Netro, A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Carrasco, E. R., E-mail: plagos@astro.up.pt, E-mail: etelles@on.br, E-mail: nigoche@iaa.es, E-mail: rcarrasco@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory/AURA, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2011-11-15

    We present a stellar population study of three H II galaxies (Mrk 36, UM 408, and UM 461) based on the analysis of new ground-based high-resolution near-infrared J, H, and K{sub p} broadband and Br{gamma} narrowband images obtained with Gemini/NIRI. We identify and determine the relative ages and masses of the elementary star clusters and/or star cluster complexes of the starburst regions in each of these galaxies by comparing the colors with evolutionary synthesis models that include the contribution of stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines. We found that the current star cluster formation efficiency in our sample of low-luminosity H II galaxies is {approx}10%. Therefore, most of the recent star formation is not in massive clusters. Our findings seem to indicate that the star formation mode in our sample of galaxies is clumpy, and that these complexes are formed by a few massive star clusters with masses {approx}>10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The age distribution of these star cluster complexes shows that the current burst started recently and likely simultaneously over short timescales in their host galaxies, triggered by some internal mechanism. Finally, the fraction of the total cluster mass with respect to the low surface brightness (or host galaxy) mass, considering our complete range in ages, is less than 1%.

  3. The SOFIA Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey. I. Overview and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Liu, Mengyao; Tan, Jonathan C.; Staff, Jan E.; Tanaka, Kei E. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Beltrán, Maria T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Whitney, Barbara [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present an overview and first results of the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey, which is using the FORCAST instrument to image massive protostars from ∼10 to 40 μ m. These wavelengths trace thermal emission from warm dust, which in Core Accretion models mainly emerges from the inner regions of protostellar outflow cavities. Dust in dense core envelopes also imprints characteristic extinction patterns at these wavelengths, causing intensity peaks to shift along the outflow axis and profiles to become more symmetric at longer wavelengths. We present observational results for the first eight protostars in the survey, i.e., multiwavelength images, including some ancillary ground-based mid-infrared (MIR) observations and archival Spitzer and Herschel data. These images generally show extended MIR/FIR emission along directions consistent with those of known outflows and with shorter wavelength peak flux positions displaced from the protostar along the blueshifted, near-facing sides, thus confirming qualitative predictions of Core Accretion models. We then compile spectral energy distributions and use these to derive protostellar properties by fitting theoretical radiative transfer models. Zhang and Tan models, based on the Turbulent Core Model of McKee and Tan, imply the sources have protostellar masses m {sub *} ∼ 10–50 M {sub ⊙} accreting at ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} inside cores of initial masses M {sub c} ∼ 30–500 M {sub ⊙} embedded in clumps with mass surface densities Σ{sub cl} ∼ 0.1–3 g cm{sup −2}. Fitting the Robitaille et al. models typically leads to slightly higher protostellar masses, but with disk accretion rates ∼100× smaller. We discuss reasons for these differences and overall implications of these first survey results for massive star formation theories.

  4. WEAKLY INTERACTING MASSIVE PARTICLE DARK MATTER AND FIRST STARS: SUPPRESSION OF FRAGMENTATION IN PRIMORDIAL STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Iocco, Fabio; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional simulations to include the effects of dark matter annihilation feedback during the collapse of primordial minihalos. We begin our simulations from cosmological initial conditions and account for dark matter annihilation in our treatment of the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas. The dark matter is modeled using an analytical density profile that responds to changes in the peak gas density. We find that the gas can collapse to high densities despite the additional energy input from the dark matter. No objects supported purely by dark matter annihilation heating are formed in our simulations. However, we find that dark matter annihilation heating has a large effect on the evolution of the gas following the formation of the first protostar. Previous simulations without dark matter annihilation found that protostellar disks around Population III stars rapidly fragmented, forming multiple protostars that underwent mergers or ejections. When dark matter annihilation is included, however, these disks become stable to radii of 1000 AU or more. In the cases where fragmentation does occur, it is a wide binary that is formed.

  5. The formation of massive primordial stars in the presence of moderate UV backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Bovino, S. [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Grassi, T. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Spaans, M., E-mail: mlatif@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    Radiative feedback produced by stellar populations played a vital role in early structure formation. In particular, photons below the Lyman limit can escape the star-forming regions and produce a background ultraviolet (UV) flux, which consequently may influence the pristine halos far away from the radiation sources. These photons can quench the formation of molecular hydrogen by photodetachment of H{sup –}. In this study, we explore the impact of such UV radiation on fragmentation in massive primordial halos of a few times 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. To accomplish this goal, we perform high resolution cosmological simulations for two distinct halos and vary the strength of the impinging background UV field in units of J {sub 21} assuming a blackbody radiation spectrum with a characteristic temperature of T {sub rad} = 10{sup 4} K. We further make use of sink particles to follow the evolution for 10,000 yr after reaching the maximum refinement level. No vigorous fragmentation is observed in UV-illuminated halos while the accretion rate changes according to the thermal properties. Our findings show that a few 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} solar mass protostars are formed when halos are irradiated by J {sub 21} = 10-500 at z > 10 and suggest a strong relation between the strength of the UV flux and mass of a protostar. This mode of star formation is quite different from minihalos, as higher accretion rates of about 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} are observed by the end of our simulations. The resulting massive stars are potential cradles for the formation of intermediate-mass black holes at earlier cosmic times and contribute to the formation of a global X-ray background.

  6. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). II. BRIGHT SOUTHERN STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sota, A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Alfaro, E. J.; Morrell, N. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Arias, J. I.; Walborn, N. R.; Gamen, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ∼ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of δ = –20°, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of Paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic survey coordinated with GOSSS that is assembling the largest sample of Galactic spectroscopic massive binaries ever attained. The OWN data combined with additional information on spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature indicate that only a very small fraction (if any) of the stars with masses above 15-20 M ☉ are born as single systems. In the future we will publish the rest of the GOSSS survey, which is expected to include over 1000 Galactic O stars

  7. Water in massive star-forming regions with Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Bontemps, S.; Jacq, T.; Baudry, A.; Braine, J.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2011-05-01

    High-mass stars formation process is much less understood than the low-mass case: short timescales, high opacities and long distance to the sources challenge the study of young massive stars. The instruments on board the Heschel Space Observatory permit us to investigate molecular species at high spectral resolution in the sub-milimeter wavelengths. Water, one of the most abundant molecules in the Universe, might elucidate key episodes in the process of stellar birth and it may play a major role in the formation of high-mass stars. This contribution presents the first results of the Heschel Space Observatory key-program WISH (Water In Star forming regions with Herschel) concerning high-mass protostars. The program main purpose is to follow the process of star formation during the various stages using the water molecule as a physical diagnostic throughout the evolution. In general, we aim to adress the following questions: How does protostars interact with their environment ? How and where water is formed ? How is it transported from cloud to disk ? When and where water becomes a dominant cooling or heating agent ? We use the HIFI and PACS instruments to obtain maps and spectra of ~20 water lines in ~20 massive protostars spanning a large range in physical parameters, from pre-stellar cores to UCHII regions. I will review the status of the program and focus specifically on the spectroscopic results. I will show how powerful are the HIFI high-resolution spectral observations to resolve different physical source components such as the dense core, the outflows and the extended cold cloud around the high-mass object. We derive water abundances between 10-7 and 10-9 in the outer envelope. The abundance variations derived from our models suggest that different chemical mechanisms are at work on these scales (e.g. evaporation of water-rich icy grain mantles). The detection and derived abundance ratios for rare isotopologues will be discussed. Finally, a comparison in tems

  8. Massive stars in advanced evolutionary stages, and the progenitor of GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Oskinova, Lidia; Todt, Helge; Sander, Andreas; Hainich, Rainer; Shenar, Tomer; Ramachandran, Varsha

    2017-11-01

    The recent discovery of a gravitational wave from the merging of two black holes of about 30 solar masses each challenges our incomplete understanding of massive stars and their evolution. Critical ingredients comprise mass-loss, rotation, magnetic fields, internal mixing, and mass transfer in close binary systems. The imperfect knowledge of these factors implies large uncertainties for models of stellar populations and their feedback. In this contribution we summarize our empirical studies of Wolf-Rayet populations at different metallicities by means of modern non-LTE stellar atmosphere models, and confront these results with the predictions of stellar evolution models. At the metallicity of our Galaxy, stellar winds are probably too strong to leave remnant masses as high as ~30 M⊙, but given the still poor agreement between evolutionary tracks and observation even this conclusion is debatable. At the low metallicity of the Small Magellanic Cloud, all WN stars which are (at least now) single are consistent with evolving quasi-homogeneously. O and B-type stars, in contrast, seem to comply with standard evolutionary models without strong internal mixing. Close binaries which avoided early merging could evolve quasi-homogeneously and lead to close compact remnants of relatively high masses that merge within a Hubble time.

  9. New Frontiers for Massive Star Winds: Imaging and Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2013. JWST will find the first stars and galaxies that formed in the early universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way galaxy. JWST will peer through dusty clouds to see stars forming planetary systems, connecting the Milky Way to our own Solar System. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of 1 - 28 microns, with some capability in the visible range. JWST will have a large mirror, 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns (0.1 arcsec resolution). JWST will be placed in an L2 orbit about 1.5 million km from the Earth. The instruments will provide imaging, coronography, and multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy across the full 1 - 28 micron wavelength range. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of massive star winds from the Milky Way to the early universe.

  10. Emerging Massive Star Clusters Revealed: High-Resolution Imaging of NGC 4449 from the Radio to the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Goss, W. M.

    2008-06-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of embedded massive clusters in the nearby (3.9 Mpc) starburst galaxy NGC 4449 in an effort to uncover the earliest phases of massive cluster evolution. By combining high-resolution imaging from the radio to the ultraviolet, we reveal these clusters to be in the process of emerging from their gaseous and dusty birth cocoons. We use Very Large Array (VLA) observations at centimeter wavelengths to identify young clusters surrounded by ultra-dense H II regions, detectable via their production of thermal free-free radio continuum. Ultraviolet, optical and infrared observations are obtained from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope archives for comparison. We detect 39 compact radio sources toward NGC 4449 at 3.6 cm using the highest resolution (1farcs3) and sensitivity (~12 μJy) VLA image of the galaxy to date. We reliably identify 13 thermal radio sources and derive their physical properties using both nebular emission from the H II regions and spectral energy distribution fitting to the stellar continuum. These radio-detected clusters have ages lsim5 Myr and stellar masses of order 104 M sun. The measured extinctions are quite low: 12 of the 13 thermal radio sources have A V lsim 1.5, while the most obscured source has A V ≈ 4.3. By combining results from the nebular and stellar emission, we find an I-band excess that is anti-correlated with cluster age and an apparent mass-age correlation. Additionally, we find evidence that local processes such as supernovae and stellar winds likely play an important role in triggering the current bursts of star formation within NGC 4449.

  11. Triggered massive star formation associated with the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duronea, N. U.; Cappa, C. E.; Bronfman, L.; Borissova, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Kuhn, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We perform a multiwavelength analysis of the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5) and its environs with the aim of studying the physical properties of Galactic IR bubbles and exploring their impact in triggering massive star formation. Methods: To analyze the molecular gas, we used CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3) line data obtained with the on-the-fly technique from the ASTE telescope. To study the distribution and physical characteristics of the dust, we made use of archival data from ATLASGAL, Herschel, and MSX, while the ionized gas was studied making use of an NVSS image. We used public WISE, Spitzer, and MSX point source catalogs to search for infrared candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. To investigate the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6 we used IR spectroscopic data obtained with the ARCoIRIS spectrograph, mounted on Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, and new available IR Ks band observations from the VVVeXtended ESO Public Survey (VVVX). Results: The new ASTE observations allowed the molecular gas component in the velocity range from 30 km s-1 to 46 km s-1, associated with Sh2-39, to be studied in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas suggests that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud. We identified four molecular clumps, which were likely formed by the expansion of the ionization front, and determined some of their physical and dynamical properties. Clumps with HCO+ and 870 μm counterparts show evidence of gravitational collapse. We identified several candidate YSOs across the molecular component. Their spatial distribution and the fragmentation time derived for the collected layers of the molecular gas suggest that massive star formation might have been triggered by the expansion of the nebula via the collect and collapse mechanism. The spectroscopical distance obtained for the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6, placed over one of the collapsing clumps in the border of the Hii region, reveals that this cluster is physically associated with

  12. A Submillimetre Study of Massive Star Formation Within the W51 Complex and Infrared Dark Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Harriet Alice Louise

    Despite its importance the fundamental question of how massive stars form remains unanswered, with improvements to both models and observations having crucial roles to play. To quote Bate et al. (2003) computational models of star formation are limited because "conditions in molecular clouds are not sufficiently well understood to be able to select a representative sample of cloud cores for the initial conditions". It is this notion that motivates the study of the environments within Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) and Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), known sites of massive star formation, at the clump and core level. By studying large populations of these objects, it is possible to make conclusions based on global properties. With this in mind I study the dense molecular clumps within one of the most massive GMCs in the Galaxy: the W51 GMC. New observations of the W51 GMC in the 12CO, 13CO and C18O (3-2) transitions using the HARP instrument on the JCMT are presented. With the help of the clump finding algorithm CLUMPFIND a total of 1575 dense clumps are identified of which 1130 are associated with the W51 GMC, yielding a dense mass reservoir of 1.5 × 10^5 M contained within these clumps. Of these clumps only 1% by number are found to be super-critical, yielding a super-critical clump formation efficiency of 0.5%, below current SFE estimates of the region. This indicates star formation within the W51 GMC will diminish over time although evidence from the first search for molecular outflows presents the W51 GMC in an active light with a lower limit of 14 outflows. The distribution of the outflows within the region searched found them concentrated towards the W51A region. Having much smaller sizes and masses, obtaining global properties of clumps and cores within IRDCs required studying a large sample of these objects. To do this pre-existing data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue was utilised to study IRDCs within a catalogues based on 8 μm data. This data identified

  13. Kinetic temperature of massive star forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.; Yeh, C. C.; König, C.; Yuan, Y.; He, Y. X.; Li, D. L.

    2017-02-01

    Context. For a general understanding of the physics involved in the star formation process, measurements of physical parameters such as temperature and density are indispensable. The chemical and physical properties of dense clumps of molecular clouds are strongly affected by the kinetic temperature. Therefore, this parameter is essential for a better understanding of the interstellar medium. Formaldehyde, a molecule which traces the entire dense molecular gas, appears to be the most reliable tracer to directly measure the gas kinetic temperature. Aims: We aim to determine the kinetic temperature with spectral lines from formaldehyde and to compare the results with those obtained from ammonia lines for a large number of massive clumps. Methods: Three 218 GHz transitions (JKAKC = 303-202, 322-221, and 321-220) of para-H2CO were observed with the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) toward 30 massive clumps of the Galactic disk at various stages of high-mass star formation. Using the RADEX non-LTE model, we derive the gas kinetic temperature modeling the measured para-H2CO 322-221/303-202 and 321-220/303-202 ratios. Results: The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H2CO (321-220/303-202) line ratios range from 30 to 61 K with an average of 46 ± 9 K. A comparison of kinetic temperature derived from para-H2CO, NH3, and the dust emission indicates that in many cases para-H2CO traces a similar kinetic temperature to the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) transitions and the dust associated with the HII regions. Distinctly higher temperatures are probed by para-H2CO in the clumps associated with outflows/shocks. Kinetic temperatures obtained from para-H2CO trace turbulence to a higher degree than NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) in the massive clumps. The non-thermal velocity dispersions of para-H2CO lines are positively correlated with the gas kinetic temperature. The massive clumps are significantly influenced by supersonic non-thermal motions. The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only

  14. The effect of convection and semi-convection on the C/O yield of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The C/O ratio produced during core helium burning affects the future evolution and nucleosynthetic yield of massive stars. This ratio is shown to be sensitive to the treatment of convection as well as uncertainties in nuclear rates. By minimizing the effect of semi-convection and reducing the size of the convective core, mass loss in OB stars increases the C/O ratio. (Author)

  15. The onset of massive star formation: The evolution of temperature and density structure in an infrared dark cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battersby, Cara [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Longmore, Steve [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Dunham, Miranda [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present new NH{sub 3} (1, 1), (2, 2), and (4, 4) observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array compiled with work in the literature to explore the range of conditions observed in young, massive star-forming regions. To sample the effects of evolution independent from those of distance/resolution, abundance, and large-scale environment, we compare clumps in different evolutionary stages within a single infrared dark cloud (IRDC), G32.02+0.06. We find that the early stages of clustered star formation are characterized by dense, parsec-scale filamentary structures interspersed with complexes of dense cores (<0.1 pc cores clustered in complexes separated by ∼1 pc) with masses from about 10 to 100 M {sub ☉}. The most quiescent core is the most extended while the star forming cores are denser and more compact, showing very similar column density structure before and shortly after the onset of massive star formation, with peak surface densities Σ ≳ 1 g cm{sup –2}. Quiescent cores and filaments show smoothly varying temperatures from 10 to 20 K, rising to over 40 K in star-forming cores. We calculate virial parameters for 16 cores and find that the level of support provided by turbulence is generally insufficient to support them against gravitational collapse ((α{sub vir}) ∼ 0.6). The star-forming filaments show smooth velocity fields, punctuated by discontinuities at the sites of active star formation. We discuss the massive molecular filament (M ∼ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, length >60 pc) hosting the IRDC, hypothesizing that it may have been shaped by previous generations of massive stars.

  16. Probing the ejecta of evolved massive stars in transition A VLT/SINFONI K-band survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oksala, Mary E.; Kraus, Michaela; Cidale, L.S.; Muratore, M.F.; Borges Fernandes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 558, October (2013), A17/1-A17/20 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1198; GA MŠk 7AMB12AR021 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : infrared stars * spectroscopic techniques * massive stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  17. The possible nature of socket stars in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Close inspection of faint stars (V of about 14 mag) in H II regions show that they appear to be surrounded by circumstellar envelopes of about 10 arcsecs in diameter (as reported by Feibelman in 1989). The present premise is that the sockets are envelopes of obscuring dust which should emit a measurable amount of infrared radiation based on a simple thermal equilibrium model. A search of literature shows that, of 36 socket stars listed by Feibelman, 17 have been measured in the infrared. Of the 17, 14 show excess IR emission. This is very strong evidence that the socket stars are really stars with circumstellar envelopes. Socket stars may be a new type of astronomical object or well-known astronomical objects in environments or evolutionary states not previously seen. 22 refs

  18. Chemical evolution with rotating massive star yields - I. The solar neighbourhood and the s-process elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prantzos, N.; Abia, C.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Cristallo, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance evolution of the elements from H to U in the Milky Way halo and local disc. We use a consistent chemical evolution model, metallicity-dependent isotopic yields from low and intermediate mass stars and yields from massive stars which include, for the first time, the combined effect of metallicity, mass loss, and rotation for a large grid of stellar masses and for all stages of stellar evolution. The yields of massive stars are weighted by a metallicity-dependent function of the rotational velocities, constrained by observations as to obtain a primary-like 14N behaviour at low metallicity and to avoid overproduction of s-elements at intermediate metallicities. We show that the Solar system isotopic composition can be reproduced to better than a factor of 2 for isotopes up to the Fe-peak, and at the 10 per cent level for most pure s-isotopes, both light ones (resulting from the weak s-process in rotating massive stars) and the heavy ones (resulting from the main s-process in low and intermediate mass stars). We conclude that the light element primary process (LEPP), invoked to explain the apparent abundance deficiency of the s-elements with A values of ^{12}C/^{13}C in halo red giants, which is rather due to internal processes in those stars.

  19. The s-process in massive stars: the Shell C-burning contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatari, Marco; Gallino, R.; Baldovin, C.; Wiescher, M.; Herwig, F.; Heger, A.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.

    In massive stars the s¡ process (slow neutron capture process) is activated at different tempera- tures, during He¡ burning and during convective shell C¡ burning. At solar metallicity, the neu- tron capture process in the convective C¡ shell adds a substantial contribution to the s¡ process yields made by the previous core He¡ burning, and the final results carry the signature of both processes. With decreasing metallicity, the contribution of the C¡ burning shell to the weak s¡ process rapidly decreases, because of the effect of the primary neutron poisons. On the other hand, also the s¡ process efficiency in the He core decreases with metallicity.

  20. The Properties of the Massive Star-forming Galaxies with an Outside-in Assembly Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enci; Kong, Xu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lixin; Lin, Lin; Gao, Yulong; Liu, Qing

    2017-08-01

    Previous findings show that massive ({M}* > {10}10 {M}⊙ ) star-forming (SF) galaxies usually have an “inside-out” stellar mass assembly mode. In this paper, we have for the first time selected a sample of 77 massive SF galaxies with an “outside-in” assembly mode (called the “targeted sample”) from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. For comparison, two control samples are constructed from the MaNGA sample matched in stellar mass: a sample of 154 normal SF galaxies and a sample of 62 quiescent galaxies. In contrast to normal SF galaxies, the targeted galaxies appear to be smoother and more bulge-dominated and have a smaller size and higher concentration, star formation rate, and gas-phase metallicity as a whole. However, they have a larger size and lower concentration than quiescent galaxies. Unlike the normal SF sample, the targeted sample exhibits a slightly positive gradient of the 4000 Å break and a pronounced negative gradient of Hα equivalent width. Furthermore, the median surface mass density profile is between those of the normal SF and quiescent samples, indicating that the gas accretion of quiescent galaxies is not likely to be the main approach for the outside-in assembly mode. Our results suggest that the targeted galaxies are likely in the transitional phase from normal SF galaxies to quiescent galaxies, with rapid ongoing central stellar mass assembly (or bulge growth). We discuss several possible formation mechanisms for the outside-in mass assembly mode.

  1. The environment and star formation of H II region Sh2-163: a multi-wavelength study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the environment of H II region Sh2-163 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in this region, we performed a multi-wavelength study of this H II region. Most of our data were taken from large-scale surveys: 2MASS, CGPS, MSX and SCUBA. We also made CO molecular line observations, using the 13.7-m telescope. The ionized region of Sh2-163 is detected by both the optical and radio continuum observations. Sh2-163 is partially bordered by an arc-like photodissociation region (PDR), which is coincident with the strongest optical and radio emissions, indicating interactions between the H II region and the surrounding interstellar medium. Two molecular clouds were discovered on the border of the PDR. The morphology of these two clouds suggests they are compressed by the expansion of Sh2-163. In cloud A, we found two molecular clumps. And it seems star formation in clump A2 is much more active than in clump A1. In cloud B, we found new outflow activities and massive star(s) are forming inside. Using 2MASS photometry, we tried to search for embedded young stellar object (YSO) candidates in this region. The very good agreement between CO emission, infrared shell and YSOs suggest that it is probably a star formation region triggered by the expansion of Sh2-163. We also found the most likely massive protostar related to IRAS 23314+6033.

  2. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II. The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.; Rydgren, A.E.; Vrba, F.; Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO; Computer Sciences Corp., El Segundo, CA; Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a naked T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars. 49 references

  3. First stars. II. Evolution with mass loss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bahena, David; Hadrava, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 2 (2012), s. 651-663 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA ČR GA202/09/0772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : first stars * evolution * mass loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2012

  4. KMOS"3"D Reveals Low-level Star Formation Activity in Massive Quiescent Galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, Sirio; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Wilman, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Ralf; Burkert, Andreas; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Rebecca L.; Davies, Ric; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Wuyts, Stijn; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    We explore the H α emission in the massive quiescent galaxies observed by the KMOS"3"D survey at 0.7 < z < 2.7. The H α line is robustly detected in 20 out of 120 UVJ -selected quiescent galaxies, and we classify the emission mechanism using the H α line width and the [N ii]/H α line ratio. We find that AGNs are likely to be responsible for the line emission in more than half of the cases. We also find robust evidence for star formation activity in nine quiescent galaxies, which we explore in detail. The H α kinematics reveal rotating disks in five of the nine galaxies. The dust-corrected H α star formation rates are low (0.2–7 M _⊙ yr"−"1), and place these systems significantly below the main sequence. The 24 μ m-based, infrared luminosities, instead, overestimate the star formation rates. These galaxies present a lower gas-phase metallicity compared to star-forming objects with similar stellar mass, and many of them have close companions. We therefore conclude that the low-level star formation activity in these nine quiescent galaxies is likely to be fueled by inflowing gas or minor mergers, and could be a sign of rejuvenation events.

  5. KMOS{sup 3D} Reveals Low-level Star Formation Activity in Massive Quiescent Galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Sirio; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Wilman, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Ralf; Burkert, Andreas; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Rebecca L.; Davies, Ric; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wuyts, Stijn [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Momcheva, Ivelina G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-05-20

    We explore the H α emission in the massive quiescent galaxies observed by the KMOS{sup 3D} survey at 0.7 < z < 2.7. The H α line is robustly detected in 20 out of 120 UVJ -selected quiescent galaxies, and we classify the emission mechanism using the H α line width and the [N ii]/H α line ratio. We find that AGNs are likely to be responsible for the line emission in more than half of the cases. We also find robust evidence for star formation activity in nine quiescent galaxies, which we explore in detail. The H α kinematics reveal rotating disks in five of the nine galaxies. The dust-corrected H α star formation rates are low (0.2–7 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}), and place these systems significantly below the main sequence. The 24 μ m-based, infrared luminosities, instead, overestimate the star formation rates. These galaxies present a lower gas-phase metallicity compared to star-forming objects with similar stellar mass, and many of them have close companions. We therefore conclude that the low-level star formation activity in these nine quiescent galaxies is likely to be fueled by inflowing gas or minor mergers, and could be a sign of rejuvenation events.

  6. Hydrodynamical simulations of the stream-core interaction in the slow merger of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Spruit, H.

    2002-08-01

    We present detailed simulations of the interaction of a stream emanating from a mass-losing secondary with the core of a massive supergiant in the slow merger of two stars inside a common envelope. The dynamics of the stream can be divided into a ballistic phase, starting at the L1 point, and a hydrodynamical phase, where the stream interacts strongly with the core. Considering the merger of a 1- and 5-Msolar star with a 20-Msolar evolved supergiant, we present two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations using the PROMETHEUS code to demonstrate how the penetration depth and post-impact conditions depend on the initial properties of the stream material (e.g. entropy, angular momentum, stream width) and the properties of the core (e.g. density structure and rotation rate). Using these results, we present a fitting formula for the entropy generated in the stream-core interaction and a recipe for the determination of the penetration depth based on a modified Bernoulli integral.

  7. ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AROUND MASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The centers of stellar spheroids less luminous than ∼10 10 L ☉ are often marked by the presence of nucleated central regions, called 'nuclear star clusters' (NSCs). The origin of NSCs is still unclear. Here we investigate the possibility that NSCs originate from the migration and merger of stellar clusters at the center of galaxies where a massive black hole (MBH) may sit. We show that the observed scaling relation between NSC masses and the velocity dispersion of their host spheroids cannot be reconciled with a purely 'in situ' dissipative formation scenario. On the other hand, the observed relation appears to be in agreement with the predictions of the cluster merger model. A dissipationless formation model also reproduces the observed relation between the size of NSCs and their total luminosity, R∝√(L NSC ). When an MBH is included at the center of the galaxy, such dependence becomes substantially weaker than the observed correlation, since the size of the NSC is mainly determined by the fixed tidal field of the MBH. We evolve through dynamical friction a population of stellar clusters in a model of a galactic bulge taking into account dynamical dissolution due to two-body relaxation, starting from a power-law cluster initial mass function and adopting an initial total mass in stellar clusters consistent with the present-day cluster formation efficiency of the Milky Way (MW). The most massive clusters reach the center of the galaxy and merge to form a compact nucleus; after 10 10 years, the resulting NSC has properties that are consistent with the observed distribution of stars in the MW NSC. When an MBH is included at the center of a galaxy, globular clusters are tidally disrupted during inspiral, resulting in NSCs with lower densities than those of NSCs forming in galaxies with no MBHs. We suggest this as a possible explanation for the lack of NSCs in galaxies containing MBHs more massive than ∼10 8 M ☉ . Finally, we investigate the orbital

  8. ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AROUND MASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, Fabio, E-mail: antonini@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2013-01-20

    The centers of stellar spheroids less luminous than {approx}10{sup 10} L {sub Sun} are often marked by the presence of nucleated central regions, called 'nuclear star clusters' (NSCs). The origin of NSCs is still unclear. Here we investigate the possibility that NSCs originate from the migration and merger of stellar clusters at the center of galaxies where a massive black hole (MBH) may sit. We show that the observed scaling relation between NSC masses and the velocity dispersion of their host spheroids cannot be reconciled with a purely 'in situ' dissipative formation scenario. On the other hand, the observed relation appears to be in agreement with the predictions of the cluster merger model. A dissipationless formation model also reproduces the observed relation between the size of NSCs and their total luminosity, R{proportional_to}{radical}(L{sub NSC}). When an MBH is included at the center of the galaxy, such dependence becomes substantially weaker than the observed correlation, since the size of the NSC is mainly determined by the fixed tidal field of the MBH. We evolve through dynamical friction a population of stellar clusters in a model of a galactic bulge taking into account dynamical dissolution due to two-body relaxation, starting from a power-law cluster initial mass function and adopting an initial total mass in stellar clusters consistent with the present-day cluster formation efficiency of the Milky Way (MW). The most massive clusters reach the center of the galaxy and merge to form a compact nucleus; after 10{sup 10} years, the resulting NSC has properties that are consistent with the observed distribution of stars in the MW NSC. When an MBH is included at the center of a galaxy, globular clusters are tidally disrupted during inspiral, resulting in NSCs with lower densities than those of NSCs forming in galaxies with no MBHs. We suggest this as a possible explanation for the lack of NSCs in galaxies containing MBHs more massive

  9. Translation invariant time-dependent solutions to massive gravity II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, J.; Steer, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper is a sequel to JCAP 12 (2013) 004 and is also devoted to translation-invariant solutions of ghost-free massive gravity in its moving frame formulation. Here we consider a mass term which is linear in the vielbein (corresponding to a β3 term in the 4D metric formulation) in addition to the cosmological constant. We determine explicitly the constraints, and from the initial value formulation show that the time-dependent solutions can have singularities at a finite time. Although the constraints give, as in the β1 case, the correct number of degrees of freedom for a massive spin two field, we show that the lapse function can change sign at a finite time causing a singular time evolution. This is very different to the β1 case where time evolution is always well defined. We conclude that the β3 mass term can be pathological and should be treated with care.

  10. Accretion from a clumpy massive-star wind in supergiant X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mellah, I.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Keppens, R.

    2018-04-01

    Supergiant X-ray binaries (SgXB) host a compact object, often a neutron star (NS), orbiting an evolved O/B star. Mass transfer proceeds through the intense line-driven wind of the stellar donor, a fraction of which is captured by the gravitational field of the NS. The subsequent accretion process on to the NS is responsible for the abundant X-ray emission from SgXB. They also display peak-to-peak variability of the X-ray flux by a factor of a few 10-100, along with changes in the hardness ratios possibly due to varying absorption along the line of sight. We use recent radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of inhomogeneities (a.k.a. clumps) in the non-stationary wind of massive hot stars to evaluate their impact on the time-variable accretion process. For this, we run 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the wind in the vicinity of the accretor to investigate the formation of the bow shock and follow the inhomogeneous flow over several spatial orders of magnitude, down to the NS magnetosphere. In particular, we show that the impact of the wind clumps on the time variability of the intrinsic mass accretion rate is severely tempered by the crossing of the shock, compared to the purely ballistic Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton estimation. We also account for the variable absorption due to clumps passing by the line of sight and estimate the final effective variability of the column density and mass accretion rate for different orbital separations. Finally, we compare our results to the most recent analysis of the X-ray flux and the hardness ratio in Vela X-1.

  11. An Observational Study of Blended Young Stellar Clusters in the Galactic Plane - Do Massive Stars form First?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Galarza, Rafael; Protopapas, Pavlos; Smith, Howard A.; Morales, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    From an observational point of view, the early life of massive stars is difficult to understand partly because star formation occurs in crowded clusters where individual stars often appear blended together in the beams of infrared telescopes. This renders the characterization of the physical properties of young embedded clusters via spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting a challenging task. Of particular relevance for the testing of star formation models is the question of whether the claimed universality of the IMF (references) is reflected in an equally universal integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) of stars. In other words, is the set of all stellar masses in the galaxy sampled from a single universal IMF, or does the distribution of masses depend on the environment, making the IGIMF different from the canonical IMF? If the latter is true, how different are the two? We present a infrared SED analysis of ~70 Spitzer-selected, low mass ($facilities.

  12. High-precision atmospheric parameter and abundance determination of massive stars, and consequences for stellar and Galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda; Przybilla, Norbert; Irrgang, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The derivation of high precision/accuracy parameters and chemical abundances of massive stars is of utmost importance to the fields of stellar evolution and Galactic chemical evolution. We concentrate on the study of OB-type stars near the main sequence and their evolved progeny, the BA-type supergiants, covering masses of ∼6 to 25 solar masses and a range in effective temperature from ∼8000 to 35 000 K. The minimization of the main sources of systematic errors in the atmospheric model computation, the observed spectra and the quantitative spectral analysis play a critical role in the final results. Our self-consistent spectrum analysis technique employing a robust non-LTE line formation allows precise atmospheric parameters of massive stars to be derived, achieving 1σ-uncertainties as low as 1% in effective temperature and ∼0.05–0.10 dex in surface gravity. Consequences on the behaviour of the chemical elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are discussed here in the context of massive star evolution and Galactic chemical evolution, showing tight relations covered in previous work by too large statistical and systematic uncertainties. The spectral analysis of larger star samples, like from the upcoming Gaia-ESO survey, may benefit from these findings.

  13. THE SIZE-STAR FORMATION RELATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT 1.5 < z < 2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, S.; Franx, M.; Van Dokkum, P.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Labbe, I.; Wuyts, S.; Marchesini, D.

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between size and star formation activity in a complete sample of 225 massive (M * > 5 x 10 10 M sun ) galaxies at 1.5 PSF ∼ 0.''45) ground-based ISAAC data, we confirm and improve the significance of the relation between star formation activity and compactness found in previous studies, using a large, complete mass-limited sample. At z ∼ 2, massive quiescent galaxies are significantly smaller than massive star-forming galaxies, and a median factor of 0.34 ± 0.02 smaller than galaxies of similar mass in the local universe. Thirteen percent of the quiescent galaxies are unresolved in the ISAAC data, corresponding to sizes <1 kpc, more than five times smaller than galaxies of similar mass locally. The quiescent galaxies span a Kormendy relation which, compared to the relation for local early types, is shifted to smaller sizes and brighter surface brightnesses and is incompatible with passive evolution. The progenitors of the quiescent galaxies were likely dominated by highly concentrated, intense nuclear starbursts at z ∼ 3-4, in contrast to star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2 which are extended and dominated by distributed star formation.

  14. Evidence of a massive planet candidate orbiting the young active K5V star BD+20 1790

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-Obispo, M.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Kane, S. R.; Barnes, J. R.; de Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

    2010-03-01

    Context. BD+20 1790 is a young active, metal-rich, late-type K5Ve star. We have undertaken a study of stellar activity and kinematics for this star over the past few years. Previous results show a high level of stellar activity, with the presence of prominence-like structures, spots on the surface, and strong flare events, despite the moderate rotational velocity of the star. In addition, radial velocity variations with a semi-amplitude of up to 1 km s-1 were detected. Aims: We investigate the nature of these radial velocity variations, in order to determine whether they are due to stellar activity or the reflex motion of the star induced by a companion. Methods: We have analysed high-resolution echelle spectra by measuring stellar activity indicators and computing radial velocity (RV) and bisector velocity spans. Two-band photometry was also obtained to produce the light curve and determine the photometric period. Results: Based upon the analysis of the bisector velocity span, as well as spectroscopic indices of chromospheric indicators, Ca ii H & K, Hα, and taking the photometric analysis into account, we report that the best explanation for the RV variation is the presence of a substellar companion. The Keplerian fit of the RV data yields a solution for a close-in massive planet with an orbital period of 7.78 days. The presence of the close-in massive planet could also be an interpretation for the high level of stellar activity detected. Since the RV data are not part of a planet search programme, we can consider our results as a serendipitous evidence of a planetary companion. To date, this is the youngest main sequence star for which a planetary candidate has been reported. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo

  15. Examining the Center: Positions, Dominance, and Star Formation Rates of Most Massive Group Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Jennifer L.; Parker, Laura C.; McGee, Sean; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Balogh, Michael; Wilman, David; Group Environment Evolution Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The group environment is believed to be the stage for many galaxy transformations, helping evolve blue star-forming galaxies to red passive ones. In local studies of galaxy clusters, the central member is usually a single dominant giant galaxy at the center of the potential with little star formation thought to be the result of galaxy mergers. In nearby groups, a range of morphologies and star formation rates are observed and the formation history is less clear. Further, the position and dominance of the central galaxy cannot be assumed in groups, which are less massive and evolved than clusters. To understand the connections between global group properties and properties of the central group galaxy at intermediate redshift, we examine galaxy groups from the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC) catalog, including both optically- and X-ray-selected groups at redshift z~0.4. The sample is diverse, containing a range in overall mass and evolutionary state. The number of groups is significant, membership is notably complete, and measurements span the IR to the UV allowing the properties of the members to be connected to those of the host groups. Having investigated trends in the global group properties previously, including mass and velocity substructure, we turn our attention now to the galaxy populations, focusing on the central regions of these systems. The most massive and second most massive group galaxies are identified by their stellar mass. The positions of the most massive galaxies (MMGs) are determined with respect to both the luminosity-weighted and X-ray center. Star formation rates are used to explore the fraction of passive/quiescent versus star-forming MMGs and the dominance of the MMGs in our group sample is also tested. Determinations of these characteristics and trends constitute the important first steps toward a detailed understanding of the relationships between the properties of host groups and their most massive galaxies and the

  16. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, UT Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions σ{sub *} ∼> 150 km s{sup –1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (∼10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≈ –0.5), and α-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ≈ 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ≈ 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ≈ 1.5-2)

  17. The secular tidal disruption of stars by low-mass Super Massive Black Holes secondaries in galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Leigh, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    Stars passing too close to a super massive black hole (SMBH) can produce tidal disruption events (TDEs). Since the resulting stellar debris can produce an electromagnetic flare, TDEs are believed to probe the presence of single SMBHs in galactic nuclei, which otherwise remain dark. In this paper, we show how stars orbiting an IMBH secondary are perturbed by an SMBH primary. We find that the evolution of the stellar orbits are severely affected by the primary SMBH due to secular effects and stars orbiting with high inclinations with respect to the SMBH-IMBH orbital plane end their lives as TDEs due to Kozai-Lidov oscillations, hence illuminating the secondary SMBH/IMBH. Above a critical SMBH mass of ≈1.15 × 108 M⊙, no TDE can occur for typical stars in an old stellar population since the Schwarzschild radius exceeds the tidal disruption radius. Consequently, any TDEs due to such massive SMBHs will remain dark. It follows that no TDEs should be observed in galaxies more massive than ≈4.15 × 1010 M⊙, unless a lower-mass secondary SMBH or IMBH is also present. The secular mechanism for producing TDEs considered here therefore offers a useful probe of SMBH-SMBH/IMBH binarity in the most massive galaxies. We further show that the TDE rate can be ≈10-4 - 10-3 yr-1, and that most TDEs occur on ≈0.5 Myr. Finally, we show that stars may be ejected with velocities up to thousands of km s-1, which could contribute to the observed population of Galactic hypervelocity stars.

  18. Supernovae theory: study of electro-weak processes during gravitational collapse of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantina, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The physics of supernova requires the understanding of both the complex hydrodynamical phenomena (such as transfer of energy, neutrino transport, shock) as well as the microphysics related to the dense and hot matter. In the framework of type II Supernovae theory, currently most of numerical simulations that simulate the supernova core collapse up to the formation and propagation of the shock wave fail to reproduce the observed explosion of the outer layers of massive stars. The reason for that could be due both to hydrodynamical phenomena such as rotation, convection, and general relativity, and to some micro-physical processes involved in the picture and not yet completely understood. The aim of this work is to investigate some of these micro-physical inputs, namely the electro-weak processes, that play a crucial role during the gravitational collapse and to analyse their effects by means of hydrodynamical simulations. Among nuclear processes which occur in core-collapse supernova, the most important electro-weak process taking place during the collapse is the electron capture; it occurs both on free protons and on protons bound in nuclei. This capture is essential to determine the evolution of the lepton fraction of the core during the neutronization phase. It affects the efficiency of the bounce and, as a consequence, the strength of the shock wave. Moreover, both the equation of state of supernova matter and electron capture rates in nuclei are modified by the effective mass of nucleons in nuclei, induced by many-body correlations in the dense medium, and its temperature dependence. In the first part of the thesis, a nuclear model aimed at studying the nuclear effective mass is presented. We show how we have included in a energy density functional (EDF) approach a surface-peaked nucleon effective mass to mimic some effects beyond Hartree-Fock. We have added a term to the Skyrme functional, in order to reproduce the enhancement of the effective mass at the

  19. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  20. THE {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C REACTION AND THE IMPACT ON NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN MASSIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignatari, M. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hirschi, R.; Bennett, M. [Astrophysics Group, EPSAM Institute, Keele University, Keele, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Wiescher, M.; Beard, M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Gallino, R. [Universita' di Torino, Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10126 Torino (Italy); Fryer, C.; Rockefeller, G. [Computational Physics and Methods (CCS-2), LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Herwig, F.; Timmes, F. X., E-mail: marco.pignatari@unibas.ch [The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Despite much effort in the past decades, the C-burning reaction rate is uncertain by several orders of magnitude, and the relative strength between the different channels {sup 12}C({sup 12}C, {alpha}){sup 20}Ne, {sup 12}C({sup 12}C, p){sup 23}Na, and {sup 12}C({sup 12}C, n){sup 23}Mg is poorly determined. Additionally, in C-burning conditions a high {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C rate may lead to lower central C-burning temperatures and to {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O emerging as a more dominant neutron source than {sup 22}Ne({alpha}, n){sup 25}Mg, increasing significantly the s-process production. This is due to the chain {sup 12}C(p, {gamma}){sup 13}N followed by {sup 13}N({beta} +){sup 13}C, where the photodisintegration reverse channel {sup 13}N({gamma}, p){sup 12}C is strongly decreasing with increasing temperature. Presented here is the impact of the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C reaction uncertainties on the s-process and on explosive p-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars, including also fast rotating massive stars at low metallicity. Using various {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C rates, in particular an upper and lower rate limit of {approx}50,000 higher and {approx}20 lower than the standard rate at 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} K, five 25 M {sub Sun} stellar models are calculated. The enhanced s-process signature due to {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O activation is considered, taking into account the impact of the uncertainty of all three C-burning reaction branches. Consequently, we show that the p-process abundances have an average production factor increased up to about a factor of eight compared with the standard case, efficiently producing the elusive Mo and Ru proton-rich isotopes. We also show that an s-process being driven by {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O is a secondary process, even though the abundance of {sup 13}C does not depend on the initial metal content. Finally, implications for the Sr-peak elements inventory in the solar system and at low metallicity are

  1. Metallicity-Dependent Isotopic Abundances and the Impact of Helium Rate Uncertainties in Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    All stellar evolution models for nucleosynthesis require an initial isotopic abundance set to use as a starting point, because nuclear reactions occur between isotopes. Generally, our knowledge of isotopic abundances of stars is fairly incomplete except for the Solar System. We develop a first model for a complete average isotopic decomposition as a function of metallicity. Our model is based on the underlying nuclear astrophysics processes, and is fitted to observational data, rather than traditional forward galactic chemical evolution modeling which integrates stellar yields beginning from big bang nucleosynthesis. We first decompose the isotopic solar abundance pattern into contributions from astrophysical sources. Each contribution is then assumed to scale as a function of metallicity. The resulting total isotopic abundances are summed into elemental abundances and fitted to available halo and disk stellar data to constrain the model's free parameter values. This procedure allows us to use available elemental observational data to reconstruct and constrain both the much needed complete isotopic evolution that is not accessible to current observations, and the underlying astrophysical processes. Our model finds a best fit for Type Ia supernovae contributing ˜0.7 to the solar Fe abundance, and Type Ia onset occurring at [Fe/H]~1.2, in agreement with typical values. The completed model can be used in future nucleosynthesis studies. We also perform a preliminary analysis to assess the impact of our isotopic scaling model on the resulting nucleosynthesis of massive stars, compared to a linear interpolation method. Using these two input methods we compute a limited grid of stellar models, and compare the final nucleosynthesis to observations. The compactness parameter was first used to assess which models would likely explode as successful supernovae, and contribute explosive nucleosynthesis yields. We find a better agreement to solar observations using the scaling

  2. The Most Massive Star Clusters: Supermassive Globular Clusters or Dwarf Galaxy Nuclei?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William

    2004-07-01

    Evidence is mounting that the most massive globular clusters, such as Omega Centauri and M31-G1, may be related to the recently discovered "Ultra-Compact Dwarfs" and the dense nuclei of dE, N galaxies. However, no systematic imaging investigation of these supermassive globular clusters - at the level of Omega Cen and beyond - has been done, and we do not know what fraction of them might bear the signatures {such as large effective radii or tidal tails} of having originated as dE nuclei. We propose to use the ACS/WFC to obtain deep images of 18 such clusters in NGC 5128 and M31, the two nearest rich globular cluster systems. These globulars are the richest star clusters that can be found in nature, the biggest of them reaching 10^7 Solar masses, and they are likely to represent the results of star formation under the densest and most extreme conditions known. Using the profiles of the clusters including their faint outer envelopes, we will carry out state-of-the-art dynamical modelling of their structures, and look for any clear evidence which would indicate that they are associated with stripped satellites. This study will build on our previous work with STIS and WFPC2 imaging designed to study the 'Fundamental Plane' of globular clusters. When our new work is combined with Archival WFPC2, STIS, and ACS material, we will also be able to construct the definitive mapping of the Fundamental Plane of globular clusters at its uppermost mass range, and confirm whether or not the UCD and dE, N objects occupy a different structural parameter space.

  3. A RING/DISK/OUTFLOW SYSTEM ASSOCIATED WITH W51 NORTH: A VERY MASSIVE STAR IN THE MAKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schilke, Peter; Menten, Karl; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Garrod, Robin T.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive and high angular resolution (∼0.''4) SO 2 [22 2,20 → 22 1,21 ] and SiO[5 → 4] line and 1.3 and 7 mm continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Very Large Array (VLA) toward the young massive cluster W51 IRS2 are presented. We report the presence of a large (of about 3000 AU) and massive (40 M sun ) dusty circumstellar disk and a hot gas molecular ring around a high-mass protostar or a compact small stellar system associated with W51 North. The simultaneous observations of the silicon monoxide molecule, an outflow gas tracer, further revealed a massive (200 M sun ) and collimated (∼14 0 ) outflow nearly perpendicular to the dusty and molecular structures suggesting thus the presence of a single very massive protostar with a bolometric luminosity on the order of 10 5 L sun . A molecular hybrid local thermodynamic equilibrium model of a Keplerian and infalling disk with an inner cavity and a central stellar mass of more than 60 M sun agrees well with the SO 2 [22 2,20 → 22 1,21 ] line observations. Finally, these results suggest that mechanisms, such as mergers of low- and intermediate-mass stars, might not be necessary for forming very massive stars.

  4. The Globular Cluster NGC 6402 (M14). II. Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Peña, C.; Catelan, M.; Grundahl, F.; Stephens, A. W.; Smith, H. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present time-series BVI photometry for the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6402 (M14). The data consist of ∼137 images per filter, obtained using the 0.9 and 1.0 m SMARTS telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The images were obtained during two observing runs in 2006–2007. The image-subtraction package ISIS, along with DAOPHOT II/ALLFRAME, was used to perform crowded-field photometry and search for variable stars. We identified 130 variables, eight of which are new discoveries. The variable star population is comprised of 56 ab-type RR Lyrae stars, 54 c-type RR Lyrae, 6 type II Cepheids, 1 W UMa star, 1 detached eclipsing binary, and 12 long-period variables. We provide Fourier decomposition parameters for the RR Lyrae, and discuss the physical parameters and photometric metallicity derived therefrom. The M14 distance modulus is also discussed, based on different approaches for the calibration of the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. The possible presence of second-overtone RR Lyrae in M14 is critically addressed, with our results arguing against this possibility. By considering all of the RR Lyrae stars as members of the cluster, we derive =0.589 {{d}}{{a}}{{y}}{{s}}. This, together with the position of the RR Lyrae stars of both Bailey types in the period–amplitude diagram, suggests an Oosterhoff-intermediate classification for the cluster. Such an intermediate Oosterhoff type is much more commonly found in nearby extragalactic systems, and we critically discuss several other possible indications that may point to an extragalactic origin for this cluster. Based on observations obtained with the 0.9 m and 1 m telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, operated by the SMARTS consortium.

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF NEBULAR CONTINUUM AND LINE EMISSION IN OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG MASSIVE STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Nidever, David L.; Whelan, David G.; Johnson, Kelsey E.

    2010-01-01

    In this spectroscopic study of infant massive star clusters, we find that continuum emission from ionized gas rivals the stellar luminosity at optical wavelengths. In addition, we find that nebular line emission is significant in many commonly used broadband Hubble Space Telescope (HST) filters including the F814W I-band, the F555W V-band, and the F435W B-band. Two young massive clusters (YMCs) in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 4449 were targeted for follow-up spectroscopic observations after Reines et al. discovered an F814W I-band excess in their photometric study of radio-detected clusters in the galaxy. The spectra were obtained with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) on the 3.5 m Apache Point Observatory (APO) telescope and have a spectral range of ∼3800-9800 A. We supplement these data with HST and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry of the clusters. By comparing our data to the Starburst99 and GALEV evolutionary synthesis models, we find that nebular continuum emission competes with the stellar light in our observations and that the relative contribution from the nebular continuum is largest in the U- and I-bands, where the Balmer (3646 A) and Paschen jumps (8207 A) are located. The spectra also exhibit strong line emission including the [S III] λλ9069, 9532 lines in the HST F814W I-band. We find that the combination of nebular continuum and line emission can account for the F814W I-band excess previously found by Reines et al. In an effort to provide a benchmark for estimating the impact of ionized gas emission on photometric observations of young massive stellar populations, we compute the relative contributions of the stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines to the total observed flux of a 3 Myr old cluster through various HST filter/instrument combinations, including filters in the Wide Field Camera 3. We urge caution when comparing observations of YMCs to evolutionary synthesis models since nebular continuum and line emission can

  6. On the Weak-Wind Problem in Massive Stars: X-Ray Spectra Reveal a Massive Hot Wind in mu Columbae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Ignace, Richard; Waldron, Wayne L.; Todt, Helge; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Kitamoto, Shunji

    2012-01-01

    Mu Columbae is a prototypical weak-wind O star for which we have obtained a high-resolution X-ray spectrum with the Chandra LETG/ACIS instrument and a low-resolution spectrum with Suzaku. This allows us, for the first time, to investigate the role of X-rays on the wind structure in a bona fide weak-wind system and to determine whether there actually is a massive hot wind. The X-ray emission measure indicates that the outflow is an order of magnitude greater than that derived from UV lines and is commensurate with the nominal wind-luminosity relationship for O stars. Therefore, the "weak-wind problem"--identified from cool wind UV/optical spectra--is largely resolved by accounting for the hot wind seen in X-rays. From X-ray line profiles, Doppler shifts, and relative strengths, we find that this weak-wind star is typical of other late O dwarfs. The X-ray spectra do not suggest a magnetically confined plasma-the spectrum is soft and lines are broadened; Suzaku spectra confirm the lack of emission above 2 keV. Nor do the relative line shifts and widths suggest any wind decoupling by ions. The He-like triplets indicate that the bulk of the X-ray emission is formed rather close to the star, within five stellar radii. Our results challenge the idea that some OB stars are "weak-wind" stars that deviate from the standard wind-luminosity relationship. The wind is not weak, but it is hot and its bulk is only detectable in X-rays.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Massive star forming molecular clumps Tkin (Tang+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. D.; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Zheng, X. W.; Esimbek, J.; Zhou, J. J.; Yeh, C. C.; Konig, C.; Yuan, Y.; He, Y. X.; Li, D. L.

    2016-10-01

    We have selected 30 massive clumps of the Galactic disk at various stages of high-mass star formation and with strong NH3 emission from the ATLASGAL survey (see Table 1). Our observations were carried out in 2015 April, July, and October with the 15m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea. The beam size is ~23" and the main-beam efficiency is {eta}mb=Ta*/Tmb~=0.7 at 218GHz. The para-H2CO JKAKC =303-202, 322-221, and 321-220 transitions have rest frequencies of 218.222, 218.475, and 218.760GHz, respectively, which are measured simultaneously by employing the ACSIS digital autocorrelation spectrometer with the special backend configuration RxAH2CO250x3 allowing for three windows, each with a bandwidth of 250MHz. This provides a velocity resolution of 0.084km/s for para-H2CO (303-202 and 322-221) and 0.042km/s for para-H2CO (321-220); CH3OH (422-312) at 218.440GHz is also observed together with para-H2CO (322-221). (6 data files).

  8. FROM THE CONVERGENCE OF FILAMENTS TO DISK-OUTFLOW ACCRETION: MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN W33A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan-Madrid, Roberto; Zhang Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Zapata, Luis A.; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Interferometric observations of the W33A massive star formation region, performed with the Submillimeter Array and the Very Large Array at resolutions from 5'' (0.1 pc) to 0.''5 (0.01 pc), are presented. Our three main findings are: (1) parsec-scale, filamentary structures of cold molecular gas are detected. Two filaments at different velocities intersect in the zone where the star formation is occurring. This is consistent with triggering of the star formation activity by the convergence of such filaments, as predicted by numerical simulations of star formation initiated by converging flows. (2) The two dusty cores (MM1 and MM2) at the intersection of the filaments are found to be at different evolutionary stages, and each of them is resolved into multiple condensations. MM1 and MM2 have markedly different temperatures, continuum spectral indices, molecular-line spectra, and masses of both stars and gas. (3) The dynamics of the 'hot-core' MM1 indicates the presence of a rotating disk in its center (MM1-Main) around a faint free-free source. The stellar mass is estimated to be ∼10 M sun . A massive molecular outflow is observed along the rotation axis of the disk.

  9. The Wolf-Rayet Content of the Andromeda Galaxy: What Do Massive Stars Really Do When the Metallicity is Above Solar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip

    2000-08-01

    We are proposing to survey M 31 for Wolf-Rayet stars (WRs) and red supergiants (RSGs), providing much needed information about how massive stars evolve at greater-than-solar metallicities. Our understanding of massive star evolution is hampered by the effects of mass-loss on these stars; at higher metallicities mass-loss effects become ever more pronounced. Our previous work on other Local Group galaxies (Massey & Johnson 1998) has shown that the number of RSGs to WRs correlates well with metallicity, changing by a factor of 6 from NGC 6822 (log O/H+12=8.3) to the inner parts of M 33 (8.7). Our study of five small regions in M 31 suggests that above this value the ratio of RSGs to WRs doesn't change: does this mean that no massive star that becomes a WR spends any time as a RSG at above solar metallicities? We fear instead that our sample (selected, afterall, for containing WR stars) was not sufficiently well-mixed in age to provide useful global values; the study we propose here will survey all of M 31. Detection of WRs will provide fundamental data not only on massive star evolution, but also act as tracers of the most massive stars, and improve our knowledge of recent star-formation in the Andromeda Galaxy.

  10. Stellar dynamics around a massive black hole - II. Resonant relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.

    2016-06-01

    We present a first-principles theory of resonant relaxation (RR) of a low-mass stellar system orbiting a more massive black hole (MBH). We first extend the kinetic theory of Gilbert to include the Keplerian field of a black hole of mass M•. Specializing to a Keplerian stellar system of mass M ≪ M•, we use the orbit-averaging method of Sridhar & Touma to derive a kinetic equation for RR. This describes the collisional evolution of a system of N ≫ 1 Gaussian rings in a reduced 5-dim space, under the combined actions of self-gravity, 1 post-Newtonian (PN) and 1.5 PN relativistic effects of the MBH and an arbitrary external potential. In general geometries, RR is driven by both apsidal and nodal resonances, so the distinction between scalar RR and vector RR disappears. The system passes through a sequence of quasi-steady secular collisionless equilibria, driven by irreversible two-ring correlations that accrue through gravitational interactions, both direct and collective. This correlation function is related to a `wake function', which is the linear response of the system to the perturbation of a chosen ring. The wake function is easier to appreciate, and satisfies a simpler equation, than the correlation function. We discuss general implications for the interplay of secular dynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics in the evolution of Keplerian stellar systems towards secular thermodynamic equilibria, and set the stage for applications to the RR of axisymmetric discs in Paper III.

  11. Type II critical phenomena of neutron star collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Scott C.; Choptuik, Matthew W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric, general relativistic systems of collapsing perfect fluid distributions. We consider neutron star models that are driven to collapse by the addition of an initially 'ingoing' velocity profile to the nominally static star solution. The neutron star models we use are Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff solutions with an initially isentropic, gamma law equation of state. The initial values of (1) the amplitude of the velocity profile, and (2) the central density of the star, span a parameter space, and we focus only on that region that gives rise to type II critical behavior, wherein black holes of arbitrarily small mass can be formed. In contrast to previously published work, we find that--for a specific value of the adiabatic index (Γ=2)--the observed type II critical solution has approximately the same scaling exponent as that calculated for an ultrarelativistic fluid of the same index. Further, we find that the critical solution computed using the ideal-gas equations of state asymptotes to the ultrarelativistic critical solution.

  12. The distribution of satellites around massive galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in ZFOURGE/CANDELS: Dependence on star formation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Papovich, Casey; Quadri, Ryan F.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Mehrtens, Nicola [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Spitler, Lee R.; Cowley, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Glazebrook, Karl; Nanayakkara, Themiya [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Allen, Rebecca [Australian Astronomical Observatories, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Davé, Romeel [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hartley, W. G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Koo, David C. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lu, Yu, E-mail: kawinwanichakij@physics.tamu.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); and others

    2014-09-10

    We study the statistical distribution of satellites around star-forming and quiescent central galaxies at 1 < z < 3 using imaging from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey and the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The deep near-IR data select satellites down to log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 9 at z < 3. The radial satellite distribution around centrals is consistent with a projected Navarro-Frenk-White profile. Massive quiescent centrals, log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 10.78, have ∼2 times the number of satellites compared to star-forming centrals with a significance of 2.7σ even after accounting for differences in the centrals' stellar-mass distributions. We find no statistical difference in the satellite distributions of intermediate-mass quiescent and star-forming centrals, 10.48 < log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 10.78. Compared to the Guo et al. semi-analytic model, the excess number of satellites indicates that quiescent centrals have halo masses 0.3 dex larger than star-forming centrals, even when the stellar-mass distributions are fixed. We use a simple toy model that relates halo mass and quenching, which roughly reproduces the observed quenched fractions and the differences in halo mass between star-forming and quenched galaxies only if galaxies have a quenching probability that increases with halo mass from ∼0 for log (M{sub h} /M {sub ☉}) ∼ 11 to ∼1 for log (M{sub h} /M {sub ☉}) ∼ 13.5. A single halo-mass quenching threshold is unable to reproduce the quiescent fraction and satellite distribution of centrals. Therefore, while halo quenching may be an important mechanism, it is unlikely to be the only factor driving quenching. It remains unclear why a high fraction of centrals remain star-forming even in relatively massive halos.

  13. CHEMICAL SEGREGATION TOWARD MASSIVE HOT CORES: THE AFGL2591 STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Serra, I.; Zhang, Q. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Viti, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Martin-Pintado, J. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC/INTA), Ctra. de Torrejon a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); De Wit, W.-J., E-mail: ijimenez-serra@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: sv@star.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: jmartin@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: wdewit@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-07-01

    We present high angular resolution observations (0.''5 Multiplication-Sign 0.''3) carried out with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward the AFGL2591 high-mass star-forming region. Our SMA images reveal a clear chemical segregation within the AFGL2591 VLA 3 hot core, where different molecular species (Types I, II, and III) appear distributed in three concentric shells. This is the first time that such a chemical segregation is ever reported at linear scales {<=}3000 AU within a hot core. While Type I species (H{sub 2}S and {sup 13}CS) peak at the AFGL2591 VLA 3 protostar, Type II molecules (HC{sub 3}N, OCS, SO, and SO{sub 2}) show a double-peaked structure circumventing the continuum peak. Type III species, represented by CH{sub 3}OH, form a ring-like structure surrounding the continuum emission. The excitation temperatures of SO{sub 2}, HC{sub 3}N, and CH{sub 3}OH (185 {+-} 11 K, 150 {+-} 20 K, and 124 {+-} 12 K, respectively) show a temperature gradient within the AFGL2591 VLA 3 envelope, consistent with previous observations and modeling of the source. By combining the H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}OH images, representative of the three concentric shells, we find that the global kinematics of the molecular gas follow Keplerian-like rotation around a 40 M{sub Sun} star. The chemical segregation observed toward AFGL2591 VLA 3 is explained by the combination of molecular UV photodissociation and a high-temperature ({approx}1000 K) gas-phase chemistry within the low extinction innermost region in the AFGL2591 VLA 3 hot core.

  14. A combined HST and XMM-Newton campaign for the magnetic O9.7 V star HD 54879. Constraining the weak-wind problem of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenar, T.; Oskinova, L. M.; Järvinen, S. P.; Luckas, P.; Hainich, R.; Todt, H.; Hubrig, S.; Sander, A. A. C.; Ilyin, I.; Hamann, W.-R.

    2017-10-01

    Context. HD 54879 (O9.7 V) is one of a dozen O-stars for which an organized atmospheric magnetic field has been detected. Despite their importance, little is known about the winds and evolution of magnetized massive stars. Aims: To gain insights into the interplay between atmospheres, winds, and magnetic fields of massive stars, we acquired UV and X-ray data of HD 54879 using the Hubble Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton satellite. In addition, 35 optical amateur spectra were secured to study the variability of HD 54879. Methods: A multiwavelength (X-ray to optical) spectral analysis is performed using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmosphere code and the xspec software. Results: The photospheric parameters (T∗ = 30.5 kK, log g = 4.0 [cm s-2], log L = 4.45 [L⊙]) are typical for an O9.7 V star. The microturbulent, macroturbulent, and projected rotational velocities are lower than previously suggested (ξph,vmac,vsini ≤ 4 km s-1). An initial mass of 16 M⊙ and an age of 5 Myr are inferred from evolutionary tracks. We derive a mean X-ray emitting temperature of log TX = 6.7 [K] and an X-ray luminosity of LX = 1 × 1032 erg s-1. Short- and long-scale variability is seen in the Hα line, but only a very long period of P ≈ 5 yr could be estimated. Assessing the circumstellar density of HD 54879 using UV spectra, we can roughly estimate the mass-loss rate HD 54879 would have in the absence of a magnetic field as log ṀB = 0 ≈ -9.0 [M⊙ yr-1]. The magnetic field traps the stellar wind up to the Alfvén radius rA ≳ 12 R∗, implying that its true mass-loss rate is log Ṁ ≲ -10.2 [M⊙ yr-1]. Hence, density enhancements around magnetic stars can be exploited to estimate mass-loss rates of non-magnetic stars of similar spectral types, essential for resolving the weak wind problem. Conclusions: Our study confirms that strongly magnetized stars lose little or no mass, and supplies important constraints on the weak-wind problem of massive main sequence

  15. New T Tauri stars in Chamaeleon I and Chamaeleon II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A new objective prism survey of the entire Chamaeleon I dark cloud and 2/3 of the Chamaeleon II cloud has uncovered 26 new H-alpha emission line objects that were missed by previous H-alpha plate surveys. The new H-alpha emission line objects have similar IR colors and spatial distributions to the known T Tauri stars in these dark clouds, and could represent the very low mass end of the stellar population in these clouds or an older, less active component to the usual classical T Tauri star population. The new H-alpha survey identified 70 percent of the total known Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in Cha I, compared with 35 percent for IRAS, and 25 percent from the Einstein X-ray survey. Ten of the new objects are weak-lined stars, with H-alpha equivalent widths less than 10 A. Weak-lined T Tauri stars make up about half of the total population of young stars in the Chamaeleon I cloud, a proportion similar to the Taurus-Auriga cloud. Presented are coordinates, finding charts, and optical and IR photometry of the new emission-line objects.

  16. The STAR beam energy scan phase II physics and upgrades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, C.; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Vértési, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 967, č. 11 (2017), s. 800-803 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * BES-II * detector upgrade * QCD phase diagram * physics oppotrunity Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  17. X-RAY AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, V. A.; Hofner, P.; Anderson, C.; Rosero, V. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present results from Chandra ACIS-I and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 6 cm continuum observations of the IRAS 20126+4104 massive star-forming region. We detect 150 X-ray sources within the 17′ × 17′ ACIS-I field, and a total of 13 radio sources within the 9.′2 primary beam at 4.9 GHz. Among these observtions are the first 6 cm detections of the central sources reported by Hofner et al., namely, I20N1, I20S, and I20var. A new variable radio source is also reported. Searching the 2MASS archive, we identified 88 near-infrared (NIR) counterparts to the X-ray sources. Only four of the X-ray sources had 6 cm counterparts. Based on an NIR color–color analysis and on the Besançon simulation of Galactic stellar populations, we estimate that approximately 80 X-ray sources are associated with this massive star-forming region. We detect an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and infer the presence of a cluster of at least 43 young stellar objects within a distance of 1.2 pc from the massive protostar.

  18. Carbon isotope ratios in field Population II giant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneden, C.; Pilachowski, C.A.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Victoria Univ., Canada)

    1986-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios have been derived from high-resolution spectra of the CH G-band in 15 very metal-poor Population II giant stars and two similar dwarf stars. Many of the giants possess very low C-12/C-13 ratios, some approaching the CN cycle equilibrium value. The metal-poor dwarfs do not have detectable CH-13 features; thus the low carbon isotope ratios in the giants probably are due to their internal evolutions. These results strongly support the idea that at least part of the anomalously low C/N values in Population II giants arises from very efficient mixing of their envelopes into the CN cycle burning layers. Detailed calculations of the expected CNO surface abundances in Population II giants in different evolutionary states have been performed. These computations demonstrate that the observed carbon isotope ratios cannot be produced during the first dredge-up mixing phases in low-mass, low metal abundance stars. Numerical experiments show that theoretical and observational results can be brought into agreement with artificially induced extra mixing. An agent to provoke this additional mixing has not been identified with certainty yet, although internal stellar rotation is a promising candidate. 63 references

  19. Evidence for wide-spread active galactic nucleus-driven outflows in the most massive z ∼ 1-2 star-forming galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzel, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Rosario, D.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Bender, R.; Berta, S.; Kurk, J.; Mendel, J. T.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wilman, D.; Beifiori, A.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Chan, J.; Brammer, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M * /M ☉ ) ≥ 10.9) z ∼ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M * /M ☉ ) ≥ 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS 3D spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ∼450-5300 km s –1 ), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M * /M ☉ ) ∼ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ∼ 1 and ∼2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.

  20. Radio outburst from a massive (proto)star. When accretion turns into ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, R.; Moscadelli, L.; Neri, R.; Sanna, A.; Caratti o Garatti, A.; Eisloffel, J.; Stecklum, B.; Ray, T.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Recent observations of the massive young stellar object S255 NIRS 3 have revealed a large increase in both methanol maser flux density and IR emission, which have been interpreted as the result of an accretion outburst, possibly due to instabilities in a circumstellar disk. This indicates that this type of accretion event could be common in young/forming early-type stars and in their lower mass siblings, and supports the idea that accretion onto the star may occur in a non-continuous way. Aims: As accretion and ejection are believed to be tightly associated phenomena, we wanted to confirm the accretion interpretation of the outburst in S255 NIRS 3 by detecting the corresponding burst of the associated thermal jet. Methods: We monitored the radio continuum emission from S255 NIRS 3 at four bands using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The millimetre continuum emission was also observed with both the Northern Extended Millimeter Array of IRAM and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. Results: We have detected an exponential increase in the radio flux density from 6 to 45 GHz starting right after July 10, 2016, namely 13 months after the estimated onset of the IR outburst. This is the first ever detection of a radio burst associated with an IR accretion outburst from a young stellar object. The flux density at all observed centimetre bands can be reproduced with a simple expanding jet model. At millimetre wavelengths we infer a marginal flux increase with respect to the literature values and we show this is due to free-free emission from the radio jet. Conclusions: Our model fits indicate a significant increase in the jet opening angle and ionized mass loss rate with time. For the first time, we can estimate the ionization fraction in the jet and conclude that this must be low (memory of MalcolmWalmsley, who passed away before the present study could be completed. Without his insights and enlightened advice this work would have been impossible

  1. DISCOVERY OF MASSIVE, MOSTLY STAR FORMATION QUENCHED GALAXIES WITH EXTREMELY LARGE Lyα EQUIVALENT WIDTHS AT z ∼ 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Scoville, Nick Z.; Capak, Peter L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Toft, Sune [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Renzini, Alvio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovač, Katarina [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: tani@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2015-08-10

    We report a discovery of six massive galaxies with both extremely large Lyα equivalent widths (EWs) and evolved stellar populations at z ∼ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lyα emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lyα emitters (LAEs) with 12 optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the spectral energy distribution fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame EWs of EW{sub 0} (Lyα) ∼ 100–300 Å, (2) M{sub ⋆} ∼ 10{sup 10.5}–10{sup 11.1} M{sub ⊙}, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M{sub ⋆} ∼ 0.03–1 Gyr{sup −1}. Three of the six MAESTLOs have extended Lyα emission with a radius of several kiloparsecs, although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for active galactic nuclei, the observed extended Lyα emission is likely to be caused by a star formation process including the superwind activity. We suggest that this new class of LAEs, MAESTLOs, provides a missing link from star-forming to passively evolving galaxies at the peak era of the cosmic star formation history.

  2. Magnetic field of massive chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Yakunin, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of 55 chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association were obtained at the 6 m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the aim of searching for the presence of stellar magnetic fields. We found 8 new magnetic stars in addition to 20 previously known objects. The frequency of chemically peculiar A and B-type stars among normal A and B-type stars and the frequency of magnetic stars among all chemically peculiar stars decreases with age in the Orion OB1 association.

  3. On the Onset of Secondary Stellar Generations in Giant Star-forming Regions and Massive Star Clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 792, č. 2 (2014), 105/1-105/10 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies: ISM * star clusters: general * galaxies: star formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014

  4. Age gradients in the stellar populations of massive star forming regions based on a new stellar chronometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Broos, Patrick S.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Luhman, Kevin L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Naylor, Tim [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Povich, Matthew S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    A major impediment to understanding star formation in massive star-forming regions (MSFRs) is the absence of a reliable stellar chronometer to unravel their complex star formation histories. We present a new estimation of stellar ages using a new method that employs near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray photometry, Age {sub JX} . Stellar masses are derived from X-ray luminosities using the L{sub X} -M relation from the Taurus cloud. J-band luminosities are compared to mass-dependent pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models to estimate ages. Age {sub JX} is sensitive to a wide range of evolutionary stages, from disk-bearing stars embedded in a cloud to widely dispersed older PMS stars. The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project characterizes 20 OB-dominated MSFRs using X-ray, mid-infrared, and NIR catalogs. The Age {sub JX} method has been applied to 5525 out of 31,784 MYStIX Probable Complex Members. We provide a homogeneous set of median ages for over 100 subclusters in 15 MSFRs; median subcluster ages range between 0.5 Myr and 5 Myr. The important science result is the discovery of age gradients across MYStIX regions. The wide MSFR age distribution appears as spatially segregated structures with different ages. The Age {sub JX} ages are youngest in obscured locations in molecular clouds, intermediate in revealed stellar clusters, and oldest in distributed populations. The NIR color index J – H, a surrogate measure of extinction, can serve as an approximate age predictor for young embedded clusters.

  5. Sh2-138: physical environment around a small cluster of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Ninan, J. P.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Mallick, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Sh2-138, a Galactic compact H II region. The data comprise of optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometric and spectroscopic observations from the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope, radio observations from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), and archival data covering radio through NIR wavelengths. A total of 10 Class I and 54 Class II young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified in a 4.6 arcmin×4.6 arcmin area of the Sh2-138 region. Five compact ionized clumps, with four lacking of any optical or NIR counterparts, are identified using the 1280 MHz radio map, and correspond to sources with spectral type earlier than B0.5. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution fitting of the central compact H II region yields an electron density of ˜2250 ± 400 cm-3. With the aid of a wide range of spectra, from 0.5-15 μm, the central brightest source - previously hypothesized to be the main ionizing source - is characterized as a Herbig Be type star. At large scale (15 arcmin ×15 arcmin), the Herschel images (70-500 μm) and the nearest neighbour analysis of YSOs suggest the formation of an isolated cluster at the junction of filaments. Furthermore, using a greybody fit to the dust spectrum, the cluster is found to be associated with the highest column density (˜3 × 1022 cm-2) and high temperature (˜35 K) regime, as well as with the radio continuum emission. The mass of the central clump seen in the column density map is estimated to be ˜3770 M⊙.

  6. G345.45+1.50: an expanding ring-like structure with massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calderón, Cristian; Bronfman, Leonardo; Nyman, Lars-Åke; Garay, Guido; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Bergman, Per

    2016-11-01

    Context. Ring-like structures in the interstellar medium (ISM) are commonly associated with high-mass stars. Kinematic studies of large structures in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) toward these ring-like structures may help us to understand how massive stars form. Aims: The origin and properties of the ring-like structure G345.45+1.50 is investigated through observations of the 13CO(3-2) line. The aim of the observations is to determine the kinematics in the region and to compare physical characteristics estimated from gas emission with those previously determined using dust continuum emission. This area in the sky is well suited for studies like this because the ring is located 1.5° above the Galactic plane at 1.8 kpc from the Sun, thus molecular structures are rarely superposed on our line of sight, which minimizes confusion effects that might hinder identifying of individual molecular condensations. Methods: The 13CO(3-2) line was mapped toward the whole ring using the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope. The observations cover 17' × 20' in the sky with a spatial resolution of 0.2 pc and an rms of 1 K at a spectral resolution of 0.1 km s-1. Results: The ring is found to be expanding with a velocity of 1.0 km s-1, containing a total mass of 6.9 × 103M⊙, which agrees well with that determined using 1.2 mm dust continuum emission. An expansion timescale of 3 × 106 yr and a total energy of 7 × 1046 erg are estimated. The origin of the ring might have been a supernova explosion, since a 35.5 cm source, J165920-400424, is located at the center of the ring without an infrared counterpart. The ring is fragmented, and 104 clumps were identified with diameters of between 0.3 and 1.6 pc, masses of between 2.3 and 7.5 × 102M⊙, and densities of between 102 and 104 cm-3. At least 18% of the clumps are forming stars, as is shown in infrared images. Assuming that the clumps can be modeled as Bonnor-Ebert spheres, 13 clumps are collapsing, and the rest of

  7. The comparison of physical properties derived from gas and dust in a massive star-forming region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battersby, Cara; Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dunham, Miranda [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Longmore, Steve [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We explore the relationship between gas and dust in a massive star-forming region by comparing the physical properties derived from each. We compare the temperatures and column densities in a massive star-forming Infrared Dark Cloud (G32.02+0.05), which shows a range of evolutionary states, from quiescent to active. The gas properties were derived using radiative transfer modeling of the (1,1), (2,2), and (4,4) transitions of NH{sub 3} on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, while the dust temperatures and column densities were calculated using cirrus-subtracted, modified blackbody fits to Herschel data. We compare the derived column densities to calculate an NH{sub 3} abundance, χ{sub NH{sub 3}} = 4.6 × 10{sup –8}. In the coldest star-forming region, we find that the measured dust temperatures are lower than the measured gas temperatures (mean and standard deviations T {sub dust,} {sub avg} ∼ 11.6 ± 0.2 K versus T {sub gas,} {sub avg} ∼ 15.2 ± 1.5 K), which may indicate that the gas and dust are not well-coupled in the youngest regions (∼0.5 Myr) or that these observations probe a regime where the dust and/or gas temperature measurements are unreliable. Finally, we calculate millimeter fluxes based on the temperatures and column densities derived from NH{sub 3}, which suggest that millimeter dust continuum observations of massive star-forming regions, such as the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey or ATLASGAL, can probe hot cores, cold cores, and the dense gas lanes from which they form, and are generally not dominated by the hottest core.

  8. The comparison of physical properties derived from gas and dust in a massive star-forming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battersby, Cara; Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Darling, Jeremy; Dunham, Miranda; Longmore, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between gas and dust in a massive star-forming region by comparing the physical properties derived from each. We compare the temperatures and column densities in a massive star-forming Infrared Dark Cloud (G32.02+0.05), which shows a range of evolutionary states, from quiescent to active. The gas properties were derived using radiative transfer modeling of the (1,1), (2,2), and (4,4) transitions of NH 3 on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, while the dust temperatures and column densities were calculated using cirrus-subtracted, modified blackbody fits to Herschel data. We compare the derived column densities to calculate an NH 3 abundance, χ NH 3 = 4.6 × 10 –8 . In the coldest star-forming region, we find that the measured dust temperatures are lower than the measured gas temperatures (mean and standard deviations T dust, avg ∼ 11.6 ± 0.2 K versus T gas, avg ∼ 15.2 ± 1.5 K), which may indicate that the gas and dust are not well-coupled in the youngest regions (∼0.5 Myr) or that these observations probe a regime where the dust and/or gas temperature measurements are unreliable. Finally, we calculate millimeter fluxes based on the temperatures and column densities derived from NH 3 , which suggest that millimeter dust continuum observations of massive star-forming regions, such as the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey or ATLASGAL, can probe hot cores, cold cores, and the dense gas lanes from which they form, and are generally not dominated by the hottest core.

  9. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA): Convective Boundaries, Element Diffusion, and Massive Star Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Bill; Schwab, Josiah; Bauer, Evan B.; Bildsten, Lars; Blinnikov, Sergei; Duffell, Paul; Farmer, R.; Goldberg, Jared A.; Marchant, Pablo; Sorokina, Elena; Thoul, Anne; Townsend, Richard H. D.; Timmes, F. X.

    2018-02-01

    We update the capabilities of the software instrument Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) and enhance its ease of use and availability. Our new approach to locating convective boundaries is consistent with the physics of convection, and yields reliable values of the convective-core mass during both hydrogen- and helium-burning phases. Stars with Meffects of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities that, in combination with the coupling to a public version of the STELLA radiation transfer instrument, creates new avenues for exploring Type II supernova properties. These capabilities are exhibited with exploratory models of pair-instability supernovae, pulsational pair-instability supernovae, and the formation of stellar-mass black holes. The applicability of MESA is now widened by the capability to import multidimensional hydrodynamic models into MESA. We close by introducing software modules for handling floating point exceptions and stellar model optimization, as well as four new software tools - MESA-Web, MESA-Docker, pyMESA, and mesastar.org - to enhance MESA's education and research impact.

  10. The progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies across cosmic time: from dusty star-bursting to quiescent stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Cemile Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dunlop, James S.; Buitrago, Fernando [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-10

    Using the UltraVISTA catalogs, we investigate the evolution in the 11.4 Gyr since z = 3 of the progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies (log (M {sub star}/M {sub ☉}) ≈ 11.8; UMGs), providing a complete and consistent picture of how the most massive galaxies at z = 0 have assembled. By selecting the progenitors with a semi-empirical approach using abundance matching, we infer a growth in stellar mass of 0.56{sub −0.25}{sup +0.35} dex, 0.45{sub −0.20}{sup +0.16} dex, and 0.27{sub −0.12}{sup +0.08} dex from z = 3, z = 2, and z = 1, respectively, to z = 0. At z < 1, the progenitors of UMGs constitute a homogeneous population of only quiescent galaxies with old stellar populations. At z > 1, the contribution from star-forming galaxies progressively increases, with the progenitors at 2 < z < 3 being dominated by massive (M {sub star} ≈ 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), dusty (A {sub V} ∼ 1-2.2 mag), star-forming (SFR ∼ 100-400 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) galaxies with a large range in stellar ages. At z = 2.75, ∼15% of the progenitors are quiescent, with properties typical of post-starburst galaxies with little dust extinction and strong Balmer break, and showing a large scatter in color. Our findings indicate that at least half of the stellar content of local UMGs was assembled at z > 1, whereas the remaining was assembled via merging from z ∼ 1 to the present. Most of the quenching of the star-forming progenitors happened between z = 2.75 and z = 1.25, in good agreement with the typical formation redshift and scatter in age of z = 0 UMGs as derived from their fossil records. The progenitors of local UMGs, including the star-forming ones, never lived on the blue cloud since z = 3. We propose an alternative path for the formation of local UMGs that refines previously proposed pictures and that is fully consistent with our findings.

  11. First massively parallel algorithm to be implemented in Apollo-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The collision probability (CP) method in neutron transport, as applied to arbitrary 2D XY geometries, like the TDT module in APOLLO-II, is very time consuming. Consequently RZ or 3D extensions became prohibitive. Fortunately, this method is very suitable for parallelization. Massively parallel computer architectures, especially MIMD machines, bring a new breath to this method. In this paper we present a CM5 implementation of the CP method. Parallelization is applied to the energy groups, using the CMMD message passing library. In our case we use 32 processors for the standard 99-group APOLLIB-II library. The real advantage of this algorithm will appear in the calculation of the future fine multigroup library (about 8000 groups) of the SAPHYR project with a massively parallel computer (to the order of hundreds of processors). (author). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 4 refs

  12. First massively parallel algorithm to be implemented in APOLLO-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The collision probability method in neutron transport, as applied to arbitrary 2-dimensional geometries, like the two dimensional transport module in APOLLO-II is very time consuming. Consequently 3-dimensional extension became prohibitive. Fortunately, this method is very suitable for parallelization. Massively parallel computer architectures, especially MIMD machines, bring a new breath to this method. In this paper we present a CM5 implementation of the collision probability method. Parallelization is applied to the energy groups, using the CMMD massage passing library. In our case we used 32 processors for the standard 99-group APOLLIB-II library. The real advantage of this algorithm will appear in the calculation of the future multigroup library (about 8000 groups) of the SAPHYR project with a massively parallel computer (to the order of hundreds of processors). (author). 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Toward Complete Statistics of Massive Binary Stars: Penultimate Results from the Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kiminki, Daniel C.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K.; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A.; Alvarez, Carlos A. Vargas; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Brotherton, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 Association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P 45 d, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary p...

  14. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Graefener, Goetz, E-mail: jsv@arm.ac.uk [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, BT61 9DG Armagh (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of {approx_equal}2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot{sub trans} between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the {approx}50 M{sub Sun} mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  15. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Gräfener, Götz

    2012-01-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of ≅2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot trans between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the ∼50 M ☉ mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  16. A BINARY ORBIT FOR THE MASSIVE, EVOLVED STAR HDE 326823, A WR+O SYSTEM PROGENITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, N. D.; Gies, D. R.; Williams, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The hot star HDE 326823 is a candidate transition-phase object that is evolving into a nitrogen-enriched Wolf-Rayet star. It is also a known low-amplitude, photometric variable with a 6.123 day period. We present new, high- and moderate-resolution spectroscopy of HDE 326823, and we show that the absorption lines show coherent Doppler shifts with this period while the emission lines display little or no velocity variation. We interpret the absorption line shifts as the orbital motion of the apparently brighter star in a close, interacting binary. We argue that this star is losing mass to a mass gainer star hidden in a thick accretion torus and to a circumbinary disk that is the source of the emission lines. HDE 326823 probably belongs to a class of objects that produce short-period WR+O binaries.

  17. Constraining weakly interacting slim particles with a massive star and in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seggern, Jan Eike von

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is devoted to constraining the allowed parameter space of weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs). WISPs are predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM): The Peccei-Quinn solution of the strong CP-problem of quantum chromo dynamics requires the existence of an axion; some embeddings of the SM into string theories predict a large number of axion-like particles (ALPs), the so called axi-verse, and hidden photons (HPs). Cosmological and astrophysical observables are sensitive to the existence of WISPs. Measurements of these observables allow to constrain the allowed WISP parameter space. In addition dedicated laboratory based experiments exist. Although the parameter space excluded by these experiments is generally smaller than the regions excluded by measurements of cosmological or astrophysical observables, the results from these experiment are valuable complements to these measurements because they are less model dependent. In this thesis, I present my work that helps to constrain the WISP parameter space in two ways: First, the existence of ALPs implies their production in stellar cores. The oscillation of ALPs with photons in the galactic magnetic field (GMF) suggest an X-ray flux from red supergiant (RSG) stars. RSGs are expected to emit no X-rays if ALPs do not exist. An upper limit for the X-ray count rate from the nearby RSG α-Ori (Betelgeuse) is estimated from observations of α-Ori with the Chandra X-ray Telescope. The interior of α-Ori is modelled with the ''Evolve ZAMS'' code. Based on this, the corresponding ALP production rate is calculated. Using current estimates of the value of the regular component of the GMF, the resulting X-ray flux density at Earth from ALP-photon oscillations and the corresponding count rates with the Chandra instruments are calculated. Comparison of this estimate with the upper limit from the Chandra measurements allows to exclude values of the ALP-photon coupling above 2

  18. IRAS 18153-1651: an H II region with a possible wind bubble blown by a young main-sequence B star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Mackey, J.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Langer, N.; Chené, A.-N.; Castro, N.; Haworth, T. J.; Grebel, E. K.

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of spectroscopic observations and numerical modelling of the H II region IRAS 18153-1651. Our study was motivated by the discovery of an optical arc and two main-sequence stars of spectral type B1 and B3 near the centre of IRAS 18153-1651. We interpret the arc as the edge of the wind bubble (blown by the B1 star), whose brightness is enhanced by the interaction with a photoevaporation flow from a nearby molecular cloud. This interpretation implies that we deal with a unique case of a young massive star (the most massive member of a recently formed low-mass star cluster) caught just tens of thousands of years after its stellar wind has begun to blow a bubble into the surrounding dense medium. Our 2D, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the wind bubble and the H II region around the B1 star provide a reasonable match to observations, both in terms of morphology and absolute brightness of the optical and mid-infrared emission, and verify the young age of IRAS 18153-1651. Taken together our results strongly suggest that we have revealed the first example of a wind bubble blown by a main-sequence B star.

  19. The SINS/zC-SINF survey of z ∼ 2 galaxy kinematics: Evidence for powerful active galactic nucleus-driven nuclear outflows in massive star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Kurk, J. D.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Buschkamp, P.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Lang, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Newman, S. F. [Department of Astronomy, Hearst Field Annex, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Burkert, A. [Universitäts-Sternwarte, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, 8093-CH Zürich (Switzerland); Cresci, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Daddi, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hicks, E. K. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Mancini, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-05-20

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (≥10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics-assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Hα and forbidden [N II] and [S II] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ∼ 1500 km s{sup –1}, [N II]/Hα ratio ≈ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2-3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ∼60 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and mass loading of ∼3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ∼485 km s{sup –1} and [N II]/Hα ≈ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest that the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial in confirming the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth.

  20. A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B Scott; Stassun, Keivan G; Collins, Karen A; Beatty, Thomas G; Zhou, George; Latham, David W; Bieryla, Allyson; Eastman, Jason D; Siverd, Robert J; Crepp, Justin R; Gonzales, Erica J; Stevens, Daniel J; Buchhave, Lars A; Pepper, Joshua; Johnson, Marshall C; Colon, Knicole D; Jensen, Eric L N; Rodriguez, Joseph E; Bozza, Valerio; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; D'Ago, Giuseppe; Dumont, Mary T; Ellis, Tyler; Gaillard, Clement; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kasper, David H; Fukui, Akihiko; Gregorio, Joao; Ito, Ayaka; Kielkopf, John F; Manner, Mark; Matt, Kyle; Narita, Norio; Oberst, Thomas E; Reed, Phillip A; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Stephens, Denice C; Yeigh, Rex R; Zambelli, Roberto; Fulton, B J; Howard, Andrew W; James, David J; Penny, Matthew; Bayliss, Daniel; Curtis, Ivan A; DePoy, D L; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Gould, Andrew; Joner, Michael D; Kuhn, Rudolf B; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B; Marshall, Jennifer L; McLeod, Kim K; Pogge, Richard W; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, T G; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2017-06-22

    The amount of ultraviolet irradiation and ablation experienced by a planet depends strongly on the temperature of its host star. Of the thousands of extrasolar planets now known, only six have been found that transit hot, A-type stars (with temperatures of 7,300-10,000 kelvin), and no planets are known to transit the even hotter B-type stars. For example, WASP-33 is an A-type star with a temperature of about 7,430 kelvin, which hosts the hottest known transiting planet, WASP-33b (ref. 1); the planet is itself as hot as a red dwarf star of type M (ref. 2). WASP-33b displays a large heat differential between its dayside and nightside, and is highly inflated-traits that have been linked to high insolation. However, even at the temperature of its dayside, its atmosphere probably resembles the molecule-dominated atmospheres of other planets and, given the level of ultraviolet irradiation it experiences, its atmosphere is unlikely to be substantially ablated over the lifetime of its star. Here we report observations of the bright star HD 195689 (also known as KELT-9), which reveal a close-in (orbital period of about 1.48 days) transiting giant planet, KELT-9b. At approximately 10,170 kelvin, the host star is at the dividing line between stars of type A and B, and we measure the dayside temperature of KELT-9b to be about 4,600 kelvin. This is as hot as stars of stellar type K4 (ref. 5). The molecules in K stars are entirely dissociated, and so the primary sources of opacity in the dayside atmosphere of KELT-9b are probably atomic metals. Furthermore, KELT-9b receives 700 times more extreme-ultraviolet radiation (that is, with wavelengths shorter than 91.2 nanometres) than WASP-33b, leading to a predicted range of mass-loss rates that could leave the planet largely stripped of its envelope during the main-sequence lifetime of the host star.

  1. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA): Giant Planets, Oscillations, Rotation, and Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Bill; Cantiello, Matteo; Arras, Phil; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Edward F.; Dotter, Aaron; Mankovich, Christopher; Montgomery, M. H.; Stello, Dennis; Timmes, F. X.; Townsend, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open source software package Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and its one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESA Star. Improvements in MESA Star's ability to model the evolution of giant planets now extends its applicability down to masses as low as one-tenth that of Jupiter. The dramatic improvement in asteroseismology enabled by the space-based Kepler and CoRoT missions motivates our full coupling of the ADIPLS adiab...

  2. Not-so-simple stellar populations in nearby, resolved massive star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Li, Chengyuan

    2018-02-01

    Around the turn of the last century, star clusters of all kinds were considered ‘simple’ stellar populations. Over the past decade, this situation has changed dramatically. At the same time, star clusters are among the brightest stellar population components and, as such, they are visible out to much greater distances than individual stars, even the brightest, so that understanding the intricacies of star cluster composition and their evolution is imperative for understanding stellar populations and the evolution of galaxies as a whole. In this review of where the field has moved to in recent years, we place particular emphasis on the properties and importance of binary systems, the effects of rapid stellar rotation, and the presence of multiple populations in Magellanic Cloud star clusters across the full age range. Our most recent results imply a reverse paradigm shift, back to the old simple stellar population picture for at least some intermediate-age (˜1-3 Gyr old) star clusters, opening up exciting avenues for future research efforts.

  3. Mass loss of evolved massive stars: the circumstellar environment at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montarges, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Mass loss of evolved stars is still largely mysterious, despite its importance as the main evolution engine for the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. For red supergiants (RSG), the triggering of the outflow and the mechanism of dust condensation remain unknown. Concerning red giant stars, we still do not know how their mass loss is able to form a bipolar planetary nebula. During my PhD thesis, I observed evolved stars with high angular resolution techniques. They allowed us to study the surface and the close environment of these stars, from where mass loss originates. With near-infrared interferometric observations, I characterized the water vapor and carbon monoxide envelope of the nearby RSG Betelgeuse. I also monitored a hot spot on its surface and analyzed the structure of its convection, as well as that of Antares (another very nearby supergiant) thanks to radiative hydrodynamical simulations. Diffraction-limited imaging techniques (near-infrared adaptive optics, ultraviolet space telescope) allowed me to observe the evolution of inhomogeneities in the circumstellar envelope of Betelgeuse and to discover a circumstellar disk around L2 Puppis, an asymptotic giant branch star. These multi-scale and multi-wavelength observations obtained at several epochs allowed us to monitor the evolution of the structures and to derive information on the dynamics of the stellar environment. With a wider stellar sample expected in the next few years, this observing program will allow a better understanding of the mass loss of evolved stars. (author)

  4. Evolved stars in the Local Group galaxies - II. AGB, RSG stars and dust production in IC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Ventura, P.; Limongi, M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Marini, E.; Rossi, C.

    2018-06-01

    We study the evolved stellar population of the Local Group galaxy IC10, with the aim of characterizing the individual sources observed and to derive global information on the galaxy, primarily the star formation history and the dust production rate. To this aim, we use evolutionary sequences of low- and intermediate-mass (M account for 40% of the sources brighter than the tip of the red giant branch. Most of these stars descend from ˜1.1 - 1.3 M⊙ progenitors, formed during the major epoch of star formation, which occurred ˜2.5 Gyr ago. The presence of a significant number of bright stars indicates that IC10 has been site of significant star formation in recent epochs and currently hosts a group of massive stars in the core helium-burning phase. Dust production in this galaxy is largely dominated by carbon stars; the overall dust production rate estimated is 7 × 10-6 M⊙/yr.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR REDUCED SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES IN THE CENTERS OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z  = 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Intae; Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Song, Mimi; Straughn, Amber N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ryan, Russell E. Jr.; Salmon, Brett [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fontana, Adriano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Lu, Yu [The Observatories, The Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Papovich, Casey, E-mail: itjung@astro.as.utexas.edu [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We perform the first spatially resolved stellar population study of galaxies in the early universe ( z = 3.5–6.5), utilizing the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey imaging data set over the GOODS-S field. We select a sample of 418 bright and extended galaxies at z  = 3.5–6.5 from a parent sample of ∼8000 photometric-redshift-selected galaxies from Finkelstein et al. We first examine galaxies at 3.5 ≲ z ≲ 4.0 using additional deep K -band survey data from the HAWK-I UDS and GOODS Survey which covers the 4000 Å break at these redshifts. We measure the stellar mass, star formation rate, and dust extinction for galaxy inner and outer regions via spatially resolved spectral energy distribution fitting based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. By comparing specific star formation rates (sSFRs) between inner and outer parts of the galaxies we find that the majority of galaxies with high central mass densities show evidence for a preferentially lower sSFR in their centers than in their outer regions, indicative of reduced sSFRs in their central regions. We also study galaxies at z ∼ 5 and 6 (here limited to high spatial resolution in the rest-frame ultraviolet only), finding that they show sSFRs which are generally independent of radial distance from the center of the galaxies. This indicates that stars are formed uniformly at all radii in massive galaxies at z  ∼ 5–6, contrary to massive galaxies at z ≲ 4.

  6. CANDELS: CORRELATIONS OF SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND MORPHOLOGIES WITH STAR FORMATION STATUS FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng; Huang Jiasheng; Fang Guanwen; Fazio, G. G.; Faber, S. M.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Kocevski, Dale; Wuyts, Stijn; Yan Haojing; Dekel, Avishai; Guo Yicheng; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, Benjamin; Hathi, Nimish P.; Kong Xu

    2012-01-01

    We present a study on spectral energy distributions, morphologies, and star formation for an IRAC-selected extremely red object sample in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. This work was enabled by new HST/WFC3 near-IR imaging from the CANDELS survey as well as the deepest available X-ray data from Chandra 4 Ms observations. This sample consists of 133 objects with the 3.6 μm limiting magnitude of [3.6] = 21.5 and is approximately complete for galaxies with M * > 10 11 M ☉ at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5. We classify this sample into two types, quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the observed infrared color-color ([3.6]–[24] versus K – [3.6]) diagram. The further morphological study of this sample shows a consistent result with the observed color classification. The classified quiescent galaxies are bulge dominated and SFGs in the sample have disk or irregular morphologies. Our observed infrared color classification is also consistent with the rest-frame color (U – V versus V – J) classification. We also found that quiescent and SFGs are well separated in the nonparametric morphology parameter (Gini versus M 20 ) diagram measuring their concentration and clumpiness: quiescent galaxies have a Gini coefficient higher than 0.58 and SFGs have a Gini coefficient lower than 0.58. We argue that the star formation quenching process must lead to or be accompanied by the increasing galaxy concentration. One prominent morphological feature of this sample is that disks are commonly seen in this massive galaxy sample at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5: 30% of quiescent galaxies and 70% of SFGs with M * > 10 11 M ☉ have disks in their rest-frame optical morphologies. The prevalence of these extended, relatively undisturbed disks challenges the merging scenario as the main mode of massive galaxy formation.

  7. Water vapor emission from H II regions and infrared stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cato, B.T.; Ronnang, B.O.; Rydbeck, O.E.H.; Lewin, P.T.; Yngvesson, K.S.; Cardiasmenos, A.G.; Shanley, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The spatial structure of water vapor microwave line emission has been investigated with moderate angular resolution in several well-known H II regions. New H 2 O sources have been with infrared (1R) sources. One of these sources, IRC: 20411, has been investigated at optical wavelengths. It is found to be of spectral class M3-M5 and by indirect evidence the luminosity class is preliminarily determined to Ib. The distance is estimated to be approx.2 kpc, and the star must be in front of the dust complex which obscures W28 A2. In NGC 7538 new high-velocity features have been discovered. Two new weak water vapor masers, G30.1: 0.7 and G32.8: 0.3, have been detected in a search among eight class II OH/IR sources. H 2 O emission coinciding with the low-velocity OH features of VY Canis Majoris has also been detected. A search for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) water-vapor line emission in molecular clouds associated with H II regions is also reported. No line was detected with the utilized sensitivity. The physical implications of this are discussed and an upper limit of the H 2 O column density has been estimated. Gaussian analysis of the strong, narrow feature in the spectrum of ON 1 indicates a possible presence of two hyperfine components, viz., F→F'=7→6 and 6→5

  8. GR 290 (ROMANO’S STAR). II. LIGHT HISTORY AND EVOLUTIONARY STATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Nesci, R.; Chieffi, A.; Viotti, R. F. [INAF-IAPS, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Maryeva, O. [Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science, Nizhnii Arkhyz, 369167 (Russian Federation); Calabresi, M.; Haver, R. [ARA, Via Carlo Emanuele I, 12A, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Galleti, S.; Gualandi, R. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Mills, O. F.; Osborn, W. H. [Yerkes Observatory, 373 W. Geneva Street, Williams Bay, WI 53115 (United States); Pasquali, A. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie, Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstrasse 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rossi, C. [Università La Sapienza, Pza A.Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Vasilyeva, T., E-mail: vitofrancesco.polcaro@iaps.inaf.it [Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, 196140, Saint-Petersburg, Pulkovskoye chaussee 65/1 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the past light history of the luminous variable star GR 290 (M33/V532, Romano’s Star) in the M33 galaxy, and collected new spectrophotometric observations in order to analyze links between this object, the LBV category, and the Wolf–Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence. We have built the historical light curve of GR 290 back to 1901, from old observations of the star found in several archival plates of M33. These old recordings together with published and new data on the star allowed us to infer that for at least half a century the star was in a low luminosity state, with B ≃ 18–19, most likely without brighter luminosity phases. After 1960, five large variability cycles of visual luminosity were recorded. The amplitude of the oscillations was seen increasing toward the 1992–1994 maximum, then decreasing during the last maxima. The recent light curve indicates that the photometric variations have been quite similar in all the bands and that the B – V color index has been constant within ±0.1{sup m} despite the 1.5{sup m} change of the visual luminosity. The spectrum of GR 290 at the large maximum of 1992–94 was equivalent to late-B-type, while, during 2002–2014, it varied between WN10h-11h near the visual maxima to WN8h-9h at the luminosity minima. We have detected, during this same period, a clear anti-correlation between the visual luminosity, the strength of the He ii 4686 Å emission line, the strength of the 4600–4700 Å lines’ blend, and the spectral type. From a model analysis of the spectra collected during the whole 2002–2014 period, we find that the Rosseland radius R {sub 2/3}, changed between the minimum and maximum luminosity phases by a factor of three while T {sub eff} varied between about 33,000 and 23,000 K. We confirm that the bolometric luminosity of the star has not been constant, but has increased by a factor of ∼1.5 between minimum and maximum luminosity, in phase with the apparent luminosity

  9. GR 290 (ROMANO’S STAR). II. LIGHT HISTORY AND EVOLUTIONARY STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Nesci, R.; Chieffi, A.; Viotti, R. F.; Maryeva, O.; Calabresi, M.; Haver, R.; Galleti, S.; Gualandi, R.; Mills, O. F.; Osborn, W. H.; Pasquali, A.; Rossi, C.; Vasilyeva, T.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the past light history of the luminous variable star GR 290 (M33/V532, Romano’s Star) in the M33 galaxy, and collected new spectrophotometric observations in order to analyze links between this object, the LBV category, and the Wolf–Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence. We have built the historical light curve of GR 290 back to 1901, from old observations of the star found in several archival plates of M33. These old recordings together with published and new data on the star allowed us to infer that for at least half a century the star was in a low luminosity state, with B ≃ 18–19, most likely without brighter luminosity phases. After 1960, five large variability cycles of visual luminosity were recorded. The amplitude of the oscillations was seen increasing toward the 1992–1994 maximum, then decreasing during the last maxima. The recent light curve indicates that the photometric variations have been quite similar in all the bands and that the B – V color index has been constant within ±0.1 m despite the 1.5 m change of the visual luminosity. The spectrum of GR 290 at the large maximum of 1992–94 was equivalent to late-B-type, while, during 2002–2014, it varied between WN10h-11h near the visual maxima to WN8h-9h at the luminosity minima. We have detected, during this same period, a clear anti-correlation between the visual luminosity, the strength of the He ii 4686 Å emission line, the strength of the 4600–4700 Å lines’ blend, and the spectral type. From a model analysis of the spectra collected during the whole 2002–2014 period, we find that the Rosseland radius R 2/3 , changed between the minimum and maximum luminosity phases by a factor of three while T eff varied between about 33,000 and 23,000 K. We confirm that the bolometric luminosity of the star has not been constant, but has increased by a factor of ∼1.5 between minimum and maximum luminosity, in phase with the apparent luminosity variations. Presently

  10. THE GALACTIC CENTER CLOUD G0.253+0.016: A MASSIVE DENSE CLOUD WITH LOW STAR FORMATION POTENTIAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zhang Qizhou, E-mail: jens.kauffmann@astro.caltech.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present the first interferometric molecular line and dust emission maps for the Galactic Center (GC) cloud G0.253+0.016, observed using CARMA and the SMA. This cloud is very dense, and concentrates a mass exceeding the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex (2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }) into a radius of only 3 pc, but it is essentially starless. G0.253+0.016 therefore violates ''star formation laws'' presently used to explain trends in galactic and extragalactic star formation by a factor {approx}45. Our observations show a lack of dense cores of significant mass and density, thus explaining the low star formation activity. Instead, cores with low densities and line widths {approx}< 1 km s{sup -1}-probably the narrowest lines reported for the GC region to date-are found. Evolution over several 10{sup 5} yr is needed before more massive cores, and possibly an Arches-like stellar cluster, could form. Given the disruptive dynamics of the GC region, and the potentially unbound nature of G0.253+0.016, it is not clear that this evolution will happen.

  11. LRS Bianchi Type II Massive String Cosmological Models with Magnetic Field in Lyra's Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Bali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bianchi type II massive string cosmological models with magnetic field and time dependent gauge function ( in the frame work of Lyra's geometry are investigated. The magnetic field is in -plane. To get the deterministic solution, we have assumed that the shear ( is proportional to the expansion (. This leads to , where and are metric potentials and is a constant. We find that the models start with a big bang at initial singularity and expansion decreases due to lapse of time. The anisotropy is maintained throughout but the model isotropizes when . The physical and geometrical aspects of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field are also discussed.

  12. A TIDALLY DESTRUCTED MASSIVE PLANET AS THE PROGENITOR OF THE TWO LIGHT PLANETS AROUND THE sdB STAR KIC 05807616

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the two newly detected Earth-size planets around the hot B subdwarf star KIC 05807616 are remnant of the tidally destructed metallic core of a massive planet. A single massive gas-giant planet was spiralling-in inside the envelope of the red giant branch star progenitor of the extreme horizontal branch (EHB) star KIC 05807616. The released gravitational energy unbound most of the stellar envelope, turning it into an EHB star. The massive planet reached the tidal-destruction radius of ∼1 R ☉ from the core, where the planet's gaseous envelope was tidally removed. In our scenario, the metallic core of the massive planet was tidally destructed into several Earth-like bodies immediately after the gaseous envelope of the planet was removed. Two, and possibly more, Earth-size fragments survived at orbital separations of ∼> 1 R ☉ within the gaseous disk. The bodies interact with the disk and among themselves, and migrated to reach orbits close to a 3:2 resonance. These observed planets can have a planetary magnetic field about 10 times as strong as that of Earth. This strong magnetic field can substantially reduce the evaporation rate from the planets and explain their survivability against the strong UV radiation of the EHB star.

  13. Spectroscopic survey of Kepler stars - II. FIES/NOT observations of A- and F-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczura, E.; Polińska, M.; Murphy, S. J.; Smalley, B.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Lykke, J. M.; Triviño Hage, A.; Michalska, G.

    2017-09-01

    We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 28 A and 22 F stars in the Kepler field, observed using the Fibre-Fed Échelle Spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We provide spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for 50 stars. Balmer, Fe I and Fe II lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The stars analysed include chemically peculiar stars of the Am and λ Boo types, as well as stars with approximately solar chemical abundances. The wide distribution of projected rotational velocity, vsin I, is typical for A and F stars. The microturbulence velocities obtained are typical for stars in the observed temperature and surface gravity ranges. Moreover, we affirm the results of Niemczura et al. that Am stars do not have systematically higher microturbulent velocities than normal stars of the same temperature.

  14. THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY STELLAR GENERATIONS IN MASSIVE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS FROM RAPIDLY COOLING SHOCKED STELLAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wünsch, R.; Palouš, J.; Ehlerová, S. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic); Tenorio-Tagle, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We study a model of rapidly cooling shocked stellar winds in young massive clusters and estimate the circumstances under which secondary star formation, out of the reinserted winds from a first stellar generation (1G), is possible. We have used two implementations of the model: a highly idealized, computationally inexpensive, spherically symmetric semi-analytic model, and a complex, three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic, simulation; they are in a good mutual agreement. The results confirm our previous findings that, in a cluster with 1G mass 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and half-mass–radius 2.38 pc, the shocked stellar winds become thermally unstable, collapse into dense gaseous structures that partially accumulate inside the cluster, self-shield against ionizing stellar radiation, and form the second generation (2G) of stars. We have used the semi-analytic model to explore a subset of the parameter space covering a wide range of the observationally poorly constrained parameters: the heating efficiency, η {sub he}, and the mass loading, η {sub ml}. The results show that the fraction of the 1G stellar winds accumulating inside the cluster can be larger than 50% if η {sub he} ≲ 10%, which is suggested by the observations. Furthermore, for low η {sub he}, the model provides a self-consistent mechanism predicting 2G stars forming only in the central zones of the cluster. Finally, we have calculated the accumulated warm gas emission in the H30 α recombination line, analyzed its velocity profile, and estimated its intensity for super star clusters in interacting galaxies NGC4038/9 (Antennae) showing that the warm gas should be detectable with ALMA.

  15. Where are the massive stars of the bar of NGC 1530 forming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurita, A.

    2008-01-01

    NGC 1530 has one of the strongest bars ever observed and recent star formation sites are distributed across its bar. Our aim is to study the photometric properties of the bar and its Hii regions, to elucidate the conditions under which Hii regions form and their spatial relation to the principal

  16. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA): Convective Boundaries, Element Diffusion, and Massive Star Explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Bill; Schwab, Josiah; Bauer, Evan B.; Bildsten, Lars; Blinnikov, Sergei; Duffell, Paul; Farmer, R.; Goldberg, Jared A.; Marchant, Pablo; Sorokina, Elena; Thoul, Anne; Townsend, Richard H. D.; Timmes, F. X.

    2017-01-01

    We update the capabilities of the software instrument Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) and enhance its ease of use and availability. Our new approach to locating convective boundaries is consistent with the physics of convection, and yields reliable values of the convective core mass during both hydrogen and helium burning phases. Stars with $M

  17. The Formation of Massive Primordial Stars in the Presence of Moderate UV Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Bovino, S.; Grassi, T.; Spaans, M.

    Radiative feedback produced by stellar populations played a vital role in early structure formation. In particular, photons below the Lyman limit can escape the star-forming regions and produce a background ultraviolet (UV) flux, which consequently may influence the pristine halos far away from the

  18. The Multiplicity of Massive Stars: A High Angular Resolution Survey With The HST Fine Guidance Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the color of the star and filter used ( Horch et al. 2006) as well as the time of observation relative to that of a servicing mission or other...T. C., Gies, D. R., Bagnuolo, W. G. Jr., et al. 2006, ApJ, 639, 1069 Horch , E. P., Franz, O. G., Wasserman, L. H., & Heasley, J. N. 2006, AJ, 132

  19. A magnetic confinement versus rotation classification of massive-star magnetospheres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petit, V.; Owocki, S. P.; Wade, G.A.; Cohen, D.H.; Sundqvist, J.O.; Gagne, M.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.M.; Oksala, Mary E.; Bohlender, D.A.; Rivinius, T.; Henrichs, H.F.; Alecian, E.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Ud-Doula, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 429, č. 1 (2013), s. 398-422 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1198 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : circumstellar matter * early-type stars * fundamental parameters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.226, year: 2013

  20. THE MASSIVE PROGENITOR OF THE TYPE II-LINEAR SUPERNOVA 2009kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Li Weidong; Miller, Adam A.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Steele, Thea N.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Griffith, Christopher V.; Kleiser, Io K. W.; Boden, Andrew F.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Vinko, Jozsef; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Foley, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    We present early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova (SN) 2009kr in NGC 1832. We find that its properties to date support its classification as Type II-linear (SN II-L), a relatively rare subclass of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We have also identified a candidate for the SN progenitor star through comparison of pre-explosion, archival images taken with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope with SN images obtained using adaptive optics plus NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck-II telescope. Although the host galaxy's substantial distance (∼26 Mpc) results in large uncertainties in the relative astrometry, we find that if this candidate is indeed the progenitor, it is a highly luminous (M 0 V = -7.8 mag) yellow supergiant with initial mass ∼18-24 M sun . This would be the first time that an SN II-L progenitor has been directly identified. Its mass may be a bridge between the upper initial mass limit for the more common Type II-plateau SNe and the inferred initial mass estimate for one Type II-narrow SN.

  1. Ca II H and K emission from late-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlekoop, F.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis is based on a study of the Ca II H and K emission features of late main-sequence stars. In Chapter II it is shown that rotation periods can be determined from a modulation in the Ca II H and K signal for many stars in a broad range of spectral types. In Chapter III it is shown that a clear correlation exists between Ca II H and K emission and rotational velocity in active main-sequence stars. There is an indication for a (probably colour-dependent) critical velocity at which the Ca II H and K emission suddenly drops. Chapter IV discusses the dependence of Ca II H and K emission on the rotation rate for evolved stars. (Auth./C.F.)

  2. X-RAY EMISSION FROM YOUNG STARS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 20126+4104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C. N.; Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Shepherd, D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 40 ks Chandra observation of the IRAS 20126+4104 core region. In the inner 6'' two X-ray sources were detected, which are coincident with the radio jet source I20S and the variable radio source I20Var. No X-ray emission was detected from the nearby massive protostar I20N. The spectra of both detected sources are hard and highly absorbed, with no emission below 3 keV. For I20S, the measured 0.5-8 keV count rate was 4.3 counts ks -1 . The X-ray spectrum was fitted with an absorbed 1T APEC model with an energy of kT =10 keV and an absorbing column of N H = 1.2 x 10 23 cm -2 . An unabsorbed X-ray luminosity of about 1.4 x 10 32 erg s -1 was estimated. The spectrum shows broad line emission between 6.4 and 6.7 keV, indicative of emission from both neutral and highly ionized iron. The X-ray light curve indicates that I20S is marginally variable; however, no flare emission was observed. The variable radio source I20Var was detected with a count rate of 0.9 counts ks -1 but there was no evidence of X-ray variability. The best-fit spectral model is a 1T APEC model with an absorbing hydrogen column of N H = 1.1 x 10 23 cm -2 and a plasma energy of kT = 6.0 keV. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity is about 3 x 10 31 erg s -1 .

  3. Chemical Abundances of New Member Stars in the Tucana II Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiti, Anirudh; Frebel, Anna; Ji, Alexander P.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kim, Dongwon; Norris, John E.

    2018-04-01

    We present chemical abundance measurements for seven stars with metallicities ranging from Fe/H] = ‑3.3 to [Fe/H] = ‑2.4 in the Tucana II ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD), based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the MIKE spectrograph on the 6.5 m Magellan-Clay Telescope. For three stars, we present detailed chemical abundances for the first time. Of those, two stars are newly discovered members of Tucana II and were selected as probable members from deep narrowband photometry of the Tucana II UFD taken with the SkyMapper telescope. This result demonstrates the potential for photometrically identifying members of dwarf galaxy systems based on chemical composition. One new star was selected from the membership catalog of Walker et al. The other four stars in our sample have been reanalyzed, following additional observations. Overall, six stars have chemical abundances that are characteristic of the UFD stellar population. The seventh star shows chemical abundances that are discrepant from the other Tucana II members and an atypical, higher strontium abundance than what is expected for typical UFD stars. While unlikely, its strontium abundance raises the possibility that it may be a foreground metal-poor halo star with the same systemic velocity as Tucana II. If we were to exclude this star, Tucana II would satisfy the criteria to be a surviving first galaxy. Otherwise, this star implies that Tucana II has likely experienced somewhat extended chemical evolution. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  4. A high-resolution spectropolarimetric survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars - II. Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alecian, E.; Wade, G. A.; Catala, C.; Grunhut, J. H.; Landstreet, J. D.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C. P.; Marsden, S.

    2013-02-01

    We report the analysis of the rotational properties of our sample of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) and related stars for which we have obtained high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Using the projected rotational velocities measured at the surface of the stars, we have calculated the angular momentum of the sample and plotted it as a function of age. We have then compared the angular momentum and the v sin i distributions of the magnetic to the non-magnetic HAeBe stars. Finally, we have predicted v sin i of the non-magnetic, non-binary (`normal') stars in our sample when they reach the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS), and compared them to various catalogues of v sin i of main-sequence stars. First, we observe that magnetic HAeBe stars are much slower rotators than normal stars, indicating that they have been more efficiently braked than the normal stars. In fact, the magnetic stars have already lost most of their angular momentum, despite their young ages (lower than 1 Myr for some of them). Secondly, our analysis suggests that the low-mass (1.5 5 M⊙) are losing angular momentum. We propose that winds, which are expected to be stronger in massive stars, are at the origin of this phenomenon.

  5. Element Production in the S-Cl Region During Carbon Burning in Massive Stars. Using Computer Systems for Modeling of the Nuclear-Reaction Network

    CERN Document Server

    Szalanski, P; Marganeic, A; Gledenov, Yu M; Sedyshev, P V; Machrafi, R; Oprea, A; Padureanu, I; Aranghel, D

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of calculations for nuclear network in S-Cl region during helium burning in massive stars (25 M_{\\odot}) using integrated mathematical systems. The authors also examine other application of presented method in different physical tasks.

  6. Element production in the S - Cl region during carbon burning in massive stars. Using computer systems for modeling of the nuclear-reaction network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalanski, P.; Stepinski, M.; Marganiec, A.; Gledenov, Yu.M.; Sedyshev, P.V.; Machrafi, R.; Oprea, A.; Padureanu, I.; Aranghel, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of calculations for nuclear network in S - Cl region during helium burning in massive stars (25 solar mass) using integrated mathematical systems. The authors also examine other application of the presented method in different physical tasks. (author)

  7. CH+(1-0) and 13CH+(1-0) absorption lines in the direction of massive star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, E.; Godard, B.; Cernicharo, J.; de Luca, M.; Gerin, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Black, J. H.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T. A.; Boulanger, F.; Coutens, A.; Dartois, E.; Encrenaz, P.; Giesen, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Gry, C.; Hennebelle, P.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Joblin, C.; Kaźmierczak, M.; Kołos, R.; Krełowski, J.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Monje, R.; Mookerjea, B.; Neufeld, D. A.; Perault, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Persson, C.; Plume, R.; Salez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Stutzki, J.; Teyssier, D.; Vastel, C.; Yu, S.; Menten, K.; Geballe, T. R.; Schlemmer, S.; Shipman, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Philipp, S.; Cros, A.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Samoska, L. A.; Klein, K.; Lorenzani, A.; Szczerba, R.; Péron, I.; Cais, P.; Gaufre, P.; Ravera, L.; Morris, P.; Lord, S.; Planesas, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the ground-state rotational transition of the methylidyne cation CH+ and its isotopologue 13CH+ toward the remote massive star-forming regions W33A, W49N, and W51 with the HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite. Both lines are seen only in absorption against the

  8. Massive disc formation in the tidal disruption of a neutron star by a nearly extremal black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey; Kidder, Lawrence E; Duez, Matthew D; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Szilágyi, Béla

    2013-01-01

    Black hole–neutron star (BHNS) binaries are important sources of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometers, and BHNS mergers are also a proposed engine for short, hard gamma-ray bursts. The behavior of both the spacetime (and thus the emitted gravitational waves) and the neutron-star matter in a BHNS merger depend strongly and nonlinearly on the black hole's spin. While there is a significant possibility that astrophysical black holes could have spins that are nearly extremal (i.e. near the theoretical maximum), to date fully relativistic simulations of BHNS binaries have included black-hole spins only up to S/M 2 = 0.9, which corresponds to the black hole having approximately half as much rotational energy as possible, given the black hole's mass. In this paper, we present a new simulation of a BHNS binary with a mass ratio q = 3 and black-hole spin S/M 2 = 0.97, the highest simulated to date. We find that the black hole's large spin leads to the most massive accretion disc and the largest tidal tail outflow of any fully relativistic BHNS simulations to date, even exceeding the results implied by extrapolating results from simulations with lower black-hole spin. The disc appears to be remarkably stable. We also find that the high black-hole spin persists until shortly before the time of merger; afterward, both merger and accretion spin down the black hole. (paper)

  9. MIMIC II: a massive temporal ICU patient database to support research in intelligent patient monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M.; Lieu, C.; Raber, G.; Mark, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Development and evaluation of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) decision-support systems would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a large-scale ICU patient database. Following our previous efforts with the MIMIC (Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care) Database, we have leveraged advances in networking and storage technologies to develop a far more massive temporal database, MIMIC II. MIMIC II is an ongoing effort: data is continuously and prospectively archived from all ICU patients in our hospital. MIMIC II now consists of over 800 ICU patient records including over 120 gigabytes of data and is growing. A customized archiving system was used to store continuously up to four waveforms and 30 different parameters from ICU patient monitors. An integrated user-friendly relational database was developed for browsing of patients' clinical information (lab results, fluid balance, medications, nurses' progress notes). Based upon its unprecedented size and scope, MIMIC II will prove to be an important resource for intelligent patient monitoring research, and will support efforts in medical data mining and knowledge-discovery.

  10. High-mass star formation possibly triggered by cloud-cloud collision in the H II region RCW 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Sano, Hidetoshi; Enokiya, Rei; Torii, Kazufumi; Hattori, Yusuke; Kohno, Mikito; Fujita, Shinji; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We report on the possibility that the high-mass star located in the H II region RCW 34 was formed by a triggering induced by a collision of molecular clouds. Molecular gas distributions of the 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 and 12CO J = 3-2 lines in the direction of RCW 34 were measured using the NANTEN2 and ASTE telescopes. We found two clouds with velocity ranges of 0-10 km s-1 and 10-14 km s-1. Whereas the former cloud is as massive as ˜1.4 × 104 M⊙ and has a morphology similar to the ring-like structure observed in the infrared wavelengths, the latter cloud, with a mass of ˜600 M⊙, which has not been recognized by previous observations, is distributed to just cover the bubble enclosed by the other cloud. The high-mass star with a spectral type of O8.5V is located near the boundary of the two clouds. The line intensity ratio of 12CO J = 3-2/J = 2-1 yields high values (≳1.0), suggesting that these clouds are associated with the massive star. We also confirm that the obtained position-velocity diagram shows a similar distribution to that derived by a numerical simulation of the supersonic collision of two clouds. Using the relative velocity between the two clouds (˜5 km s-1), the collisional time scale is estimated to be ˜0.2 Myr with the assumption of a distance of 2.5 kpc. These results suggest that the high-mass star in RCW 34 was formed rapidly within a time scale of ˜0.2 Myr via a triggering of a cloud-cloud collision.

  11. ON THE NATURE OF THE ENIGMATIC OBJECT IRAS 19312+1950: A RARE PHASE OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Milam, S. N. [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Boogert, A. C. A. [Universities Space Research Association, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Justtanont, K.; Wirström, E. S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92, Onsala (Sweden); Cox, N. L. J. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, bus 2401, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium); Smith, R. G. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra ACT 2600 (Australia); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Keane, J. V., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    IRAS 19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS 19312+1950 in the range 5–550 μ m using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 μ m, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: ≈0.22 M {sub ⊙} of material at 280 ± 18 K, and ≈1.6 M {sub ⊙} of material at 157 ± 3 K. The O i 63 μ m line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km s{sup −1} along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H{sub 2}O at 5.8 μ m and CO{sub 2} at 15 μ m. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a massive, luminous (∼2 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ⊙}) central source surrounded by a dense, warm circumstellar disk and envelope of total mass ∼500–700 M {sub ⊙}, with large bipolar outflow cavities. The combination of distinctive far-IR spectral features suggest that IRAS 19312+1950 should be classified as an accreting, high-mass YSO rather than an evolved star. In light of this reclassification, IRAS 19312+1950 becomes only the fifth high-mass protostar known to exhibit SiO maser activity, and demonstrates that 18 cm OH maser line ratios may not be reliable observational discriminators between evolved stars and YSOs.

  12. On the Nature of the Enigmatic Object IRAS 19312+1950: A Rare Phase of Massive Star Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Justtanont, K.; Cox, N. L. J.; Smith, R. G.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Wirstrom, E. S.; Milam, S. N.; Keane, J. V.

    2016-01-01

    IRAS?19312+1950 is a peculiar object that has eluded firm characterization since its discovery, with combined maser properties similar to an evolved star and a young stellar object (YSO). To help determine its true nature, we obtained infrared spectra of IRAS?19312+1950 in the range 5-550 microns using the Herschel and Spitzer space observatories. The Herschel PACS maps exhibit a compact, slightly asymmetric continuum source at 170 microns, indicative of a large, dusty circumstellar envelope. The far-IR CO emission line spectrum reveals two gas temperature components: approx. = 0.22 Stellar Mass of material at 280+/-18 K, and ˜1.6 Me of material at 157+/-3 K. The OI 63 micron line is detected on-source but no significant emission from atomic ions was found. The HIFI observations display shocked, high-velocity gas with outflow speeds up to 90 km/s along the line of sight. From Spitzer spectroscopy, we identify ice absorption bands due to H2O at 5.8 microns and CO2 at 15 microns. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a massive, luminous (approx. 2 × 10(exp 4) Stellar Luminosity) central source surrounded by a dense, warm circumstellar disk and envelope of total mass approx. 500-700 Stellar Mass with large bipolar outflow cavities. The combination of distinctive far-IR spectral features suggest that IRAS19312+1950 should be classified as an accreting, high-mass YSO rather than an evolved star. In light of this reclassification, IRAS19312+1950 becomes only the fifth high-mass protostar known to exhibit SiO maser activity, and demonstrates that 18 cm OH maser line ratios may not be reliable observational discriminators between evolved stars and YSOs.

  13. CANDELS: CORRELATIONS OF SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND MORPHOLOGIES WITH STAR FORMATION STATUS FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang Jiasheng; Fang Guanwen; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Faber, S. M.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Kocevski, Dale [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Yan Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Guo Yicheng [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Kong Xu, E-mail: taowang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2012-06-20

    We present a study on spectral energy distributions, morphologies, and star formation for an IRAC-selected extremely red object sample in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. This work was enabled by new HST/WFC3 near-IR imaging from the CANDELS survey as well as the deepest available X-ray data from Chandra 4 Ms observations. This sample consists of 133 objects with the 3.6 {mu}m limiting magnitude of [3.6] = 21.5 and is approximately complete for galaxies with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5. We classify this sample into two types, quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the observed infrared color-color ([3.6]-[24] versus K - [3.6]) diagram. The further morphological study of this sample shows a consistent result with the observed color classification. The classified quiescent galaxies are bulge dominated and SFGs in the sample have disk or irregular morphologies. Our observed infrared color classification is also consistent with the rest-frame color (U - V versus V - J) classification. We also found that quiescent and SFGs are well separated in the nonparametric morphology parameter (Gini versus M{sub 20}) diagram measuring their concentration and clumpiness: quiescent galaxies have a Gini coefficient higher than 0.58 and SFGs have a Gini coefficient lower than 0.58. We argue that the star formation quenching process must lead to or be accompanied by the increasing galaxy concentration. One prominent morphological feature of this sample is that disks are commonly seen in this massive galaxy sample at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5: 30% of quiescent galaxies and 70% of SFGs with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} have disks in their rest-frame optical morphologies. The prevalence of these extended, relatively undisturbed disks challenges the merging scenario as the main mode of massive galaxy formation.

  14. Extended high circular polarization in the Orion massive star forming region: implications for the origin of homochirality in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Tsubasa; Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hough, James H; Bailey, Jeremy; Whittet, Douglas C B; Lucas, Philip W; Nakajima, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Jun

    2010-06-01

    We present a wide-field (approximately 6' x 6') and deep near-infrared (K(s) band: 2.14 mum) circular polarization image in the Orion nebula, where massive stars and many low-mass stars are forming. Our results reveal that a high circular polarization region is spatially extended (approximately 0.4 pc) around the massive star-forming region, the BN/KL nebula. However, other regions, including the linearly polarized Orion bar, show no significant circular polarization. Most of the low-mass young stars do not show detectable extended structure in either linear or circular polarization, in contrast to the BN/KL nebula. If our solar system formed in a massive star-forming region and was irradiated by net circularly polarized radiation, then enantiomeric excesses could have been induced, through asymmetric photochemistry, in the parent bodies of the meteorites and subsequently delivered to Earth. These could then have played a role in the development of biological homochirality on Earth.

  15. FIRST INVESTIGATION OF THE COMBINED IMPACT OF IONIZING RADIATION AND MOMENTUM WINDS FROM A MASSIVE STAR ON A SELF-GRAVITATING CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoumou, Judith; Hubber, David; Dale, James E.; Burkert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars shape the surrounding interstellar matter (ISM) by emitting ionizing photons and ejecting material through stellar winds. To study the impact of the momentum from the wind of a massive star on the surrounding neutral or ionized material, we implemented a new HEALPix-based momentum-conserving wind scheme in the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code SEREN. A qualitative study of the impact of the feedback from an O7.5-like star on a self-gravitating sphere shows that on its own, the transfer of momentum from a wind onto cold surrounding gas has both a compressing and dispersing effect. It mostly affects gas at low and intermediate densities. When combined with a stellar source's ionizing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, we find the momentum-driven wind to have little direct effect on the gas. We conclude that during a massive star's main sequence, the UV ionizing radiation is the main feedback mechanism shaping and compressing the cold gas. Overall, the wind's effects on the dense gas dynamics and on the triggering of star formation are very modest. The structures formed in the ionization-only simulation and in the combined feedback simulation are remarkably similar. However, in the combined feedback case, different SPH particles end up being compressed. This indicates that the microphysics of gas mixing differ between the two feedback simulations and that the winds can contribute to the localized redistribution and reshuffling of gas

  16. Massive Star Clusters in Ongoing Galaxy Interactions: Clues to Cluster Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Borne, Kirk D.

    2003-09-01

    We present HST WFPC2 observations, supplemented by ground-based Hα data, of the star-cluster populations in two pairs of interacting galaxies selected for being in very different kinds of encounters seen at different stages. Dynamical information and n-body simulations provide the details of encounter geometry, mass ratio, and timing. In NGC 5752/4 we are seeing a weak encounter, well past closest approach, after about 2.5×108 yr. The large spiral NGC 5754 has a normal population of disk clusters, while the fainter companion NGC 5752 exhibits a rich population of luminous clusters with a flatter luminosity function. The strong, ongoing encounter in NGC 6621/2, seen about 1.0×108 yr past closest approach between roughly equal-mass galaxies, has produced an extensive population of luminous clusters, particularly young and luminous in a small region between the two nuclei. This region is dynamically interesting, with such a strong perturbation in the velocity field that the rotation curve reverses sign. From these results, in comparison with other strongly interacting systems discussed in the literature, cluster formation requires a threshold level of perturbation, with stage of the interaction a less important factor. The location of the most active star formation in NGC 6621/2 draws attention to a possible role for the Toomre stability threshold in shaping star formation in interacting galaxies. The rich cluster populations in NGC 5752 and NGC 6621 show that direct contact between gas-rich galaxy disks is not a requirement to form luminous clusters and that they can be triggered by processes happening within a single galaxy disk (albeit triggered by external perturbations). Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  17. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven, aspherical supernova explosion of a massive star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Ono, M.; Kotake, K.; Ohnishi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We examine explosive nucleosynthesis of p-nuclei during a delayed neutrino-driven, aspherical supernova explosion aided by standing accretion shock instability, based on two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion of a 15M · star. We find that p-nuclei are mainly produced through γ-processes, and that the nuclei lighter than 92 Mo are abundantly synthesized in slightly neutron-rich bubbles with electron fractions of Y e ≤0.48. 94 Mo, 96 Ru, and 98 Ru, are underproduced compared with the solar system, as in the spherical model.

  18. Investigation of eclipsing binary stars exhibiting calcium II emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    Three color photometry of some eclipsing binaries showing Calcium II emission is reported. A highly stable and accurate d.c. amplifier, and a new type digital averaging system are described. Past and current light curves of SS Boo, RS CVn, WY Cnc, WW Dra, UV Psc, Z Her, SS Cam, RW UMa, AR Lac, and RT Lac are discussed with particular emphasis on asymmetries in the heights of the maxima and variations in the depths of the minima. Both RS CVn and SS Boo show nearly sinusoidal variation outside eclipse. Spectra of SS Boo and RS CVn are discussed. The suggestion is made that many of these systems belong to a new category of variable eclipsing binary star. It is pointed out that most double line eclipsing binaries with late-type sub-giant secondary components fall into this group, and that many of the characteristics of this group are not easily explained on the basis of existing data and theory. Possible models are discussed and the need for future photometric and spectroscopic study is emphasized. (U.S.)

  19. Unveiling the Secrets of Metallicity and Massive Star Formation Using DLAs Along Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, A.; Fumagalli, M.; Rafelski, M.; Kocevski, D.; Prochaska, J. X.; Cooke, R. J.; Becker, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the largest, publicly available, sample of Damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs) along Swift discovered Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB) line of sights in order to investigate the environmental properties of long GRB hosts in the z = 1.8 - 6 redshift range. Compared with the most recent quasar DLAs sample (QSO-DLA), our analysis shows that GRB-DLAs probe a more metal enriched environment at z approximately greater than 3, up to [X/H] approximately -0.5. In the z = 2 - 3 redshift range, despite the large number of lower limits, there are hints that the two populations may be more similar (only at 90% significance level) than at higher redshifts. Also, at high-z, the GRB-DLA average metallicity seems to decline at a shallower rate than the QSO-DLAs: GRB-DLA hosts may be polluted with metals at least as far as approximately 2 kpc from the GRB explosion site, probably due to previous star-formation episodes and/or supernovae explosions. This shallow metallicity trend, extended now up to z approximately 5, confirms previous results that GRB hosts are star-forming and have, on average, higher metallicity than the general QSO-DLA population. Finally, our host metallicity measurements are broadly consistent with the predictions derived from the hypothesis of two channels of GRB progenitors, one of which is mildly affected by a metallicity bias, although more data are needed to constrain the models at z approximately greater than 4.

  20. Massive stars evolution with mass-loss. 20-100 M(sun) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C; Sreenivasan, S R [Calgary Univ., Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Nasi, E [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1978-02-01

    The evolution of stars with initial masses 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 M(sun) and Population I chemical composition (X = 0.700, Z = 0.02) is calculated, taking into account mass-loss due to stellar winds, from the main sequence up to the early stages of central He-burning. This study incorporates mass-loss rates predicted by the theory of Castor et al. (1975) for the early type phases and a novel way of treating mass-loss rates due to acoustic energy flux driven winds in the later stages analogous to the work of Fusi-Pecci and Renzini (1975a). The results are presented in terms of evolutionary tracks, isochrones, loci of constant mass-loss rates and loci of constant mass in the HR diagram. The effects of mass-loss on the internal structure of the models as well as on the occurrence of semiconvection are also investigated. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and observational results is made and possible implications for O, Of, Wolf-Rayet stars and red supergiants are brought out.

  1. On the Baldwin effect of He II emission lines in WR (WN) stars

    OpenAIRE

    van Gent, J. I.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; de Koter, A.; Morris, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the equivalent width of He ii emission lines and the monochromatic continuum luminosity at the line wavelength in the spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars. Model stellar atmospheres and spectra are used to show that the equivalent width inversely correlates with the monochromatic continuum luminosity. We find the effect in Wolf-Rayet star models over a large range of stellar parameters. The effect is shown to be connected to density differences among Wolf-Rayet star...

  2. The Reliability of [C II] as a Star Formation Rate Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Looze Ilse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a calibration of the star formation rate (SFR as a function of the [C II] 157.74 μm luminosity for a sample of 24 star-forming galaxies in the nearby universe. In order to calibrate the SFR against the line luminosity, we rely on both GALEX FUV data, which is an ideal tracer of the unobscured star formation, and Spitzer MIPS 24 μm, to probe the dust-enshrouded fraction of star formation. For this sample of normal star-forming galaxies, the [C II] luminosity correlates well with the star formation rate. However, the extension of this relation to more quiescent (Hα EW≤10 Å or ultra luminous galaxies (LTIR ≥1012 L⊙ should be handled with caution, since these objects show a non-linearity in the L[C II]-to-LFIR ratio as a function of LFIR (and thus, their star formation activity. Two possible scenarios can be invoked to explain the tight correlation between the [C II] emission and the star formation activity on a global galaxy-scale. The first interpretation could be that the [C II] emission from photo dissociation regions arises from the immediate surroundings of actively star-forming regions and contributes a more or less constant fraction on a global galaxy-scale. Alternatively, we consider the possibility that the [C II] emission is associated to the cold interstellar medium, which advocates an indirect link with the star formation activity in a galaxy through the Schmidt law.

  3. A study of the region of massive star formation L379IRS1 in radio lines of methanol and other molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenskii, S. V.; Shchurov, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The results of spectral observations of the region of massive star formation L379IRS1 (IRAS18265-1517) are presented. The observations were carried out with the 30-m Pico Veleta radio telescope (Spain) at seven frequencies in the 1-mm, 2-mm, and 3-mm wavelength bands. Lines of 24 molecules were detected, from simple diatomic or triatomic species to complex eight- or nine-atom compounds such as CH3OCHO or CH3OCH3. Rotation diagrams constructed from methanol andmethyl cyanide lines were used to determine the temperature of the quiescent gas in this region, which is about 40-50 K. In addition to this warm gas, there is a hot component that is revealed through high-energy lines of methanol and methyl cyanide, molecular lines arising in hot regions, and the presence of H2O masers and Class II methanol masers at 6.7 GHz, which are also related to hot gas. One of the hot regions is probably a compact hot core, which is located near the southern submillimeter peak and is related to a group of methanol masers at 6.7 GHz. High-excitation lines at other positions may be associated with other hot cores or hot post-shock gas in the lobes of bipolar outflows. The rotation diagrams can be use to determine the column densities and abundances of methanol (10-9) and methyl cyanide (about 10-11) in the quiescent gas. The column densities of A- and E-methanol in L379IRS1 are essentually the same. The column densities of other observedmolecules were calculated assuming that the ratios of the molecular level abundances correspond to a temperature of 40 K. The molecular composition of the quiescent gas is close to that in another region of massive star formation, DR21(OH). The only appreciable difference is that the column density of SO2 in L379IRS1 is at least a factor of 20 lower than the value in DR21(OH). The SO2/CS and SO2/OCS abundance ratios, which can be used as chemical clocks, are lower in L379IRS1 than in DR21(OH), suggesting that L379IRS1 is probably younger than DR21(OH).

  4. Does the chemical signature of TYC 8442-1036-1 originate from a rotating massive star that died in a faint explosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescutti, G.; Valentini, M.; François, P.; Chiappini, C.; Depagne, E.; Christlieb, N.; Cortés, C.

    2016-11-01

    Context. We have recently investigated the origin of chemical signatures observed in Galactic halo stars by means of a stochastic chemical evolution model. We found that rotating massive stars are a promising way to explain several signatures observed in these fossil stars. Aims: We discuss how the extremely metal-poor halo star TYC 8442-1036-1, for which we have now obtained detailed abundances from VLT-UVES spectra, fits into the framework of our previous work. Methods: We applied a standard one-dimensional (1D) LTE analysis to the spectrum of this star. We measured the abundances of 14 chemical elements; we computed the abundances for Na, Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn using equivalent widths; we obtained the abundances for C, Sr, and Ba by means of synthetic spectra generated by MOOG. Results: We find an abundance of [Fe/H] = -3.5 ±0.13 dex based on our high-resolution spectrum; this points to an iron content that is lower by a factor of three (0.5 dex) compared to that obtained by a low-resolution spectrum. The star has a [C/Fe] = 0.4 dex, and it is not carbon enhanced like most of the stars at this metallicity. Moreover, this star lies in the plane [Ba/Fe] versus [Fe/H] in a relatively unusual position, shared by a few other Galactic halo stars, which is only marginally explained by our past results. Conclusions: The comparison of the model results with the chemical abundance characteristics of this group of stars can be improved if we consider in our model the presence of faint supernovae coupled with rotating massive stars. These results seem to imply that rotating massive stars and faint supernovae scenarios are complementary to each other, and are both required in order to match the observed chemistry of the earliest phases of the chemical enrichment of the Universe. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (ID 094.B-0781(A); P.I. G. Cescutti).

  5. Modelling the Galactic bar using OGLE-II red clump giant stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rattenbury, Nicholas J.; Mao, Shude; Sumi, Takahiro; Smith, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    Red clump giant (RCG) stars can be used as distance indicators to trace the mass distribution of the Galactic bar. We use RCG stars from 44 bulge fields from the OGLE-II microlensing collaboration data base to constrain analytic triaxial models for the Galactic bar. We find the bar major-axis is

  6. A new class of galactic discrete gamma ray sources: Chaotic winds of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan; White, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new class of galactic discrete gamma-ray sources, the chaotic, high mass-loss-rate winds from luminous early-type stars. Early-type stellar winds are highly unstable due to intrinsic line-driven instabilities, and so are permeated by numerous strong shocks. These shocks can accelerate a small fraction of thermal electrons and ions to relativistic energies via the first-order Fermi mechanism. A power-law-like photon spectrum extending from keV to above 10 MeV energies is produced by inverse Compton scattering of the extremely abundant stellar UV photons by the relativistic electrons. In addition, a typical pi(sup 0)-decay gamma-ray spectrum is generated by proton-ion interactions in the densest part of the winds.

  7. The Formation of Massive Stars: from Herschel to Near-Infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Persi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a number of selected high mass star forming regions, including high resolution near-infrared broad- and narrow-band imaging, Herschel (70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm and Spitzer (3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 m images. The preliminary results of one of this region, IRAS 19388+2357(MOL110 are discussed. In this region a dense core has been detected in the far-infrared, and a young stellar cluster has been found around this core. Combining near-IR data with Spitzer and Herschel photometry we have derived the spectral energy distribution of Mol110. Finally comparing our H2 and Kc narrow-band images, we have found an H2 jet in this region.

  8. On the existence of a luminosity threshold of GRB jets in massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloy, M. A.; Cuesta-Martínez, C.; Obergaulinger, M.

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the many associations of γ-ray bursts (GRBs) with energetic supernova (SN) explosions, we study the propagation of relativistic jets within the progenitor star in which a SN shock wave may be launched briefly before the jets start to propagate. Based on analytic considerations and verified with an extensive set of 2D axisymmetric relativistic hydrodynamic simulations, we have estimated a threshold intrinsic jet luminosity, L_j^thr, for successfully launching a jet. This threshold depends on the structure of the progenitor and, thus, it is sensitive to its mass and to its metallicity. For a prototype host of cosmological long GRBs, a low-metallicity star of 35 M⊙, it is L_j^thr˜eq 1.35× 10^{49} erg s-1. The observed equivalent isotropic γ-ray luminosity, L_{γ ,iso,BO} ˜eq 4 ɛ _γ L_j θ _BO^{-2}, crucially depends on the jet opening angle after breakout, θBO, and on the efficiency for converting the intrinsic jet luminosity into γ-radiation, ɛγ. Highly energetic jets can produce low-luminosity events if either their opening angle after the breakout is large, which is found in our models, or if the conversion efficiency of kinetic and internal energy into radiation is low enough. Beyond this theoretical analysis, we show how the presence of a SN shock wave may reduce this luminosity threshold by means of numerical simulations. We foresee that the high-energy transients released by jets produced near the luminosity threshold will be more similar to llGRBs or XRFs than to GRBs.

  9. TIDAL STELLAR DISRUPTIONS BY MASSIVE BLACK HOLE PAIRS. II. DECAYING BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xian; Liu, F. K.; Sesana, Alberto; Madau, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Tidal stellar disruptions have traditionally been discussed as a probe of the single, massive black holes (MBHs) that are dormant in the nuclei of galaxies. We have previously used numerical scattering experiments to show that three-body interactions between bound stars in a stellar cusp and a non-evolving 'hard' MBH binary will also produce a burst of tidal disruptions, caused by a combination of the secular 'Kozai effect' and by close resonant encounters with the secondary hole. Here, we derive basic analytical scalings of the stellar disruption rates with the system parameters, assess the relative importance of the Kozai and resonant encounter mechanisms as a function of time, discuss the impact of general relativistic (GR) and extended stellar cusp effects, and develop a hybrid model to self-consistently follow the shrinking of an MBH binary in a stellar background, including slingshot ejections and tidal disruptions. In the case of a fiducial binary with primary hole mass M 1 = 10 7 M sun and mass ratio q = M 2 /M 1 = 1/81, embedded in an isothermal cusp, we derive a stellar disruption rate N-dot * ∼ 0.2 yr -1 lasting ∼3 x 10 5 yr. This rate is three orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding value for a single MBH fed by two-body relaxation, confirming our previous findings. For q 10% of the tidal-disruption events may originate in MBH binaries.

  10. The binary fraction of stars in dwarf galaxies: the case of Leo II

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Meghin; Mateo, Mario; Walker, Matthew; Olszewski, Edward; McConnachie, Alan; Kirby, Evan; Koch, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We combine precision radial velocity data from four different published works of the stars in the Leo II dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This yields a data set that spans 19 years, has 14 different epochs of observation, and contains 372 unique red giant branch stars, 196 of which have repeat observations. Using this multi-epoch data set, we constrain the binary fraction for Leo II. We generate a suite of Monte Carlo simulations that test different binary fractions using Bayesian analysis and determ...

  11. Young massive stars and their environment in the mid-infrared at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, W J de; Hoare, M G; Oudmaijer, R D; Fujiyoshi, T

    2008-01-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish mid-infrared observations of a sample of massive young stellar objects (BN-type objects), using VLTI-MIDI (10μm) and Subaru-COMICS (24.5 μm). We discuss the regions S140, Mon R2, M8E-IR, and W33A. The observations probe the inner regions of the dusty envelope at scales of 50 milli arcsecond and 0.6'' (∼100-1000 AU), respectively. Simultaneous model fits to spectral energy distributions and spatial data are achieved using self-consistent spherical envelope modelling. We conclude that those MYSO envelopes that are best described by a spherical geometry, the commensurate density distribution is a powerlaw with index -1.0. Such a powerlaw is predicted if the envelope is supported by turbulence on the 100-1000 AU scales probed with MIDI and COMICS, but the role of rotation at these spatial scales need testing.

  12. The Globular Cluster NGC 6402 (M14). II. Variable Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contreras Peña, C.; Catelan, M.; Grundahl, F.

    2018-01-01

    approaches for the calibration of the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. The possible presence of second-overtone RR Lyrae in M14 is critically addressed, with our results arguing against this possibility. By considering all of the RR Lyrae stars as members of the cluster, we derive =0.589 {{d...

  13. THE WEAK s-PROCESS IN MASSIVE STARS AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON THE NEUTRON CAPTURE CROSS SECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatari, M.; Herwig, F.; Gallino, R.; Bisterzo, S.; Heil, M.; Wiescher, M.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2010-01-01

    The slow neutron capture process in massive stars (weak s process) produces most of the s-process isotopes between iron and strontium. Neutrons are provided by the 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg reaction, which is activated at the end of the convective He-burning core and in the subsequent convective C-burning shell. The s-process-rich material in the supernova ejecta carries the signature of these two phases. In the past years, new measurements of neutron capture cross sections of isotopes beyond iron significantly changed the predicted weak s-process distribution. The reason is that the variation of the Maxwellian-averaged cross sections (MACS) is propagated to heavier isotopes along the s path. In the light of these results, we present updated nucleosynthesis calculations for a 25 M sun star of Population I (solar metallicity) in convective He-burning core and convective C-burning shell conditions. In comparison with previous simulations based on the Bao et al. compilation, the new measurement of neutron capture cross sections leads to an increase of s-process yields from nickel up to selenium. The variation of the cross section of one isotope along the s-process path is propagated to heavier isotopes, where the propagation efficiency is higher for low cross sections. New 74 Ge, 75 As, and 78 Se MACS result in a higher production of germanium, arsenic, and selenium, thereby reducing the s-process yields of heavier elements by propagation. Results are reported for the He core and for the C shell. In shell C-burning, the s-process nucleosynthesis is more uncertain than in the He core, due to higher MACS uncertainties at higher temperatures. We also analyze the impact of using the new lower solar abundances for CNO isotopes on the s-process predictions, where CNO is the source of 22 Ne, and we show that beyond Zn this is affecting the s-process yields more than nuclear or stellar model uncertainties considered in this paper. In particular, using the new updated initial

  14. Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-04

    There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10{sup 11} M {circle_dot} galactic halo and its 10{sup 5} {circle_dot} M embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological CDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10{sup 6} K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

  15. GALAXY FORMATION WITH SELF-CONSISTENTLY MODELED STARS AND MASSIVE BLACK HOLES. I. FEEDBACK-REGULATED STAR FORMATION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Abel, Tom; Wise, John H.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10 11 M sun galactic halo and its 10 5 M sun embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological ΛCDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10 6 K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

  16. TOWARD COMPLETE STATISTICS OF MASSIVE BINARY STARS: PENULTIMATE RESULTS FROM THE CYGNUS OB2 RADIAL VELOCITY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K.; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A.; Álvarez, Carlos A. Vargas; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Brotherton, Michael M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070 (United States); Kiminki, Daniel C., E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu, E-mail: jburke2@swarthmore.edu, E-mail: jc6380@mcla.edu, E-mail: kelle22e@mtholyoke.edu, E-mail: kvl214@lehigh.edu, E-mail: emily.k.rolen@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: topel@stolaf.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P < 45 days, but it is not scale-free. Inflections in the cumulative distribution near 6 days, 14 days, and 45 days suggest key physical scales of ≅0.2, ≅0.4, and ≅1 A.U. where yet-to-be-identified phenomena create distinct features. No single power law provides a statistically compelling prescription, but if features are ignored, a power law with exponent β ≅ –0.22 provides a crude approximation over P = 1.4-2000 days, as does a piece-wise linear function with a break near 45 days. The cumulative period distribution flattens at P > 45 days, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary properties at P ≲ 25 days are determined by local physics of disk/clump fragmentation and are relatively insensitive to environmental and evolutionary factors. Fully 30% of the unbiased parent sample is a binary with period P < 45 days. Completeness corrections imply a binary fraction near 55% for P < 5000 days. The observed distribution of mass ratios 0.2 < q < 1 is consistent with uniform, while the observed distribution of eccentricities 0.1 < e < 0.6 is consistent with uniform plus an excess of e ≅ 0 systems. We identify six stars, all supergiants, that exhibit aperiodic velocity variations of ∼30 km s{sup –1} attributed to atmospheric fluctuations.

  17. Impact of the uncertainty in α-captures on {sup 22}Ne on the weak s-process in massive stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, N. [Astrophysics group, EPSAM, Keele University, Keele, ST5 1BH, UK and NuGrid Project (United Kingdom); Hirschi, R. [Astrophysics group, EPSAM, Keele University, Keele, ST5 1BH, UK and Kavli IPMU (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Pignatari, M. [NuGrid Project and Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel, CH-4056 (Switzerland); Herwig, F. [NuGrid Project and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P5C2 (Canada); Beard, M. [NuGrid Project and Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Imbriani, G. [Dipartiment di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Görres, J.; Boer, R. J. de; Wiescher, M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-05-02

    Massive stars at solar metallicity contribute to the production of heavy elements with atomic masses between A = 60 and A = 90 via the so-called weak s-process (which takes place during core He and shell C burning phases). Furthermore, recent studies have shown that rotation boosts the s-process production in massive stars at low metallicities, with a production that may reach the barium neutron-magic peak. These results are very sensitive to neutron source and neutron poison reaction rates. For the weak s-process, the main neutron source is the reaction {sup 22}Ne(α,n){sup 25}Mg, which is in competition with {sup 22}Ne(α,γ){sup 26}Mg. The uncertainty of both rates strongly affects the nucleosynthesis predictions from stellar model calculations. In this study, we investigate the impact of the uncertainty in α-captures on {sup 22}Ne on the s-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars both at solar and at very low metallicity. For this purpose, we post-process, with the Nugrid mppnp code, non-rotating and rotating evolutionary models 25M{sub ⊙} stars at two different metallicities: Z = Z{sub ⊙} and Z = 10{sup −5}Z{sub ⊙}, respectively. Our results show that uncertainty of {sup 22}Ne(α,n){sup 25}Mg and {sup 22}Ne(α,γ){sup 26}Mg rates have a significant impact on the final elemental production especially for metal poor rotating models. Beside uncertainties in the neutron source reactions, for fast rotating massive stars at low metallicity we revisit the impact of the neutron poisoning effect by the reaction chain {sup 16}O(n,γ){sup 17}O(α,γ){sup 21}Ne, in competition with the {sup 17}O(α,n){sup 20}Ne, recycling the neutrons captured by {sup 16}O.

  18. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC O-TYPE STARS. II. SINGLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S. J.; Gies, D. R.; Hillwig, T. C.; McSwain, M. V.; Huang, W.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new radial velocity measurements of massive stars that are either suspected binaries or lacking prior observations. This is part of a survey to identify and characterize spectroscopic binaries among O-type stars with the goal of comparing the binary fraction of field and runaway stars with those in clusters and associations. We present orbits for HDE 308813, HD 152147, HD 164536, BD–16°4826, and HDE 229232, Galactic O-type stars exhibiting single-lined spectroscopic variation. By fitting model spectra to our observed spectra, we obtain estimates for effective temperature, surface gravity, and rotational velocity. We compute orbital periods and velocity semiamplitudes for each system and note the lack of photometric variation for any system. These binaries probably appear single-lined because the companions are faint and because their orbital Doppler shifts are small compared to the width of the rotationally broadened lines of the primary.

  19. Nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning in massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.B.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Schramm, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    The production of heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning has been calculated using a hydrodynamical model of a 15 M/sub sun/ (Type II) supernovae and a n-process nuclear reaction network. The resulting neutron-rich heavy nuclei are not produced in the relative abundances of solar-system r-process material, especially in the vicinity of Pt, nor are any actinides produced. These deficiencies reflect an inadequate supply of neutrons. However, some neutron-rich isotopes, normally associated with the r-process, are produced which may be significant for the production of isotopic anomalies in meteorites

  20. Fundamental parameters of massive stars in multiple systems: The cases of HD 17505A and HD 206267A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucq, F.; Rauw, G.; Mahy, L.; Simón-Díaz, S.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Many massive stars are part of binary or higher multiplicity systems. The present work focusses on two higher multiplicity systems: HD 17505A and HD 206267A. Aims: Determining the fundamental parameters of the components of the inner binary of these systems is mandatory to quantify the impact of binary or triple interactions on their evolution. Methods: We analysed high-resolution optical spectra to determine new orbital solutions of the inner binary systems. After subtracting the spectrum of the tertiary component, a spectral disentangling code was applied to reconstruct the individual spectra of the primary and secondary. We then analysed these spectra with the non-LTE model atmosphere code CMFGEN to establish the stellar parameters and the CNO abundances of these stars. Results: The inner binaries of these systems have eccentric orbits with e 0.13 despite their relatively short orbital periods of 8.6 and 3.7 days for HD 17505Aa and HD 206267Aa, respectively. Slight modifications of the CNO abundances are found in both components of each system. The components of HD 17505Aa are both well inside their Roche lobe, whilst the primary of HD 206267Aa nearly fills its Roche lobe around periastron passage. Whilst the rotation of the primary of HD 206267Aa is in pseudo-synchronization with the orbital motion, the secondary displays a rotation rate that is higher. Conclusions: The CNO abundances and properties of HD 17505Aa can be explained by single star evolutionary models accounting for the effects of rotation, suggesting that this system has not yet experienced binary interaction. The properties of HD 206267Aa suggest that some intermittent binary interaction might have taken place during periastron passages, but is apparently not operating anymore. Based on observations collected with the TIGRE telescope (La Luz, Mexico), the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute Provence (France), the Nordic Optical Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los

  1. Spectrophotometry of peculiar B and A stars. II. Eleven mercury-manganese stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.J.; Pyper, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of eleven HgMn stars is presented for the optical region. As found in Paper I, the HgMn stars have systematically larger Δiota* and Δa values than the normal main sequence stars due to differences with respect to the mean continuum particularly of the lambda4464 values and the lambda5200 region, respectively. The HgMn stars exhibit a continuous range in the behavior of both the lambda4200 and lambda5200 regions between those stars that have index values larger than the appropriate criterion of presence and present definite evidence for the features to those stars with only a slight possibility of such features. The strengths of the lambda4200 and lambda5200 features appear not to be correlated. In the HgMn stars, both features may be due to differential line blocking. In the energy distribution of all eleven stars, the Balmer jump regions best fit the predictions of slightly hotter solar composition, log g=4.0, fully line blanketed model atmospheres than do the corresponding Paschen continua

  2. Connecting the small scale to the large scale: young massive stars and their environments from the Red MSX Source Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.; Morgan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength investigation of a variety of massive star forming regions in order to characterise the impact of the interactions between the substructure of the dense protostellar clumps and their local environment, including feedback from the embedded proto-cluster.A selection of 70 MYSOs and HII regions identified by the RMS survey have been followed up with observations of the ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the KFPA on the GBT. These maps have been combined with archival CO data to investigate the thermal and kinematic structure of the extended envelopes down to the dense clumps. We complement this larger-scale picture with high resolution near- and mid-infrared images to probe the properties of the embedded objects themselves.We present an overview of several sources from this sample that illustrate some of the the interactions that we observe. We find that high molecular column densities and kinetic temperatures are coincident with embedded sources and with shocks and outflows as exhibited in gas kinematics.

  3. Submm Observations of Massive Star Formation in the Giant Molecular Cloud NGC 6334 : Gas Kinematics with Radiative Transfer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernickel, A.

    2015-05-01

    Context. How massive stars (M>8 Ms) form and how they accrete gas is still an open research field, but it is known that their influence on the interstellar medium (ISM) is immense. Star formation involves the gravitational collapse of gas from scales of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) down to dense hot molecular cores (HMCs). Thus, it is important to understand the mass flows and kinematics in the ISM. Aims. This dissertation focuses on the detailed study of the region NGC 6334, located in the Galaxy at a distance of 1.7 kpc. It is aimed to trace the gas velocities in the filamentary, massive star-forming region NGC 6334 at several scales and to explain its dynamics. For that purpose, different scales are examined from 0.01-10 pc to collect information about the density, molecular abundance, temperature and velocity, and consequently to gain insights about the physio-chemical conditions of molecular clouds. The two embedded massive protostellar clusters NGC 6334I and I(N), which are at different stages of development, were selected to determine their infall velocities and mass accretion rates. Methods. This astronomical source was surveyed by a combination of different observatories, namely with the Submillimeter Array (SMA), the single-dish telescope Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), and the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO). It was mapped with APEX in carbon monoxide (13CO and C18O, J=2-1) at 220.4 GHz to study the filamentary structure and turbulent kinematics on the largest scales of 10 pc. The spectral line profiles are decomposed by Gaussian fitting and a dendrogram algorithm is applied to distinguish velocity-coherent structures and to derive statistical properties. The velocity gradient method is used to derive mass flow rates. The main filament was mapped with APEX in hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and oxomethylium (HCO+, J=3-2) at 267.6 GHz to trace the dense gas. To reproduce the position- velocity diagram (PVD), a cylindrical model with the radiative transfer

  4. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM MASSIVE MAGNETARS FORMED IN BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Osso, Simone [Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, auf der Morgenstelle 10 D-72076 (Germany); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Stella, Luigi, E-mail: simone.dallosso@uni-tuebingen.de [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    Binary neutron star (NS) mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs), as well as candidate progenitors for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Depending on the total initial mass of the system and the NS equation of state (EOS), the post-merger phase can be characterized by a prompt collapse to a black hole or by the formation of a supramassive NS, or even a stable NS. In the latter cases of post-merger NS (PMNS) formation, magnetic field amplification during the merger will produce a magnetar and induce a mass quadrupole moment in the newly formed NS. If the timescale for orthogonalization of the magnetic symmetry axis with the spin axis is smaller than the spindown time, the NS will radiate its spin down energy primarily via GWs. Here we study this scenario for the various outcomes of NS formation: we generalize the set of equilibrium states for a twisted torus magnetic configuration to include solutions that, for the same external dipolar field, carry a larger magnetic energy reservoir; we hence compute the magnetic ellipticity for such configurations, and the corresponding strength of the expected GW signal as a function of the relative magnitude of the dipolar and toroidal field components. The relative number of GW detections from PMNSs and from binary NSs is a very strong function of the NS EOS, being higher (∼1%) for the stiffest EOSs and negligibly small for the softest ones. For intermediate-stiffness EOSs, such as the n = 4/7 polytrope recently used by Giacomazzo and Perna or the GM1 used by Lasky et al., the relative fraction is ∼0.3%; correspondingly, we estimate a GW detection rate from stable PMNSs of ∼0.1-1 yr{sup –1} with advanced detectors, and of ∼100-1000 yr{sup –1} with detectors of third generation such as the Einstein Telescope. Measurement of such GW signals would provide constraints on the NS EOS and, in connection with an SGRB, on the nature of the binary progenitors giving rise to these events.

  5. Observational Constraints on First-Star Nucleosynthesis. II. Spectroscopy of an Ultra metal-poor CEMP-no Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Yoon, Jinmi; Chiti, Anirudh; Heger, Alexander; Chan, Conrad; Casey, Andrew R.; Christlieb, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    We report on the first high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of HE 0020-1741, a bright (V = 12.9), ultra metal-poor ([{Fe}/{{H}}] = -4.1), carbon-enhanced ([{{C}}/{Fe}] = +1.7) star selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. This star exhibits low abundances of neutron-capture elements ([{Ba}/{Fe}] = -1.1) and an absolute carbon abundance A(C) = 6.1 based on either criterion, HE 0020-1741 is subclassified as a carbon-enhanced metal-poor star without enhancements in neutron-capture elements (CEMP-no). We show that the light-element abundance pattern of HE 0020-1741 is consistent with predicted yields from a massive (M = 21.5 {M}⊙ ), primordial-composition, supernova (SN) progenitor. We also compare the abundance patterns of other ultra metal-poor stars from the literature with available measures of C, N, Na, Mg, and Fe abundances with an extensive grid of SN models (covering the mass range 10{--}100 {M}⊙ ), in order to probe the nature of their likely stellar progenitors. Our results suggest that at least two classes of progenitors are required at [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -4.0, as the abundance patterns for more than half of the sample studied in this work (7 out of 12 stars) cannot be easily reproduced by the predicted yields. Based on observations gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and the New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European Southern Observatory (088.D-0344A), La Silla, Chile.

  6. Abundances in field dwarf stars. II. Carbon and nitrogen abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J.B.

    1985-02-15

    Intermediate-dispersion spectra of 116 field dwarf stars, plus 10 faint field giants and 3 Hyades dwarfs, have been used to derive carbon and nitrogen abundances relative to iron. The program sample includes both disk and halo stars, spanning a range in (Fe/H) of +0.50 to -2.45. Synthetic spectra of CH and NH bands have been used to determine carbon and nitrogen abundances. The C/Fe ratio is solar over the range of metallicity studied, with an estimated intrinsic scatter of 0.10 dex. Down to (Fe/H)roughly-equal-1.8, below which the nitrogen abundance could not be measured, the N/Fe ratio is also constant for the majority of stars, indicating that nitrogen production is largely primary. Four halo stars are found to be enhanced in nitrogen relative to iron, by factors between 5 and 50, although their carbon abundances appear to be normal. These results are discussed in connection with the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the sites of C, N, and Fe nucleosynthesis. The results require that C, N, and Fe be produced in stars of similar mass. Our current understanding of N production, then, implies that most Type I supernovae have intermediate-mass progenitors. The nitrogen in the N-enhanced halo stars is very probably primordial, indicating that the interstellar medium at early epochs contained substantial inhomogeneities.

  7. Abundances in field dwarf stars. II. Carbon and nitrogen abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate-dispersion spectra of 116 field dwarf stars, plus 10 faint field giants and 3 Hyades dwarfs, have been used to derive carbon and nitrogen abundances relative to iron. The program sample includes both disk and halo stars, spanning a range in [Fe/H] of +0.50 to -2.45. Synthetic spectra of CH and NH bands have been used to determine carbon and nitrogen abundances. The C/Fe ratio is solar over the range of metallicity studied, with an estimated intrinsic scatter of 0.10 dex. Down to [Fe/H]roughly-equal-1.8, below which the nitrogen abundance could not be measured, the N/Fe ratio is also constant for the majority of stars, indicating that nitrogen production is largely primary. Four halo stars are found to be enhanced in nitrogen relative to iron, by factors between 5 and 50, although their carbon abundances appear to be normal. These results are discussed in connection with the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the sites of C, N, and Fe nucleosynthesis. The results require that C, N, and Fe be produced in stars of similar mass. Our current understanding of N production, then, implies that most Type I supernovae have intermediate-mass progenitors. The nitrogen in the N-enhanced halo stars is very probably primordial, indicating that the interstellar medium at early epochs contained substantial inhomogeneities

  8. The Massive Progenitor of the Type II-linear Supernova 2009kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Li, Weidong; Miller, Adam A.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Boden, Andrew F.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Vinkó, József; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Steele, Thea N.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Griffith, Christopher V.; Kleiser, Io K. W.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2010-05-01

    We present early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova (SN) 2009kr in NGC 1832. We find that its properties to date support its classification as Type II-linear (SN II-L), a relatively rare subclass of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We have also identified a candidate for the SN progenitor star through comparison of pre-explosion, archival images taken with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope with SN images obtained using adaptive optics plus NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck-II telescope. Although the host galaxy's substantial distance (~26 Mpc) results in large uncertainties in the relative astrometry, we find that if this candidate is indeed the progenitor, it is a highly luminous (M 0 V = -7.8 mag) yellow supergiant with initial mass ~18-24 M sun. This would be the first time that an SN II-L progenitor has been directly identified. Its mass may be a bridge between the upper initial mass limit for the more common Type II-plateau SNe and the inferred initial mass estimate for one Type II-narrow SN. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 05-26555; the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; various telescopes at Lick Observatory; the 1.3 m PAIRITEL on Mt. Hopkins; the SMARTS Consortium 1.3 m telescope located at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), Chile; the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii; and the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, with

  9. Modeling UV Radiation Feedback from Massive Stars. I. Implementation of Adaptive Ray-tracing Method and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae; Ostriker, Eve C.; Skinner, M. Aaron

    2017-12-01

    We present an implementation of an adaptive ray-tracing (ART) module in the Athena hydrodynamics code that accurately and efficiently handles the radiative transfer involving multiple point sources on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. We adopt a recently proposed parallel algorithm that uses nonblocking, asynchronous MPI communications to accelerate transport of rays across the computational domain. We validate our implementation through several standard test problems, including the propagation of radiation in vacuum and the expansions of various types of H II regions. Additionally, scaling tests show that the cost of a full ray trace per source remains comparable to that of the hydrodynamics update on up to ∼ {10}3 processors. To demonstrate application of our ART implementation, we perform a simulation of star cluster formation in a marginally bound, turbulent cloud, finding that its star formation efficiency is 12% when both radiation pressure forces and photoionization by UV radiation are treated. We directly compare the radiation forces computed from the ART scheme with those from the M 1 closure relation. Although the ART and M 1 schemes yield similar results on large scales, the latter is unable to resolve the radiation field accurately near individual point sources.

  10. CONSTRAINING VERY HIGH MASS POPULATION III STARS THROUGH He II EMISSION IN GALAXY BDF-521 AT z = 7.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Davé, Romeel; Zabludoff, Ann [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Oh, S. Peng [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Yang, Yujin, E-mail: caiz@email.arizona.edu [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Numerous theoretical models have long proposed that a strong He II λ1640 emission line is the most prominent and unique feature of massive Population III (Pop III) stars in high-redshift galaxies. The He II λ1640 line strength can constrain the mass and initial mass function (IMF) of Pop III stars. We use F132N narrowband filter on the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 to look for strong He II λ1640 emission in the galaxy BDF-521 at z = 7.01, one of the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxies to date. Using deep F132N narrowband imaging, together with our broadband imaging with F125W and F160W filters, we do not detect He II emission from this galaxy, but place a 2σ upper limit on the flux of 5.3×10{sup −19} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. This measurement corresponds to a 2σ upper limit on the Pop III star formation rate (SFR{sub PopIII}) of ∼0.2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, assuming a Salpeter IMF with 50 ≲ M/M {sub ☉} ≲ 1000. From the high signal-to-noise broadband measurements in F125W and F160W, we fit the UV continuum for BDF-521. The spectral flux density is ∼3.6×10{sup −11}×λ{sup −2.32} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} Å{sup –1}, which corresponds to an overall unobscured SFR of ∼5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Our upper limit on SFR{sub PopIII} suggests that massive Pop III stars represent ≲ 4% of the total star formation. Further, the HST high-resolution imaging suggests that BDF-521 is an extremely compact galaxy, with a half-light radius of 0.6 kpc.

  11. Radiative transfer modelling of W33A MM1: 3-D structure and dynamics of a complex massive star forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Andrés F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Maud, Luke T.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Johnston, Katharine G.; Keto, Eric R.; Zhang, Qizhou; de Wit, Willem-Jan

    2018-05-01

    We present a composite model and radiative transfer simulations of the massive star forming core W33A MM1. The model was tailored to reproduce the complex features observed with ALMA at ≈0.2 arcsec resolution in CH3CN and dust emission. The MM1 core is fragmented into six compact sources coexisting within ˜1000 au. In our models, three of these compact sources are better represented as disc-envelope systems around a central (proto)star, two as envelopes with a central object, and one as a pure envelope. The model of the most prominent object (Main) contains the most massive (proto)star (M⋆ ≈ 7 M⊙) and disc+envelope (Mgas ≈ 0.4 M⊙), and is the most luminous (LMain ˜ 104 L⊙). The model discs are small (a few hundred au) for all sources. The composite model shows that the elongated spiral-like feature converging to the MM1 core can be convincingly interpreted as a filamentary accretion flow that feeds the rising stellar system. The kinematics of this filament is reproduced by a parabolic trajectory with focus at the center of mass of the region. Radial collapse and fragmentation within this filament, as well as smaller filamentary flows between pairs of sources are proposed to exist. Our modelling supports an interpretation where what was once considered as a single massive star with a ˜103 au disc and envelope, is instead a forming stellar association which appears to be virialized and to form several low-mass stars per high-mass object.

  12. The effect of UV stars on the intergalactic medium. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnanstine, A.E.; Hills, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation from the UV stars (hot prewhite dwarfs) on the intergalactic medium (IGM) has been investigated. If the UV stars are powered only by gravitational contraction they radiate most of their energy at a typical surface temperature of 1.5 x 10 5 K which produces a very highly ionized IGM in which the elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are left with only one or two electrons. This result in these elements being very inefficient coolants. The gas is cooled principally by free-free emission and the collisional ionization of hydrogen and helium. For a typical UV star temperature of T=1.5 x 10 5 K, the temperature of the ionized gas in the IGM is Tsub(g)=1.2 x 10 5 K for a Hubble constant H 0 =75 kms -1 Mpc -1 and a hydrogen density nsub(H)=10 -6 cm -3 . Heating by cosmic rays and X-rays is insignificant in the IGM except perhaps in the H I clouds because when a hydrogen atom recombines in the IGM it is far more likely to be re-ionized by a UV-star photon than by either of the other two types of particles due to the greater space density of UV-star photons and their appreciably larger ionization cross sections. If the UV stars radiate a substantial fraction of their energy in a helium-burning stage in which they have surface temperatures of about 5 x 10 4 K, the temperature of the IGM could be lowered to about 5 x 10 4 K. (Auth.)

  13. On the evolution of the star formation rate function of massive galaxies: constraints at 0.4 MUSIC catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanot, Fabio; Cristiani, Stefano; Santini, Paola; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2012-03-01

    We study the evolution of the star formation rate function (SFRF) of massive (M★ > 1010 M⊙) galaxies over the 0.4 MUSIC) catalogue, which provides a suitable coverage of the spectral region from 0.3 to 24 ?m and either spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for each object. Individual SFRs have been obtained by combining ultraviolet and 24-?m observations, when the latter were available. For all other sources a 'spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting' SFR estimate has been considered. We then define a stellar mass limited sample, complete in the M★ > 1010 M⊙ range and determine the SFRF using the 1/Vmax algorithm. We thus define simulated galaxy catalogues based on the predictions of three different state-of-the-art semi-analytical models (SAMs) of galaxy formation and evolution, and compare them with the observed SFRF. We show that the theoretical SFRFs are well described by a double power law functional form and its redshift evolution is approximated with high accuracy by a pure evolution of the typical SFR (SFR★). We find good agreement between model predictions and the high-SFR end of the SFRF, when the observational errors on the SFR are taken into account. However, the observational SFRF is characterized by a double-peaked structure, which is absent in its theoretical counterparts. At z > 1.0 the observed SFRF shows a relevant density evolution, which is not reproduced by SAMs, due to the well-known overprediction of intermediate-mass galaxies at z˜ 2. SAMs are thus able to reproduce the most intense SFR events observed in the GOODS-MUSIC sample and their redshift distribution. At the same time, the agreement at the low-SFR end is poor: all models overpredict the space density of SFR ˜ 1 M⊙ yr-1 and no model reproduces the double-peaked shape of the observational SFRF. If confirmed by deeper infrared observations, this discrepancy will provide a key constraint on theoretical modelling of star formation and stellar feedback.

  14. The Lithium isotope ratio in Population II halo dwarfs: A proposed test of the late decaying massive particle nucleosynthesis scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1988-02-01

    It is shown that observations of the Lithium isotope ratio in high surface temperature Population II stars may be critical to cosmological nucleosynthesis models. In particular, decaying particle scenarios as derived in some supersymmetric models may stand or fall with such observations. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Theory of extended stellar atmospheres. II. A grid of static spherical models for O stars and planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.; Mihalas, D.

    1975-01-01

    Spherical static non-LTE model atmospheres are presented for stars with M/M/sub sun/=30 and 60 at various points on their evolutionary tracks, and for some nuclei of planetary nebulae at two points of a modified Harman-Seaton sequence. The method of Mihalas and Hummer was employed, which uses a parametrized radiation force multiplier to simulate the force of radiation arising from the entire line spectrum. However, in the present work the density structure computed in the LTE models was held fixed in the calculation of the corresponding non-LTE models; in addition, the opacity of an ''average light ion'' was taken into account. The temperatures for the non-LTE models are generally lower, at a given depth, than for the corresponding LTE models when T/sub eff/<45,000 K, while the situation is reversed at higher temperatures. The continuous energy distributions are generally flattened by extension. The Lyman jump is in emission for extended models of massive stars, but never for the models of nuclei of planetary nebulae (this is primarily a temperature effect). The Balmer jumps are always in absorption. The Lyman lines are in emission, and the Balmer lines in absorption; He ii lambda4686 comes into emission in the most extended models without hydrogen line pumping, showing that it is an indicator of atmospheric extension. Very severe limb darkening is found for extended models, which have apparent angular sized significantly smaller than expected from the geometrical size of the star. Extensive tables are given of monochromatic magnitudes, continuum jumps and gradients, Stomgren-system colors, monochromatic extensions, and the profiles and equivalent widths of the hydrogen lines for all models, and of the He ii lines for some of the 60 M/sub X/ models

  16. The range of variation of the mass of the most massive star in stellar clusters derived from 35 million Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M., E-mail: bogdan.popescu@uc.edu, E-mail: margaret.hanson@uc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210011, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A growing fraction of simple stellar population models, in an aim to create more realistic simulations capable of including stochastic variation in their outputs, begin their simulations with a distribution of discrete stars following a power-law function of masses. Careful attention is needed to create a correctly sampled initial mass function (IMF), and here we provide a solid mathematical method, called MASSCLEAN IMF Sampling, for doing so. We use our method to perform 10 million MASSCLEAN Monte Carlo stellar cluster simulations to determine the most massive star in a mass distribution as a function of the total mass of the cluster. We find that a maximum mass range is predicted, not a single maximum mass. This range is (1) dependent on the total mass of the cluster and (2) independent of an upper stellar mass limit, M{sub limit} , for unsaturated clusters and emerges naturally from our IMF sampling method. We then turn our analysis around, starting with our new database of 25 million simulated clusters, to constrain the highest mass star from the observed integrated colors of a sample of 40 low-mass Large Magellanic Cloud stellar clusters of known age and mass. Finally, we present an analytical description of the maximum mass range of the most massive star as a function of the cluster's total mass and present a new M{sub max} -M{sub cluster} relation.

  17. The range of variation of the mass of the most massive star in stellar clusters derived from 35 million Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    A growing fraction of simple stellar population models, in an aim to create more realistic simulations capable of including stochastic variation in their outputs, begin their simulations with a distribution of discrete stars following a power-law function of masses. Careful attention is needed to create a correctly sampled initial mass function (IMF), and here we provide a solid mathematical method, called MASSCLEAN IMF Sampling, for doing so. We use our method to perform 10 million MASSCLEAN Monte Carlo stellar cluster simulations to determine the most massive star in a mass distribution as a function of the total mass of the cluster. We find that a maximum mass range is predicted, not a single maximum mass. This range is (1) dependent on the total mass of the cluster and (2) independent of an upper stellar mass limit, M limit , for unsaturated clusters and emerges naturally from our IMF sampling method. We then turn our analysis around, starting with our new database of 25 million simulated clusters, to constrain the highest mass star from the observed integrated colors of a sample of 40 low-mass Large Magellanic Cloud stellar clusters of known age and mass. Finally, we present an analytical description of the maximum mass range of the most massive star as a function of the cluster's total mass and present a new M max -M cluster relation.

  18. SN 2016X: a type II-P supernova with a signature of shock breakout from explosion of a massive red supergiant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Wang, X.-F.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Brown, P. J.; Mo, J.; Zhang, J.-J.; Zhang, K.-C.; Zhang, T.-M.; Howell, D.-A.; Arcavi, I.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.; Rui, L.-M.; Song, H.; Xiang, D.-F.; Li, W.-X.; Lin, H.; Wang, L.-F.

    2018-04-01

    We present extensive ultraviolet (UV) and optical photometry, as well as dense optical spectroscopy, for type II Plateau (IIP) supernova SN 2016X that exploded in the nearby (˜15 Mpc) spiral galaxy UGC 08041. The observations span the period from 2 to 180 d after the explosion; in particular, the Swift UV data probably captured the signature of shock breakout associated with the explosion of SN 2016X. It shows very strong UV emission during the first week after explosion, with a contribution of ˜20-30 per cent to the bolometric luminosity (versus ≲15 per cent for normal SNe IIP). Moreover, we found that this supernova has an unusually long rise time of about 12.6 ± 0.5 d in the R band (versus ˜7.0 d for typical SNe IIP). The optical light curves and spectral evolution are quite similar to the fast-declining type IIP object SN 2013ej, except that SN 2016X has a relatively brighter tail. Based on the evolution of photospheric temperature as inferred from the Swift data in the early phase, we derive that the progenitor of SN 2016X has a radius of about 930 ± 70 R⊙. This large-size star is expected to be a red supergiant star with an initial mass of ≳19-20 M⊙ based on the mass-radius relation of the Galactic red supergiants, and it represents one of the most largest and massive progenitors found for SNe IIP.

  19. Infall and outflow motions towards a sample of massive star-forming regions from the RMS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Moore, T. J. T.; Maud, L. T.; Mendigutía, I.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of an outflow and infall survey towards a distance-limited sample of 31 massive star-forming regions drawn from the Red MSX source (RMS) survey. The presence of young, active outflows is identified from SiO (8-7) emission and the infall dynamics are explored using HCO+/H13CO+ (4-3) emission. We investigate if the infall and outflow parameters vary with source properties, exploring whether regions hosting potentially young active outflows show similarities or differences with regions harbouring more evolved, possibly momentum-driven, `fossil' outflows. SiO emission is detected towards approximately 46 per cent of the sources. When considering sources with and without an SiO detection (i.e. potentially active and fossil outflows, respectively), only the 12CO outflow velocity shows a significant difference between samples, indicating SiO is more prevalent towards sources with higher outflow velocities. Furthermore, we find the SiO luminosity increases as a function of the Herschel 70 μm to WISE 22 μm flux ratio, suggesting the production of SiO is prevalent in younger, more embedded regions. Similarly, we find tentative evidence that sources with an SiO detection have a smaller bolometric luminosity-to-mass ratio, indicating SiO (8-7) emission is associated with potentially younger regions. We do not find a prevalence towards sources displaying signatures of infall in our sample. However, the higher energy HCO+ transitions may not be the best suited tracer of infall at this spatial resolution in these regions.

  20. 1969 - 2010: Multicolor Photometric Observations of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A. G. Davis

    2010-05-01

    From 1969 to 2010 I have been involved in a photometric study of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch stars. I started by making Stromgren four-color observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory and then Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. I had taken spectral plates of all my selected areas on which I marked all the A-type stars. These stars were then observed photometrically. New FHB stars could be identified by their large c1 indices, caused by their greater (u-b) colors. Later four new filters were added ( U V B S ). With Richard Boyle of the Vatican Observatory we observed on Mt. Graham (Arizona) on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope.We plan follow-up observations of the new FHB stars found.

  1. 1969 to 2010: Multicolor Photometric Observations of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A. G. D.

    2011-04-01

    From 1969 to 2010 I have been involved in a photometric study of Population II Field Horizontal-Branch Stars and published several papers on this topic in BOTT from 1967 thru 1972. I started by making Strömgren four-color observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory and then at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. I had taken spectral plates of all my selected areas on which I marked all the A-type stars. These stars were then observed photometrically. New FHB stars could be identified by their large c indices, caused by their greater (u-b) colors. Later four new filters were added (U, V, B, S). With Richard Boyle of the Vatican Observatory we observed on Mt. Graham (Arizona) on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We are making follow-up observations of the new FHB stars found.

  2. Effects of Pop III to PopII transition on the lowest metallicity stars in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimiao; Keres, Dusan; FIRE Team

    2018-01-01

    We examine the effects of the enrichments from Population III (Pop III) stars on the formation and properties of the first generation of the Population II (Pop II) stars. Pop III stars begin to transition towards Pop II stars when the metals dispersed in Pop III supernovae pollute the nearby gas. However, details of this transition are still largely unknown. We use dwarf galaxy simulations from the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) project to identify the star-forming gas that is likely to be pre-enriched by Pop III supernovae and follow the stars that form in such gas. This pre-enrichment will leave the signature in the lowest metallicity stars that can be used to better constrain the details of the Pop III-to-Pop II transition.

  3. An evolutionary model for collapsing molecular clouds and their star formation activity. II. Mass dependence of the star formation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the evolution and dependence on cloud mass of the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) of star-forming molecular clouds (MCs) within the scenario that clouds are undergoing global collapse and that the SFR is controlled by ionization feedback. We find that low-mass clouds (M {sub max} ≲ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) spend most of their evolution at low SFRs, but end their lives with a mini-burst, reaching a peak SFR ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}, although their time-averaged SFR is only (SFR) ∼ 10{sup 2} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}. The corresponding efficiencies are SFE{sub final} ≲ 60% and (SFE) ≲ 1%. For more massive clouds (M {sub max} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), the SFR first increases and then reaches a plateau because the clouds are influenced by stellar feedback since earlier in their evolution. As a function of cloud mass, (SFR) and (SFE) are well represented by the fits (SFR) ≈ 100(1 + M {sub max}/1.4 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 1.68} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} and (SFE) ≈ 0.03(M {sub max}/2.5 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 0.33}, respectively. Moreover, the SFR of our model clouds follows closely the SFR-dense gas mass relation recently found by Lada et al. during the epoch when their instantaneous SFEs are comparable to those of the clouds considered by those authors. Collectively, a Monte Carlo integration of the model-predicted SFR(M) over a Galactic giant molecular cloud mass spectrum yields values for the total Galactic SFR that are within half an order of magnitude of the relation obtained by Gao and Solomon. Our results support the scenario that star-forming MCs may be in global gravitational collapse and that the low observed values of the SFR and SFE are a result of the interruption of each SF episode, caused primarily by the ionizing feedback from massive stars.

  4. DEEP MIXING IN EVOLVED STARS. II. INTERPRETING Li ABUNDANCES IN RED GIANT BRANCH AND ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmerini, S.; Busso, M.; Maiorca, E.; Cristallo, S.; Abia, C.; Uttenthaler, S.; Gialanella, L.

    2011-01-01

    of measuring very low Li abundances in O-rich AGB stars due to the presence of TiO bands and (2) the fact that many, relatively massive (M > 3 M sun ) K- and M-type giants may remain Li-rich, not evolving to the C-rich stages. Efficient extra mixing on the AGB is instead typical of very low masses (M ∼ sun ). It also characterizes CJ stars, where it produces Li and reduces F and the carbon isotope ratio, as observed in these peculiar objects.

  5. The Origins of [C ii] Emission in Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croxall, K. V. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pellegrini, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Groves, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bolatto, A.; Wolfire, M. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Herrera-Camus, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessen-bachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sandstrom, K. M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Draine, B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boquien, M. [Unidad de Astronomía, Fac. Cs. Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda. U. de Antofagasta 02800, Antofagasta (Chile); Brandl, B. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dale, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Galametz, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hunt, L., E-mail: jd.smith@utoledo.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); and others

    2017-08-20

    The [C ii] 158 μ m fine-structure line is the brightest emission line observed in local star-forming galaxies. As a major coolant of the gas-phase interstellar medium, [C ii] balances the heating, including that due to far-ultraviolet photons, which heat the gas via the photoelectric effect. However, the origin of [C ii] emission remains unclear because C{sup +} can be found in multiple phases of the interstellar medium. Here we measure the fractions of [C ii] emission originating in the ionized and neutral gas phases of a sample of nearby galaxies. We use the [N ii] 205 μ m fine-structure line to trace the ionized medium, thereby eliminating the strong density dependence that exists in the ratio of [C ii]/[N ii] 122 μ m. Using the FIR [C ii] and [N ii] emission detected by the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far- Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and Beyond the Peak Herschel programs, we show that 60%–80% of [C ii] emission originates from neutral gas. We find that the fraction of [C ii] originating in the neutral medium has a weak dependence on dust temperature and the surface density of star formation, and has a stronger dependence on the gas-phase metallicity. In metal-rich environments, the relatively cooler ionized gas makes substantially larger contributions to total [C ii] emission than at low abundance, contrary to prior expectations. Approximate calibrations of this metallicity trend are provided.

  6. Inferring the star-formation histories of the most massive and passive early-type galaxies at z < 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citro, Annalisa; Pozzetti, Lucia; Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Context. In the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological framework, massive galaxies are the end-points of the hierarchical evolution and are therefore key probes for understanding how the baryonic matter evolves within the dark matter halos. Aims: The aim of this work is to use the archaeological approach in order to infer the stellar population properties and star formation histories of the most massive (M > 1010.75 M⊙) and passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) at 0 tests have been performed to assess the reliability of STARLIGHT to retrieve the evolutionary properties of the ETG stellar populations such as the age, metallicity and star formation history. The results indicate that these properties can be derived with accuracy better than 10% at S/N ≳ 10-20, and also that the procedure of stacking galaxy spectra does not introduce significant biases into their retrieval. Results: Based on our spectral analysis, we found that the ETGs of our sample are very old systems - the most massive ones are almost as old as the Universe. The stellar metallicities are slightly supersolar, with a mean of Z ~ 0.027 ± 0.002 and Z ~ 0.029 ± 0.0015 (depending on the spectral synthesis models used for the fit) and do not depend on redshift. Dust extinction is very low, with a mean of AV ~ 0.08 ± 0.030 mag and AV ~ 0.16 ± 0.048 mag. The ETGs show an anti-hierarchical evolution (downsizing) where more massive galaxies are older. The SFHs can be approximated with a parametric function of the form SFR(t) ∝ τ- (c + 1)tc exp(-t/τ), with typical short e-folding times of τ ~ 0.6-0.8 Gyr (with a dispersion of ±0.1 Gyr) and c ~ 0.1 (with a dispersion of ±0.05). Based on the reconstructed SFHs, most of the stellar mass (≳75%) was assembled by z ~ 5 and ≲4% of it can be ascribed to stellar populations younger than ~1 Gyr. The inferred SFHs are also used to place constraints on the properties and evolution of the ETG progenitors. In particular, the ETGs of our samples should have

  7. A Comparative Observational Study of YSO Classification in Four Small Star-forming H ii Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung-Ju; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kerton, C. R., E-mail: sjkang@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We have developed a new young stellar object (YSO) identification and classification technique using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. We compare this new technique with previous WISE YSO detection and classification methods that used either infrared colors or spectral energy distribution slopes. In this study, we also use the new technique to detect and examine the YSO population associated with four small H ii regions: KR 7, KR 81, KR 120, and KR 140. The relatively simple structure of these regions allows us to effectively use both spatial and temporal constraints to identify YSOs that are potential products of triggered star formation. We are also able to identify regions of active star formation around these H ii regions that are clearly not influenced by the H ii region expansion, and thus demonstrate that star formation is on-going on megayear timescales in some of these molecular clouds.

  8. Black Hole Universe Model for Explaining GRBs, X-Ray Flares, and Quasars as Emissions of Dynamic Star-like, Massive, and Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-01-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach’s principle, governed by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, and acceleration of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates the emissions of dynamic black holes according to the black hole universe model and provides a self-consistent explanation for the observations of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flares, and quasars as emissions of dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes. It is shown that a black hole, when it accretes its ambient matter or merges with other black holes, becomes dynamic. Since the event horizon of a dynamic black hole is broken, the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation leaks out. The leakage of the inside hot blackbody radiation leads to a GRB if it is a star-like black hole, an X-ray flare if it is a massive black hole like the one at the center of the Milky Way, or a quasar if it is a supermassive black hole like an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The energy spectra and amount of emissions produced by the dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes can be consistent with the measurements of GRBs, X-ray flares, and quasars.

  9. STAR-FORMING ACTIVITY IN THE H ii REGIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE IRAS 17160–3707 COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandakumar, G.; Veena, V. S.; Vig, S.; Tej, A. [Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (Bombay) 400 005 (India)

    2016-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of star formation activity toward the southern H ii regions associated with IRAS 17160–3707, located at a distance of 6.2 kpc with a bolometric luminosity of 8.3 × 10{sup 5} L {sub ⊙}. The ionized gas distribution and dust clumps in the parental molecular cloud are examined in detail using measurements at infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths. The radio continuum images at 1280 and 610 MHz obtained using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope reveal the presence of multiple compact sources as well as nebulous emission. At submillimeter wavelengths, we identify seven dust clumps and estimate their physical properties such as temperature: 24–30 K, mass: 300–4800 M {sub ⊙} and luminosity: 9–317 × 10{sup 2} L {sub ⊙} using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) between 70 and 870 μ m. We find 24 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared, with a few of them coincident with the compact radio sources. The SEDs of the YSOs have been fitted by the Robitaille models and the results indicate that those having radio compact sources as counterparts host massive objects in early evolutionary stages with best fit age ≤0.2 Myr. We compare the relative evolutionary stages of clumps using various signposts such as masers, ionized gas, presence of YSOs and infrared nebulosity, and find six massive star-forming clumps and one quiescent clump. Of the former, five are in a relatively advanced stage and one in an earlier stage.

  10. Central stars of planetary nebulae. II. New OB-type and emission-line stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.

    2011-07-01

    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probably known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of the central stars in PNe to identify their spectral types. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations at low resolution with the 2-m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. Results: We present the spectra of 46 central stars of PNe, most of them are OB-type and emission-line stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.The reduced spectra (FITS files) are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A172

  11. Searching for WR stars in I Zw 18 -- The origin of HeII emission

    OpenAIRE

    de Mello, Duilia; Schaerer, Daniel; Heldmann, Jennifer; Leitherer, Claus

    1998-01-01

    I Zw 18 is the most metal poor star-forming galaxy known and is an ideal laboratory to probe stellar evolution theory at low metallicities. Using archival HST WFPC2 imaging and FOS spectroscopy we were able to improve previous studies. We constructed a continuum free HeII map, which was used to identify Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars recently found by ground-based spectroscopy and to locate diffuse nebular emission. Most of the HeII emission is associated with the NW stellar cluster, clearly displaced...

  12. Identification of new fluorescence processes in the UV spectra of cool stars from new energy levels of Fe II and Cr II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Sveneric; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    1988-01-01

    Two fluorescence processes operating in atmospheres of cool stars, symbiotic stars, and the Sun are presented. Two emission lines, at 1347.03 and 1360.17 A, are identified as fluorescence lines of Cr II and Fe II. The lines are due to transitions from highly excited levels, which are populated radiatively by the hydrogen Lyman alpha line due to accidental wavelength coincidences. Three energy levels, one in Cr II and two in Fe II, are reported.

  13. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David [American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street and Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succ. C-V, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Gerke, Jill [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States); Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent, E-mail: mshara@amnh.org, E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org, E-mail: dzurek@amnh.org, E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: gerke@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: artigau@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Pavillon Vachon, Quebec City, QC, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg{sup 2} of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150 Degree-Sign in Galactic longitude and reaches 1 Degree-Sign above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  14. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, René; Gerke, Jill; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg 2 of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150° in Galactic longitude and reaches 1° above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  15. Stellar winds and coronae of low-mass Population II/III stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2018-06-01

    We investigated stellar winds from zero-/low-metallicity low-mass stars by magnetohydrodynamical simulations for stellar winds driven by Alfvén waves from stars with mass M = (0.6-0.8) M⊙ and metallicity Z = (0-1) Z⊙, where M⊙ and Z⊙ are the solar mass and metallicity, respectively. Alfvénic waves, which are excited by the surface convection, travel upward from the photosphere and heat up the corona by their dissipation. For lower Z, denser gas can be heated up to the coronal temperature because of the inefficient radiation cooling. The coronal density of Population II/III stars with Z ≤ 0.01 Z⊙ is one to two orders of magnitude larger than that of a solar-metallicity star with the same mass, and as a result, the mass loss rate, \\dot{M}, is 4.5-20 times larger. This indicates that metal accretion on low-mass Pop. III stars is negligible. The soft X-ray flux of the Pop. II/III stars is also expected to be ˜1-30 times larger than that of a solar-metallicity counterpart owing to the larger coronal density, even though the radiation cooling efficiency is smaller. A larger fraction of the input Alfvénic wave energy is transmitted to the corona in low-Z stars because they avoid severe reflection owing to the smaller density difference between the photosphere and the corona. Therefore, a larger fraction is converted to the thermal energy of the corona and the kinetic energy of the stellar wind. From this energetics argument, we finally derived a scaling of \\dot{M} as \\dot{M}∝ L R_{\\star }^{11/9} M_{\\star }^{-10/9} T_eff^{11/2}[\\max (Z/Z_{⊙},0.01)]^{-1/5}, where L, R⋆, and Teff are the stellar luminosity, radius, and effective temperature, respectively.

  16. Stellar winds and coronae of low-mass Population II/III stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2018-04-01

    We investigated stellar winds from zero-/low-metallicity low-mass stars by magnetohydrodynamical simulations for stellar winds driven by Alfvén waves from stars with mass M = (0.6-0.8) M⊙ and metallicity Z = (0-1) Z⊙, where M⊙ and Z⊙ are the solar mass and metallicity, respectively. Alfvénic waves, which are excited by the surface convection, travel upward from the photosphere and heat up the corona by their dissipation. For lower Z, denser gas can be heated up to the coronal temperature because of the inefficient radiation cooling. The coronal density of Population II/III stars with Z ≤ 0.01 Z⊙ is one to two orders of magnitude larger than that of a solar-metallicity star with the same mass, and as a result, the mass loss rate, \\dot{M}, is 4.5-20 times larger. This indicates that metal accretion on low-mass Pop. III stars is negligible. The soft X-ray flux of the Pop. II/III stars is also expected to be ˜1-30 times larger than that of a solar-metallicity counterpart owing to the larger coronal density, even though the radiation cooling efficiency is smaller. A larger fraction of the input Alfvénic wave energy is transmitted to the corona in low-Z stars because they avoid severe reflection owing to the smaller density difference between the photosphere and the corona. Therefore, a larger fraction is converted to the thermal energy of the corona and the kinetic energy of the stellar wind. From this energetics argument, we finally derived a scaling of \\dot{M} as \\dot{M}∝ L R_{\\star }^{11/9} M_{\\star }^{-10/9} T_eff^{11/2}[\\max (Z/Z_{⊙},0.01)]^{-1/5}, where L, R⋆, and Teff are the stellar luminosity, radius, and effective temperature, respectively.

  17. The life and death of massive stars revealed by the observation of nuclear gamma-ray lines with the Integral/SPI spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this research thesis is to bring up observational constraints on the mechanisms which govern life and death of massive stars, i.e. stars having an initial mass greater than eight times the Sun's mass, and smaller than 120 to 150 solar masses. Thus, it aims at detecting the vestiges of recent and close supernovae in order to find out the traces of the dynamics of their first instants. The author has explored the radiation of three radio-isotopes accessible to the nuclear gamma astronomy ( 44 Ti, 60 Fe, 26 Al) using observations performed with high resolution gamma spectrometer (SPI) on the INTEGRAL international observatory. After an overview of the present knowledge on the massive star explosion mechanism, the author presents the specificities and potential of the investigated radio-isotopes. He describes the data treatment methods and a population synthesis programme for the prediction of decay gamma streaks, and then reports its work on the inner dynamics of Cassiopeia A explosion, the stellar activity of the galaxy revealed by the radioisotope observation, the nucleo-synthetic activity of the Swan region

  18. Elemental abundance studies of CP stars. II. The silicon stars HD 133029 and HD 192913

    CERN Document Server

    López-García, Z

    1999-01-01

    For pt.1 see ibid., vol.107, no.2, p.353-63 (1994). Fine analyses of the silicon stars HD 133029 and HD 192913 are presented using ATLAS9 model atmospheres whose predictions fit the optical region spectrophotometry and H gamma profiles and have the same bulk metallicity as the deduced abundances. Both are very He poor stars. The light elements are mostly solar except for silicon, and all the heavier elements, except nickel in HD 133029 which is solar, are greatly overabundant. The iron peak elements are typically 10 times overabundant. SrYZr are of order of 100 times solar. The rare earths are 1000 or more times overabundant. Table 4 is is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. (50 refs).

  19. KNOW THE STAR, KNOW THE PLANET. II. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY OF EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Raghavan, Deepak; Subasavage, John P.; Roberts, Lewis C.; Turner, Nils H.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.

    2011-01-01

    A study of the host stars to exoplanets is important for understanding their environment. To that end, we report new speckle observations of a sample of exoplanet host primaries. The bright exoplanet host HD 8673 (= HIP 6702) is revealed to have a companion, although at this time we cannot definitively establish the companion as physical or optical. The observing lists for planet searches and for these observations have for the most part been pre-screened for known duplicity, so the detected binary fraction is lower than what would otherwise be expected. Therefore, a large number of double stars were observed contemporaneously for verification and quality control purposes, to ensure that the lack of detection of companions for exoplanet hosts was valid. In these additional observations, 10 pairs are resolved for the first time and 60 pairs are confirmed. These observations were obtained with the USNO speckle camera on the NOAO 4 m telescopes at both KPNO and CTIO from 2001 to 2010.

  20. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances in main-sequence stars. II. 20 F and G stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, R.E.S.; Lambert, D.L.; Tomkin, J.

    1981-01-01

    High-resolution Reticon spectra of red and near-infrared C I, N I, and O I lines have been analyzed to determine C, N, and O abundances in a sample of 20 F and G main-sequence stars. Their iron abundances, which have been determined from analysis of additional Reticon spectra of red Fe I lines, cover the range -0.9< or =[Fe/H]< or =+0.4. Sulfur abundances have also been obtained

  1. A Survey of Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission in Southern Solar-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Todd J.; Soderblom, David R.; Donahue, Robert A.; Baliunas, Sallie L.

    1996-01-01

    More than 800 southern stars within 50 pc have been observed for chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and K lines. Most of the sample targets were chosen to be G dwarfs on the basis of colors and spectral types. The bimodal distribution in stellar activity first noted in a sample of northern stars by Vaughan and Preston in 1980 is confirmed, and the percentage of active stars, about 30%, is remarkably consistent between the northern and southern surveys. This is especially compelling given that we have used an entirely different instrumental setup and stellar sample than used in the previous study. Comparisons to the Sun, a relatively inactive star, show that most nearby solar-type stars have a similar activity level, and presumably a similar age. We identify two additional subsamples of stars -- a very active group, and a very inactive group. The very active group may be made up of young stars near the Sun, accounting for only a few percent of the sample, and appears to be less than ~0.1 Gyr old. Included in this high-activity tail of the distribution, however, is a subset of very close binaries of the RS CVn or W UMa types. The remaining members of this population may be undetected close binaries or very young single stars. The very inactive group of stars, contributting ~5%--10% to the total sample, may be those caught in a Maunder Minimum type phase. If the observations of the survey stars are considered to be a sequence of snapshots of the Sun during its life, we might expect that the Sun will spend about 10% of the remainder of its main sequence life in a Maunder Minimum phase.

  2. The Rotation Rates of Massive Stars: The Role of Binary Interaction through Tides, Mass Transfer, and Mergers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R.G.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Rotation is thought to be a major factor in the evolution of massive stars—especially at low metallicity—with consequences for their chemical yields, ionizing flux, and final fate. Deriving the birth spin distribution is of high priority given its importance as a constraint on theories of massive

  3. Interaction of Massive Black Hole Binaries with Their Stellar Environment. II. Loss Cone Depletion and Binary Orbital Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, Alberto; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero

    2007-05-01

    We study the long-term evolution of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) at the centers of galaxies using detailed scattering experiments to solve the full three-body problem. Ambient stars drawn from an isotropic Maxwellian distribution unbound to the binary are ejected by the gravitational slingshot. We construct a minimal, hybrid model for the depletion of the loss cone and the orbital decay of the binary and show that secondary slingshots-stars returning on small-impact parameter orbits to have a second superelastic scattering with the MBHB-may considerably help the shrinking of the pair in the case of large binary mass ratios. In the absence of loss cone refilling by two-body relaxation or other processes, the mass ejected before the stalling of a MBHB is half the binary reduced mass. About 50% of the ejected stars are expelled in a ``burst'' lasting ~104 yr M1/46, where M6 is the binary mass in units of 106 Msolar. The loss cone is completely emptied in a few bulge crossing timescales, ~107 yr M1/46. Even in the absence of two-body relaxation or gas dynamical processes, unequal mass and/or eccentric binaries with M6>~0.1 can shrink to the gravitational wave emission regime in less than a Hubble time and are therefore ``safe'' targets for the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

  4. Star Formation Activity in the Galactic H II Region Sh2-297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm-3 and 9.15 × 105 cm-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~7farcm5 × 7farcm5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H - K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~0.1-2 M ⊙ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V-I) and NIR (J/J-H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ~1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  5. GALAXY EVOLUTION. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-07-10

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Chemical abundances of 1111 FGK stars from the HARPS GTO planet search program. II. Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, and Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Mena, E.; Tsantaki, M.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; González Hernández, J. I.; Israelian, G.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: To understand the formation and evolution of the different stellar populations within our Galaxy it is essential to combine detailed kinematical and chemical information for large samples of stars. The aim of this work is to explore the chemical abundances of neutron capture elements which are a product of different nucleosynthesis processes taking place in diverse objects in the Galaxy, such as massive stars, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and supernovae (SNe) explosions. Methods: We derive chemical abundances of Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, and Eu for a large sample of more than 1000 FGK dwarf stars with high-resolution (R 115 000) and high-quality spectra from the HARPS-GTO program. The abundances are derived by a standard local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis using measured equivalent widths (EWs) injected to the code MOOG and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 atmospheres. Results: We find that thick disc stars are chemically disjunct for Zn and Eu and also show on average higher Zr but lower Ba and Y than the thin disc stars. We also discovered that the previously identified high-α metal-rich population is also enhanced in Cu, Zn, Nd, and Eu with respect to the thin disc but presents lower Ba and Y abundances on average, following the trend of thick disc stars towards higher metallities and further supporting the different chemical composition of this population. By making a qualitative comparison of O (pure α), Mg, Eu (pure r-process), and s-process elements we can distinguish between the contribution of the more massive stars (SNe II for α and r-process elements) and the lower mass stars (AGBs) whose contribution to the enrichment of the Galaxy is delayed, due to their longer lifetimes. The ratio of heavy-s to light-s elements of thin disc stars presents the expected behaviour (increasing towards lower metallicities) and can be explained by a major contribution of low-mass AGB stars for s-process production at disc metallicities. However, the

  7. A full general relativistic neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a collapsing very massive star and the formation of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2018-06-01

    We study the final fate of a very massive star by performing full general relativistic (GR), three-dimensional (3D) simulation with three-flavour multi-energy neutrino transport. Utilizing a 70 solar mass zero-metallicity progenitor, we self-consistently follow the radiation-hydrodynamics from the onset of gravitational core-collapse until the second collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS), leading to black hole (BH) formation. Our results show that the BH formation occurs at a post-bounce time of Tpb ˜ 300 ms for the 70 M⊙ star. This is significantly earlier than those in the literature where lower mass progenitors were employed. At a few ˜10 ms before BH formation, we find that the stalled bounce shock is revived by intense neutrino heating from the very hot PNS, which is aided by violent convection behind the shock. In the context of 3D-GR core-collapse modelling with multi-energy neutrino transport, our numerical results present the first evidence to validate a fallback BH formation scenario of the 70 M⊙ star.

  8. A full general relativistic neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a collapsing very massive star and the formation of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2018-04-01

    We study the final fate of a very massive star by performing full general relativistic (GR), three-dimensional (3D) simulation with three-flavor multi-energy neutrino transport. Utilizing a 70 solar mass zero metallicity progenitor, we self-consistently follow the radiation-hydrodynamics from the onset of gravitational core-collapse until the second collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS), leading to black hole (BH) formation. Our results show that the BH formation occurs at a post-bounce time of Tpb ˜ 300 ms for the 70 M⊙ star. This is significantly earlier than those in the literature where lower mass progenitors were employed. At a few ˜10 ms before BH formation, we find that the stalled bounce shock is revived by intense neutrino heating from the very hot PNS, which is aided by violent convection behind the shock. In the context of 3D-GR core-collapse modeling with multi-energy neutrino transport, our numerical results present the first evidence to validate a fallback BH formation scenario of the 70M⊙ star.

  9. Massive stars formed in atomic hydrogen reservoirs: H i observations of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, J.

    2015-01-01

    to be the fuel of star formation. Moreover, optical spectroscopy of GRB afterglows implies that the molecular phase constitutes only a small fraction of the gas along the GRB line of sight. Here we report the first ever 21 cm line observations of GRB host galaxies, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array......, implying high levels of atomic hydrogen (HI), which suggests that the connection between atomic gas and star formation is stronger than previously thought. In this case, it is possible that star formation is directly fuelled by atomic gas (or that the H1-to-H2 conversion is very efficient, which rapidly...... exhaust molecular gas), as has been theoretically shown to be possible. This can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because cooling of gas (necessary for star formation) is faster than the H1-to-H2 conversion. Indeed, large atomic gas reservoirs, together with low molecular gas...

  10. The Ca II resonance lines in M dwarf stars without H-alpha emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampapa, M.S.; Cram, L.E.; Wild, W.J. (National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) Sydney Univ. (Australia) Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Spectra of the Ca II H and K lines in a sample of 31 M dwarf stars without H-alpha emission are used to calculate chromospheric K line radiative losses, F(k), and to study the joint response of Ca II K and H-alpha to chromospheric heating in dwarf M stars. It is suggested that the poor correlation found in the equivalent width - log F(K) diagram may be due either to radial segregation of the H-alpha and K line forming regions or to lateral inhomogeneities in the chromospheres. The results confirm the existence of dM stars with weak H-alpha absorption and K line emission only slightly weaker than that of the dMe stars, and show that dM stars with weak H-alpha but kinematics and metallicities representative of the young disk population belong to a class characterized by a comparatively high degree of chromospheric activity. 32 refs.

  11. Complete Element Abundances of Nine Stars in the r-process Galaxy Reticulum II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D.; Chiti, Anirudh

    2016-10-01

    We present chemical abundances derived from high-resolution Magellan/Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra of the nine brightest known red giant members of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II (Ret II). These stars span the full metallicity range of Ret II (-3.5 contaminated known r-process pattern. The abundances of lighter elements up to the iron peak are otherwise similar to abundances of stars in the halo and in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. However, the scatter in abundance ratios is large enough to suggest that inhomogeneous metal mixing is required to explain the chemical evolution of this galaxy. The presence of low amounts of neutron-capture elements in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies may imply the existence of additional r-process sites besides the source of r-process elements in Ret II. Galaxies like Ret II may be the original birth sites of r-process enhanced stars now found in the halo. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Adiabatic mass loss in binary stars. II. (Ge+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H.; Webbink, R. F.; Chen, X.; Han, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the limit of extremely rapid mass transfer, the response of a donor star in an interacting binary becomes asymptotically one of adiabatic expansion. We survey here adiabatic mass loss from Population I stars (Z=0.02) of mass 0.10M⊙-100M⊙ from the zero-age main sequence to the base of the giant branch, or to central hydrogen exhaustion for lower main sequence stars. The logarithmic derivatives of radius with respect to mass along adiabatic mass-loss sequences translate into critical mass ratios for runaway (dynamical timescale) mass transfer, evaluated here under the assumption of conservative mass transfer. For intermediate- and high-mass stars, dynamical mass transfer is preceded by an extended phase of thermal timescale mass transfer as the star is stripped of most of its envelope mass. The critical mass ratio qad (throughout this paper, we follow the convention of defining the binary mass ratio as q{equiv}Mdonor/Maccretor) above which this delayed dynamical instability occurs increases with advancing evolutionary age of the donor star, by ever-increasing factors for more massive donors. Most intermediate- or high-mass binaries with nondegenerate accretors probably evolve into contact before manifesting this instability. As they approach the base of the giant branch, however, and begin developing a convective envelope, qad plummets dramatically among intermediate-mass stars, to values of order unity, and a prompt dynamical instability occurs. Among low-mass stars, the prompt instability prevails throughout main sequence evolution, with qad declining with decreasing mass, and asymptotically approaching qad=2/3, appropriate to a classical isentropic n=3/2 polytrope. Our calculated qad values agree well with the behavior of time-dependent models by Chen & Han (2003MNRAS.341..662C) of intermediate-mass stars initiating mass transfer in the Hertzsprung gap. Application of our results to cataclysmic variables, as systems that must be stable against rapid mass

  13. MASSIV: Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS. III. Evidence for positive metallicity gradients in z ~ 1.2 star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queyrel, J.; Contini, T.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Epinat, B.; Amram, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Moultaka, J.; Paioro, L.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Perez-Montero, E.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: The estimate of radial abundance gradients in high-redshift galaxies allows to constrain their star formation history and their interplay with the surrounding intergalactic medium. Methods: We present VLT/SINFONI integral-field spectroscopy of a first sample of 50 galaxies at z ~ 1.2 in the MASSIV survey. Using the N2 ratio between the [N ii]6584 and Hα rest-frame optical emission lines as a proxy for oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium, we measured the metallicity of the sample galaxies. We developed a tool to extract spectra in annular regions, leading to a spatially resolved estimate of the oxygen abundance in each galaxy. We were able to derive a metallicity gradient for 26 galaxies in our sample and discovered a significant fraction of galaxies with a "positive" gradient. Using a simple chemical evolution model, we derived infall rates of pristine gas onto the disks. Results: Seven galaxies display a positive gradient at a high confidence level. Four out of these are interacting, and one is a chain galaxy. We suggest that interactions might be responsible for shallowing and even inverting the abundance gradient. We also identify two interesting correlations in our sample: a) galaxies with higher gas velocity dispersion have shallower/positive gradients; and b) metal-poor galaxies tend to show a positive gradient, whereas metal-rich ones tend to show a negative one. This last observation can be explained by the infall of metal-poor gas into the center of the disks. We address the question of the origin of this infall under the influence of gas flows triggered by interactions and/or cold gas accretion. All the data published in this paper are publicly available at the time of publication following this link: http://cosmosdb.lambrate.inaf.it/VVDS-SINFONI. This work is based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, as part of the Programs 179.A-0823, 78.A-0177, and 75.A-0318. This

  14. Type II Cepheids: evidence for Na-O anticorrelation for BL Her type stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtyukh, V.; Yegorova, I.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Saviane, I.; Lemasle, B.; Chekhonadskikh, F.; Belik, S.

    2018-06-01

    The chemical composition of 28 Population II Cepheids and one RR Lyrae variable has been studied using high-resolution spectra. The chemical composition of W Vir variable stars (with periods longer than 8 d) is typical for the halo and thick disc stars. However, the chemical composition of BL Her variables (with periods of 0.8-4 d) is drastically different, although it does not differ essentially from that of the stars belonging to globular clusters. In particular, the sodium overabundance ([Na/Fe] ≈ 0.4) is reported for most of these stars, and the Na-O anticorrelation is also possible. The evolutionary tracks for BL Her variables (with a progenitor mass value of 0.8 solar masses) indicate that mostly helium-overabundant stars (Y = 0.30-0.35) can fall into the instability strip region. We suppose that it is the helium overabundance that accounts not only for the existence of BL Her variable stars but also for the observed abnormalities in the chemical composition of this small group of pulsating variables.

  15. Dynamical evolution of star-forming regions - II. Basic kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.; Wright, Nicholas J.

    2016-04-01

    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, σ, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, σvir and thus assess the virial state (σ/σvir) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25-50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, σ, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, σvir. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions are never fully relaxed, and that the early non-equilibrium evolution is imprinted in the one-dimensional velocity dispersion at these early epochs. If measured early enough (interquartile range (IQR) dispersion, with measures of spatial structure, places stronger constraints on the dynamical history of a region than using the velocity dispersion in isolation.

  16. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE LEAST EVOLVED GALAXIES: BOÖTES II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D.; Geha, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We present high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of the four brightest confirmed red giant stars in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Boötes II (Boo II). These stars all inhabit the metal-poor tail of the Boo II metallicity distribution function. The chemical abundance pattern of all detectable elements in these stars is consistent with that of the Galactic halo. However, all four stars have undetectable amounts of neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, with upper limits comparable to the lowest ever detected in the halo or in other dwarf galaxies. One star exhibits significant radial velocity variations over time, suggesting it to be in a binary system. Its variable velocity has likely increased past determinations of the Boo II velocity dispersion. Our four stars span a limited metallicity range, but their enhanced α-abundances and low neutron-capture abundances are consistent with the interpretation that Boo II has been enriched by very few generations of stars. The chemical abundance pattern in Boo II confirms the emerging trend that the faintest dwarf galaxies have neutron-capture abundances distinct from the halo, suggesting the dominant source of neutron-capture elements in halo stars may be different than in ultra-faint dwarfs

  17. POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. NEW INSIGHTS FROM EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS IN SEVEN STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali

    2011-01-01

    We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of seven intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we cannot formally rule out the latter for the three lowest-mass clusters in our sample (which have masses lower than ∼3 x 10 4 M sun ). This conclusion differs from that of some previous works which suggested that the age distribution in massive clusters in our sample is bimodal. This suggests that any secondary star formation occurred in an extended fashion rather than through short bursts. We discuss these results in the context of the nature of multiple stellar populations in star clusters.

  18. Ca II triplet spectroscopy of RGB stars in NGC 6822: kinematics and metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, J.; Cole, A. A.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the chemistry and kinematics of red giants in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. Spectroscopy at ≈8500 Å was acquired for 72 red giant stars across two fields using FORS2 at the VLT. Line-of-sight extinction was individually estimated for each target star to accommodate the variable reddening across NGC 6822. The mean radial velocity was found to be = -52.8 ± 2.2 km s-1 with dispersion σv = 24.1 km s-1, in agreement with other studies. Ca II triplet equivalent widths were converted into [Fe/H] metallicities using a V magnitude proxy for surface gravity. The average metallicity was = -0.84 ± 0.04 with dispersion σ = 0.31 dex and interquartile range 0.48. Our assignment of individual reddening values makes our analysis more sensitive to spatial variations in metallicity than previous studies. We divide our sample into metal-rich and metal-poor stars; the former were found to cluster towards small radii with the metal-poor stars more evenly distributed across the galaxy. The velocity dispersion of the metal-poor stars was found to be higher than that of the metal-rich stars (σ _{v_MP}=27.4 km s-1; σ _{v_MR}=21.1 km s-1); combined with the age-metallicity relation this indicates that the older populations have either been dynamically heated during their lifetimes or were born in a less disc-like distribution than the younger stars.. The low ratio vrot/σv suggests that within the inner 10 arcmin, NGC 6822's stars are dynamically decoupled from the H I gas, and possibly distributed in a thick disc or spheroid structure.

  19. The multi-messenger approach to particle acceleration by massive stars: a science case for optical, radio and X-ray observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, Michaël

    2018-04-01

    Massive stars are extreme stellar objects whose properties allow for the study of some interesting physical processes, including particle acceleration up to relativistic velocities. In particular, the collisions of massive star winds in binary systems lead notably to acceleration of electrons involved in synchrotron emission, hence their identification as non-thermal radio emitters. This has been demonstrated for about 40 objects so far. The relativistic electrons are also expected to produce non-thermal high-energy radiation through inverse Compton scattering. This class of objects permits thus to investigate non-thermal physics through observations in the radio and high energy spectral domains. However, the binary nature of these sources introduces some stringent requirements to adequately interpret their behavior and model non-thermal processes. In particular, these objects are well-established variable stellar sources on the orbital time-scale. The stellar and orbital parameters need to be determined, and this is notably achieved through studies in the optical domain. The combination of observations in the visible domain (including e.g. 3.6-m DOT) with radio measurements using notably GMRT and X-ray observations constitutes thus a promising strategy to investigate particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries in the forthcoming decade.

  20. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT AND SCALING RELATIONS IN z ∼ 1-3 MASSIVE, MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Wuyts, S.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Combes, F.; Bolatto, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Bournaud, F.; Burkert, A.; Comerford, J.; Davis, M.; Newman, S.; García-Burillo, S.; Naab, T.; Omont, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present PHIBSS, the IRAM Plateau de Bure high-z blue sequence CO 3-2 survey of the molecular gas properties in massive, main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) near the cosmic star formation peak. PHIBSS provides 52 CO detections in two redshift slices at z ∼ 1.2 and 2.2, with log(M * (M ☉ )) ≥ 10.4 and log(SFR(M ☉ /yr)) ≥ 1.5. Including a correction for the incomplete coverage of the M * -SFR plane, and adopting a ''Galactic'' value for the CO-H 2 conversion factor, we infer average gas fractions of ∼0.33 at z ∼ 1.2 and ∼0.47 at z ∼ 2.2. Gas fractions drop with stellar mass, in agreement with cosmological simulations including strong star formation feedback. Most of the z ∼ 1-3 SFGs are rotationally supported turbulent disks. The sizes of CO and UV/optical emission are comparable. The molecular-gas-star-formation relation for the z = 1-3 SFGs is near-linear, with a ∼0.7 Gyr gas depletion timescale; changes in depletion time are only a secondary effect. Since this timescale is much less than the Hubble time in all SFGs between z ∼ 0 and 2, fresh gas must be supplied with a fairly high duty cycle over several billion years. At given z and M * , gas fractions correlate strongly with the specific star formation rate (sSFR). The variation of sSFR between z ∼ 0 and 3 is mainly controlled by the fraction of baryonic mass that resides in cold gas.

  1. FIRST OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE OF ROTATIONAL DECELERATION IN A MASSIVE, INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTER IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaohan [School of Physics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-07-20

    While the extended main-sequence turnoffs (eMSTOs) found in almost all 1–2 Gyr old star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds are often explained by postulating extended star formation histories (SFHs), the tight subgiant branches (SGBs) seen in some clusters challenge this popular scenario. Puzzlingly, the SGB of the eMSTO cluster NGC 419 is significantly broader at bluer than at redder colors. We carefully assess and confirm the reality of this observational trend. If we would assume that the widths of the features in color–magnitude space were entirely owing to a range in stellar ages, the SFHs of the eMSTO stars and the blue SGB region would be significantly more prolonged than that of the red part of the SGB. This cannot be explained by assuming an internal age spread. We show that rotational deceleration of a population of rapidly rotating stars, a currently hotly debated alternative scenario, naturally explains the observed trend along the SGB. Our analysis shows that a “converging” SGB could be produced if the cluster is mostly composed of rapidly rotating stars that slow down over time owing to the conservation of angular momentum during their evolutionary expansion from main-sequence turnoff stars to red giants.

  2. [C II] 158 μm EMISSION AS A STAR FORMATION TRACER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Camus, R.; Bolatto, A. D.; Wolfire, M. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Croxall, K. V. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kennicutt, R. C.; Boquien, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Helou, G. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter, F.; Meidt, S. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, A. K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Draine, B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brandl, B. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sandstrom, K. M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Aniano, G. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS (UMR8617) Université Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 121, Orsay (France); Hunt, L. K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Galametz, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2015-02-10

    The [C II] 157.74 μm transition is the dominant coolant of the neutral interstellar gas, and has great potential as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. Using the Herschel KINGFISH sample of 46 nearby galaxies, we investigate the relation of [C II] surface brightness and luminosity with SFR. We conclude that [C II] can be used for measurements of SFR on both global and kiloparsec scales in normal star-forming galaxies in the absence of strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The uncertainty of the Σ{sub [C} {sub II]} – Σ{sub SFR} calibration is ±0.21 dex. The main source of scatter in the correlation is associated with regions that exhibit warm IR colors, and we provide an adjustment based on IR color that reduces the scatter. We show that the color-adjusted Σ{sub [C} {sub II]} – Σ{sub SFR} correlation is valid over almost five orders of magnitude in Σ{sub SFR}, holding for both normal star-forming galaxies and non-AGN luminous infrared galaxies. Using [C II] luminosity instead of surface brightness to estimate SFR suffers from worse systematics, frequently underpredicting SFR in luminous infrared galaxies even after IR color adjustment (although this depends on the SFR measure employed). We suspect that surface brightness relations are better behaved than the luminosity relations because the former are more closely related to the local far-UV field strength, most likely the main parameter controlling the efficiency of the conversion of far-UV radiation into gas heating. A simple model based on Starburst99 population-synthesis code to connect SFR to [C II] finds that heating efficiencies are 1%-3% in normal galaxies.

  3. Rotation and kinematics of the premain-sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga with Ca II emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Radial velocities and v sin i values for the stars in the Taurus-Auriga region that were found to have strong Ca II H and K emission by Herbig, Vrba, and Rydgren 'HVR', (1986) are reported. Most of the velocities are determined to better than 2 km/s precision. The kinematic properties of the Ca II emission stars with strong Li are found to be indistinguishable from conventional T Tauris in Taurus-Auriga, contrary to HVR. These Li-rich stars also rotate l