Gravitational wave signal from massive gravity
Gumrukcuoglu, A Emir; Lin, Chunshan; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tanahashi, Norihiro
2012-01-01
We discuss the detectability of gravitational waves with a time dependent mass contribution, by means of the stochastic gravitational wave observations. Such a mass term typically arises in the cosmological solutions of massive gravity theories. We conduct the analysis based on a general quadratic action, and thus the results apply universally to any massive gravity theories in which modification of general relativity appears primarily in the tensor modes. The primary manifestation of the modification in the gravitational wave spectrum is a sharp peak. The position and height of the peak carry information on the present value of the mass term, as well as the duration of the inflationary stage. We also discuss the detectability of such a gravitational wave signal using the future-planned gravitational wave observatories.
Response of massive bodies to gravitational waves
Hannibal, L; Hannibal, Ludger; Warkall, Jens
2000-01-01
The repsonse of a massive body to gravitational waves is decribed on the microscopic level, taking the metric perturbations of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces into account. The effects found substantially differ from those obtained in the commonly used oscillator model. The electromagnetic coupling induces a dominant surface effect, the gravitational coupling gives rise to the excitation of quadrupole modes, but several oredes of magnitude smaller.
Massive to gauge field reduction and gravitational wave zone information
Deser, S
2016-01-01
We show explicitly that massive, Abelian, vector, just like (properly defined) massive tensor, fields limit smoothly to their massless, gauge, versions: they emit only maximal helicity radiation and mediate Coulomb and (special relativistic) Newtonian, forces between their (conserved) sources. Our main motivation, though, is to show that the recent gravitational wave detection probably cannot directly rule out very long-range gravity: Even though the waves were emitted in a strong field regime, their being detected in the weak field wave zone means the above equivalences apply. There remains the, not unlikely, possibility that no strong field generation of radiation in massive models can reproduce the observed ring-down patterns. Separately, the smooth linear limiting behaviors show that the discontinuity lies not in the mass alone, but rather in Abelian versus non-Abelian, Yang-Mills and General Relativity, regimes, whose respective massive versions are known to be non-physical.
Gravitational wave bursts from the Galactic massive black hole
Hopman, C; Larson, S L; Hopman, Clovis; Freitag, Marc; Larson, Shane L.
2006-01-01
The Galactic massive black hole (MBH), with a mass of Mbh=3.6\\times10^6 Solar masses, is the closest known MBH, at a distance of only 8 kpc. The proximity of this MBH makes it possible to observe gravitational waves from stars with periapse in the observational frequency window of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). This is possible even if the orbit of the star is very eccentric, so that the orbital frequency is many orders of magnitude below the LISA frequency window, as suggested by Rubbo et al. (2006). Here we give an analytical estimate of the detection rate of such gravitational wave bursts. The burst rate is critically sensitive to the inner cut-off of the stellar density profile. Our model accounts for mass-segregation and for the physics determining the inner radius of the cusp, such as stellar collisions, energy dissipation by gravitational wave emission, and consequences of the finite number of stars. We find that stellar black holes have a burst rate of the order of 1 per year, while th...
Polarization states of gravitational waves with a massive graviton
De Paula, L S; Marinho, R M
2004-01-01
Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, we obtain the explicit expressions for the polarization modes of weak, plane gravitational waves with a massive graviton. Our analysis is restricted for a specific bimetric theory whose term of mass, for the graviton, appears as an effective extra contribution to the stress-energy tensor. We obtain for such kind of theory that the extra states of polarization have amplitude several orders of magnitude smaller than the polarizations purely general relativity (GR), h_(+) and h_(x), in the VIRGO-LIGO frequency band. This result appears using the best limit to the graviton mass inferred from solar system observations and if we consider that all the components of the metric perturbation have the same amplitude h. However, if we consider low frequency gravitational waves (e.g., f_(GW) ~ 10^(-7) Hz), the extra polarization states produce similar Newman-Penrose amplitudes that the polarization states purely GR. This particular characteristic of the bimetric theory studied here coul...
Sesana, A
2012-01-01
Space based gravitational wave astronomy will open a completely new window on the Universe and massive black holes binaries are expected to be among the primary actors on this upcoming stage. The New Gravitational-wave Observatory (NGO) is a space interferometer proposal derived from the former Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) concept. We describe here its capabilities of observing massive black hole binaries throughout the Universe, measuring their relevant parameters (masses, spins, distance to the observer) to high precision. The statistical properties of the population of detected systems can be used to constrain the massive black hole cosmic history, providing deep insights into the faint, high redshift Universe.
Massive gravitational waves from f(R) theories of gravity: Potential detection with LISA
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Capozziello, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: capozzie@na.infn.it; Corda, Christian [Associazione Galileo Galilei, via Pier Cironi 16, 59100 Prato (Italy); Centro di Scienze Naturali, via di Galceti 74, 59100 Prato (Italy)], E-mail: christian.corda@ego-gw.it; De Laurentis, Maria Felicia [Relativity and Gravitation Group, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: mariafelicia.delaurentist@polito.it
2008-11-27
This Letter is a generalization of previous results on gravitational waves (GWs) from f(R) theories of gravity. In some previous papers, particular f(R) theories have been linearized for the first time in the literature. Now, the process is further generalized, showing that every f(R) theory can be linearized producting a third massive mode of gravitational radiation. In this framework, previous results are particular cases of the more general problem that is discussed in this Letter. The potential detectability of such massive GWs with LISA is also discussed with the auxilium of longitudinal response functions.
Massive gravitational waves from f(R) theories of gravity: Potential detection with LISA
Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Maria Felicia
2008-01-01
This letter is a generalization of previous results on gravitational waves (GWs) from f(R) theories of gravity. In some previous papers, particular f(R) theories have been linearized for the first time in the literature. Now, the process is further generalized, showing that every f(R) theory can be linearized producting a third massive mode of gravitational radiation. In this framework, previous results are particular cases of the more general problem that is discussed in this letter. The potential detectability of such massive GWs with LISA is also discussed with the auxilium of longitudinal response functions.
Primordial massive gravitational waves from Einstein-Chern-Simons-Weyl gravity
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Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon, E-mail: ysmyung@inje.ac.kr, E-mail: tymoon@inje.ac.kr [Institute of Basic Sciences and Department of Computer Simulation, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-08-01
We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations during de Sitter inflation in the Einstein-Chern-Simons-Weyl gravity. Primordial massive gravitational waves are composed of one scalar, two vector and four tensor circularly polarized modes. We show that the vector power spectrum decays quickly like a transversely massive vector in the superhorizon limit z → 0. In this limit, the power spectrum coming from massive tensor modes decays quickly, leading to the conventional tensor power spectrum. Also, we find that in the limit of m{sup 2} → 0 (keeping the Weyl-squared term only), the vector and tensor power spectra disappear. It implies that their power spectra are not gravitationally produced because they (vector and tensor) are decoupled from the expanding de Sitter background, as a result of conformal invariance.
Massive, massless and ghost modes of gravitational waves from higher-order gravity
Bogdanos, Charalampos; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Nesseris, Savvas
2009-01-01
We linearize the field equations for higher order theories that contain scalar invariants other than the Ricci scalar. We find that besides a massless spin-2 field (the standard graviton), the theory contains also spin-0 and spin-2 massive modes with the latter being, in general, ghost modes. Then, we investigate the possible detectability of such additional polarization modes of a stochastic gravitational wave by ground-based and space interferometric detectors. Finally, we extend the formalism of the cross-correlation analysis, including the additional polarization modes, and calculate the detectable energy density of the spectrum for a stochastic background of the relic gravity waves that corresponds to our model. For the situation considered here, we find that these massive modes are certainly of interest for direct detection by the LISA experiment.
Sesana, A; Eracleous, M; Sigurdsson, S
2008-01-01
We consider a potentially new class of gravitational wave sources consisting of a white dwarf coalescing into a massive black hole in the mass range ~10^4-10^5\\msun. These sources are of particular interest because the gravitational wave signal produced during the inspiral phase can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and is promptly followed, in an extended portion of the black hole and white dwarf mass parameter space, by an electro-magnetic signal generated by the tidal disruption of the star, detectable with X-ray, optical and UV telescopes. This class of sources could therefore yield a considerable number of scientific payoffs, that include precise cosmography at low redshift, demographics of black holes in the mass range ~10^4-10^5\\Msun, insights into dynamical interactions and populations of white dwarfs in the cores of dwarf galaxies, as well as a new probe into the structure and equation of state of white dwarfs. By modelling the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation pr...
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
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Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris L. Fryer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Rasskazov, Alexander
2016-01-01
We compute the isotropic gravitational wave (GW) background produced by binary supermassive black holes (SBHs) in galactic nuclei. In our model, massive binaries evolve at early times via gravitational-slingshot interaction with nearby stars, and at later times by the emission of GWs. Our expressions for the rate of binary hardening in the "stellar" regime are taken from the recent work of Vasiliev et al., who show that in the non-axisymmetric galaxies expected to form via mergers, stars are supplied to the center at high enough rates to ensure binary coalescence on Gyr timescales. We also include, for the first time, the extra degrees of freedom associated with evolution of the binary's orbital plane; in rotating nuclei, interaction with stars causes the orientation and the eccentricity of a massive binary to change in tandem, leading in some cases to very high eccentricities (e>0.9) before the binary enters the GW-dominated regime. We argue that previous studies have over-estimated the mean ratio of SBH mas...
The Formation and Gravitational-Wave Detection of Massive Stellar Black-Hole Binaries
Belczynski, Krzysztof; Cantiello, Matteo; Holz, Daniel E; Fryer, Chris L; Mandel, Ilya; Miller, M Coleman; Walczak, Marek
2014-01-01
If binaries consisting of two 100 Msun black holes exist they would serve as extraordinarily powerful gravitational-wave sources, detectable to redshifts of z=2 with the advanced LIGO/Virgo ground-based detectors. Large uncertainties about the evolution of massive stars preclude definitive rate predictions for mergers of these massive black holes. We show that rates as high as hundreds of detections per year, or as low as no detections whatsoever, are both possible. It was thought that the only way to produce these massive binaries was via dynamical interactions in dense stellar systems. This view has been challenged by the recent discovery of several stars with mass greater than 150 Msun in the R136 region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Current models predict that when stars of this mass leave the main sequence, their expansion is insufficient to allow common envelope evolution to efficiently reduce the orbital separation. The resulting black-hole--black-hole binary remains too wide to be able to coalesce wi...
Antonini, Fabio
2012-01-01
The environment near super massive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei contain a large number of stars and compact objects. A fraction of these are likely to be members of binaries. Here we discuss the binary population of stellar black holes and neutron stars near SMBHs and focus on the secular evolution of such binaries, due to the perturbation by the SMBH. Binaries with highly inclined orbits in respect to their orbit around the SMBH are strongly affected by secular Kozai processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (Kozai-cycles). During periapsis approach, at the highest eccentricities during the Kozai-cycles, gravitational wave emission becomes highly efficient. Some binaries in this environment can inspiral and coalesce at timescales much shorter than a Hubble time and much shorter than similar binaries which do not reside near a SMBH. The close environment of SMBHs could therefore serve as catalyst for the inspiral and coalescence of binaries, and strongly affect their...
Massive Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter and their detection with Gravitational Waves
García-Bellido, Juan
2017-05-01
Massive Primordial Black Holes (MPBH) can be formed after inflation due to broad peaks in the primordial curvature power spectrum that collapse gravitationally during the radiation era, to form clusters of black holes that merge and increase in mass after recombination, generating today a broad mass-spectrum of black holes with masses ranging from 0.01 to 105 M⊙ . These MPBH could act as seeds for galaxies and quick-start structure formation, initiating reionization, forming galaxies at redshift z > 10 and clusters at z > 1. They may also be the seeds on which SMBH and IMBH form, by accreting gas onto them and forming the centers of galaxies and quasars at high redshift. They form at rest with zero spin and have negligible cross-section with ordinary matter. If there are enough of these MPBH, they could constitute the bulk of the Dark Matter today. Such PBH could be responsible for the observed fluctuations in the CIB and X-ray backgrounds. MPBH could be directly detected by the gravitational waves emitted when they merge to form more massive black holes, as recently reported by LIGO. Their continuous merging since recombination could have generated a stochastic background of gravitational waves that could eventually be detected by LISA and PTA. MPBH may actually be responsible for the unidentified point sources seen by Fermi, Magic and Chandra. Furthermore, the ejection of stars from shallow potential wells like those of Dwarf Spheroidals (DSph), via the gravitational slingshot effect, could be due to MPBH, thus alleviating the substructure and too-big-to-fail problems of standard collisionless CDM. Their mass distribution peaks at a few tens of M⊙ today, and could therefore be detected also with long-duration microlensing events, as well as by the anomalous motion of stars in the field of GAIA. Their presence as CDM in the Universe could be seen in the time-dilation of strong-lensing images of quasars. The hierarchical large scale structure behaviour of MPBH
Sesana, A; Volonteri, M
2008-01-01
Massive black holes are key components of the assembly and evolution of cosmic structures and a number of surveys are currently on-going or planned to probe the demographics of these objects and to gain insight into the relevant physical processes. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) currently provide the only means to observe gravitational radiation from massive black hole binary systems with masses >10^7 solar masses. The whole cosmic population produces a stochastic background that could be detectable with upcoming Pulsar Timing Arrays. Sources sufficiently close and/or massive generate gravitational radiation that significantly exceeds the level of the background and could be individually resolved. We consider a wide range of massive black hole binary assembly scenarios, we investigate the distribution of the main physical parameters of the sources, such as masses and redshift, and explore the consequences for Pulsar Timing Arrays observations. Depending on the specific massive black hole population model, we est...
The gravitational wave background from star-massive black hole fly-bys
Toonen, Silvia; Hopman, Clovis; Freitag, Marc
2009-09-01
Stars on eccentric orbits around a massive black hole (MBH) emit bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) at periapse. Such events may be directly resolvable in the Galactic Centre. However, if the star does not spiral in, the emitted GWs are not resolvable for extragalactic MBHs, but constitute a source of background noise. We estimate the power spectrum of this extreme mass ratio burst background (EMBB) and compare it to the anticipated instrumental noise of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). To this end, we model the regions close to an MBH, accounting for mass segregation, and for processes that limit the presence of stars close to the MBH, such as GW inspiral and hydrodynamical collisions between stars. We find that the EMBB is dominated by GW bursts from stellar mass black holes, and the magnitude of the noise spectrum (fSGW)1/2 is at least a factor of ~10 smaller than the instrumental noise. As an additional result of our analysis, we show that LISA is unlikely to detect relativistic bursts in the Galactic Centre.
The gravitational wave background from star-massive black hole fly-bys
Toonen, Silvia; Freitag, Marc
2009-01-01
Stars on eccentric orbits around a massive black hole (MBH) emit bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) at periapse. Such events may be directly resolvable in the Galactic centre. However, if the star does not spiral in, the emitted GWs are not resolvable for extra-galactic MBHs, but constitute a source of background noise. We estimate the power spectrum of this extreme mass ratio burst background (EMBB) and compare it to the anticipated instrumental noise of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). To this end, we model the regions close to a MBH, accounting for mass-segregation, and for processes that limit the presence of stars close to the MBH, such as GW inspiral and hydrodynamical collisions between stars. We find that the EMBB is dominated by GW bursts from stellar mass black holes, and the magnitude of the noise spectrum (f S_GW)^{1/2} is at least a factor ~10 smaller than the instrumental noise. As an additional result of our analysis, we show that LISA is unlikely to detect relativistic bursts in...
The effect of mass-segregation on gravitational wave sources near massive black holes
Hopman, C; Alexander, Tal; Hopman, Clovis
2006-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) from the inspiral of compact remnants (CRs) into massive black holes (MBHs) will be observable to cosmological distances. While a CR spirals in, 2-body scattering by field stars may cause it to fall into the MBH before reaching a short period orbit that would give an observable signal. As a result, only CRs very near (~0.01 pc) the MBH can spiral in successfully. In a multi-mass stellar population, the heaviest objects sink to the center, where they are more likely to slowly spiral into the MBH without being swallowed prematurely. We study how mass-segregation modifies the stellar distribution and the rate of GW events. We find that the inspiral rate per galaxy for white dwarfs is 30 per Gyr, for neutron stars 6 per Gyr, and for stellar black holes (SBHs) 250 per Gyr. The high rate for SBHs is due to their extremely steep density profile, n_{BH}(r)\\propto r^{-2}. The GW detection rate will be dominated by SBHs.
Asymptotically flat black holes and gravitational waves in three-dimensional massive gravity
Troessaert, Cédric; Troncoso, Ricardo
2015-01-01
Different classes of exact solutions for the BHT massive gravity theory are constructed and analyzed. We focus in the special case of the purely quadratic Lagrangian, whose field equations are irreducibly of fourth order and are known to admit asymptotically locally flat black holes endowed with gravitational hair. The first class corresponds to a Kerr-Schild deformation of Minkowski spacetime along a covariantly constant null vector. As in the case of General Relativity, the field equations linearize so that the solution can be easily shown to be described by four arbitrary functions of a single null coordinate. These solutions can be regarded as a new sort of pp-waves. The second class is obtained from a deformation of the static asymptotically locally flat black hole, that goes along the spacelike (angular) Killing vector. Remarkably, although the deformation is not of Kerr-Schild type, the field equations also linearize, and hence the generic solution can be readily integrated. It is neither static nor sp...
Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P
2001-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.
Gravitational lensing by gravitational waves
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Tsupko, O. Yu.
2008-01-01
Gravitational lensing by gravitational wave is considered. We notice that although final and initial direction of photons coincide, displacement between final and initial trajectories occurs. This displacement is calculated analytically for the plane gravitational wave pulse. Estimations for observations are discussed.
Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Thornburg, Jonathan
2011-01-01
GW Notes was born from the need for a journal where the distinct communities involved in gravitation wave research might gather. While these three communities - astrophysics, general relativity and data analysis - have made significant collaborative progress over recent years, we believe that it is indispensable to future advancement that they draw closer, and that they speak a common idiom. In this 6th GW Note (since we started numbering with #0), we present the work of Jonathan Thornburg, who has been fully-refereed, on the Capra research programme for capture of small compact objects by massive black holes.
Ozel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ransom, Scott; Demorest, Paul; Alford, Mark
2010-01-01
The recent measurement of the Shapiro delay in the radio pulsar PSR J1614-2230 yielded a mass of 1.97 +/- 0.04 M_sun, making it the most massive pulsar known to date. Its mass is high enough that, even without an accompanying measurement of the stellar radius, it has a strong impact on our understanding of nuclear matter, gamma-ray bursts, and the generation of gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars. This single high mass value indicates that a transition to quark matter in neutron...
Gravitational waves from stellar encounters
Capozziello, Salvatore
2008-01-01
The emission of gravitational waves from a system of massive objects interacting on elliptical, hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is studied in the quadrupole approximation. Analytical expressions are then derived for the gravitational wave luminosity, the total energy output and gravitational radiation amplitude. A crude estimate of the expected number of events towards peculiar targets (i.e. globular clusters) is also given. In particular, the rate of events per year is obtained for the dense stellar cluster at the Galactic Center.
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.
Centrella, Joan
2010-03-01
The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z > 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts. This research is supported in part by NASA grant 06-BEFS06-19 to Goddard Space Flight Center.
Rasskazov, Alexander; Merritt, David
2017-01-01
The subject of our study is a binary supermassive black hole (BSBH) in the center of a galactic nucleus. We model the evolution of its orbit due to interactions with the stars of the galaxy by means of 3-body scattering experiments. Our model includes a new degree of freedom - the orientation of the BSBH’s orbital plane - which is allowed to change due to interaction with the stars in a rotating nucleus. The binary’s eccentricity also evolves in an orientation-dependent manner. We find that the dynamics are qualitatively different compared with non-rotating nuclei: 1) The BSBH's orbital plane evolves toward alignment with the plane of rotation of the nucleus; 2) The BSBH’s eccentricity decreases for aligned BSBHs and increases for counter-aligned ones.We then apply our model to calculate the effects of stellar environment on the gravitational wave background spectrum produced by BSBHs. Using the results of recent N-body/Monte-Carlo simulations we account for different rates of stellar interaction in spherical, axisymmetric and triaxial galaxies. We also consider the possibility that SBH masses are systematically lower than usually assumed. The net result of the new physical mechanisms included here is a spectrum for the stochastic gravitational wave background that has a significantly lower amplitude than in previous treatments, which could explain the discrepancy that currently exists between the models and the upper limits set by pulsar timing array observations.
Geometrical vs wave optics under gravitational waves
Angélil, Raymond
2015-01-01
We present some new derivations of the effect of a plane gravitational wave on a light ray. A simple interpretation of the results is that a gravitational wave causes a phase modulation of electromagnetic waves. We arrive at this picture from two contrasting directions, namely null geodesics and Maxwell's equations, or, geometric and wave optics. Under geometric optics, we express the geodesic equations in Hamiltonian form and solve perturbatively for the effect of gravitational waves. We find that the well-known time-delay formula for light generalizes trivially to massive particles. We also recover, by way of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the phase modulation obtained under wave optics. Turning then to wave optics, rather than solving Maxwell's equations directly for the fields, as in most previous approaches, we derive a perturbed wave equation (perturbed by the gravitational wave) for the electromagnetic four-potential. From this wave equation it follows that the four-potential and the electric and magnetic...
Gravitomagnetic corrections on gravitational waves
Capozziello, S; Forte, L; Garufi, F; Milano, L
2009-01-01
Gravitational waveforms and production could be considerably affected by gravitomagnetic corrections considered in relativistic theory of orbits. Beside the standard periastron effect of General Relativity, new nutation effects come out when c^{-3} corrections are taken into account. Such corrections emerge as soon as matter-current densities and vector gravitational potentials cannot be discarded into dynamics. We study the gravitational waves emitted through the capture, in the gravitational field of massive binary systems (e.g. a very massive black hole on which a stellar object is inspiralling) via the quadrupole approximation, considering precession and nutation effects. We present a numerical study to obtain the gravitational wave luminosity, the total energy output and the gravitational radiation amplitude. From a crude estimate of the expected number of events towards peculiar targets (e.g. globular clusters) and in particular, the rate of events per year for dense stellar clusters at the Galactic Cen...
LeFloch, Philippe G
2015-01-01
We extend the Hyperboloidal Foliation Method (which we recently introduced) and then apply it to the Einstein equations of general relativity. We are able to establish the nonlinear stability of Minkowski spacetime for self-gravitating massive scalar fields, while existing methods only apply to massless scalar fields. First of all, by analyzing the structure of the Einstein equations in wave coordinates, we exhibit a nonlinear wave-Klein-Gordon model defined on a curved background, which is the focus of the present paper. For this model, we prove here the existence of global-in-time solutions to the Cauchy problem, when the initial data have sufficiently small Sobolev norms. A major difficulty comes from the fact that the class of conformal Killing fields of Minkowski space is significantly reduced in presence of a massive scalar field, since the scaling vector field is not conformal Killing for the Klein-Gordon operator. Our method relies on the foliation (of the interior of the light cone) of Minkowski spac...
Banerjee, Sambaran
2017-05-01
Stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in dense stellar clusters have always drawn attention due to their potential in a number of phenomena, especially the dynamical formation of binary black holes (BBH), which potentially coalesce via gravitational-wave radiation. This study presents a preliminary set of evolutionary models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ranging over 1.0 × 104-5.0 × 104 M⊙, and half-mass radius of 2 or 1 pc, which is typical for young massive and starburst clusters. They have metallicities between 0.05 Z⊙ and Z⊙. Including contemporary schemes for stellar wind and remnant formation, such model clusters are evolved, for the first time, using the state-of-the-art direct N-body evolution program nbody7, until their dissolution or at least for 10 Gyr. That way, a self-regulatory behaviour in the effects of dynamical interactions among the BHs is demonstrated. In contrast to earlier studies, the BBH coalescences obtained in these models show a prominence in triple-mediated coalescences while being bound to the clusters, compared to those occurring among the BBHs that are dynamically ejected from the clusters. A broader mass spectrum of the BHs and lower escape velocities of the clusters explored here might cause this difference, which is yet to be fully understood. Among the BBH coalescences obtained here, there are ones that resemble the detected GW151226, LVT151012 and GW150914 events and also ones that are even more massive. A preliminary estimate suggests few 10-100 s of BBH coalescences per year, originating due to dynamics in stellar clusters that can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) at its design sensitivity.
Chen, Siyuan; Sesana, Alberto; Del Pozzo, Walter
2017-09-01
We present a fast and versatile method to calculate the characteristic spectrum hc of the gravitational wave background (GWB) emitted by a population of eccentric massive black hole binaries (MBHBs). We fit the spectrum of a reference MBHB with a simple analytic function and show that the spectrum of any other MBHB can be derived from this reference spectrum via simple scalings of mass, redshift and frequency. We then apply our calculation to a realistic population of MBHBs evolving via three-body scattering of stars in galactic nuclei. We demonstrate that our analytic prescription satisfactorily describes the signal in the frequency band relevant to pulsar timing array (PTA) observations. Finally, we model the high-frequency steepening of the GWB to provide a complete description of the features characterizing the spectrum. For typical stellar distributions observed in massive galaxies, our calculation shows that three-body scattering alone is unlikely to affect the GWB in the PTA band and a low-frequency turnover in the spectrum is caused primarily by high eccentricities.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM MASSIVE MAGNETARS FORMED IN BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Osso, Simone [Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, auf der Morgenstelle 10 D-72076 (Germany); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Stella, Luigi, E-mail: simone.dallosso@uni-tuebingen.de [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)
2015-01-01
Binary neutron star (NS) mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs), as well as candidate progenitors for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Depending on the total initial mass of the system and the NS equation of state (EOS), the post-merger phase can be characterized by a prompt collapse to a black hole or by the formation of a supramassive NS, or even a stable NS. In the latter cases of post-merger NS (PMNS) formation, magnetic field amplification during the merger will produce a magnetar and induce a mass quadrupole moment in the newly formed NS. If the timescale for orthogonalization of the magnetic symmetry axis with the spin axis is smaller than the spindown time, the NS will radiate its spin down energy primarily via GWs. Here we study this scenario for the various outcomes of NS formation: we generalize the set of equilibrium states for a twisted torus magnetic configuration to include solutions that, for the same external dipolar field, carry a larger magnetic energy reservoir; we hence compute the magnetic ellipticity for such configurations, and the corresponding strength of the expected GW signal as a function of the relative magnitude of the dipolar and toroidal field components. The relative number of GW detections from PMNSs and from binary NSs is a very strong function of the NS EOS, being higher (∼1%) for the stiffest EOSs and negligibly small for the softest ones. For intermediate-stiffness EOSs, such as the n = 4/7 polytrope recently used by Giacomazzo and Perna or the GM1 used by Lasky et al., the relative fraction is ∼0.3%; correspondingly, we estimate a GW detection rate from stable PMNSs of ∼0.1-1 yr{sup –1} with advanced detectors, and of ∼100-1000 yr{sup –1} with detectors of third generation such as the Einstein Telescope. Measurement of such GW signals would provide constraints on the NS EOS and, in connection with an SGRB, on the nature of the binary progenitors giving rise to these events.
Massive, massless and ghost modes of gravitational waves from higher-order gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bogdanos, Charalampos; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
We linearize the field equations for higher order theories that contain scalar invariants other than the Ricci scalar. We find that besides a massless spin-2 field (the standard graviton), the theory contains also spin-0 and spin-2 massive modes with the latter being, in general, ghost modes. The...
Smooth sandwich gravitational waves
Podolsky, J
1999-01-01
Gravitational waves which are smooth and contain two asymptotically flat regions are constructed from the homogeneous pp-waves vacuum solution. Motion of free test particles is calculated explicitly and the limit to an impulsive wave is also considered.
Banerjee, Sambaran
2017-01-01
Stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in dense stellar clusters have always drawn attention due to their potential in a number of phenomena, especially the dynamical formation of binary black holes (BBH), which potentially coalesce via gravitational-wave (GW) radiation. This study presents a preliminary set of evolutionary models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ranging over 1.0 × 104M⊙ - 5.0 × 104M⊙, and half-mass radius of 2 or 1 pc, that is typical for young massive and starburst clusters. They have metallicities between 0.05Z⊙ - Z⊙. Including contemporary schemes for stellar wind and remnant formation, such model clusters are evolved, for the first time, using the state-of-the-art direct N-body evolution program NBODY7 , until their dissolution or at least for 10 Gyr. That way, a self-regulatory behaviour in the effects of dynamical interactions among the BHs is demonstrated. In contrast to earlier studies, the BBH coalescences obtained in these models show a prominence in triple-mediated coalescences while being bound to the clusters, compared to those occurring among the BBHs that are dynamically ejected from the clusters. A broader mass spectrum of the BHs and lower escape velocities of the clusters explored here might cause this difference, which is yet to be fully understood. Among the BBH coalescences obtained here, there are ones that resemble the detected GW151226, LVT151012, and GW150914 events and also ones which are even more massive. A preliminary estimate suggests few 10s-100s of BBH coalescences per year, originating due to dynamics in stellar clusters, that can be detected by the LIGO at its design sensitivity.
Banerjee, Sambaran
2016-01-01
The dynamical processes involving stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in stellar clusters has always drawn attention due to the BHs' potential in a number of astrophysical phenomena, especially the dynamical formation of binary black holes (BBH), which would potentially coalesce via radiation of gravitational waves (GW). This study presents a preliminary set of evolutionary models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ranging over $1.0\\times10^4M_\\odot-5.0\\times10^4M_\\odot$, and half-mass radius of 2 pc or 1 pc, that is typical for young massive and starburst clusters. They have metallicities between $0.05Z_\\odot-Z_\\odot$. Including contemporary schemes for stellar wind and remnant-formation, such model clusters are evolved, for the first time, using the state-of-the-art direct N-body evolution program NBODY7, until their dissolution or at least for 10 Gyr. That way, a self-regulatory behaviour in the effects of dynamical interactions among the BHs, especially while heating and expanding the cluster an...
Hopman, C; Hopman, Clovis; Alexander, Tal
2005-01-01
We study the orbital parameters distribution of stars that are scattered into nearly radial orbits and then spiral into a massive black hole (MBH) due to dissipation, in particular by emission of gravitational waves (GW). This is important for GW detection, e.g. by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Signal identification requires knowledge of the waveforms, which depend on the orbital parameters. We use analytical and Monte Carlo methods to analyze the interplay between GW dissipation and scattering in the presence of a mass sink during the transition from the initial scattering-dominated phase to the final dissipation-dominated phase of the inspiral. Our main results are (1) Stars typically enter the GW-emitting phase with high eccentricities. (2) The GW event rate per galaxy is a few per Gyr for typical central stellar cusps, almost independently of the relaxation time or the MBH mass. (3) For intermediate mass black holes (IBHs) of ~a thousand solar masses such as may exist in dense stellar clu...
Gravitational Waves in Effective Quantum Gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier; Kuntz, Ibere; Mohapatra, Sonali [University of Sussex, Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2016-08-15
In this short paper we investigate quantum gravitational effects on Einstein's equations using Effective Field Theory techniques. We consider the leading order quantum gravitational correction to the wave equation. Besides the usual massless mode, we find a pair of modes with complex masses. These massive particles have a width and could thus lead to a damping of gravitational waves if excited in violent astrophysical processes producing gravitational waves such as e.g. black hole mergers. We discuss the consequences for gravitational wave events such as GW 150914 recently observed by the Advanced LIGO collaboration. (orig.)
Gravitational waves from inflation
Guzzetti, M. C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.
2016-09-01
The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index nT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.
Gravitational waves from inflation
Guzzetti, Maria Chiara; Liguori, Michele; Matarrese, Sabino
2016-01-01
The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power-spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between t...
Hopman, C; Alexander, Tal; Hopman, Clovis
2006-01-01
Resonant relaxation (RR) of orbital angular momenta occurs near massive black holes (MBHs) where the stellar orbits are nearly Keplerian and so do not precess significantly. The resulting coherent torques efficiently change the magnitude of the angular momenta and rotate the orbital inclination in all directions. As a result, many of the tightly bound stars very near the MBH are rapidly destroyed by falling into the MBH on low-angular momentum orbits, while the orbits of the remaining stars are efficiently randomized. We solve numerically the Fokker-Planck equation in energy for the steady state distribution of a single mass population with a RR sink term. We find that the steady state current of stars, which sustains the accelerated drainage close to the MBH, can be up to ~10 times larger than that due to non-coherent 2-body relaxation alone. RR mostly affects tightly bound stars, and so it increases only moderately the total tidal disruption rate, which is dominated by stars originating from less bound orbi...
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.
Tiec, Alexandre Le
2016-01-01
The existence of gravitational radiation is a natural prediction of any relativistic description of the gravitational interaction. In this chapter, we focus on gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. First, we introduce those mathematical concepts that are necessary to properly formulate the physical theory, such as the notions of manifold, vector, tensor, metric, connection and curvature. Second, we motivate, formulate and then discuss Einstein's equation, which relates the geometry of spacetime to its matter content. Gravitational waves are later introduced as solutions of the linearized Einstein equation around flat spacetime. These waves are shown to propagate at the speed of light and to possess two polarization states. Gravitational waves can interact with matter, allowing for their direct detection by means of laser interferometers. Finally, Einstein's quadrupole formulas are derived and used to show that nonspherical compact objects moving at relativistic speeds a...
Bigravitons as dark matter and gravitational waves
Aoki, Katsuki
2016-01-01
We consider the possibility that the massive graviton is a viable candidate of dark matter in the context of bimetric gravity. We first derive the energy-momentum tensor of the massive graviton and show that it indeed behaves as that of dark matter fluid. We then discuss a production mechanism and the present abundance of massive gravitons as dark matter. Since the metric to which ordinary matter fields couple is a linear combination of the two mass eigenstates of bigravity, production of massive gravitons, i.e. the dark matter particles, is inevitably accompanied by generation of massless gravitons, i.e. the gravitational waves. Therefore, in this scenario some information about dark matter in our universe is encoded in gravitational waves. For instance, if LIGO detects gravitational waves generated by the preheating after inflation then the massive graviton with the mass of $\\sim 0.01$ GeV is a candidate of the dark matter.
Mead, Carver
2015-01-01
Gravitational coupling of the propagation four-vectors of matter wave functions is formulated in flat space-time. Coupling at the momentum level rather than at the "force-law" level greatly simplifies many calculations. This locally Lorentz-invariant approach (G4v) treats electromagnetic and gravitational coupling on an equal footing. Classical mechanics emerges from the incoherent aggregation of matter wave functions. The theory reproduces, to first order beyond Newton, the standard GR results for Gravity-Probe B, deflection of light by massive bodies, precession of orbits, gravitational red shift, and total gravitational-wave energy radiated by a circular binary system. Its predictions of total radiated energy from highly eccentric Kepler systems are slightly larger than those of similar GR treatments. G4v predictions differ markedly from those of GR for the gravitational-wave radiation patterns from rotating massive systems, and for the LIGO antenna pattern. The predicted antenna patterns have been shown t...
Low-Frequency Gravitational Radiation from Coalescing Massive Black Holes
Sesana, A; Madau, P; Volonteri, M
2005-01-01
We compute the expected low-frequency gravitational wave signal from coalescing massive black hole (MBH) binaries at the center of galaxies. We follow the merging history of halos and associated holes via cosmological Monte Carlo realizations of the merger hierarchy from early times to the present in a LCDM cosmology. MBHs get incorporated through a series of mergers into larger and larger halos, sink to the centre owing to dynamical friction, accrete a fraction of the gas in the merger remnant to become more massive, and form a binary system. Stellar dynamical processes dominates the orbital evolution of the binary at large separations, while gravitational wave emission takes over at small radii, causing the final coalescence of the system. We discuss the observability of inspiraling MBH binaries by a low-frequency gravitational wave experiment such as the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), discriminating between resolvable sources and unresolved confusion noise. Over a 3-year observing perio...
Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts
Wick, Gerald L.
1970-01-01
Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)
Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics
Barausse, Enrico; Pani, Paolo
2014-01-01
The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly-dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors -the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals- and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, ...
Kelly, Bernard J.
2010-01-01
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.
Dimensions and Gravitational Waves
van Haasteren, Rutger
2014-10-01
High-precision timing of Galactic millisecond pulsars with radio telescopes holds great promise for the detection of astrophysical gravitational-waves in frequency range 10--100 nHz. Modern Bayesian data analysis methods rely mostly on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to explore the model parameter space when searching for signals in the pulsar timing data. Current challenges involve parameter spaces with large dimensionality, and linear algebra of high-dimensional systems. I will present sampling methods (taken from the Planck analysis team), and rank-reduction methods for large linear systems, that have enabled us to decrease the dimensionality of such problems. These methods are now being used to search for gravitational-waves in pulsar timing array projects. Especially our rank-reduction techniques are useful for any data analysis problem that involve large linear least-squares systems.
Looking for Lorentz violation with gravitational waves
Schreck, M
2016-01-01
The current letter has been inspired by the recent direct detection of gravitational waves reported by Advanced LIGO. In this context, a particular Lorentz-violating framework for classical, massive particles is on the focus. The latter is characterized by a preferred direction in spacetime comprised of CPT-odd components with mass dimension 1. Curvature effects in spacetime, which are caused by a propagating gravitational wave, are assumed to deform the otherwise constant background field. In accordance with spontaneous Lorentz violation, a particular choice for the vector field is taken, which was proposed elsewhere. The geodesic equations for a particle that is subject to this type of Lorentz violation are obtained. Subsequently, their numerical solutions are computed and discussed. The particular model considered leads to changes in the particle trajectory, which interferometric gravitational-wave experiments could be sensitive for. Since such effects have not been observed in the gravitational-wave event...
Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy
Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy
2012-01-01
The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.
Piecewise flat gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van de Meent, Maarten, E-mail: M.vandeMeent@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2011-04-07
We examine the continuum limit of the piecewise flat locally finite gravity model introduced by 't Hooft. In the linear weak field limit, we find the energy-momentum tensor and metric perturbation of an arbitrary configuration of defects. The energy-momentum turns out to be restricted to satisfy certain conditions. The metric perturbation is mostly fixed by the energy-momentum except for its lightlike modes which reproduce linear gravitational waves, despite no such waves being present at the microscopic level.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finn, Lee Samuel; Thorne, Kip S.
2000-12-15
Results are presented from high-precision computations of the orbital evolution and emitted gravitational waves for a stellar-mass object spiraling into a massive black hole in a slowly shrinking, circular, equatorial orbit. The focus of these computations is inspiral near the innermost stable circular orbit (isco) -- more particularly, on orbits for which the angular velocity {Omega} is 0.03{approx}<{Omega}/{Omega}{sub isco}{<=}1.0. The computations are based on the Teuksolsky-Sasaki-Nakamura formalism, and the results are tabulated in a set of functions that are of order unity and represent relativistic corrections to low-orbital-velocity formulas. These tables can form a foundation for future design studies for the LISA space-based gravitational-wave mission. A first survey of applications to LISA is presented: Signal to noise ratios S/N are computed and graphed as functions of the time-evolving gravitational-wave frequency for the lowest three harmonics of the orbital period, and for various representative values of the hole's mass M and spin a and the inspiraling object's mass {mu}, with the distance to Earth chosen to be r{sub o}=1 Gpc. These S/N's show a very strong dependence on the black-hole spin, as well as on M and {mu}. Graphs are presented showing the range of the {l_brace}M,a,{mu}{r_brace} parameter space, for which S/N>10 at r{sub 0}=1 Gpc during the last year of inspiral. The hole's spin a has a factor of {approx}10 influence on the range of M (at fixed {mu}) for which S/N>10, and the presence or absence of a white-dwarf--binary background has a factor of {approx}3 influence. A comparison with predicted event rates shows strong promise for detecting these waves, but not beyond about 1 Gpc if the inspiraling object is a white dwarf or neutron star. This argues for a modest lowering of LISA's noise floor. A brief discussion is given of the prospects for extracting information from the observed waves.
Gravitational wave sources in the era of multi-frequency gravitational wave astronomy
Colpi, Monica
2016-01-01
The focus of this Chapter is on describing the prospective sources of the gravitational wave universe accessible to present and future observations, from kHz, to mHz down to nano-Hz frequencies. The multi-frequency gravitational wave universe gives a deep view into the cosmos, inaccessible otherwise. It has as main actors core-collapsing massive stars, neutron stars, coalescing compact object binaries of different flavours and stellar origin, coalescing massive black hole binaries, extreme mass ratio inspirals, and possibly the very early universe itself. Here, we highlight the science aims and describe the gravitational wave signals expected from the sources and the information gathered in it. We show that the observation of gravitational wave sources will play a transformative role in our understanding of the processes ruling the formation and evolution of stars and black holes, galaxy clustering and evolution, the nature of the strong forces in neutron star interiors, and the most mysterious interaction of...
Gravitational waves induced by spinor fields
Feng, Kaixi
2015-01-01
In realistic model-building, spinor fields with various masses are present. During inflation, spinor field may induce gravitational waves as a second order effect. In this paper, we calculate the contribution of single massive spinor field to the power spectrum of primordial gravitational wave by using retarded Green propagator. We find that the correction is scale-invariant and of order $H^4/M_P^4$ for arbitrary spinor mass $m_{\\psi}$. Additionally, we also observe that when $m_\\psi \\gtrsim H$, the dependence of correction on $m_\\psi/H$ is nontrivial.
Phonon creation by gravitational waves
Sabín, Carlos; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Fuentes, Ivette
2014-01-01
We show that gravitational waves create phonons in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). A traveling spacetime distortion produces particle creation resonances that correspond to the dynamical Casimir effect in a BEC phononic field contained in a cavity-type trap. We propose to use this effect to detect gravitational waves. The amplitude of the wave can be estimated applying recently developed relativistic quantum metrology techniques. We provide the optimal precision bound on the estimation of the wave's amplitude. Finally, we show that the parameter regime required to detect gravitational waves with this technique is within experimental reach.
Gravitational Wave - Gauge Field Oscillations
Caldwell, R R; Maksimova, N A
2016-01-01
Gravitational waves propagating through a stationary gauge field transform into gauge field waves and back again. When multiple families of flavor-space locked gauge fields are present, the gravitational and gauge field waves exhibit novel dynamics. At high frequencies, the system behaves like coupled oscillators in which the gravitational wave is the central pacemaker. Due to energy conservation and exchange among the oscillators, the wave amplitudes lie on a multi-dimensional sphere, reminiscent of neutrino flavor oscillations. This phenomenon has implications for cosmological scenarios based on flavor-space locked gauge fields.
Gravitational Waves, Sources, and Detectors
Schutz, Bernard F
2010-01-01
Notes of lectures for graduate students that were given at Lake Como in 1999, covering the theory of linearized gravitational waves, their sources, and the prospects at the time for detecting gravitational waves. The lectures remain of interest for pedagogical reasons, and in particular because they contain a treatment of current-quadrupole gravitational radiation (in connection with the r-modes of neutron stars) that is not readily available in other sources.
Current status of gravitational-wave observations
Fairhurst, Stephen; Guidi, Gianluca M.; Hello, Patrice; Whelan, John T; Woan, Graham
2009-01-01
The first generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors has taken data at, or close to, their design sensitivity. This data has been searched for a broad range of gravitational wave signatures. An overview of gravitational wave search methods and results are presented. Searches for gravitational waves from unmodelled burst sources, compact binary coalescences, continuous wave sources and stochastic backgrounds are discussed.
Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy
2006-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www...
Gravitational Waves From Supermassive Black Holes
di Girolamo, Tristano
2016-10-01
In this talk, I will present the first direct detections of gravitational waves from binary stellar-mass black hole mergers during the first observing run of the two detectors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, which opened the field of gravitational-wave astronomy, and then discuss prospects for observing gravitational waves from supermassive black holes with future detectors.
Gravitational Waves III: Detecting Systems
Cattani, M.
2010-01-01
In a recent paper we have deduced the basic equations that predict the emission of gravitational waves (GW) according to the Einstein gravitation theory. In a subsequent paper these equations have been used to calculate the luminosities and the amplitudes of the waves generated by binary stars, pulsations of neutron stars, wobbling of deformed neutron stars, oscillating quadrupoles, rotating bars and collapsing and bouncing cores of supernovas. We show here how the GW could be detected in our...
Gravitational Wave Experiments - Proceedings of the First Edoardo Amaldi Conference
Coccia, E.; Pizzella, G.; Ronga, F.
1995-07-01
The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Foreword * Notes on Edoardo Amaldi's Life and Activity * PART I. INVITED LECTURES * Sources and Telescopes * Sources of Gravitational Radiation for Detectors of the 21st Century * Neutrino Telescopes * γ-Ray Bursts * Space Detectors * LISA — Laser Interferometer Space Antenna for Gravitational Wave Measurements * Search for Massive Coalescing Binaries with the Spacecraft ULYSSES * Interferometers * The LIGO Project: Progress and Prospects * The VIRGO Experiment: Status of the Art * GEO 600 — A 600-m Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Antenna * 300-m Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detector (TAMA300) in Japan * Resonant Detectors * Search for Continuous Gravitational Wave from Pulsars with Resonant Detector * Operation of the ALLEGRO Detector at LSU * Preliminary Results of the New Run of Measurements with the Resonant Antenna EXPLORER * Operation of the Perth Cryogenic Resonant-Bar Gravitational Wave Detector * The NAUTILUS Experiment * Status of the AURIGA Gravitational Wave Antenna and Perspectives for the Gravitational Waves Search with Ultracryogenic Resonant Detectors * Ultralow Temperature Resonant-Mass Gravitational Radiation Detectors: Current Status of the Stanford Program * Electromechanical Transducers and Bandwidth of Resonant-Mass Gravitational-Wave Detectors * Fully Numerical Data Analysis for Resonant Gravitational Wave Detectors: Optimal Filter and Available Information * PART II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Sources and Telescopes * The Local Supernova Production * Periodic Gravitational Signals from Galactic Pulsars * On a Possibility of Scalar Gravitational Wave Detection from the Binary Pulsars PSR 1913+16 * Kazan Gravitational Wave Detector “Dulkyn”: General Concept and Prospects of Construction * Hierarchical Approach to the Theory of Detection of Periodic Gravitational Radiation * Application of Gravitational Antennae for Fundamental Geophysical Problems * On
Testing local Lorentz invariance with gravitational waves
Kostelecky, Alan
2016-01-01
The effects of local Lorentz violation on dispersion and birefringence of gravitational waves are investigated. The covariant dispersion relation for gravitational waves involving gauge-invariant Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary mass dimension is constructed. The chirp signal from the gravitational-wave event GW150914 is used to place numerous first constraints on gravitational Lorentz violation.
Testing local Lorentz invariance with gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kostelecký, V. Alan, E-mail: kostelec@indiana.edu [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Mewes, Matthew [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)
2016-06-10
The effects of local Lorentz violation on dispersion and birefringence of gravitational waves are investigated. The covariant dispersion relation for gravitational waves involving gauge-invariant Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary mass dimension is constructed. The chirp signal from the gravitational-wave event GW150914 is used to place numerous first constraints on gravitational Lorentz violation.
Considerations on Gravitational Wave in Economics
Ovidiu Racorean
2002-01-01
A proposal for a dynamical potential of population displacements (named gravitational potential) between economic regions will be given. For a particular ideal chosen case,the gravitational potential is acting as a wave. An equation of the wave form will be given for gravitational potential-gravitational wave in economics.
The gravitational-wave memory effect
Favata, Marc
2010-01-01
The nonlinear memory effect is a slowly-growing, non-oscillatory contribution to the gravitational-wave amplitude. It originates from gravitational waves that are sourced by the previously emitted waves. In an ideal gravitational-wave interferometer a gravitational-wave with memory causes a permanent displacement of the test masses that persists after the wave has passed. Surprisingly, the nonlinear memory affects the signal amplitude starting at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order. Despite ...
Gravitational wave in Lorentz violating gravity
Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing, China)
2011-01-01
By making use of the weak gravitational field approximation, we obtain a linearized solution of the gravitational vacuum field equation in an anisotropic spacetime. The plane-wave solution and dispersion relation of gravitational wave is presented explicitly. There is possibility that the speed of gravitational wave is larger than the speed of light and the casuality still holds. We show that the energy-momentum of gravitational wave in the ansiotropic spacetime is still well defined and cons...
General relativity and gravitational waves
Weber, J
2004-01-01
An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta
Probing the Core-Collapse Supernova Mechanism with Gravitational Waves
Ott, C D
2009-01-01
The mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions must draw on the energy provided by gravitational collapse and transfer the necessary fraction to the kinetic and internal energy of the ejecta. Despite many decades of concerted theoretical effort, the detailed mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions is still unknown, but indications are strong that multi-D processes lie at its heart. This opens up the possibility of probing the supernova mechanism with gravitational waves, carrying direct dynamical information from the supernova engine deep inside a dying massive star. I present a concise overview of the physics and primary multi-D dynamics in neutrino-driven, magnetorotational, and acoustically-driven core-collapse supernova explosion scenarios. Discussing and contrasting estimates for the gravitational-wave emission characteristics of these mechanisms, I argue that their gravitational-wave signatures are clearly distinct and that the observation (or non-observation) of gravitational waves from a ...
Gravitational waves and multimessenger astronomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricci Fulvio
2016-01-01
Full Text Available It is widely expected that in the coming quinquennium the first gravitational wave signal will be directly detected. The ground-based advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors are being upgraded to a sensitivity level such that we expect to be measure a significant binary merger rate. Gravitational waves events are likely to be accompanied by electromagnetic counterparts and neutrino emission carrying complementary information to those associated to the gravitational signals. If it becomes possible to measure all these forms of radiation in concert, we will end up an impressive increase in the comprehension of the whole phenomenon. In the following we summarize the scientific outcome of the interferometric detectors in the past configuration. Then we focus on some of the potentialities of the advanced detectors once used in the new context of the multimessenger astronomy.
Gravitational waves and multimessenger astronomy
Ricci, Fulvio
2016-07-01
It is widely expected that in the coming quinquennium the first gravitational wave signal will be directly detected. The ground-based advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors are being upgraded to a sensitivity level such that we expect to be measure a significant binary merger rate. Gravitational waves events are likely to be accompanied by electromagnetic counterparts and neutrino emission carrying complementary information to those associated to the gravitational signals. If it becomes possible to measure all these forms of radiation in concert, we will end up an impressive increase in the comprehension of the whole phenomenon. In the following we summarize the scientific outcome of the interferometric detectors in the past configuration. Then we focus on some of the potentialities of the advanced detectors once used in the new context of the multimessenger astronomy.
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
Gravitational waves carrying orbital angular momentum
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo
2015-01-01
Spinorial formalism is used to map every electromagnetic wave into the gravitational wave (within the linearized gravity). In this way we can obtain the gravitational counterparts of Bessel, Laguerre-Gauss, and other light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.
Cosmological Acceleration from Gravitational Waves
Marochnik, Leonid
2015-01-01
It is shown that the classical gravitational waves of super-horizon wavelengths are able to form the de Sitter accelerated expansion of the empty (with no matter fields) Universe. The contemporary Universe is about 70% empty and asymptotically is going to become completely empty, so the effect caused by emptiness should be already very noticeable. It could manifest itself as the dark energy.
Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy
2006-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern...
On the polarization of nonlinear gravitational waves
Poplawski, Nikodem J.
2011-01-01
We derive a relation between the two polarization modes of a plane, linear gravitational wave in the second-order approximation. Since these two polarizations are not independent, an initially monochromatic gravitational wave loses its periodic character due to the nonlinearity of the Einstein field equations. Accordingly, real gravitational waves may differ from solutions of the linearized field equations, which are being assumed in gravitational-wave detectors.
On black holes and gravitational waves
Loinger, Angelo
2002-01-01
Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.
Spacetime Symphony: APOD and Gravitational Waves
Cominsky, Lynn R.; Simonnet, Aurore; LIGO-Virgo Scientific Collaboration
2017-01-01
In 1915, Albert Einstein published his General Theory of Relativity. In this theory, gravity is not a force, but a property of space and time in the presence of massive objects. A century later, on September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) received the first confirmed gravitational wave signals. Now known as GW150914, the event represents the coalescence of two distant black holes that were previously in mutual orbit. The LIGO-Virgo Scientific Collaboration planned a detailed social media strategy to publicize the February 11, 2016 press conference that announced this discovery. Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) was a major factor in disseminating the now iconic imagery that was developed, and the LVC worked closely with APOD to ensure that the secrecy would be maintained throughout the press embargo period. Due to the success of our efforts, we repeated the process for the AAS press conference that announced GW151226, the second confirmed gravitational wave event. We have also repurposed the APOD imagery for an online course for community college instructors, as well as in a poster that will be available through CPEPphysics.org (Contemporary Physics Education Project).
Gravitational-wave mediated preheating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephon Alexander
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We propose a new preheating mechanism through the coupling of the gravitational field to both the inflaton and matter fields, without direct inflaton–matter couplings. The inflaton transfers power to the matter fields through interactions with gravitational waves, which are exponentially enhanced due to an inflation–graviton coupling. One such coupling is the product of the inflaton to the Pontryagin density, as in dynamical Chern–Simons gravity. The energy scales involved are constrained by requiring that preheating happens fast during matter domination.
Gravitational waves from perturbed stars
Ferrari, Valeria
2011-01-01
Non radial oscillations of neutron stars are associated with the emission of gravitational waves. The characteristic frequencies of these oscillations can be computed using the theory of stellar perturbations, and they are shown to carry detailed information on the internal structure of the emitting source. Moreover, they appear to be encoded in various radiative processes, as for instance in the tail of the giant flares of Soft Gamma Repeaters. Thus, their determination is central to the theory of stellar perturbation. A viable approach to the problem consists in formulating this theory as a problem of resonant scattering of gravitational waves incident on the potential barrier generated by the spacetime curvature. This approach discloses some unexpected correspondences between the theory of stellar perturbations and the theory of quantum mechanics, and allows us to predict new relativistic effects.
Quantum walks and gravitational waves
Arnault, Pablo; Debbasch, Fabrice
2017-08-01
A new family of discrete-time quantum walks (DTQWs) propagating on a regular (1 + 2)D spacetime lattice is introduced. The continuum limit of these DTQWs is shown to coincide with the dynamics of a Dirac fermion coupled to an arbitrary relativistic gravitational field. This family is used to model the influence of arbitrary linear gravitational waves (GWs) on DTQWs. Pure shear GWs are studied in detail. We show that on large spatial scales, the spatial deformation generated by the wave induces a rescaling of the eigen-energies by a certain anisotropic factor which can be computed exactly. The effect of pure shear GWs on fermion interference patterns is also investigated, both on large scales and on scales comparable to the lattice spacing.
Gravitational wave science from space
Gair, Jonathan R.
2016-05-01
The rich millihertz gravitational wave band can only be accessed with a space- based detector. The technology for such a detector will be demonstrated by the LISA Pathfinder satellite that is due to launch this year and ESA has selected gravitational wave detection from space as the science theme to be addressed by the L3 large mission to be launched around 2034. In this article we will discuss the sources that such an instrument will observe, and how the numbers of events and precision of parameter determination are affected by modifications to the, as yet not finalised, mission design. We will also describe some of the exciting scientific applications of these observations, to astrophysics, fundamental physics and cosmology.
Bayesian Inference on Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asad Ali
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Bayesian approach is increasingly becoming popular among the astrophysics data analysis communities. However, the Pakistan statistics communities are unaware of this fertile interaction between the two disciplines. Bayesian methods have been in use to address astronomical problems since the very birth of the Bayes probability in eighteenth century. Today the Bayesian methods for the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves have solid theoretical grounds with a strong promise for the realistic applications. This article aims to introduce the Pakistan statistics communities to the applications of Bayesian Monte Carlo methods in the analysis of gravitational wave data with an overview of the Bayesian signal detection and estimation methods and demonstration by a couple of simplified examples.
Two Timescale Approximation Applied to Gravitational Waves from Eccentric EMRIs
Moxon, Jordan; Flanagan, Eanna; Hinderer, Tanja; Pound, Adam
2016-03-01
Gravitational-wave driven inspirals of compact objects into massive black holes (Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals - EMRIs) form an interesting, long-lived signal for future space-based gravitational wave detectors. Accurate signal predictions will be necessary to take full advantage of matched filtering techniques, motivating the development of a calculational technique for deriving the gravitational wave signal to good approximation throughout the inspiral. We report on recent work on developing the two-timescale technique with the goal of predicting waveforms from eccentric equatorial systems to subleading (post-adiabatic) order in the phase, building on recent work by Pound in the scalar case. The computation requires us to understand the dissipative component of the second-order self force. It also demands careful consideration of how the two timescale (near-zone) approximation should match with the post-Minkowski approximation of the gravitational waves at great distances.
The Science of Gravitational Waves with Space Observatories
Thorpe, James Ira
2013-01-01
After decades of effort, direct detection of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources is on the horizon. Aside from teaching us about gravity itself, gravitational waves hold immense promise as a tool for general astrophysics. In this talk I will provide an overview of the science enabled by a space-based gravitational wave observatory sensitive in the milli-Hertz frequency band including the nature and evolution of massive black holes and their host galaxies, the demographics of stellar remnant compact objects in the Milky Way, and the behavior of gravity in the strong-field regime. I will also summarize the current status of efforts in the US and Europe to implement a space-based gravitational wave observatory.
Conformal Anomalies and Gravitational Waves
Meissner, Krzysztof A
2016-01-01
We argue that the presence of conformal anomalies in gravitational theories can lead to observable modifications to Einstein's equations via the induced anomalous effective actions, whose non-localities can overwhelm the smallness of the Planck scale. The fact that no such effects have been seen in recent cosmological or gravitational wave observations therefore imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. We then show that, among presently known theories, a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in $D=4$ for both the $C^2$ invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant $E_4$ can only be achieved for $N$-extended supergravities with $N\\geq 5$, as well as for M theory compactified to four dimensions.
Singularities from colliding plane gravitational waves
Tipler, Frank J.
1980-12-01
A simple geometrical argument is given which shows that a collision between two plane gravitational waves must result in singularities. The argument suggests that these singularities are a peculiar feature of plane waves, because singularities are also a consequence of a collision between self-gravitating plane waves of other fields with arbitrarily small energy density.
Singularities from colliding plane gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tipler, F.J.
1980-12-15
A simple geometrical argument is given which shows that a collision between two plane gravitational waves must result in singularities. The argument suggests that these singularities are a peculiar feature of plane waves, because singularities are also a consequence of a collision between self-gravitating plane waves of other fields with arbitrarily small energy density.
Gravitational Waves: Elusive Cosmic Messengers
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest g ravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIG O, VIRGO, and GE0600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires t hat we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers ta ke place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate t hese waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to comp ute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could comple te even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situ ation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthro ughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applic ations in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysi cs.
Gravitational waves from binary black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bala R Iyer
2011-07-01
It is almost a century since Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves as one of the consequences of his general theory of relativity. A brief historical overview including Chandrasekhar’s contribution to the subject is ﬁrst presented. The current status of the experimental search for gravitational waves and the attendant theoretical insights into the two-body problem in general relativity arising from computations of gravitational waves from binary black holes are then broadly reviewed.
Gravitational Waves Astronomy: a cornerstone for gravitational theories
Corda, Christian
2010-01-01
Realizing a gravitational wave (GW) astronomy in next years is a great challenge for the scientific community. By giving a significant amount of new information, GWs will be a cornerstone for a better understanding of gravitational physics. In this paper we re-discuss that the GW astronomy will permit to solve a captivating issue of gravitation. In fact, it will be the definitive test for Einstein's general relativity (GR), or, alternatively, a strong endorsement for extended theories of gravity (ETG).
Gravitational Waves from Warped Spacetime
Randall, Lisa; Randall, Lisa; Servant, Geraldine
2007-01-01
We argue that the RSI model can provide a strong signature in gravitational waves. This signal is a relic stochastic background generated during the cosmological phase transition from an AdS-Schwarschild phase to the RS1 geometry that should occur at a temperature in the TeV range. We estimate the amplitude of the signal in terms of the parameters of the potential stabilizing the radion and show that over much of the parameter region in which the phase transition completes, a signal should be detectable at the planned space interferometer, LISA.
Gravitational Wave Detection with Michelson Interferometers
Sivasubramanian, S; Widom, A
2003-01-01
Electromagnetic methods recently proposed for detecting gravitational waves modify the Michelson phase shift analysis (historically employed for special relativity). We suggest that a frequency modulation analysis is more suited to general relativity. An incident photon in the presence of a very long wavelength gravitational wave will have a finite probability of being returned as a final photon with a frequency shift whose magnitude is equal to the gravitational wave frequency. The effect is due to the non-linear coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves. The frequency modulation is derived directly from the Maxwell-Einstein equations.
Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sathyaprakash B. S.
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers, and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters - through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Charge-Confining Gravitational Electrovacuum Shock Wave
Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana
2013-01-01
In previous publications we have extensively studied spherically symmetric solutions of gravity coupled to a non-standard type of non-linear electrodynamics containing a square root of the ordinary Maxwell Lagrangian (the latter is known to yield QCD-like confinement in flat space-time). A class of these solutions describe non-standard black holes of Reissner-Nordstroem-(anti-)-de-Sitter type with an additional constant radial vacuum electric field, in particular, a non-asymptotically flat Reissner-Nordstroem-type black hole. Here we study the ultra-relativistic boost (Aichelburg-Sexl-type) limit of the latter and show that, unlike the ordinary Reissner-Nordstroem case, we obtain a gravitational electrovacuum shock wave as a result of the persistence of the gauge field due to the "square-root" Maxwell Lagrangian term. Next, we show that this gravitational electrovacuum shock wave confines charged test particles (both massive and massless) within a finite distance from its front.
Gravitational waves from axion monodromy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hebecker, Arthur; Jaeckel, Joerg; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-11-02
Large field inflation is arguably the simplest and most natural variant of slow-roll inflation. Axion monodromy may be the most promising framework for realising this scenario. As one of its defining features, the long-range polynomial potential possesses short-range, instantonic modulations. These can give rise to a series of local minima in the post-inflationary region of the potential. We show that for certain parameter choices the inflaton populates more than one of these vacua inside a single Hubble patch. This corresponds to a dynamical phase decomposition, analogously to what happens in the course of thermal first-order phase transitions. In the subsequent process of bubble wall collisions, the lowest-lying axionic minimum eventually takes over all space. Our main result is that this violent process sources gravitational waves, very much like in the case of a first-order phase transition. We compute the energy density and peak frequency of the signal, which can lie anywhere in the mHz-GHz range, possibly within reach of next-generation interferometers. We also note that this “dynamical phase decomposition' phenomenon and its gravitational wave signal are more general and may apply to other inflationary or reheating scenarios with axions and modulated potentials.
Gravitational waves from axion monodromy
Hebecker, Arthur; Jaeckel, Joerg; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T.
2016-11-01
Large field inflation is arguably the simplest and most natural variant of slow-roll inflation. Axion monodromy may be the most promising framework for realising this scenario. As one of its defining features, the long-range polynomial potential possesses short-range, instantonic modulations. These can give rise to a series of local minima in the post-inflationary region of the potential. We show that for certain parameter choices the inflaton populates more than one of these vacua inside a single Hubble patch. This corresponds to a dynamical phase decomposition, analogously to what happens in the course of thermal first-order phase transitions. In the subsequent process of bubble wall collisions, the lowest-lying axionic minimum eventually takes over all space. Our main result is that this violent process sources gravitational waves, very much like in the case of a first-order phase transition. We compute the energy density and peak frequency of the signal, which can lie anywhere in the mHz-GHz range, possibly within reach of next-generation interferometers. We also note that this ``dynamical phase decomposition" phenomenon and its gravitational wave signal are more general and may apply to other inflationary or reheating scenarios with axions and modulated potentials.
Gravitational wave background from binary systems
Rosado, Pablo A
2011-01-01
Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter $\\Omega(f)$, commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, $\\Omega(f)$ is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the ...
The scientific potential of space-based gravitational wave detectors
Gair, Jonathan R
2014-01-01
The millihertz gravitational wave band can only be accessed with a space-based interferometer, but it is one of the richest in potential sources. Observations in this band have amazing scientific potential. The mergers between massive black holes with mass in the range 10 thousand to 10 million solar masses, which are expected to occur following the mergers of their host galaxies, produce strong millihertz gravitational radiation. Observations of these systems will trace the hierarchical assembly of structure in the Universe in a mass range that is very difficult to probe electromagnetically. Stellar mass compact objects falling into such black holes in the centres of galaxies generate detectable gravitational radiation for several years prior to the final plunge and merger with the central black hole. Measurements of these systems offer an unprecedented opportunity to probe the predictions of general relativity in the strong-field and dynamical regime. Millihertz gravitational waves are also generated by mil...
Gravitational Collapse of Gravitational Waves in 3D Numerical Relativity
Alcubierre, M; Brügmann, B; Lanfermann, G; Seidel, E; Suen, W M; Tobias, M; Alcubierre, Miguel; Allen, Gabrielle; Bruegmann, Bernd; Lanfermann, Gerd; Seidel, Edward; Suen, Wai-Mo; Tobias, Malcolm
2000-01-01
We demonstrate that evolutions of three-dimensional, strongly non-linear gravitational waves can be followed in numerical relativity, hence allowing many interesting studies of both fundamental and observational consequences. We study the evolution of time-symmetric, axisymmetric {\\it and} non-axisymmetric Brill waves, including waves so strong that they collapse to form black holes under their own self-gravity. The critical amplitude for black hole formation is determined. The gravitational waves emitted in the black hole formation process are compared to those emitted in the head-on collision of two Misner black holes.
LISA: Science and Prospects for Gravitational Wave Detection in Space
Larson, Shane L.
2017-01-01
Spaceborne gravitational wave observatories with million kilometer armlengths will probe gravitational waves with kilosecond periods. This part of the spectrum is populated by a diverse menagerie of high energy astrophysical systems that will give new insights into stellar evolution, the formation and evolution of super-massive black holes, and the growth of structure in the Universe. LISA is a laser interferometric observatory that will be sensitive to gravitational wave frequencies from about 10 microHertz to about 1 Hertz, providing gravitational wave observations of these phenomena that will enable population studies, detailed characterization of the structure and bulk motion of matter in these systems, as well as enabling new, detailed tests of physics in strong gravitational fields. The core LISA measurement has been demonstrated by the successful flight of LISA Pathfinder, paving the way for the start of LISA mission design and planning. In this talk, we will discuss the science that low-frequency gravitational wave observations will reveal and enable, as well as the current technology status and progress forward toward an eventual LISA flight.
Dixon's extended bodies and weak gravitational waves
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Ortolan, Antonello
2009-01-01
General relativity considers Dixon's theory as the standard theory to deal with the motion of extended bodies in a given gravitational background. We discuss here the features of the "reaction" of an extended body to the passage of a weak gravitational wave. We find that the body acquires a dipolar moment induced by its quadrupole structure. Furthermore, we derive the "world function" for the weak field limit of a gravitational wave background and use it to estimate the deviation between geodesics and the world lines of structured bodies. Measuring such deviations, due to the existence of cumulative effects, should be favorite with respect to measuring the amplitude of the gravitational wave itself.
Workshop on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Patrick Das Gupta
2004-10-01
Discussions related to gravitational wave experiments viz. LIGO and LISA as well as to observations of supermassive black holes dominated the workshop sessions on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics in the ICGC-2004. A summary of seven papers that were presented in these workshop sessions has been provided in this article.
Probing inflation models with gravitational waves
Domcke, Valerie
2016-01-01
A direct detection of primordial gravitational waves is the ultimate probe for any inflation model. While current CMB bounds predict the generic scale-invariant gravitational wave spectrum from slow-roll inflation to be below the reach of upcoming gravitational wave interferometers, this prospect may dramatically change if the inflaton is a pseudoscalar. In this case, a coupling to any abelian gauge field leads to a tachyonic instability for the latter and hence to a new source of gravitational waves, directly related to the dynamics of inflation. In this contribution we discuss how this setup enables the upcoming gravitational wave interferometers advanced LIGO/VIRGO and eLISA to probe the microphysics of inflation, distinguishing between different universality classes of single-field slow-roll inflation models. We find that the prime candidate for an early detection is a Starobinsky-like model.
Gravity's kiss the detection of gravitational waves
Collins, Harry
2017-01-01
Scientists have been trying to confirm the existence of gravitational waves for fifty years. Then, in September 2015, came a "very interesting event" (as the cautious subject line in a physicist's email read) that proved to be the first detection of gravitational waves. In Gravity's Kiss, Harry Collins -- who has been watching the science of gravitational wave detection for forty-three of those fifty years and has written three previous books about it -- offers a final, fascinating account, written in real time, of the unfolding of one of the most remarkable scientific discoveries ever made. Predicted by Einstein in his theory of general relativity, gravitational waves carry energy from the collision or explosion of stars. Dying binary stars, for example, rotate faster and faster around each other until they merge, emitting a burst of gravitational waves. It is only with the development of extraordinarily sensitive, highly sophisticated detectors that physicists can now confirm Einstein's prediction. This is...
Fundamentals of interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Saulson, Peter R
2017-01-01
LIGO's recent discovery of gravitational waves was headline news around the world. Many people will want to understand more about what a gravitational wave is, how LIGO works, and how LIGO functions as a detector of gravitational waves.This book aims to communicate the basic logic of interferometric gravitational wave detectors to students who are new to the field. It assumes that the reader has a basic knowledge of physics, but no special familiarity with gravitational waves, with general relativity, or with the special techniques of experimental physics. All of the necessary ideas are developed in the book.The first edition was published in 1994. Since the book is aimed at explaining the physical ideas behind the design of LIGO, it stands the test of time. For the second edition, an Epilogue has been added; it brings the treatment of technical details up to date, and provides references that would allow a student to become proficient with today's designs.
Gravitational-wave Mission Study
Mcnamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver; Stebbins, Robin T.
2014-01-01
In November 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has indicated an interest in participating. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described. Note that all results are based on models, methods and assumptions used in NASA studies
Conformal anomalies and gravitational waves
Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann
2017-09-01
We argue that the presence of conformal anomalies in gravitational theories can lead to observable modifications to Einstein's equations via the induced anomalous effective actions, whose non-localities can overwhelm the smallness of the Planck scale. The fact that no such effects have been seen in recent cosmological or gravitational wave observations therefore imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. We then show that a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in D = 4 for both the C2 invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant E4 can only be achieved for N-extended supergravity multiplets with N ⩾ 5, as well as for M theory compactified to four dimensions. Although there remain open questions, in particular concerning the true significance of conformal anomalies in non-conformal theories, as well as their possible gauge dependence for spin s ⩾3/2, these cancellations suggest a hidden conformal structure of unknown type in these theories.
Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries
Dolgov, A.; Postnov, K.
2017-09-01
The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.
Searches for gravitational waves associated with gamma-ray bursts
Talukder, Dipongkar
2014-08-01
Gamma-ray bursts are likely related to several processes linked to catastrophic stellar events. The progenitor scenarios of gamma-ray bursts include mergers of binary systems composed of neutron stars or a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole, core collapse of massive stars, and perturbed neutron stars. Gravitational-wave emission is expected to accompany such events. We discuss the strategies developed to search for gravitational waves associated with these events and the search results from the initial LIGO and Virgo detectors. We also discuss the prospects for such searches with advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors. In order to provide quick feedback, we are developing promptly launched gravitational-wave data analyses for the gamma-ray bursts observed by the Swift and Fermi satellites.
Folding gravitational-wave interferometers
Sanders, J. R.; Ballmer, Stefan W.
2017-01-01
The sensitivity of kilometer-scale terrestrial gravitational wave interferometers is limited by mirror coating thermal noise. Alternative interferometer topologies can mitigate the impact of thermal noise on interferometer noise curves. In this work, we explore the impact of introducing a single folding mirror into the arm cavities of dual-recycled Fabry–Perot interferometers. While simple folding alone does not reduce the mirror coating thermal noise, it makes the folding mirror the critical mirror, opening up a variety of design and upgrade options. Improvements to the folding mirror thermal noise through crystalline coatings or cryogenic cooling can increase interferometer range by as much as a factor of two over the Advanced LIGO reference design.
Inflation with large gravitational waves
Vikman, A
2006-01-01
It is well known that in manifestly Lorentz invariant theories with nontrivial kinetic terms, perturbations around some classical backgrounds can travel faster than light. These exotic "supersonic" models may have interesting consequences for cosmology and astrophysics. In particular, one can show that in such theories the contribution of the gravitational waves to the CMB fluctuations can be significantly larger than that in standard inflationary models. This increase of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio leads to a larger B-component of the CMB polarization, thus making the prospects for future detection much more promising. Interestingly, the spectral index of scalar perturbations and mass of the scalar field considered in the model are practically indistinguishable from the standard case. Whereas the energy scale of inflation and hence the reheating temperature can be much higher compared to a simple chaotic inflation.
Gravitational Wave & Relativity Impact Electronic Communication & Engineering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zakaria Shahrudin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available About a few months ago (Feb 11, 2016, the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory scientist team researchers made an announcement that they had confirmed the gravitational wave already detected on Sept 14, 2015 (by LIGO’s twin detectors in Livingston, Louisiana and Hanford, Washington. The wave was predicted by Einstein back in 1916 with his theory of General Relativity. This paper is about gravitational wave and relativity theory that may contribute to the field of Telecommunication and other engineering as well.
Relic Gravitational Waves and Their Detection
Grishchuk, L P
2001-01-01
The range of expected amplitudes and spectral slopes of relic (squeezed)gravitational waves, predicted by theory and partially supported byobservations, is within the reach of sensitive gravity-wave detectors. In themost favorable case, the detection of relic gravitational waves can be achievedby the cross-correlation of outputs of the initial laser interferometers inLIGO, VIRGO, GEO600. In the more realistic case, the sensitivity of advancedground-based and space-based laser interferometers will be needed. The specificstatistical signature of relic gravitational waves, associated with thephenomenon of squeezing, is a potential reserve for further improvement of thesignal to noise ratio.
Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals
Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-03-01
We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 1 04 s . This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ˜1 010, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ -ray bursts and fast radio bursts.
Thermal gravitational waves in accelerating universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B Ghayour
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Gravitational waves are considered in thermal vacuum state. The amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves are found enhanced in thermal vacuum state compared to its zero temperature counterpart. Therefore, the allowed amount of enhancement depends on the upper bound of WMAP-5 and WMAP-7 for the amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves. The enhancement of amplitude and spectral energy density of the waves in thermal vacuum state is consistent with current accelerating phase of the universe. The enhancement feature of amplitude and spectral energy density of the waves is independent of the expansion model of the universe and hence the thermal effect accounts for it. Therefore, existence of thermal gravitational waves is not ruled out
The gravitational-wave memory effect
Favata, Marc
2010-01-01
The nonlinear memory effect is a slowly-growing, non-oscillatory contribution to the gravitational-wave amplitude. It originates from gravitational waves that are sourced by the previously emitted waves. In an ideal gravitational-wave interferometer a gravitational-wave with memory causes a permanent displacement of the test masses that persists after the wave has passed. Surprisingly, the nonlinear memory affects the signal amplitude starting at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order. Despite this fact, the nonlinear memory is not easily extracted from current numerical relativity simulations. After reviewing the linear and nonlinear memory I summarize some recent work, including: (1) computations of the memory contribution to the inspiral waveform amplitude (thus completing the waveform to third post-Newtonian order); (2) the first calculations of the nonlinear memory that include all phases of binary black hole coalescence (inspiral, merger, ringdown); and (3) realistic estimates of the detectability of the ...
Interaction of gravitational waves with superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inan, N.A.; Thompson, J.J. [University of California, Schools of Natural Sciences, Merced, CA (United States); Chiao, R.Y. [University of California, Schools of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Merced, CA (United States)
2017-06-15
Applying the Helmholtz Decomposition theorem to linearized General Relativity leads to a gauge-invariant formulation where the transverse-traceless part of the metric perturbation describes gravitational waves in matter. Gravitational waves incident on a superconductor can be described by a linear London-like constituent equation characterized by a ''gravitational shear modulus'' and a corresponding plasma frequency and penetration depth. Electric-like and magnetic-like gravitational tensor fields are defined in terms of the strain field of a gravitational wave. It is shown that in the DC limit, the magnetic-like tensor field is expelled from the superconductor in a gravitational Meissner-like effect. The Cooper pair density is described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory embedded in curved space-time. The ionic lattice is modeled by quantum harmonic oscillators coupled to gravitational waves and characterized by quasi-energy eigenvalues for the phonon modes. The formulation predicts the possibility of a dynamical Casimir effect since the zero-point energy of the ionic lattice phonons is found to be modulated by the gravitational wave, in a quantum analog of a ''Weber-bar effect.'' Applying periodic thermodynamics and the Debye model in the low-temperature limit leads to a free energy density for the ionic lattice. Lastly, we relate the gravitational strain of space to the strain of matter to show that the response to a gravitational wave is far less for the Cooper pair density than for the ionic lattice. This predicts a charge separation effect in the superconductor as a result of the gravitational wave. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Probing Cosmic Superstrings with Gravitational Waves
Sousa, Lara
2016-01-01
We compute the stochastic gravitational wave background generated by cosmic superstrings using a semi-analytical velocity-dependent model to describe their dynamics. We show that heavier string types may leave distinctive signatures on the stochastic gravitational wave background spectrum within the reach of present and upcoming gravitational wave detectors. We examine the physically motivated scenario in which the physical size of loops is determined by the gravitational backreaction scale and use NANOGRAV data to derive a conservative constraint of $G\\mu_F<3.2 \\times 10^{-9}$ on the tension of fundamental strings. We demonstrate that approximating the gravitational wave spectrum generated by cosmic superstring networks using the spectrum generated by ordinary cosmic strings with reduced intercommuting probability (which is often done in the literature) leads, in general, to weaker observational constraints on $G\\mu_F$. We show that the inclusion of heavier string types is required for a more accurate cha...
Optics in a nonlinear gravitational wave
Harte, Abraham I
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves can act like gravitational lenses, affecting the observed positions, brightnesses, and redshifts of distant objects. Exact expressions for such effects are derived here, allowing for arbitrarily-moving sources and observers in the presence of plane-symmetric gravitational waves. The commonly-used predictions of linear perturbation theory are shown to be generically overshadowed---even for very weak gravitational waves---by nonlinear effects when considering observations of sufficiently distant sources; higher-order perturbative corrections involve secularly-growing terms which cannot necessarily be neglected. Even on more moderate scales where linear effects remain at least marginally dominant, nonlinear corrections are qualitatively different from their linear counterparts. There is a sense in which they can, for example, mimic the existence of a third type of gravitational wave polarization.
Optics in a nonlinear gravitational plane wave
Harte, Abraham I.
2015-09-01
Gravitational waves can act like gravitational lenses, affecting the observed positions, brightnesses, and redshifts of distant objects. Exact expressions for such effects are derived here in general relativity, allowing for arbitrarily-moving sources and observers in the presence of plane-symmetric gravitational waves. At least for freely falling sources and observers, it is shown that the commonly-used predictions of linear perturbation theory can be generically overshadowed by nonlinear effects; even for very weak gravitational waves, higher-order perturbative corrections involve secularly-growing terms which cannot necessarily be neglected when considering observations of sufficiently distant sources. Even on more moderate scales where linear effects remain at least marginally dominant, nonlinear corrections are qualitatively different from their linear counterparts. There is a sense in which they can, for example, mimic the existence of a third type of gravitational wave polarization.
Gravitational Lensing of Gravitational Waves from Merging Neutron Star Binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y.; Stebbins, A.; Turner, E.L. [NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, FNAL, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)]|[Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
1996-09-01
We discuss the gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries, in the context of advanced LIGO type gravitational wave detectors. An advanced LIGO should see unlensed inspiral events with a redshift distribution with cutoff at a redshift {ital z}{sub max}{lt}1 for {ital h}{le}0.8. Any inspiral events detected at {ital z}{approx_gt}{ital z}{sub max} should be lensed. We compute the expected total number of events which are present due to gravitational lensing and their redshift distribution for an advanced LIGO in a flat universe. If the matter fraction in compact lenses is close to 10{percent}, an advanced LIGO should see a few strongly lensed events per year with {rho}{approx_gt}5. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yun; Stebbins, Albert; Turner, Edwin L.
1996-05-01
We discuss the gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from merging neutron star binaries, in the context of advanced LIGO type gravitational wave detectors. We consider properties of the expected observational data with cut on the signal-to-noise ratio \\rho, i.e., \\rho>\\rho_0. An advanced LIGO should see unlensed inspiral events with a redshift distribution with cut-off at a redshift z_{\\rm max} < 1 for h \\leq 0.8. Any inspiral events detected at z>z_{\\rm max} should be lensed. We compute the expected total number of events which are present due to gravitational lensing and their redshift distribution for an advanced LIGO in a flat Universe. If the matter fraction in compact lenses is close to 10\\%, an advanced LIGO should see a few strongly lensed events per year with \\rho >5.
Relic Gravitational Waves and Their Detection
Grishchuk, L. P.
2000-01-01
The range of expected amplitudes and spectral slopes of relic (squeezed) gravitational waves, predicted by theory and partially supported by observations, is within the reach of sensitive gravity-wave detectors. In the most favorable case, the detection of relic gravitational waves can be achieved by the cross-correlation of outputs of the initial laser interferometers in LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600. In the more realistic case, the sensitivity of advanced ground-based and space-based laser interferom...
Gravitational waves in viable f(R) models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Louis; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang, E-mail: louis.lineage@msa.hinet.net, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)
2011-08-01
We study gravitational waves in viable f(R) theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an f(R) theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable f(R) models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature R{sub d} ∼ 10{sup −66}eV{sup 2}. We illustrate our results in two types of viable f(R) models: the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. In both cases, the mass will be in the order of 10{sup −33}eV when it propagates in vacuum. However, in the presence of matter density in galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. Explicitly, in the exponential gravity model, the mass becomes almost infinity, implying the disappearance of the scalar mode of gravitational wave, while the Starobinsky model gives the lowest mass around 10{sup −24}eV, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10{sup −9} Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes, such as LISA and ASTROD-GW.
Gravitational wave from dark sector with dark pion
Tsumura, Koji; Yamada, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuya
2017-07-01
In this work, we investigate the spectra of gravitational waves produced by chiral symmetry breaking in dark quantum chromodynamics (dQCD) sector. The dark pion (π) can be a dark matter candidate as weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) or strongly interacting massive particle (SIMP). For a WIMP scenario, we introduce the dQCD sector coupled to the standard model (SM) sector with classical scale invariance and investigate the annihilation process of the dark pion via the 2π → 2 SM process. For a SIMP scenario, we investigate the 3π → 2π annihilation process of the dark pion as a SIMP using chiral perturbation theory. We find that in the WIMP scenario the gravitational wave background spectra can be observed by future space gravitational wave antennas. On the other hand, when the dark pion is the SIMP dark matter with the constraints for the chiral perturbative limit and pion-pion scattering cross section, the chiral phase transition becomes crossover and then the gravitational waves are not produced.
New cylindrical gravitational soliton waves and gravitational Faraday rotation
Tomizawa, Shinya
2013-01-01
In terms of gravitational solitons, we study gravitational non-linear effects of gravitational solitary waves such as Faraday rotation. Applying the Pomeransky's procedure for inverse scattering method, which has been recently used for constructing stationary black hole solutions in five dimensions to a cylindrical spacetime in four dimensions, we construct a new cylindrically symmetric soliton solution. This is the first example to be applied to the cylindrically symmetric case. In particular, we clarify the difference from the Tomimatsu's single soliton solution, which was constructed by the Belinsky-Zakharov's procedure.
Gravitational gradients in gravitational wave detectors: data analysis methods
Garrison, David; Gonzalez, Gabriela; Khanna, Gaurav
2000-04-01
We present a method of analyzing seismic data at the sites of gravitational wave detectors to determine the possible influence of gravitational gradients as a noise source in the detectors. We use statistical methods to distinguish between local and gobal noise sources, as well as compare our findings to models of gravitational gradients (S. A. Hughes and K. S. Thorne, Physical Review D, Volume 58, 122002). We apply these methods to data taken at the Hanford LIGO site, and present preliminary results. This work was supported by Pennsylvannia State University and the National Science Foundation. We acknowledge the collaboration of the LIGO project while taking the data presented.
Update on gravitational-wave research
Grishchuk, L P
2003-01-01
The recently assembled laser-beam detectors of gravitational waves are approaching the planned level of sensitivity. In the coming 1 - 2 years, we may be observing the rare but powerful events of inspiral and merger of binary stellar-mass black holes. More likely, we will have to wait for a few years longer, until the advanced detectors become operational. Their sensitivity will be sufficient to meet the most cautious evaluations of the strength and event rates of astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. The experimental and theoretical work related to the space-based laser-beam detectors is also actively pursued. The current gravitational wave research is broad and interesting. Experimental innovations, source modelling, methods of data analysis, theoretical issues of principle are being studied and developed at the same time. The race for direct detection of relatively high-frequency waves is accompanied by vigorous efforts to discover the very low-frequency relic gravitational waves through the measur...
Inferring Core-Collapse Supernova Physics with Gravitational Waves
Logue, J; Heng, I S; Kalmus, P; Scargill, J
2012-01-01
Stellar collapse and the subsequent development of a core-collapse supernova explosion emit bursts of gravitational waves (GWs) that might be detected by the advanced generation of laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatories such as Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, and LCGT. GW bursts from core-collapse supernovae encode information on the intricate multi-dimensional dynamics at work at the core of a dying massive star and may provide direct evidence for the yet uncertain mechanism driving supernovae in massive stars. Recent multi-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae exploding via the neutrino, magnetorotational, and acoustic explosion mechanisms have predicted GW signals which have distinct structure in both the time and frequency domains. Motivated by this, we describe a promising method for determining the most likely explosion mechanism underlying a hypothetical GW signal, based on Principal Component Analysis and Bayesian model selection. Using simulated Advanced LIGO noise and ass...
Gravitational Waves Signals from the Collapse of the First Stars
Schneider, R; Ciardi, B; Ferrari, V; Matarrese, S
1999-01-01
We study the gravitational wave emission from the first stars which are assumed to be Very Massive Objects (VMOs). We take into account various feedback (both radiative and stellar) effects regulating the collapse of objects in the early universe and thus derive the VMO initial mass function and formation rate. If the final fate of VMOs is to collapse, leaving very massive black hole remnants, then the gravitational waves emitted during each collapse would be seen as a stochastic background. The predicted spectral strain amplitude in a critical density Cold Dark Matter universe peaks in the frequency range \\approx 5 \\times 10^{-4}-5 \\times 10^{-3} Hz where it has a value in the range \\approx 10^{-20}-10^{-19} Hz^{-1/2}, and might be detected by LISA. The expected emission rate is roughly 4000 events/yr, resulting in a stationary, discrete sequence of bursts, i.e. a shot--noise signal.
Chiral Gravitational Waves from Chiral Fermions
Anber, Mohamed M
2016-01-01
We report on a new mechanism that leads to the generation of primordial chiral gravitational waves, and hence, the violation of the parity symmetry in the Universe. We show that nonperturbative production of fermions with a definite helicity is accompanied by the generation of chiral gravitational waves. This is a generic and model-independent phenomenon that can occur during inflation, reheating and radiation eras, and can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background polarization and may be observed in future ground- and space-based interferometers. We also discuss a specific model where chiral gravitational waves are generated via the production of light chiral fermions during pseudoscalar inflation.
Chiral gravitational waves from chiral fermions
Anber, Mohamed M.; Sabancilar, Eray
2017-07-01
We report on a new mechanism that leads to the generation of primordial chiral gravitational waves, and hence, the violation of the parity symmetry in the Universe. We show that nonperturbative production of fermions with a definite helicity is accompanied by the generation of chiral gravitational waves. This is a generic and model-independent phenomenon that can occur during inflation, reheating and radiation eras, and can leave imprints in the cosmic microwave background polarization and may be observed in future ground- and space-based interferometers. We also discuss a specific model where chiral gravitational waves are generated via the production of light chiral fermions during pseudoscalar inflation.
Chirality oscillation of primordial gravitational waves during inflation
Cai, Yong; Piao, Yun-Song
2016-01-01
We show that if the gravitational Chern-Simons term couples to a massive scalar field ($m>H$), the primordial gravitational waves (GWs) will show itself the chirality oscillation, i.e., the amplitudes of the left- and right-handed GWs modes will convert into each other and oscillate in their propagations. This oscillation will eventually develop a permanent difference of the amplitudes of both modes, which leads to nearly opposite oscillating shapes in the power spectra of the left- and right-handed primordial GWs. We discuss its implication to the CMB B-mode polarization.
Gravitational-wave modes from precessing black-hole binaries
Boyle, Michael; Ossokine, Serguei; Pfeiffer, Harald P
2014-01-01
Gravitational waves from precessing black-hole binaries exhibit features that are absent in nonprecessing systems. The most prominent of these is a parity-violating asymmetry that beams energy and linear momentum preferentially along or opposite to the orbital angular momentum, leading to recoil of the binary. The asymmetry will appear as amplitude and phase modulations at the orbital frequency. For strongly precessing systems, it accounts for at least 3% amplitude modulation for binaries in the sensitivity band of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, and can exceed 50% for massive systems. Such asymmetric features are also clearly visible when the waves are decomposed into modes of spin-weighted spherical harmonics, and are inherent in the waves themselves---rather than resulting from residual eccentricity in numerical simulations, or from mode-mixing due to precession. In particular, there is generically no instantaneous frame for which the mode decomposition will have any symmetry. We introduce a met...
Using the HHT to Search for Gravitational Waves
Camp, Jordan
2008-01-01
Gravitational waves are a consequence of Einstein's theory of general relativity applied to the motion of very dense and massive objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Their detection will reveal a wealth of information about these mysterious objects that cannot be obtained with electromagnetic probes. Two projects are underway to attempt the detection of gravitational waves: NASA's Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a space based mission being designed to search for waves from supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies, and the NSF's Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), a ground based facility that is now searching for waves from supernovae. pulsars, and the coalescence of black hole and neutron star systems. Because general relativity is an inherently non-linear theory, many of the predicted source waveforms show strong frequency modulation. In addition, the LIGO and LISA detectors are highly sensitive devices that produce a variety of non-linear transient noise features. Thus the unique capabilities of the HHT. the extraction of intrawave modulation and the characterization of non-linear and non-stationary signals, have a natural application to both signal detection and experimental characterization of the detectors. In this talk I will give an overview of the status of the field. including some of the expected sources of gravitational waves, and I will also describe the LISA and LIGO detectors. Then I will describe some applications of the HHT to waveform detection and detector noise characterization.
Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status
Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou
2015-12-01
In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.
Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status
Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou
2015-12-01
In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.
Gravitational Waves from Axion Monodromy
Hebecker, Arthur; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T
2016-01-01
Large field inflation is arguably the simplest and most natural variant of slow-roll inflation. Axion monodromy may be the most promising framework for realising this scenario. As one of its defining features, the long-range polynomial potential possesses short-range, instantonic modulations. These can give rise to a series of local minima in the post-inflationary region of the potential. We show that for certain parameter choices the inflaton populates more than one of these vacua inside a single Hubble patch. This corresponds to a dynamical phase decomposition, analogously to what happens in the course of thermal first-order phase transitions. In the subsequent process of bubble wall collisions, the lowest-lying axionic minimum eventually takes over all space. Our main result is that this violent process sources gravitational waves, very much like in the case of a first-order phase transition. We compute the energy density and peak frequency of the signal, which can lie anywhere in the mHz-GHz range, possib...
Gravitational wave detection in space
Ni, Wei-Tou
2016-01-01
Gravitational wave (GW) detection in space is aimed at low frequency band (100 nHz - 100 mHz) and middle frequency band (100 mHz - 10 Hz). The science goals are the detection of GWs from (i) Supermassive Black Holes; (ii) Extreme-Mass-Ratio Black Hole Inspirals; (iii) Intermediate-Mass Black Holes; (iv) Galactic Compact Binaries and (v) Relic GW Background. In this paper, we present an overview on the sensitivity, orbit design, basic orbit configuration, angular resolution, orbit optimization, deployment, time-delay interferometry and payload concept of the current proposed GW detectors in space under study. The detector proposals under study have arm length ranging from 1000 km to 1.3 x 109 km (8.6 AU) including (a) Solar orbiting detectors -- ASTROD-GW (ASTROD [Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices] optimized for GW detection), BBO (Big Bang Observer), DECIGO (DECi-hertz Interferometer GW Observatory), e-LISA (evolved LISA [Laser Interferometer Space Antenna]), LISA, other LISA-type ...
The Gravitational Wave Detector EXPLORER
2002-01-01
%RE5 EXPLORER is a cryogenic resonant-mass gravitational wave (GW) detector. It is in operation at CERN since 1984 and it has been the first cryogenic GW antenna to perform continuous observations (since 1990).\\\\ \\\\EXPLORER is actually part of the international network of resonant-mass detectors which includes ALLEGRO at the Louisiana State University, AURIGA at the INFN Legnaro Laboratories, NAUTILUS at the INFN Frascati Laboratories and NIOBE at the University of Western Australia. The EXPLORER sensitivity, at present of the same order of the other antennas, is 10$^{-20}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ over a bandwidth of 20 Hz and 6 10$^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ with a bandwidth of about 0.5 Hz, corresponding to a sensitivity to short GW bursts of \\textit{h} = 6 10$^{-19}$.\\\\ \\\\This sensitivity should allow the detection of the burst sources in our Galaxy and in the Local Group. No evidence of GW signals has been reported up to now.\\\\ \\\\The principle of operation is based on the assumption that any vibrational mode of a resonant bo...
Hunting for dark particles with gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew; Urbano, Alfredo [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,Geneva (Switzerland)
2016-10-03
The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking’s area theorem.
Exact plane gravitational waves and electromagnetic fields
Montanari, E; Montanari, Enrico; Calura, Mirco
2000-01-01
The behaviour of a "test" electromagnetic field in the background of an exactgravitational plane wave is investigated in the framework of Einstein's generalrelativity. We have expressed the general solution to the de Rham equations asa Fourier-like integral. In the general case we have reduced the problem to aset of ordinary differential equations and have explicitly written the solutionin the case of linear polarization of the gravitational wave. We have expressedour results by means of Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC), which define the properreference frame of the laboratory. Moreover we have provided some "gedankenexperiments", showing that an external gravitational wave induces measurableeffects of non tidal nature via electromagnetic interaction. Consequently it isnot possible to eliminate gravitational effects on electromagnetic field, evenin an arbitrarily small spatial region around an observer freely falling in thefield of a gravitational wave. This is opposite to the case of mechanicalinteraction invo...
Cosmological inference using gravitational wave observations alone
Del Pozzo, Walter; Messenger, Chris
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves emitted during the coalescence of binary neutron star systems are self-calibrating signals. As such they can provide a direct measurement of the luminosity distance to a source without the need for a cosmic distance scale ladder. In general, however, the corresponding redshift measurement needs to be obtained electromagnetically since it is totally degenerate with the total mass of the system. Nevertheless, recent Fisher matrix studies has shown that if information about the equation of state of the neutron stars is available, it is indeed possible to extract redshift information from the gravitational wave signal alone. Therefore, measuring the cosmological parameters in pure gravitational wave fashion is possible. Furthermore, the huge number of sources potentially observable by the Einstein Telescope has led to speculations that the gravitational wave measurement is potentially competitive with traditional methods. The Einstein telescope is a conceptual study for a third generation grav...
Sources of Gravitational Waves: Theory and Observations
Buonanno, Alessandra
2014-01-01
Gravitational-wave astronomy will soon become a new tool for observing the Universe. Detecting and interpreting gravitational waves will require deep theoretical insights into astronomical sources. The past three decades have seen remarkable progress in analytical and numerical computations of the source dynamics, development of search algorithms and analysis of data from detectors with unprecedented sensitivity. This Chapter is devoted to examine the advances and future challenges in understanding the dynamics of binary and isolated compact-object systems, expected cosmological sources, their amplitudes and rates, and highlights of results from gravitational-wave observations. All of this is a testament to the readiness of the community to open a new window for observing the cosmos, a century after gravitational waves were first predicted by Albert Einstein.
Hunting for dark particles with gravitational waves
Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-10-01
The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.
Hunting for Dark Particles with Gravitational Waves
Giudice, Gian F.; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.
Gravitational Waves from Oscillons after Inflation
Antusch, Stefan; Cefalà, Francesco; Orani, Stefano
2017-01-01
We investigate the production of gravitational waves during preheating after inflation in the common case of field potentials that are asymmetric around the minimum. In particular, we study the impact of oscillons, comparatively long lived and spatially localized regions where a scalar field (e.g., the inflaton) oscillates with large amplitude. Contrary to a previous study, which considered a symmetric potential, we find that oscillons in asymmetric potentials associated with a phase transition can generate a pronounced peak in the spectrum of gravitational waves that largely exceeds the linear preheating spectrum. We discuss the possible implications of this enhanced amplitude of gravitational waves. For instance, for low scale inflation models, the contribution from the oscillons can strongly enhance the observation prospects at current and future gravitational wave detectors.
Gravitational Wave Physics with Binary Love Relations
Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas
2016-03-01
Gravitational waves from the late inspiral of neutron star binaries encode rich information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities through their tidal deformabilities. However, extracting the individual tidal deformabilities of the components of a binary is challenging with future ground-based gravitational wave interferometers due to degeneracies between them. We overcome this difficulty by finding new, approximate universal relations between the individual tidal deformabilities that depend on the mass ratio of the two stars and are insensitive to their internal structure. Such relations have applications not only to gravitational wave astrophysics, but also to nuclear physics as they improve the measurement accuracy of tidal parameters. Moreover, the relations improve our ability to test extreme gravity and perform cosmology with gravitational waves emitted from neutron star binaries.
Exact plane gravitational waves and electromagnetic fields
Enrico MontanariUniversity of Ferrara and INFN sezione di Ferrara, Italy; Mirco Calura(University of Ferrara and INFN sezione di Ferrara, Italy)
2000-01-01
The behaviour of a "test" electromagnetic field in the background of an exact gravitational plane wave is investigated in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We have expressed the general solution to the de Rham equations as a Fourier-like integral. In the general case we have reduced the problem to a set of ordinary differential equations and have explicitly written the solution in the case of linear polarization of the gravitational wave. We have expressed our ...
Gravitational wave astronomy with radio galaxy surveys
Raccanelli, Alvise
2016-01-01
In the next decade, new astrophysical instruments will deliver the first large-scale maps of gravitational waves and radio sources. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the possibility to combine them to provide new and complementary ways to study the Universe. Using simulated catalogues appropriate to the planned surveys, it is possible to predict measurements of the cross-correlation between radio sources and GW maps and the effects of a stochastic gravitational wave background on galaxy ...
Dynamical Space-Time and Gravitational Waves
van Holten, J W
2016-01-01
According to General Relativity gravity is the result of the interaction between matter and space-time geometry. In this interaction space-time geometry itself is dynamical: it can store and transport energy and momentum in the form of gravitational waves. We give an introductory account of this phenomenon and discuss how the observation of gravitational waves may open up a fundamentally new window on the universe.
Resonant speed meter for gravitational wave detection
Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-aki
2008-01-01
Gravitational-wave detectors have been well developed and operated with high sensitivity. However, they still suffer from mirror displacement noise. In this paper, we propose a resonant speed meter, as a displacement noise-canceled configuration based on a ring-shaped synchronous recycling interferometer. The remarkable feature of this interferometer is that, at certain frequencies, gravitational-wave signals are amplified, while displacement noises are not.
An Imitation Game concerning gravitational wave physics
Collins, Harry
2016-01-01
The 'Imitation Game' is a Turing Test played with a human participant instead of a computer. Here the author, a sociologist, who has been immersed in the field of gravitational wave physics since 1972, tried to pass an Imitation Game as a gravitational wave physicist. He already passed such a test in mid-2000s but this test was more elaborate and compared his performance with that of other kinds of physicists and with other sociologists as well as gravitational wave physicists. The test was based on 8 technical questions about gravitational wave physics asked by Professor Sathyprakash of Cardiff University. Collins marks compared well with that of the other gravitational wave physicists and were markedly better than that of other classes of respondent. Collins also marked the test and it can be seen that the way he marked was also much closer to the gravitational wave physicists than other categories. Though Collins's expertise can be shown to have degraded a little in the last ten years it seems not to have ...
Gravitational wave asteroseismology with protoneutron stars
Sotani, Hajime; Takiwaki, Tomoya
2016-08-01
We examine the time evolution of the frequencies of the gravitational wave after the bounce within the framework of relativistic linear perturbation theory using the results of one-dimensional numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae. Protoneutron star models are constructed in such a way that the mass and the radius of the protoneutron star become equivalent to the results obtained from the numerical simulations. Then we find that the frequencies of gravitational waves radiating from protoneutron stars strongly depend on the mass and the radius of protoneutron stars, but almost independently of the profiles of the electron fraction and the entropy per baryon inside the star. Additionally, we find that the frequencies of gravitational waves can be characterized by the square root of the average density of the protoneutron star irrespective of the progenitor models, which are completely different from the empirical formula for cold neutron stars. The dependence of the spectra on the mass and the radius is different from that of the g -mode: the oscillations around the surface of protoneutron stars due to the convection and the standing accretion-shock instability. Careful observation of these modes of gravitational waves can determine the evolution of the mass and the radius of protoneutron stars after core bounce. Furthermore, the expected frequencies of gravitational waves are around a few hundred hertz in the early stages after bounce, which must be a good candidate for the ground-based gravitational wave detectors.
Gravitational Waves and Light Cosmic Strings
Depies, Matthew R
2009-01-01
Gravitational wave signatures from cosmic strings are analyzed numerically. Cosmic string networks form during phase transistions in the early universe and these networks of long cosmic strings break into loops that radiate energy in the form of gravitational waves until they decay. The gravitational waves come in the form of harmonic modes from individual string loops, a "confusion noise" from galactic loops, and a stochastic background of gravitational waves from a network of loops. In this study string loops of larger size $\\alpha$ and lower string tensions $G\\mu$ (where $\\mu$ is the mass per unit length of the string) are investigated than in previous studies. Several detectors are currently searching for gravitational waves and a space based satellite, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), is in the final stages of pre-flight. The results for large loop sizes ($\\alpha=0.1$) put an upper limit of about $G\\mu<10^{-9}$ and indicate that gravitational waves from string loops down to $G\\mu \\approx...
Strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves in Einstein Telescope
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piórkowska, Aleksandra; Biesiada, Marek [Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zhu, Zong-Hong, E-mail: aleksandra.piorkowska@us.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.biesiada@us.edu.pl, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)
2013-10-01
Gravitational wave experiments have entered a new stage which gets us closer to the opening a new observational window on the Universe. In particular, the Einstein Telescope (ET) is designed to have a fantastic sensitivity that will provide with tens or hundreds of thousand NS-NS inspiral events per year up to the redshift z = 2. Some of such events should be gravitationally lensed by intervening galaxies. We explore the prospects of observing gravitationally lensed inspiral NS-NS events in the Einstein telescope. Being conservative we consider the lens population of elliptical galaxies. It turns out that depending on the local insipral rate ET should detect from one per decade detection in the pessimistic case to a tens of detections per year for the most optimistic case. The detection of gravitationally lensed source in gravitational wave detectors would be an invaluable source of information concerning cosmography, complementary to standard ones (like supernovae or BAO) independent of the local cosmic distance ladder calibrations.
Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status
Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, Xingjiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N; Shannon, Ryan M; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zhang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou
2016-01-01
In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravit...
Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Sources
Maia, M D
2010-01-01
Coalescing binary systems (eg pulsars, neutron stars and black holes) are the most likely sources of gravitational radiation, yet to be detected on or near Earth, where the local gravitational field is negligible and the Poincar\\'e symmetry rules. On the other hand, the general theory of gravitational waves emitted by axially symmetric rotating sources predicts the existence of a non-vanishing news function. The existence of such function implies that, for a distant observer, the asymptotic group of isometries, the BMS group, has a translational symmetry that depends on the orbit periodicity of the source, thus breaking the isotropy o the Poincar\\'e translations. These results suggest the application of the asymptotic BMS-covariant wave equation to obtain a proper theoretical basis for the gravitational waves observations.
Reheating After Quintessential Inflation and Gravitational Waves
Tashiro, H; Sasaki, M; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Takeshi; Sasaki, Misao
2004-01-01
We investigate the dependence of the gravitational wave spectrum from quintessential inflation on the reheating process. We consider two extreme reheating processes. One is the gravitational reheating by particle creation in the expanding universe in which the beginning of the radiation dominated epoch is delayed due to the presence of the epoch of domination of the kinetic energy of the inflaton (kination). The other is the instant preheating considered by Felder et al. in which the Universe becomes radiation dominated soon after the end of inflation. We find that the spectrum of the gravitational waves at $\\sim 100$ GHz is quite sensitive to the reheating process. Conversely, the detection or non-detection of primordial gravitational waves at $\\sim$100 MHz would provide useful information regarding the reheating process in quintessential inflation.
Self-gravitating disc candidates around massive young stars
Forgan, D. H.; Ilee, J. D.; Cyganowski, C. J.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.
2016-11-01
There have been several recent detections of candidate Keplerian discs around massive young protostars. Given the relatively large disc-to-star mass ratios in these systems, and their young ages, it is worth investigating their propensity to becoming self-gravitating. To this end, we compute self-consistent, semi-analytic models of putative self-gravitating discs for five candidate disc systems. Our aim is not to fit exactly the observations, but to demonstrate that the expected dust continuum emission from marginally unstable self-gravitating discs can be quite weak, due to high optical depth at the mid-plane even at millimetre wavelengths. In the best cases, the models produce `observable' disc masses within a factor of self-gravitating disc model compares well with observations. If these discs are self-gravitating, they satisfy the conditions for disc fragmentation in their outer regions. These systems may hence have as-yet-unresolved low-mass stellar companions, and are thus promising targets for future high angular resolution observations.
Self-gravitating disc candidates around massive young stars
Forgan, D H; Cyganowski, C J; Brogan, C L; Hunter, T R
2016-01-01
There have been several recent detections of candidate Keplerian discs around massive young protostars. Given the relatively large disc-to-star mass ratios in these systems, and their young ages, it is worth investigating their propensity to becoming self-gravitating. To this end, we compute self-consistent, semi-analytic models of putative self-gravitating discs for five candidate disc systems. Our aim is not to fit exactly the observations, but to demonstrate that the expected dust continuum emission from marginally unstable self-gravitating discs can be quite weak, due to high optical depth at the midplane even at millimetre wavelengths. In the best cases, the models produce "observable" disc masses within a factor of <1.5 of those observed, with midplane dust temperatures comparable to measured temperatures from molecular line emission. We find in two cases that a self-gravitating disc model compares well with observations. If these discs are self-gravitating, they satisfy the conditions for disc fragm...
NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study
Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul
2012-01-01
With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.
Nearby Stars as Gravitational Wave Detectors
Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph
2015-07-01
Sun-like stellar oscillations are excited by turbulent convection and have been discovered in some 500 main-sequence and sub-giant stars and in more than 12,000 red giant stars. When such stars are near gravitational wave sources, low-order quadrupole acoustic modes are also excited above the experimental threshold of detectability, and they can be observed, in principle, in the acoustic spectra of these stars. Such stars form a set of natural detectors to search for gravitational waves over a large spectral frequency range, from {10}-7 to {10}-2 Hz. In particular, these stars can probe the {10}-6-{10}-4 Hz spectral window which cannot be probed by current conventional gravitational wave detectors, such as the Square Kilometre Array and Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. The Planetary Transits and Oscillations of State (PLATO) stellar seismic mission will achieve photospheric velocity amplitude accuracy of {cm} {{{s}}}-1. For a gravitational wave search, we will need to achieve accuracies of the order of {10}-2 {cm} {{{s}}}-1, i.e., at least one generation beyond PLATO. However, we have found that multi-body stellar systems have the ideal setup for this type of gravitational wave search. This is the case for triple stellar systems formed by a compact binary and an oscillating star. Continuous monitoring of the oscillation spectra of these stars to a distance of up to a kpc could lead to the discovery of gravitational waves originating in our galaxy or even elsewhere in the universe. Moreover, unlike experimental detectors, this observational network of stars will allow us to study the progression of gravitational waves throughout space.
Gravitational Waves in Viable f(R) Models
Yang, Louis; Geng, Chao-Qiang
2011-01-01
We study gravitational waves in viable $f(R)$ theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an $f(R)$ theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable $f(R)$ models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature $R_{d}\\sim10^{-66}eV^{2}$. We illustrate our results in two types of viable $f(R)$ models: the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. In both cases, the mass will be in the order of $10^{-33}eV$ when it propagates in vacuum. However, in the presence of matter density in galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. Explicitly, in the exponential gravity model, the mass becomes almost infinity, implying the disappearance of the scalar mode of gravitational wave, while the Starobinsky model gives the lowest mass around $10^{-24}eV$, corresponding to the lowest frequency of $...
A Brief History of Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge L. Cervantes-Cota
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This review describes the discovery of gravitational waves. We recount the journey of predicting and finding those waves, since its beginning in the early twentieth century, their prediction by Einstein in 1916, theoretical and experimental blunders, efforts towards their detection, and finally the subsequent successful discovery.
A Brief History of Gravitational Waves
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge; Galindo-Uribarri, Salvador; Smoot, George
2016-09-01
This review describes the discovery of gravitational waves. We recount the journey of predicting and finding those waves, since its beginning in the early twentieth century, their prediction by Einstein in 1916, theoretical and experimental blunders, efforts towards their detection, and finally the subsequent successful discovery.
A Brief History of Gravitational Waves
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L; Smoot, George F
2016-01-01
This review describes the discovery of gravitational waves. We recount the journey of predicting and finding those waves, since its beginning in the early twentieth century, their prediction by Einstein in 1916, theoretical and experimental blunders, efforts towards their detection, and finally the subsequent successful discovery.
Particle production in a gravitational wave background
Jones, Preston; Singleton, Douglas
2016-01-01
We study the possibility that massless particles, such as photons, are produced by a gravitational wave. That such a process should occur is implied by tree-level, Feynman diagrams such as two gravitons turning into two photons {\\it i.e.} $g + g \\rightarrow \\gamma + \\gamma$. Here we calculate the rate at which a gravitational wave creates a massless, scalar field. This is done by placing the scalar field in the background of a plane gravitational wave and calculating the 4-current of the scalar field. Even in the vacuum limit of the scalar field it has a non-zero vacuum expectation value (similar to what occurs in the Higgs mechanism) and a non-zero current. We associate this with the production of scalar field quanta by the gravitational field. This effect has potential consequences for the attenuation of gravitational waves since the massless particles are being produced at the expense of the gravitational field. This is related to the (time-dependent) Schwinger effect but with the electric field replaced b...
The gravitational wave symphony of the Universe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B S Sathyaprakash
2001-04-01
The new millennium will see the upcoming of several ground-based interferometric gravitational wave antennas. Within the next decade a space-based antenna may also begin to observe the distant Universe. These gravitational wave detectors will together operate as a network taking data continuously for several years, watching the transient and continuous phenomena occurring in the deep cores of astronomical objects and dense environs of the early Universe where gravity was extremely strong and highly nonlinear. The network will listen to the waves from rapidly spinning non-axisymmetric neutron stars, normal modes of black holes, binary black hole inspiral and merger, phase transitions in the early Universe, quantum ﬂuctuations resulting in a characteristic background in the early Universe. The gravitational wave antennas will open a new window to observe the dark Universe unreachable via other channels of astronomical observations.
Electromagnetic and Gravitational Waves: the Third Dimension
Marsh, Gerald E
2011-01-01
Plane electromagnetic and gravitational waves interact with particles in such a way as to cause them to oscillate not only in the transverse direction but also along the direction of propagation. The electromagnetic case is usually shown by use of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the gravitational by a transformation to a local inertial frame. Here, the covariant Lorentz force equation and the second order equation of geodesic deviation followed by the introduction of a local inertial frame are respectively used. It is often said that there is an analogy between the motion of charged particles in the field of an electromagnetic wave and the motion of test particles in the field of a gravitational wave. This analogy is examined and found to be rather limited. It is also shown that a simple special relativistic relation leads to an integral of the motion, characteristic of plane waves, that is satisfied in both cases.
Relativistic orbits and Gravitational Waves from gravitomagnetic corrections
Capozziello, Salvatore; Forte, Luca; Garufi, Fabio; Milano, Leopoldo
2010-01-01
Corrections to the relativistic theory of orbits are discussed considering higher order approximations induced by gravitomagnetic effects. Beside the standard periastron effect of General Relativity (GR), a new nutation effect was found due to the ${\\displaystyle c^{-3}}$ orbital correction. According to the presence of that new nutation effect we studied the gravitational waveforms emitted through the capture in a gravitational field of a massive black hole (MBH) of a compact object (neutron star (NS) or BH) via the quadrupole approximation. We made a numerical study to obtain the emitted gravitational wave (GW) amplitudes. We conclude that the effects we studied could be of interest for the future space laser interferometric GW antenna LISA.
Probing seed black holes using future gravitational-wave detectors
Gair, Jonathan R; Sesana, Alberto; Vecchio, Alberto
2009-01-01
Identifying the properties of the first generation of seeds of massive black holes is key to understanding the merger history and growth of galaxies. Mergers between ~100 solar mass seed black holes generate gravitational waves in the 0.1-10Hz band that lies between the sensitivity bands of existing ground-based detectors and the planned space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). However, there are proposals for more advanced detectors that will bridge this gap, including the third generation ground-based Einstein Telescope and the space-based detector DECIGO. In this paper we demonstrate that such future detectors should be able to detect gravitational waves produced by the coalescence of the first generation of light seed black-hole binaries and provide information on the evolution of structure in that era. These observations will be complementary to those that LISA will make of subsequent mergers between more massive black holes. We compute the sensitivity of va...
Relic gravitational waves from quintessential inflation
Ahmad, Safia; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.
2017-09-01
We study relic gravitational waves in the paradigm of quintessential inflation. In this framework, irrespective of the underlying model, inflation is followed by the kinetic regime. Thereafter, the field energy density remains subdominant before the onset of acceleration. We carry out model-independent analysis to obtain the temperature at the end of inflation and the estimate for the upper bound on the Hubble parameter to circumvent the problem due to relic gravitational waves. In this process, we use Planck 2015 data to constrain the inflationary phase. We demonstrate that the required temperature can be produced by the mechanism of instant preheating. The generic feature of the scenario includes the presence of the kinetic regime after inflation, which results in the blue spectrum of gravitational wave background at high frequencies. We discuss the prospects of detection of relic gravitational wave background in the advanced LIGO and LISA space-born gravitational wave missions. Finally, we consider a concrete model to realize the paradigm of quintessential inflation and show that inflationary as well as postinflationary evolution can be successfully described by the inflaton potential, V (ϕ )∝Exp (-λ ϕn/MPln)(n >1 ) , by suitably constraining the parameters of the model.
Gravitational lensing of massive particles in Schwarzschild gravity
Liu, Xionghui; Yang, Nan; Jia, Junji
2016-09-01
Both massless light ray and objects with nonzero mass experience trajectory bending in a gravitational field. In this work the bending of trajectories of massive objects in a Schwarzschild spacetime and the corresponding gravitational lensing (GL) effects are studied. A particle sphere for Schwarzschild black hole (BH) is found with its radius a simple function of the particle velocity and proportional to the BH mass. A single master formula for both the massless and massive particle bending angle is found, in the form of an elliptic function depending only on the velocity and impact parameter. This bending angle is expanded in both large and small velocity limits and large and small impact parameter limits. The corresponding deflection angle for weak and strong GL of massive particles are analyzed, and their corrections to the light ray deflection angles are obtained. The dependence of the deflection angles on the source angle and the particle speed is investigated. Finally we discuss the potential applications of the results in hypervelocity star observations and in determining mass/mass hierarchy of slow particles/objects.
Massive and modified gravity as self-gravitating media
Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pilo, Luigi
2016-01-01
We study the effective field theory that describes the low-energy physics of self-gravitating media. The field content consists of four derivatively coupled scalar fields that can be identified with the internal comoving coordinates of the medium. Imposing SO(3) internal spatial invariance, the theory describes supersolids. Stronger symmetry requirements lead to superfluids, solids and perfect fluids, at lowest order in derivatives. In the unitary gauge, massive gravity emerges, being thus the result of a continuous medium propagating in spacetime. Our results can be used to explore systematically the effects and signatures of modifying gravity consistently at large distances. The dark sector is then described as a self-gravitating medium with dynamical and thermodynamic properties dictated by internal symmetries. These results indicate that the divide between dark energy and modified gravity, at large distance scales, is simply a gauge choice.
Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observations as Tools for Testing General Relativity
Will, Clifford M.
2004-01-01
We continued a project, to analyse the ways in which detection and study of gravitational waves could provide quantitative tests of general relativity, with particular emphasis on waves that would be detectable by space-based observatories, such as LISA. This work had three foci: 1) Tests of scalar-tensor theories of gravity that, could be done by analyzing gravitational waves from neutron stars inspiralling into massive black holes, as detectable by LISA; 2) Study of alternative theories of gravity in which the graviton could be massive, and of how gravitational-wave observations by space-based detectors, solar-system tests, and cosmological observations could constrain such theories; and 3) Study of gravitational-radiation back reaction of particles orbiting black holes in general relativity, with emphasis on the effects of spin.
Gravitational wave asteroseismology with protoneutron stars
Sotani, Hajime
2016-01-01
We examine the time evolution of the frequencies of the gravitational wave after the bounce within the framework of relativistic linear perturbation theory using the results of one dimensional numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae. Protoneutron star models are constructed in such a way that the mass and radius of protoneutron star become equivalent to the results obtained from the numerical simulations. Then, we find that the frequencies of gravitational waves radiating from protoneutron stars strongly depend on the mass and radius of protoneutron stars, but almost independently of the profiles of electron fraction and entropy per baryon inside the star. Additionally, we find that the frequencies of gravitational waves can be characterized by the square root of the average density of protoneutron star irrespectively the progenitor models, which are completely different from the empirical formula for cold neutron stars. The dependence of the spectra on the mass and radius is different from that of ...
Gravitational Waves- a new window to Cosmos
Prasanna, A R
2016-01-01
With the detection of Gravitational waves just about an year ago Einstein`s general theory of relativity- a space-time theory of gravity, got established on a firmer footing than any other theory in physics. Gravitational waves are just propagating disturbances in the gravitational field of extremely strong sources caused by some catastrophic event associated with cosmic bodies, like binary black hole coalescence, or neutron star mergers. As these events happen very far away in cosmos, and the signal strength would be extremely weak, it requires extraordinary detection and analysis technology to observe an event on earth. Luckily the joint collaboration LIGO-VIRGO, have so far detected two events in September and December of 2015 during their analysis of observations made with the laser interferometers over the last few observing sessions. The talk will give a brief theoretical sketch of the analysis required for describing the waves resulting from mass motion in the realm of general relativity, and point out...
The dawn of gravitational wave astronomy
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
On Sep 14 2015, gravitational waves were for the first time detected directly. This observation by the LIGO interferometric detectors marks the dawn of a new era in our observational study of the cosmos as a qualitatively new window to its exploration has been opened. This talk reviews some of the fundamental concepts of gravitational waves and the methodology employed for their observation. The first event, dubbed GW150914, and the properties of its source, as inferred from the observation, will be discussed. The talk concludes with a selected set of the most important topics where we expect gravitational-wave observations to deepen and either challenge or confirm our present understanding of the laws and the history of our universe.
Testing Gravity with Gravitational Wave Source Counts
Calabrese, Erminia; Spergel, David N
2016-01-01
We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as $R^{-1}$, thus we expect the source counts to follow $dN/dS \\propto S^{-4}$. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or can propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the signal-to-noise falls as $R^{-\\gamma}$, where $\\gamma=1$ recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled universe. We forecast the sensitivity of future observations in constraining gravitational wave physics using this method by simulating sources distributed over a finite range of signal-to-noise. We first consider the case of few objects, 7 sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on $\\gamma$, findi...
Gravity's shadow the search for gravitational waves
Collins, Harry
2004-01-01
According to the theory of relativity, we are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation. When stars explode or collide, a portion of their mass becomes energy that disturbs the very fabric of the space-time continuum like ripples in a pond. But proving the existence of these waves has been difficult; the cosmic shudders are so weak that only the most sensitive instruments can be expected to observe them directly. Fifteen times during the last thirty years scientists have claimed to have detected gravitational waves, but so far none of those claims have survived the scrutiny of the scie
Gravitational Waves and Multi-Messenger Astronomy
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
Gravitational waves are produced by a wide variety of sources throughout the cosmos, including the mergers of black hole and neutron star binaries/compact objects spiraling into central black holes in galactic nuclei, close compact binaries/and phase transitions and quantum fluctuations in the early universe. Observing these signals can bring new, and often very precise, information about their sources across vast stretches of cosmic time. In this talk we will focus on thee opening of this gravitational-wave window on the universe, highlighting new opportunities for discovery and multi-messenger astronomy.
Gravitational waves in a de Sitter universe
Bishop, Nigel T
2015-01-01
The construction of exact linearized solutions to the Einstein equations within the Bondi-Sachs formalism is extended to the case of linearization about de Sitter spacetime. The gravitational wave field measured by distant observers is constructed, leading to a determination of the energy measured by such observers. It is found that gravitational wave energy conservation does not normally apply to inertial observers, but that it can be formulated for a class of accelerated observers, i.e. with worldlines that are timelike but not geodesic.
The response of interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Finn, Lee Samuel
2008-01-01
The standard derivation of the response of interferometric gravitational wave detectors makes a series of erroneous approximations regarding the coordinate trajectory of the light and the parameterization of the null geodesic it travels along. These errors appear to have remained unrecognized for at least thirty five years. We provide, in full detail, a correct derivation of the response of a single-bounce Michelson interferometer to gravitational waves, compare it to the "standard", but incorrect, derivation, and show where the earlier mistakes were made. By a fortuitous set of circumstances, not generally so, the final result is the same.
Energy-Momentum Distribution of Gravitational Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. Sharif; Kanwal Nazir
2008-01-01
This paper has been addressed to the well-known problem of energy in gravitational waves.We have investigated the energy of cylindrical gravitational waves in the context of General Relativity and teleparallel theory of gravity.For this purpose,the prescriptions of Einstein,Landau-Lifshitz,Bergmann-Thomson,and Moller are used in both the theories.It is shown that these energy-momentum complexes do not provide equivalent results in the two theories.However,these turn out to be constant for all the prescriptions except Moller in both the theories at large distances.
The memory effect for plane gravitational waves
Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.
2017-09-01
We give an account of the gravitational memory effect in the presence of the exact plane wave solution of Einstein's vacuum equations. This allows an elementary but exact description of the soft gravitons and how their presence may be detected by observing the motion of freely falling particles. The theorem of Bondi and Pirani on caustics (for which we present a new proof) implies that the asymptotic relative velocity is constant but not zero, in contradiction with the permanent displacement claimed by Zel'dovich and Polnarev. A non-vanishing asymptotic relative velocity might be used to detect gravitational waves through the ;velocity memory effect;, considered by Braginsky, Thorne, Grishchuk, and Polnarev.
Gravitational waves from compact objects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
José Antonio de Freitas Pacheco
2010-01-01
Large ground-based laser beam interferometers are presently in operation both in the USA (LIGO) and in Europe (VIRGO) and potential sources that might be detected by these instruments are revisited. The present generation of detectors does not have a sensitivity high enough to probe a significant volume of the universe and,consequently, predicted event rates are very low. The planned advanced generation of interferometers will probably be able to detect, for the first time, a gravitational signal. Advanced LIGO and EGO instruments are expected to detect few (some): binary coalescences consisting of either two neutron stars, two black holes or a neutron star and a black hole. In space, the sensitivity of the planned LISA spacecraft constellation will allow the detection of the gravitational signals, even within a "pessimistic" range of possible signals, produced during the capture of compact objects by supermassive black holes, at a rate of a few tens per year.
Gravitational wave detection using atom interferometry
Hogan, Jason
2016-05-01
The advent of gravitational wave astronomy promises to provide a new window into the universe. Low frequency gravitational waves below 10 Hz are expected to offer rich science opportunities both in astrophysics and cosmology, complementary to signals in LIGO's band. Detector designs based on atom interferometry have a number of advantages over traditional approaches in this band, including the possibility of substantially reduced antenna baseline length in space and high isolation from seismic noise for a terrestrial detector. In particular, atom interferometry based on the clock transition in group II atoms offers tantalizing new possibilities. Such a design is expected to be highly immune to laser frequency noise because the signal arises strictly from the light propagation time between two ensembles of atoms. This would allow for a gravitational wave detector with a single linear baseline, potentially offering advantages in cost and design flexibility. In support of these proposals, recent progress in long baseline atom interferometry in a 10-meter drop tower has enabled observation of matter wave interference with atomic wavepacket separations exceeding 50 cm and interferometer durations of more than 2 seconds. This approach can provide ground-based proof-of-concept demonstrations of many of the technical requirements of both terrestrial and satellite gravitational wave detectors.
Cylindrical Collapse and Gravitational Waves
Herrera, L
2005-01-01
We study the matching conditions for a collapsing anisotropic cylindrical perfect fluid, and we show that its radial pressure is non zero on the surface of the cylinder and proportional to the time dependent part of the field produced by the collapsing fluid. This result resembles the one that arises for the radiation - though non-gravitational - in the spherically symmetric collapsing dissipative fluid, in the diffusion approximation.
Outlook for Detecting Gravitational Waves with Pulsars
Kohler, Susanna
2016-04-01
Though the recent discovery of GW150914 is a thrilling success in the field of gravitational-wave astronomy, LIGO is only one tool the scientific community is using to hunt for these elusive signals. After 10 years of unsuccessful searching, how likely is it that pulsar-timing-array projects will make their own first detection soon?Frequency ranges for gravitational waves produced by different astrophysical sources. Pulsar timing arrays such as the EPTA and IPTA are used to detect low-frequency gravitational waves generated by the stochastic background and supermassive black hole binaries. [Christopher Moore, Robert Cole and Christopher Berry]Supermassive BackgroundGround-based laser interferometers like LIGO are ideal for probing ripples in space-time caused by the merger of stellar-mass black holes; these mergers cause chirps in the frequency range of tens to thousands of hertz. But how do we pick up the extremely low-frequency, nanohertz background signal caused by the orbits of pairs of supermassive black holes? For that, we need pulsar timing arrays.Pulsar timing arrays are sets of pulsars whose signals are analyzed to look for correlations in the pulse arrival time. As the space-time between us and a pulsar is stretched and then compressed by a passing gravitational wave, the pulsars pulses should arrive a little late and then a little early. Comparing these timing residuals in an array of pulsars could theoretically allow for the detection of the gravitational waves causing them.Globally, there are currently four pulsar timing array projects actively searching for this signal, with a fifth planned for the future. Now a team of scientists led by Stephen Taylor (NASA-JPL/Caltech) has estimated the likelihood that these projects will successfully detect gravitational waves in the future.Probability for SuccessExpected detection probability of the gravitational-wave background as a function of observing time, for five different pulsar timing arrays. Optimistic
Gravitational waves from cosmic bubble collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong-Hoon [Ewha Womans University, Basic Science Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Institute for the Early Universe, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bum-Hoon [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wonwoo [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jongmann [Ewha Womans University, Basic Science Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Institute for the Early Universe, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China)
2015-03-01
Cosmic bubbles are nucleated through the quantum tunneling process. After nucleation they would expand and undergo collisions with each other. In this paper, we focus in particular on collisions of two equal-sized bubbles and compute gravitational waves emitted from the collisions. First, we study the mechanism of the collisions by means of a real scalar field and its quartic potential. Then, using this model, we compute gravitational waves from the collisions in a straightforward manner. In the quadrupole approximation, time-domain gravitational waveforms are directly obtained by integrating the energy-momentum tensors over the volume of the wave sources, where the energy-momentum tensors are expressed in terms of the scalar field, the local geometry and the potential. We present gravitational waveforms emitted during (i) the initial-to-intermediate stage of strong collisions and (ii) the final stage of weak collisions: the former is obtained numerically, in full General Relativity and the latter analytically, in the flat spacetime approximation. We gain qualitative insights into the time-domain gravitational waveforms from bubble collisions: during (i), the waveforms show the non-linearity of the collisions, characterized by a modulating frequency and cusp-like bumps, whereas during (ii), the waveforms exhibit the linearity of the collisions, featured by smooth monochromatic oscillations. (orig.)
Space Based Gravitational Wave Observatories (SGOs)
Livas, Jeff
2014-01-01
Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected The Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.
Gravitational waves and spinning test particles
Mohseni, M
2000-01-01
The motion of a classical spinning test particle in the field of a weak plane gravitational wave is studied. It is found that the characteristic dimensions of the particle's orbit is sensitive to the ratio of the spin to the mass of the particle. The results are compared with the corresponding motion of a particle without spin.
Insights into the gravitational wave memory effect
Bieri, Lydia
2017-01-01
A major breakthrough of General Relativity (GR) happened in 2015 with LIGO's first detection of gravitational waves. Typical sources for gravitational radiation are mergers of binary black holes, binary neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae. In these processes mass and momenta are radiated away in form of gravitational waves. GR predicts that these waves leave a footprint in the spacetime, that is they change the spacetime permanently, which results in a permanent displacement of test masses. This effect is called the memory. In this talk, I will explore the gravitational wave memory. We will see that there are two types of memory, one going back to Ya. B. Zel'dovich and A. G. Polnarev and one to D. Christodoulou. Then I will discuss recent work including my collaboration with D. Garfinkle, S.-T. Yau, P. Chen, focusing on how neutrinos or electromagnetic fields contribute to the memory effect, and work with D. Garfinkle and N. Yunes on cosmological memory. The author thanks NSF for support by grant DMS-1253149 to The University of Michigan.
Primordial gravitational waves, BICEP2 and beyond
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
L Sriramkumar
2016-02-01
Observations of the imprints of primordial gravitational waves on the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background can provide us with unambiguous clues to the physics of the very early Universe. In this brief article, the implications of the detection of such signatures for the inflationary scenario has been discussed.
Nearby stars as gravitational wave detectors
Lopes, Ilídio
2015-01-01
Sun-like stellar oscillations are excited by turbulent convection and have been discovered in some 500 main sequence and sub-giant stars and in more than 12,000 red giant stars. When such stars are near gravitational wave sources, low-order quadrupole acoustic modes are also excited above the experimental threshold of detectability, and they can be observed, in principle, in the acoustic spectra of these stars. Such stars form a set of natural detectors to search for gravitational waves over a large spectral frequency range, from $10^{-7}$ Hz to $10^{-2}$ Hz. In particular, these stars can probe the $10^{-6}$ Hz -- $10^{-4}$ Hz spectral window which cannot be probed by current conventional gravitational wave detectors, such as SKA and eLISA. The PLATO stellar seismic mission will achieve photospheric velocity amplitude accuracy of $~ {\\rm cm/s}$. For a gravitational wave search, we will need to achieve accuracies of the order of $10^{-2}{\\rm cm/s}$, i.e., at least one generation beyond PLATO. However, we have...
Gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars
Haskell, Brynmor; D`Angelo, Caroline; Degenaar, Nathalie; Glampedakis, Kostas; Ho, Wynn C G; Lasky, Paul D; Melatos, Andrew; Oppenoorth, Manuel; Patruno, Alessandro; Priymak, Maxim
2014-01-01
Rapidly rotating neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries have been proposed as an interesting source of gravitational waves. In this chapter we present estimates of the gravitational wave emission for various scenarios, given the (electromagnetically) observed characteristics of these systems. First of all we focus on the r-mode instability and show that a 'minimal' neutron star model (which does not incorporate exotica in the core, dynamically important magnetic fields or superfluid degrees of freedom), is not consistent with observations. We then present estimates of both thermally induced and magnetically sustained mountains in the crust. In general magnetic mountains are likely to be detectable only if the buried magnetic field of the star is of the order of $B\\approx 10^{12}$ G. In the thermal mountain case we find that gravitational wave emission from persistent systems may be detected by ground based interferometers. Finally we re-asses the idea that gravitational wave emission may be balancing the ac...
On the frequency shift of gravitational waves
De Sousa, C M G
2002-01-01
Considering plane gravitational waves propagating through flat spacetime, it is shown that curvatures experienced both in the starting point and during their arrival at the earth can cause a considerable shift in the frequencies as measured by earth and space-based detectors.
Observing gravitational waves with a single detector
Callister, T. A.; Kanner, J. B.; Massinger, T. J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Weinstein, A. J.
2017-08-01
A major challenge of any search for gravitational waves is to distinguish true astrophysical signals from those of terrestrial origin. Gravitational-wave experiments therefore make use of multiple detectors, considering only those signals which appear in coincidence in two or more instruments. It is unclear, however, how to interpret loud gravitational-wave candidates observed when only one detector is operational. In this paper, we demonstrate that the observed rate of binary black hole mergers can be leveraged in order to make confident detections of gravitational-wave signals with one detector alone. We quantify detection confidences in terms of the probability P(S) that a signal candidate is of astrophysical origin. We find that, at current levels of instrumental sensitivity, loud binary black hole candidates observed with a single Advanced LIGO detector can be assigned P(S)≳0.4 . In the future, Advanced LIGO may be able to observe binary black hole mergers with single-detector confidences exceeding P(S)∼90% .
Choreography and Gravitational Waves for 2-BODY and 3-BODY Gravitating Systems
Asada, Hideki
In the framework of general relativity, we discuss choreographic solutions for the three-body problem, where a solution is called choreographic if every massive particles move periodically in a single closed orbit. In general relativity, the periastron shift prohibits a binary system from orbiting in a single closed curve. Remarkably, a "figure-eight" solution is shown to be choreographic even at the PN approximation by carefully examining initial conditions. Next, gravitational waves for two- and three-body gravitating systems are discussed as an inverse problem. It is shown that quadrupole waveforms cannot distinguish these sources at particular configurations, especially through extending the definition of the chirp mass to such a three-body system. Finally, we present a conjecture on N particles for classification of sources with multipolar waveforms.
Gravitational wave detector response in terms of spacetime Riemann curvature
Koop, Michael J
2013-01-01
Gravitational wave detectors are typically described as responding to gravitational wave metric perturbations, which are gauge-dependent and --- correspondingly --- unphysical quantities. This is particularly true for ground-based interferometric detectors, like LIGO, space-based detectors, like LISA and its derivatives, spacecraft doppler tracking detectors, and pulsar timing arrays detectors. The description of gravitational waves, and a gravitational wave detector's response, to the unphysical metric perturbation has lead to a proliferation of false analogies and descriptions regarding how these detectors function, and true misunderstandings of the physical character of gravitational waves. Here we provide a fully physical and gauge invariant description of the response of a wide class of gravitational wave detectors in terms of the Riemann curvature, the physical quantity that describes gravitational phenomena in general relativity. In the limit of high frequency gravitational waves, the Riemann curvature...
Testing gravity with gravitational wave source counts
Calabrese, Erminia; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.
2016-08-01
We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise ratio (ρ) from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as {R}-1, thus we expect the source counts to follow {{d}}{N}/{{d}}ρ \\propto {ρ }-4. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the strain falls as {R}-γ , where γ =1 recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled Universe, and forecast the sensitivity of future observations to deviations from standard General Relativity. We first consider the case of few objects, seven sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on γ, finding γ \\gt 0.33 at 95% confidence level. The distribution of our simulated sample is very consistent with the distribution of the trigger events reported by Advanced LIGO. Future measurements will improve these constraints: with 100 events, we estimate that γ can be measured with an uncertainty of 15%. We generalize the formalism to account for a range of chirp masses and the possibility that the signal falls as {exp}(-R/{R}0)/{R}γ .
New window into stochastic gravitational wave background.
Rotti, Aditya; Souradeep, Tarun
2012-11-30
A stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) would gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. We correct the results provided in existing literature for modifications to the CMB polarization power spectra due to lensing by gravitational waves. Weak lensing by gravitational waves distorts all four CMB power spectra; however, its effect is most striking in the mixing of power between the E mode and B mode of CMB polarization. This suggests the possibility of using measurements of the CMB angular power spectra to constrain the energy density (Ω(GW)) of the SGWB. Using current data sets (QUAD, WMAP, and ACT), we find that the most stringent constraints on the present Ω(GW) come from measurements of the angular power spectra of CMB temperature anisotropies. In the near future, more stringent bounds on Ω(GW) can be expected with improved upper limits on the B modes of CMB polarization. Any detection of B modes of CMB polarization above the expected signal from large scale structure lensing could be a signal for a SGWB.
Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.
Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K
2010-11-16
Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.
Sesana, A; Madau, P; Volonteri, M; Sesana, Alberto; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero; Volonteri, Marta
2004-01-01
We compute the expected gravitational wave signal from coalescing massive black hole (MBH) binaries at the center of galaxies in a hierarchical structure formation scenario in which seed holes of intermediate mass form far up in the dark halo merger tree. The merger history of DM halos and MBHs is followed from z=20 to the present in a LCDM cosmology. MBHs get incorporated through halo mergers into larger and larger structures, sink to the center owing to dynamical friction against the DM background, accrete cold material in the merger remnant, and form MBH binary systems. Stellar dynamical interactions cause the hardening of the binary at large separations, while gravitational wave emission takes over at small radii and leads to the final coalescence of the pair. The integrated emission from inspiraling MBH binaries results in a gravitational wave background (GWB). The characteristic strain spectrum has the standard h_c(f)\\propto f^{-2/3} behavior only in the range 1E-91E-6 Hz, the strain amplitude is shaped...
Low-Frequency Terrestrial Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Harms, Jan; Adhikari, Rana X; Miller, M Coleman; Evans, Matthew; Chen, Yanbei; Müller, Holger; Ando, Masaki
2013-01-01
Direct detection of gravitational radiation in the audio band is being pursued with a network of kilometer-scale interferometers (LIGO, Virgo, KAGRA). Several space missions (LISA, DECIGO, BBO) have been proposed to search for sub-Hz radiation from massive astrophysical sources. Here we examine the potential sensitivity of three ground-based detector concepts aimed at radiation in the 0.1 -- 10\\,Hz band. We describe the plethora of potential astrophysical sources in this band and make estimates for their event rates and thereby, the sensitivity requirements for these detectors. The scientific payoff from measuring astrophysical gravitational waves in this frequency band is great. Although we find no fundamental limits to the detector sensitivity in this band, the remaining technical limits will be extremely challenging to overcome.
Superconducting Antenna Concept for Gravitational Waves
Gulian, A.; Foreman, J.; Nikoghosyan, V.; Nussinov, S.; Sica, L.; Tollaksen, J.
The most advanced contemporary efforts and concepts for registering gravitational waves are focused on measuring tiny deviations in large arm (kilometers in case of LIGO and thousands of kilometers in case of LISA) interferometers via photons. In this report we discuss a concept for the detection of gravitational waves using an antenna comprised of superconducting electrons (Cooper pairs) moving in an ionic lattice. The major challenge in this approach is that the tidal action of the gravitational waves is extremely weak compared with electromagnetic forces. Any motion caused by gravitational waves, which violates charge neutrality, will be impeded by Coulomb forces acting on the charge carriers (Coulomb blockade) in metals, as well as in superconductors. We discuss a design, which avoids the effects of Coulomb blockade. It exploits two different superconducting materials used in a form of thin wires -"spaghetti." The spaghetti will have a diameter comparable to the London penetration depth, and length of about 1-10 meters. To achieve competitive sensitivity, the antenna would require billions of spaghettis, which calls for a challenging manufacturing technology. If successfully materialized, the response of the antenna to the known highly periodic sources of gravitational radiation, such as the Pulsar in Crab Nebula will result in an output current, detectable by superconducting electronics. The antenna will require deep (0.3K) cryogenic cooling and magnetic shielding. This design may be a viable successor to LISA and LIGO concepts, having the prospect of higher sensitivity, much smaller size and directional selectivity. This concept of compact antenna may benefit also terrestrial gradiometry.
Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields
Veltman, M.J.G.; Dam, H. van
1970-01-01
Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields are considered. It is found that there is a discrete difference between the zero-mass theories and the very small, but non-zero mass theories. In the case of gravitation, comparison of massive and mass-less theories with experiment, in
Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields
Veltman, M.J.G.; Dam, H. van
1970-01-01
Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields are considered. It is found that there is a discrete difference between the zero-mass theories and the very small, but non-zero mass theories. In the case of gravitation, comparison of massive and mass-less theories with experiment, in partic
Do gravitational waves travel at light velocity?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novello, M.; De Lorenci, V.A. [Laboratorio de Cosmologia e Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro CEP 22290-180-RJ (Brazil); de Freitas, L.R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao-CT-Bloco A, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)
1997-02-01
We extend the standard Feynman{endash}Deser approach of field theoretical derivation of Einstein{close_quote}s gravitational theory. We show that it is possible to obtain a theory that incorporates a great part of general relativity (GR) and can be interpreted in the standard geometrical way like GR, as far as the interaction of matter to gravity is concerned. The most important distinction of the new theory concerns the gravity-to-gravity interaction. This theory satisfies all standard tests of gravity and leads to new predictions about gravitational propagation. Since there is a strong expectation that the detection of gravitational waves will occur in the near future, the question of which theory describes nature better will probably be settled soon. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.
Gravitational waves from cosmological first order phase transitions
Hindmarsh, Mark; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David
2015-01-01
First order phase transitions in the early Universe generate gravitational waves, which may be observable in future space-based gravitational wave observatiories, e.g. the European eLISA satellite constellation. The gravitational waves provide an unprecedented direct view of the Universe at the time of their creation. We study the generation of the gravitational waves during a first order phase transition using large-scale simulations of a model consisting of relativistic fluid and an order parameter field. We observe that the dominant source of gravitational waves is the sound generated by the transition, resulting in considerably stronger radiation than earlier calculations have indicated.
Gravitational waves in a free isotropic plasma. II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galtsov, D.V.; Grats, IU.V.; Melkumova, E.IU.
1985-07-01
The generation of gravitational waves in an isotropic homogeneous plasma is investigated theoretically, within the frame work of a recently developed formalism. The effectiveness of different mechanisms generating gravitational waves is considered. Attention is given to thermal gravitational radiation by a two-component plasma; the transformation of longitudinal plasma waves into gravitons due to current fluctuations; and the generation of gravitational waves due to Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that collective plasma effects play a critical role in the generation of gravitational waves.
Dynamics of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors
Rakhmanov, Malik
2000-11-01
Dynamics of fields and mirrors in the new laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors is described. The dynamics of fields is formulated in terms of difference equations, which take into account the large delay due to the light transit time in the interferometer arm cavities. Solutions of these field equations are found in both transient and steady-state regimes. The solutions for fields in the transient regime can be used for the measurement of the parameters of Fabry-Perot cavities. The solutions for fields in the steady-state regime can be used for the analysis of noise performance of Fabry-Perot cavities. The dynamics of the mirrors is described in terms of two normal coordinates: the cavity length and its center of mass. Such dynamics is strongly affected by the radiation pressure of light circulating in the cavity. The forces of radiation pressure are nonlinear and nonconservative. These two effects introduce instabilities and give rise to a violation of conservation of energy for the motion of the suspended mirrors. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations of the dynamics are done with applications to the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). The dynamics of signal recycling and power recycling interferometers is analyzed using the field equations. The response of the interferometers to the input laser field and motion of its mirrors is calculated. Several basic transfer functions are found. These correspond to either a single or a nested cavity. A nested cavity appears either in the dynamics of the differential mode in signal recycling interferometers or in the dynamics of the common mode of power recycling interferometers. The poles of transfer functions of these nested cavities are found. The response of the interferometers to gravitational waves is described: the analysis is done in the rest frame of a local observer which is a natural coordinate system of the detector. This response is given by the interferometer
Listening to the Universe with Gravitational-Wave Astronomy
Hughes, S A
2003-01-01
The LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) detectors have just completed their first science run, following many years of planning, research, and development. LIGO is a member of what will be a worldwide network of gravitational-wave observatories, with other members in Europe, Japan, and -- hopefully -- Australia. Plans are rapidly maturing for a low frequency, space-based gravitational-wave observatory: LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, to be launched around 2011. The goal of these instruments is to inaugurate the field of {\\it gravitational-wave astronomy}: using gravitational-waves as a means of listening to highly relativistic dynamical processes in astrophysics. This review discusses the promise of this field, outlining why gravitational waves are worth pursuing, and what they are uniquely suited to teach us about astrophysical phenomena. We review the current state of the field, both theoretical and experimental, and then highlight some aspects of gravitational-wave scie...
LCGT and the global network of gravitational wave detectors
Kanda, Nobuyuki
2011-01-01
Gravitational wave is a propagation of space-time distortion, which is predicted by Einstein in general relativity. Strong gravitational waves will come from some drastic astronomical objects, e.g. coalescence of neutron star binaries, black holes, supernovae, rotating pulsars and pulsar glitches. Detection of the gravitational waves from these objects will open a new door of \\textit{`gravitational wave astronomy'}. Gravitational wave will be a probe to study the physics and astrophysics. To search these gravitational waves, large-scale laser interferometers will compose a global network of detectors. Advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo are upgrading from currents detectors. One of LIGO detector is considering to move Australia Site. IndIGO or Einstein Telescope are future plans. LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope) is now constructing in Japan with distinctive characters: cryogenic cooling mirror and underground site. We will present a design and a construction status of LCGT, and brief sta...
Detecting Triple Systems with Gravitational Wave Observations
Meiron, Yohai; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham
2017-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has recently discovered gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by merging black hole binaries. We examine whether future GW detections may identify triple companions of merging binaries. Such a triple companion causes variations in the GW signal due to: (1) the varying path length along the line of sight during the orbit around the center of mass; (2) relativistic beaming, Doppler, and gravitational redshift; (3) the variation of the “light”-travel time in the gravitational field of the triple companion; and (4) secular variations of the orbital elements. We find that the prospects for detecting a triple companion are the highest for low-mass compact object binaries which spend the longest time in the LIGO frequency band. In particular, for merging neutron star binaries, LIGO may detect a white dwarf or M-dwarf perturber at a signal-to-noise ratio of 8, if it is within 0.4 {R}ȯ distance from the binary and the system is within a distance of 100 Mpc. Stellar mass (supermassive) black hole perturbers may be detected at a factor 5 × (103×) larger separations. Such pertubers in orbit around a merging binary emit GWs at frequencies above 1 mHz detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna in coincidence.
Detecting triple systems with gravitational wave observations
Meiron, Yohai; Loeb, Abraham
2016-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has recently discovered gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by merging black hole binaries. We examine whether future GW detections may identify triple companions of merging binaries. Such a triple companion causes variations in the GW signal due to (1) the varying path length along the line of sight during the orbit around the center of mass, (2) relativistic beaming, Doppler, and gravitational redshift, and (3) the variation of the "light"-travel time in the gravitational field of the triple companion, known respectively as Roemer-, Einstein-, and Shapiro-delays in pulsar binaries. We find that the prospects for detecting the triple companion are the highest for low-mass compact object binaries which spend the longest time in the LIGO frequency band with circular orbits. In particular, for merging neutron star binaries, LIGO may detect a white dwarf or M-dwarf perturber at signal to noise ratio of 8, if it is within 0.4 solar radius distance from ...
Omnidirectional Gravitational Wave Detector with a Laser-Interferometric Gravitational Compass
Maia, M D; Sousa, Claudio M G; Magalhaes, Nadja S; Frajuca, Carlos
2016-01-01
Based on the Szekeres-Pirani gravitational compass we suggest the addition of a fourth, non-coplanar mass/mirror to the presently existing laser based gravitational wave observatories, enabling them to operate omnidirectionally, to filter out ambiguous interpretations and to point out the direction of the gravitational wave source.
A Pseudospectral Method for Gravitational Wave Collapse
Hilditch, David; Bruegmann, Bernd
2015-01-01
We present a new pseudospectral code, bamps, for numerical relativity written with the evolution of collapsing gravitational waves in mind. We employ the first order generalized harmonic gauge formulation. The relevant theory is reviewed and the numerical method is critically examined and specialized for the task at hand. In particular we investigate formulation parameters, gauge and constraint preserving boundary conditions well-suited to non-vanishing gauge source functions. Different types of axisymmetric twist-free moment of time symmetry gravitational wave initial data are discussed. A treatment of the axisymmetric apparent horizon condition is presented with careful attention to regularity on axis. Our apparent horizon finder is then evaluated in a number of test cases. Moving on to evolutions, we investigate modifications to the generalized harmonic gauge constraint damping scheme to improve conservation in the strong field regime. We demonstrate strong-scaling of our pseudospectral penalty code. We em...
Interferometer Techniques for Gravitational-Wave Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Freise
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Several km-scale gravitational-wave detectors have been constructed world wide. These instruments combine a number of advanced technologies to push the limits of precision length measurement. The core devices are laser interferometers of a new kind; developed from the classical Michelson topology these interferometers integrate additional optical elements, which significantly change the properties of the optical system. Much of the design and analysis of these laser interferometers can be performed using well-known classical optical techniques, however, the complex optical layouts provide a new challenge. In this review we give a textbook-style introduction to the optical science required for the understanding of modern gravitational wave detectors, as well as other high-precision laser interferometers. In addition, we provide a number of examples for a freely available interferometer simulation software and encourage the reader to use these examples to gain hands-on experience with the discussed optical methods.
Simultaneous observation of gravitational and electromagnetic waves
Branchina, Vincenzo
2016-01-01
Assuming that the short gamma-ray burst detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope about 0.4 seconds after the gravitational waves observed by the LIGO and VIRGO Collaborations originated from the same black hole merger event, we perform a model-independent analysis of different quantum gravity scenarios based on (modified) dispersion relations (typical of quantum gravity models) for the graviton and the photon. We find that only scenarios where at least one of the two particles is luminal (the other being sub- or super-luminal) are allowed, while scenarios where none of the two particles is luminal are ruled out. Moreover, the physical request of having acceptable values for the quantum gravity scale imposes stringent bounds on the difference between the velocities of electromagnetic and gravitational waves, much more stringent than any previously known bound.
Electromagnetic Generators and Detectors of Gravitational Waves
Grishchuk, L P
2003-01-01
The renewed serious interest to possible practical applications of gravitational waves is encouraging. Building on previous work, I am arguing that the strong variable electromagnetic fields are appropriate systems for the generation and detection of high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGW). The advantages of electromagnetic systems are clearly seen in the proposed complete laboratory experiment, where one has to ensure the efficiency of, both, the process of generation and the process of detection of HFGW. Within the family of electromagnetic systems, one still has a great variety of possible geometrical configurations, classical and quantum states of the electromagnetic field, detection strategies, etc. According to evaluations performed 30 years ago, the gap between the HFGW laboratory signal and its level of detectability is at least 4 orders of magnitude. Hopefully, new technologies of today can remove this gap and can make the laboratory experiment feasible. The laboratory experiment is bound to be exp...
Dynamical 3-Space Gravitational Waves: Reverberation Effect
Cahill, Reginald T
2012-01-01
Gravity theory missed a key dynamical process that became apparent only when expressed in terms of a velocity field, instead of the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field. This dynamical process involves an additional self-interaction of the dynamical 3-space, and experimental data reveals that its strength is set by the fine structure constant, implying a fundamental link between gravity and quantum theory. The dynamical 3-space has been directly detected in numerous light-speed anisotropy experiments. Quantum matter has been shown to exhibit an acceleration caused by the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the 3-space flow, giving the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, as a quantum wave refraction effect. EM radiation is also refracted in a similar manner. The anisotropy experiments have all shown 3-space wave/turbulence effects, with the latest revealing the fractal structure of 3-space. Here we report the prediction of a new effect, namely a reverberation effect, when the gravitational...
Interferometer techniques for gravitational-wave detection
Bond, Charlotte; Brown, Daniel; Freise, Andreas; Strain, Kenneth A.
2016-12-01
Several km-scale gravitational-wave detectors have been constructed worldwide. These instruments combine a number of advanced technologies to push the limits of precision length measurement. The core devices are laser interferometers of a new kind; developed from the classical Michelson topology these interferometers integrate additional optical elements, which significantly change the properties of the optical system. Much of the design and analysis of these laser interferometers can be performed using well-known classical optical techniques; however, the complex optical layouts provide a new challenge. In this review, we give a textbook-style introduction to the optical science required for the understanding of modern gravitational wave detectors, as well as other high-precision laser interferometers. In addition, we provide a number of examples for a freely available interferometer simulation software and encourage the reader to use these examples to gain hands-on experience with the discussed optical methods.
Listening to the Universe with gravitational waves
Sathyaprakash, B. S.
2016-07-01
The discovery of gravitational waves by the twin LIGO detectors in September 2015 has opened a new window for observational astronomy. The coming years will witness the emergence of other detectors such as Advanced Virgo, KAGRA and LIGO-India. The worldwide network of these detectors will not only observe binary black holes, which we now know will be the dominant sources, but other sources such as binary neutron stars, neutron star-black hole binaries, supernovae, stochastic backgrounds and unknown sources that we do not know yet. In my talk I will describe how gravitational wave observations will help us gain deeper insights into fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology in the coming years and decades.
Gravitational Wave Detection in the Introductory Lab
Burko, Lior M
2016-01-01
Great physics breakthroughs are rarely included in the introductory physics or astronomy course. General relativity and binary black hole coalescence are no different, and can be included in the introductory course only in a very limited sense. However, we can design activities that directly involve the detection of GW150914, the designation of the Gravitation Wave signal detected on September 14, 2015, thereby engage the students in this exciting discovery directly. The activities naturally do not include the construction of a detector or the detection of gravitational waves. Instead, we design it to include analysis of the data from GW150914, which includes some interesting analysis activities for students of the introductory course. The same activities can be assigned either as a laboratory exercise or as a computational project for the same population of students. The analysis tools used here are simple and available to the intended student population. It does not include the sophisticated analysis tools,...
Gravitational Wave Astronomy: Needle in a Haystack
Cornish, Neil J
2012-01-01
A world-wide array of highly sensitive interferometers stands poised to usher in a new era in astronomy with the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The data from these instruments will provide a unique perspective on extreme astrophysical phenomena such as neutron stars and black holes, and will allow us to test Einstein's theory of gravity in the strong field, dynamical regime. To fully realize these goals we need to solve some challenging problems in signal processing and inference, such as finding rare and weak signals that are buried in non-stationary and non-Gaussian instrument noise, dealing with high-dimensional model spaces, and locating what are often extremely tight concentrations of posterior mass within the prior volume. Gravitational wave detection using space based detectors and Pulsar Timing Arrays bring with them the additional challenge of having to isolate individual signals that overlap one another in both time and frequency. Promising solutions to these problems will be discuss...
The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy
Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Miao, Haixing; Cai, Ronggen; Gao, Jiangrui; Lin, Xuechun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, Zonghong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Ma, Yiqiu; Qin, Jiayi; Page, Michael
2016-01-01
This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which ari...
Comparison of advanced gravitational-wave detectors
Harry, G M; Strain, K A; Harry, Gregory M; Houser, Janet L; Strain, Kenneth A
2002-01-01
We compare two advanced designs for gravitational-wave antennas in terms of their ability to detect two possible gravitational wave sources. Spherical, resonant mass antennas and interferometers incorporating resonant sideband extraction (RSE) were modeled using experimentally measurable parameters. The signal-to-noise ratio of each detector for a binary neutron star system and a rapidly rotating stellar core were calculated. For a range of plausible parameters we found that the advanced LIGO interferometer incorporating RSE gave higher signal-to-noise ratios than a spherical detector resonant at the same frequency for both sources. Spheres were found to be sensitive to these sources at distances beyond our galaxy. Interferometers were sensitive to these sources at far enough distances that several events per year would be expected.
Gravitational wave memory in an expanding universe
Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert
2016-03-01
We investigate the gravitational wave memory effect in an expanding FLRW spacetime. We find that if the gravitational field is decomposed into gauge-invariant scalar, vector, and tensor modes after the fashion of Bardeen, only the tensor mode gives rise to memory, and this memory can be calculated using the retarded Green's function associated with the tensor wave equation. If locally similar radiation source events occur on flat and FLRW backgrounds, we find that the resulting memories will differ only by a redshift factor, and we explore whether or not this factor depends on the expansion history of the FLRW universe. We compare our results to related work by Bieri, Garfinkle, and Yau.
Astronomers Get New Tools for Gravitational-Wave Detection
2010-01-01
exclaimed. "Fermi showed us where to look." "This is a huge help in our effort to use millisecond pulsars to detect gravitational waves," Ransom said. The more such pulsars scientists can find and observe over time, the more likely they are to detect gravitational waves, he explained. He said that astronomers now have barely enough millisecond pulsars to make a convincing gravitational-wave detection. "With Fermi guiding the way, though, we can change that picture quickly," Ray said. "We've just started to follow up on the objects located by Fermi, and have many more to go, with a great success rate so far," he added. Ransom, along with his colleague Mallory Roberts of Eureka Scientific, used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find eight of the 17 new pulsars. The scientists announced their discoveries at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are neutron stars -- the dense cores left after a massive star has exploded as a supernova. About as large as a medium-sized city, these neutron stars have strong magnetic fields that channel lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as the star rotates. When such a beam strikes the Earth, radio telescopes can detect the strong radio waves. As they age, pulsars slow their rotation rates. However, if the pulsar is part of a binary-star system and can draw in material from its companion, its rotation can be sped up. When the neutron star has been sped up to rotate hundreds of times a second, it is called a millisecond pulsar. In addition to helping scientists detect gravitational waves, study of millisecond pulars also can yield important new information about other effects of General Relativity and about fundamental particle physics. "This new ability to find many more millisecond pulsars really is a treasure chest that can yield many valuable gems of scientific discovery," Ransom said.
Dynamics and gravitational-wave emission of neutron-star merger remnants
Bauswein, A; Stergioulas, N; Janka, H -T
2016-01-01
The coalescence of a neutron-star binary is likely to result in the formation of a neutron-star merger remnant for a large range of binary mass configurations. The massive merger remnant shows strong oscillations, which are excited by the merging process, and emits gravitational waves. Here we discuss possibilities and prospects of inferring unknown stellar properties of neutron stars by the detection of postmerger gravitational-wave emission, which thus leads to constraints of the equation of state of high-density matter. In particular, the dominant oscillation frequency of the postmerger remnant provides tight limits to neutron-star radii. We mention first steps towards a practical implementation of future gravitational-wave searches for the postmerger emission. Moreover, we outline possibilities to estimate the unknown maximum mass of nonrotating neutron stars from such types of measurements. Finally, we review the origin and scientific implications of secondary peaks in the gravitational-wave spectrum of ...
Superstring gravitational wave backgrounds with spacetime supersymmetry
Kiritsis, Elias B; Lüst, Dieter; Kiritsis, E; Kounnas, C; Lüst, D
1994-01-01
We analyse the stringy gravitational wave background based on the current algebra E.sup(c).sub(2). We determine its exact spectrum and construct the modular invariant vacuum energy. The corresponding N=1 extension is also constructed. The algebra is again mapped to free bosons and fermions and we show that this background has N=4 (N=2) unbroken spacetime supersymmetry in the type II (heterotic case).
Gravitational Wave Detection in the Introductory Lab
Burko, Lior M.
2017-01-01
A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, two black holes, one of mass 36 solar masses and the other of mass 29 solar masses, were dancing their death waltz, leading to their coalescence and the emission of gravitational waves carrying away with them three solar masses of energy. More precisely, it happened 1.3 billion years ago at a distance of…
Polarizing primordial gravitational waves by parity violation
Wang, Anzhong; Zhao, Wen; Zhu, Tao
2012-01-01
We study primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) in the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of quantum gravity, in which high-order spatial derivative terms, including the ones violating parity, generically appear in order to be UV complete. Because of the parity violation and non-adiabatic evolution, a large polarization of PGWs becomes possible, and it could be well within the range of detection for the forthcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations.
Differential geometry and scalar gravitational waves
Corda, Christian
2013-01-01
Following some strong argumentations of differential geometry in the Landau's book, some corrections about errors in the old literature on scalar gravitational waves (SGWs) are given and discussed. In the analysis of the response ofi nterferometers the computation is first performed in the low frequencies approximation, then the analysis is applied to all SGWs in the full frequency and angular dependences. The presented results are in agreement with the more recent literature on SGWs.
Separating Gravitational Wave Signals from Instrument Artifacts
Littenberg, Tyson B.; Cornish, Neil J.
2010-01-01
Central to the gravitational wave detection problem is the challenge of separating features in the data produced by astrophysical sources from features produced by the detector. Matched filtering provides an optimal solution for Gaussian noise, but in practice, transient noise excursions or "glitches" complicate the analysis. Detector diagnostics and coincidence tests can be used to veto many glitches which may otherwise be misinterpreted as gravitational wave signals. The glitches that remain can lead to long tails in the matched filter search statistics and drive up the detection threshold. Here we describe a Bayesian approach that incorporates a more realistic model for the instrument noise allowing for fluctuating noise levels that vary independently across frequency bands, and deterministic "glitch fitting" using wavelets as "glitch templates", the number of which is determined by a trans-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We demonstrate the method's effectiveness on simulated data containing low amplitude gravitational wave signals from inspiraling binary black hole systems, and simulated non-stationary and non-Gaussian noise comprised of a Gaussian component with the standard LIGO/Virgo spectrum, and injected glitches of various amplitude, prevalence, and variety. Glitch fitting allows us to detect significantly weaker signals than standard techniques.
Studies in Gravitational Wave Data Analysis
Sahay, S K
2002-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the investigations of gravitational wave (GW) data analysis from a continuous source e.g. a pulsar, a binary star system. The first Chapter is an introduction to gravitational wave and second Chapter is on the data analysis concept for the detection of GW. In third Chapter we developed the Fourier Transform (FT) of a continuous gravitational wave (CGW) for ground based laser interferometric detectors for the data set of one day observation time incorporating the effects arising due to rotational as well as orbital motion of the earth. The transform is applicable for arbitrary location of detector and source. In Chapter four we have generalized the FT for the data set for (i) one year observation time and (ii) arbitrary observation time. As an application of the transform we considered spin down and N-component signal analysis. In fifth Chapter we have made an analysis of the number of templates required for matched filter analysis as applicable to these sources. We have employed the ...
Primordial gravitational waves in running vacuum cosmologies
Tamayo, D. A.; Lima, J. A. S.; Alves, M. E. S.; de Araujo, J. C. N.
2017-01-01
We investigate the cosmological production of gravitational waves in a nonsingular flat cosmology powered by a "running vacuum" energy density described by ρΛ ≡ ρΛ(H), a phenomenological expression potentially linked with the renormalization group approach in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. The model can be interpreted as a particular case of the class recently discussed by Perico et al. (2013) [25] which is termed complete in the sense that the cosmic evolution occurs between two extreme de Sitter stages (early and late time de Sitter phases). The gravitational wave equation is derived and its time-dependent part numerically integrated since the primordial de Sitter stage. The generated spectrum of gravitons is also compared with the standard calculations where an abrupt transition, from the early de Sitter to the radiation phase, is usually assumed. It is found that the stochastic background of gravitons is very similar to the one predicted by the cosmic concordance model plus inflation except at higher frequencies (ν ≳ 100 kHz). This remarkable signature of a "running vacuum" cosmology combined with the proposed high frequency gravitational wave detectors and measurements of the CMB polarization (B-modes) may provide a new window to confront more conventional models of inflation.
Connecting Numerical Relativity and Data Analysis of Gravitational Wave Detectors
Shoemaker, Deirdre; London, Lionel; Pekowsky, Larne
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves deliver information in exquisite detail about astrophysical phenomena, among them the collision of two black holes, a system completely invisible to the eyes of electromagnetic telescopes. Models that predict gravitational wave signals from likely sources are crucial for the success of this endeavor. Modeling binary black hole sources of gravitational radiation requires solving the Eintein equations of General Relativity using powerful computer hardware and sophisticated numerical algorithms. This proceeding presents where we are in understanding ground-based gravitational waves resulting from the merger of black holes and the implications of these sources for the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy.
The Quest for B Modes from Inflationary Gravitational Waves
Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely D.
2016-09-01
The search for the curl component (B mode) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization induced by inflationary gravitational waves is described. The canonical single-field slow-roll model of inflation is presented, and we explain the quantum production of primordial density perturbations and gravitational waves. It is shown how these gravitational waves then give rise to polarization in the CMB. We then describe the geometric decomposition of the CMB polarization pattern into a curl-free component (E mode) and curl component (B mode) and show explicitly that gravitational waves induce B modes. We discuss the B modes induced by gravitational lensing and by Galactic foregrounds and show how both are distinguished from those induced by inflationary gravitational waves. Issues involved in the experimental pursuit of these B modes are described, and we summarize some of the strategies being pursued. We close with a brief discussion of some other avenues toward detecting/characterizing the inflationary gravitational-wave background.
Detecting the gravitational wave background from primordial black hole dark matter
Clesse, Sebastien
2016-01-01
The black hole merging rates inferred after the gravitational-wave detection by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO and the relatively high mass of the progenitors are consistent with models of dark matter made of massive primordial black holes (PBH). PBH binaries emit gravitational waves in a broad range of frequencies that will be probed by future space interferometers (LISA) and pulsar timing arrays (PTA). The amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background expected for PBH dark matter is calculated taking into account various effects such as initial eccentricity of binaries, PBH velocities, mass distribution and clustering. It allows a detection by the LISA space interferometer, and possibly by the PTA of the SKA radio-telescope. Interestingly, one can distinguish this background from the one of non-primordial massive binaries through a specific frequency dependence, resulting from the maximal impact parameter of binaries formed by PBH capture, depending on the PBH velocity distribution and their clustering pro...
Gravitational wave polarization modes in $f(R)$ theories
Rizwana, Kausar H; Philippe, Jetzer
2016-01-01
Many studies have been carried out in the literature to evaluate the number of polarization modes of gravitational waves in modified theories, in particular in $f(R)$ theories. In the latter ones, besides the usual two transverse-traceless tensor modes present in general relativity, there are two additional scalar ones: a massive longitudinal mode and a massless transverse mode (the so-called breathing mode). This last mode has often been overlooked in the literature, due to the assumption that the application of the Lorenz gauge implies transverse-traceless wave solutions. We however show that this is in general not possible and, in particular, that the traceless condition cannot be imposed due to the fact that we no longer have a Minkowski background metric. Our findings are in agreement with the results found using the Newman-Penrose formalism, and thus clarify the inconsistencies found so far in the literature.
Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Busby, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Casey, M. M.; Cepeda, C.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; de Vine, G.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandar, S.; Di Credico, A.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Ehrens, P.; Elliffe, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Frey, R. E.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimmett, D.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hindman, N.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hoang, P.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Hua, W.; Huttner, S.; Ingram, D.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Khan, A.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; MowLowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Mukherjee, S.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Newton, G.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pitkin, M.; Plissi, M. V.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; de la Jordana, L. Sancho; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Seader, S. E.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Sheard, B.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J.; Smith, M. R.; Sneddon, P.; Somiya, K.; Speake, C.; Spjeld, O.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T.; Sun, K.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Vigeland, S.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2007-04-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has performed the fourth science run, S4, with significantly improved interferometer sensitivities with respect to previous runs. Using data acquired during this science run, we place a limit on the amplitude of a stochastic background of gravitational waves. For a frequency independent spectrum, the new Bayesian 90% upper limit is ΩGW×[H0/(72 km s-1 Mpc-1)2<6.5×10-5. This is currently the most sensitive result in the frequency range 51-150 Hz, with a factor of 13 improvement over the previous LIGO result. We discuss the complementarity of the new result with other constraints on a stochastic background of gravitational waves, and we investigate implications of the new result for different models of this background.
Gravitational Waves from Perturbed Black Holes and Relativistic Stars
Rezzolla, Luciano
2003-01-01
These lectures aim at providing an introduction to the properties of gravitational waves and in particular to those gravitational waves that are expected as a consequence of perturbations of black holes and neutron stars. Imprinted in the gravitational radiation emitted by these objects is, in fact, a wealth of physical information. In the case of black holes, a detailed knowledge of the gravitational radiation emitted as a response to perturbations will reveal us important details about thei...
Probing dynamical spacetimes with gravitational waves
Broeck, Chris Van Den
2013-01-01
This decade will see the first direct detections of gravitational waves by observatories such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo. Among the prime sources are coalescences of binary neutron stars and black holes, which are ideal probes of dynamical spacetime. This will herald a new era in the empirical study of gravitation. For the first time, we will have access to the genuinely strong-field dynamics, where low-energy imprints of quantum gravity may well show up. In addition, we will be able to search for effects which might only make their presence known at large distance scales, such as the ones that gravitational waves must traverse in going from source to observer. Finally, coalescing binaries can be used as cosmic distance markers, to study the large-scale structure and evolution of the Universe. With the advanced detector era fast approaching, concrete data analysis algorithms are being developed to look for deviations from general relativity in signals from coalescing binaries, taking into account the noisy de...
Gravitational-wave astronomy: the high-frequency window
Andersson, N; Andersson, Nils; Kokkotas, Kostas D
2004-01-01
This contribution is divided in two parts. The first part provides a text-book level introduction to gravitational radiation. The key concepts required for a discussion of gravitational-wave physics are introduced. In particular, the quadrupole formula is applied to the anticipated ``bread-and-butter'' source for detectors like LIGO, GEO600, EGO and TAMA300: inspiralling compact binaries. The second part provides a brief review of high frequency gravitational waves. In the frequency range above (say) 100Hz, gravitational collapse, rotational instabilities and oscillations of the remnant compact objects are potentially important sources of gravitational waves. Significant and unique information concerning the various stages of collapse, the evolution of protoneutron stars and the details of the supranuclear equation of state of such objects can be drawn from careful study of the gravitational-wave signal. As the amount of exciting physics one may be able to study via the detections of gravitational waves from ...
Extraction of gravitational waves in numerical relativity.
Bishop, Nigel T; Rezzolla, Luciano
2016-01-01
A numerical-relativity calculation yields in general a solution of the Einstein equations including also a radiative part, which is in practice computed in a region of finite extent. Since gravitational radiation is properly defined only at null infinity and in an appropriate coordinate system, the accurate estimation of the emitted gravitational waves represents an old and non-trivial problem in numerical relativity. A number of methods have been developed over the years to "extract" the radiative part of the solution from a numerical simulation and these include: quadrupole formulas, gauge-invariant metric perturbations, Weyl scalars, and characteristic extraction. We review and discuss each method, in terms of both its theoretical background as well as its implementation. Finally, we provide a brief comparison of the various methods in terms of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.
Extraction of Gravitational Waves in Numerical Relativity
Bishop, Nigel T
2016-01-01
A numerical-relativity calculation yields in general a solution of the Einstein equations including also a radiative part, which is in practice computed in a region of finite extent. Since gravitational radiation is properly defined only at null infinity and in an appropriate coordinate system, the accurate estimation of the emitted gravitational waves represents an old and non-trivial problem in numerical relativity. A number of methods have been developed over the years to "extract" the radiative part of the solution from a numerical simulation and these include: quadrupole formulas, gauge-invariant metric perturbations, Weyl scalars, and characteristic extraction. We review and discuss each method, in terms of both its theoretical background as well as its implementation. Finally, we provide a brief comparison of the various methods in terms of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.
Extraction of gravitational waves in numerical relativity
Bishop, Nigel T.; Rezzolla, Luciano
2016-12-01
A numerical-relativity calculation yields in general a solution of the Einstein equations including also a radiative part, which is in practice computed in a region of finite extent. Since gravitational radiation is properly defined only at null infinity and in an appropriate coordinate system, the accurate estimation of the emitted gravitational waves represents an old and non-trivial problem in numerical relativity. A number of methods have been developed over the years to "extract" the radiative part of the solution from a numerical simulation and these include: quadrupole formulas, gauge-invariant metric perturbations, Weyl scalars, and characteristic extraction. We review and discuss each method, in terms of both its theoretical background as well as its implementation. Finally, we provide a brief comparison of the various methods in terms of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.
From photons to gravitational waves: pulsars in the era of multimessenger astronomy
Razzano, Massimiliano
2015-08-01
Multiwavelength astronomy has provided the most complete picture of the Universe so far. In the coming years the second-generation interferometers like Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will reach sensitivities good enough to detect the first gravitational wave signals, opening a new window on the cosmos. In this new era of multimessenger astronomy, pulsars are very promising candidates to be studied using electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves. In fact, being the endpoints of the evolution of massive stars, they are great tools to understand stellar structure and evolution, as well as the population of the Galaxy. Moreover, they are excellent natural laboratories to probe the laws of Physics under extreme conditions of gravity and elecromagnetic fields. I will review the multimessenger opportunities for the electromagnetic and gravitational observations of pulsars, highlighting their potential as continuous gravitational waves emitters.
Narrowing the Search After Gravitational-Wave Detections
Kohler, Susanna
2016-11-01
Now that were able to detect gravitational waves, the next challenge is to spot electromagnetic signatures associated with gravitational-wave events. A team of scientists has proposed a new algorithm that might narrow the search.Artists illustrations of the stellar-merger model for short gamma-ray bursts. In the model, 1) two neutron stars inspiral, 2) they merge and produce a gamma-ray burst, 3) a small fraction of their mass is flung out and radiates as a kilonova, 4) a massive neutron star or black hole with a disk remains after the event. [NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)]Light from Neutron-Star MergersJust over a year ago, LIGO detected its first gravitational-wave signal: GW150914, produced when two black holes merged. While we didnt expect to see any sort of light-based signal from this merger, we could expect to see transient electromagnetic signatures in the case of a neutron starblack hole merger or a neutron starneutron star merger in the form of a kilonova or a short gamma-ray burst.While we havent yet detected any mergers involving neutron stars, LIGO has the sensitivity to make these detections in the local universe, and we hope to start seeing them soon! Finding the electromagnetic companions to gravitational-wave signals would be the best way to probe the evolution history of the universe and learn what happens when evolved stars collide. So how do we hunt them down?2D localization maps for LIGOs detection of GW150914 (black contours), as well as the footprints of follow-up observations (red for radio, green for optical/IR, blue for X-ray). [Abbott et al. 2016]Pinpointing a VolumeThe two LIGO detectors can already provide rough 2D localization of where the gravitational-wave signal came from, but the region predicted for GW150914 still covered 600 square degrees, which is a pretty hefty patch of sky! In light of this, the simplest follow-up strategy of tiling large survey observations of the entire predicted region is somewhat impractical and time
Observational evidence for gravitationally trapped massive axion(-like) particles
Di Lella, L
2003-01-01
Several unexpected astrophysical observations can be explained by gravitationally captured massive axions or axion-like particles, which are produced inside the Sun or other stars and are accumulated over cosmic times. Their radiative decay in solar outer space would give rise to a `self-irradiation' of the whole star, providing the time-independent component of the corona heating source (we do not address here the flaring Sun). In analogy with the Sun-irradiated Earth atmosphere, the temperature and density gradient in the corona$-$chromosphere transition region is suggestive for an omnipresent irradiation of the Sun, which is the strongest evidence for the generic axion-like scenario. The same mechanism is compatible with phenomena like the solar wind, the X-rays from the dark-side of the Moon, the X-Ray Background Radiation, the diffuse X-ray excesses (below $\\sim 1$ keV), the non-cooling of oldest Stars, etc. A temperature of $\\sim 10^6$ K is observed in various places, while the radiative decay of a popu...
Gravitational wave astronomy - astronomy of the 21st century
Dhurandhar, S V
2011-01-01
An enigmatic prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity is gravitational waves. With the observed decay in the orbit of the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar agreeing within a fraction of a percent with the theoretically computed decay from Einstein's theory, the existence of gravitational waves was firmly established. Currently there is a worldwide effort to detect gravitational waves with interferometric gravitational wave observatories or detectors and several such detectors have been built or being built. The initial detectors have reached their design sensitivities and now the effort is on to construct advanced detectors which are expected to detect gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. The era of gravitational wave astronomy has arrived. This article describes the worldwide effort which includes the effort on the Indian front - the IndIGO project -, the principle underlying interferometric detectors both on ground and in space, the principal noise sources that plague such detectors, the as...
Doppler-cancelled response to VLF gravitational waves
Caporali, A.
1981-01-01
The interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three link microwave system known as the Doppler Cancelling System is discussed. This system, which was developed for a gravitational redshift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler informatin to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-cancelled beat by burst and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler Cancelling System and that of a Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A three-fold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences.
New examples of sandwich gravitational waves and their impulsive limit
Podolsky, J
1998-01-01
Non-standard sandwich gravitational waves are constructed from the homogeneous pp vacuum solution and the motions of free test particles in the space-times are calculated explicitly. They demonstrate the caustic property of sandwich waves. By performing limits to impulsive gravitational wave it is demonstrated that the resulting particle motions are identical regardless of the ''initial'' sandwich.
Exploring the Sensitivity of Next Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors
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Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vander-Hyde, D C; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Weaver, B; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Zanolin, M; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J
2016-01-01
With the development of extremely sensitive ground-based gravitational wave detectors, and the recent detection of gravitational waves by LIGO, extensive theoretical work is going into understanding potential gravitational wave sources. To support this effort, we present here design targets for a new generation of detectors, which will be capable of observing compact binary sources with high signal-to-noise ratio throughout the universe.
Towards the bounce inflationary gravitational wave
Li, Hai-Guang; Piao, Yun-Song
2016-01-01
In bounce inflation scenario, the inflation is singularity-free, while the advantages of inflation are reserved. We analytically calculate the power spectrum of its primordial gravitational waves (GWs), and show a universal result including the physics of the bounce phase. The spectrum acquires a cutoff at large scale, while the oscillation around the cutoff scale is quite drastic, which is determined by the details of bounce. Our work highlights that the primordial GWs at large scale may encode the physics of the bounce ever happened at about $\\sim 60$ efolds before inflation.
Towards the bounce inflationary gravitational wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hai-Guang; Cai, Yong [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Piao, Yun-Song [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China)
2016-12-15
In the bounce inflation scenario, the inflation is singularity-free, while the advantages of inflation are preserved. We analytically calculate the power spectrum of its primordial gravitational waves (GWs), and show a universal result including the physics of the bounce phase. The spectrum acquires a cutoff at large scale, while the oscillation around the cutoff scale is quite drastic, which is determined by the details of bounce. Our work highlights that the primordial GWs at large scale may encode the physics of the bounce ever happened at about ∝60 efolds before inflation. (orig.)
On a nonlinear gravitational wave. Geodesics
Culetu, Hristu
2016-01-01
An exact, plane wave solution of the gravitational field equations is investigated. The source stress tensor is represented by an anisotropic null fluid with energy flux to which the energy density $\\rho$ and the pressure $p_{z}$ are negative but finite throughout the spacetime. They depend on a constant length (taken of the order of the Planck length) and acquire Planck values close to the null surface $t - z = 0$, $Oz$ axis being the direction of propagation. The timelike geodesics of a test particle are contained in a plane whose normal has constant direction and the null trajectories are comoving with a plane of fixed direction.
Sharing the Wonder of Gravitational Waves
Key, Joey Shapiro; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2017-01-01
To share as widely as possible the excitement of the new discovery of gravitational waves, scientists in the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) and Virgo Collaboration prepared communication tools for a worldwide and diverse audience. This work included resources for traditional and social media outlets, preparing to engage at a wide range of levels and interests. The response to the LIGO discovery announcement indicated that the public is eager to engage with frontier physics. The LSC and Virgo outreach efforts hold lessons for broad STEM outreach including examples of citizen science initiatives and art +science collaboration as a way to inspire and engage a wide range of audiences.
Using Atomic Clocks to Detect Gravitational Waves
Loeb, Abraham
2015-01-01
Atomic clocks have recently reached a fractional timing precision of $<10^{-18}$. We point out that an array of atomic clocks, distributed along the Earth's orbit around the Sun, will have the sensitivity needed to detect the time dilation effect of mHz gravitational waves (GWs), such as those emitted by supermassive black hole binaries at cosmological distances. Simultaneous measurement of clock-rates at different phases of a passing GW provides an attractive alternative to the interferometric detection of temporal variations in distance between test masses separated by less than a GW wavelength, currently envisioned for the eLISA mission.
Searching for gravitational waves from known pulsars
Pitkin, M; Ageev, A; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Díaz, M; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; González, G; Goler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Abbott, R; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J; Pitkin, Matthew
2005-01-01
We present upper limits on the amplitude of gravitational waves from 28 isolated pulsars using data from the second science run of LIGO. The results are also expressed as a constraint on the pulsars' equatorial ellipticities. We discuss a new way of presenting such ellipticity upper limits that takes account of the uncertainties of the pulsar moment of inertia. We also extend our previous method to search for known pulsars in binary systems, of which there are about 80 in the sensitive frequency range of LIGO and GEO 600.
Gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers
Read, Jocelyn; Cullen, Torrey; Flynn, Eric; Lockett-Ruiz, Veronica; Park, Conner; Vong, Susan
2016-03-01
The inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars is expected to provide many signals for Advanced LIGO at design sensitivity. The waveform models currently used to search for and parameterize these signals ignore effects near the merger: as the stars coalesce, the gravitational waves depend additionally on the properties of matter in the core of the stars. In this talk, I will discuss potential systematic error from neglecting these features and present phenomenological waveform models currently being developed to capture the dynamics of merging neutron stars.
Noises in Detecting Relic Gravitational Wave
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LEE Zhi-Jun; WAN Zhen-Zhu
2006-01-01
We analyse the three basic kinds of noises in detecting the relic gravitational wave (GW), which are the noises caused by the thermal radiation in the detecting cavity and by the scattering of the Gaussian beam in the detecting cavity, and noise in the microwave radiometers. The analysis shows that a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio may be achieved for a detecting device with a suitable geometric structure only when the temperature of the environment is no more than T = 0.6 K, and the power of the radiation of the Gaussian beam is no less than P = 105W.
The astrophysical gravitational wave stochastic background
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tania Regimbau
2011-01-01
A stochastic background of gravitational waves with astrophysical origins may have resulted from the superposition of a large number of unresolved sources since the beginning of stellar activity.Its detection would put very strong constraints on the physical properties of compact objects, the initial mass function and star formarion history.On the other hand, it could be a ‘noise' that would mask the stochastic background of its cosmological origin.We review the main astrophysical processes which are able to produce a stochastic background and discuss how they may differ from the primordial contribution in terms of statistical properties.Current detection methods are also presented.
Primordial gravitational waves from the space-condensate inflation model
Koh, Seoktae; Tumurtushaa, Gansukh
2015-01-01
We consider the space-condensate inflation model to study the primordial gravitational waves generated in the early Universe. We calculate the energy spectrum of gravitational waves induced by the space-condensate inflation model for full frequency range with assumption that the phase transition between two consecutive regimes to be abrupt during evolution of the Universe. The suppression of energy spectrum is found in our model for the decreasing frequency of gravitational waves depending on the model parameter. To realize the suppression of energy spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves, we study an existence of the early phase transition during inflation for the space-condensate inflation model.
Data Quality Studies of Enhanced Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors
McIver, Jessica
2012-01-01
Data quality assessment plays an essential role in the quest to detect gravitational wave signals in data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Interferometer data contains a high rate of noise transients from the environment, the detector hardware, and the detector control systems. These transients severely limit the statistical significance of gravitational wave candidates of short duration and/or poorly modeled waveforms. This paper describes the data quality studies that have been performed in recent LIGO and Virgo observing runs to mitigate the impact of transient detector artifacts on the gravitational wave searches.
Mapping the nano-Hertz gravitational wave sky
Cornish, Neil J
2014-01-01
We describe a new method for extracting gravitational wave signals from pulsar timing data. We show that any gravitational wave signal can be decomposed into an orthogonal set of sky maps, with the number of maps equal to the number of pulsars in the timing array. These maps may be used as a basis to construct gravitational wave templates for any type of source, including collections of point sources. A variant of the standard Hellings-Downs correlation analysis is recovered for statistically isotropic signals. The template based approach allows us to probe potential anisotropies in the signal and produce maps of the gravitational wave sky.
The Quest for B Modes from Inflationary Gravitational Waves
Kamionkowski, Marc
2015-01-01
The search for the curl component (B mode) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization induced by inflationary gravitational waves is described. The canonical single-field slow-roll model of inflation is presented, and we explain the quantum production of primordial density perturbations and gravitational waves. It is shown how these gravitational waves then give rise to polarization in the CMB. We then describe the geometric decomposition of the CMB polarization pattern into a curl-free component (E mode) and curl component (B mode) and show explicitly that gravitational waves induce B modes. We discuss the B modes induced by gravitational lensing and by Galactic foregrounds and show how both are distinguished from those induced by inflationary gravitational waves. Issues involved in the experimental pursuit of these B modes are described, and we summarize some of the strategies being pursued. We close with a brief discussion of some other avenues toward detecting/characterizing the inflationary gr...
Gravitational waves from the remnants of the first stars
Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S.; Barausse, Enrico; Magg, Mattis; Stacy, Athena
2016-07-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) provide a revolutionary tool to investigate yet unobserved astrophysical objects. Especially the first stars, which are believed to be more massive than present-day stars, might be indirectly observable via the merger of their compact remnants. We develop a self-consistent, cosmologically representative, semi-analytical model to simulate the formation of the first stars. By extrapolating binary stellar-evolution models at 10 per cent solar metallicity to metal-free stars, we track the individual systems until the coalescence of the compact remnants. We estimate the contribution of primordial stars to the merger rate density and to the detection rate of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO). Owing to their higher masses, the remnants of primordial stars produce strong GW signals, even if their contribution in number is relatively small. We find a probability of ≳1 per cent that the current detection GW150914 is of primordial origin. We estimate that aLIGO will detect roughly 1 primordial BH-BH merger per year for the final design sensitivity, although this rate depends sensitively on the primordial initial mass function (IMF). Turning this around, the detection of black hole mergers with a total binary mass of ˜ 300 M⊙ would enable us to constrain the primordial IMF.
Gravitational Waves from the Remnants of the First Stars
Hartwig, Tilman; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S; Barausse, Enrico; Magg, Mattis; Stacy, Athena
2016-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) provide a revolutionary tool to investigate yet unobserved astrophysical objects. Especially the first stars, which are believed to be more massive than present-day stars, might be indirectly observable via the merger of their compact remnants. We develop a self-consistent, cosmologically representative, semi-analytical model to simulate the formation of the first stars and track the binary stellar evolution of the individual systems until the coalescence of the compact remnants. We estimate the contribution of primordial stars to the intrinsic merger rate density and to the detection rate of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO). Owing to their higher masses, the remnants of primordial stars produce strong GW signals, even if their contribution in number is relatively small. We find a probability of $\\sim 1\\%$ that the current detection GW150914 is of primordial origin. We estimate that aLIGO will detect roughly 1 primordial BH-BH merger per year f...
Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mariani, Mauro, E-mail: mariani@carina.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); León, Gabriel, E-mail: gleon@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria – Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-01-10
The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.
Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S V Dhurandhar
2004-10-01
Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves fall broadly into three categories: (i) transient and bursts, (ii) periodic or continuous wave and (iii) stochastic. Each type of source requires a different type of data analysis strategy. In this talk various data analysis strategies will be reviewed. Optimal filtering is used for extracting binary inspirals; Fourier transforms over Doppler shifted time intervals are computed for long duration periodic sources; optimally weighted cross-correlations for stochastic background. Some recent schemes which efficiently search for inspirals will be described. The performance of some of these techniques on real data obtained will be discussed. Finally, some results on cancellation of systematic noises in laser interferometric space antenna (LISA) will be presented and future directions indicated.
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)
2017-04-15
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics. (orig.)
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2017-04-01
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics.
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: New perspectives
Cabral, Francisco
2016-01-01
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and GW have a special relevance since it might open new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provide information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information of the GW which generates them. We also show very briefly the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GW and the implications for astrophysics.
The Data Analysis in Gravitational Wave Detection
Xiao-ge, Wang; Lebigot, Eric; Zhi-hui, Du; Jun-wei, Cao; Yun-yong, Wang; Fan, Zhang; Yong-zhi, Cai; Mu-zi, Li; Zong-hong, Zhu; Jin, Qian; Cong, Yin; Jian-bo, Wang; Wen, Zhao; Yang, Zhang; Blair, David; Li, Ju; Chun-nong, Zhao; Lin-qing, Wen
2017-01-01
Gravitational wave (GW) astronomy based on the GW detection is a rising interdisciplinary field, and a new window for humanity to observe the universe, followed after the traditional astronomy with the electromagnetic waves as the detection means, it has a quite important significance for studying the origin and evolution of the universe, and for extending the astronomical research field. The appearance of laser interferometer GW detector has opened a new era of GW detection, and the data processing and analysis of GWs have already been developed quickly around the world, to provide a sharp weapon for the GW astronomy. This paper introduces systematically the tool software that commonly used for the data analysis of GWs, and discusses in detail the basic methods used in the data analysis of GWs, such as the time-frequency analysis, composite analysis, pulsar timing analysis, matched filter, template, χ2 test, and Monte-Carlo simulation, etc.
Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauro Mariani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.
Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars
Rosado, Pablo A.
2012-11-01
The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for Ω(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which
The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy
Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Miao, HaiXing; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Blair, Carl; Ma, YiQiu; Qin, JiaYi; Page, Michael
2015-12-01
This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.
Gravitational wave astronomy with radio galaxy surveys
Raccanelli, Alvise
2016-01-01
In the next decade, new astrophysical instruments will deliver the first large-scale maps of gravitational waves and radio sources. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the possibility to combine them to provide new and complementary ways to study the Universe. Using simulated catalogues appropriate to the planned surveys, it is possible to predict measurements of the cross-correlation between radio sources and GW maps and the effects of a stochastic gravitational wave background on galaxy maps. Effects of GWs on the large scale structure of the Universe can be used to investigate the nature of the progenitors of merging BHs, the validity of Einstein's General Relativity, models for dark energy, and detect a stochastic background of GW. The results obtained show that the galaxy-GW cross-correlation can provide useful information in the near future, while the detection of tensor perturbation effects on the LSS will require instruments with capabilities beyond the currently planned next generation of radio ar...
An Atomic Gravitational Wave Interferometric Sensor (AGIS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2008-08-01
We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The signal scales with the distance between the interferometers, which can be large since only the light travels over this distance, not the atoms. The terrestrial experiment with baseline {approx} 1 km can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment with baseline {approx} 1000 km can probe the same frequency spectrum as LISA with comparable strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations, acceleration noise, and significantly reduces spacecraft control requirements. We analyze the backgrounds in this configuration and discuss methods for controlling them to the required levels.
Astrophysical Model Selection in Gravitational Wave Astronomy
Adams, Matthew R.; Cornish, Neil J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.
2012-01-01
Theoretical studies in gravitational wave astronomy have mostly focused on the information that can be extracted from individual detections, such as the mass of a binary system and its location in space. Here we consider how the information from multiple detections can be used to constrain astrophysical population models. This seemingly simple problem is made challenging by the high dimensionality and high degree of correlation in the parameter spaces that describe the signals, and by the complexity of the astrophysical models, which can also depend on a large number of parameters, some of which might not be directly constrained by the observations. We present a method for constraining population models using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach which simultaneously infers the source parameters and population model and provides the joint probability distributions for both. We illustrate this approach by considering the constraints that can be placed on population models for galactic white dwarf binaries using a future space-based gravitational wave detector. We find that a mission that is able to resolve approximately 5000 of the shortest period binaries will be able to constrain the population model parameters, including the chirp mass distribution and a characteristic galaxy disk radius to within a few percent. This compares favorably to existing bounds, where electromagnetic observations of stars in the galaxy constrain disk radii to within 20%.
GRB beaming and gravitational-wave observations
Chen, Hsin-Yu
2012-01-01
Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. These estimates rely crucially on the growing consensus that short gamma-ray bursts are associated with the merger of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole, but otherwise make no assumptions beyond the observed rate of short GRBs. In particular, our results do not assume coincident gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. We show that the non-detection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the progenitor masses and beaming angles of gamma-ray bursts. For future detectors, we find that the first detection of a NS-NS binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of a modest network of observatories (e.g., only LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at modest sensitivities (e.g., ad...
Gravitational Wave Detection in the Introductory Lab
Burko, Lior M.
2017-01-01
Great physics breakthroughs are rarely included in the introductory physics course. General relativity and binary black hole coalescence are no different, and can be included in the introductory course only in a very limited sense. However, we can design activities that directly involve the detection of GW150914, the designation of the Gravitation Wave signal detected on September 14, 2015, thereby engage the students in this exciting discovery directly. The activities naturally do not include the construction of a detector or the detection of gravitational waves. Instead, we design it to include analysis of the data from GW150914, which includes some interesting analysis activities for students of the introductory course. The same activities can be assigned either as a laboratory exercise or as a computational project for the same population of students. The analysis tools used here are simple and available to the intended student population. It does not include the sophisticated analysis tools, which were used by LIGO to carefully analyze the detected signal. However, these simple tools are sufficient to allow the student to get important results. We have successfully assigned this lab project for students of the introductory course with calculus at Georgia Gwinnett College.
Gravitational wave astronomy: needle in a haystack.
Cornish, Neil J
2013-02-13
A worldwide array of highly sensitive ground-based interferometers stands poised to usher in a new era in astronomy with the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The data from these instruments will provide a unique perspective on extreme astrophysical objects, such as neutron stars and black holes, and will allow us to test Einstein's theory of gravity in the strong field, dynamical regime. To fully realize these goals, we need to solve some challenging problems in signal processing and inference, such as finding rare and weak signals that are buried in non-stationary and non-Gaussian instrument noise, dealing with high-dimensional model spaces, and locating what are often extremely tight concentrations of posterior mass within the prior volume. Gravitational wave detection using space-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays bring with them the additional challenge of having to isolate individual signals that overlap one another in both time and frequency. Promising solutions to these problems will be discussed, along with some of the challenges that remain.
Distributional Tests for Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae
Szczepanczyk, Marek; LIGO Collaboration
2017-01-01
Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSN) are spectacular and violent deaths of massive stars. CCSN are some of the most interesting candidates for producing gravitational-waves (GW) transients. Current published results focus on methodologies to detect single GW unmodelled transients. The advantages of these tests are that they do not require a background for which we have an analytical model. Examples of non-parametric tests that will be compared are Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, chi squared, and asymmetric chi squared. I will present methodological results using publicly released LIGO-S6 data recolored to the design sensitivity of Advanced LIGO and that will be time lagged between interferometers sites so that the resulting coincident events are not GW.
Gravitational waves from remnants of ultraluminous X-ray sources
Hopman, C; Hopman, Clovis; Zwart, Simon Portegies
2005-01-01
Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with X-ray luminosities larger than the Eddington luminosity of stellar mass objects may be powered by intermediate mass black holes (IBHs) of masses Mbh~10^3Msun. If IBHs form in young dense stellar clusters, they can be fed by Roche lobe overflow from a tidally captured massive (Ms>10Msun) stellar companion. After the donor leaves the main sequence it forms a compact remnant, which spirals in due to gravitational wave (GW) emission. We show that space based detectors such as the Light Interferometer Space Antenna are likely to detect several of these sources. GW sources stemming from this scenario have small eccentricities which give distinct GW signals. Detection of such a GW signal will unambiguously prove the existence of IBHs, and support the hypothesis that some ULXs are powered by IBHs with captured companions.
Detecting gravitational waves from the galactic center with Pulsar Timing
Ray, Alak; Zwart, Simon Portegies
2014-01-01
Black holes orbiting the Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) Sgr A* in the Milky-way galaxy center (GC) generate gravitational waves. The spectrum, due to stars and black holes, is continuous below 40 nHz while individual BHs within about 200 AU of the central SMBH stick out in the spectrum at higher frequencies. The GWs can be detected by timing radio pulsars within a few parsecs of this region. Future observations with the Square Kilometer Array of such pulsars with sufficient timing accuracy may be sensitive to signals from intermediate mass BHs (IMBH) in a 3 year observation baseline. The recent detection of radio pulsations from the magnetar SGR J1745-29 very near the GC opens up the possibilities of detecting millisecond pulsars (which can be used as probes of the GWs) through lines of sight with only moderate pulse and angular broadening due to scattering.
A new gravitational wave background from the Big Bang
Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2008-01-01
The reheating of the universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubble-like structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating: First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally sets the end of gravitational waves production. From then on, these waves propagate unimpeded to us. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for GUT scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. However, low-scale models could still produce a detectable signal...
Shinkai, Hisa-aki; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu
2016-01-01
Based on a dynamical formation model of a super-massive black-hole (SMBH), we estimate expected observational profile of gravitational wave at ground-based detectors, such as KAGRA or advanced LIGO/VIRGO. Focusing that the second generation of detectors have enough sensitivity from 10 Hz and up (especially with KAGRA due to its location at less seismic noise), we are able to detect the ring-down gravitational wave of a BH of the mass $M 1$ per year for $\\rho=10$. Thus if we observe a BH with more than $100 M_\\odot$ in future gravitational wave observations, our model naturally explains its source.
BOOK REVIEW Analysis of Gravitational-Wave Data Analysis of Gravitational-Wave Data
Fairhurst, Stephen
2010-12-01
The field of gravitational-wave data analysis has expanded greatly over the past decade and significant developments have been made in methods of analyzing the data taken by resonant bar and interferometric detectors, as well as analysis of mock LISA data. This book introduces much of the required theoretical background in gravitational physics, statistics and time series analysis before moving on to a discussion of gravitational-wave data analysis techniques themselves. The book opens with an overview of the theory of gravitational radiation, providing a comprehensive discussion of various introductory topics: linearized gravity, transverse traceless gauge, the effects of gravitational waves (via geodesic deviation), energy and momentum carried by the waves, and generation of gravitational waves. The second chapter provides an introduction to the various sources of gravitational waves, followed by more detailed expositions on some of the primary sources. For example, the description of compact binary coalescence is thorough and includes a brief exposition of the post-Newtonian formalism and the effective one body method. There also follows extended derivations of gravitational waves from distorted neutron stars, supernovae and a stochastic background. Chapter three provides an introduction to the statistical theory of signal detection, including a discussion of parameter estimation via the Fisher matrix formalism. This is presented from a very mathematical, postulate based, standpoint and I expect that even established gravitational-wave data analysts will find the derivations here more formal than they are used to. The discussion of likelihood ratio tests and the importance of prior probabilities are presented particularly clearly. The fourth chapter covers time series analysis, with power spectrum estimation, extraction of periodic signals and goodness of fit tests. Chapter five switches topics and gives the details of the response of gravitational-wave
Gravitational wave astronomy— astronomy of the 21st century
Dhurandhar, S. V.
2011-12-01
An enigmatic prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity is gravitational waves. With the observed decay in the orbit of the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar agreeing within a fraction of a percent with the theoretically computed decay from Einstein's theory, the existence of gravitational waves was firmly established. Currently there is a worldwide effort to detect gravitational waves with inteferometric gravitational wave observatories or detectors and several such detectors have been built or are being built. The initial detectors have reached their design sensitivities and now the effort is on to construct advanced detectors which are expected to detect gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. The era of gravitational wave astronomy has arrived. This article describes the worldwide effort which includes the effort on the Indian front— the IndIGO project —, the principle underlying interferometric detectors both on ground and in space, the principal noise sources that plague such detectors, the astrophysical sources of gravitational waves that one expects to detect by these detectors and some glimpse of the data analysis methods involved in extracting the very weak gravitational wave signals from detector noise.
Summary of the workshop: Classical general relativity and gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jhingan, Sanjay [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi 110025 (India); Ghosh, S G [BITS - Pilani DUBAI, P.B. 500022, Dubai International Academic City, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)], E-mail: sjhingan@iucaa.enet.in, E-mail: ghosh@bitsdubai.com
2008-11-01
In the workshop, classical general relativity and gravitational waves at ICGC-2007, eleven lectures were presented on classical general relativity and nine on gravitational waves. Lectures covered diverse topics in these areas during the three days of parallel sessions. We classify and summarize here the research work and results of the oral presentations made.
Parameter estimation of gravitational wave compact binary coalescences
Haster, Carl-Johan; LIGO Scientific Collaboration Collaboration
2017-01-01
The first detections of gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes have allowed unprecedented inference on the astrophysical parameters of such binaries. Given recent updates in detector capabilities, gravitational wave model templates and data analysis techniques, in this talk I will describe the prospects of parameter estimation of compact binary coalescences during the second observation run of the LIGO-Virgo collaboration.
Optimizing Vetoes for Gravitational-wave Transient Searches
Essick, R.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Katsavounidis, E.
2014-01-01
Interferometric gravitational-wave detectors like LIGO, GEO600 and Virgo record a surplus of information above and beyond possible gravitational-wave events. These auxiliary channels capture information about the state of the detector and its surroundings which can be used to infer potential terrestrial noise sources of some gravitational-wave-like events. We present an algorithm addressing the ordering (or equivalently optimizing) of such information from auxiliary systems in gravitational-wave detectors to establish veto conditions in searches for gravitational-wave transients. The procedure was used to identify vetoes for searches for unmodelled transients by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations during their science runs from 2005 through 2007. In this work we present the details of the algorithm; we also use a limited amount of data from LIGO's past runs in order to examine the method, compare it with other methods, and identify its potential to characterize the instruments themselves. We examine the dependence of Receiver Operating Characteristic curves on the various parameters of the veto method and the implementation on real data. We find that the method robustly determines important auxiliary channels, ordering them by the apparent strength of their correlations to the gravitational-wave channel. This list can substantially reduce the background of noise events in the gravitational-wave data. In this way it can identify the source of glitches in the detector as well as assist in establishing confidence in the detection of gravitational-wave transients.
How the green light was given for gravitational wave search
Hill, C Denson
2016-01-01
The recent detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO/VIRGO team is an incredibly impressive achievement of experimental physics. It is also a tremendous success of the theory of General Relativity. It confirms the existence of black holes; shows that binary black holes exist; that they may collide and that during the merging process gravitational waves are produced. These are all predictions of General Relativity theory in its fully nonlinear regime. The existence of gravitational waves was predicted by Albert Einstein in 1916 within the framework of linearized Einstein theory. Contrary to common belief, even the very \\emph{definition} of a gravitational wave in the fully nonlinear Einstein theory was provided only after Einstein's death. Actually, Einstein had arguments against the existence of nonlinear gravitational waves (they were erroneous but he did not accept this), which virtually stopped development of the subject until the mid 1950s. This is what we refer to as the \\emph{Red Light} for gravitati...
Gravitational-Wave Detection and Astrophysics with Pulsar Timing Arrays
Burke-Spolaor, Sarah
2015-01-01
We have begun an exciting era for gravitational wave detection, as several world-leading experiments are breaching the threshold of anticipated signal strengths. Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are pan-Galactic gravitational wave detectors that are already cutting into the expected strength of gravitational waves from cosmic strings and binary supermassive black holes in the nHz-$\\mu$Hz gravitational wave band. These limits are leading to constraints on the evolutionary state of the Universe. Here, we provide a broad review of this field, from how pulsars are used as tools for detection, to astrophysical sources of uncertainty in the signals PTAs aim to see, to the primary current challenge areas for PTA work. This review aims to provide an up-to-date reference point for new parties interested in the field of gravitational wave detection via pulsar timing.
Do laser interferometers absorb energy from gravitational waves ?
Ma, Yiqiu; Zhao, Chunnong; Kells, William
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss the energy interaction between gravitational waves and laser interferom- eter gravitational wave detectors. We show that the widely held view that the laser interferometer gravitational wave detector absorbs no energy from gravitational waves is only valid under the approximation of a frequency-independent optomechanical coupling strength and a pump laser without detuning with respect to the resonance of the interferometer. For a strongly detuned interferometer, the optical-damping dynamics dissipates gravitational wave energy through the interaction between the test masses and the optical ?eld. For a non-detuned interferometer, the frequency-dependence of the optomechanical coupling strength causes a tiny energy dissipation, which is proved to be equivalent to the Doppler friction raised by Braginsky et.al.
Enabling high confidence detections of gravitational-wave bursts
Littenberg, Tyson B; Cornish, Neil J; Millhouse, Margaret
2015-01-01
With the advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors taking observations the detection of gravitational waves is expected within the next few years. Extracting astrophysical information from gravitational wave detections is a well-posed problem and thoroughly studied when detailed models for the waveforms are available. However, one motivation for the field of gravitational wave astronomy is the potential for new discoveries. Recognizing and characterizing unanticipated signals requires data analysis techniques which do not depend on theoretical predictions for the gravitational waveform. Past searches for short-duration un-modeled gravitational wave signals have been hampered by transient noise artifacts, or "glitches," in the detectors. In some cases, even high signal-to-noise simulated astrophysical signals have proven difficult to distinguish from glitches, so that essentially any plausible signal could be detected with at most 2-3 $\\sigma$ level confidence. We have put forth the BayesWave algorithm to differentiat...
Directed search for continuous gravitational waves from the Galactic center
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, R. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S. H.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Bessis, D.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bowers, J.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brannen, C. A.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Deleeuw, E.; Deléglise, S.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Dmitry, K.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, E.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B.; Hall, E.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Horrom, T.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Hua, Z.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Iafrate, J.; Ingram, D. R.
2013-11-01
We present the results of a directed search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown, isolated neutron stars in the Galactic center region, performed on two years of data from LIGO’s fifth science run from two LIGO detectors. The search uses a semicoherent approach, analyzing coherently 630 segments, each spanning 11.5 hours, and then incoherently combining the results of the single segments. It covers gravitational wave frequencies in a range from 78 to 496 Hz and a frequency-dependent range of first-order spindown values down to -7.86×10-8Hz/s at the highest frequency. No gravitational waves were detected. The 90% confidence upper limits on the gravitational wave amplitude of sources at the Galactic center are ˜3.35×10-25 for frequencies near 150 Hz. These upper limits are the most constraining to date for a large-parameter-space search for continuous gravitational wave signals.
Gravitational wave production at the end of inflation.
Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T; Lim, Eugene A
2007-11-30
We consider gravitational wave production due to parametric resonance at the end of inflation, or "preheating." This leads to large inhomogeneities that source a stochastic background of gravitational waves at scales inside the comoving Hubble horizon at the end of inflation. We confirm that the present amplitude of these gravitational waves need not depend on the inflationary energy scale. We analyze an explicit model where the inflationary energy scale is approximately 10{9} GeV, yielding a signal close to the sensitivity of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Big Bang Observer. This signal highlights the possibility of a new observational "window" into inflationary physics and provides significant motivation for searches for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves in the Hz to GHz range, with an amplitude on the order of Omega_{gw}(k)h{2} approximately 10{-11}.
Propagation of gravitational waves in the nonperturbative spinor vacuum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Eurasian National University, Institute for Basic Research, Astana (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Folomeev, Vladimir [Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
2014-09-15
The propagation of gravitational waves on the background of a nonperturbative vacuum of a spinor field is considered. It is shown that there are several distinctive features in comparison with the propagation of plane gravitational waves through empty space: there exists a fixed phase difference between the h{sub yy,zz} and h{sub yz} components of the wave; the phase and group velocities of gravitational waves are not equal to the velocity of light; the group velocity is always less than the velocity of light; under some conditions the gravitational waves are either damped or absent; for given frequency, there exist two waves with different wave vectors. We also discuss the possibility of an experimental verification of the obtained effects as a tool to investigate nonperturbative quantum field theories. (orig.)
On the direct detection of gravitational waves
Pustovoit, V. I.
2016-10-01
Different types of gravitational wave (GW) detectors are considered. It is noted that interferometric techniques offer the greatest prospects for GW registration due to their high sensitivity and extremely wide frequency band. Using laser interferometers, proposed as far back as 1962 in the work by M E Gertsenshtein and V I Pustovoit published in Russian (Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., vol. 43, p. 605, 1962) and in English translation (Sov. Phys. JETP, vol. 16, p. 433, 1963), it proved possible for the first time to directly detect GW emission from a merger of two black holes. It is noted that the assertion that Gertsen-shtein-Pustovoit's work was unknown to some of those experts involved in direct GW detection is inconsistent with reality. The problems of high-power laser radiation affecting the electrostatic polarization of free-mass mirrors are discussed. It is shown that mirror polarization can lead to additional links with electrically conducting elements of the design resulting in the interferometer's reduced sensitivity. Some new prospects for developing high reflection structures are discussed and heat extraction problems are considered. This article is the revised and extended version of the report “On the first direct detection of gravitational waves” delivered by V I Pustovoit at the Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (March 2, 2016). All other reports presented at the session were published in the preceding issue of Physics-Uspekhi (September 2016) (see Refs [108, 111-113]). (Editorial note)
Dynamical 3-Space Gravitational Waves: Reverberation Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Gravity theory missed a key dynamical process that became ap parent only when ex- pressed in terms of a velocity field, instead of the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field. This dynamical process involves an additional self-i nteraction of the dynam- ical 3-space, and experimental data reveals that its streng th is set by the fine struc- ture constant, implying a fundamental link between gravity and quantum theory. The dynamical 3-space has been directly detected in numerous li ght-speed anisotropy ex- periments. Quantum matter has been shown to exhibit an accel eration caused by the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the 3-space flow, givi ng the first derivation of gravity from a deeper theory, as a quantum wave refraction effect. EM radiation is also refracted in a similar manner. The anisotropy experiments have all shown 3-space wave / turbulence effects, with the latest revealing the fractal structure of 3-s pace. Here we report the prediction of a new effect, namely a reverberation effect, when the gravi- tational waves propagate in the 3-space inflow of a large mass . This effect arises from the non-linear dynamics of 3-space. These reverberations c ould offer an explanation for the Shnoll effect, in which cosmological factors influence stochastic pro cesses, such as radioactive decay rates.
Low-frequency Gravitational-wave Science with eLISA
Vallisneri, Michele; eLISA Science Study Team
2013-01-01
I review the expected science performance of eLISA, the proposed European-led gravitational-wave detector that may be selected as ESA "L2" Cosmic Vision mission. eLISA will survey the low-frequency gravitational-wave sky (from 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz), detecting and characterizing a broad variety of systems and events throughout the Universe, including the coalescences of massive black holes brought together by galaxy mergers; the inspirals of stellar-mass black holes and compact stars into central galactic black holes; several millions of ultracompact binaries, both detached and mass transferring, in the Galaxy; and possibly unforeseen sources such as the relic gravitational-wave radiation from the early Universe. eLISA's high signal-to-noise measurements will provide new insight into the structure and history of the Universe, and they will test general relativity in its strong-field dynamical regime.
Fermionic Lorentz violation and its implications for interferometric gravitational-wave detection
Schreck, M.
2017-07-01
The recent direct detection of gravitational waves reported by Advanced LIGO has inspired the current article. In this context, a particular Lorentz-violating framework for classical, massive particles is the focus. The latter is characterized by a preferred direction in spacetime comprised of CPT-odd components with mass dimension 1. Curvature effects in spacetime, which are caused by a propagating gravitational wave, are assumed to deform the otherwise constant background field. In accordance with spontaneous Lorentz violation, a particular choice for the vector field is taken, which was proposed elsewhere. The geodesic equations for a particle that is subject to this type of Lorentz violation are obtained. Subsequently, their numerical solutions are computed and discussed. The particular model considered leads to changes in the particle trajectory whose impact on interferometric gravitational-wave experiments such as LIGO will be studied.
LIGO-Virgo searches for gravitational waves from coalescing binaries: a status update
Sengupta, Anand S
2010-01-01
Coalescing compact binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes are considered as one of the most promising sources for Earth based gravitational wave detectors. The LIGO-Virgo joint collaboration's Compact Binary Coalescence (CBC) group is searching for gravitational waves emitted by these astrophysical systems by matched filtering the data against theoretically modeled template waveforms. A variety of waveform template families are employed depending on the mass range probed by the search and the stage of the inspiral phase targeted: restricted post-Newtonian for systems having total mass less than $35 \\msun$, numerical relativity inspired complete inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms for more massive systems up to $100\\msun$ and ringdown templates for modeling perturbed black holes up to $500\\msun$. We give a status update on CBC group's current efforts and upcoming plans in detecting signatures of astrophysical gravitational waves.
Primordial gravitational waves in supersolid inflation
Ricciardone, Angelo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2017-07-01
Supersolid inflation is a class of inflationary theories that simultaneously breaks time and space reparametrization invariance during inflation, with distinctive features for the dynamics of cosmological fluctuations. We investigate concrete realizations of such a scenario, including non-minimal couplings between gravity and the fields driving inflation. We focus in particular on the dynamics of primordial gravitational waves and discuss how their properties depend on the pattern of symmetry breaking that we consider. Tensor modes can have a blue spectrum, and for the first time we build models in which the squeezed limit of primordial tensor bispectra can be parametrically enhanced with respect to standard single-field scenarios. At leading order in a perturbative expansion, the tensor-to-scalar ratio depends only on the parameter controlling the breaking of space reparametrization. It is independent from the quantities controlling the breaking of time reparametrization, and this represents a difference with respect to standard single-field inflationary models.
Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and LISA
Baker, John
2009-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are central to many key science objectives of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). For many systems the strongest part of the signal is only understood by numerical simulations. Gravitational wave emissions are understood by simulations of vacuum General Relativity (GR). I discuss numerical simulation results from the perspective of LISA's needs, with indications of work that remains to be done. Some exciting scientific opportunities associated with LISA observations would be greatly enhanced if prompt electromagnetic signature could be associated. I discuss simulations to explore this possibility. Numerical simulations are important now for clarifying LISA's science potential and planning the mission. We also consider how numerical simulations might be applied at the time of LISA's operation.
Probing neutron stars with gravitational waves
Owen, Benjamin J
2009-01-01
Within the next decade gravitational-wave (GW) observations by Advanced LIGO in the United States, Advanced Virgo and GEO HF in Europe, and possibly other ground-based instruments will provide unprecedented opportunities to look directly into the dense interiors of neutron stars which are opaque to all forms of electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The 10-10000 Hz frequency band available to these ground-based interferometers is inhabited by many neutron star mode frequencies, spin frequencies, and inverse dynamical timescales. GWs can provide information on bulk properties of neutron stars (masses, radii, locations...) as well as microphysics of their substance (crystalline structure, viscosity, composition...), some of which is difficult or impossible to obtain by EM observations alone. The former will tell us about the astrophysics of neutron stars, and the latter will illuminate fundamental issues in nuclear and particle physics and the physics of extremely condensed matter. Although GW searches can be done "bl...
The Mario Schenberg Gravitational Wave Antenna
Oliveira, Nei F.; Aguiar, Odylio D.
2016-10-01
This article is an account of the work done in the Mario Schenberg gravitational wave antenna up to date, focusing mainly in the participation of the Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) do Instituto de Física da Universidade de S. Paulo. The text starts with an introduction describing the problem, the Brazilian project, and the participant institutions. This is followed by a description of the construction of the infrastructure, initial tests, and final basic assembly at the LESBT. Results are presented for the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the cryogenic system and for the development of active transducers in its various stages, culminating with the last version in which the project sensitivity of ˜4 × 10-20 Hz-1/2 was attained.
Detection relic gravitational waves in thermal case
Ghayour, Basem
2016-01-01
The thermal spectrum of relic gravitational waves causes the new amplitude that called `modified amplitude'. Our analysis shows that, there exist some chances for detection of the thermal spectrum in addition to the usual spectrum by Adv.LIGO and Dml detectors. The behaviour of the inflation and reheating stages are often known as power law expansion like $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta}$, $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta_s}$ respectively. The $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ have an unique effect on the shape of the spectrum. We find some upper bounds on the $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ by comparison the usual and thermal spectrum with the Adv.LIGO and Dml. As this result gives us more information about the nature of the evolution of inflation and reheating stages.
Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background from Exoplanets
Ain, Anirban; Mitra, Sanjit
2015-01-01
Recent exoplanet surveys have predicted a very large population of planetary systems in our galaxy, more than one planet per star on the average, perhaps totalling about two hundred billion. These surveys, based on electro-magnetic observations, are limited to a very small neighbourhood of the solar system and the estimations rely on the observations of only a few thousand planets. On the other hand, orbital motions of planets around stars are expected to emit gravitational waves (GW), which could provide information about the planets not accessible to electro-magnetic astronomy. The cumulative effect of the planets, with periods ranging from few hours to several years, is expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). We compute the characteristic GW strain of this background based on the observed distribution of planet parameters. We also show that the integrated extragalactic background is comparable or less than the galactic background at different frequencies. Our estimate shows that the net backg...
Gravitational wave triggered searches for failed supernovae
Annis, James; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration
2016-03-01
Stellar core collapses occur to all stars of sufficiently high mass and often result in supernovae. A small fraction of supergiant stars, however, are thought to collapse directly into black holes without producing supernovae. A survey of such ``failed'' supernovae would require monitoring millions of supergiants for several years. That is very challenging even for current surveys. With the start of the Advanced LIGO science run, we investigate the possibility of detecting failed supernovae by looking for missing supergiants associated with gravitational wave triggers. We use the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Our project is a joint effort between the community and the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. In this talk we report on our ongoing efforts and discuss prospects for future searches.
Testing fundamental physics with gravitational waves
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
The landmark detection of gravitational waves (GWs) has opened a new era in physics, giving access to the hitherto unexplored strong-gravity regime, where spacetime curvature is extreme and the relevant speed is close to the speed of light. In parallel to its countless astrophysical applications, this discovery can have also important implications for fundamental physics. In this context, I will discuss some outstanding, cross-cutting problems that can be finally investigated in the GW era: the nature of black holes and of spacetime singularities, the limits of classical gravity, the existence of extra light fields, and the effects of dark matter near compact objects. Future GW measurements will provide unparalleled tests of quantum-gravity effects at the horizon scale, exotic compact objects, ultralight dark matter, and of general relativity in the strong-field regime.
Optimal directed searches for continuous gravitational waves
Ming, Jing; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Aulbert, Carsten; Fehrmann, Henning
2015-01-01
Wide parameter space searches for long lived continuous gravitational wave signals are computationally limited. It is therefore critically important that available computational resources are used rationally. In this paper we consider directed searches, i.e. targets for which the sky position is known accurately but the frequency and spindown parameters are completely unknown. Given a list of such potential astrophysical targets, we therefore need to prioritize. On which target(s) should we spend scarce computing resources? What parameter space region in frequency and spindown should we search? Finally, what is the optimal search set-up that we should use? In this paper we present a general framework that allows to solve all three of these problems. This framework is based on maximizing the probability of making a detection subject to a constraint on the maximum available computational cost. We illustrate the method for a simplified problem.
Fast cooling techniques for gravitational wave antennas
Furtado, S R
2002-01-01
The resonant-mass technique for the detection of gravitational waves may involve, in the near future, the cooling of very large masses (about 100 tons) from room temperature (300 K) to extreme cryogenic temperatures (20 mK). To cool these detectors to cryogenic temperatures an exchange gas (helium) is used, and the heat is removed from the antenna to the cold reservoir by thermal conduction and natural convection. With the current technique, cooling times of about 1 month can be obtained for cylindrical bar antennas of 2.5 tons. Should this same technique be used to cool a 100 ton spherical antenna the cooling time would be about 10 months, making the operation of these antennas impracticable. In this paper, we study the above-mentioned cooling technique and others, such as thermal switching and forced convection from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) using an aluminium truncated icosahedron of 19 kg weight and 25 cm diameter.
Optimal Calibration Accuracy for Gravitational Wave Detectors
Lindblom, Lee
2009-01-01
Calibration errors in the response function of a gravitational wave detector degrade its ability to detect and then to measure the properties of any detected signals. This paper derives the needed levels of calibration accuracy for each of these data-analysis tasks. The levels derived here are optimal in the sense that lower accuracy would result in missed detections and/or a loss of measurement precision, while higher accuracy would be made irrelevant by the intrinsic noise level of the detector. Calibration errors affect the data-analysis process in much the same way as errors in theoretical waveform templates. The optimal level of calibration accuracy is expressed therefore as a joint limit on modeling and calibration errors: increased accuracy in one reduces the accuracy requirement in the other.
Technology for the next gravitational wave detectors
Mitrofanov, Valery P; Pan, Huang-Wei; Kuo, Ling-Chi; Cole, Garrett; Degallaix, Jerome; Willke, Benno
2016-01-01
This paper reviews some of the key enabling technologies for advanced and future laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, which must combine test masses with the lowest possible optical and acoustic losses, with high stability lasers and various techniques for suppressing noise. Sect. 1 of this paper presents a review of the acoustic properties of test masses. Sect. 2 reviews the technology of the amorphous dielectric coatings which are currently universally used for the mirrors in advanced laser interferometers, but for which lower acoustic loss would be very advantageous. In sect. 3 a new generation of crystalline optical coatings that offer a substantial reduction in thermal noise is reviewed. The optical properties of test masses are reviewed in sect. 4, with special focus on the properties of silicon, an important candidate material for future detectors. Sect. 5 of this paper presents the very low noise, high stability laser technology that underpins all advanced and next generation laser inter...
Breaking a Dark Degeneracy with Gravitational Waves
Lombriser, Lucas
2015-01-01
We identify a scalar-tensor model embedded in the Horndeski action whose cosmological background and linear scalar fluctuations are degenerate with the concordance cosmology. The model admits a self-accelerated background expansion at late times that is stable against perturbations with a sound speed attributed to the new field that is equal to the speed of light. While degenerate in scalar fluctuations, self acceleration of the model implies a present cosmological tensor mode propagation at 5% less efficient than in general relativity. These discrepancies will be testable with future measurements of gravitational waves emitted by events at cosmological distances. Hence, they can be used to break the dark degeneracy in our current observations between two fundamentally different explanations of cosmic acceleration - a cosmological constant and a scalar-tensor modification of gravity.
Will gravitational waves confirm Einstein's General Relativity?
Corda, Christian
2009-01-01
Even if Einstein's General Relativity achieved a great success and overcame lots of experimental tests, it also showed some shortcomings and flaws which today advise theorists to ask if it is the definitive theory of gravity. In this proceeding paper it is shown that, if advanced projects on the detection of Gravitational Waves (GWs) will improve their sensitivity, allowing to perform a GWs astronomy, accurate angular and frequency dependent response functions of interferometers for GWs arising from various Theories of Gravity, i.e. General Relativity and Extended Theories of Gravity, will be the ultimate test for General Relativity. This proceeding paper is also a short review of the Essay which won Honorable Mention at the 2009 Gravity Research Foundation Awards.
Primordial gravitational waves in supersolid inflation
Ricciardone, Angelo
2016-01-01
Supersolid inflation is a class of inflationary theories that simultaneously breaks time and space reparameterization invariance during inflation, with distinctive features for the dynamics of cosmological fluctuations. We investigate concrete realisations of such a scenario, including non-minimal couplings between gravity and the scalars driving inflation. We focus in particular on the dynamics of primordial gravitational waves and discuss how their properties depend on the pattern of symmetry breaking that we consider. Tensor modes can have a blue spectrum, and for the first time we build models in which the squeezed limit of primordial tensor bispectra can be parametrically enhanced with respect to standard single-field scenarios. At leading order in a perturbative expansion, the tensor-to-scalar ratio depends only on the parameter controlling the breaking of space-reparameterization. It is independent from the quantities controlling the breaking of time-reparameterization, and this represents a difference...
Transformations of asymptotic gravitational-wave data
Boyle, Michael
2015-01-01
Gravitational-wave data is gauge dependent. While we can restrict the class of gauges in which such data may be expressed, there will still be an infinite-dimensional group of transformations allowed while remaining in this class, and almost as many different---though physically equivalent---waveforms as there are transformations. This paper presents a method for calculating the effects of the most important transformation group, the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group, consisting of rotations, boosts, and supertranslations (which include time and space translations as special cases). To a reasonable approximation, these transformations result in simple coupling between the modes in a spin-weighted spherical-harmonic decomposition of the waveform. It is shown that waveforms from simulated compact binaries in the publicly available SXS waveform catalog contain unmodeled effects due to displacement and drift of the center of mass, accounting for mode-mixing at typical levels of 1%. However, these effects can be mit...
A brief history of gravitational wave research
Chen, Chiang-Mei; Ni, Wei-Tou
2016-01-01
For the benefit of the readers of this journal, the editors requested that we prepare a brief review of the history of the development of the theory, the experimental attempts to detect them, and the recent direct observations of gravitational waves (GWs). The theoretical ideas and disputes beginning with Einstein in 1916 regarding the existence and nature of GWs and the extent to which one can rely on the electromagnetic analogy, especially the controversies regarding the quadrupole formula and whether GWs carry energy, are discussed. The theoretical conclusions eventually received strong observational support from the binary pulsar. This provided compelling, although indirect, evidence for GWs carrying away energy--as predicted by the quadrupole formula. On the direct detection experimental side, Weber started more than 50 years ago. In 1966, his bar for GW detection reached a strain sensitivity of a few times 10^-16. His announcement of coincident signals (now considered spurious) stimulated many experimen...
Topics in gravitational-wave astronomy
O'Shaughnessy, R.
2004-09-01
Both the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will over the next decade detect gravitational waves emitted by the motion of compact objects (e.g. black hole and neutron star binaries). This thesis presents methods to improve (i)LIGO detector quality, (ii)our knowledge of waveforms for certain LIGO and LISA sources, and (iii)models for the rate of detectability of a particular LISA source. (1)Plunge of compact object into a supermassive black hole: LISA should detect many inspirals of compact objects into supermassive black holes (˜105 107 M⊙ ). Since the inspiral of each compact object terminates shortly after the inspiralling object reaches its last stable orbit, the late-stage inspiral waveform provides insight into the location of the last stable orbit and strong-field relativity. I discovered that while LISA will easily see the overall inspiral (consisting of many cycles before plunge), the present LISA design will just miss detecting the waves emitted from the transition from inspiral to plunge. (2)Scheme to reduce thermoelastic noise in advanced LIGO: After its first upgrade, LIGO will have its sensitivity limited by thermoelastic noise. [Thermoelastic noise occurs because milimeter-scale thermal fluctuations in the mirror bulk expand and contract, causing the mirror surface to shimmer.] The interferometer's sensitivity could be enhanced substantially by reducing thermoelastic noise. In collaboration with Kip Thorne, Erika d'Ambrosio, Sergey Vyatchanin, and Sergey Strigin, I developed a proposal to reduce thermoelastic noise in advanced-LIGO by switching the LIGO cavity optics from simple spherical mirrors to a new, Mexican-hat shape. (3)Geometric-optics-based analysis of stability of symmetric-hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations : Einstein's equations must be evolved numerically to predict accurate waveforms for the late stages of binary black hole inspiral and merger. But no
Gravitational Waves from Direct Collapse Black Holes Formation
Pacucci, Fabio; Marassi, Stefania
2015-01-01
The possible formation of Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBHs) in the first metal-free atomic cooling halos at high redshifts ($z > 10$) is nowadays object of intense study and several methods to prove their existence are currently under development. The abrupt collapse of a massive ($\\sim 10^4 - 10^5 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$) and rotating object is a powerful source of gravitational waves emission. In this work, we employ modern waveforms and the improved knowledge on the DCBHs formation rate to estimate the gravitational signal emitted by these sources at cosmological distances. Their formation rate is very high ($\\sim 10^4 \\, \\mathrm{yr^{-1}}$ up to $z\\sim20$), but due to a short duration of the collapse event ($\\sim 2-30\\, \\mathrm{s}$, depending on the DCBH mass) the integrated signal from these sources is characterized by a very low duty-cycle (${\\cal D}\\sim 10^{-3}$), i.e. a shot-noise signal. Our results show that the estimated signal lies above the foreseen sensitivity of the Ultimate-DECIGO observatory ...
LISA Pathfinder: First steps to observing gravitational waves from space
McNamara, Paul; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration
2017-01-01
With the first direct detection of gravitational waves a little over a year ago, the gravitational window to the Universe has been opened. The gravitational wave spectrum spans many orders of magnitude in frequency, with several of the most interesting astronomical sources emitting gravitational waves at frequencies only observable from space The European Space Agency (ESA) has been active in the field of space-borne gravitational wave detection for many years, and in 2013 selected the Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the third large class mission in the Cosmic Vision science programme. In addition, ESA took the step of developing the LISA Pathfinder mission to demonstrate the critical technologies required for a future mission. The goal of the LISA Pathfinder mission is to place a test body in free fall such that any external forces (acceleration) are reduced to levels lower than those expected from the passage of a gravitational wave LISA Pathfinder was launched on the 3rd December 2015 from the European Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. After a series of 6 apogee raising manoeuvres, the satellite left earth orbit, and travelled to its final science orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). Following a relatively short commissioning phase, science operations began on 1st March 2016. In the following 3 months over 100 experiments and over 1500hours of noise measurements have been performed, demonstrating that the observation of gravitational waves from space can be realised.
Congratulations on the direct detection of gravitational waves
2016-01-01
This week saw the announcement of an extraordinary physics result: the first direct detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO team, and the Virgo Collaboration, using the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. Albert Einstein predicted gravitational waves in a paper published 100 years ago in 1916. They are a natural consequence of the theory of general relativity, which describes the workings of gravity and was published a few months earlier. Until now, they have remained elusive. Gravitational waves are tiny ripples in space-time produced by violent gravitational phenomena. Because the fractional change in the space-time geometry can be at the level of 10-21 or smaller, extremely sophisticated, high-sensitivity instruments are needed to detect them. Recently, the Advanced LIGO detector increased its sensitivity by alm...
Gravitational Waves from Fallback Accretion onto Neutron Stars
Piro, Anthony L
2012-01-01
Massive stars generally end their lives as neutron stars (NSs) or black holes (BHs), with NS formation typically occurring at the low mass end and collapse to a BH more likely at the high mass end. In an intermediate regime, with a mass range that depends on the uncertain details of rotation and mass loss during the star's life, a NS is initially formed which then experiences fallback accretion and collapse to a BH. The electromagnetic consequence of such an event is not clear. Depending on the progenitor's structure, possibilities range from a long gamma-ray burst to a Type II supernova (that may or may not be jet-powered) to a collapse with a weak electromagnetic signature. Gravitational waves (GWs) provide the exciting opportunity to peer through the envelope of a dying massive star and directly probe what is occurring inside. We explore whether fallback onto young NSs can be detected by ground-based interferometers. When the incoming material has sufficient angular momentum to form a disk, the accretion s...
Advanced LIGO searches for gravitational waves associated with gamma-ray bursts
Talukder, Dipongkar; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration Collaboration
2017-01-01
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous electromagnetic events in the universe. According to the existing models, the long-soft GRBs are powered by the core collapse of rapidly rotating massive stars. The progenitors of short-hard GRBs are widely thought to be mergers of binary neutron stars or black hole-neutron star binaries. These phenomena are all expected to emit gravitational waves that are detectable by Advanced LIGO/Virgo when the source is within its range in the sensitive frequency band, making GRBs promising events for gravitational-wave follow-up. Here we present efforts to localize gravitational-wave signal candidates on the sky and to identify coincidences in time with GRBs. We discuss the strategies developed to promptly launch searches for gravitational waves associated with GRBs and the prospects of joint electromagnetic and gravitation-wave follow-ups. We also present the results of these searches during Advanced LIGO's first observing run carried out between September 2015 and January 2016.
Celestial Mechanics, Conformal Structures, and Gravitational Waves
Duval, C; Horvathy, P
1991-01-01
The equations of motion for $N$ non-relativistic particles attracting according to Newton's law are shown to correspond to the equations for null geodesics in a $(3N+2)$-dimensional Lorentzian, Ricci-flat, spacetime with a covariantly constant null vector. Such a spacetime admits a Bargmann structure and corresponds physically to a generalized pp-wave. Bargmann electromagnetism in five dimensions comprises the two Galilean electro-magnetic theories (Le Bellac and L\\'evy-Leblond). At the quantum level, the $N$-body Schr\\"odinger equation retains the form of a massless wave equation. We exploit the conformal symmetries of such spacetimes to discuss some properties of the Newtonian $N$-body problem: homographic solutions, the virial theorem, Kepler's third law, the Lagrange-Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector arising from three conformal Killing 2-tensors, and motions under inverse square law forces with a gravitational constant $G(t)$ varying inversely as time (Dirac). The latter problem is reduced to one with time indep...
On the Gravitational Wave Background from Black Hole Binaries after the First LIGO Detections
Cholis, Ilias
2016-01-01
The detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary black holes by the LIGO Collaboration has opened a new window to astrophysics. With the sensitivities of ground based detectors in the coming years we can only detect the local black hole binary mergers. The integrated merger rate can instead be probed by the gravitational-wave background, the incoherent superposition of the released energy in gravitational waves during binary-black-hole coalescence. Through that, the properties of the binary black holes can be studied. In this work we show that by measuring the energy density $\\Omega_{GW}$ (in units of the cosmic critical density) of the gravitational-wave background, we can search for the rare $\\sim 100 M_{\\odot}$ massive black holes formed in the Universe. In addition, we can answer how often the least massive BHs of mass $> 3 M_{\\odot}$ form. Finally, if there are multiple channels for the formation of binary black holes and if any of them predicts a narrow mass range for the black holes, then...
Primordial Gravitational Waves Induced by Magnetic Fields in Ekpyrotic Scenario
Ito, Asuka
2016-01-01
Both inflationary and ekpyrotic scenarios can account for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe. It is often said that detecting primordial gravitational waves is the key to distinguish both scenarios. We show that this is not true if the gauge kinetic function is present in the ekpyrotic scenario. In fact, primordial gravitational waves sourced by the gauge field can be produced in an ekpyrotic universe. We also study scalar fluctuations sourced by the gauge field and show that it is negligible compared to primordial gravitational waves. This comes from the fact that the fast roll condition holds in ekpyrotic models.
Gravitational and torsion waves in linearised teleparallel gravity
Garcia de Andrade, L C
2002-01-01
Spin-2, spin-1 and spin-0 modes in linearised teleparallelism are obtained where the totally skew-symmetric complex contortion tensor generates scalar torsion waves and the symmetric contortion in the last two indices generates gravitational waves as gravitational perturbations of flat spacetime with contortion tensor. A gedanken experiment with this gravitational-torsion wave hitting a ring of spinless particles is proposed which allows us to estimate the contortion of the Earth by making use of data from LISA GW detector. This value coincides with previous value obtained by Nitsch in teleparallelism using another type of experiment.
Gravitational waves from Affleck-Dine condensate fragmentation
Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2015-01-01
We compute the stochastic gravitational wave production from Affleck-Dine condensate fragmentation in the early universe, focusing on an effective potential with a logarithmic mass correction that typically arises in gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We find that a significant gravitational wave background can be generated when Q-balls are being formed out of the condensate fragmentation. This gravitational wave background has a distinct multi-peak power spectrum where the trough is closely linked to the supersymmetry breaking scale and whose frequencies are peaked around kHz for TeV supersymmetry breaking.
Gravitational waves from the axial perturbations of hyperon stars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen De-Hua; Yan Jing; Liu Xue-Mei
2012-01-01
The eigen-frequencies of the axial w-mode oscillations of hyperon stars are examined.It is shown that as the appearance of hyperons softens the equation of state of the super-density matter,the frequency of gravitational waves from the axial w-mode of hyperon star becomes smaller than that of a traditional neutron star at the same stellar mass.Moreover,the eigenfrequencies of hyperon stars also have scaling universality.It is shown that the EURO thirdgeneration gravitational-wave detector has the potential to detect the gravitational-wave signal emitted from the axial w-mode oscillations of a hyperon star.
Twin mirrors for laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors.
Sassolas, Benoît; Benoît, Quentin; Flaminio, Raffaele; Forest, Danièle; Franc, Janyce; Galimberti, Massimo; Lacoudre, Aline; Michel, Christophe; Montorio, Jean-Luc; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent
2011-05-01
Gravitational-wave detectors such as Virgo and the laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) use a long-baseline Michelson interferometer with Fabry-Perot cavities in the arms to search for gravitational waves. The symmetry between the two Fabry-Perot cavities is crucial to reduce the interferometer's sensitivity to the laser amplitude and frequency noise. To this purpose, the transmittance of the mirrors in both cavities should be as close as possible. This paper describes the realization and the characterization of the first twin large low-loss mirrors with transmissions differing by less than 0.01%.
Squeezed light for advanced gravitational wave detectors and beyond.
Oelker, E; Barsotti, L; Dwyer, S; Sigg, D; Mavalvala, N
2014-08-25
Recent experiments have demonstrated that squeezed vacuum states can be injected into gravitational wave detectors to improve their sensitivity at detection frequencies where they are quantum noise limited. Squeezed states could be employed in the next generation of more sensitive advanced detectors currently under construction, such as Advanced LIGO, to further push the limits of the observable gravitational wave Universe. To maximize the benefit from squeezing, environmentally induced disturbances such as back scattering and angular jitter need to be mitigated. We discuss the limitations of current squeezed vacuum sources in relation to the requirements imposed by future gravitational wave detectors, and show a design for squeezed light injection which overcomes these limitations.
Trajectory bending and gravitational lensing of massive particles in Schwarzschild gravity
Jia, Junji; Yang, Nan
2015-01-01
Both massless light ray and objects with nonzero mass experience trajectory bending in a gravitational field. In this work the bending of trajectories of massive objects in a Schwarzschild spacetime and the corresponding gravitational lensing effects are studied. A {\\it particle sphere} for Schwarzschild black hole (BH) is found with its radius a simple function of the particle velocity and proportional to the BH mass. A single master formula for both the massless and massive particle bending angle is found, in the form of an elliptic function depending on only the velocity and impact parameter measured in central mass. This bending angle is expanded in both large and small velocity limits and large and small impact parameter limits. The corresponding deflection angle for weak and strong gravitational lensing of massive particles are analyzed, and their corrections to the light ray deflection angles are obtained. The dependence of the deflection angles on the source angle and the particle speed is investigate...
Lorentz invariance violation and simultaneous emission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves
Passos, E.; Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Holanda, O.; Souza, G. B.; Zarro, C. A. D.
2017-09-01
In this work, we compute some phenomenological bounds for the electromagnetic and massive gravitational high-derivative extensions supposing that it is possible to have an astrophysical process that generates simultaneously gravitational and electromagnetic waves. We present Lorentz invariance violating (LIV) higher-order derivative models, following the Myers-Pospelov approach, to electrodynamics and massive gravitational waves. We compute the corrected equation of motion of these models, their dispersion relations and the velocities. The LIV parameters for the gravitational and electromagnetic sectors, ξg and ξγ, respectively, were also obtained for three different approaches: luminal photons, time delay of flight and the difference of graviton and photon velocities. These LIV parameters depend on the mass scales where the LIV-terms become relevant, M for the electromagnetic sector and M1 for the gravitational one. We obtain, using the values for M and M1 found in the literature, that ξg ∼10-2, which is expected to be phenomenologically relevant and ξγ ∼103, which cannot be suitable for an effective LIV theory. However, we show that ξγ can be interesting in a phenomenological point of view if M ≫M1. Finally the relation between the variation of the velocities of the photon and the graviton in relation to the speed of light was calculated and resulted in Δvg / Δvγ ≲ 1.82 ×10-3.
Implications of the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914
Miller, M Coleman
2016-01-01
The era of gravitational-wave astronomy began on 14 September 2015, when the LIGO Scientific Collaboration detected the merger of two $\\sim 30 M_\\odot$ black holes at a distance of $\\sim 400$ Mpc. This event has facilitated qualitatively new tests of gravitational theories, and has also produced exciting information about the astrophysical origin of black hole binaries. In this review we discuss the implications of this event for gravitational physics and astrophysics, as well as the expectations for future detections. In brief: (1) because the spins of the black holes could not be measured accurately and because mergers are not well calculated for modified theories of gravity, the current analysis of GW150914 does not place strong constraints on gravity variants that change only the generation of gravitational waves, but (2) it does strongly constrain alterations of the propagation of gravitational waves and alternatives to black holes. Finally, (3) many astrophysical models for the origin of heavy black hol...
Damping of gravitational waves in the nonperturbative spinor vacuum
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir
2014-01-01
The propagation of gravitational waves on the background of a nonperturbative vacuum of a spinor field is considered. It is shown that there are several distinctive features in comparison with the propagation of plane gravitational waves through empty space: there exists the fixed phase difference between the $h_{yy,zz}$ and $h_{yz}$ components of the wave; there exists the damping of gravitational waves; for given frequency, there exist two waves with different wave vectors. We also discuss the possibility of experimental verification of the obtained effects as a tool to investigate nonperurbative quantum field theories. %The possible experimental verification of obtained results %as a tool to investigate nonperurbative effects is discussed. %It is shown that the experimental measurements of such waves give us the tools for the investigation of nonperurbative quantum field theories.
Predicting Electromagnetic Signatures of Gravitational Wave Sources
D'Orazio, Daniel John
This dissertation investigates the signatures of electromagnetic radiation that may accompany two specific sources of gravitational radiation: the inspiral and merger of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) in galactic nuclei, and the coalescence of black hole neutron star (BHNS) pairs. Part I considers the interaction of MBHBs, at sub-pc separations, with a circumbinary gas disk. Accretion rates onto the MBHB are calculated from two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations as a function of the relative masses of the black holes. The results are applied to interpretation of the recent, sub-pc separation MBHB candidate in the nucleus of the periodically variable Quasar PG 1302-102. We advance an interpretation of the variability observed in PG 1302-102 as being caused by Doppler-boosted emission sourced by the orbital velocity of the smaller black hole in a MBHB with disparate relative masses. Part II considers BHNS binaries in which the black hole is large enough to swallow the neutron star whole before it is disrupted. As the pair nears merger, orbital motion of the black hole through the magnetosphere of the neutron star generates an electromotive force, a black-hole-battery, which, for the strongest neutron star magnetic field strengths, could power luminosities large enough to make the merging pair observable out to cosmic distances. Relativistic solutions for vacuum fields of a magnetic dipole near a horizon are given, and a mechanism for harnessing the power of the black-hole-battery is put forth in the form of a fireball emitting in hard X-rays to gamma-rays.
Manzotti, Alessandro; Dietz, Alexander
2012-01-01
A leading candidate source of detectable gravitational waves is the inspiral and merger of pairs of stellar-mass compact objects. The advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo detectors will allow scientists to detect inspiral signals from more massive systems and at earlier times in the detector band, than with first generation detectors. The signal from a coalescence of two neutron stars is expected to stay in the sensitive band of advanced detectors for several minutes, thus allowing detection befo...
Astronomical Catalogs for Locating Gravitational-wave Events
Li, Kunyang
2016-01-01
Gravitational wave transients are caused by some of the most energetic events in the Universe, and a precise location would allow deep examination of the counterpart by electromagnetic waves (telescopes collecting light), the combination of GW and EM resulting in very much improved science return (multi-messenger Astronomy). Since the GW detectors do not provide good localization on the sky, the faint counterpart will be very difficult to find. One strategy to help the search is to look first where mass is concentrated and thus the prior probability of GW events is highest. In the first part of this paper, we present methods used to estimate stellar masses and metallicities of galaxies and galaxy clusters in different catalogs. In the second part of the paper, we test our estimation accuracy by comparing our results with stellar masses given in Stripe 82 Massive Galaxy Catalogue (S82-MGC). The relation between stellar mass we found and that from S82-MGC is provided for GWGC, 2MASS-GLADE, and WISExSCOS catalog...
Effect of the Quadrupole Moment of a Rotating Massive Object on the Gravitational Faraday Rotation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈贻汉; 邵常贵
2002-01-01
We study the rotation of the polarization plane for a ray of electromagnetic radiation propagating in the grav-itoelectromagnetic field caused by a rotating massive object with the quadrupole moment. The effect of thequadrupole moment on the gravitational Faraday rotation is investigated. It is found that the gravitational Fara-day effect of the quadrupole moment is negligible for Kerr black holes, but this effect is important for rapidlyrotating neutron stars.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part I
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this first lecture, we introduce the basic ideas of numerical relativity, highlighting the challenges that arise in simulating gravitational wave sources on a computer.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part III
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this third and final lecture, we present applications of the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection and astrophysics.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND EMERGENCE PARAMETER OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available It was established that the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Bose-Einstein and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution can be described by a single equation, which follows from Einstein's equations for systems with central symmetry. Emergence parameter of classical and quantum systems composed by the rays of gravitational waves interacting with gravitational field of the universe has been computed
Gravitational wave detection and data analysis for pulsar timing arrays
Haasteren, Rutger van
2011-01-01
Long-term precise timing of Galactic millisecond pulsars holds great promise for measuring long-period (months-to-years) astrophysical gravitational waves. In this work we develop a Bayesian data analysis method for projects called pulsar timing arrays; projects aimed to detect these gravitational w
Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy
Lee, Hyung Mok; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Du, ZhiHui; Lin, ZhangXi; Guo, XiangYu; Wen, LinQing; Phukon, Khun Sang; Pandey, Vihan; Bose, Sukanta; Fan, Xi-Long; Hendry, Martin
2015-12-01
This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPUimplemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used to rapidly detect and localise signals. Sect. 3 of the paper reviews the use of GPU processors for rapid searching for gravitational wave bursts that can arise from black hole births and coalescences. In sect. 4 the use of GPU processors to enable fast efficient statistical significance testing of gravitational wave event candidates is reviewed. Sect. 5 of this paper addresses the method of multimessenger astronomy where the discovery of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events can be used to identify sources, understand their nature and obtain much greater science outcomes from each identified event.
Gravitational wave astronomy with the SKA
Janssen, G H; McLaughlin, M; Bassa, C G; Deller, A T; Kramer, M; Lee, K J; Mingarelli, C M F; Rosado, P A; Sanidas, S; Sesana, A; Shao, L; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Verbiest, J P W
2015-01-01
On a time scale of years to decades, gravitational wave (GW) astronomy will become a reality. Low frequency (nanoHz) GWs are detectable through long-term timing observations of the most stable pulsars. Radio observatories worldwide are currently carrying out observing programmes to detect GWs, with data sets being shared through the International Pulsar Timing Array project. One of the most likely sources of low frequency GWs are supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs), detectable as a background due to a large number of binaries, or as continuous or burst emission from individual sources. No GW signal has yet been detected, but stringent constraints are already being placed on galaxy evolution models. The SKA will bring this research to fruition. In this chapter, we describe how timing observations using SKA1 will contribute to detecting GWs, or can confirm a detection if a first signal already has been identified when SKA1 commences observations. We describe how SKA observations will identify the source(s...
CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ricciardone, Angelo; Arroja, Frederico
2014-01-01
Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by $P_h({\\bf k}) = P_h^{(0)}(k) [ 1 + \\sum_{LM} f_L(k) g_{LM} Y_{LM} (\\hat{\\bf k}) ]$, where $P_h^{(0)}(k)$ is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with $f_0(k) = f_2(k) \\propto k^{-2}$ are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely $\\ell_2 = \\ell_1 \\pm 2$ in $TT$, $TE$, $EE$ and $BB$, and $\\ell_2 = \\ell_1 \\pm 1$ in $TB$ and $EB$. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic varian...
The gravitational wave signal from isolated objects
Liu, Jinzhong; 10.1017/S174392131201993X
2013-01-01
According to the theoretical study, a deformation object (e.g., a spinning non-axisymmetric pulsar star) will radiate a gravitational wave (GW) signal during an accelaration motion process by LIGO science project. These types of disturbance sources with a large bump or dimple on the equator would survive and be identifiable as GW sources. In this work, we aim to provide a method for exploring GW radiation from isolated neutron stars (NSs) with deformation state using some observational results, which can be confirmed by the next LIGO project. Combination with the properties in observation results (e.g., PSR J1748-2446, PSR 1828-11 and Cygnus X-1), based on a binary population synthesis (BPS) approach we give a numerical GW radiation under the assumption that NS should have non-axisymmetric and give the results of energy spectrum. We find that the GW luminosity of $L_{GW}$ can be changed from about $10^{40}\\rm erg/s$-- $10^{55}\\rm erg/s$.
Advantages of scaling up gravitational wave detectors
Dwyer, Sheila E; Ballmer, Stefan; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew
2014-01-01
Twenty years ago, construction began on the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Two facilities with $4~{\\rm km}$ long L-shaped vacuum envelops were built at two sites in Washington state and Louisiana. Initial LIGO reached its design sensitivity and finished observing in 2010. Advanced LIGO has just been installed in the same facility and will have 10 times better sensitivity than Initial LIGO. Looking further into the future, design studies for third generation detectors in the same facility are in progress. However, they are severely restricted by the size of the existing vacuum system, leading to no more than a factor of a few improvement in sensitivity. We make a case for the advantages of longer arm cavities and show that a ten-fold increase in sensitivity over Advanced LIGO is possible. Furthermore, this can be achieved by reusing existing Advanced LIGO hardware with only modest changes. This third generation observatory would be able to see binary black hole mergers up to a hori...
Gravitational waves from cosmological compact binaries
Schneider, R; Matarrese, S; Zwart, S F P; Schneider, Raffaella; Ferrari, Valeria; Matarrese, Sabino; Zwart, Simon F. Portegies
2000-01-01
We consider gravitational waves emitted by various populations of compactbinaries at cosmological distances. We use population synthesis models tocharacterize the properties of double neutron stars, double black holes anddouble white dwarf binaries as well as white dwarf-neutron star, whitedwarf-black hole and black hole-neutron star systems. We use theobservationally determined cosmic star formation history to reconstruct theredshift distribution of these sources and their merging rate evolution. Thegravitational signals emitted by each source during its early-inspiral phaseadd randomly to produce a stochastic background in the low frequency band withspectral strain amplitude between 10^{-18} Hz^{-1/2} and 5 10^{-17} Hz^{-1/2} at frequencies in the interval [5 10^{-6}-5 10^{-5}] Hz.The overall signal which, at frequencies above 10^{-4}Hz, is largely dominatedby double white dwarf systems, might be detectable with LISA in the frequencyrange [1-10] mHz and acts like a confusion limited noise component which mi...
Gravitational Wave Emulation Using Gaussian Process Regression
Doctor, Zoheyr; Farr, Ben; Holz, Daniel
2017-01-01
Parameter estimation (PE) for gravitational wave signals from compact binary coalescences (CBCs) requires reliable template waveforms which span the parameter space. Waveforms from numerical relativity are accurate but computationally expensive, so approximate templates are typically used for PE. These `approximants', while quick to compute, can introduce systematic errors and bias PE results. We describe a machine learning method for generating CBC waveforms and uncertainties using existing accurate waveforms as a training set. Coefficients of a reduced order waveform model are computed and each treated as arising from a Gaussian process. These coefficients and their uncertainties are then interpolated using Gaussian process regression (GPR). As a proof of concept, we construct a training set of approximant waveforms (rather than NR waveforms) in the two-dimensional space of chirp mass and mass ratio and interpolate new waveforms with GPR. We demonstrate that the mismatch between interpolated waveforms and approximants is below the 1% level for an appropriate choice of training set and GPR kernel hyperparameters.
Fast Gravitational Wave Radiometry using Data Folding
Ain, Anirban; Mitra, Sanjit
2015-01-01
Gravitational Waves (GWs) from the early universe and unresolved astrophysical sources are expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). The GW radiometer algorithm is well suited to probe such a background using data from ground based laser interferometric detectors. Radiometer analysis can be performed in different bases, e.g., isotropic, pixel or spherical harmonic. Each of these analyses possesses a common temporal symmetry which we exploit here to fold the whole dataset for every detector pair, typically a few hundred to a thousand days of data, to only one sidereal day, without any compromise in precision. We develop the algebra and a software pipeline needed to fold data, accounting for the effect of overlapping windows and non-stationary noise. We implement this on LIGO's fifth science run data and validate it by performing a standard anisotropic SGWB search on both folded and unfolded data. Folded data not only leads to orders of magnitude reduction in computation cost, but it results in a co...
Improved calculation of relic gravitational waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
In this paper, we have improved the calculation of the relic gravitational waves (RGW) in two aspects. First, we investigate the transfer function by taking into consideration the redshift-suppression effect, the accelerating expansion effect, the damping effect of free-streaming relativistic particles, and the damping effect of cosmic phase transition, and give a simple approximate analytic expression, which clearly illustrates the dependence on the cosmological parameters.Second, we develop a numerical method to calculate the primordial power spectrum of RGW in a very wide frequency range, where the observed constraints on ns (the scalar spectral index) and Ps(ko) (the amplitude of primordial scalar spectrum) and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are used. This method is applied to two kinds of inflationary models,which satisfy the current constraints on ns, α (the running of ns) and r (the tensor-scalar ratio). We plot them in the r - Ωg diagram, where Ωg is the strength of RGW, and study their measurements from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments and laser interferometers.
Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.
Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J
2016-07-01
Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500 km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Black-hole kicks as new gravitational-wave observables
Gerosa, Davide
2016-01-01
Generic black-hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line-of-sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler-shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational-wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black-hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black-hole kick velocities as low as ~500 km/s, which are expected to be a common outcome of black-hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black-hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational-wave astronomy.
Emission of Gravitational Waves from a Magnetohydrodynamic Dynamo
Winterberg, Friedwardt
2015-01-01
The failure of the laser-interferometer gravitational wave antennas to measure the tiny changes of lengths many orders of magnitude smaller than the diameter of a proton raises the question of whether the reason for this failure is a large gravitational wave background noise, and if so, where this background noise is coming from. It is conjectured that it comes from gravitational waves emitted from a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo in the center of the sun, with the large magnetic field from this dynamo shielded by thermomagnetic currents in the tachocline. Using the moon as a large Weber bar, these gravitational waves could possibly be detected by the Poisson diffraction into the center of the lunar shadow during a total solar eclipse.
Gravitational Waves from Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Mergers
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Rezzolla, Luciano; Baiotti, Luca
2010-02-01
Binary neutron stars are among the most important sources of gravitational waves which are expected to be detected by the current or next generation of gravitational wave detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo, and they are also thought to be at the origin of very important astrophysical phenomena, such as short gamma-ray bursts. In order to describe the dynamics of these events one needs to solve the full set of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations through the use of parallel numerical codes. I will report on some recent results obtained with the use of the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky in simulating binary neutron stars which inspiral and merge forming an hypermassive neutron star which eventually collapses to form a black hole surrounded by a torus. I will in particular describe how the magnetic fields can affect the dynamics and consequently the gravitational waves emitted by these systems and discuss about their detectability by current and future gravitational-wave detectors. )
A Gravitational Wave Detector Based on an Atom Interferometer Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational waves are tiny perturbations in the curvature of space-time that arise from accelerating masses – according to Einstein’s general...
Sensitivity Studies for Third-Generation Gravitational Wave Observatories
Hild, S; Acernese, F; Amaro-Seoane, P; Andersson, N; Arun, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsuglia, M; Beker, M; Beveridge, N; Birindelli, S; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Bulik, T; Calloni, E; Cella, G; Mottin, E Chassande; Chelkowski, S; Chincarini, A; Clark, J; Coccia, E; Colacino, C; Colas, J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S; Danzmann, K; De Salvo, R; Dent, T; De Rosa, R; Di Fiore, L; Di Virgilio, A; Doets, M; Fafone, V; Falferi, P; Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Frasconi, F; Freise, A; Friedrich, D; Fulda, P; Gair, J; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Glampedakis, K; Gräf, C; Granata, M; Grote, H; Guidi, G; Gurkovsky, A; Hammond, G; Hannam, M; Harms, J; Heinert, D; Hendry, M; Heng, I; Hennes, E; Hough, J; Husa, S; Huttner, S; Jones, G; Khalili, F; Kokeyama, K; Kokkotas, K; Krishnan, B; Li, T G F; Lorenzini, M; Lück, H; Majorana, E; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Martin, I; Michel, C; Minenkov, Y; Morgado, N; Mosca, S; Mours, B; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Murray, P; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Oshaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Palomba, C; Paoli, A; Parguez, G; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pinard, L; Plastino, W; Poggiani1, R; Popolizio, P; Prato, M; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabeling, D; Rapagnani, P; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Ricci, F; Richard, F; Rocchi, A; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Santamaría, L; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B; Schnabel, R; Schwarz, C; Seidel, P; Sintes, A; Somiya, K; Speirits, F; Strain, K; Strigin, S; Sutton, P; Tarabrin, S; Thüring, A; Brand, J van den; van Veggel, M; Broeck, C van den; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Vyatchanin, S; Willke, B; Woan, G; Yamamoto, K
2010-01-01
Advanced gravitational wave detectors, currently under construction, are expected to directly observe gravitational wave signals of astrophysical origin. The Einstein Telescope, a third-generation gravitational wave detector, has been proposed in order to fully open up the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy. In this article we describe sensitivity models for the Einstein Telescope and investigate potential limits imposed by fundamental noise sources. A special focus is set on evaluating the frequency band below 10Hz where a complex mixture of seismic, gravity gradient, suspension thermal and radiation pressure noise dominates. We develop the most accurate sensitivity model, referred to as ET-D, for a third-generation detector so far, including the most relevant fundamental noise contributions.
Sensitivity studies for third-generation gravitational wave observatories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hild, S; Abernathy, M; Barr, B; Beveridge, N [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Acernese, F; Barone, F; Calloni, E [INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Amaro-Seoane, P [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Andersson, N [University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Arun, K [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, F-91898 Orsay (France); Barsuglia, M; Mottin, E Chassande [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Denis Diderot, Paris VII (France); Beker, M [Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Birindelli, S [Universite Nice ' Sophia-Antipolis' , CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, F-06304 Nice (France); Bose, S [Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bosi, L [INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-6123 Perugia (Italy); Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Cella, G [INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bulik, T, E-mail: stefan.hild@glasgow.ac.uk [Astronomical Observatory, University of warsaw, Al Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland)
2011-05-07
Advanced gravitational wave detectors, currently under construction, are expected to directly observe gravitational wave signals of astrophysical origin. The Einstein Telescope (ET), a third-generation gravitational wave detector, has been proposed in order to fully open up the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy. In this paper we describe sensitivity models for ET and investigate potential limits imposed by fundamental noise sources. A special focus is set on evaluating the frequency band below 10 Hz where a complex mixture of seismic, gravity gradient, suspension thermal and radiation pressure noise dominates. We develop the most accurate sensitivity model, referred to as ET-D, for a third-generation detector so far, including the most relevant fundamental noise contributions.
The Einstein Telescope: a third-generation gravitational wave observatory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Punturo, M; Bosi, L [INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-6123 Perugia (Italy); Abernathy, M; Barr, B; Beveridge, N [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Acernese, F; Barone, F; Calloni, E [INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Allen, B [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Andersson, N [University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Arun, K [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, F-91898 Orsay (France); Barsuglia, M; Mottin, E Chassande [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), CNRS, Observatoire de Paris-Universite Denis Diderot-Paris VII (France); Beker, M [VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Birindelli, S [Universite Nice ' Sophia-Antipolis' , CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, F-06304 Nice (France); Bose, S [Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Cella, G [INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bulik, T, E-mail: michele.punturo@pg.infn.i [Astro. Obs. Warsaw Univ. 00-478, CAMK-PAM 00-716 Warsaw, Bialystok Univ. 15-424, IPJ 05-400 Swierk-Otwock, Inst. of Astronomy 65-265 Zielona Gora (Poland)
2010-10-07
Advanced gravitational wave interferometers, currently under realization, will soon permit the detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources. To open the era of precision gravitational wave astronomy, a further substantial improvement in sensitivity is required. The future space-based Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and the third-generation ground-based observatory Einstein Telescope (ET) promise to achieve the required sensitivity improvements in frequency ranges. The vastly improved sensitivity of the third generation of gravitational wave observatories could permit detailed measurements of the sources' physical parameters and could complement, in a multi-messenger approach, the observation of signals emitted by cosmological sources obtained through other kinds of telescopes. This paper describes the progress of the ET project which is currently in its design study phase.
Gravitational Waves: An Entirely New Window onto the Cosmos
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
On September 14, 2015, scientists from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration using the LIGO detectors observed the collision and fusion of two black holes by directly measuring the gravitational waves emitted during their collision. This detection came almost exactly 100 years after Einstein developed his revolutionary general theory of relativity that predicted their existence, and 50 years after scientists began searching for them in earnest. Since then, two more gravitational-wave events have been confidently detected. These discoveries have truly profound implications for physics and astronomy. Gravitational waves provide unique information on the most energetic astrophysical events, revealing unique insights into the nature of gravity, matter, space, and time. LIGO has opened a new window onto the cosmos. I will talk about how we made the detection and discuss how gravitational wave astronomy promises to change our understanding o...
Development of Mirror Coatings for Gravitational Wave Detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stuart Reid
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The first detections of gravitational waves, GW150914 and GW151226, were associated with the coalescence of stellar mass black holes, heralding the opening of an entirely new way to observe the Universe. Many decades of development were invested to achieve the sensitivities required to observe gravitational waves, with peak strains associated with GW150914 at the level of 10−21. Gravitational wave detectors currently operate as modified Michelson interferometers, where thermal noise associated with the highly reflective mirror coatings sets a critical limit to the sensitivity of current and future instruments. This article presents an overview of the mirror coating development relevant to gravitational wave detection and the prospective for future developments in the field.
A review of gravitational waves from cosmic domain walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saikawa, Ken' ichi
2017-03-15
In this contribution, we discuss the cosmological scenario where unstable domain walls are formed in the early universe and their late-time annihilation produces a significant amount of gravitational waves. After describing cosmological constraints on long-lived domain walls, we estimate the typical amplitude and frequency of gravitational waves observed today. We also review possible extensions of the standard model of particle physics that predict the formation of unstable domain walls and can be probed by observation of relic gravitational waves. It is shown that recent results of pulser timing arrays and direct detection experiments partially exclude the relevant parameter space, and that a much wider parameter space can be covered by the next generation of gravitational wave observatories.
Gravitational waves: History of black holes revealed by their spin
Sigurðsson, Steinn
2017-08-01
Four probable detections of gravitational waves have so far been reported, each associated with the merger of two black holes. Analysis of the signals allows formation theories of such black-hole systems to be tested. See Letter p.426
On the coupling between spinning particles and cosmological gravitational waves
Milillo, Irene; Montani, Giovanni
2008-01-01
The influence of spin in a system of classical particles on the propagation of gravitational waves is analyzed in the cosmological context of primordial thermal equilibrium. On a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, when the precession is neglected, there is no contribution due to the spin to the distribution function of the particles. Adding a small tensor perturbation to the background metric, we study if a coupling between gravitational waves and spin exists that can modify the evolution of the distribution function, leading to new terms in the anisotropic stress, and then to a new source for gravitational waves. In the chosen gauge, the final result is that, in the absence of other kind of perturbations, there is no coupling between spin and gravitational waves.
Multiple Signal Classification for Gravitational Wave Burst Search
Cao, Junwei; He, Zhengqi
2013-01-01
This work is mainly focused on the application of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for gravitational wave burst search. This algorithm extracts important gravitational wave characteristics from signals coming from detectors with arbitrary position, orientation and noise covariance. In this paper, the MUSIC algorithm is described in detail along with the necessary adjustments required for gravitational wave burst search. The algorithm's performance is measured using simulated signals and noise. MUSIC is compared with the Q-transform for signal triggering and with Bayesian analysis for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation, using the Ω-pipeline. Experimental results show that MUSIC has a lower resolution but is faster. MUSIC is a promising tool for real-time gravitational wave search for multi-messenger astronomy.
Total-variation-based methods for gravitational wave denoising
Torres, Alejandro; Font, José A; Ibáñez, José M
2014-01-01
We describe new methods for denoising and detection of gravitational waves embedded in additive Gaussian noise. The methods are based on Total Variation denoising algorithms. These algorithms, which do not need any a priori information about the signals, have been originally developed and fully tested in the context of image processing. To illustrate the capabilities of our methods we apply them to two different types of numerically-simulated gravitational wave signals, namely bursts produced from the core collapse of rotating stars and waveforms from binary black hole mergers. We explore the parameter space of the methods to find the set of values best suited for denoising gravitational wave signals under different conditions such as waveform type and signal-to-noise ratio. Our results show that noise from gravitational wave signals can be successfully removed with our techniques, irrespective of the signal morphology or astrophysical origin. We also combine our methods with spectrograms and show how those c...
A Gravitational Wave Background from Reheating after Hybrid Inflation
Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Sastre, Alfonso
2007-01-01
The reheating of the universe after hybrid inflation proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in the form of bubble-like structures moving at relativistic speeds. This generates a significant fraction of energy in the form of a stochastic background of gravitational waves, whose time evolution is determined by the successive stages of reheating. First, tachyonic preheating makes the amplitude of gravity waves grow exponentially fast. Second, bubble collisions add a new burst of gravitational radiation. Third, turbulent motions finally produce a self-similar time evolution, which allows us to extrapolate the amplitude and shape of this background till the end of reheating. We find that the fraction of energy density today in these primordial gravitational waves could be significant for GUT-scale models of inflation, although well beyond the frequency range sensitivity of gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. However, low-scale models ...
Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)
2017-02-12
The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.
Gravitational wave stress tensor from the linearised field equations
Balbus, Steven A
2016-01-01
A conserved stress energy tensor for weak field gravitational waves in standard general relativity is derived directly from the linearised wave equation alone, for an arbitrary gauge. The form of the tensor leads directly to the classical expression for the outgoing wave energy in any harmonic gauge. The method described here, however, is a much simpler, shorter, and more physically motivated approach than is the customary procedure, which involves a lengthy and cumbersome second-order (in wave-amplitude) calculation starting with the Einstein tensor. Our method has the added advantage of exhibiting the direct coupling between the outgoing energy flux in gravitational waves and the work done by the gravitational field on the sources. For nonharmonic gauges, the derived wave stress tensor has an index asymmetry. This coordinate artefact may be removed by techniques similar to those used in classical electrodynamics (where this issue also arises), but only by appeal to a more lengthy calculation. For any harmon...
Einstein's Discovery of Gravitational Waves 1916-1918
Weinstein, Galina
2016-01-01
In his 1916 ground-breaking general relativity paper Einstein had imposed a restrictive coordinate condition, his field equations were valid for coordinate systems which are unimodular. Later, Einstein published a paper on gravitational waves. The solution presented in this paper did not satisfy the above restrictive condition. In his gravitational waves paper, Einstein concluded that gravitational fields propagate at the speed of light. The solution is the Minkowski flat metric plus a small disturbance propagating in a flat spacetime. Einstein calculated the small deviation from Minkowski metric in a manner analogous to that of retarded potentials in electrodynamics. However, in obtaining the above derivation, Einstein made a mathematical error. This error caused him to obtain three different types of waves compatible with his approximate field equations: longitudinal waves, transverse waves and a new type of wave. Einstein added an Addendum in which he suggested that in systems in unimodular coordinates onl...
Astrophysical Gravitational Wave Sources Literature Catalog
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerically-generated gravitational waveforms for circular inspiral into Kerr black holes. These waveforms were developed using Scott Hughes' black hole perturbation...
Gravitational wave emission from the coalescence of white dwarfs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Berro, E [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Avda del Canal OlImpic s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Ed. Nexus, c/Gran Capita 2, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Loren-Aguilar, P [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Ed. Nexus, c/Gran Capita 2, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Isern, J [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Ed. Nexus, c/Gran Capita 2, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Pedemonte, A G [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Avda del Canal OlImpic s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Guerrero, J [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Ed. Nexus, c/Gran Capita 2, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lobo, J A [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Ed. Nexus, c/Gran Capita 2, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, c/MartI i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2005-05-21
We have computed the gravitational wave emission arising from the coalescence of several close white dwarf binary systems. In order to do so, we have followed the evolution of such systems using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. Here we present some of the results obtained so far, paying special attention to the detectability of the emitted gravitational waves. Within this context, we show which could be the impact of individual merging episodes for LISA.
Of Mountains and Molehills : Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars
Konar, Sushan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Sarkar, Prakash
2016-01-01
Surface asymmetries of accreting neutron stars are investigated for their mass quadrupole moment content. Though the amplitude of the gravitational waves from such asymmetries seem to be beyond the limit of detectability of the present generation of detectors, it appears that rapidly rotating neutron stars with strong magnetic fields residing in HMXBs would be worth considering for targeted search for continuous gravitational waves with the next generation of instruments.
Gravitational waves from surface inhomogeneities of neutron stars
Konar, Sushan; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Sarkar, Prakash
2016-11-01
Surface asymmetries of accreting neutron stars are investigated for their mass quadrupole moment content. Though the amplitude of the gravitational waves from such asymmetries seems to be beyond the limit of detectability of the present generation of detectors, it appears that rapidly rotating neutron stars with strong magnetic fields residing in high-mass x-ray binaries would be worth considering for a targeted search for continuous gravitational waves with the next generation of instruments.
Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy
Baker, John G.
2011-01-01
In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.
Gravitational wave detectors: New eyes for physics and astronomy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Gabriela González
2004-10-01
Several interferometric gravitational wave detectors around the world are now starting to achieve better sensitivity to gravitational waves than ever before. We describe the prospects these detectors offer for physics and astronomy and review the rapid progress and the present status of the detectors' sensitivities. We also report the progress made by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in analysing the data produced by the LIGO and GEO detectors during the Collaboration's Science Runs.
LIGO detections and the birth of gravitational wave astronomy
Díaz, M. C.
2017-10-01
This is a review of the LIGO first gravitational wave detections announced during 2016 and the signification they have as the birth of gravitational wave astronomy. We describe briefly the results, some of it possible astrophysical implications, and also report about the electromagnetic follow-up efforts during the first detection. We give account also of the participation of observational facilities and astronomers from Argentina in this effort.
Detecting nanohertz gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays
Zhu, Xing-Jiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N; Shannon, Ryan M
2015-01-01
Complementary to ground-based laser interferometers, pulsar timing array experiments are being carried out to search for nanohertz gravitational waves. Using the world's most powerful radio telescopes, three major international collaborations have collected $\\sim$10-year high precision timing data for tens of millisecond pulsars. In this paper we give an overview on pulsar timing experiments, gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz regime, and recent results obtained by various timing array projects.
Compressed Sensing for Time-Frequency Gravitational Wave Data Analysis
Addesso, Paolo; Marano, Stefano; Matta, Vincenzo; Principe, Maria; Pinto, Innocenzo M
2016-01-01
The potential of compressed sensing for obtaining sparse time-frequency representations for gravitational wave data analysis is illustrated by comparison with existing methods, as regards i) shedding light on the fine structure of noise transients (glitches) in preparation of their classification, and ii) boosting the performance of waveform consistency tests in the detection of unmodeled transient gravitational wave signals using a network of detectors affected by unmodeled noise transient
The triggering of electromagnetic observations by gravitational wave events
Sylvestre, Julien
2003-01-01
The prospects for the observation of electromagnetic emissions by gravitational wave sources first detected using a network of interferometers are discussed. Various emission mechanisms and detection techniques for compact binary inspirals are studied to show that the pointing ability of gravitational wave observatories and the efficacy of electromagnetic detectors can be combined to predict that counterpart detections are improbable for the Initial interferometers, possible with Advanced LIG...
Structure, Deformations and Gravitational Wave Emission of Magnetars
Gualtieri, L; Ferrari, V
2010-01-01
Neutron stars can have, in some phases of their life, extremely strong magnetic fields, up to 10^15-10^16 G. These objects, named magnetars, could be powerful sources of gravitational waves, since their magnetic field could determine large deformations. We discuss the structure of the magnetic field of magnetars, and the deformation induced by this field. Finally, we discuss the perspective of detection of the gravitational waves emitted by these stars.
Structure, deformations and gravitational wave emission of magnetars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gualtieri, L; Ciolfi, R; Ferrari, V, E-mail: leonardo.gualtieri@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma and Sezione INFN Roma1, piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)
2011-06-07
Neutron stars can have, in some phases of their life, extremely strong magnetic fields, up to 10{sup 15-16} G. These objects, named magnetars, could be powerful sources of gravitational waves, since their magnetic field could determine large deformations. We discuss the structure of the magnetic field of magnetars, and the deformation induced by this field. Finally, we discuss the prospects of detection of the gravitational waves emitted by these stars.
Exploring the Sensitivity of Next Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors
2016-01-01
The second-generation of gravitational-wave detectors are just starting operation, and have already yielding their first detections. Research is now concentrated on how to maximize the scientific potential of gravitational-wave astronomy. To support this effort, we present here design targets for a new generation of detectors, which will be capable of observing compact binary sources with high signal-to-noise ratio throughout the Universe.
A perturbative and gauge invariant treatment of gravitational wave memory
Bieri, Lydia
2013-01-01
We present a perturbative treatment of gravitational wave memory. The coordinate invariance of Einstein's equations leads to a type of gauge invariance in perturbation theory. As with any gauge invariant theory, results are more clear when expressed in terms of manifestly gauge invariant quantities. Therefore we derive all our results from the perturbed Weyl tensor rather than the perturbed metric. We derive gravitational wave memory for the Einstein equations coupled to a general energy-momentum tensor that reaches null infinity.
Detecting Beyond-Einstein Polarizations of Continuous Gravitational Waves
Isi, Maximiliano; Weinstein, Alan J.; Mead, Carver; Pitkin, Matthew
2015-01-01
The direct detection of gravitational waves with the next-generation detectors, like Advanced LIGO, provides the opportunity to measure deviations from the predictions of general relativity. One such departure would be the existence of alternative polarizations. To measure these, we study a single detector measurement of a continuous gravitational wave from a triaxial pulsar source. We develop methods to detect signals of any polarization content and distinguish between them in a model-indepe...
Realistic Filter Cavities for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors
Evans, M.; Barsotti, L.; Harms, J.; Kwee, P.; Miao, H.
2013-01-01
The ongoing global effort to detect gravitational waves continues to push the limits of precision measurement while aiming to provide a new tool for understanding both astrophysics and fundamental physics. Squeezed states of light offer a proven means of increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors, potentially increasing the rate at which astrophysical sources are detected by more than 1 order of magnitude. Since radiation pressure noise plays an important role in advanced dete...
Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jr, John T. Giblin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu, E-mail: siemens@gravity.phys.uwm.edu, E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
2012-11-01
Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.
LIGO and Virgo: Large interferometers searching for gravitational waves
Losurdo, Giovanni
2006-01-01
The largest interferometric detectors for gravitational waves, LIGO and Virgo, have reached (or are close to) the design sensitivity and have started taking science data. The operation of such detectors is reviewed and the expected sources and detection rates are discussed. LIGO and Virgo might make the first detection, but more advanced detectors will be needed to truly open the field of gravitational wave astronomy: the current ideas and plans for the upgrades of the existing interferometers are presented.
Exploring the sensitivity of next generation gravitational wave detectors
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arun, K. G.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bock, O.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C. B.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dave, I.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Palma, I.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Fletcher, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Geng, P.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Green, A. C.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heintze, M. C.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.
2017-02-01
The second-generation of gravitational-wave detectors are just starting operation, and have already yielding their first detections. Research is now concentrated on how to maximize the scientific potential of gravitational-wave astronomy. To support this effort, we present here design targets for a new generation of detectors, which will be capable of observing compact binary sources with high signal-to-noise ratio throughout the Universe.
Exploring the cosmos with gravitational-waves
Taylor, Stephen R.; Gair, Jonathan R.; Mandel, Ilya; Lentati, Lindley; Ellis, Justin
2015-01-01
Gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy will open up a new frontier in astrophysical studies of neutron stars (NSs) and black-holes (BHs). Near-future detections will shed light on the coalescence rate of compact-object binaries, present an independent means of constraining cosmological parameters, and offer a host of other exciting opportunities. My doctoral research has followed two threads, linked by the common goal of mining rich information from near-future GW observations. In the first thread of my dissertation, I developed a technique to probe cosmological parameters with GWs in the absence of any electromagnetic counterparts. This exploits the potential for a network of GW interferometers to extract the distance of each system from the measured gravitational waveform. I use the observed intrinsic narrowness of the NS-NS mass-distribution, along with GW-measured redshifted-masses, to deduce candidate redshift distributions for each system, thereby allowing a probe of the distance-redshift relation. I find that an advanced LIGO-Virgo network can place independent, complementary constraints on the Hubble constant, whilst a third-generation network will be capable of probing the dark energy equation-of-state and the star-formation rate of the NS-NS progenitor population. In the second thread, I studied the potential for high-precision timing of millisecond pulsars to infer the perturbing influence of passing GWs. I developed a robust data-analysis pipeline to constrain the levels of anisotropy in a stochastic nanoHertz GW background using an ensemble of these pulsars. This technique cross-correlates pulse time-of-arrival deviations from many pulsars, leveraging the common influence of a stochastic background against noise sources, and mines the cross-correlation signature for information on the angular distribution of GW-power. Additionally, I developed several rapid inference techniques applicable to pulsar-timing searches for individual supermassive BH binary
Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
2015-03-01
This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10^{-21} Hz^{-1/2} level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10^{-21}Hz^{-1/2} at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.
Propagation effect of gravitational wave on detector response
Chang, Zhe; Zhao, Zhi-Chao
2016-01-01
The response of a detector to gravitational wave is a function of frequency. When the time a photon moving around in the Fabry-Perot cavities is the same order of the period of a gravitational wave, the phase-difference due to the gravitational wave should be an integral along the path. We present a formula description for detector response to gravitational wave with varied frequencies. The LIGO data for GW150914 and GW 151226 are reexamined in this framework. For GW150924, the traveling time of a photon in the LIGO detector is just a bit larger than a half period of the highest frequency of gravitational wave and the similar result is obtained with LIGO and Virgo collaborations. However, we are not always so luck. In the case of GW151226, the time of a photon traveling in the detector is larger than the period of the highest frequency of gravitational wave and the announced signal cannot match well the template with the initial black hole masses 14.2M$_\\odot$ and 7.5M$_\\odot$.
Response of a Doppler canceling system to plane gravitational waves
Caporali, A.
1982-01-01
This paper discusses the interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three-link microwave system known as the Doppler canceling system. This system, which was developed for a gravitational red-shift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler information to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric-optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational-wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-cancelled beat by bursts and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler canceling system and that of a (NASA) Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A threefold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences.
Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate
Acedo, L
2015-01-01
The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The resulting gravitational time-dilation near these masses gives rise to a frequency change of any periodic process, including electromagnetic oscillations as the wave propagates across the gravitational field. This phenomenon can be tackled with classical electrodynamics assuming a curved spacetime background and Maxwell's equations in a generally covariant form. In the present paper, we show that in a classical field-theoretical context the gravitational redshift can be interpreted as the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a medium with corresponding conductivity $\\sigma=g/(\\mu_0 c^3)$, where $g$ is the gravitational acceleration and $\\mu_0$ is the vacuum magnetic p...
Schutz, Katelin
2015-01-01
Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are placing increasingly stringent constraints on the strain amplitude of continuous gravitational waves emitted by supermassive black hole binaries on subparsec scales. In this paper, we incorporate independent measurements of the dynamical masses $M_{\\rm bh}$ of supermassive black holes in specific galaxies at known distances and leverage this additional information to further constrain whether or not those galaxies could host a detectable supermassive black hole binary. We estimate the strain amplitudes from individual binaries as a function of binary mass ratio for two samples of nearby galaxies: (1) those with direct dynamical measurements of $M_{\\rm bh}$ in the literature, and (2) the 116 most massive early-type galaxies (and thus likely hosts of the most massive black holes) within 108 Mpc from the MASSIVE Survey. Our exploratory analysis shows that the current PTA upper limits on continuous waves can already constrain the mass ratios of hypothetical black hole binaries in a...
Gravitational Wave Science in the High School Classroom
Farr, Benjamin; Trouille, Laura
2011-01-01
Gravitational waves have the potential to bring astronomy into the next era by providing an entirely new means of observing astronomical phenomena. By measuring fluctuations down to the sub-attometer scale, scientists are hoping to measure the gravitational effects of extreme cosmic events happening millions of parsecs away. This widely multidisciplinary work encompasses fields ranging from astrophysics to quantum optics. This article discusses the integration of gravitational wave science into a high school astronomy curriculum, where students learn about a variety of topics in the field, with particular focus placed on astrophysical sources, detector technology, and data analysis techniques.
Quasi-Normal Modes and Gravitational Wave Astronomy
Ferrari, V
2007-01-01
We review the main results obtained in the literature on quasi-normal modes of compact stars and black holes, in the light of recent exciting developments of gravitational wave detectors. Quasi-normal modes are a fundamental feature of the gravitational signal emitted by compact objects in many astrophysical processes; we will show that their eigenfrequencies encode interesting information on the nature and on the inner structure of the emitting source and we will discuss whether we are ready for a gravitational wave asteroseismology.
Nishizawa, Atsushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takahiro
2011-01-01
Proposed space-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors such as DECIGO and BBO will detect ~10^6 neutron-star (NS) binaries and determine the luminosity distances to the binaries with high precision. Combining the luminosity distances with cosmologically-induced phase corrections on the GWs, cosmological expansion out to high redshift can be measured without the redshift determinations of host galaxies by electromagnetic observation and be a unique probe for dark energy. On the other hand, such a NS-binary foreground should be subtracted to detect primordial GWs produced during inflation. Thus, the constraining power on dark energy and the detectability of the primordial gravitational waves strongly depend on the detector sensitivity and are in close relation with one another. In this paper, we investigate the constraints on the equation of state of dark energy with future space-based GW detectors with/without identifying the redshifts of host galaxies. We also study the sensitivity to the primordial GWs, prop...
Gravitational Waves From a Dark (Twin) Phase Transition
Schwaller, Pedro
2015-01-01
In this work, we show that a large class of models with a composite dark sector undergo a strong first order phase transition in the early universe, which could lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal. We summarise the basic conditions for a strong first order phase transition for SU(N) dark sectors with n_f flavours, calculate the gravitational wave spectrum and show that, depending on the dark confinement scale, it can be detected at eLISA or in pulsar timing array experiments. The gravitational wave signal provides a unique test of the gravitational interactions of a dark sector, and we discuss the complementarity with conventional searches for new dark sectors. The discussion includes Twin Higgs and SIMP models as well as symmetric and asymmetric composite dark matter scenarios.
The Low Frequency Sensitivity to Gravitational Waves for ASTROD
Paton, Antonio Pulido
2007-01-01
ASTROD is a relativity mission concept encompassing multi-purposes. One of its main purposes is to detect gravitational waves sensitive to low-frequency band similar to LISA, but shifted to lower frequencies. In this aspect, ASTROD would complement LISA in probing the Universe and study strong-field black hole physics. Since ASTROD will be after LISA, in the Cosmic Vision time-frame 2015-2025, a ten-fold improvement over LISA accelerometer noise goal would be possible, allowing us to test relativistic gravity to 1 ppb and improve the gravitational-wave sensitivity. In this paper, we address to this possible improvement, especially in the frequency range below 0.1 mHz. We look into possible thermal noise improvement, magnetic noise improvement, spurious discharging noise improvement and local gravitational noise improvement. We discuss various possibilities of lower-frequency gravitational-wave responses and their significance to potential astrophysical sources.
Pulsar timing arrays: the promise of gravitational wave detection.
Lommen, Andrea N
2015-12-01
We describe the history, methods, tools, and challenges of using pulsars to detect gravitational waves. Pulsars act as celestial clocks detecting gravitational perturbations in space-time at wavelengths of light-years. The field is poised to make its first detection of nanohertz gravitational waves in the next 10 years. Controversies remain over how far we can reduce the noise in the pulsars, how many pulsars should be in the array, what kind of source we will detect first, and how we can best accommodate our large bandwidth systems. We conclude by considering the important question of how to plan for a post-detection era, beyond the first detection of gravitational waves.
Newtorites in bar detectors of gravitational wave
Ronga, F
2016-01-01
The detection of particles with only gravitational interactions (Newtorites) in gravitational bar detectors was studied in 1984 by Bernard, De Rujula and Lautrup. The negative results of dark matter searches suggest to look to exotic possibilities like Newtorites. The limits obtained with the Nautilus bar detector will be presented and the possible improvements will be discussed. Since the gravitational coupling is very weak, the possible limits are very far from what is needed for dark matter, but for large masses are the best limits obtained on the Earth. An update of limits for MACRO particles will be given.
GRB-supernovae: a new spin on gravitational waves
Van Putten, M H P M
2005-01-01
The discovery of the GRB-supernova association poses the question on the nature of the inner engine as the outcome of Type Ib/c supernovae. These events are believed to represent core-collapse of massive stars, probably in low-period stellar binaries and similar but not identical to the Type II event SN1987A. The branching ratio of Type Ib/c supernovae into GRB-supernovae has the remarkably small value of less than 0.5%. These observational constraints point towards a rapidly rotating black hole formed at low probability with low kick velocity. The putative black hole hereby remains centered, and matures into a high-mass object with large rotational energy in angular momentum. As the MeV-neutrino emissions from SN1987A demonstrate, the most powerful probe of the inner workings of core-collapse events are radiation channels to which the remnant envelope is optically thin. We here discuss the prospect of gravitational-wave emissions powered by a rapidly rotating central black hole which, in contrast to MeV-neut...
Cosmic variance in the nanohertz gravitational wave background
Roebber, Elinore; Holz, Daniel; Warren, Michael
2015-01-01
We use large N-body simulations and empirical scaling relations between dark matter halos, galaxies, and supermassive black holes to estimate the formation rates of supermassive black hole binaries and the resulting low-frequency stochastic gravitational wave background (GWB). We find this GWB to be relatively insensitive ($\\lesssim10\\%$) to cosmological parameters, with only slight variation between WMAP5 and Planck cosmologies. We find that uncertainty in the astrophysical scaling relations changes the amplitude of the GWB by a factor of $\\sim 2$. Current observational limits are already constraining this predicted range of models. We investigate the Poisson variance in the amplitude of the GWB for randomly-generated populations of supermassive black holes, finding a scatter of order unity per frequency bin below 10 nHz, and increasing to a factor of $\\sim 10$ near 100 nHz. This variance is a result of the rarity of the most massive binaries, which dominate the signal, and acts as a fundamental uncertainty ...
Versatile directional searches for gravitational waves with Pulsar Timing Arrays
Madison, D. R.; Zhu, X.-J.; Hobbs, G.; Coles, W.; Shannon, R. M.; Wang, J. B.; Tiburzi, C.; Manchester, R. N.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Dai, S.; Dempsey, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Lasky, P.; Levin, Y.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D.; Rosado, P.; Spiewak, R.; van Straten, W.; Toomey, L.; Wen, L.; You, X.
2016-02-01
By regularly monitoring the most stable millisecond pulsars over many years, pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are positioned to detect and study correlations in the timing behaviour of those pulsars. Gravitational waves (GWs) from supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are an exciting potentially detectable source of such correlations. We describe a straightforward technique by which a PTA can be `phased-up' to form time series of the two polarization modes of GWs coming from a particular direction of the sky. Our technique requires no assumptions regarding the time-domain behaviour of a GW signal. This method has already been used to place stringent bounds on GWs from individual SMBHBs in circular orbits. Here, we describe the methodology and demonstrate the versatility of the technique in searches for a wide variety of GW signals including bursts with unmodelled waveforms. Using the first six years of data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, we conduct an all-sky search for a detectable excess of GW power from any direction. For the lines of sight to several nearby massive galaxy clusters, we carry out a more detailed search for GW bursts with memory, which are distinct signatures of SMBHB mergers. In all cases, we find that the data are consistent with noise.
Conference: Seeing two black holes merge (with gravitational waves!) | 14 September | Uni Dufour
2016-01-01
GW150914: the first direct observation of gravitational waves from the inspiral and merger of two black holes - Conference by Prof. Bruce Allen, Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. "Seeing two black holes merge (with gravitational waves!)" Uni Dufour - Auditorium U300 Wednesday, 14 September at 7 p.m. Bruce Allen. (Photo: ©F. Vinken/MPG) Abstract: On 14 September 2015, the advanced LIGO gravitational wave instruments detected the gravitational wave signal emitted as two black holes, about one billion light years away from Earth, made a final few orbits around each other then merged together. This was big news around the world, because scientists have tried to make such observations for more than half a century. Before they merged, the two black holes were about 29 and 36 times as massive as the sun; after the merger was complete, a single black hole about 62 times the sun's mass was left behind. I'll describe what black holes are, how they (...
Towards robust detection of gravitational waves by pulsar timing
Cornish, Neil J.; Sampson, Laura
2016-01-01
Precision timing of highly stable milli-second pulsars is a promising technique for detecting very low frequency sources of gravitational waves. In any one pulsar, the gravitational wave signal appears as an additional source of timing noise, and it is only by considering the coherent response across a network of pulsars that the signal can be distinguished from other sources of noise. In the limit where there are many gravitational wave sources, or in the limit where there are many pulsars in the array, the waves produce a unique tensor correlation pattern that depends only on the angular separation of each pulsar pair. It is this distinct fingerprint that is used to search for gravitational waves using pulsar timing arrays. Here we consider how the prospects for detection are diminished when there are a finite number of signals and pulsars, which breaks the statistical isotropy of the timing array and of the gravitational wave sky. We also study the use of "sky-scrambles'' to break the signal correlations in the data as a way to increase confidence in a detection.
Learning about Black-Hole Formation from Gravitational Waves
Kesden, Michael H.
2017-01-01
The first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves from two binary black-hole mergers. Although astrophysical black holes are simple objects fully characterized by their masses and spins, key features of binary black-hole formation such as mass transfer, natal kicks, and common-envelope evolution can misalign black-hole spins with the orbital angular momentum of the binary. These misaligned spins will precess as gravitational-wave emission causes the black holes to inspiral to separations at which the waves are detectable by observatories like LIGO. Spin precession modulates the amplitude and frequency of the gravitational waves observed by LIGO, allowing it to not only test general relativity but also reveal the secrets of black-hole formation. This talk will briefly describe those elements of binary black-hole formation responsible for initial spin misalignments, how spin precession and radiation reaction in general relativity determine how spins evolve from formation until the black holes enter LIGO’s sensitivity band, and how spin-induced gravitational-wave modulation in band can be used as a diagnostic of black-hole formation.
ASTROD, ASTROD I and their gravitational-wave sensitivities
Ni, W T; Liao, A C; Ni, Wei-Tou; Shiomi, Sachie; Liao, An-Chi
2004-01-01
ASTROD (Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices) is a mission concept with three spacecraft -- one near L1/L2 point, one with an inner solar orbit and one with an outer solar orbit, ranging coherently with one another using lasers to test relativistic gravity, to measure the solar system and to detect gravitational waves. ASTROD I with one spacecraft ranging optically with ground stations is the first step toward the ASTROD mission. In this paper, we present the ASTROD I payload and accelerometer requirements, discuss the gravitational-wave sensitivities for ASTROD and ASTROD I, and compare them with LISA and radio-wave PDoppler-tracking of spacecraft.
Resonant mode for gravitational wave detectors based on atom interferometry
Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; Rajendran, Surjeet
2016-11-01
We describe an atom interferometric gravitational wave detector design that can operate in a resonant mode for increased sensitivity. By oscillating the positions of the atomic wave packets, this resonant detection mode allows for coherently enhanced, narrow-band sensitivity at target frequencies. The proposed detector is flexible and can be rapidly switched between broadband and narrow-band detection modes. For instance, a binary discovered in broadband mode can subsequently be studied further as the inspiral evolves by using a tailored narrow-band detector response. In addition to functioning like a lock-in amplifier for astrophysical events, the enhanced sensitivity of the resonant approach also opens up the possibility of searching for important cosmological signals, including the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by inflation. We give an example of detector parameters which would allow detection of inflationary gravitational waves down to ΩGW˜10-14 for a two-satellite space-based detector.
Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy
Lee, Hyung Mok; Du, ZhiHui; Lin, ZhangXi; Guo, XiangYu; Wen, LinQing; Phukon, Khun Sang; Pandey, Vihan; Bose, Sukanta; Fan, Xi-Long; Hendry, Martin
2016-01-01
This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPU-implemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used...
Accumulative coupling between magnetized tenuous plasma and gravitational waves
Zhang, Fan
2016-07-01
We explicitly compute the plasma wave (PW) induced by a plane gravitational wave (GW) traveling through a region of strongly magnetized plasma, governed by force-free electrodynamics. The PW comoves with the GW and absorbs its energy to grow over time, creating an essentially force-free counterpart to the inverse-Gertsenshtein effect. The time-averaged Poynting flux of the induced PW is comparable to the vacuum case, but the associated current may offer a more sensitive alternative to photodetection when designing experiments for detecting/constraining high-frequency gravitational waves. Aside from the exact solutions, we also offer an analysis of the general properties of the GW to PW conversion process, which should find use when evaluating electromagnetic counterparts to astrophysical gravitational waves that are generated directly by the latter as a second-order phenomenon.
Accumulative coupling between magnetized tenuous plasma and gravitational waves
Zhang, Fan
2016-01-01
We explicitly compute the plasma wave (PW) induced by a plane gravitational wave (GW) travelling through a region of strongly magnetized plasma, governed by force-free electrodynamics. The PW co-moves with the GW and absorbs its energy to grow over time, creating an essentially force-free counterpart to the inverse-Gertsenshtein effect. The time-averaged Poynting flux of the induced PW is comparable to the vacuum case, but the associated current may offer a more sensitive alternative to photodetection when designing experiments for detecting/constraining high frequency gravitational waves. Aside from the exact solutions, we also offer an analysis of the general properties of the GW to PW conversion process, which should find use when evaluating electromagnetic counterparts to astrophysical gravitational waves, that are generated directly by the latter as a second order phenomenon.
Atom Interferometry for Detection of Gravitational Waves: Progress and Prospects
Hogan, Jason
2015-04-01
Gravitational wave astronomy promises to provide a new window into the universe, collecting information about astrophysical systems and cosmology that is difficult or impossible to acquire by other methods. Detector designs based on atom interferometry offer a number of advantages over traditional approaches, including access to conventionally inaccessible frequency ranges and substantially reduced antenna baselines. Atomic physics techniques also make it possible to build a gravitational wave detector with a single linear baseline, potentially offering advantages in cost and design flexibility. In support of these proposals, recent progress in long baseline atom interferometry has enabled observation of matter wave interference with atomic wavepacket separations exceeding 10 cm and interferometer durations of more than 2 seconds. These results are obtained in a 10-meter drop tower incorporating large momentum transfer atom optics. This approach can provide ground-based proof-of-concept demonstrations of many of the technical requirements of both terrestrial and satellite gravitational wave detectors.
Clark, J; Cadonati, L; Janka, H -T; Pankow, C; Stergioulas, N
2014-01-01
The equation of state plays a critical role in the physics of the merger of two neutron stars. Recent numerical simulations with microphysical equation of state suggest the outcome of such events depends on the mass of the neutron stars. For less massive systems, simulations favor the formation of a hypermassive, quasi-stable neutron star, whose oscillations produce a short, high frequency burst of gravitational radiation. Its dominant frequency content is tightly correlated with the radius of the neutron star, and its measurement can be used to constrain the supranuclear equation of state. In contrast, the merger of higher mass systems results in prompt gravitational collapse to a black hole. We have developed an algorithm which combines waveform reconstruction from a morphology-independent search for gravitational wave transients with Bayesian model selection, to discriminate between post-merger scenarios and accurately measure the dominant oscillation frequency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method us...
CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves
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Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ricciardone, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Mota, David F. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Arroja, Frederico, E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it, E-mail: arroja@pd.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy)
2014-07-01
Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by P{sub h}(k) = P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) [ 1 + ∑{sub LM} f{sub L}(k) g{sub LM} Y{sub LM} ( k-circumflex )], where P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with f{sub 0}(k) = f{sub 2}(k) ∝ k{sup -2} are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 2 in TT, TE, EE and BB, and ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 1 in TB and EB. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic variance and we can potentially measure g{sub 00} = 30 and g{sub 2M} = 58 at 68% CL in a cosmic-variance-limited experiment. Such a level of signal may be measured in a PRISM like experiment, while the instrumental noise contaminates it in the Planck experiment. These results imply that it is impossible to measure the noncommutative parameter if it is small enough for the perturbative treatment to be valid. Our formalism and methodology for dealing with the CMB tensor statistical anisotropy are general and straightforwardly applicable to other early Universe models.
Astrophysical Prior Information and Gravitational-wave Parameter Estimation
Pankow, Chris; Perri, Leah; Chase, Eve; Coughlin, Scott; Zevin, Michael; Kalogera, Vassiliki
2016-01-01
The detection of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves has great promise for the investigation of many scientific questions. It has long been hoped that in addition to providing extra, non-gravitational information about the sources of these signals, the detection of an electromagnetic signal in conjunction with a gravitational wave could aid in the analysis of the gravitational signal itself. That is, knowledge of the sky location, inclination, and redshift of a binary could break degeneracies between these extrinsic, coordinate-dependent parameters and the physical parameters, such as mass and spin, that are intrinsic to the binary. In this paper, we investigate this issue by assuming a perfect knowledge of extrinsic parameters, and assessing the maximal impact of this knowledge on our ability to extract intrinsic parameters. However, we find only modest improvements in a few parameters --- namely the primary component's spin --- and conclude that, even in the best case, the use of additional ...
First VESF School on Advanced Detectors for Gravitational Waves
Advanced Interferometers and the Search for Gravitational Waves
2014-01-01
The search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers is gaining momentum worldwide. Beside the VIRGO and GEO gravitational wave observatories in Europe and the two LIGOs in the United States, which have operated successfully during the past decade, further observatories are being completed (KAGRA in Japan) or planned (ILIGO in India). The sensitivity of the current observatories, although spectacular, has not allowed direct discovery of gravitational waves. The advanced detectors (Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo), at present in the development phase, will improve sensitivity by a factor of 10, probing the universe up to 200 Mpc for signal from inspiraling binary compact stars. This book covers all experimental aspects of the search for gravitational radiation with optical interferometers. Every facet of the technological development underlying the evolution of advanced interferometers is thoroughly described, from configuration to optics and coatings, and from thermal compensation to suspensio...
Gravitational-wave cosmology across 29 decades in frequency
Lasky, Paul D; Smith, Tristan L; Giblin, John T; Thrane, Eric; Reardon, Daniel J; Caldwell, Robert; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, N D Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Coles, William; Dai, Shi; Dempsey, James; Hobbs, George; Kerr, Matthew; Levin, Yuri; Manchester, Richard N; Osłowski, Stefan; Ravi, Vikram; Rosado, Pablo A; Shannon, Ryan M; Spiewak, Renée; van Straten, Willem; Toomey, Lawrence; Wang, Jingbo; Wen, Linqing; You, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xingjiang
2015-01-01
Quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field in the early Universe, amplified by inflation, produce a primordial gravitational-wave background across a broad frequency band. We derive constraints on the spectrum of this gravitational radiation, and hence on theories of the early Universe, by combining experiments that cover 29 orders of magnitude in frequency. These include Planck observations of cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization power spectra and lensing, together with baryon acoustic oscillations and big bang nucleosynthesis measurements, as well as new pulsar timing array and ground-based interferometer limits. While individual experiments constrain the gravitational-wave energy density in specific frequency bands, the combination of experiments allows us to constrain cosmological parameters, including the inflationary spectral index, $n_t$, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, $r$. Results from individual experiments include the most stringent nanohertz limit of the primordial backgro...
Towards Robust Gravitational Wave Detection with Pulsar Timing Arrays
Cornish, Neil J
2015-01-01
Precision timing of highly stable milli-second pulsars is a promising technique for the detection of very low frequency sources of gravitational waves. In any single pulsar, a stochastic gravitational wave signal appears as an additional source of timing noise that can be absorbed by the noise model, and so it is only by considering the coherent response across a network of pulsars that the signal can be distinguished from other sources of noise. In the limit where there are many gravitational wave sources in the sky, or many pulsars in the array, the signals produce a unique tensor correlation pattern that depends only on the angular separation between each pulsar pair. It is this distinct fingerprint that is used to search for gravitational waves using pulsar timing arrays. Here we consider how the prospects for detection are diminished when the statistical isotropy of the timing array or the gravitational wave signal is broken by having a finite number of pulsars and a finite number of sources. We find the...
Effects of Finite-time Singularities on Gravitational Waves
Kleidis, K
2016-01-01
We analyze the impact of finite-time singularities on gravitational waves, in the context of $F(R)$ gravity. We investigate which singularities are allowed to occur during the inflationary era, when gravitational waves are considered, and we discuss the quantitative implications of each allowed singularity. As we show, only a pressure singularity, the so-called Type II and also a Type IV singularity are allowed to occur during the inflationary era. In the case of a Type II, the resulting amplitude of the gravitational wave is zero or almost zero, hence this pressure singularity has a significant impact on the primordial gravitational waves. The case of a Type IV singularity is more interesting since as we show, the singularity has no effect on the amplitude of the gravitational waves. Therefore, this result combined with the fact that the Type IV singularity affects only the dynamics of inflation, leads to the conclusion that the Universe passes smoothly through a Type IV singularity.
Projected Constraints on Lorentz-Violating Gravity with Gravitational Waves
Hansen, Devin; Yagi, Kent
2014-01-01
Gravitational waves are excellent tools to probe the foundations of General Relativity in the strongly dynamical and non-linear regime. One such foundation is Lorentz symmetry, which can be broken in the gravitational sector by the existence of a preferred time direction, and thus, a preferred frame at each spacetime point. This leads to a modification in the orbital decay rate of binary systems, and also in the generation and chirping of their associated gravitational waves. We here study whether waves emitted in the late, quasi-circular inspiral of non-spinning, neutron star binaries can place competitive constraints on two proxies of gravitational Lorentz-violation: Einstein-\\AE{}ther theory and khronometric gravity. We model the waves in the small-coupling (or decoupling) limit and in the post-Newtonian approximation, by perturbatively solving the field equations in small deformations from General Relativity and in the small-velocity/weak-gravity approximation. We assume a gravitational wave consistent wi...
Low-Frequency Gravitational Wave Searches Using Spacecraft Doppler Tracking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armstrong J. W.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses spacecraft Doppler tracking, the current-generation detector technology used in the low-frequency (~millihertz gravitational wave band. In the Doppler method the earth and a distant spacecraft act as free test masses with a ground-based precision Doppler tracking system continuously monitoring the earth-spacecraft relative dimensionless velocity $2 Delta v/c = Delta u/ u_0$, where $Delta u$ is the Doppler shift and $ u_0$ is the radio link carrier frequency. A gravitational wave having strain amplitude $h$ incident on the earth-spacecraft system causes perturbations of order $h$ in the time series of $Delta u/ u_0$. Unlike other detectors, the ~1-10 AU earth-spacecraft separation makes the detector large compared with millihertz-band gravitational wavelengths, and thus times-of-flight of signals and radio waves through the apparatus are important. A burst signal, for example, is time-resolved into a characteristic signature: three discrete events in the Doppler time series. I discuss here the principles of operation of this detector (emphasizing transfer functions of gravitational wave signals and the principal noises to the Doppler time series, some data analysis techniques, experiments to date, and illustrations of sensitivity and current detector performance. I conclude with a discussion of how gravitational wave sensitivity can be improved in the low-frequency band.
Hearing the signal of dark sectors with gravitational wave detectors
Jaeckel, Joerg; Khoze, Valentin V.; Spannowsky, Michael
2016-11-01
Motivated by advanced LIGO (aLIGO)'s recent discovery of gravitational waves, we discuss signatures of new physics that could be seen at ground- and space-based interferometers. We show that a first-order phase transition in a dark sector would lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal at future experiments, if the phase transition has occurred at temperatures few orders of magnitude higher than the electroweak scale. The source of gravitational waves in this case is associated with the dynamics of expanding and colliding bubbles in the early universe. At the same time we point out that topological defects, such as dark sector domain walls, may generate a detectable signal already at aLIGO. Both bubble and domain-wall scenarios are sourced by semiclassical configurations of a dark new physics sector. In the first case, the gravitational wave signal originates from bubble wall collisions and subsequent turbulence in hot plasma in the early universe, while the second case corresponds to domain walls passing through the interferometer at present and is not related to gravitational waves. We find that aLIGO at its current sensitivity can detect smoking-gun signatures from domain-wall interactions, while future proposed experiments including the fifth phase of aLIGO at design sensitivity can probe dark sector phase transitions.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.
2016-02-01
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 ×10-21. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ . The source lies at a luminosity distance of 41 0-180+160 Mpc corresponding to a redshift z =0.0 9-0.04+0.03 . In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 3 6-4+5M⊙ and 2 9-4+4M⊙ , and the final black hole mass is 6 2-4+4M⊙ , with 3. 0-0.5+0.5M⊙ c2 radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A
2016-02-12
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Curved non-relativistic spacetimes, Newtonian gravitation and massive matter
Geracie, Michael; Roberts, Matthew M
2015-01-01
There is significant recent work on coupling matter to Newton-Cartan spacetimes with the aim of investigating certain condensed matter phenomena. To this end, one needs to have a completely general spacetime consistent with local non-relativisitic symmetries which supports massive matter fields. In particular, one can not impose a priori restrictions on the geometric data if one wants to analyze matter response to a perturbed geometry. In this paper we construct such a Bargmann spacetime in complete generality without any prior restrictions on the fields specifying the geometry. The resulting spacetime structure includes the familiar Newton-Cartan structure with an additional gauge field which couples to mass. We illustrate the matter coupling with a few examples. The general spacetime we construct also includes as a special case the covariant description of Newtonian gravity, which has been thoroughly investigated in previous works. We also show how our Bargmann spacetimes arise from a suitable non-relativis...
Collett, Thomas E.; Bacon, David
2017-03-01
Probing the relative speeds of gravitational waves and light acts as an important test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. Measuring the arrival time of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) counterparts can be used to measure the relative speeds, but only if the intrinsic time lag between emission of the photons and gravitational waves is well understood. Here we suggest a method that does not make such an assumption, using future strongly lensed GW events and EM counterparts; Biesiada et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys.10 (2014) 080, 10.1088/1475-7516/2014/10/080] forecast that 50-100 strongly lensed GW events will be observed each year with the Einstein Telescope. A single strongly lensed GW event would produce robust constraints on cGW/cγ at the 10-7 level, if a high-energy EM counterpart is observed within the field of view of an observing γ -ray burst monitor.
Upper Limits on a Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves
Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; González, G; Goler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J
2005-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has performed a third science run with much improved sensitivities of all three interferometers. We present an analysis of approximately 200 hours of data acquired during this run, used to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We place upper bounds on the energy density stored as gravitational radiation for three different spectral power laws. For the flat spectrum, our limit of Omega_0<8.4e-4 in the 69-156 Hz band is ~10^5 times lower than the previous result in this frequency range.
Upper limits on a stochastic background of gravitational waves.
Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, J; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Buonanno, A; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chen, Y; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; DeBra, D; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandar, S; Díaz, M; Di Credico, A; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Ehrens, P; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Frey, R E; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Goda, K; Goggin, L; González, G; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harry, G; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Hewitson, M; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, L; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Khan, A; Kim, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Lück, H; Luna, M; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, K; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Regimbau, T; Reitze, D H; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, A; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J; Smith, M R; Spjeld, O; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; van Putten, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zanolin, M; Zhang, L; Zotov, N; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J
2005-11-25
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory has performed a third science run with much improved sensitivities of all three interferometers. We present an analysis of approximately 200 hours of data acquired during this run, used to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We place upper bounds on the energy density stored as gravitational radiation for three different spectral power laws. For the flat spectrum, our limit of omega0 < 8.4 x 10(-4) in the 69-156 Hz band is approximately 10(5) times lower than the previous result in this frequency range.
Miller, Andrew L
2016-01-01
We focus on understanding the beaming of gravitational radiation from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) by approximating GRBs as linearly accelerated point masses. For accelerated point masses, it is known that gravitational radiation is beamed isotropicly at high speeds, and beamed along the polar axis at low speeds. Aside from this knowledge, there has been very little work done on beaming of gravitational radiation from GRBs, and the impact beaming could have on gravitational wave (GW) detection. We determine the following: (1) the observation angle at which the most power is emitted as a function of speed, (2) the maximum ratio of power radiated away as a function of speed, and (3) the angular distribution of power ratios at relativistic and non-relativistic speeds. Additionally the dependence of the beaming of GW radiation on speed is essentially the opposite of the beaming of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from GRBs. So we investigate why this is the case by calculating the angular EM radiation distribution from ...
The Sensitivity of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array to Individual Sources of Gravitational Waves
Yardley, D R B; Jenet, F A; Verbiest, J P W; Wen, Z L; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D J; Hotan, A W; Sarkissian, J M
2010-01-01
We present the sensitivity of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array to gravitational waves emitted by individual super-massive black-hole binary systems in the early phases of coalescing at the cores of merged galaxies. Our analysis includes a detailed study of the effects of fitting a pulsar timing model to non-white timing residuals. Pulsar timing is sensitive at nanoHertz frequencies and hence complementary to LIGO and LISA. We place a sky-averaged constraint on the merger rate of nearby ($z < 0.6$) black-hole binaries in the early phases of coalescence with a chirp mass of $10^{10}\\,\\rmn{M}_\\odot$ of less than one merger every seven years. The prospects for future gravitational-wave astronomy of this type with the proposed Square Kilometre Array telescope are discussed.
Poghosyan, Gevorg; Streit, Achim; Bejger, Michał; Królak, Andrzej
2014-01-01
The parallelization, design and scalability of the \\sky code to search for periodic gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars is discussed. The code is based on an efficient implementation of the F-statistic using the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. To perform an analysis of data from the advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors' network, which will start operating in 2015, hundreds of millions of CPU hours will be required - the code utilizing the potential of massively parallel supercomputers is therefore mandatory. We have parallelized the code using the Message Passing Interface standard, implemented a mechanism for combining the searches at different sky-positions and frequency bands into one extremely scalable program. The parallel I/O interface is used to escape bottlenecks, when writing the generated data into file system. This allowed to develop a highly scalable computation code, which would enable the data analysis at large scales on acceptable time scales. Benchmarking of the c...
Broadband extended emission in gravitational waves from core-collapse supernovae
Levinson, Amir; Pick, Guy
2015-01-01
Black holes in core-collapse of massive stars are expected to surge in mass and angular momentum by hyper-accretion immediately following their formation. We here describe a general framework of extended emission in gravitational waves from non-axisymmetric accretion flows from fallback matter of the progenitor envelope. It shows (a) a maximum efficiency in conversion of accretion energy into gravitational waves at hyper-accretion rates exceeding a critical value set by the ratio of the quadrupole mass inhomogeneity and viscosity with (b) a peak characteristic strain amplitude at the frequency $f_b=\\Omega_b/\\pi$, where $\\Omega_b$ is the Keplerian angular velocity at which viscous torques equal angular momentum loss in gravitational radiation, with $h_{char}\\propto f^{1/6}$ at $ff_b$. Upcoming gravitational wave observations may probe this scaling by extracting broadband spectra using time-sliced matched filtering with chirp templates, recently developed for identifying turbulence in noisy time series.
Gravitational Waves of Jet Precession in Gamma-ray Bursts
Sun, Mou-Yuan; Gu, Wei-Min; Lu, Ju-Fu
2012-01-01
The physical nature of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are believed to involve an ultra-relativistic jet. The observed complex structure of light curves motivate the idea of jet precession. In this work, we study the gravitational waves of jet precession based on neutrino-dominated accretion disks around black holes, which may account for the central engine of GRBs. In our model, the jet and the inner part of the disk may precess along with the black hole, which is driven by the outer part of the disk. Gravitational waves are therefore expected to be significant from this black hole-inner disk precession system. By comparing our numerical results with the sensitivity of some detectors, we find that it is possible for DECIGO and BBO to detect such gravitational waves, particularly for GRBs in the Local Group.
Limiting the effects of earthquakes on gravitational-wave interferometers
Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan; Biscans, Sebastien; Buchanan, Christopher; Coughlin, Eric; Donovan, Fred; Fee, Jeremy; Gabbard, Hunter; Guy, Michelle; Mukund, Nikhil; Perry, Matthew
2016-01-01
Ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) are susceptible to high-magnitude teleseismic events, which can interrupt their operation in science mode and significantly reduce the duty cycle. It can take several hours for a detector to stabilize enough to return to its nominal state for scientific observations. The down time can be reduced if advance warning of impending shaking is received and the impact is suppressed in the isolation system with the goal of maintaining stable operation even at the expense of increased instrumental noise. Here we describe an early warning system for modern gravitational-wave observatories. The system relies on near real-time earthquake alerts provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Hypocenter and magnitude information is generally available in 5 to 20 minutes of a significant earthquake depending on its magnitude and location. The al...
LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Behnke, B.; Benacquista, M.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brummit, A.; Brunet, G.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Caride, S.; Castaldi, G.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R. C.; Cornish, N.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Daudert, B.; Davies, G.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dueck, J.; Duke, I.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, J. G.; Echols, C.; Edgar, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Faltas, Y.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmenn, H.; Finn, L. S.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J. A.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimaldi, F.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G. D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hughey, B.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D. R.; Isogai, T.; Ito, M.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, R.; Khazanov, E.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, H.; Lei, M.; Leindecker, N.; Leonor, I.; Li, C.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McIntyre, G.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McKenzie, K.; Mehmet, M.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miller, J.; Minelli, J.; Mino, Y.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moreno, G.; Morioka, T.; Mors, K.; Mossavi, K.; Mow Lowry, C.; Mueller, G.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Muhammad, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, H.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Dell, J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ochsner, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perraca, A.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Punken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raics, Z.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.
2009-07-01
The goal of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is to detect and study gravitational waves (GWs) of astrophysical origin. Direct detection of GWs holds the promise of testing general relativity in the strong-field regime, of providing a new probe of exotic objects such as black holes and neutron stars and of uncovering unanticipated new astrophysics. LIGO, a joint Caltech-MIT project supported by the National Science Foundation, operates three multi-kilometer interferometers at two widely separated sites in the United States. These detectors are the result of decades of worldwide technology development, design, construction and commissioning. They are now operating at their design sensitivity, and are sensitive to gravitational wave strains smaller than one part in 1021. With this unprecedented sensitivity, the data are being analyzed to detect or place limits on GWs from a variety of potential astrophysical sources.
A stochastic background of gravitational waves from hybrid preheating
García-Bellido, J; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Figueroa, Daniel G.
2006-01-01
The process of reheating the universe after hybrid inflation is extremely violent. It proceeds through the nucleation and subsequent collision of large concentrations of energy density in bubble-like structures, which generate a significant fraction of energy in the form of gravitational waves. We study the power spectrum of the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced at reheating after hybrid inflation. We find that the amplitude could be significant for high-scale models, although the typical frequencies are well beyond what could be reached by planned gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, low-scale models could still produce a detectable stochastic background at frequencies accesible to those detectors. The discovery of such a background would open a new window into the very early universe.
LIGO - The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory
Abramovici, Alex; Althouse, William E.; Drever, Ronald W. P.; Gursel, Yekta; Kawamura, Seiji; Raab, Frederick J.; Shoemaker, David; Sievers, Lisa; Spero, Robert E.; Thorne, Kip S.
1992-01-01
The goal of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Project is to detect and study astrophysical gravitational waves and use data from them for research in physics and astronomy. LIGO will support studies concerning the nature and nonlinear dynamics for gravity, the structures of black holes, and the equation of state of nuclear matter. It will also measure the masses, birth rates, collisions, and distributions of black holes and neutron stars in the universe and probe the cores of supernovae and the very early universe. The technology for LIGO has been developed during the past 20 years. Construction will begin in 1992, and under the present schedule, LIGO's gravitational-wave searches will begin in 1998.
LIGO: The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory.
Abramovici, A; Althouse, W E; Drever, R W; Gürsel, Y; Kawamura, S; Raab, F J; Shoemaker, D; Sievers, L; Spero, R E; Thorne, K S; Vogt, R E; Weiss, R; Whitcomb, S E; Zucker, M E
1992-04-17
The goal of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Project is to detect and study astrophysical gravitational waves and use data from them for research in physics and astronomy. LIGO will support studies concerning the nature and nonlinear dynamics of gravity, the structures of black holes, and the equation of state of nuclear matter. It will also measure the masses, birth rates, collisions, and distributions of black holes and neutron stars in the universe and probe the cores of supernovae and the very early universe. The technology for LIGO has been developed during the past 20 years. Construction will begin in 1992, and under the present schedule, LIGO's gravitational-wave searches will begin in 1998.
Probing the Internal Composition of Neutron Stars with Gravitational Waves
Chatziioannou, Katerina; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves from neutron star binary inspirals contain information about the equation of state of supranuclear matter. In the absence of definitive experimental evidence that determines the correct equation of state, a number of diverse models that give the pressure in a neutron star as function of its density have been proposed. These models differ not only in the approximations and techniques they use to solve the many-body Schr\\"odinger equation, but also in the neutron star composition they assume. We study whether gravitational wave observations of neutron star binaries in quasicircular inspirals will allow us to distinguish between equations of state of differing internal composition, thereby providing important information about the properties of extremely high density matter. We carry out a Bayesian model selection analysis, and find that second generation gravitational wave detectors can heavily constrain equations of state that contain only quark matter, but hybrid stars containing both norm...
Searching for a Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves with LIGO
Abbott, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aston, S; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Busby, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Casey, M M; Cepeda, C; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chin, D; Chin, E; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coward, D; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cutler, C; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; De Vine, G; De Bra, D; Degallaix, J; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Dickson, J; Diederichs, G; Dietz, A; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Dumas, J C; Dupuis, R J; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Franzen, K Y; Frey, R E; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, J; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hoang, P; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Howell, E; Hoyland, D; Hua, W; Huttner, S; Ingram, D; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jackrel, D; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, Peter Ignaz Paul; Kalogera, V; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Khalili, F Ya; Khan, A; Kim, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lee, B; Lei, M; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marka, S; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McKenzie, K; McNabb, J W C; Meier, T; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow Lowry, C; Moylan, A; Mudge, D; Müller, G; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Mukherjee, S; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Newton, G; Numata, K; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M V; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ribichini, L; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; Sanchodela-Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Schediwy, S; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Sheard, B; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B; Slutsky, J; Smith, J; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P; Somiya, K; Speake, C; Spjeld, O; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sun, K; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Tanner, D B; Tarallo, M; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vahlbruch, H; Vallisneri, M; Varvella, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Vigeland, S; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitbeck, D M; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Yunes, N; Zanolin, M; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zur Mühlen, H; Zweizig, J
2006-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has performed the fourth science run, S4, with significantly improved interferometer sensitivities with respect to previous runs. Using data acquired during this science run, we place a limit on the amplitude of a stochastic background of gravitational waves. For a frequency independent spectrum, the new limit is $\\Omega_{\\rm GW} < 6.5 \\times 10^{-5}$. This is currently the most sensitive result in the frequency range 51-150 Hz, with a factor of 13 improvement over the previous LIGO result. We discuss complementarity of the new result with other constraints on a stochastic background of gravitational waves, and we investigate implications of the new result for different models of this background.
Improving gravitational-wave parameter estimation using Gaussian process regression
Moore, Christopher J; Chua, Alvin J K; Gair, Jonathan R
2015-01-01
Folding uncertainty in theoretical models into Bayesian parameter estimation is necessary in order to make reliable inferences. A general means of achieving this is by marginalising over model uncertainty using a prior distribution constructed using Gaussian process regression (GPR). Here, we apply this technique to (simulated) gravitational-wave signals from binary black holes that could be observed using advanced-era gravitational-wave detectors. Unless properly accounted for, uncertainty in the gravitational-wave templates could be the dominant source of error in studies of these systems. We explain our approach in detail and provide proofs of various features of the method, including the limiting behaviour for high signal-to-noise, where systematic model uncertainties dominate over noise errors. We find that the marginalised likelihood constructed via GPR offers a significant improvement in parameter estimation over the standard, uncorrected likelihood. We also examine the dependence of the method on the ...
LISA Pathfinder: First steps to observing gravitational waves from space
LISA Pathfinder Collaboration
2017-05-01
LISA Pathfinder, the European Space Agency’s technology demonstrator mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, was launched on 3 December 2015, from the European space port of Kourou, French Guiana. After a short duration transfer to the final science orbit, the mission has been gathering science data since. This data has allowed the science community to validate the critical technologies and measurement principle for low frequency gravitational wave detection and thereby confirming the readiness to start the next generation gravitational wave observatories, such as LISA. This paper will briefly describe the mission, followed by a description of the science operations highlighting the performance achieved. Details of the various experiments performed during the nominal science operations phase can be found in accompanying papers in this volume.
LIGO - The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory
Abramovici, Alex; Althouse, William E.; Drever, Ronald W. P.; Gursel, Yekta; Kawamura, Seiji; Raab, Frederick J.; Shoemaker, David; Sievers, Lisa; Spero, Robert E.; Thorne, Kip S.
1992-01-01
The goal of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Project is to detect and study astrophysical gravitational waves and use data from them for research in physics and astronomy. LIGO will support studies concerning the nature and nonlinear dynamics for gravity, the structures of black holes, and the equation of state of nuclear matter. It will also measure the masses, birth rates, collisions, and distributions of black holes and neutron stars in the universe and probe the cores of supernovae and the very early universe. The technology for LIGO has been developed during the past 20 years. Construction will begin in 1992, and under the present schedule, LIGO's gravitational-wave searches will begin in 1998.
Black Hole Spectroscopy: Testing General Relativity through Gravitational Wave Observations
Dreyer, O; Krishnan, B; Finn, L S; Garrison, D; López-Aleman, R; Dreyer, Olaf; Kelly, Bernard; Krishnan, Badri; Finn, Lee Samuel; Garrison, David; Lopez-Aleman, Ramon
2004-01-01
Assuming that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity in the strong field limit, can gravitational wave observations distinguish between black hole and other compact object sources? Alternatively, can gravitational wave observations provide a test of one of the fundamental predictions of general relativity? Here we describe a definitive test of the hypothesis that observations of damped, sinusoidal gravitational waves originated from a black hole or, alternatively, that nature respects the general relativistic no-hair theorem. For astrophysical black holes, which have a negligible charge-to-mass ratio, the black hole quasi-normal mode spectrum is characterized entirely by the black hole mass and angular momentum and is unique to black holes. In a different theory of gravity, or if the observed radiation arises from a different source (e.g., a neutron star, strange matter or boson star), the spectrum will be inconsistent with that predicted for general relativistic black holes. We give a statistica...
The "Quantum Mousetrap": Entangled States and Gravitational Waves
Tamburini, Fabrizio; Ungarelli, Carlo
2008-01-01
We propose a "thought technique" for detecting Gravitational Waves using Einstein-Podolski-Rosen photon Entangled States. GWs decohere the entangled photon pairs, introduce a relative rotation and de-synchronize Alice and Bob's reference frames thus reducing the measured non-locality of correlated quanta described by Bell's inequalities. Gravitational Waves, distorting quantum encryption key statistics away from a pure white noise, act then as shadow eavesdroppers. The deviation from the intrinsic white-noise randomness of a Quantum Key Distribution process can reveal the presence of a gravitational wave by analyzing the emerging color distortions in the key. Photon entangled states provide the key advantage of revealing the polarization rotation introduced by GWs without the need of previously fixed reference frames
Exact Theory to a Gravitational Wave Detector. New Experiments Proposed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available We deduce exact solutions to the deviation equation in the cases of both free and spring-connected particles. The solutions show that gravitational waves may displace particles in a two-particle system only if they are in motion with respect to each other or the local space (there is no effect if they are at rest. We therefore propose a new experimental statement for the detection of gravitational waves: use a suspended solid-body detector self-vibrating so that there are relative oscillations of its butt-ends. Or, in another way: use a free-mass detector fitted with suspended, vibrating mirrors. Such systems may have a relative displacement of the butt-ends and a time shift in the butt-ends, produced by a falling gravitational wave.
The origin and evolution of LIGO's first gravitational-wave source
Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; O'Shaughnessy, Richard
2016-01-01
LIGO has detected gravitational waves from the coalescence and merger of two massive stellar-origin black holes. The detection is consistent with our earlier predictions that the first LIGO detections from massive binary black hole mergers were imminent, based on isolated binary evolution. Within our classical evolutionary scenario we find that the stellar progenitors of the black holes constituting GW150914 most likely formed in low metallicity environments (Z400 km/s) for massive black holes are unlikely. Development and survival of the common envelope is likely restricted to evolved stars. While models based on dynamical formation do not predict that the BH spins should be preferentially aligned with the binary angular momentum, our models of isolated BH-BH formation favor aligned BH spins (assuming that the progenitor star spins are aligned when the binaries form). We find that the existence of GW150914 does not require enhanced double black hole formation in dense stellar clusters or via exotic evolution...
Curved non-relativistic spacetimes, Newtonian gravitation and massive matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geracie, Michael, E-mail: mgeracie@uchicago.edu; Prabhu, Kartik, E-mail: kartikp@uchicago.edu; Roberts, Matthew M., E-mail: matthewroberts@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2015-10-15
There is significant recent work on coupling matter to Newton-Cartan spacetimes with the aim of investigating certain condensed matter phenomena. To this end, one needs to have a completely general spacetime consistent with local non-relativistic symmetries which supports massive matter fields. In particular, one cannot impose a priori restrictions on the geometric data if one wants to analyze matter response to a perturbed geometry. In this paper, we construct such a Bargmann spacetime in complete generality without any prior restrictions on the fields specifying the geometry. The resulting spacetime structure includes the familiar Newton-Cartan structure with an additional gauge field which couples to mass. We illustrate the matter coupling with a few examples. The general spacetime we construct also includes as a special case the covariant description of Newtonian gravity, which has been thoroughly investigated in previous works. We also show how our Bargmann spacetimes arise from a suitable non-relativistic limit of Lorentzian spacetimes. In a companion paper [M. Geracie et al., e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.02680 ], we use this Bargmann spacetime structure to investigate the details of matter couplings, including the Noether-Ward identities, and transport phenomena and thermodynamics of non-relativistic fluids.
Bayesian reconstruction of gravitational wave bursts using chirplets
Millhouse, Margaret; Cornish, Neil; Littenberg, Tyson
2017-01-01
The BayesWave algorithm has been shown to accurately reconstruct unmodeled short duration gravitational wave bursts and to distinguish between astrophysical signals and transient noise events. BayesWave does this by using a variable number of sine-Gaussian (Morlet) wavelets to reconstruct data in multiple interferometers. While the Morlet wavelets can be summed together to produce any possible waveform, there could be other wavelet functions that improve the performance. Because we expect most astrophysical gravitational wave signals to evolve in frequency, modified Morlet wavelets with linear frequency evolution - called chirplets - may better reconstruct signals with fewer wavelets. We compare the performance of BayesWave using Morlet wavelets and chirplets on a variety of simulated signals.
Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid
Mitra, Aniruddha; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar; Bhar, Radhaballav; Khan, Manoranjan
2017-02-01
The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through 'viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation' in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem.
Rica, Sergio
2016-01-01
The recent observation of gravitational waves, stimulates the question of the longtime evolution of the space-time fluctuations. Gravitational waves interact themselves through the nonlinear character of Einstein's equations of general relativity. This nonlinear wave interaction allows the spectral energy transfer from mode to mode. According to the wave turbulence theory, the weakly nonlinear interaction of gravitational waves leads to the existence of an irreversible kinetic regime that dominates the longtime evolution. The resulting kinetic equation suggests the existence of an equilibrium wave spectrum and the existence of a non-equilibrium Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum for spatio-temporal fluctuations. Evidence of these solutions extracted in the fluctuating signal of the recent observations will be discussed in the paper. Probably, the present results would be pertinent in the new age of development of gravitational astronomy, as well as, in new tests of General Relativity.
Numerical wave optics and the lensing of gravitational waves by globular clusters
Moylan, Andrew J; Scott, Susan M; Searle, Antony C; Bicknell, G V
2008-01-01
We consider the possible effects of gravitational lensing by globular clusters on gravitational waves from asymmetric neutron stars in our galaxy. In the lensing of gravitational waves, the long wavelength, compared with the usual case of optical lensing, can lead to the geometrical optics approximation being invalid, in which case a wave optical solution is necessary. In general, wave optical solutions can only be obtained numerically. We describe a computational method that is particularly well suited to numerical wave optics. This method enables us to compare the properties of several lens models for globular clusters without ever calling upon the geometrical optics approximation, though that approximation would sometimes have been valid. Finally, we estimate the probability that lensing by a globular cluster will significantly affect the detection, by ground-based laser interferometer detectors such as LIGO, of gravitational waves from an asymmetric neutron star in our galaxy, finding that the probability...
MHz Gravitational Waves from Short-term Anisotropic Inflation
Ito, Asuka
2016-01-01
We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around $10^{-26}$ ~ $10^{-27}$ are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10MHz~100MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.
Detecting Beyond-Einstein Polarizations of Continuous Gravitational Waves
Isi, Maximiliano; Mead, Carver; Pitkin, Matthew
2015-01-01
The direct detection of gravitational waves with the next generation detectors, like Advanced LIGO, provides the opportunity to measure deviations from the predictions of General Relativity. One such departure would be the existence of alternative polarizations. To measure these, we study a single detector measurement of a continuous gravitational wave from a triaxial pulsar source. We develop methods to detect signals of any polarization content and distinguish between them in a model independent way. We present LIGO S5 sensitivity estimates for 115 pulsars.
On the Gravitational Wave in de Sitter Spacetime
Liu, L
2004-01-01
For there is always a wrong sign in the mass of graviton in the so-called perturbation expansion approximation of both Minkowski and de Sitter spacetimes, the existence of gravitational wave from the metric perturbation of de Sitter spacetime is doubtful. We try another way to start from the assumption that the gravitational wave equation should be both general covariant and conformal invariant and find that graviton is no longer a part of metric field, it has an effective mass of $m_g=\\sqrt{R/6}=% \\sqrt{2\\Lambda/3}$ with correct sign in de Sitter spacetime, though it's intrinsic mass remains zero.
No further gravitational wave modes in $F(T)$ gravity
Bamba, Kazuharu; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Sáez-Gómez, Diego
2013-01-01
We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in $F(T)$ gravity, where $T$ is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in $F(T)$ gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of $F(T)$. This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar-tensor representation of $F(T)$ gravity.
Education and public outreach on gravitational-wave astronomy
Hendry, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Audley, H.; Barke, S.; Blair, D. G.; Christensen, N.; Danzmann, K.; Freise, A.; Gerberding, O.; Knispel, B.; Lieser, M.; Mandel, I.; Moore, T.; Stuver, A.; Whiting, B.
2014-08-01
In this paper we summarise the presentations given during the "Education and Public Outreach on Gravitational-Wave Astronomy" parallel session at the GR-20/Amaldi conference, held in Warsaw, July 2013. The talks presented demonstrate the wide range of education and public outreach activities being undertaken in the field of gravitational-wave astronomy—across science festivals, science education centers, junior schools and high schools, colleges and universities, via both face-to-face delivery and (increasingly) the internet and social media.
Anisotropies of Gravitational Wave Backgrounds: A Line Of Sight Approach
Contaldi, Carlo R
2016-01-01
In the weak field regime, gravitational waves can be considered as being made up of collisionless, relativistic tensor modes that travel along null geodesics of the perturbed background metric. We work in this geometric optics picture to calculate the anisotropies in gravitational wave backgrounds resulting from astrophysical and cosmological sources. Our formalism yields expressions for the angular power spectrum of the anisotropies. We show how the anisotropies are sourced by intrinsic, Doppler, Sachs-Wolfe, and Integrated Sachs-Wolfe terms in analogy with Cosmic Microwave Background photons.
Revisiting the envelope approximation: gravitational waves from bubble collisions
Weir, David J
2016-01-01
We study the envelope approximation and its applicability to first-order phase transitions in the early universe. We demonstrate that the power laws seen in previous studies exist independent of the nucleation rate. We also compare the envelope approximation prediction to results from large-scale phase transition simulations. For phase transitions where the contribution to gravitational waves from scalar fields dominates over that from the coupled plasma of light particles, the envelope approximation is in agreement, giving a power spectrum of the same form and order of magnitude. In all other cases the form and amplitude of the gravitational wave power spectrum is markedly different and new techniques are required.
Revisiting the envelope approximation: Gravitational waves from bubble collisions
Weir, David J.
2016-06-01
We study the envelope approximation and its applicability to first-order phase transitions in the early Universe. We demonstrate that the power laws seen in previous studies exist independently of the nucleation rate. We also compare the envelope approximation prediction to results from large-scale phase transition simulations. For phase transitions where the contribution to gravitational waves from scalar fields dominates over that from the coupled plasma of light particles, the envelope approximation is in agreement, giving a power spectrum of the same form and order of magnitude. In all other cases the form and amplitude of the gravitational wave power spectrum is markedly different and new techniques are required.
MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University,Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2016-04-18
We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10{sup −26}∼10{sup −27} are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.
The generation of gravitational waves. II - The postlinear formalism revisited
Crowley, R. J.; Thorne, K. S.
1977-01-01
Two different versions of the Green's function for the scalar wave equation in weakly curved spacetime (one due to DeWitt and DeWitt, the other to Thorne and Kovacs) are compared and contrasted; and their mathematical equivalence is demonstrated. Then the DeWitt-DeWitt Green's function is used to construct several alternative versions of the Thorne-Kovacs postlinear formalism for gravitational-wave generation. Finally it is shown that, in calculations of gravitational bremsstrahlung radiation, some of our versions of the postlinear formalism allow one to treat the interacting bodies as point masses, while others do not.
Gravitational waves from first-order cosmological phase transitions
Kosowsky, Arthur; Turner, Michael S.; Watkins, Richard
1992-01-01
A first-order cosmological phase transition that proceeds through the nucleation and collision of true-vacuum bubbles is a potent source of gravitational radiation. Possibilities for such include first-order inflation, grand-unified-theory-symmetry breaking, and electroweak-symmetry breaking. We have calculated gravity-wave production from the collision of two scalar-field vacuum bubbles, and, using an approximation based upon these results, from the collision of 20 to 30 vacuum bubbles. We present estimates of the relic background of gravitational waves produced by a first-order phase transition.
GRB as a counterpart for Gravitational Wave detection in LCGT
Kanda, Nobuyuki
2010-10-01
Short Gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors are considered as merger of compact star binaries which consist of neutron stars or blackholes. These compact star binaries will radiate a strong gravitational wave in their coalescence, and gravitational wave detectors aim to detect them. We studied the chance probability of coincidence between GRB and GW detection in LCGT detector. Due to omni-directional acceptance of GW detectors, about 75% of GRB events which closer than cosmological redshift z<0.1 are expected to confirm by GW detection.
No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bamba, Kazuharu, E-mail: bamba@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, E-mail: felicia@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC) and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)
2013-11-25
We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity.
Electroweak baryogenesis and gravitational waves from a real scalar singlet
Vaskonen, Ville
2016-01-01
We consider a real scalar singlet field which provides a strong first order electroweak phase transition via its coupling to the Higgs boson, and gives a CP violating contribution on the top quark mass via a dimension 6 operator. We study the correlation between the baryon-to-entropy ratio produced by electroweak baryogenesis, and the gravitational wave signal from the electroweak phase transition. We show that the future gravitational wave experiments can test in particular the region of the model parameter space where the observed baryon-to-entropy ratio can be obtained even if the new physics scale, which is explicit in the dimension 6 operator, is high.
Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies
Livas, Jeffrey C.
2012-01-01
The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).
Dynamics and gravitational wave signature of collapsar formation.
Ott, C D; Reisswig, C; Schnetter, E; O'Connor, E; Sperhake, U; Löffler, F; Diener, P; Abdikamalov, E; Hawke, I; Burrows, A
2011-04-22
We perform 3+1 general relativistic simulations of rotating core collapse in the context of the collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts. We employ a realistic progenitor, rotation based on results of stellar evolution calculations, and a simplified equation of state. Our simulations track self-consistently collapse, bounce, the postbounce phase, black hole formation, and the subsequent early hyperaccretion phase. We extract gravitational waves from the spacetime curvature and identify a unique gravitational wave signature associated with the early phase of collapsar formation.
Contribution of Long Wavelength Gravitational Waves to the CMB Anisotropy
White, M
1992-01-01
We present an in depth discussion of the production of gravitational waves from an inflationary phase that could have occurred in the early universe, giving derivations for the resulting spectrum and energy density. We also consider the large-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation coming from these waves. Assuming that the observed quadrupole anisotropy comes mostly from gravitational waves (consistent with the predictions of a flat spectrum of scalar density perturbations and the measured dipole anisotropy) we describe in detail how to derive a value for the scale of inflation of $(1.5-5)\\times 10^{16}$GeV, which is at a particularly interesting scale for particle physics. This upper limit corresponds to a 95\\% confidence level upper limit on the scale of inflation assuming only that the quadrupole anisotropy from gravitational waves is not cancelled by another source. Direct detection of gravitational waves produced by inflation near this scale will have to wait for the next generatio...
On gravitational interactions for massive higher spins in AdS3
Buchbinder, I. L.; Snegirev, T. V.; Zinoviev, Yu M.
2013-05-01
In this paper we investigate gravitational interactions of massive higher spin fields in three dimensional AdS space with arbitrary value of cosmological constant including flat Minkowski space. We use the frame-like gauge description for such massive fields adapted to the three-dimensional case. First, we carefully analyze the procedure of switching on gravitational interactions in the linear approximation in the example of a massive spin-3 field and then proceed with the generalization to the case of an arbitrary integer spin field. As a result we construct a cubic interaction vertex linear in a spin-2 field and quadratic in a higher spin field on the AdS3 background. As in the massless case the vertex does not contain any higher derivative corrections to the Lagrangian and/or gauge transformations. Thus, even after switching on gravitational interactions, one can freely consider any massless or partially massless limits as well as the flat one. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.
Implications of the gravitational wave event GW150914
Miller, M. Coleman
2016-07-01
The era of gravitational-wave astronomy began on 14 September 2015, when the LIGO Scientific Collaboration detected the merger of two ˜30 M_⊙ black holes at a distance of {˜ }400 Mpc. This event has facilitated qualitatively new tests of gravitational theories, and has also produced exciting information about the astrophysical origin of black hole binaries. In this review we discuss the implications of this event for gravitational physics and astrophysics, as well as the expectations for future detections. In brief: (1) because the spins of the black holes could not be measured accurately and because mergers are not well calculated for modified theories of gravity, the current analysis of GW150914 does not place strong constraints on gravity variants that change only the generation of gravitational waves, but (2) it does strongly constrain alterations of the propagation of gravitational waves and alternatives to black holes. Finally, (3) many astrophysical models for the origin of heavy black hole binaries such as the GW150914 system are in play, but a reasonably robust conclusion that was reached even prior to the detection is that the environment of such systems needs to have a relatively low abundance of elements heavier than helium.
BOOK REVIEW: Gravitational Waves, Volume 1: Theory and Experiments
Poisson, Eric
2008-10-01
A superficial introduction to gravitational waves can be found in most textbooks on general relativity, but typically, the treatment hardly does justice to a field that has grown tremendously, both in its theoretical and experimental aspects, in the course of the last twenty years. Other than the technical literature, few other sources have been available to the interested reader; exceptions include edited volumes such as [1] and [2], Weber's little book [3] which happily is still in print, and Peter Saulson's text [4] which appears, unfortunately, to be out of print. In addition to these technical references, the story of gravitational waves was famously told by a sociologist of scientific knowledge [5] (focusing mostly on the experimental aspects) and a historian of science [6] (focusing mostly on the theoretical aspects). The book Gravitational Waves, Volume 1, by Michele Maggiore, is a welcome point of departure. This is, as far as I know, the first comprehensive textbook on gravitational waves. It describes the theoretical foundations of the subject, the known (and anticipated) sources, and the principles of detection by resonant masses and laser interferometers. This book is a major accomplishment, and with the promised volume 2 on astrophysical and cosmological aspects of gravitational waves, the community of all scientists interested in this topic will be well served. Part I of the book is devoted to the theoretical aspects of gravitational waves. In chapter 1 the waves are introduced in usual relativist's fashion, in the context of an approximation to general relativity in which they are treated as a small perturbation of the Minkowski metric of flat spacetime. This is an adequate foundation to study how the waves propagate, and how they interact with freely moving masses making up a detector. The waves are presented in the usual traceless-transverse gauge, but the detection aspects are also worked out in the detector's proper rest frame; this dual
Collett, Thomas E
2016-01-01
Connaughton et al. report the discovery of a possible electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational wave event GW150914 discovered by LIGO. Assuming that the EM and GW are emitted at the same instant, a constraint is placed on the ratio of the speeds of light and gravitational waves at the level of $10^{-17}$. The assumption that the electromagnetic and gravitational wave emissions are emitted at the same time is a strong one, so here we suggest a method that does not make such an assumption using a strongly lensed GW event and EM counterpart. Biesiada et al forecast that 50-100 strongly lensed GW events will be observed each year with the Einstein Telescope. A single strongly lensed GW event would produce robust constraints on the ratio of the speed of gravitational waves to the speed of light at the $10^{-7}$ level, if a high energy EM counterpart is observed within the field-of-view of an observing gamma ray burst monitor.
Gravitating toward Science: Parent-Child Interactions at a Gravitational-Wave Observatory
Szechter, Lisa E.; Carey, Elizabeth J.
2009-01-01
This research examined the nature of parent-child conversations at an informal science education center housed in an active gravitational-wave observatory. Each of 20 parent-child dyads explored an interactive exhibit hall privately, without the distraction of other visitors. Parents employed a variety of strategies to support their children's…
Scalar Gravitational Waves in the Effective Theory of Gravity
Mottola, Emil
2016-01-01
As a low energy effective field theory, classical General Relativity receives an infrared relevant modification from the conformal trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor of massless, or nearly massless, quantum fields. The local form of the effective action associated with the trace anomaly is expressed in terms of a dynamical scalar field that couples to the conformal factor of the spacetime metric, allowing it to propagate over macroscopic distances. Linearized around flat spacetime, this semi-classical EFT admits scalar gravitational wave solutions in addition to the transversely polarized tensor waves of the classical Einstein theory. The amplitude, Hamiltonian, energy flux, and quantization of the scalar wave modes are discussed. Astrophysical sources for scalar gravitational waves are considered, with the excited gluonic condensates in the interiors of neutron stars in merger events with other compact objects likely to provide the strongest burst signals.
Gravitational scattering of zero-rest-mass plane waves
De Logi, W. K.; Kovacs, S. J., Jr.
1977-01-01
The Feyman-diagram technique is used to calculate the differential cross sections for the scattering of zero-rest-mass plane waves of spin 0, 1, and 2 by linearized Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries in the long-wavelength weak-field limit. It is found that the polarization of right (or left) circularly polarized electromagnetic waves is unaffected by the scattering process (i.e., helicity is conserved) and that the two helicity (polarization) states of the photon are scattered differently by the Kerr geometry. This coupling between the photon helicity and the angular momentum of the scatterer also leads to a partial polarization of unpolarized incident light. For gravitational waves, on the other hand, there is neither helicity conservation nor helicity-dependent scattering; the angular momentum of the scatterer has no polarizing effect on incident unpolarized gravitational waves.
Cosmological Electromagnetic Fields due to Gravitational Wave Perturbations
Marklund, M; Brodin, G; Marklund, Mattias; Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Brodin, Gert
2000-01-01
We consider the dynamics of electromagnetic fields in an almost-Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe using the covariant and gauge-invariant approach of Ellis and Bruni. Focusing on the situation where deviations from the background model are generated by tensor perturbations only, we demonstrate that the coupling between gravitational waves and a weak magnetic test field can generate electromagnetic waves. We show that this coupling leads to an initial pulse of electromagnetic waves whose width and amplitude is determined by the wavelengths of the magnetic field and gravitational waves. A number of implications for cosmology are discussed, in particular we calculate an upper bound of the magnitude of this effect using limits on the quadrapole anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background.
Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and Multi-Messenger Astronomy
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. Although numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued for many years by a host of instabilities, recent breakthroughs have conquered these problems and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, astrophysics, and testing general relativity.
Black Hole Mergers and Gravitational Waves: Opening the New Frontier
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational waves, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. Since these mergers take place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists tried to simulate these mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. In the past several years, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will highlight these breakthroughs and the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Astrophysically triggered searches for gravitational waves: status and prospects
Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bastarrika, M.; Bayer, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Brunet, G.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Casebolt, T.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Cokelaer, T.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, R. M.; Dalrymple, J.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Duke, I.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Echols, C.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Flasch, K.; Fotopoulos, N.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimaldi, F.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayama, K.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Ito, M.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kamat, S.; Kanner, J.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya; Khan, R.; Khazanov, E.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Kozhevatov, I.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lang, M. M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leindecker, N.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McIntyre, G.; McIvor, G.; McKechan, D.; McKenzie, K.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Miller, J.; Minelli, J.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Lowry, C. Mow; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, H.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Dell, J.; Ogin, G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Petrie, T.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de la Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S. W.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.
2008-06-01
In gravitational-wave detection, special emphasis is put onto searches that focus on cosmic events detected by other types of astrophysical observatories. The astrophysical triggers, e.g. from γ-ray and x-ray satellites, optical telescopes and neutrino observatories, provide a trigger time for analyzing gravitational-wave data coincident with the event. In certain cases the expected frequency range, source energetics, directional and progenitor information are also available. Beyond allowing the recognition of gravitational waveforms with amplitudes closer to the noise floor of the detector, these triggered searches should also lead to rich science results even before the onset of Advanced LIGO. In this paper we provide a broad review of LIGO's astrophysically triggered searches and the sources they target.