Massive boson-fermion degeneracy and the early structure of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kounnas, C.
2008-01-01
The existence of a new kind of massive boson-fermion symmetry is shown explicitly in the framework of the heterotic, type II and type II orientifold superstring theories. The target space-time is two-dimensional. Higher dimensional models are defined via large marginal deformations of J anti J-type. The spectrum of the initial undeformed two dimensional vacuum consists of massless boson degrees of freedom, while all massive boson and fermion degrees of freedom exhibit a new Massive Spectrum Degeneracy Symmetry (MSDS). This precise property, distinguishes the MSDS theories from the well known supersymmetric SUSY-theories. Some proposals are stated in the framework of these theories concerning the structure of: (i) The Early Non-singular Phase of the Universe, (ii) The two dimensional boundary theory of AdS 3 Black-Holes, (iii) Plausible applications of the MSDS theories in particle physics, alternative to SUSY. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Marginal deformations of vacua with massive boson-fermion degeneracy symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florakis, Ioannis; Kounnas, Costas; Toumbas, Nicolaos
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional string vacua with Massive Spectrum boson-fermion Degeneracy Symmetry, [MSDS] d=2 , are explicitly constructed in Type II and Heterotic superstring theories. The study of their moduli space indicates the existence of large marginal deformations that connect continuously the initial [MSDS] d=2 vacua to higher-dimensional conventional superstring vacua, where spacetime supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by geometrical fluxes. We find that the maximally symmetric, [Max:MSDS] d=2 , Type II vacuum, is in correspondence with the maximal, N=8, d=4 'gauged supergravity', where the supergravity gauging is induced by the fluxes. This correspondence is extended to less symmetric cases where the initial MSDS symmetry is reduced by orbifolds: [Z orb :MSDS] d=2 ↔[N≤8:SUGRA] d=4,fluxes . We also exhibit and analyse thermal interpretations of some Euclidean versions of the models and identify classes of MSDS vacua that remain tachyon-free under arbitrary marginal deformations about the extended symmetry point. The connection between the two-dimensional MSDS vacua and the resulting four-dimensional effective supergravities arises naturally within the context of an adiabatic cosmological evolution, where the very early Universe is conjectured to be described by an MSDS vacuum, while at late cosmological times it is described by an effective N=1 supergravity theory with spontaneously broken supersymmetry.
Super boson-fermion correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kac, V.G.; Leur van de, J.W.
1987-01-01
Since the pioneering work of Skyrme, the boson-fermion correspondence has been playing an increasingly important role in 2-dimensional quantum field theory. More recently, it has become an important ingredient in the work of the Kyoto school on the KP hierarchy of soliton equations. In the present paper we establish a super boson-fermion correspondence, having in mind its applications to super KP hierarchies
Superconductivity in mixed boson-fermion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, L.; Larkin, A.I.; Ovchinnikov, Yu.N.; Yu, L.
1989-12-01
The superconductivity of mixed boson-fermion systems is studied using a simple boson-fermion transformation model. The critical temperature of the superconducting transition is calculated over a wide range of the narrow boson band position relative to the Fermi level. The BCS scenario and boson condensation picture are recovered in two limiting cases of high and low positions of boson band, respectively, with modifications due to boson-fermion interaction. (author). 11 refs
The interacting boson-fermion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iachello, F.; Van Isacker, P.
1990-01-01
The interacting boson-fermion model has become in recent years the standard model for the description of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons and/or neutrons. This book describes the mathematical framework on which the interacting boson-fermion model is built and presents applications to a variety of situations encountered in nuclei. The book addresses both the analytical and the numerical aspects of the problem. The analytical aspect requires the introduction of rather complex group theoretic methods, including the use of graded (or super) Lie algebras. The first (and so far only) example of supersymmetry occurring in nature is also discussed. The book is the first comprehensive treatment of the subject and will appeal to both theoretical and experimental physicists. The large number of explicit formulas for level energies, electromagnetic transition rates and intensities of transfer reactions presented in the book provide a simple but detailed way to analyze experimental data. This book can also be used as a textbook for advanced graduate students
Generalization of boson-fermion equivalence and Fay's addition theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Hideyuki; Saito, Satoru
1989-01-01
Generalizations of Fay's addition theorem for Abel functions are obtained by using generalized boson-fermion equivalence of off-shell string amplitudes. A simple example of such generalizations is presented explicitly which relates derivatives of a Riemann θ-function to its determinant. (orig.)
Inertial parameters in the interacting boson fermion approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dukelsky, J.; Lima, C.
1986-06-01
The Hartree-Bose-Fermi and the adiabatic approximations are used to derive analytic formulas for the moment of inertia and the decoupling parameter of the interacting boson fermion approximation for deformed systems. These formulas are applied to the SU(3) dynamical symmetry, obtaining perfect agreement with the exact results. (Authors) [pt
Twisted vertex algebras, bicharacter construction and boson-fermion correspondences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anguelova, Iana I.
2013-01-01
The boson-fermion correspondences are an important phenomena on the intersection of several areas in mathematical physics: representation theory, vertex algebras and conformal field theory, integrable systems, number theory, cohomology. Two such correspondences are well known: the types A and B (and their super extensions). As a main result of this paper we present a new boson-fermion correspondence of type D-A. Further, we define a new concept of twisted vertex algebra of order N, which generalizes super vertex algebra. We develop the bicharacter construction which we use for constructing classes of examples of twisted vertex algebras, as well as for deriving formulas for the operator product expansions, analytic continuations, and normal ordered products. By using the underlying Hopf algebra structure we prove general bicharacter formulas for the vacuum expectation values for two important groups of examples. We show that the correspondences of types B, C, and D-A are isomorphisms of twisted vertex algebras
Component separation in harmonically trapped boson-fermion mixtures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Nicolai; Mølmer, Klaus
1999-01-01
We present a numerical study of mixed boson-fermion systems at zero temperature in isotropic and anise tropic harmonic traps. We investigate the phenomenon of component separation as a function of the strength ut the interparticle interaction. While solving a Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field equation ...... for the boson distribution in the trap, we utilize two different methods to extract the density profile of the fermion component; a semiclassical Thomas-Fermi approximation and a quantum-mechanical Slater determinant Schrodinger equation....
SU(8) family unification with boson-fermion balance
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
Grand unification has been intensively investigated for over forty years, and many different approaches have been tried. In this talk I propose a model that involves three ingredients that do not appear in the usual constructions: (1) boson--fermion balance without full supersymmetry, (2) canceling the spin 1/2 fermion gauge anomalies against the anomaly from a gauged spin 3/2 gravitino, and (3) using a scalar field representation with non-zero U(1) generator to break the SU(8) gauge symmetry through a ground state which, before dynamical symmetry breaking, has a periodic U(1) generator structure. The model has a number of promising features: (1) natural incorporation of three families, (2) incorporation of the experimentally viable flipped SU(5) model, (3) a symmetry breaking pathway to the standard model using the scalar field required by boson-fermion balance, together with a stage of most attractive channel dynamical symmetry breaking, without postulating additional Higgs fields, (4) vanishing of bare Yuk...
Plethystic vertex operators and boson-fermion correspondences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fauser, Bertfried; Jarvis, Peter D; King, Ronald C
2016-01-01
We study the algebraic properties of plethystic vertex operators, introduced in (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 405202), underlying the structure of symmetric functions associated with certain generalized universal character rings of subgroups of the general linear group, defined to stabilize tensors of Young symmetry type characterized by a partition of arbitrary shape π . Here we establish an extension of the well-known boson-fermion correspondence involving Schur functions and their associated (Bernstein) vertex operators: for each π , the modes generated by the plethystic vertex operators and their suitably constructed duals, satisfy the anticommutation relations of a complex Clifford algebra. The combinatorial manipulations underlying the results involve exchange identities exploiting the Hopf-algebraic structure of certain symmetric function series and their plethysms. (paper)
Plethystic vertex operators and boson-fermion correspondences
Fauser, Bertfried; Jarvis, Peter D.; King, Ronald C.
2016-10-01
We study the algebraic properties of plethystic vertex operators, introduced in (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 405202), underlying the structure of symmetric functions associated with certain generalized universal character rings of subgroups of the general linear group, defined to stabilize tensors of Young symmetry type characterized by a partition of arbitrary shape π. Here we establish an extension of the well-known boson-fermion correspondence involving Schur functions and their associated (Bernstein) vertex operators: for each π, the modes generated by the plethystic vertex operators and their suitably constructed duals, satisfy the anticommutation relations of a complex Clifford algebra. The combinatorial manipulations underlying the results involve exchange identities exploiting the Hopf-algebraic structure of certain symmetric function series and their plethysms.
Boson-fermion symmetries in the W-Pt region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warner, D.D.
1985-01-01
The concept of symmetry in the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) description of even-even nuclei has proved to be one of the model's most important elements, because they provide benchmarks in the formulation of a unified description of a broad range of nuclei. The importance of the recently proposed symmetries in odd-even systems can thus be viewed in the same light, and their role in pointing to a simple prescription for the changing collective structure in odd A nuclei throughout a major shell is likely to prove even more essential, given the much greater complexity of the boson-fermion (IBFM) Hamiltonian. The group structure of a boson-fermion system is described by U/sup B/(6) x U/sup F/(m) where m specifies the number of states available to the odd fermion, and thus depends on the single particle space assumed. The ability to construct group chains corresponding to the symmetries SU(5), SU(3) or 0(6) depends on the value of m. Of the structures studied in detail to date, the case of m = 12 is the one with the broadest potential. The fermion is allowed to occupy orbits with j = 1/2, 3/2 and 5/2, so that the assumed single particle space corresponds to the negative parity states available to an odd neutron at the end of the N = 82-126 shell, namely, P/sub 1/2/, p/sub 3/2/ and f/sub 5/2/. The region of interest thus spans the W-Pt nuclei, and since one prerequisite for an odd-A symmetry is the existence of that same symmetry in the neighboring even-even core nucleus, the odd Pt nuclei around A = 196 offer the obvious testing ground for the 0(6) limit of U(6/12). The heavier even-even W nuclei, on the other hand, have the characteristics of an axial rotor, and hence the negative parity structure of the neighboring odd W isotopes offers the possibility to study the validity of the SU(3) limit. Given a definition and understanding of these two limits, the construction of a simple description of the transitional Os nuclei can be considered
An introduction to the interacting boson-fermion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iachello, F.
1985-01-01
Spectra of odd-even medium mass and heavy nuclei are rather complex since they arise from the interplay between collective and single particle degrees of freedom. Their properties can be discussed in terms of simple models only in a limited number of cases, as, for example, in spherical nuclei (where the shell model can be applied in a straight forward way), or in nuclei with a rigid axially symmetric deformation (where the deformed shell model, or Nilsson model, can be used). Neither of these models, can, however, be applied to the large majority of nuclei, those forming the transitional classes. In the last few years, a model for odd-even nuclei has been introduced which is, on one side relatively simple, but which, on the other side, is able to describe the large variety of observed spectra. In this model, the collective degrees of freedom are described by bosons, while the single particle degrees of freedom are described by fermions, hence the name interacting boson-fermion model given to it. The authors describes the basic features of the model concentrating my attention to those cases that can be solved analytically, without resorting to numerical calculations. These analytical results are obtained by making use of group theory
A numerical algorithm for modelling boson-fermion stars in dilatonic gravity
Boyadzhiev, T L; Todorov, M D; Yazadjiev, S S
2002-01-01
We investigate numerically the class of models of the static spherically symmetric boson-fermion stars in the scalar-tensor theory of gravity with massive dilaton field. The proper mathematical model of such stars is interpreted as a nonlinear two-parametric eigenvalue problem. The first of the parameters is the unknown internal boundary (the radius of the fermionic part of the star) R sub s , and the second one represents the frequency OMEGA of the time oscillations of the boson field. To solve this problem, the whole space [0, infinity) is splitted into two domains: internal [0, R sub s] (inside the star) and external [R sub s , infinity) (outside the star). In each domain the physical model leads to two nonlinear boundary value problems in respect to metric functions, the functions describing the fermionic and bosonic matter, and the dilaton field. These boundary value problems have different dimensions inside and outside the star, respectively. The solutions in these regions are obtained separately and ma...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Zengqiang; Zhai Hui; Zhang Shizhong
2011-01-01
We study the properties of dilute bosons immersed in a single-component Fermi sea across a broad boson-fermion Feshbach resonance. The stability of the mixture requires that the bare interaction between bosons exceeds a critical value, which is a universal function of the boson-fermion scattering length, and exhibits a maximum in the unitary region. We calculate the quantum depletion, momentum distribution, and the boson contact parameter across the resonance. The transition from condensate to molecular Fermi gas is also discussed.
Massive Degeneracy and Goldstone Bosons: A Challenge for the Light Cone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weinstein, Marvin; /SLAC
2010-10-27
gives rise to this sort of pattern of degeneracy when the physical volume of space becomes large.
On the exchange term of the interacting boson-fermion hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelberg, A.
1983-01-01
The exchange term of the Interacting Boson Fermion Model is investigated by using I. Talmi's method based on the shell model. A quadrupole operator of a three-proton system is formed; the protons are quadrupole-coupled to the neutron-bosons. Seniority conserving and seniority non conserving terms are considered. The particle number dependence of the parameters is investigated for the single-j shell. The relation between exchange and direct, seniority non conserving terms is examined. Approximate formulas are given for the multi-j shell. (orig.)
Exact Boson-Fermion Duality on a 3D Euclidean Lattice
Chen, Jing-Yuan; Son, Jun Ho; Wang, Chao; Raghu, S.
2018-01-01
The idea of statistical transmutation plays a crucial role in descriptions of the fractional quantum Hall effect. However, a recently conjectured duality between a critical boson and a massless two-component Dirac fermion extends this notion to gapless systems. This duality sheds light on highly nontrivial problems such as the half-filled Landau level, the superconductor-insulator transition, and surface states of strongly coupled topological insulators. Although this boson-fermion duality has undergone many consistency checks, it has remained unproven. We describe the duality in a nonperturbative fashion using an exact UV mapping of partition functions on a 3D Euclidean lattice.
Level Density In Interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion Model (IBFFM) Of The Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik
2007-01-01
The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM total level density is fitted by Gaussian and its tail is also fitted by Bethe formula and constant temperature Fermi gas model
Boson-fermion mixtures inside an elongated cigar-shaped trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akdeniz, Z; Vignolo, P; Tosi, M P
2005-01-01
We present mean-field calculations of the equilibrium state in a gaseous mixture of bosonic and spin-polarized fermionic atoms with repulsive or attractive interspecies interactions, confined inside a cigar-shaped trap under conditions such that the radial thickness of the two atomic clouds is approaching the magnitude of the s-wave scattering lengths. In this regime, the kinetic pressure of the fermionic component is dominant. Full demixing under repulsive boson-fermion interactions can occur only when the number of fermions in the trap is below a threshold, and collapse under attractive interactions is suppressed within the range of validity of the mean-field model. Specific numerical illustrations are given for values of system parameters obtaining in 7 Li- 6 Li clouds
Spin-dependent level density in interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion model of the Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabashi, S.; Bekteshi, S.; Ahmetaj, S.; Shaqiri, Z.
2009-01-01
The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196 Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM spin-dependent level densities show high-spin reduction with respect to Bethe formula.This can be well accounted for by a modified spin-dependent level density formula. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCoy, B.M.; Wu, T.T.
1976-01-01
Our previous study of Yang-Mills fields is extended by calculating the high-energy behavior of the boson-fermion and of the boson-boson amplitude in sixth-order perturbation theory. In the isovector and isoscalar channels of both these processes the behavior of the amplitude is the same as that found in fermion-fermion scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kota, V.K.B.
1991-01-01
In the interacting boson-fermion model of collective nuclei, in the symmetry limits of the model appropriate for vibrational, rotational and γ-unstable nuclei, for one-particle transfer, the selection rules, model predictions for the allowed strengths and comparison of theory with experiment are briefly reviewed. In the spectral-averaging theory, with the specific example of orbit occupancies, the smoothed forms (linear or better ratio of Gaussians) as determined by central limit theorems, how they provide a good criterion for selecting effective interactions and the convolution structure of occupancy densities in huge spaces are described. Complementary information provided by nuclear models and statistical laws is broughtout. (author). 63 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Onogi, Tetsuya
1989-01-01
In four-dimensional heterotic string models with anomalous U(1) gauge groups, space-time supersymmetry (SUSY) breaks down spontaneously at one loop. In this paper, the Ward-Takahashi identity of broken SUSY in one-loop two-point amplitudes is investigated in all generalities. The boson-fermion mass splitting of any supersymmetric pair in an arbitrary model is proportional to the product of the D-term expectation value (the sum of (chirality)x(U(1) charge) of massless fermions in the model) and the U(1) charge of the external particle. In order to give a better understanding of the results, we present some examples of the mass splittings in a simple Z 3 orbifold model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baktybaev, K.; Koilyk, N.; Ramankulov, K.
2006-01-01
Full text: Collective Schrodinger equations are applied to describe low-energy spectra of even-even nuclei [1]. Spectra for even-odd nuclei are calculated by coupling the single particle degrees of freedom to the collective degree of freedom of the core nucleus, which is of even-even type. The collective spin has a value of 3/2. This leads to the assumption that the linearized equation may be applied to describe nuclei with spin 3/2 in the ground state. Good description of the low energy spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities can be obtained only with introduction of spin-dependent potentials, which apart from coordinates and momenta also depend on the matrices of the Clifford algebra arising in the linearization,. The interacting boson-fermion models (IBFM) [2] represent another approach to describe spectra of even-odd nuclei. For even-odd nuclei with spin 3/2 in the ground state one uses so-called j=3/2 - IBFM, which is also denoted as the U B (6)xU F (4) IBFM. In this paper we establish the relation between the matrices of the Clifford algebra, which arise in the linearization procedure, and the fermion operators of the j=3/2 IBFM. This allows us to establish a connection between the j=3/2 IBFM and spin dependent generalized collective model (SGCM). The results of the SGCM for Ir and Au nuclei are presented and compared with the results of the j=3/2 IBFM with a dynamical spin symmetry [3] present. In this respect we could apply the linearized collective Schrodinger equation and IBFM with arbitrary spin to all other even-odd nuclei. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chrien, R.E.; Koene, B.K.S.; Stelts, M.L.; Meyer, R.A.; Brant, S.; Paar, V.; Lopac, V.
1993-01-01
We have performed neutron-capture gamma-ray studies on natural and enriched targets of 134 Ba in order to investigate the nuclear levels of 135 Ba. The low-energy level spectra were compared with the calculations using the interacting-boson-fermion model (IBFM) and the cluster-vibration model. The level densities up to 5 MeV that are calculated within the IBFM are in accordance with the constant temperature Fermi gas model. From the spin distribution we have determined the corresponding spin cutoff parameter σ and compared it to the prediction from nuclear systematics
Energy Level Statistics of SO(5) Limit of Super-symmetry U(6/4) in Interacting Boson-Fermion Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Hongbo; Zhang Jinfu; Zhou Xianrong
2005-01-01
We study the energy level statistics of the SO(5) limit of super-symmetry U(6/4) in odd-A nucleus using the interacting boson-fermion model. The nearest neighbor spacing distribution (NSD) and the spectral rigidity (Δ 3 ) are investigated, and the factors that affect the properties of level statistics are also discussed. The results show that the boson number N is a dominant factor. If N is small, both the interaction strengths of subgroups SO B (5) and SO BF (5) and the spin play important roles in the energy level statistics, however, along with the increase of N, the statistics distribution would tend to be in Poisson form.
Accidental degeneracy of resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A.; Jauregui, A.
2001-01-01
Full text: It will be shown that a degeneracy of resonances is associated with a second rank pole in the scattering matrix and a Jordan cycle of generalized eigenfunctions of the radial Schrodinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in complex resonance energy eigenfunctions. In this orthonormal basis, the Hamiltonian is represented by a non-diagonal complex matrix with a Jordan block of rank two. Some general properties of the degeneracy of resonances will be exhibited and discussed in an explicit example of degeneracy of resonant states and double poles in the scattering matrix of a double barrier potential. The cross section, scattering wave functions and Jordan-Gamow eigenfunctions are computed at degeneracy and their properties as functions of the control parameters of the system are discussed. (Author)
Ghapanvari, M.; Ghorashi, A. H.; Ranjbar, Z.; Jafarizadeh, M. A.
2018-03-01
In this article, the negative-parity states in the odd-mass 103 - 109Rh isotopes in terms of the sd and sdg interacting-boson fermion models were studied. The transitional interacting boson-fermion model Hamiltonians in sd and sdg-IBFM versions based on affine SU (1 , 1) Lie Algebra were employed to describe the evolution from the spherical to deformed gamma unstable shapes along with the chain of Rh isotopes. In this method, sdg-IBFM Hamiltonian, which is a three level pairing Hamiltonian was determined easily via the exactly solvable method. Some observables of the shape phase transitions such as energy levels, the two neutron separation energies, signature splitting of the γ-vibrational band, the α-decay and double β--decay energies were calculated and examined for these isotopes. The present calculation correctly reproduces the spherical to gamma-soft phase transition in the Rh isotopes. Some comparisons were made with sd-IBFM.
Lattice degeneracies of fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1983-10-01
We present a detailed description of the minimal degeneracies of geometric (Kaehler) fermions on all the lattices of maximal symmetries in n = 1, ..., 4 dimensions. We also determine the isolated orbits of the maximal symmetry groups, which are related to the minimal numbers of ''naive'' fermions on the reciprocals of these lattices. It turns out that on the self-reciprocal lattices the minimal numbers of naive fermions are equal to the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions. The description we give relies on the close connection of the maximal lattice symmetry groups with (affine) Weyl groups of root systems of (semi-) simple Lie algebras. (orig.)
Rojas Bocanegra, Alberto
2004-01-01
Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de degeneración periférica de retina Lattice y su relación con estados refractivos y rupturas retinales. Metodología: Estudio de corte transversal con exploración de asociación, mediante análisis de casos y controles. Se examinaron 680 ojos en el Instituto de Investigaciones Optométricas e Instituto de Córnea. El estado refractivo se determinó mediante técnica estática y el estado retinal mediante oftalmoscopia indirecta con indentación escleral. Resultados...
Inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy and big bang nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitmire, Scott E.; Scherrer, Robert J.
2000-01-01
We examine big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, in the limit where the fluctuations are sufficiently small on large length scales that the present-day element abundances are homogeneous. We consider two representative cases: degeneracy of the electron neutrino alone and equal chemical potentials for all three neutrinos. We use a linear programming method to constrain an arbitrary distribution of the chemical potentials. For the current set of (highly restrictive) limits on the primordial element abundances, homogeneous neutrino degeneracy barely changes the allowed range of the baryon-to-photon ratio η. Inhomogeneous degeneracy allows for little change in the lower bound on η, but the upper bound in this case can be as large as η=1.1x10 -8 (only ν e degeneracy) or η=1.0x10 -9 (equal degeneracies for all three neutrinos). For the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, we show that there is no BBN upper bound on the neutrino energy density, which is bounded in this case only by limits from structure formation and the cosmic microwave background. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Continuous degeneracy of non-supersymmetric vacua
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Zheng
2009-01-01
In global supersymmetric Wess-Zumino models with minimal Kaehler potentials, F-type supersymmetry breaking always yields instability or continuous degeneracy of non-supersymmetric vacua. As a generalization of the original O'Raifeartaigh's result, the existence of instability or degeneracy is true to any higher order corrections at tree level for models even with non-renormalizable superpotentials. The degeneracy generically coincides the R-axion direction under some assumptions of R-charge assignment, but generally requires neither R-symmetries nor any assumption of generic superpotentials. The result also confirms the well-known fact that tree level supersymmetry breaking is a very rare occurrence in global supersymmetric theories with minimal Kaehler potentials. The implication for effective field theory method in the landscape is discussed and we point out that choosing models with minimal Kaehler potentials may result in unexpected answers to the vacuum statistics. Supergravity theories or theories with non-minimal Kaehler potentials in general do not suffer from the existence of instability or degeneracy. But very strong gauge dynamics or small compactification dimension reduces the Kaehler potential from non-minimal to minimal, and gravity decoupling limit reduces supergravity to global supersymmetry. Instability or degeneracy may appear in these limits. Away from these limits, a large number of non-SUSY vacua may still be found in an intermediate region.
Asymptotic mass degeneracies in conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kani, I.; Vafa, C.
1990-01-01
By applying a method of Hardy and Ramanujan to characters of rational conformal field theories, we find an asymptotic expansion for degeneracy of states in the limit of large mass which is exact for strings propagating in more than two uncompactified space-time dimensions. Moreover we explore how the rationality of the conformal theory is reflected in the degeneracy of states. We also consider the one loop partition function for strings, restricted to physical states, for arbitrary (irrational) conformal theories, and obtain an asymptotic expansion for it in the limit that the torus degenerates. This expansion depends only on the spectrum of (physical and unphysical) relevant operators in the theory. We see how rationality is consistent with the smoothness of mass degeneracies as a function of moduli. (orig.)
On dark degeneracy and interacting models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carneiro, S.; Borges, H.A.
2014-01-01
Cosmological background observations cannot fix the dark energy equation of state, which is related to a degeneracy in the definition of the dark sector components. Here we show that this degeneracy can be broken at perturbation level by imposing two observational properties on dark matter. First, dark matter is defined as the clustering component we observe in large scale structures. This definition is meaningful only if dark energy is unperturbed, which is achieved if we additionally assume, as a second condition, that dark matter is cold, i.e. non-relativistic. As a consequence, dark energy models with equation-of-state parameter −1 ≤ ω < 0 are reduced to two observationally distinguishable classes with ω = −1, equally competitive when tested against observations. The first comprises the ΛCDM model with constant dark energy density. The second consists of interacting models with an energy flux from dark energy to dark matter
CORECLUSTER: A Degeneracy Based Graph Clustering Framework
Giatsidis , Christos; Malliaros , Fragkiskos; Thilikos , Dimitrios M. ,; Vazirgiannis , Michalis
2014-01-01
International audience; Graph clustering or community detection constitutes an important task forinvestigating the internal structure of graphs, with a plethora of applications in several domains. Traditional tools for graph clustering, such asspectral methods, typically suffer from high time and space complexity. In thisarticle, we present \\textsc{CoreCluster}, an efficient graph clusteringframework based on the concept of graph degeneracy, that can be used along withany known graph clusteri...
Dark degeneracy and interacting cosmic components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aviles, Alejandro; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.
2011-01-01
We study some properties of the dark degeneracy, which is the fact that what we measure in gravitational experiments is the energy-momentum tensor of the total dark sector, and any split into components (as in dark matter and dark energy) is arbitrary. In fact, just one dark fluid is necessary to obtain exactly the same cosmological and astrophysical phenomenology as the ΛCDM model. We work explicitly the first-order perturbation theory and show that beyond the linear order the dark degeneracy is preserved under some general assumptions. Then we construct the dark fluid from a collection of interacting fluids. Finally, we try to break the degeneracy with a general class of couplings to baryonic matter. Nonetheless, we show that these interactions can also be understood in the context of the ΛCDM model as between dark matter and baryons. For this last investigation we choose two independent parametrizations for the interactions, one inspired by electromagnetism and the other by chameleon theories. Then, we constrain them with a joint analysis of CMB and supernovae observational data.
Landau degeneracy and black hole entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, M.S.; Perry, M.J.
1998-01-01
We consider the supergravity solution describing a configuration of intersecting D4-branes with non-vanishing world-volume gauge fields. The entropy of such a black hole is calculated in terms of the D-branes quantised charges. The non-extreme solution is also considered and the corresponding thermodynamical quantities are calculated in terms of a D-brane/anti-D-brane system. To perform the quantum mechanical D-brane analysis we study open strings with their ends on branes with a magnetic condensate. Applying the results to our D-brane system we manage to have a perfect agreement between the D-brane entropy counting and the corresponding semi-classical result. The Landau degeneracy of the open string states describing the excitations of the D-brane system enters in a crucial way. We also derive the near-extreme results which agree with the semi-classical calculations. (orig.)
Symmetry and fermion degeneracy on a lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1982-03-01
In this paper we consider the general form of finite difference approximation to the Dirac (Weyl) Hamiltonian on a lattice and investigate systematically the dependence on symmetry of the number of particles described by it. Our result is, that to a symmetry - expressed by a crystallographic space group - there corresponds a minimal number of particles, which are associated to prescribed points of momentum space (the unit cell of the reciprocal lattice). For convenience of the reader we show, using the existing detailed descriptions of space groups, how these results look for all the relevant (symmorphic) symmetry groups. Only for lattice Hamiltonians with a momentum dependent mass term can this degeneracy be reduced and even eliminated without reducing the symmetry. (orig./HSI)
The CMB neutrino mass/vacuum energy degeneracy: a simple derivation of the degeneracy slopes
Sutherland, Will
2018-06-01
It is well known that estimating cosmological parameters from cosmic microwave background (CMB) data alone results in a significant degeneracy between the total neutrino mass and several other cosmological parameters, especially the Hubble constant H0 and the matter density parameter Ωm. Adding low-redshift measurements such as baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) breaks this degeneracy and greatly improves the constraints on neutrino mass. The sensitivity is surprisingly high, for example, adding the ˜1 percent measurement of the BAO ratio rs/DV from the BOSS survey leads to a limit Σ mν matter ratio (xν ≡ ων/ωcb) and the shifts in other cosmological parameters. The resulting multipliers are substantially larger than 1: conserving the CMB sound horizon angle requires parameter shifts δln H0 ≈ -2 δxν, δln Ωm ≈ +5 δxν, δln ωΛ ≈ -6.2 δxν, and most notably δωΛ ≈ -14 δων. These multipliers give an intuitive derivation of the degeneracy direction, which agrees well with the numerical likelihood results from the Planck team.
Breaking a dark degeneracy with gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: ant@roe.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2016-03-01
We identify a scalar-tensor model embedded in the Horndeski action whose cosmological background and linear scalar fluctuations are degenerate with the concordance cosmology. The model admits a self-accelerated background expansion at late times that is stable against perturbations with a sound speed attributed to the new field that is equal to the speed of light. While degenerate in scalar fluctuations, self-acceleration of the model implies a present cosmological tensor mode propagation at ∼<95 % of the speed of light with a damping of the wave amplitude that is ∼>5 % less efficient than in general relativity. We show that these discrepancies are endemic to self-accelerated Horndeski theories with degenerate large-scale structure and are tested with measurements of gravitational waves emitted by events at cosmological distances. Hence, gravitational-wave cosmology breaks the dark degeneracy in observations of the large-scale structure between two fundamentally different explanations of cosmic acceleration—a cosmological constant and a scalar-tensor modification of gravity. The gravitational wave event GW150914 recently detected with the aLIGO instruments and its potential association with a weak short gamma-ray burst observed with the Fermi GBM experiment may have provided this crucial measurement.
Big bang nucleosynthesis with Gaussian inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stirling, Spencer D.; Scherrer, Robert J.
2002-01-01
We consider the effect of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy on big bang nucleosynthesis for the case where the distribution of neutrino chemical potentials is given by a Gaussian. The chemical potential fluctuations are taken to be isocurvature, so that only inhomogeneities in the electron chemical potential are relevant. Then the final element abundances are a function only of the baryon-photon ratio η, the effective number of additional neutrinos ΔN ν , the mean electron neutrino degeneracy parameter ξ-bar, and the rms fluctuation of the degeneracy parameter, σ ξ . We find that for fixed η, ΔN ν , and ξ-bar, the abundances of 4 He, D, and 7 Li are, in general, increasing functions of σ ξ . Hence, the effect of adding a Gaussian distribution for the electron neutrino degeneracy parameter is to decrease the allowed range for η. We show that this result can be generalized to a wide variety of distributions for ξ
Charge degeneracy removal in the screened hydrogen atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penna, Andre L A; Diniz, Joao B; Oliveira, Fernando A
2009-01-01
We derive an analytical model for the states of the screened hydrogen atom by using a new charge degeneracy removal approach. Starting from the nonzero Thomas-Fermi parameter q, we show that screening effect is due to breaks of the charge degeneracy in each quantum level of the hydrogen atom. The charge degeneracy removal reparametrizes the atomic system through the effective nuclear charge α n,l and the appearance of a dual charge γ n,l for each quantum level. In this approach, we show that the screening of a quantum state depends hierarchically on the screening from all previous quantum states with the same angular quantum numbers. The excited state energies E n,l (q) are analytically found taking into account the contribution of this new charge degeneracy for each quantum level. Finally, we also have estimated accurate critical screening parameters q* n,l for the bound-unbound transition.
Degeneracy and long-range correlation: A simulation study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marmelat Vivien
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We present in this paper a simulation study that aimed at evidencing a causal relationship between degeneracy and long-range correlations. Long-range correlations represent a very specific form of fluctuations that have been evidenced in the outcomes time series produced by a number of natural systems. Long-range correlations are supposed to sign the complexity, adaptability and flexibility of the system. Degeneracy is defined as the ability of elements that are structurally different to perform the same function, and is presented as a key feature for explaining the robustness of complex systems. We propose a model able to generate long-range correlated series, and including a parameter that account for degeneracy. Results show that a decrease in degeneracy tends to reduce the strength of long-range correlation in the series produced by the model.
Case study of degeneracy in quantum statistics. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barker, W.A.; Raney, D.; Sy, J.
1988-01-01
In an earlier paper, classical and weak degeneracy, with the activity parameter r between 0 and 1, are investigated. In this paper, intermediate and strong degeneracy, with r>1, are studied. Coefficients for the Joyce--Dixon-type series are calculated for bosons as well as fermions in one, two, and three dimensions, for either nonrelativistic or ultrarelativistic particles. The theory is applied to the electrons and Cooper pairs in mercury at four temperatures
The degeneracy problem in non-canonical inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Easson, Damien A.; Powell, Brian A.
2013-01-01
While attempting to connect inflationary theories to observational physics, a potential difficulty is the degeneracy problem: a single set of observables maps to a range of different inflaton potentials. Two important classes of models affected by the degeneracy problem are canonical and non-canonical models, the latter marked by the presence of a non-standard kinetic term that generates observables beyond the scalar and tensor two-point functions on CMB scales. The degeneracy problem is manifest when these distinguishing observables go undetected. We quantify the size of the resulting degeneracy in this case by studying the most well-motivated non-canonical theory having Dirac-Born-Infeld Lagrangian. Beyond the scalar and tensor two-point functions on CMB scales, we then consider the possible detection of equilateral non-Gaussianity at Planck-precision and a measurement of primordial gravitational waves from prospective space-based laser interferometers. The former detection breaks the degeneracy with canonical inflation but results in poor reconstruction prospects, while the latter measurement enables a determination of n T which, while not breaking the degeneracy, can be shown to greatly improve the non-canonical reconstruction
Large degeneracy of excited hadrons and quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bicudo, P.
2007-01-01
The pattern of a large approximate degeneracy of the excited hadron spectra (larger than the chiral restoration degeneracy) is present in the recent experimental report of Bugg. Here we try to model this degeneracy with state of the art quark models. We review how the Coulomb Gauge chiral invariant and confining Bethe-Salpeter equation simplifies in the case of very excited quark-antiquark mesons, including angular or radial excitations, to a Salpeter equation with an ultrarelativistic kinetic energy with the spin-independent part of the potential. The resulting meson spectrum is solved, and the excited chiral restoration is recovered, for all mesons with J>0. Applying the ultrarelativistic simplification to a linear equal-time potential, linear Regge trajectories are obtained, for both angular and radial excitations. The spectrum is also compared with the semiclassical Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization relation. However, the excited angular and radial spectra do not coincide exactly. We then search, with the classical Bertrand theorem, for central potentials producing always classical closed orbits with the ultrarelativistic kinetic energy. We find that no such potential exists, and this implies that no exact larger degeneracy can be obtained in our equal-time framework, with a single principal quantum number comparable to the nonrelativistic Coulomb or harmonic oscillator potentials. Nevertheless we find it plausible that the large experimental approximate degeneracy will be modeled in the future by quark models beyond the present state of the art
Positive solutions for nonlocal dispersal equation with spatial degeneracy
Sun, Jian-Wen
2018-02-01
In this paper, we consider the positive solutions of the nonlocal dispersal equation \\int \\limits _{Ω }J(x,y)[u(y)-u(x)]dy=-λ m(x)u(x)+[c(x)+ɛ ]u^p(x) \\quad { in }\\bar{Ω }, where Ω \\subset R^N is a bounded domain, λ ,ɛ and p>1 are positive constants. The dispersal kernel J and the coefficient c( x) are nonnegative, but c( x) has a degeneracy in some subdomain of Ω . In order to study the influence of heterogeneous environment on the nonlocal system, we study the sharp spatial patterns of positive solutions as ɛ → 0. We obtain that the positive solutions always have blow-up asymptotic profiles in \\bar{Ω }. Meanwhile, we find that the profiles in degeneracy domain are different from the domain without degeneracy.
Dispersion in thermal plasma including arbitrary degeneracy and quantum recoil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mushtaq, A.; Melrose, D.B.
2012-01-01
The longitudinal response function for a thermal electron gas was calculated including two quantum effects exactly, degeneracy and the quantum recoil. The Fermi-Dirac distribution was expanded in powers of a parameter that is small in the non-degenerate limit and the response function was evaluated in terms of the conventional plasma dispersion function to arbitrary order in this parameter. The infinite sum was performed in terms of poly logarithms in the long-wavelength and quasi-static limits, giving results that apply for arbitrary degeneracy. The results were applied to the dispersion relations for Langmuir waves and to screening, reproducing known results in the non-degenerate and completely degenerate limits], and generalizing them to arbitrary degeneracy. The occupation number for the completely degenerate limit is shown. The importance of the results regarding to semiconductor plasmas were highlighted. (orig./A.B.)
Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal
Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng
2014-01-01
Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.
Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal
Chen, Ze-Guo
2014-04-09
Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.
Error correction and degeneracy in surface codes suffering loss
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stace, Thomas M.; Barrett, Sean D.
2010-01-01
Many proposals for quantum information processing are subject to detectable loss errors. In this paper, we give a detailed account of recent results in which we showed that topological quantum memories can simultaneously tolerate both loss errors and computational errors, with a graceful tradeoff between the threshold for each. We further discuss a number of subtleties that arise when implementing error correction on topological memories. We particularly focus on the role played by degeneracy in the matching algorithms and present a systematic study of its effects on thresholds. We also discuss some of the implications of degeneracy for estimating phase transition temperatures in the random bond Ising model.
The Disk Mass Project: breaking the disk-halo degeneracy
Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; DE JONG, R. S.
2007-01-01
Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,
Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Genni Fragnelli
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.
Sfermion mass degeneracy, superconformal dynamics, and supersymmetric grand unified theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Nakano, Hiroaki; Terao, Haruhiko
2002-01-01
We discuss issues in a scenario where hierarchical Yukawa couplings are generated through the strong dynamics of superconformal field theories (SCFTs). Independently of the mediation mechanism of supersymmetry breaking, the infrared convergence property of SCFTs can provide an interesting solution to the supersymmetric flavor problem; sfermion masses are suppressed around the decoupling scale of SCFTs and eventually become degenerate to some degree, thanks to family-independent radiative corrections governed by the gaugino masses of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). We discuss under what conditions the degeneracy of the sfermion mass can be estimated in a simple manner. We also discuss the constraints from lepton flavor violations. We then explicitly study sfermion mass degeneracy within the framework of grand unified theories coupled to SCFTs. It is found that the degeneracy for right-handed sleptons becomes worse in the conventional SU(5) model than in the MSSM. On the other hand, in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) model, each right-handed lepton is still an SU(5) singlet, whereas the B-ino mass M 1 is determined by two independent gaugino masses of SU(5)xU(1). These two properties enable us to have an improved degeneracy for the right-handed sleptons. We also speculate on how further improvement can be obtained in the SCFT approach
Degeneracy of energy levels of pseudo-Gaussian oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iacob, Theodor-Felix; Iacob, Felix; Lute, Marina
2015-01-01
We study the main features of the isotropic radial pseudo-Gaussian oscillators spectral properties. This study is made upon the energy levels degeneracy with respect to orbital angular momentum quantum number. In a previous work [6] we have shown that the pseudo-Gaussian oscillators belong to the class of quasi-exactly solvable models and an exact solution has been found
de Rham, Claudia
2014-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoeff, E.; Ortin, T.
1998-01-01
We investigate the effective world-volume theories of branes in a background given by (the bosonic sector of) 10-dimensional massive IIA supergravity (''''massive branes'''') and their M-theoretic origin. In the case of the solitonic 5-brane of type IIA superstring theory the construction of the Wess-Zumino term in the world-volume action requires a dualization of the massive Neveu-Schwarz/Neveu-Schwarz target space 2-form field. We find that, in general, the effective world-volume theory of massive branes contains new world-volume fields that are absent in the massless case, i.e. when the mass parameter m of massive IIA supergravity is set to zero. We show how these new world-volume fields can be introduced in a systematic way. (orig.)
Topological degeneracy of non-Abelian states for dummies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oshikawa, Masaki; Kim, Yong Baek; Shtengel, Kirill; Nayak, Chetan; Tewari, Sumanta
2007-01-01
We present a physical construction of degenerate groundstates of the Moore-Read Pfaffian states, which exhibits non-Abelian statistics, on general Riemann surface with genus g. The construction is given by a generalization of the recent argument [M.O., T. Senthil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 060601] which relates fractionalization and topological order. The nontrivial groundstate degeneracy obtained by Read and Green [Phys. Rev. B 61 (2000) 10267] based on differential geometry is reproduced exactly. Some restrictions on the statistics, due to the fractional charge of the quasiparticle are also discussed. Furthermore, the groundstate degeneracy of the p + ip superconductor in two dimensions, which is closely related to the Pfaffian states, is discussed with a similar construction
Topological degeneracy of non-Abelian states for dummies
Oshikawa, Masaki; Kim, Yong Baek; Shtengel, Kirill; Nayak, Chetan; Tewari, Sumanta
2007-06-01
We present a physical construction of degenerate groundstates of the Moore-Read Pfaffian states, which exhibits non-Abelian statistics, on general Riemann surface with genus g. The construction is given by a generalization of the recent argument [M.O., T. Senthil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 060601] which relates fractionalization and topological order. The nontrivial groundstate degeneracy obtained by Read and Green [Phys. Rev. B 61 (2000) 10267] based on differential geometry is reproduced exactly. Some restrictions on the statistics, due to the fractional charge of the quasiparticle are also discussed. Furthermore, the groundstate degeneracy of the p + i p superconductor in two dimensions, which is closely related to the Pfaffian states, is discussed with a similar construction.
Experimental test of exchange degeneracy in hypercharge exchange reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moffeit, K.C.
1978-10-01
Two pairs of line-reversed reactions π + P → K + Σ + , K - p → π - Σ + and π + p → K + Y* + (1385), K - p → π - Y* + (1385) provide an experimental test of exchange degeneracy in hypercharge exchange reactions. From their study it is concluded that in contrast to the lower energy data, the 11.5 results for the two pairs of reactions are consistent with exchange degeneracy predictions for both helicity-flip and nonflip amplitudes. The Y(1385) decay angular distributions indicate that the quark model and Stodolsky--Sakurai predictions are in agreement with the main features of the data. However, small violations are observed at small momentum transfer. While the Y(1385) vertex is helicity-flip dominated, the nonvanishing of T/sub 3/2 - 1/2/ and T/sub -3/2 1/2/ suggests some finite helicity nonflip contribution in the forward direction. 23 references
Degeneracy. Languages’ strategy to withstand stress (invited talk)
Van de Velde, Freek
2017-01-01
Like the stock market, cities, or ant colonies, language is a complex adaptive system (Holland 1992; Beckner et al. 2009; Bybee 2010). One of the properties of such systems is that they rely on what in biology is called ‘degeneracy’. In this context, degeneracy has nothing to do with its common sense meaning of deterioration, but is a technical term for the phenomenon that structurally different elements or strategies can fulfill the same function (see Edelman & Gally 2001). A simple example ...
Black hole state degeneracy in loop quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agullo, Ivan; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique
2008-01-01
The combinatorial problem of counting the black hole quantum states within the isolated horizon framework in loop quantum gravity is analyzed. A qualitative understanding of the origin of the band structure shown by the degeneracy spectrum, which is responsible for the black hole entropy quantization, is reached. Even when motivated by simple considerations, this picture allows to obtain analytical expressions for the most relevant quantities associated to this effect
Adenoma tiroidiano con sospecha de degeneración maligna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel José Luque
1944-11-01
III El autor describe la intervención quirúrgica y anota los hallazgos del acto operatorio. Se hizo una estirpación meticulosa de todas las formaciones ganglionares. IV Transcribe día a día el post operatorio y termina con unas breves consideraciones sobre la degeneración neoplásica del cuerpo tiroides.
Duality, exchange-degeneracy breaking, and exotic states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldstein, G.R.; Haridas, P.
1979-01-01
We study the connection between exchange-degeneracy breaking and multiquark states within the framework of a highly constrained dual approach. We show that M 4 (baryonium) states emerge at the daughter trajectory level as a consequence of small exchange-degeneracy breaking in the meson-meson system (approx.delta) and larger exchange-degeneracy breaking of the baryon trajectories in the meson-baryon system (approx.epsilon). The M 4 states are coupled weakly to external mesons in proportion to the breaking parameter delta. Assuming M 4 couplings to B-barB channels are strong, as determined by duality with normal mesons in the B-barB system, consistency requires epsilon approx. √delta-bar, thereby relating the larger breaking of baryon trajectories to the violation of the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-type rule for M 4 . It is shown that exotic baryon states, B 5 , also emerge from this scheme at the daughter level and that dibaryons will appear at the second daughter level
On the degeneracy of the IMRT optimization problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alber, M.; Meedt, G.; Nuesslin, F.; Reemtsen, R.
2002-01-01
One approach to the computation of photon IMRT treatment plans is the formulation of an optimization problem with an objective function that derives from an objective density. An investigation of the second-order properties of such an objective function in a neighborhood of the minimizer opens an intuitive access to many traits of this approach. A general finding is that only a small subset of the parameter space has nonzero curvature, while the objective function is entirely flat in a neighborhood of the minimizer in most directions. The dimension of the subspace of vanishing curvature serves as a measure for the degeneracy of the solution. This finding is important both for algorithm design and evaluation of the mathematical model of clinical intuition, expressed by the objective function. The structure of the subspace of great curvature is found to be imposed on the problem by conflicts between objectives of target and critical structures. These conflicts and their corresponding modes of resolution form a common trait between all reasonable treatment plans of a given case. The high degree of degeneracy makes the use of a conjugate gradient optimization algorithm particularly favorable since the number of iterations to convergence is equivalent to the number of different eigenvalues of the curvature tensor and is hence independent from the number of optimization parameters. A high level of degeneracy of the fluence profiles implies that it should be possible to stipulate further delivery-related conditions without causing severe deterioration of the dose distribution
Degeneración macular relacionada a la edad
Juan Verdaguer, T.
2010-01-01
La degeneración macular relacionada a la edad es la causa más frecuente de pérdida de visión irreversible en personas mayores de 60 años. Son factores de riesgo la edad, la genética, el tabaquismo y la obesidad abdominal. Su primera manifestación visible son las drusas, acumulación de productos provenientes de la degradación incompleta de la digestión de segmentos de fotoreceptores por el epitelio pigmentario. La administración de antioxidantes y zinc disminuye el riesgo de pérdida severa de ...
Degeneracy, frequency response and filtering in IMRT optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llacer, Jorge; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Solberg, Timothy D; Promberger, Claus
2004-01-01
This paper attempts to provide an answer to some questions that remain either poorly understood, or not well documented in the literature, on basic issues related to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The questions examined are: the relationship between degeneracy and frequency response of optimizations, effects of initial beamlet fluence assignment and stopping point, what does filtering of an optimized beamlet map actually do and how could image analysis help to obtain better optimizations? Two target functions are studied, a quadratic cost function and the log likelihood function of the dynamically penalized likelihood (DPL) algorithm. The algorithms used are the conjugate gradient, the stochastic adaptive simulated annealing and the DPL. One simple phantom is used to show the development of the analysis tools used and two clinical cases of medium and large dose matrix size (a meningioma and a prostate) are studied in detail. The conclusions reached are that the high number of iterations that is needed to avoid degeneracy is not warranted in clinical practice, as the quality of the optimizations, as judged by the DVHs and dose distributions obtained, does not improve significantly after a certain point. It is also shown that the optimum initial beamlet fluence assignment for analytical iterative algorithms is a uniform distribution, but such an assignment does not help a stochastic method of optimization. Stopping points for the studied algorithms are discussed and the deterioration of DVH characteristics with filtering is shown to be partially recoverable by the use of space-variant filtering techniques
Perturbing free motions on hyperspheres without degeneracy lift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pallares-Rivera, A; Rosales-Aldape, F de J; Kirchbach, M
2014-01-01
We consider quantum motion on S 3 perturbed by the trigonometric Scarf potential (Scarf I) with one internal quantized dimensionless parameter, ℓ, the ordinary orbital angular momentum value, and another continuous parameter, b, through which an external scale is introduced. We argue that a loss of the geometric hyperspherical so(4) symmetry of the free motion occurs that leaves intact the unperturbed hydrogen-like degeneracy patterns characterizing the spectrum under discussion. The argument is based on the observation that the expansions of the Scarf I wave functions for fixed ℓ-values on the basis of properly identified so(4) representation functions are power series in the perturbation parameter, b, in which carrier spaces of dimensionality (K + 1) 2 with K varying as K ∈ [ℓ, N − 1], and N being the principal quantum number of the Scarf I potential problem, contribute up to the order O(b N−1−K ). Nonetheless, the degeneracy patterns can still be interpreted as a consequence of an effective so(4) symmetry, i.e. a symmetry realized at the level of the dynamic of the system, in so far as from the perspective of the eigenvalue problem, the Scarf I Hamiltonian results are equivalent to a Hamiltonian whose matrix elements are polynomials in a properly identified so(4) Casimir operator. The scheme applies to any dimension d. (paper)
Degeneracy, frequency response and filtering in IMRT optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Llacer, Jorge [EC Engineering Consultants LLC, 130 Forest Hill Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Agazaryan, Nzhde [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Solberg, Timothy D [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Promberger, Claus [BrainLAB AG, Ammerthalstrasse 8, 85551 Heimstetten (Germany)
2004-07-07
This paper attempts to provide an answer to some questions that remain either poorly understood, or not well documented in the literature, on basic issues related to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The questions examined are: the relationship between degeneracy and frequency response of optimizations, effects of initial beamlet fluence assignment and stopping point, what does filtering of an optimized beamlet map actually do and how could image analysis help to obtain better optimizations? Two target functions are studied, a quadratic cost function and the log likelihood function of the dynamically penalized likelihood (DPL) algorithm. The algorithms used are the conjugate gradient, the stochastic adaptive simulated annealing and the DPL. One simple phantom is used to show the development of the analysis tools used and two clinical cases of medium and large dose matrix size (a meningioma and a prostate) are studied in detail. The conclusions reached are that the high number of iterations that is needed to avoid degeneracy is not warranted in clinical practice, as the quality of the optimizations, as judged by the DVHs and dose distributions obtained, does not improve significantly after a certain point. It is also shown that the optimum initial beamlet fluence assignment for analytical iterative algorithms is a uniform distribution, but such an assignment does not help a stochastic method of optimization. Stopping points for the studied algorithms are discussed and the deterioration of DVH characteristics with filtering is shown to be partially recoverable by the use of space-variant filtering techniques.
Spin degeneracy of Hadronic molecules in the heavy quark region
Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro
2018-03-01
Hadronic molecules have been considered to appear close to the hadron-hadron threshold. For the heavy mesons, \\bar D and B, the one pion exchange potential is enhanced by the mass degeneracy of heavy pseudoscalar and vector mesons, caused by the heavy quark spin symmetry. In this study, we investigate new hadronic molecules formed by the heavy meson {P≤ft( * \\right)} = {\\bar D≤ft( * \\right)},{B≤ft( * \\right)} and a nucleon N, being P (*) N. As the interaction between P (*) and N, the pion and vector meson (ρ and ω) exchanges are considered. By solving the coupled-channel Schrödinger equations for P N and P*N, we obtain the bound and resonant states in the charm and bottom sectors, and in the in nite heavy quark mass limit. In the molecular states, the PN - P*N mixing effect is important, where the tensor force of the one pion exchange potential generates the strong attraction. In the heavy quark limit, we obtain the degeneracy of the states for J P = 1/2- and 3/2-.
Kramers degeneracy and relaxation in vanadium, niobium and tantalum clusters
Diaz-Bachs, A.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Kirilyuk, A.
2018-04-01
In this work we use magnetic deflection of V, Nb, and Ta atomic clusters to measure their magnetic moments. While only a few of the clusters show weak magnetism, all odd-numbered clusters deflect due to the presence of a single unpaired electron. Surprisingly, for the majority of V and Nb clusters an atomic-like behavior is found, which is a direct indication of the absence of spin–lattice interaction. This is in agreement with Kramers degeneracy theorem for systems with a half-integer spin. This purely quantum phenomenon is surprisingly observed for large systems of more than 20 atoms, and also indicates various quantum relaxation processes, via Raman two-phonon and Orbach high-spin mechanisms. In heavier, Ta clusters, the relaxation is always present, probably due to larger masses and thus lower phonon energies, as well as increased spin–orbit coupling.
Degeneracy of the lowest Landau level and suq(2) on the Poincare half plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jellal, A.
2000-01-01
It is shown that the presence of the quantum group symmetry su q (2) in the quantum Hall effect on the Poincare upper half plane the degeneracy of the lowest Landau level. It is also shown that the relation between the degeneracy and the cyclic representation of su q (2) appears in accordance with q being a kth root of unity. (Authors)
Degeneracy-driven self-structuring dynamics in selective repertoires.
Atamas, Sergei P; Bell, Jonathan
2009-08-01
Numerous biological interactions, such as interactions between T cell receptors or antibodies with antigens, interactions between enzymes and substrates, or interactions between predators and prey are often not strictly specific. In such less specific, or "sloppy," systems, referred to here as degenerate systems, a given unit of a diverse resource (antigens, enzymatic substrates, prey) is at risk of being recognized and consumed by multiple consumers (lymphocytes, enzymes, predators). In this study, we model generalized degenerate consumer-resource systems of Lotka-Volterra and Verhulst types. In the degenerate systems of Lotka-Volterra, there is a continuum of types of consumer and resource based on variation of a single trait (characteristic, or preference). The consumers experience competition for a continuum of resource types. This non-local interaction system is modeled with partial differential-integral equations and shows spontaneous self-structuring of the consumer population that depends on the degree of interaction degeneracy between resource and consumer, but does not mirror the distribution of resource. We also show that the classical Verhulst (i.e. logistic) single population model can be generalized to a degenerate model, which shows qualitative behavior similar to that in the degenerate Lotka-Volterra model. These results provide better insight into the dynamics of selective systems in biology, suggesting that adaptation of degenerate repertoires is not a simple "mirroring" of the environment by the "fittest" elements of population.
Degeneracy breakdown as a source of supernovae Ia
Clavelli, L.
2018-01-01
In a confined system of multiple Fermions, the particles are forced into high energy levels by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We refer to this system as a Pauli tower. We pursue the investigation of a model for sub-Chandrasekhar supernovae Ia explosions (SNIa) in which the energy stored in the Pauli tower is released to trigger a nuclear deflagration. The simplest physical model for such a degeneracy breakdown and collapse of the Pauli tower is a phase transition to an exactly supersymmetric state in which the scalar partners of protons, neutrons, and leptons become degenerate with the familiar fermions of our world as in the supersymmetric standard model with susy breaking parameters relaxed to zero. We focus on the ability of the susy phase transition model to fit the total SNIa rate as well as the delay time distribution of SNIa after the birth of a progenitor white dwarf. We also study the ejected mass distribution and its correlation with delay time. Finally, we discuss the expected SNIa remnant in the form of a black hole of roughly Jupiter mass and the prospects for detecting such remnants.
Algebraic quantization of systems with a gauge degeneracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grundling, H.B.G.S.; Hurst, C.A.
1985-01-01
Systems with a gauge degeneracy are characterized either by supplementary conditions, or by a set of generators of gauge transformations, or by a set of constraints deriving from Dirac's canonical constraint method. These constraints can be expressed either as conditions on the field algebra F, or on the states on F. In a Csup(*)-algebra framework, we show that the state conditions give rise to a factor algebra of a subalgebra of the field algebra F. This factor algebra R, is free of state conditions. In this formulation we show also that the algebraic conditions can be treated in the same way as the state conditions. The connection between states on F and states on R is investigated further within this framework, as is also the set of transformations which are compatible with the set of constraints. It is also shown that not every set of constraints can give rise to a nontrivial system. Finally as an example, the abstract theory is applied to the electromagnetic field, and this treatment can be generalized to all systems of bosons with linear constraints. The question of dynamics is not discussed. (orig.)
Another stage of development: Biological degeneracy and the study of bodily ageing.
Mason, Paul H; Maleszka, Ryszard; Dominguez D, Juan F
2017-04-01
Ageing is a poorly understood process of human development mired by a scientific approach that struggles to piece together distributed variable factors involved in ongoing transformations of living systems. Reconfiguring existing research paradigms, we review the concept of 'degeneracy', which has divergent popular and technical definitions. The technical meaning of degeneracy refers to the structural diversity underlying functional plasticity. Degeneracy is a distributed system property that can be observed within individual brains or across different brains. For example, dementias with similar behavioural anomalies can result from a diverse range of cellular "faults", which is an example of degeneracy because the symptoms are similar in spite of different underlying mechanisms. Degeneracy is a valuable epistemological tool that can transformatively enhance scientific models of bodily ageing. We propose that movement science is one of the first areas that can productively integrate degeneracy into models of bodily ageing. We also propose model organisms such as eusocial honey bees in which degeneracy can be studied at the molecular and cellular level. Developing a vocabulary for thinking about how distributed variable factors are interlinked is important if we are to understand bodily ageing not as a single entity, but as the heterogeneous construction of changing biological, social, and environmental processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lifting degeneracies in the oscillation parameters by a neutrino factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Mayumi; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Okamura, Naotoshi
2005-01-01
We study the potential of a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with a neutrino factory and a large segmented water-Cerenkov calorimeter detector in resolving the degeneracies in the neutrino oscillation parameters; the sign of the larger mass-squared difference δm 13 2 , the sign of vertical bar U μ3 vertical bar 2 (=sin 2 θ ATM )-1/2, and a possible two-fold ambiguity in the determination of the CP phase δ MNS . We find that the above problems can be resolved even if the particle charges are not measured. The following results are obtained in our exploratory study for a neutrino factory which delivers 10 21 decaying μ + and μ - at 10 GeV and a 100 kton detector which is placed 2100 km away and is capable of measuring the event energy and distinguishing e + /- from μ + /-, but not their charges. The sign of δm 13 2 can be determined for 4 vertical bar U e3 vertical bar 2 (1- vertical bar U e3 vertical bar 2 )=sin 2 2θ RCT -bar 0.008. That of sin 2 θ ATM -1/2 can be resolved for sin 2 2θ ATM =0.96 when sin 2 2θ RCT -bar 0.06. The CP-violating phase δ MNS can be uniquely constrained for sin 2 2θ RCT -bar 0.02 if its true value is around 90 o or 270 o , while it can be constrained for sin 2 2θ RCT -bar 0.03 if its true value is around 0 deg. or 180 deg
Quantum degeneracy corrections to plasma line emission and to Saha equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molinari, V.G.; Mostacci, D.; Rocchi, F.; Sumini, M.
2003-01-01
The effect of quantum degeneracy on the electron collisional excitation is investigated, and its effects on line emission evaluated for applications to spectroscopy of dense, cold plasmas. A correction to Saha equation for weakly-degenerate plasmas is also presented
Parameter degeneracies in neutrino oscillation measurement of leptonic CP and T violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, Hisakazu; Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Parke, Stephen
2002-01-01
The measurement of the mixing angle θ 13 , sign of Δm 13 2 , and the CP or T violating phase δ is fraught with ambiguities in neutrino oscillation. In this paper we give an analytic treatment of the parameter degeneracies associated with measuring the ν μ →ν e probability and its CP and/or T conjugates. For CP violation, we give explicit solutions to allow us to obtain the regions where there exist twofold and fourfold degeneracies. We calculate the fractional differences, (Δθ/θ-bar), between the allowed solutions which may be used to compare with the expected sensitivities of the experiments. For T violation we show that there is always a complete degeneracy between solutions with positive and negative Δm 13 2 which arises due to a symmetry and cannot be removed by observing one neutrino oscillation probability and its T conjugate. Thus there is always a fourfold parameter degeneracy apart from exceptional points. Explicit solutions are also given and the fractional differences are computed. The biprobability CP/T trajectory diagrams are extensively used to illuminate the nature of the degeneracies
Effect of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasma systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johzaki, T.; Nakao, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Kudo, K.
1997-01-01
The effects of electron degeneracy on fast-particles energy deposition in dense plasmas are investigated by making transport calculations for the fast particles. It is found that the degeneracy substantially affects the profiles of energy deposition of 3.52-MeV α-particles. On the other hand, the effect on the energy deposition of 14.1-MeV neutrons is negligibly small because the recoil ions, which transfer the neutron energy to the plasma constituents, are produced in a whole plasma volume due to the long mean-free-path of neutrons. The coupled transport-hydrodynamic calculations show that these effects of degeneracy are negligible in the ignition and burn characteristics of central ignition D-T targets. (author)
Dispersion in a thermal plasma including arbitrary degeneracy and quantum recoil.
Melrose, D B; Mushtaq, A
2010-11-01
The longitudinal response function for a thermal electron gas is calculated including two quantum effects exactly, degeneracy, and the quantum recoil. The Fermi-Dirac distribution is expanded in powers of a parameter that is small in the nondegenerate limit and the response function is evaluated in terms of the conventional plasma dispersion function to arbitrary order in this parameter. The infinite sum is performed in terms of polylogarithms in the long-wavelength and quasistatic limits, giving results that apply for arbitrary degeneracy. The results are applied to the dispersion relations for Langmuir waves and to screening, reproducing known results in the nondegenerate and completely degenerate limits, and generalizing them to arbitrary degeneracy.
Frequency degeneracy of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darinskii, A N; Le Clezio, E; Feuillard, G
2007-01-01
Degeneracies of acoustic wave spectra in 2D phononic crystals (PC) and PC slabs are studied. A PC structure is constituted of parallel steel rods immersed into water and forming the quadratic lattice. Given the projection k z of the wave vector on the direction of rods, the bulk wave spectrum of the infinite PC is a set of frequency surfaces f i (k x , k y ), i = 1,2,..., where k x,y are the components of the wave vector in the plane perpendicular to the rods. An investigation is performed of the shape of frequency surfaces in the vicinity of points (k dx , k dy ), where these surfaces fall into contact. In addition, the evolution of the degeneracy with changing rod radius and cross-section shape is examined. Degeneracy in the spectrum of leaky modes propagating along a single waveguide in a PC slab is also investigated
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2012-01-01
We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.
Quantum degeneracy effect on performance of irreversible Otto cycle with ideal Bose gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Feng; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih; Guo Fangzhong; Li Qing
2006-01-01
An Otto cycle working with an ideal Bose gas is called a Bose Otto cycle. The internal irreversibility of the cycle is included in the factors of internal irreversibility degree. The quantum degeneracy effect on the performance of the cycle is investigated based on quantum statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Variations of the maximum work output ratio R W and the efficiency ratio y with temperature ratio τ are examined, which reveal the influence of the quantum degeneracy of the working substance on the performance of a Bose Otto cycle. It is shown that the results obtained herein are valid under both classical and quantum ideal gas conditions
Close near-degeneracy in a pair of four-quasiparticle bands in 194Tl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masiteng, P.L.; Lawrie, E.A.; Ramashidzha, T.M.; Bark, R.A.; Carlsson, B.G.; Lawrie, J.J.; Lindsay, R.; Komati, F.; Kau, J.; Maine, P.; Maliage, S.M.; Matamba, I.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T.; Mutshena, K.P.; Pasternak, A.A.; Ragnarsson, I.
2013-01-01
A pair of rotational bands associated with the πh 9/2 ⊗νi 13/2 −1 configuration at lower spins and with the πh 9/2 ⊗νi 13/2 −3 configuration at higher spins is found in 194 Tl. The two 4-quasiparticle bands show exceptionally close near-degeneracy in the excitation energies. Furthermore close similarity is also found in their alignments and B(M1)/B(E2) reduced transition probability ratios. Such close near-degeneracy probably indicates chiral geometry in the angular momentum space
Symmetry and Degeneracy in Quantum Mechanics. Self-Duality in Finite Spin Systems
Osacar, C.; Pacheco, A. F.
2009-01-01
The symmetry of self-duality (Savit 1980 "Rev. Mod. Phys. 52" 453) of some models of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory is discussed for finite spin blocks of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field. The existence of this symmetry in a specific type of these blocks, and not in others, is manifest by the degeneracy of their…
Physics reach of β-beams and ν-factories: the problem of degeneracies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rigolin, S.
2006-01-01
We discuss the physics reach of β-Beams and ν-Factories from a theoretical perspective, having as a guideline the problem of degeneracies. The presence of degenerate solutions in the measure of the neutrino oscillation parameters θ 13 and δ is, in fact, the main problem that have to be addressed in planning future neutrino oscillation experiments. If degeneracies are not (at least partially) solved, it will be almost impossible to perform, at any future facility, precise measurements of θ 13 and/or δ. After a pedagogical introduction on why degenerate solutions arise and how we can get rid of them, we analyze the physics reach of current β-beam and ν-factory configurations. The physics reach of the 'standard' β-Beam is severely affected by degeneracies while a better result can be obtained by higher-γ setups. At the ν-Factory the combination of Golden and Silver channels can solve the eightfold degeneracy down to sin 2 θ 13 = -3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Tatsien
1994-01-01
By means of the concept of the weak linear degeneracy, one gets the global existence and the sharp estimate of the lifespan of C 1 solutions to the Cauchy problem for general first order quasilinear hyperbolic systems with small initial data with compact support. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig
Tolhoek, H.A.; Groot, S.R. de
1949-01-01
In the general case of a quantum mechanical system with a Hamiltonian that is invariant for rotations spatial degeneracy will exist. So the initial state must be characterized except by the energy also by e.g. the magnetic quantum number. Both for emission of light and electrons plus neutrinos
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.
2016-01-01
Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter s...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Sun-Ju; Park, Byeong-Gon; Humphrey, Andrew; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun
2009-01-01
When a source star is microlensed by one stellar component of widely separated binary stellar components, after finishing the lensing event, the event induced by the other binary star can be additionally detected. In this paper, we investigate whether the close/wide degeneracies in binary lensing events can be resolved by detecting the additional centroid shift of the source images induced by the secondary binary star in wide binary lensing events. From this investigation, we find that if the source star passes close to the Einstein ring of the secondary companion, the degeneracy can be easily resolved by using future astrometric follow-up observations with high astrometric precision. We determine the probability of detecting the additional centroid shift in binary lensing events with high magnification. From this, we find that the degeneracy of binary lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU can be resolved with a significant efficiency. We also estimate the waiting time for the detection of the additional centroid shift in wide binary lensing events. We find that for typical Galactic lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU, the additional centroid shift can be detected within 100 days, and thus the degeneracy of those events can be sufficiently broken within a year.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Liang; Zhuang Fie; He Sailing
2003-01-01
A method is introduced to analyze the degeneracy properties of the band structure of a photonic crystal by making use of supercells. The band structure associated with a supercell of a photonic crystal has degeneracies at the edge of the Brillouin zone if the photonic crystal has some kind of point group symmetry. The E-polarization and H-polarization cases have the same degeneracies for a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal. Two theorems on degeneracies in the band structure associated with the supercell are given and proved. These degeneracies can be lifted to create photonic band gaps by changing the translation group symmetry of the photonic crystal (the point group symmetry of the photonic crystal may remain unchanged), which consequently changes the transform matrix between the supercell and the smallest unit cell. The existence of photonic band gaps for many known 2D photonic crystals is explained through the degeneracy analysis. Some structures with large band gaps are also found through the present degeneracy analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faria, F. F.
2014-01-01
We construct a massive theory of gravity that is invariant under conformal transformations. The massive action of the theory depends on the metric tensor and a scalar field, which are considered the only field variables. We find the vacuum field equations of the theory and analyze its weak-field approximation and Newtonian limit.
SPIN-PRECESSION: BREAKING THE BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR DEGENERACY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chatziioannou, Katerina; Cornish, Neil; Klein, Antoine; Yunes, Nicolás [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)
2015-01-01
Mergers of compact stellar remnants are prime targets for the LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave detectors. The gravitational wave signals from these merger events can be used to study the mass and spin distribution of stellar remnants, and provide information about black hole horizons and the material properties of neutron stars. However, it has been suggested that degeneracies in the way that the star's mass and spin are imprinted in the waveforms may make it impossible to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars. Here we show that the precession of the orbital plane due to spin-orbit coupling breaks the mass-spin degeneracy, and allows us to distinguish between standard neutron stars and alternative possibilities, such as black holes or exotic neutron stars with large masses and spins.
Dynamical realization of breaking of exchanged degeneracy and violation of Zweig's rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinsky, S.S.; Snider, D.R.
1975-08-01
A multiperipheral model that implements part of the Veneziano topological expansion and in which the cylinder correction breaks exchange degeneracy and produces Zweig's rule violation as well as a Pomeron above one is presented. In the negative charge conjugation channel the model is identical to the 0 meson model of Freund and Nambu if continued to a spin one pole on the daughter of the Pomeron
Degeneracy of time series models: The best model is not always the correct model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Judd, Kevin; Nakamura, Tomomichi
2006-01-01
There are a number of good techniques for finding, in some sense, the best model of a deterministic system given a time series of observations. We examine a problem called model degeneracy, which has the consequence that even when a perfect model of a system exists, one does not find it using the best techniques currently available. The problem is illustrated using global polynomial models and the theory of Groebner bases
Rotational Spectral Unmixing of Exoplanets: Degeneracies between Surface Colors and Geography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujii, Yuka [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B., E-mail: yuka.fujii.ebihara@gmail.com [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 0E8 (Canada)
2017-11-01
Unmixing the disk-integrated spectra of exoplanets provides hints about heterogeneous surfaces that we cannot directly resolve in the foreseeable future. It is particularly important for terrestrial planets with diverse surface compositions like Earth. Although previous work on unmixing the spectra of Earth from disk-integrated multi-band light curves appeared successful, we point out a mathematical degeneracy between the surface colors and their spatial distributions. Nevertheless, useful constraints on the spectral shape of individual surface types may be obtained from the premise that albedo is everywhere between 0 and 1. We demonstrate the degeneracy and the possible constraints using both mock data based on a toy model of Earth, as well as real observations of Earth. Despite the severe degeneracy, we are still able to recover an approximate albedo spectrum for an ocean. In general, we find that surfaces are easier to identify when they cover a large fraction of the planet and when their spectra approach zero or unity in certain bands.
Rotational Spectral Unmixing of Exoplanets: Degeneracies Between Surface Colors and Geography
Fujii, Yuka; Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Cowan, Nicolas B.
2017-01-01
Unmixing the disk-integrated spectra of exoplanets provides hints about heterogeneous surfaces that we cannot directly resolve in the foreseeable future. It is particularly important for terrestrial planets with diverse surface compositions like Earth. Although previous work on unmixing the spectra of Earth from disk-integrated multi-band light curves appeared successful, we point out a mathematical degeneracy between the surface colors and their spatial distributions. Nevertheless, useful constraints on the spectral shape of individual surface types may be obtained from the premise that albedo is everywhere between 0 and 1. We demonstrate the degeneracy and the possible constraints using both mock data based on a toy model of Earth, as well as real observations of Earth. Despite the severe degeneracy, we are still able to recover an approximate albedo spectrum for an ocean. In general, we find that surfaces are easier to identify when they cover a large fraction of the planet and when their spectra approach zero or unity in certain bands.
Single-centered black hole microstate degeneracies from instantons in supergravity
Murthy, Sameer; Reys, Valentin
2016-04-01
We obtain holographic constraints on the microscopic degeneracies of black holes by computing the exact macroscopic quantum entropy using localization, including the effects of string worldsheet instantons in the supergravity effective action. For 1/4 -BPS black holes in type II string theory on K3 × T 2, the constraints can be explicitly checked against expressions for the microscopic BPS counting functions that are known in terms of certain mock modular forms. We find that the effect of including the infinite sum over instantons in the holomorphic prepotential of the supergravity leads to a sum over Bessel functions with successively sub-leading arguments as in the Rademacher expansion of Jacobi forms — but begins to disagree with such a structure near an order where the mock modular nature becomes relevant. This leads to a systematic method to recover the polar terms of the microscopic degeneracies from the degeneracy of instantons (the Gromov-Witten invariants). We check explicitly that our formula agrees with the known microscopic answer for the first seven values of the magnetic charge invariant.
Single-centered black hole microstate degeneracies from instantons in supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murthy, Sameer; Reys, Valentin
2016-01-01
We obtain holographic constraints on the microscopic degeneracies of black holes by computing the exact macroscopic quantum entropy using localization, including the effects of string worldsheet instantons in the supergravity effective action. For (1/4)-BPS black holes in type II string theory on K3×T 2 , the constraints can be explicitly checked against expressions for the microscopic BPS counting functions that are known in terms of certain mock modular forms. We find that the effect of including the infinite sum over instantons in the holomorphic prepotential of the supergravity leads to a sum over Bessel functions with successively sub-leading arguments as in the Rademacher expansion of Jacobi forms — but begins to disagree with such a structure near an order where the mock modular nature becomes relevant. This leads to a systematic method to recover the polar terms of the microscopic degeneracies from the degeneracy of instantons (the Gromov-Witten invariants). We check explicitly that our formula agrees with the known microscopic answer for the first seven values of the magnetic charge invariant.
Time-Dependent Global Sensitivity Analysis for Long-Term Degeneracy Model Using Polynomial Chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianbin Guo
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Global sensitivity is used to quantify the influence of uncertain model inputs on the output variability of static models in general. However, very few approaches can be applied for the sensitivity analysis of long-term degeneracy models, as far as time-dependent reliability is concerned. The reason is that the static sensitivity may not reflect the completed sensitivity during the entire life circle. This paper presents time-dependent global sensitivity analysis for long-term degeneracy models based on polynomial chaos expansion (PCE. Sobol’ indices are employed as the time-dependent global sensitivity since they provide accurate information on the selected uncertain inputs. In order to compute Sobol’ indices more efficiently, this paper proposes a moving least squares (MLS method to obtain the time-dependent PCE coefficients with acceptable simulation effort. Then Sobol’ indices can be calculated analytically as a postprocessing of the time-dependent PCE coefficients with almost no additional cost. A test case is used to show how to conduct the proposed method, then this approach is applied to an engineering case, and the time-dependent global sensitivity is obtained for the long-term degeneracy mechanism model.
Frequency degeneracy of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darinskii, A N [Institute of Crystallography RAS, Leninskiy pr. 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Le Clezio, E [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France); Feuillard, G [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France)
2007-12-15
Degeneracies of acoustic wave spectra in 2D phononic crystals (PC) and PC slabs are studied. A PC structure is constituted of parallel steel rods immersed into water and forming the quadratic lattice. Given the projection k{sub z} of the wave vector on the direction of rods, the bulk wave spectrum of the infinite PC is a set of frequency surfaces f{sub i}(k{sub x}, k{sub y}), i = 1,2,..., where k{sub x,y} are the components of the wave vector in the plane perpendicular to the rods. An investigation is performed of the shape of frequency surfaces in the vicinity of points (k{sub dx}, k{sub dy}), where these surfaces fall into contact. In addition, the evolution of the degeneracy with changing rod radius and cross-section shape is examined. Degeneracy in the spectrum of leaky modes propagating along a single waveguide in a PC slab is also investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orito, M.; Kajino, T.; Mathews, G. J.; Wang, Y.
2002-01-01
We reanalyze the cosmological constraints on the existence of a net universal lepton asymmetry and neutrino degeneracy based upon the latest high resolution CMB sky maps from BOOMERANG, DASI, and MAXIMA-1. We generate likelihood functions by marginalizing over (Ω b h 2 ,ξ ν μ,τ ,ξ ν e ,Ω Λ ,h,n) plus the calibration uncertainties. We consider flat Ω M +Ω Λ =1 cosmological models with two identical degenerate neutrino species, ξ ν μ,τ ≡ vertical bar ξ ν μ vertical bar = vertical bar ξ ν τ vertical bar and a small ξ ν e . We assign weak top-hat priors on the electron-neutrino degeneracy parameter ξ ν e and Ω b h 2 based upon allowed values consistent with the nucleosynthesis constraints as a function of ξ ν μ,τ . The change in the background neutrino temperature with degeneracy is also explicitly included, and Gaussian priors for h=0.72±0.08 and the experimental calibration uncertainties are adopted. The marginalized likelihood functions show a slight (0.5σ) preference for neutrino degeneracy. Optimum values with two equally degenerate μ and τ neutrinos imply ξ ν μ,τ =1.0 -1.0(0.5σ) +0.8(1σ) ,from which we deduce ξ ν e =0.09 -0.09 +0.15 , and Ω b h 2 =0.021 -0.002 +0.06 . The 2σ upper limit becomes ξ ν μ,τ ≤2.1, which implies ξ ν e ≤0.30, and Ω b h 2 ≤0.030. For only a single large-degeneracy species the optimal value is vertical bar ξ ν μ vertical bar or vertical bar ξ ν τ vertical bar =1.4 with a 2σ upper limit of vertical bar ξ ν μ vertical bar or vertical bar ξ ν τ vertical bar ≤2.5.
Measuring Parameters of Massive Black Hole Binaries with Partially-Aligned Spins
Lang, Ryan N.; Hughes, Scott A.; Cornish, Neil J.
2010-01-01
It is important to understand how well the gravitational-wave observatory LISA can measure parameters of massive black hole binaries. It has been shown that including spin precession in the waveform breaks degeneracies and produces smaller expected parameter errors than a simpler, precession-free analysis. However, recent work has shown that gas in binaries can partially align the spins with the orbital angular momentum, thus reducing the precession effect. We show how this degrades the earlier results, producing more pessimistic errors in gaseous mergers. However, we then add higher harmonics to the signal model; these also break degeneracies, but they are not affected by the presence of gas. The harmonics often restore the errors in partially-aligned binaries to the same as, or better than/ those that are obtained for fully precessing binaries with no harmonics. Finally, we investigate what LISA measurements of spin alignment can tell us about the nature of gas around a binary,
Topological massive sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, N.D.
1995-01-01
In this paper we construct topological sigma models which include a potential and are related to twisted massive supersymmetric sigma models. Contrary to a previous construction these models have no central charge and do not require the manifold to admit a Killing vector. We use the topological massive sigma model constructed here to simplify the calculation of the observables. Lastly it is noted that this model can be viewed as interpolating between topological massless sigma models and topological Landau-Ginzburg models. ((orig.))
Massive neutrinos in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.
1982-08-01
Massive neutrinos are among the big hopes of cosmologists. If they happen to have the right mass they can close the Universe, explain the motion of galaxies in clusters, provide galactic halos and even, possibly, explain galaxy formation. Tremaine and Gunn have argued that massive neutrinos cannot do all these things. I will explain, here, what some of us believe is wrong with their arguments. (author)
Aoki, Katsuki; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Misonoh, Yosuke; Okawa, Hirotada
2018-02-01
We find vacuum solutions such that massive gravitons are confined in a local spacetime region by their gravitational energy in asymptotically flat spacetimes in the context of the bigravity theory. We call such self-gravitating objects massive graviton geons. The basic equations can be reduced to the Schrödinger-Poisson equations with the tensor "wave function" in the Newtonian limit. We obtain a nonspherically symmetric solution with j =2 , ℓ=0 as well as a spherically symmetric solution with j =0 , ℓ=2 in this system where j is the total angular momentum quantum number and ℓ is the orbital angular momentum quantum number, respectively. The energy eigenvalue of the Schrödinger equation in the nonspherical solution is smaller than that in the spherical solution. We then study the perturbative stability of the spherical solution and find that there is an unstable mode in the quadrupole mode perturbations which may be interpreted as the transition mode to the nonspherical solution. The results suggest that the nonspherically symmetric solution is the ground state of the massive graviton geon. The massive graviton geons may decay in time due to emissions of gravitational waves but this timescale can be quite long when the massive gravitons are nonrelativistic and then the geons can be long-lived. We also argue possible prospects of the massive graviton geons: applications to the ultralight dark matter scenario, nonlinear (in)stability of the Minkowski spacetime, and a quantum transition of the spacetime.
Higgs Boson fermionic production and decay modes with the ATLAS detector
Piacquadio, Giacinto; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
The Higgs couplings to heavy quarks, top and bottom quarks, are difficult to directly access experimentally, nevertheless their measurement is crucial for a full characterization of the Higgs sector and to probe a large variety of physics scenarios beyond the Standard Model. In this talk I will discuss the results recently obtained by the ATLAS Collaboration based on Run-2 2015 and 2016 data, which led to evidence for Higgs boson decays to b-quarks and for the ttH production mode.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations modelling a quantum degenerate mixture of bosons and fermions. We analyze the stability of plane waves, give precise conditions for the existence of solitons and write explicit solutions in the form of periodic waves. We also check that the solitons observed previously in numerical simulations of the model correspond exactly to our explicit solutions and see how plane waves destabilize to form periodic waves
Free expansion of fermionic dark solitons in a boson-fermion mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, Sadhan K
2005-01-01
We use a time-dependent dynamical mean-field-hydrodynamic model to study the formation of fermionic dark solitons in a trapped degenerate Fermi gas mixed with a Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic as well as a periodic optical-lattice potential. The dark soliton with a 'notch' in the probability density with a zero at the minimum is simulated numerically as a nonlinear continuation of the first vibrational excitation of the linear mean-field-hydrodynamic equations, as suggested recently for pure bosons. We study the free expansion of these dark solitons as well as the consequent increase in the size of their central notch and discuss the possibility of experimental observation of the notch after free expansion
Boson-fermion demixing in a cloud of lithium atoms in a pancake trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akdeniz, Z.; Vignolo, P.; Tosi, M.P.
2004-01-01
We evaluate the equilibrium state of a mixture of 7 Li and 6 Li atoms with repulsive interactions, confined inside a pancake-shaped trap under conditions such that the thickness of the bosonic and fermionic clouds is approaching the values of the s-wave scattering lengths. In this regime the effective couplings depend on the axial confinement and full demixing can become observable by merely squeezing the trap, without enhancing the scattering lengths through recourse to a Feshbach resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capuzzi, P.; Minguzzi, A.; Tosi, M.P.
2004-01-01
We study the collective modes of a confined gaseous cloud of bosons and fermions with mutual attractive interactions at zero temperature. The cloud consists of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a spin-polarized Fermi gas inside a spherical harmonic trap and the coupling between the two species is varied by increasing either the magnitude of the interspecies s-wave scattering length or the number of bosons. The mode frequencies are obtained in the collisional regime by solving the equations of generalized hydrodynamics and are compared with the spectra calculated in the collisionless regime within a random-phase approximation. We find that, as the mixture is driven towards the collapse instability, the frequencies of the modes of fermionic origin show a blue shift which can become very significant for large numbers of bosons. Instead the modes of bosonic origin show a softening, which becomes most pronounced in the very proximity of collapse. Explicit illustrations of these trends are given for the monopolar spectra, but similar trends are found for the dipolar and quadrupolar spectra except for the surface (n=0) modes which are essentially unaffected by the interactions
Formation of Singlet Fermion Pairs in the Dilute Gas of Boson-Fermion Mixture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minasyan V.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available We argue the formation of a free neutron spinless pairs in a liquid helium -dilute neutron gas mixture. We show that the term, of the interaction between the excitations of the Bose gas and the density modes of the neutron, meditate an attractive interaction via the neutron modes, which in turn leads to a bound state on a spinless neutron pair. Due to presented theoretical approach, we prove that the electron pairs in superconductivity could be discovered by Frölich earlier then it was made by the Cooper.
Filippone, Michele; Brouwer, Piet
2016-01-01
Tunneling between a point contact and a one-dimensional wire is usually described with the help of a tunneling Hamiltonian that contains a delta function in position space. Whereas the leading order contribution to the tunneling current is independent of the way this delta function is regularized, higher-order corrections with respect to the tunneling amplitude are known to depend on the regularization. Instead of regularizing the delta function in the tunneling Hamiltonian, one may also obta...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vicente Alvarez, J.J.; Balseiro, C.A.; Ceccatto, H.A.
1995-07-01
We consider the introduction of fluctuation corrections to saddle- point results in the symmetric treatment of a mixed pseudofermion-boson representation of correlated electrons. In our calculations we avoid the complications of working in the discrete imaginary-time formulation of the functional integral, a procedure recently advocated in the literature as mandatory for this problem. For a simple two-site model our approach leads to approximate results in remarkable agreement with the exact ones, and without the spurious nonanalyticities of other similar treatments. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs
Boson-fermion duality in four dimensions: Comments on the paper by Luther and Schotte
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbaczewsky, P.
1985-01-01
Fock space for the fermion field can be identified with this for the boson field, provided the overall numbers of internal degrees of freedom are the same. As a consequence the respective free field Hamiltonian systems are equivalent (dual): the four component neutrino model is thus equivalent to the doublet of independent ('electric' and 'magnetic' respectively) Maxwell fields which are quantized in the manifest Coulomb gauge. This statement arises on the continuum field theory level and seems to falsify the claim that realistic photons can be constructed from (bound) pairs of neutrinos. The more correct claim in this framework is that each (anti)neutrino degree of freedom represents and is represented by the photon type ('electric' and 'magnetic' respectively) degree of freedom. By repeating the classic Weinberg's construction we can rewrite the common for both models Hamiltonian in two equivalent ways: in terms of a relativistic spin 1/2, m=0 field or in terms of the spin 1, m=0 doublet of four-potentials. One of them is the standard Maxwell ('electric') potential while the other has all symmetry properties of the dual ('magnetic') one. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milewski, J., E-mail: jsmilew@wp.pl [Institute of Mathematics, Poznań University of Technology, Piotrowo 3A, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Lulek, B., E-mail: barlulek@amu.edu.pl [East European State Higher School, ul. Tymona Terleckiego 6, 37-700 Przemyśl (Poland); Lulek, T., E-mail: tadlulek@prz.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); East European State Higher School, ul. Tymona Terleckiego 6, 37-700 Przemyśl (Poland); Łabuz, M., E-mail: labuz@univ.rzeszow.pl [University of Rzeszow, Institute of Physics, Rejtana 16a, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Stagraczyński, R., E-mail: rstag@prz.edu.pl [Rzeszow University of Technology, The Faculty of Mathematics and Applied Physics, Powstańców Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)
2014-02-01
The exact Bethe eigenfunctions for the heptagonal ring within the isotropic XXX model exhibit a doubly degenerated energy level in the three-deviation sector at the centre of the Brillouin zone. We demonstrate an explicit construction of these eigenfunctions by use of algebraic Bethe Ansatz, and point out a relation of degeneracy to parity conservation, applied to the configuration of strings for these eigenfunctions. Namely, the internal structure of the eigenfunctions (the 2-string and the 1-string, with opposite quasimomenta) admits generation of two mutually orthogonal eigenfunctions due to the fact that the strings which differ by their length are distinguishable objects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Yiqiang
2006-01-01
A dual-periodic structure for quasi-phase matching cascaded optical parametric interactions is proposed. Due to the coupling of reciprocal vectors between the original and imposed periodic sequence, the reciprocal vectors and the corresponding effective nonlinear coefficients is no longer the simple combination of two periodic structures. The new analytical expression of the effective nonlinear coefficients is deduced and given. The degeneracy phenomena and the novel extinction rule resulting from the coupling of reciprocal vectors are found and investigated. The corresponding physical nature is also discussed
Non-degeneracy, Mean Field Equations and the Onsager Theory of 2D Turbulence
Bartolucci, Daniele; Jevnikar, Aleks; Lee, Youngae; Yang, Wen
2018-04-01
The understanding of some large energy, negative specific heat states in the Onsager description of 2D turbulence seem to require the analysis of a subtle open problem about bubbling solutions of the mean field equation. Motivated by this application we prove that, under suitable non-degeneracy assumptions on the associated m-vortex Hamiltonian, the m-point bubbling solutions of the mean field equation are non-degenerate as well. Then we deduce that the Onsager mean field equilibrium entropy is smooth and strictly convex in the high energy regime on domains of second kind.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chien-Hsiu Lee
2017-07-01
Full Text Available First proposed by Paczynski in 1986, microlensing has been instrumental in the search for compact dark matter as well as discovery and characterization of exoplanets. In this article, we provide a brief history of microlensing, especially on the discoveries of compact objects and exoplanets. We then review the basics of microlensing and how astrometry can help break the degeneracy, providing a more robust determination of the nature of the microlensing events. We also outline prospects that will be made by on-going and forth-coming experiments/observatories.
Xu, Zhongxiao; Wu, Yuelong; Tian, Long; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Zhiying; Yan, Zhihui; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2013-12-13
Long-lived and high-fidelity memory for a photonic polarization qubit (PPQ) is crucial for constructing quantum networks. We present a millisecond storage system based on electromagnetically induced transparency, in which a moderate magnetic field is applied on a cold-atom cloud to lift Zeeman degeneracy and, thus, the PPQ states are stored as two magnetic-field-insensitive spin waves. Especially, the influence of magnetic-field-sensitive spin waves on the storage performances is almost totally avoided. The measured average fidelities of the polarization states are 98.6% at 200 μs and 78.4% at 4.5 ms, respectively.
Interpretación de los precios sombra en presencia de degeneración
León, T.; Liern, V.
1996-01-01
El propósito de nuestro trabajo es analizar la interpretación económica de las variables duales como "precios sombra" cuando la solución posible básica óptima del problema de programación lineal es degenerada. Resolvemos algunos ejemplos que ilustran esta interpretación usando el programa LINDO. Finalmente planteamos una modificación a la propuesta de Gal (1986) para llevar a cabo el análisis de sensibilidad en presencia de degeneración.
Late stages of massive star evolution and nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki.
1986-01-01
The evolution of massive stars in the mass range of 8 to 25 M solar mass is reviewed. The effect of electron degeneracy on the gravothermal nature of stars is discussed. Depending on the stellar mass, the stars form three types of cores, namely, non-degenerate, semi-degenerate, and strongly degenerate cores. The evolution for these cases is quite distinct from each other and leads to the three different types of final fate. It is suggested that our helium star model, which is equivalent to a 25 M solar mass star, will form a relatively small mass iron core despite the faster 12 C(α,γ) 16 O reaction. 50 refs., 21 figs
Epidemiology of Massive Transfusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halmin, Märit; Chiesa, Flaminia; Vasan, Senthil K
2016-01-01
in Sweden from 1987 and in Denmark from 1996. A total of 92,057 patients were included. Patients were followed until the end of 2012. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the patients and indications. Post transfusion mortality was expressed as crude 30-day...... mortality and as long-term mortality using the Kaplan-Meier method and using standardized mortality ratios. The incidence of massive transfusion was higher in Denmark (4.5 per 10,000) than in Sweden (2.5 per 10,000). The most common indication for massive transfusion was major surgery (61.2%) followed...
Topologically massive supergravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Deser
1983-01-01
Full Text Available The locally supersymmetric extension of three-dimensional topologically massive gravity is constructed. Its fermionic part is the sum of the (dynamically trivial Rarita-Schwinger action and a gauge-invariant topological term, of second derivative order, analogous to the gravitational one. It is ghost free and represents a single massive spin 3/2 excitation. The fermion-gravity coupling is minimal and the invariance is under the usual supergravity transformations. The system's energy, as well as that of the original topological gravity, is therefore positive.
Epidemiology of massive transfusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halmin, M A; Chiesa, F; Vasan, S K
2015-01-01
and to describe characteristics and mortality of massively transfused patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database, linking data on blood donation, blood components and transfused patients with inpatient- and population.......4% among women transfused for obstetrical bleeding. Mortality increased gradually with age and among all patients massively transfused at age 80 years, only 26% were alive [TABLE PRESENTED] after 5 years. The relative mortality, early after transfusion, was high and decreased with time since transfusion...
Farina, Marco; Maltoni, Fabio; Salvioni, Ennio; Thamm, Andrea
2013-01-01
Current Higgs data show an ambiguity in the value of the Yukawa couplings to quarks and leptons. Not so much because of still large uncertainties in the measurements but as the result of several almost degenerate minima in the coupling profile likelihood function. To break these degeneracies, it is important to identify and measure processes where the Higgs coupling to fermions interferes with other coupling(s). The most prominent example, the decay of $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$, is not sufficient to give a definitive answer. In this Letter, we argue that $t$-channel single top production in association with a Higgs boson, with $h\\to b\\bar b$, can provide the necessary information to lift the remaining degeneracy in the top Yukawa. Within the Standard Model, the total rate is highly reduced due to an almost perfect destructive interference in the hard process, $W b \\rightarrow t h$. We first show that for non-standard couplings the cross section can be reliably computed without worrying about corrections from phys...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruner, T.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Deppe, M.; Geibel, C. [MPI fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, 01187, Dresden (Germany); Sereni, J. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina)
2011-07-01
CeTiGe is a paramagnetic Kondo lattice system with a large orbital degeneracy involved in the formation of the heavy Fermion ground state. Recently we discovered that this compound presents a huge metamagnetic transition at B{sub MMT} {approx} 13 T, with much larger anomalies in magnetization, magnetoresistance and magnetostriction than in the archetypical Kondo lattice metamagnet CeRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Since CeTiGe forms in a pronounced peritectic reaction the growth of single crystals is difficult. We therefore studied the Ce-Ti-Ge ternary metallographic phase diagram to get a sound basis for future crystal growth attempts. Preliminary results of growth experiments based on these studies are promising and shall be discussed. Furthermore, Ti-rich CeTiGe was recently reported to present a high temperature phase crystallizing in the closely related CeScSi structure type. In order to study this structural instability and the effect on the physical properties, we studied the effect of substituting Sc for Ti, since pure CeScGe crystallizes in the CeScSi structure type. In well annealed samples we observed a two phase region in the range 10% - 25%-Sc-substitution. Preliminary investigations of the CeSc{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}Ge alloy suggest it is a promising candidate for the observation of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point in a large degeneracy Kondo lattice system.
Influence of damping on proton energy loss in plasmas of all degeneracies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.
2007-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of electron-electron collisions on the stopping power of plasmas of any degeneracy. Plasma targets are considered fully ionized so electronic stopping is only due to the free electrons. We focus our analysis on plasmas which electronic density is around solid values n e ≅10 23 cm -3 and which temperature is around T≅10 eV; these plasmas are in the limit of weakly coupled plasmas. This type of plasma has not been studied extensively though it is very important for inertial confinement fusion. The electronic stopping is obtained from an exact quantum mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Differences are around 30% in some cases which can produce bigger mistakes in further energy deposition and projectile range studies. Then we consider electron-electron collisions in the exact quantum mechanical electronic stopping calculation. Now the maximum stopping occurs at velocities smaller than for the calculations without considering collisions for all kinds of plasmas analyzed. The energy loss enhances for velocities smaller than the velocity at maximum while decreases for higher velocities. Latter effects are magnified with increasing collision frequency. Differences with the same results for the case of not taking into account collisions are around 20% in the analyzed cases
Breaking the EOS-gravity degeneracy with masses and pulsating frequencies of neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Weikang; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Wen, De-Hua; Xu, Jun
2014-01-01
A thorough understanding of many astrophysical phenomena associated with compact objects requires reliable knowledge about both the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the theory of strong-field gravity simultaneously because of the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Currently, variations of the neutron star (NS) mass–radius correlation from using alternative gravity theories are much larger than those from changing the NS matter EOS within known constraints. At least two independent observables are required to break the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Using model EOSs for hybrid stars and a Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, we investigate both the mass–radius correlation and pulsating frequencies of NSs. While the maximum mass of NSs increases, the frequencies of the f, p 1 , p 2 , and w I pulsating modes are found to decrease with the increasing strength of the Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, providing a useful reference for future determination simultaneously of both the strong-field gravity and the supranuclear EOS by combining data of x-ray and gravitational wave emissions of NSs. (paper)
Degeneracy: a link between evolvability, robustness and complexity in biological systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Whitacre James M
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract A full accounting of biological robustness remains elusive; both in terms of the mechanisms by which robustness is achieved and the forces that have caused robustness to grow over evolutionary time. Although its importance to topics such as ecosystem services and resilience is well recognized, the broader relationship between robustness and evolution is only starting to be fully appreciated. A renewed interest in this relationship has been prompted by evidence that mutational robustness can play a positive role in the discovery of adaptive innovations (evolvability and evidence of an intimate relationship between robustness and complexity in biology. This paper offers a new perspective on the mechanics of evolution and the origins of complexity, robustness, and evolvability. Here we explore the hypothesis that degeneracy, a partial overlap in the functioning of multi-functional components, plays a central role in the evolution and robustness of complex forms. In support of this hypothesis, we present evidence that degeneracy is a fundamental source of robustness, it is intimately tied to multi-scaled complexity, and it establishes conditions that are necessary for system evolvability.
Open-System Quantum Annealing in Mean-Field Models with Exponential Degeneracy*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kostyantyn Kechedzhi
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Real-life quantum computers are inevitably affected by intrinsic noise resulting in dissipative nonunitary dynamics realized by these devices. We consider an open-system quantum annealing algorithm optimized for such a realistic analog quantum device which takes advantage of noise-induced thermalization and relies on incoherent quantum tunneling at finite temperature. We theoretically analyze the performance of this algorithm considering a p-spin model that allows for a mean-field quasiclassical solution and, at the same time, demonstrates the first-order phase transition and exponential degeneracy of states, typical characteristics of spin glasses. We demonstrate that finite-temperature effects introduced by the noise are particularly important for the dynamics in the presence of the exponential degeneracy of metastable states. We determine the optimal regime of the open-system quantum annealing algorithm for this model and find that it can outperform simulated annealing in a range of parameters. Large-scale multiqubit quantum tunneling is instrumental for the quantum speedup in this model, which is possible because of the unusual nonmonotonous temperature dependence of the quantum-tunneling action in this model, where the most efficient transition rate corresponds to zero temperature. This model calculation is the first analytically tractable example where open-system quantum annealing algorithm outperforms simulated annealing, which can, in principle, be realized using an analog quantum computer.
Proton stopping using a full conserving dielectric function in plasmas at any degeneracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.
2010-01-01
In this work, we present a dielectric function including the three conservation laws (density, momentum and energy) when we take into account electron-electron collisions in a plasma at any degeneracy. This full conserving dielectric function (FCDF) reproduces the random phase approximation (RPA) and Mermin ones, which confirms this outcome. The FCDF is applied to the determination of the proton stopping power. Differences among diverse dielectric functions in the proton stopping calculation are minimal if the plasma electron collision frequency is not high enough. These discrepancies can rise up to 2% between RPA values and the FCDF ones, and to 8% between the Mermin ones and FCDF ones. The similarity between RPA and FCDF results is not surprising, as all conservation laws are also considered in RPA dielectric function. Even for plasmas with low collision frequencies, those discrepancies follow the same behavior as for plasmas with higher frequencies. Then, discrepancies do not depend on the plasma degeneracy but essentially do on the value of the plasma collision frequency.
Effects of target electron collisions on energy loss straggling in plasmas of all degeneracies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barriga Carrasco, Manuel D. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universisdad de Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real E13071 (Spain)]. E-mail: ManuelD.Barriga@uclm.es
2007-07-01
The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of target electron collisions on the energy loss straggling in plasmas of any degeneracy. We focus our analysis on targets that are in the limit of weakly coupled electron gases, where the random phase approximation can be applied. This type of plasmas targets has not been studied extensively, though they are very important for inertial confinement fusion. The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Also we consider electron collisions in the exact quantum mechanical straggling calculation. Now the maximum straggling occurs at velocities smaller than for the calculations without considering collisions for all kinds of plasmas analyzed. The straggling remains equal or enhances for velocities less than or equal to the velocity at maximum while is slightly decreases for higher velocities. Differences are significant in all cases, that can let large errors creep on in further energy deposition and projectile range studies.
Effects of target electron collisions on energy loss straggling in plasmas of all degeneracies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barriga Carrasco, Manuel D.
2007-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of target electron collisions on the energy loss straggling in plasmas of any degeneracy. We focus our analysis on targets that are in the limit of weakly coupled electron gases, where the random phase approximation can be applied. This type of plasmas targets has not been studied extensively, though they are very important for inertial confinement fusion. The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Also we consider electron collisions in the exact quantum mechanical straggling calculation. Now the maximum straggling occurs at velocities smaller than for the calculations without considering collisions for all kinds of plasmas analyzed. The straggling remains equal or enhances for velocities less than or equal to the velocity at maximum while is slightly decreases for higher velocities. Differences are significant in all cases, that can let large errors creep on in further energy deposition and projectile range studies
Effects of neutrino degeneracy and of downscatter on neutrino radiation from dense stellar cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtenstadt, I.; Ron, A.; Sack, N.; Wagschal, J.J.; Bludman, S.A.
1978-01-01
A simplified model is presneted for several stages in the development of a neutronization shell in the inner core of a collapsing star. Neutrino degeneracy severely reduces neutrino emission and downscatter in energy, so that for all but the thinest shell sources, surface emission of an approximately Fermi-Dirac neutrino spectrum obtains. The Neutrino spectrum departs from exact Fermi-Dirac neutrino form only because of the outstreaming of low-energy neutrinos.Downscatter by electrons is helped by neutron scatterers present, but except for reducing the peak neutrino energy by about 30%, electrons play no dramatic part. The neutrino degeneracy inhibits downscatter so that the low-energy window in the Fermi-Dirac distribution leads to little neutrino loss.A simple equilibrium radiation picture emerges in which neutrinos are LTE thermally emitted in the neutronization shell and isotropically coherently scattered by neutrons and by nuclei on the way out of the overlying mantle. The Fermi statistics limit on neutrino flux is probably reached in practice, but is, in most cases, still insufficient for mantle blow-off
Allen, Philip B.; Pickett, Warren E.
2018-06-01
Since closed lines of accidental electronic degeneracies were demonstrated to be possible, even frequent, by Herring in 1937, no further developments arose for eight decades. The earliest report of such a nodal loop in a real material - aluminum - is recounted and elaborated on. Nodal loop semimetals have become a focus of recent activity, with emphasis on other issues. Band degeneracies are, after all, the origin of topological phases in crystalline materials. Spin-orbit interaction lifts accidental band degeneracies, with the resulting spectrum being provided here. The geometric phase γ(C) = ± π for circuits C surrounding a line of such degeneracy cannot survive completely unchanged. The change depends on how the spin is fixed during adiabatic evolution. For spin fixed along the internal spin-orbit field, γ(C) decreases to zero as the circuit collapses around the line of lifted degeneracy. For spin fixed along a perpendicular axis, the conical intersection persists and γ(C) = ± π is unchanged.
Radiology in massive hemoptysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marini, M.; Castro, J.M.; Gayol, A.; Aguilera, C.; Blanco, M.; Beraza, A.; Torres, J.
1995-01-01
We have reviewed our experience in diseases involving massive hemoptysis, systematizing the most common causes which include tuberculosis, bronchiectasis and cancer of the lung. Other less frequent causes, such as arteriovenous fistula, Aspergilloma, aneurysm, etc.; are also evaluated, and the most demonstrative images of each produced by the most precise imaging methods for their assessment are presented
Massive Supergravity and Deconstruction
Gregoire, T; Shadmi, Y; Gregoire, Thomas; Schwartz, Matthew D; Shadmi, Yael
2004-01-01
We present a simple superfield Lagrangian for massive supergravity. It comprises the minimal supergravity Lagrangian with interactions as well as mass terms for the metric superfield and the chiral compensator. This is the natural generalization of the Fierz-Pauli Lagrangian for massive gravity which comprises mass terms for the metric and its trace. We show that the on-shell bosonic and fermionic fields are degenerate and have the appropriate spins: 2, 3/2, 3/2 and 1. We then study this interacting Lagrangian using goldstone superfields. We find that a chiral multiplet of goldstones gets a kinetic term through mixing, just as the scalar goldstone does in the non-supersymmetric case. This produces Planck scale (Mpl) interactions with matter and all the discontinuities and unitarity bounds associated with massive gravity. In particular, the scale of strong coupling is (Mpl m^4)^1/5, where m is the multiplet's mass. Next, we consider applications of massive supergravity to deconstruction. We estimate various qu...
Update on massive transfusion.
Pham, H P; Shaz, B H
2013-12-01
Massive haemorrhage requires massive transfusion (MT) to maintain adequate circulation and haemostasis. For optimal management of massively bleeding patients, regardless of aetiology (trauma, obstetrical, surgical), effective preparation and communication between transfusion and other laboratory services and clinical teams are essential. A well-defined MT protocol is a valuable tool to delineate how blood products are ordered, prepared, and delivered; determine laboratory algorithms to use as transfusion guidelines; and outline duties and facilitate communication between involved personnel. In MT patients, it is crucial to practice damage control resuscitation and to administer blood products early in the resuscitation. Trauma patients are often admitted with early trauma-induced coagulopathy (ETIC), which is associated with mortality; the aetiology of ETIC is likely multifactorial. Current data support that trauma patients treated with higher ratios of plasma and platelet to red blood cell transfusions have improved outcomes, but further clinical investigation is needed. Additionally, tranexamic acid has been shown to decrease the mortality in trauma patients requiring MT. Greater use of cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrate might be beneficial in MT patients from obstetrical causes. The risks and benefits for other therapies (prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant activated factor VII, or whole blood) are not clearly defined in MT patients. Throughout the resuscitation, the patient should be closely monitored and both metabolic and coagulation abnormalities corrected. Further studies are needed to clarify the optimal ratios of blood products, treatment based on underlying clinical disorder, use of alternative therapies, and integration of laboratory testing results in the management of massively bleeding patients.
Massive antenatal fetomaternal hemorrhage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Koldkjaer, Ole; Berkowicz, Adela
2005-01-01
Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can lead to life-threatening anemia. Quantification based on flow cytometry with anti-hemoglobin F (HbF) is applicable in all cases but underestimation of large fetal bleeds has been reported. A large FMH from an ABO-compatible fetus allows an estimation...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wright, Bill S.; Winther, Hans A.; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: bill.wright@port.ac.uk, E-mail: hans.winther@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2017-10-01
The effect of massive neutrinos on the growth of cold dark matter perturbations acts as a scale-dependent Newton's constant and leads to scale-dependent growth factors just as we often find in models of gravity beyond General Relativity. We show how to compute growth factors for ΛCDM and general modified gravity cosmologies combined with massive neutrinos in Lagrangian perturbation theory for use in COLA and extensions thereof. We implement this together with the grid-based massive neutrino method of Brandbyge and Hannestad in MG-PICOLA and compare COLA simulations to full N -body simulations of ΛCDM and f ( R ) gravity with massive neutrinos. Our implementation is computationally cheap if the underlying cosmology already has scale-dependent growth factors and it is shown to be able to produce results that match N -body to percent level accuracy for both the total and CDM matter power-spectra up to k ∼< 1 h /Mpc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He Xiao-Tao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A thorough understanding of properties of neutron stars requires both a reliable knowledge of the equation of state (EOS of super-dense nuclear matter and the strong-field gravity theories simultaneously. To provide information that may help break this EOS-gravity degeneracy, we investigate effects of nuclear symmetry energy on the gravitational binding energy of neutron stars within GR and the scalar-tensor subset of alternative gravity models. We focus on effects of the slope L of nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density and the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy. We find that the variation of either the density slope L or the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy leads to large changes in the binding energy of neutron stars. The difference in predictions using the GR and the scalar-tensor theory appears only for massive neutron stars, and even then is significantly smaller than the difference resulting from variations in the symmetry energy.
Massive propagators in instanton fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, L.S.; Lee, C.
1978-01-01
Green's functions for massive spinor and vector particles propagating in a self-dual but otherwise arbitrary non-Abelian gauge field are shown to be completely determined by the corresponding Green's functions of massive scalar particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourget, Antoine [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’É cole Normale Supérieure, CNRS,PSL Research University, Sorbonne Universités, 75005 Paris (France)
2017-05-09
We discuss the permutation group G of massive vacua of four-dimensional gauge theories with N=1 supersymmetry that arises upon tracing loops in the space of couplings. We concentrate on superconformal N=4 and N=2 theories with N=1 supersymmetry preserving mass deformations. The permutation group G of massive vacua is the Galois group of characteristic polynomials for the vacuum expectation values of chiral observables. We provide various techniques to effectively compute characteristic polynomials in given theories, and we deduce the existence of varying symmetry breaking patterns of the duality group depending on the gauge algebra and matter content of the theory. Our examples give rise to interesting field extensions of spaces of modular forms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Humphreys, R.M.
1987-01-01
The relationship between the morphologic type of a galaxy and the evolution of its massive stars is explored, reviewing observational results for nearby galaxies. The data are presented in diagrams, and it is found that the massive-star populations of most Sc spiral galaxies and irregular galaxies are similar, while those of Sb spirals such as M 31 and M 81 may be affected by morphology (via differences in the initial mass function or star-formation rate). Consideration is also given to the stability-related upper luminosity limit in the H-R diagram of hypergiant stars (attributed to radiation pressure in hot stars and turbulence in cool stars) and the goals of future observation campaigns. 88 references
Effects of degeneracy and response function in a diffusion predator-prey model
Li, Shanbing; Wu, Jianhua; Dong, Yaying
2018-04-01
In this paper, we consider positive solutions of a diffusion predator-prey model with a degeneracy under the Dirichlet boundary conditions. We first obtain sufficient conditions of the existence of positive solutions by the Leray-Schauder degree theory, and then analyze the limiting behavior of positive solutions as the growth rate of the predator goes to infinity and the conversion rates of the predator goes to zero, respectively. It is shown that these results for Holling II response function (i.e. m > 0) reveal interesting contrast with that for the classical Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model (i.e. m = 0).
Perturbation theory with respect to intercenter electron exchange and superexchange with degeneracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orlenko, E.V.; Rumyantsev, A.A.
1990-01-01
The corrections to the energy and wave functions of a multielectron system of interacting atoms are calculated in a general analytic form by taking into account degeneracy of the states in accordance with the Young schemes. The rule for writing down the perturbation operator in such systems is formulated in the case when the ground and excited state vectors are antisymmetrized with respect to interchange of electrons between the centers. A secular equation of the theory is derived by applying perturbation theory, one of the parameters of which is the degree of overlap of the wave functions. Some concrete examples of interatomic interactions of an unpaired nature which are due to exchange and superexchange effects are considered
Spoken language achieves robustness and evolvability by exploiting degeneracy and neutrality.
Winter, Bodo
2014-10-01
As with biological systems, spoken languages are strikingly robust against perturbations. This paper shows that languages achieve robustness in a way that is highly similar to many biological systems. For example, speech sounds are encoded via multiple acoustically diverse, temporally distributed and functionally redundant cues, characteristics that bear similarities to what biologists call "degeneracy". Speech is furthermore adequately characterized by neutrality, with many different tongue configurations leading to similar acoustic outputs, and different acoustic variants understood as the same by recipients. This highlights the presence of a large neutral network of acoustic neighbors for every speech sound. Such neutrality ensures that a steady backdrop of variation can be maintained without impeding communication, assuring that there is "fodder" for subsequent evolution. Thus, studying linguistic robustness is not only important for understanding how linguistic systems maintain their functioning upon the background of noise, but also for understanding the preconditions for language evolution. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Sarfraz, M.; Farooq, H.; Abbas, G.; Noureen, S.; Iqbal, Z.; Rasheed, A.
2018-03-01
Thermal momentum space anisotropy is ubiquitous in many astrophysical and laboratory plasma environments. Using Vlasov-Maxwell's model equations, a generalized polarization tensor for a collisionless ultra-relativistic unmagnetized electron plasma is derived. In particular, the tensor is obtained by considering anisotropy in the momentum space. The integral of moments of Fermi-Dirac distribution function in terms of Polylog functions is used for describing the border line plasma systems (T/e TF e ≈1 ) comprising arbitrary electron degeneracy, where Te and TF e, are thermal and Fermi temperatures, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of variation in thermal momentum space anisotropy on the electron equilibrium number density and the spectrum of electromagnetic waves are analyzed.
Vacuum degeneracy and Conformal Mass in Lovelock AdS gravity
Arenas-Henriquez, Gabriel; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2017-11-01
It is shown that the notion of Conformal Mass can be defined within a given anti-de Sitter (AdS) branch of a Lovelock gravity theory as long as the corresponding vacuum is not degenerate. Indeed, conserved charges obtained by the addition of Kounterterms to the bulk action turn out to be proportional to the electric part of the Weyl tensor, when the fall-off of a generic solution in that AdS branch is considered. The factor of proportionality is the degeneracy condition for the vacua in the particular Lovelock AdS theory under study. This last feature explains the obstruction to define Conformal Mass in the degenerate case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tharindu Rekha Liyanagunawardena
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs are a new addition to the open educational provision. They are offered mainly by prestigious universities on various commercial and non-commercial MOOC platforms allowing anyone who is interested to experience the world class teaching practiced in these universities. MOOCs have attracted wide interest from around the world. However, learner demographics in MOOCs suggest that some demographic groups are underrepresented. At present MOOCs seem to be better serving the continuous professional development sector.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loore, C. de
1984-01-01
The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)
SU(2) symmetry and degeneracy from SUSY QM of a neutron in the magnetic field of a linear current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, D.; Granados, V.D.; Mota, R.D.
2006-01-01
From SUSY ladder operators in momentum space of a neutron in the magnetic field of a linear current, we construct 2x2 matrix operators that together with the z-component of the total angular momentum satisfy the su(2) Lie algebra. We use this fact to explain the degeneracy of the energy spectrum
OGLE-2017-BLG-0373Lb: A Jovian Mass-Ratio Planet Exposes A New Accidental Microlensing Degeneracy
Skowron, J.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Hwang, K.-H.; Udalski, A.; Mrǎłz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Szymański, P. K.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K.; Iwanek, P.; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Yee, J. C.; Zang, W.; Zhu, W.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.
2018-03-01
We report the discovery of microlensing planet OGLE-2017-BLG-0373Lb. We show that while the planet-host system has an unambiguous microlens topology, there are two geometries within this topology that fit the data equally well, which leads to a factor 2.5 difference in planet-host mass ratio, i.e., q=1.5×10-3 vs. q=0.6×10-3. We show that this is an "accidental degeneracy" in the sense that it is due to a gap in the data. We dub it "the caustic-chirality degeneracy". We trace the mathematical origins of this degeneracy, which should enable similar degenerate solutions to be easily located in the future. A Bayesian estimate, based on a Galactic model, yields a host mass M=0.25+0.30-0.15 M⊙ at a distance DL=5.9+1.3-1.95 kpc. The lens-source relative proper motion is relatively fast, μ=9 mas/yr, which implies that the host mass and distance can be determined by high-resolution imaging after about 10 years. The same observations could in principle resolve the discrete degeneracy in q, but this will be more challenging.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)
2016-07-14
Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as A{sub g}{sup 2} and B{sub 2u}, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B{sub 2u} and A{sub g}{sup 2} modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B{sub 2u}-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.
Introduction to massive neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayser, B.
1984-01-01
We discuss the theoretical ideas which make it natural to expect that neutrinos do indeed have mass. Then we focus on the physical consequences of neutrino mass, including neutrino oscillation and other phenomena whose observation would be very interesting, and would serve to demonstrate that neutrinos are indeed massive. We comment on the legitimacy of comparing results from different types of experiments. Finally, we consider the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. We explain what this question means, discuss the nature of a neutrino which is its own antiparticles, and consider how one might determine experimentally whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles or not
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Blumrich, M; Chen, D; Gara, A; Giampap, M; Heidelberger, P; Salapura, V; Sexton, J; Bhanot, G
2007-01-01
The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), can be numerically simulated from first principles on massively-parallel supercomputers using the method of Lattice Gauge Theory. We describe the special programming requirements of lattice QCD (LQCD) as well as the optimal supercomputer hardware architectures that it suggests. We demonstrate these methods on the BlueGene massively-parallel supercomputer and argue that LQCD and the BlueGene architecture are a natural match. This can be traced to the simple fact that LQCD is a regular lattice discretization of space into lattice sites while the BlueGene supercomputer is a discretization of space into compute nodes, and that both are constrained by requirements of locality. This simple relation is both technologically important and theoretically intriguing. The main result of this paper is the speedup of LQCD using up to 131,072 CPUs on the largest BlueGene/L supercomputer. The speedup is perfect with sustained performance of about 20% of peak. This corresponds to a maximum of 70.5 sustained TFlop/s. At these speeds LQCD and BlueGene are poised to produce the next generation of strong interaction physics theoretical results
Dubovsky, S L
2004-01-01
We systematically study the most general Lorentz-violating graviton mass invariant under three-dimensional Eucledian group using the explicitly covariant language. We find that at general values of mass parameters the massive graviton has six propagating degrees of freedom, and some of them are ghosts or lead to rapid classical instabilities. However, there is a number of different regions in the mass parameter space where massive gravity can be described by a consistent low-energy effective theory with cutoff $\\sim\\sqrt{mM_{Pl}}$ free of rapid instabilities and vDVZ discontinuity. Each of these regions is characterized by certain fine-tuning relations between mass parameters, generalizing the Fierz--Pauli condition. In some cases the required fine-tunings are consequences of the existence of the subgroups of the diffeomorphism group that are left unbroken by the graviton mass. We found two new cases, when the resulting theories have a property of UV insensitivity, i.e. remain well behaved after inclusion of ...
Sarron, F.; Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.
2018-06-01
Obtaining large samples of galaxy clusters is important for cosmology: cluster counts as a function of redshift and mass can constrain the parameters of our Universe. They are also useful in order to understand the formation and evolution of clusters. We develop an improved version of the Adami & MAzure Cluster FInder (AMACFI), now the Adami, MAzure & Sarron Cluster FInder (AMASCFI), and apply it to the 154 deg2 of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) to obtain a large catalogue of 1371 cluster candidates with mass M200 > 1014 M⊙ and redshift z ≤ 0.7. We derive the selection function of the algorithm from the Millennium simulation, and cluster masses from a richness-mass scaling relation built from matching our candidates with X-ray detections. We study the evolution of these clusters with mass and redshift by computing the i'-band galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) for the early-type (ETGs) and late-type galaxies (LTGs). This sample is 90% pure and 70% complete, and therefore our results are representative of a large fraction of the cluster population in these redshift and mass ranges. We find an increase in both the ETG and LTG faint populations with decreasing redshift (with Schechter slopes αETG = -0.65 ± 0.03 and αLTG = -0.95 ± 0.04 at z = 0.6, and αETG = -0.79 ± 0.02 and αLTG = -1.26 ± 0.03 at z = 0.2) and also a decrease in the LTG (but not the ETG) bright end. Our large sample allows us to break the degeneracy between mass and redshift, finding that the redshift evolution is more pronounced in high-mass clusters, but that there is no significant dependence of the faint end on mass for a given redshift. These results show that the cluster red sequence is mainly formed at redshift z > 0.7, and that faint ETGs continue to enrich the red sequence through quenching of brighter LTGs at z ≤ 0.7. The efficiency of this quenching is higher in large-mass clusters, while the accretion rate of faint LTGs is lower as the more massive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoeff, Eric; Merbis, Wout; Hohm, Olaf; Routh, Alasdair J; Townsend, Paul K
2014-01-01
We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same ‘minimal’ bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new ‘minimal massive gravity’ has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marquette, Ian
2015-01-01
Four new families of two-dimensional quantum superintegrable systems are constructed from k-step extension of the harmonic oscillator and the radial oscillator. Their wavefunctions are related with Hermite and Laguerre exceptional orthogonal polynomials (EOP) of type III. We show that ladder operators obtained from alternative construction based on combinations of supercharges in the Krein-Adler and Darboux Crum (or state deleting and creating) approaches can be used to generate a set of integrals of motion and a corresponding polynomial algebra that provides an algebraic derivation of the full spectrum and total number of degeneracies. Such derivation is based on finite dimensional unitary representations (unirreps) and doesn't work for integrals build from standard ladder operators in supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) as they contain singlets isolated from excited states. In this paper, we also rely on a novel approach to obtain the finite dimensional unirreps based on the action of the integrals of motion on the wavefunctions given in terms of these EOP. We compare the results with those obtained from the Daskaloyannis approach and the realizations in terms of deformed oscillator algebras for one of the new families in the case of 1-step extension. This communication is a review of recent works. (paper)
Delagrange, R.; Weil, R.; Kasumov, A.; Ferrier, M.; Bouchiat, H.; Deblock, R.
2018-05-01
In a quantum dot hybrid superconducting junction, the behavior of the supercurrent is dominated by Coulomb blockade physics, which determines the magnetic state of the dot. In particular, in a single level quantum dot singly occupied, the sign of the supercurrent can be reversed, giving rise to a π-junction. This 0 - π transition, corresponding to a singlet-doublet transition, is then driven by the gate voltage or by the superconducting phase in the case of strong competition between the superconducting proximity effect and Kondo correlations. In a two-level quantum dot, such as a clean carbon nanotube, 0- π transitions exist as well but, because more cotunneling processes are allowed, are not necessarily associated to a magnetic state transition of the dot. In this proceeding, after a review of 0- π transitions in Josephson junctions, we present measurements of current-phase relation in a clean carbon nanotube quantum dot, in the single and two-level regimes. In the single level regime, close to orbital degeneracy and in a regime of strong competition between local electronic correlations and superconducting proximity effect, we find that the phase diagram of the phase-dependent transition is a universal characteristic of a discontinuous level-crossing quantum transition at zero temperature. In the case where the two levels are involved, the nanotube Josephson current exhibits a continuous 0 - π transition, independent of the superconducting phase, revealing a different physical mechanism of the transition.
Near-degeneracy in Excited Vibrational States of 207PbF
Mawhorter, Richard; Nguyen, Alexander; Kim, Yongrak; Biekert, Andreas; Sears, Trevor; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Kudashov, A. D.; Skripnikov, L. V.; Titov, A. V.; Petrov, A. N.
2017-04-01
High-resolution Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy studies of 207PbF have demonstrated the near-degeneracy of two levels of opposite parity. These have attracted attention for the study of parity violation effects and the variation of fundamental constants using 207PbF. Further theoretical work has improved our detailed understanding of both 207PbF and 208PbF, and furthermore recently indicated that the finely split +/- parity levels grow monotonically closer for higher vibrational states. Our experimental results for v = 0-3 confirm this, and are in excellent agreement with our extended theoretical calculations up to v = 4; both will be presented. TJS acknowledges support from Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences within the Office of Basic Energy Sciences., as do RM, AB, YK, & AN from Pomona College & J-UG from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
Linear and nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in nonrelativistic quantum plasmas with arbitrary degeneracy
Haas, Fernando; Mahmood, Shahzad
2015-11-01
Linear and nonlinear ion-acoustic waves are studied in a fluid model for nonrelativistic, unmagnetized quantum plasma with electrons with an arbitrary degeneracy degree. The equation of state for electrons follows from a local Fermi-Dirac distribution function and applies equally well both to fully degenerate and classical, nondegenerate limits. Ions are assumed to be cold. Quantum diffraction effects through the Bohm potential are also taken into account. A general coupling parameter valid for dilute and dense plasmas is proposed. The linear dispersion relation of the ion-acoustic waves is obtained and the ion-acoustic speed is discussed for the limiting cases of extremely dense or dilute systems. In the long-wavelength limit, the results agree with quantum kinetic theory. Using the reductive perturbation method, the appropriate Korteweg-de Vries equation for weakly nonlinear solutions is obtained and the corresponding soliton propagation is analyzed. It is found that soliton hump and dip structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter for the degenerate electrons, which affect the phase velocities in the dispersive medium.
Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia; Kang, Woun
2015-03-01
A double peak structure in the magnetophonon resonance (MPR) spectrum of uniaxial strained graphene, under crossed electric and magnetic fields, is predicted. We focus on the Γ point optical phonon modes coupled to the inter-Landau level transitions 0 ⇆±1 where MPR is expected to be more pronounced at high magnetic field. We derive the frequency shifts and the broadenings of the longitudinal and transverse optical phonon modes taking into account the effect of the strain modified electronic spectrum on the electron-phonon coupling. We show that the MPR line for a given phonon mode acquires a double peak structure originating from the twofold valley degeneracy lifting. The latter is due to the different Landau level spacings in the two Dirac valleys resulting from the simultaneous action of the inplane electric field and the strain-induced Dirac cone tilt. We discuss the role of some key parameters such as disorder, strain, doping, and electric field amplitude on the emergence of the double peak structure.
Massively parallel multicanonical simulations
Gross, Jonathan; Zierenberg, Johannes; Weigel, Martin; Janke, Wolfhard
2018-03-01
Generalized-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations such as the multicanonical method and similar techniques are among the most efficient approaches for simulations of systems undergoing discontinuous phase transitions or with rugged free-energy landscapes. As Markov chain methods, they are inherently serial computationally. It was demonstrated recently, however, that a combination of independent simulations that communicate weight updates at variable intervals allows for the efficient utilization of parallel computational resources for multicanonical simulations. Implementing this approach for the many-thread architecture provided by current generations of graphics processing units (GPUs), we show how it can be efficiently employed with of the order of 104 parallel walkers and beyond, thus constituting a versatile tool for Monte Carlo simulations in the era of massively parallel computing. We provide the fully documented source code for the approach applied to the paradigmatic example of the two-dimensional Ising model as starting point and reference for practitioners in the field.
Massive Galileon positivity bounds
de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2017-09-01
The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.
Massively parallel mathematical sieves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montry, G.R.
1989-01-01
The Sieve of Eratosthenes is a well-known algorithm for finding all prime numbers in a given subset of integers. A parallel version of the Sieve is described that produces computational speedups over 800 on a hypercube with 1,024 processing elements for problems of fixed size. Computational speedups as high as 980 are achieved when the problem size per processor is fixed. The method of parallelization generalizes to other sieves and will be efficient on any ensemble architecture. We investigate two highly parallel sieves using scattered decomposition and compare their performance on a hypercube multiprocessor. A comparison of different parallelization techniques for the sieve illustrates the trade-offs necessary in the design and implementation of massively parallel algorithms for large ensemble computers.
Clima, cerebro y degeneración en Cabanis Climate, brain, and degeneration in Cabanis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Caponi
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Son analizados los argumentos defendidos por Cabanis en el Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, tomando como punto de partida las Memorias Octava y Novena. Estas Memorias, dedicadas a analizar las influencias del régimen y del clima, permiten leer de otro modo los argumentos utilizados por Cabanis para explicar la relación entre las características físicas y los hábitos morales de individuos y razas. Son analizadas las deudas con la historia natural, particularmente con la teoría de la degeneración de Buffon; con la tradición médica hipocrática, fundamentalmente con la teoría de los humores, y con los estudios de anatomía y patología cerebral. Finalmente, examinamos el papel que la medicina y la higiene, pensadas como ciencias humanas y morales, poseen en los proyetos de la regeneración de la especie humana.This analysis of the arguments defended by Cabanis in Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme takes as its point of departure his eighth and ninth Memoirs, which focus on analyzing the influences of regime and climate. These writings afford a new reading of the arguments Cabanis used to explain the relation between the physical traits and moral habits of individuals and races. The article analyzes his debts to natural history, especially Buffon's theory of degeneration; to the Hippocratic tradition, above all the humor theory; and to studies of brain anatomy and pathology. Lastly, it examines the role that the human and moral sciences of medicine and hygiene play in the regeneration of the human species.
The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters
Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2017-01-01
Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is
Massive gravity from bimetric gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt
2013-01-01
We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)
Holographically viable extensions of topologically massive and minimal massive gravity?
Altas, Emel; Tekin, Bayram
2016-01-01
Recently [E. Bergshoeff et al., Classical Quantum Gravity 31, 145008 (2014)], an extension of the topologically massive gravity (TMG) in 2 +1 dimensions, dubbed as minimal massive gravity (MMG), which is free of the bulk-boundary unitarity clash that inflicts the former theory and all the other known three-dimensional theories, was found. Field equations of MMG differ from those of TMG at quadratic terms in the curvature that do not come from the variation of an action depending on the metric alone. Here we show that MMG is a unique theory and there does not exist a deformation of TMG or MMG at the cubic and quartic order (and beyond) in the curvature that is consistent at the level of the field equations. The only extension of TMG with the desired bulk and boundary properties having a single massive degree of freedom is MMG.
Massive Submucosal Ganglia in Colonic Inertia.
Naemi, Kaveh; Stamos, Michael J; Wu, Mark Li-Cheng
2018-02-01
- Colonic inertia is a debilitating form of primary chronic constipation with unknown etiology and diagnostic criteria, often requiring pancolectomy. We have occasionally observed massively enlarged submucosal ganglia containing at least 20 perikarya, in addition to previously described giant ganglia with greater than 8 perikarya, in cases of colonic inertia. These massively enlarged ganglia have yet to be formally recognized. - To determine whether such "massive submucosal ganglia," defined as ganglia harboring at least 20 perikarya, characterize colonic inertia. - We retrospectively reviewed specimens from colectomies of patients with colonic inertia and compared the prevalence of massive submucosal ganglia occurring in this setting to the prevalence of massive submucosal ganglia occurring in a set of control specimens from patients lacking chronic constipation. - Seven of 8 specimens affected by colonic inertia harbored 1 to 4 massive ganglia, for a total of 11 massive ganglia. One specimen lacked massive ganglia but had limited sampling and nearly massive ganglia. Massive ganglia occupied both superficial and deep submucosal plexus. The patient with 4 massive ganglia also had 1 mitotically active giant ganglion. Only 1 massive ganglion occupied the entire set of 10 specimens from patients lacking chronic constipation. - We performed the first, albeit distinctly small, study of massive submucosal ganglia and showed that massive ganglia may be linked to colonic inertia. Further, larger studies are necessary to determine whether massive ganglia are pathogenetic or secondary phenomena, and whether massive ganglia or mitotically active ganglia distinguish colonic inertia from other types of chronic constipation.
Degeneración cerebelosa subaguda paraneoplásica: caso clínico
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalia Castañeda Curto
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Introducción y objetivo: La degeneración cerebelosa paraneoplásica (DCP es un síndrome poco frecuente y de difícil diagnóstico. Suele presentarse meses o años antes de la aparición de una neoplasia y, menos frecuentemente, ocurre en pacientes con una neoplasia conocida o como forma de recidiva. Nuestro objetivo es describir un caso clínico diagnosticado en nuestra comunidad.Material y Método: Mujer de 49 años, exfumadora de 23 paq/año que a principios de año acude a Urgencias por inestabilidad progresiva estando previamente asintomática, por lo que es derivada a Neurología y Otorrinolaringología.Resultados: En la exploración ORL presenta otoscopia y audiometría normales. Nistagmo de dirección cambiante. VVOR: ojos de muñeca V-HIT con ganancias normales, no sacadas de refijación.Tras la realización de pruebas complementarias se objetiva un nódulo pulmonar de 9mm y conglomerado adenopatico mediastínico. Ante la sospecha de neoplasia se realiza biopsia transbronquial con resultado de carcinoma microcítico. En inmunología se detectaron anti CV2 positivo, estableciéndose el diagnóstico de ataxia cerebelosa subaguda paraneoplásica.Conclusiones: La evolución de este síndrome provoca pérdida neuronal irreversible siendo, por tanto, el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento fundamentales en el pronóstico. Introduction and objective: Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a rare syndrome and it is difficult to diagnose. It usually appears months or years before the onset of a malignant neoplasm and, less frequently, occurs in patients with a known neoplasm or as a form of recurrence. Our objective is to describe a clinical case diagnosed in our community.Material and Method: A 49-year-old woman, an ex-smoker of 23 pack/year who, at the beginning of the year, went to the Emergency Department due to progressive instability. She was previously asymptomatic and was referred to Neurology and Otolaryngology.Results: In the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.; Pati, J.C.
1997-12-01
Recently a promising mechanism for supersymmetry breaking that utilizes both an anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry and an effective mass term m ∼ 1TeV of certain relevant fields has been proposed. In this paper we examine whether such a mechanism can emerge in superstring derived free fermionic models. We observe that certain three generation string solutions, though not all, lead to an anomalous U(1) which couples universally to all three families. The advantages of this three-family universality of U(1) A , compared to the two-family case, proposed in earlier works, in yielding squark degeneracy, while avoiding radiative breaking of color and charge, are noted. The root cause of the flavor universality of U(1) A is the cyclic permutation symmetry that characterizes the Z 2 x Z 2 orbifold compactification with standard embedding, realized in the free fermionic models by the NAHE set. It is shown that nonrenormalizable terms which contain hidden-sector condensates, generate the required suppression of the relevant mass term m, compared to the Planck scale. While the D-term of the family universal U(1) A leads to squark degeneracy, those of the family dependent U(1)'s, remarkably enough, are found to vanish for the solutions considered, owing to minimization of the potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.
2008-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of target electron collisions on proton energy loss straggling in plasmas at any degeneracy. Targets are considered fully ionized so electronic energy loss is only due to the free electrons. The analysis is focused on targets with electronic density around solid values n e ≅10 23 cm -3 and with temperature around T≅10 eV; these targets are in the limit of weakly coupled electron gases. These types of plasma targets have not been studied extensively, though they are very important for inertial confinement fusion. The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum-mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Then electron collisions in the exact quantum-mechanical straggling calculation are considered. Now the energy loss straggling is enhanced for energies smaller than the energy before the maximum, then decreases around this maximum, and finally tends to the same values with respect to noncollisional calculation. Differences with the same results but not taking into account these collisions are as far as 17% in the cases analyzed. As an example, proton range distributions have been calculated to show the importance of an accurate energy straggling calculation
Key Technologies in Massive MIMO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu Qiang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The explosive growth of wireless data traffic in the future fifth generation mobile communication system (5G has led researchers to develop new disruptive technologies. As an extension of traditional MIMO technology, massive MIMO can greatly improve the throughput rate and energy efficiency, and can effectively improve the link reliability and data transmission rate, which is an important research direction of 5G wireless communication. Massive MIMO technology is nearly three years to get a new technology of rapid development and it through a lot of increasing the number of antenna communication, using very duplex communication mode, make the system spectrum efficiency to an unprecedented height.
Hunting for a massive neutrino
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108802
1997-01-01
A great effort is devoted by many groups of physicists all over the world to give an answer to the following question: Is the neutrino massive ? This question has profound implications with particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology, in relation to the so-called Dark Matter puzzle. The neutrino oscillation process, in particular, can only occur if the neutrino is massive. An overview of the neutrino mass measurements, of the oscillation formalism and experiments will be given, also in connection with the present experimental programme at CERN with the two experiments CHORUS and NOMAD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, N.
1983-01-01
The effective potential V(phi) of a scalar field theory coupled to fermions is undefined near phi = 0 if the scalar field has a spontaneously broken symmetry. This shows up in a loop expansion as an imaginary part in V(phi) which persists to all temperatures and densities, even when the symmetry is restored. This paper presents a modification of the loop expansion which yields a real V(phi) whenever the one-loop fermion corrections restore the symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pawlak, M. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Lee, C.-U.; Gould, A.; Chung, S.-J.; Kim, S.-L.; Cha, S.-M. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello”, Uńiversitá di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Albrow, M. D. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand); Jung, Y. K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; KMTNet Collaboration; and others
2016-08-10
In this paper, we demonstrate the severity of the degeneracy between the microlens-parallax and lens-orbital effects by presenting the analysis of the gravitational binary-lens event OGLE-2015-BLG-0768. Despite the obvious deviation from the model based on the linear observer motion and the static binary, it is found that the residual can be almost equally well explained by either the parallactic motion of the Earth or the rotation of the binary-lens axis, resulting in the severe degeneracy between the two effects. We show that the degeneracy can be readily resolved with the additional data provided by space-based microlens parallax observations. By enabling us to distinguish between the two higher-order effects, space-based microlens parallax observations will not only make it possible to accurately determine the physical lens parameters but also to further constrain the orbital parameters of binary lenses.
Massive Neurofibroma of the Breast
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Valued eMachines Customer
Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumors that are extremely rare in the breast. We report a massive ... plexiform breast neurofibromas may transform into a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor1. We present a case .... Breast neurofibroma. http://www.breast-cancer.ca/type/breast-neurofibroma.htm. August 2011. 2.
Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...
Topologically Massive Higher Spin Gravity
Bagchi, A.; Lal, S.; Saha, A.; Sahoo, B.
2011-01-01
We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the
Supernovae from massive AGB stars
Poelarends, A.J.T.; Izzard, R.G.; Herwig, F.; Langer, N.; Heger, A.
2006-01-01
We present new computations of the final fate of massive AGB-stars. These stars form ONeMg cores after a phase of carbon burning and are called Super AGB stars (SAGB). Detailed stellar evolutionary models until the thermally pulsing AGB were computed using three di erent stellar evolution codes. The
Massively parallel quantum computer simulator
De Raedt, K.; Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Trieu, B.; Arnold, G.; Richter, M.; Lippert, Th.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, N.
2007-01-01
We describe portable software to simulate universal quantum computers on massive parallel Computers. We illustrate the use of the simulation software by running various quantum algorithms on different computer architectures, such as a IBM BlueGene/L, a IBM Regatta p690+, a Hitachi SR11000/J1, a Cray
Delgado Melendro, Carlos
2014-01-01
La Degeneración macular asociada a la edad (DMAE), se define como una enfermedad degenerativa que cursa con alteraciones del epitelio pigmentario de la retina (EPR), la membrana de Bruch y la coriocapilaris. Las anomalías en el EPR provoca una degeneración del mismo y de los fotoreceptores de la retina central o área macular causando una pérdida de la visión central irreversible (Chen et al., 2010). La etapa inicial de la enfermedad se caracteriza por la presencia de drusas constituidas po...
Massive lepton pair production in massive quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raychaudhuri, P.
1976-01-01
The pp → l + +l - +x inclusive interaction has been studied at high energies in terms of the massive quantum electrodynamics. The differential cross-section (dsigma/dQ 2 ) is derived and proves to be proportional to Q -4 , where Q-mass of the lepton pair. Basic features of the cross-section are demonstrated to be consistent with the Drell-Yan model
MassiveNuS: cosmological massive neutrino simulations
Liu, Jia; Bird, Simeon; Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Hill, J. Colin; Haiman, Zoltán; Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Petri, Andrea; Spergel, David N.
2018-03-01
The non-zero mass of neutrinos suppresses the growth of cosmic structure on small scales. Since the level of suppression depends on the sum of the masses of the three active neutrino species, the evolution of large-scale structure is a promising tool to constrain the total mass of neutrinos and possibly shed light on the mass hierarchy. In this work, we investigate these effects via a large suite of N-body simulations that include massive neutrinos using an analytic linear-response approximation: the Cosmological Massive Neutrino Simulations (MassiveNuS). The simulations include the effects of radiation on the background expansion, as well as the clustering of neutrinos in response to the nonlinear dark matter evolution. We allow three cosmological parameters to vary: the neutrino mass sum Mν in the range of 0–0.6 eV, the total matter density Ωm, and the primordial power spectrum amplitude As. The rms density fluctuation in spheres of 8 comoving Mpc/h (σ8) is a derived parameter as a result. Our data products include N-body snapshots, halo catalogues, merger trees, ray-traced galaxy lensing convergence maps for four source redshift planes between zs=1–2.5, and ray-traced cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps. We describe the simulation procedures and code validation in this paper. The data are publicly available at http://columbialensing.org.
Spacetime structure of massive Majorana particles and massive gravitino
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahluwalia, D.V.; Kirchbach, M. [Theoretical Physics Group, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 600, 98062 Zacatecas (Mexico)
2003-07-01
The profound difference between Dirac and Majorana particles is traced back to the possibility of having physically different constructs in the (1/2, 0) 0 (0,1/2) representation space. Contrary to Dirac particles, Majorana-particle propagators are shown to differ from the simple linear {gamma} {mu} p{sub {mu}}, structure. Furthermore, neither Majorana particles, nor their antiparticles can be associated with a well defined arrow of time. The inevitable consequence of this peculiarity is the particle-antiparticle metamorphosis giving rise to neutrinoless double beta decay, on the one side, and enabling spin-1/2 fields to act as gauge fields, gauginos, on the other side. The second part of the lecture notes is devoted to massive gravitino. We argue that a spin measurement in the rest frame for an unpolarized ensemble of massive gravitino, associated with the spinor-vector [(1/2, 0) 0 (0,1/2)] 0 (1/2,1/2) representation space, would yield the results 3/2 with probability one half, and 1/2 with probability one half. The latter is distributed uniformly, i.e. as 1/4, among the two spin-1/2+ and spin-1/2- states of opposite parities. From that we draw the conclusion that the massive gravitino should be interpreted as a particle of multiple spin. (Author)
Emil Kraepelin y el problema de la degeneración Emil Kraepelin and the problem of degeneration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Caponi
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Al mismo tiempo que Kraepelin estableció las bases de lo que hoy entendemos por psiquiatría, mantuvo la ambición de los higienistas del siglo XIX de pensar los problemas sociales con categorías médicas. Privilegiando el texto que Kraepelin dedica a la degeneración, se analizan las deudas entre la metodología de investigación de enfermedades psiquiátricas por él iniciada y la teoría de la degeneración de Morel. Se analiza la preocupación de Kraepelin por establecer una clasificación de las patologías mentales tan bien fundada como las clasificaciones de patologías biológicas, el uso de las estadísticas comparativas y las explicaciones dadas a la herencia mórbida.When Kraepelin laid the foundations of what we now understand as psychiatry, he was faithful to the nineteenth-century hygienist's penchant for approaching social problems in terms of medical categories. With Kraepelin's writings on the issue of degeneration as a backdrop, the article analyzes how the methodology he introduced for researching psychiatric illnesses is indebted to Morel's theory of degeneration. The article explores not only Kraepelin's concern with defining a classification of mental pathologies just as well grounded as the classifications of biological pathologies, but also his use of comparative statistics and his explanations of morbid heredity.
The mass-sheet degeneracy and time-delay cosmography: analysis of the strong lens RXJ1131-1231
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre
2016-01-01
We present extended modelling of the strong lens system RXJ1131-1231 with archival data in two HST bands in combination with existing line-of-sight contribution and velocity dispersion estimates. Our focus is on source size and its influence on time-delay cosmography. We therefore examine the impact of mass-sheet degeneracy and especially the degeneracy pointed out by Schneider and Sluse (2013) [1] using the source reconstruction scale. We also extend on previous work by further exploring the effects of priors on the kinematics of the lens and the external convergence in the environment of the lensing system. Our results coming from RXJ1131-1231 are given in a simple analytic form so that they can be easily combined with constraints coming from other cosmological probes. We find that the choice of priors on lens model parameters and source size are subdominant for the statistical errors for H 0 measurements of this systems. The choice of prior for the source is sub-dominant at present (2% uncertainty on H 0 ) but may be relevant for future studies. More importantly, we find that the priors on the kinematic anisotropy of the lens galaxy have a significant impact on our cosmological inference. When incorporating all the above modeling uncertainties, we find H 0 = 86.6 +6.8 -6.9 km s -1 Mpc -1 , when using kinematic priors similar to other studies. When we use a different kinematic prior motivated by Barnabè et al. (2012) [2] but covering the same anisotropic range, we find H 0 = 74.5 +8.0 -7.8 km s -1 Mpc -1 . This means that the choice of kinematic modeling and priors have a significant impact on cosmographic inferences. The way forward is either to get better velocity dispersion measures which would down weight the impact of the priors or to construct physically motivated priors for the velocity dispersion model.
Minimal theory of massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-01-01
We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than) −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.
Spin-3 topologically massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Bin, E-mail: bchen01@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Long Jiang, E-mail: longjiang0301@gmail.com [Department of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu Junbao, E-mail: wujb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)
2011-11-24
In this Letter, we study the spin-3 topologically massive gravity (TMG), paying special attention to its properties at the chiral point. We propose an action describing the higher spin fields coupled to TMG. We discuss the traceless spin-3 fluctuations around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum and find that there is an extra local massive mode, besides the left-moving and right-moving boundary massless modes. At the chiral point, such extra mode becomes massless and degenerates with the left-moving mode. We show that at the chiral point the only degrees of freedom in the theory are the boundary right-moving graviton and spin-3 field. We conjecture that spin-3 chiral gravity with generalized Brown-Henneaux boundary condition is holographically dual to 2D chiral CFT with classical W{sub 3} algebra and central charge c{sub R}=3l/G.
Minimal theory of massive gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio De Felice
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.
Search of massive star formation with COMICS
Okamoto, Yoshiko K.
2004-04-01
Mid-infrared observations is useful for studies of massive star formation. Especially COMICS offers powerful tools: imaging survey of the circumstellar structures of forming massive stars such as massive disks and cavity structures, mass estimate from spectroscopy of fine structure lines, and high dispersion spectroscopy to census gas motion around formed stars. COMICS will open the next generation infrared studies of massive star formation.
The physics of massive neutrinos
Kayser, Boris; Perrier, Frederic
1989-01-01
This book explains the physics and phenomenology of massive neutrinos. The authors argue that neutrino mass is not unlikely and consider briefly the search for evidence of this mass in decay processes before they examine the physics and phenomenology of neutrino oscillation. The physics of Majorana neutrinos (neutrinos which are their own antiparticles) is then discussed. This volume requires of the reader only a knowledge of quantum mechanics and of very elementary quantum field theory.
Vaidya spacetime in massive gravity's rainbow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaghoub Heydarzade
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze the energy dependent deformation of massive gravity using the formalism of massive gravity's rainbow. So, we will use the Vainshtein mechanism and the dRGT mechanism for the energy dependent massive gravity, and thus analyze a ghost free theory of massive gravity's rainbow. We study the energy dependence of a time-dependent geometry, by analyzing the radiating Vaidya solution in this theory of massive gravity's rainbow. The energy dependent deformation of this Vaidya metric will be performed using suitable rainbow functions.
STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF MASSIVE ICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yurij K. Vasil’chuk
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper summarises stable-isotope research on massive ice in the Russian and North American Arctic, and includes the latest understanding of massive-ice formation. A new classification of massive-ice complexes is proposed, encompassing the range and variabilityof massive ice. It distinguishes two new categories of massive-ice complexes: homogeneousmassive-ice complexes have a similar structure, properties and genesis throughout, whereasheterogeneous massive-ice complexes vary spatially (in their structure and properties andgenetically within a locality and consist of two or more homogeneous massive-ice bodies.Analysis of pollen and spores in massive ice from Subarctic regions and from ice and snow cover of Arctic ice caps assists with interpretation of the origin of massive ice. Radiocarbon ages of massive ice and host sediments are considered together with isotope values of heavy oxygen and deuterium from massive ice plotted at a uniform scale in order to assist interpretation and correlation of the ice.
Spacetime structure of massive Majorana particles and massive gravitino
Ahluwalia, D V
2003-01-01
The profound difference between Dirac and Majorana particles is traced back to the possibility of having physically different constructs in the (1/2, 0) 0 (0,1/2) representation space. Contrary to Dirac particles, Majorana-particle propagators are shown to differ from the simple linear gamma mu p submu, structure. Furthermore, neither Majorana particles, nor their antiparticles can be associated with a well defined arrow of time. The inevitable consequence of this peculiarity is the particle-antiparticle metamorphosis giving rise to neutrinoless double beta decay, on the one side, and enabling spin-1/2 fields to act as gauge fields, gauginos, on the other side. The second part of the lecture notes is devoted to massive gravitino. We argue that a spin measurement in the rest frame for an unpolarized ensemble of massive gravitino, associated with the spinor-vector [(1/2, 0) 0 (0,1/2)] 0 (1/2,1/2) representation space, would yield the results 3/2 with probability one half, and 1/2 with probability one half. The ...
The evolution of massive stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loore, C. de
1980-01-01
The evolution of stars with masses between 15 M 0 and 100 M 0 is considered. Stars in this mass range lose a considerable fraction of their matter during their evolution. The treatment of convection, semi-convection and the influence of mass loss by stellar winds at different evolutionary phases are analysed as well as the adopted opacities. Evolutionary sequences computed by various groups are examined and compared with observations, and the advanced evolution of a 15 M 0 and a 25 M 0 star from zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) through iron collapse is discussed. The effect of centrifugal forces on stellar wind mass loss and the influence of rotation on evolutionary models is examined. As a consequence of the outflow of matter deeper layers show up and when the mass loss rates are large enough layers with changed composition, due to interior nuclear reactions, appear on the surface. The evolution of massive close binaries as well during the phase of mass loss by stellar wind as during the mass exchange and mass loss phase due to Roche lobe overflow is treated in detail, and the value of the parameters governing mass and angular momentum losses are discussed. The problem of the Wolf-Rayet stars, their origin and the possibilities of their production either as single stars or as massive binaries is examined. Finally, the origin of X-ray binaries is discussed and the scenario for the formation of these objects (starting from massive ZAMS close binaries, through Wolf-Rayet binaries leading to OB-stars with a compact companion after a supernova explosion) is reviewed and completed, including stellar wind mass loss. (orig.)
Massive stars, successes and challenges
Meynet, Georges; Maeder, André; Georgy, Cyril; Ekström, Sylvia; Eggenberger, Patrick; Barblan, Fabio; Song, Han Feng
2017-01-01
We give a brief overview of where we stand with respect to some old and new questions bearing on how massive stars evolve and end their lifetime. We focus on the following key points that are further discussed by other contributions during this conference: convection, mass losses, rotation, magnetic field and multiplicity. For purpose of clarity, each of these processes are discussed on its own but we have to keep in mind that they are all interacting between them offering a large variety of ...
Massive stars, successes and challenges
Meynet, Georges; Maeder, André; Georgy, Cyril; Ekström, Sylvia; Eggenberger, Patrick; Barblan, Fabio; Song, Han Feng
2017-11-01
We give a brief overview of where we stand with respect to some old and new questions bearing on how massive stars evolve and end their lifetime. We focus on the following key points that are further discussed by other contributions during this conference: convection, mass losses, rotation, magnetic field and multiplicity. For purpose of clarity, each of these processes are discussed on its own but we have to keep in mind that they are all interacting between them offering a large variety of outputs, some of them still to be discovered.
Solid holography and massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Pujolàs, Oriol
2016-01-01
Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric response. We show that the types of response that can be consistently described within this framework is much wider than what is captured by the narrow class of models mostly considered so far.
Solid holography and massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Khmelnitsky, Andrei [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)
2016-02-17
Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric response. We show that the types of response that can be consistently described within this framework is much wider than what is captured by the narrow class of models mostly considered so far.
Calchi Novati, S.; Skowron, J.; Jung, Y. K.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Soszyński, I.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K.; Iwanek, P.; OGLE Collaboration; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Hwang, K.-H.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Zang, W.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; KMTNet Collaboration
2018-06-01
We analyze the combined Spitzer and ground-based data for OGLE-2017-BLG-1140 and show that the event was generated by a Jupiter-class ({m}p≃ 1.6 {M}{{J}{{u}}{{p}}}) planet orbiting a mid-late M dwarf (M≃ 0.2 {M}ȯ ) that lies {D}LS}≃ 1.0 {kpc} in the foreground of the microlensed Galactic-bar source star. The planet–host projected separation is {a}\\perp ≃ 1.0 {au}, i.e., well beyond the snow line. By measuring the source proper motion {{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}s from ongoing long-term OGLE imaging and combining this with the lens-source relative proper motion {{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}rel} derived from the microlensing solution, we show that the lens proper motion {{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}l={{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}rel}+{{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}s is consistent with the lens lying in the Galactic disk, although a bulge lens is not ruled out. We show that while the Spitzer and ground-based data are comparably well fitted by planetary (i.e., binary-lens (2L1S)) and binary-source (1L2S) models, the combination of Spitzer and ground-based data decisively favors the planetary model. This is a new channel to resolve the 2L1S/1L2S degeneracy, which can be difficult to break in some cases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levy, Mel, E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Anderson, James S. M.; Zadeh, Farnaz Heidar; Ayers, Paul W., E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)
2014-05-14
Properties of exact density functionals provide useful constraints for the development of new approximate functionals. This paper focuses on convex sums of ground-level densities. It is observed that the electronic kinetic energy of a convex sum of degenerate ground-level densities is equal to the convex sum of the kinetic energies of the individual degenerate densities. (The same type of relationship holds also for the electron-electron repulsion energy.) This extends a known property of the Levy-Valone Ensemble Constrained-Search and the Lieb Legendre-Transform refomulations of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional to the individual components of the functional. Moreover, we observe that the kinetic and electron-repulsion results also apply to densities with fractional electron number (even if there are no degeneracies), and we close with an analogous point-wise property involving the external potential. Examples where different degenerate states have different kinetic energy and electron-nuclear attraction energy are given; consequently, individual components of the ground state electronic energy can change abruptly when the molecular geometry changes. These discontinuities are predicted to be ubiquitous at conical intersections, complicating the development of universally applicable density-functional approximations.
On the AdS higher spin / O(N) vector model correspondence: degeneracy of the holographic image
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz, Danilo E.; Dorn, Harald
2006-01-01
We explore the conjectured duality between the critical O(N) vector model and minimal bosonic massless higher spin (HS) theory in AdS. In the free boundary theory, the conformal partial wave expansion (CPWE) of the four-point function of the scalar singlet bilinear is reorganized to make it explicitly crossing-symmetric and closed in the singlet sector, dual to the bulk HS gauge fields. We are able to analytically establish the factorized form of the fusion coefficients as well as the two-point function coefficient of the HS currents. We insist in directly computing the free correlators from bulk graphs with the unconventional branch. The three-point function of the scalar bilinear turns out to be an 'extremal' one at d = 3. The four-point bulk exchange graph can be precisely related to the CPWs of the boundary dual scalar and its shadow. The flow in the IR by Legendre transforming at leading 1/N, following the pattern of double-trace deformations, and the assumption of degeneracy of the hologram lead to the CPWE of the scalar four-point function at IR. Here we confirm some previous results, obtained from more involved computations of skeleton graphs, as well as extend some of them from d = 3 to generic dimension 2 < d < 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markoff, Sera; Silva, Catia V.; Nowak, Michael A.; Gallo, Elena; Plotkin, Richard M.; Hynes, Robert; Wilms, Jörn; Maitra, Dipankar; Drappeau, Samia
2015-01-01
Over the past decade, evidence has mounted that several aspects of black hole (BH) accretion physics proceed in a mass-invariant way. One of the best examples of this scaling is the empirical “fundamental plane of BH accretion” relation linking mass, radio, and X-ray luminosity over eight orders of magnitude in BH mass. The currently favored theoretical interpretation of this relation is that the physics governing power output in weakly accreting BHs depends more on relative accretion rate than on mass. In order to test this theory, we explore whether a mass-invariant approach can simultaneously explain the broadband spectral energy distributions from two BHs at opposite ends of the mass scale but that are at similar Eddington accretion fractions. We find that the same model, with the same value of several fitted physical parameters expressed in mass-scaling units to enforce self-similarity, can provide a good description of two data sets from V404 Cyg and M81*, a stellar and supermassive BH, respectively. Furthermore, only one of several potential emission scenarios for the X-ray band is successful, suggesting it is the dominant process driving the fundamental plane relation at this accretion rate. This approach thus holds promise for breaking current degeneracies in the interpretation of BH high-energy spectra and for constructing better prescriptions of BH accretion for use in various local and cosmological feedback applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaufmann, Ralph M.; Khlebnikov, Sergei; Wehefritz-Kaufmann, Birgit
2012-08-15
Motivated by Harper Hamiltonians on skeletal graphs and their C{sup *}-geometry, we study a certain class of graph Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians can be thought of as a finite groupoid representation in separable Hilbert spaces. Here the groupoid is the path groupoid of a finite graph. Given such a setup, we consider the possible matrix versions of the Hamiltonian, which are indexed by the choice of a rooted spanning tree and an order of the vertices. The first result is that all the matrix representations are linked to each other via the conjugation action of a re-gauging groupoid. We furthermore show that the symmetries of the underlying graph give rise to an action on the Hamiltonians of a group of extended symmetries. The new concept for the extension is to allow phase transformations on the vertices. In the commutative case, we prove that the extended symmetries act via a projective representation giving rise to isotypical decompositions and super-selection rules. We then apply these results to the PDG and honeycomb graphs using representation theory for projective groups and show that all the degeneracies in the spectra are consequences of these enhanced symmetries. This includes the Dirac points of the Gyroid and the honeycomb.
Sotnikov, A. G.; Sereda, K. V.; Slyusarenko, Yu. V.
2017-01-01
Calculations of chemical potentials for ideal monatomic gases with Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics as functions of temperature, across the temperature region that is typical for the collective quantum degeneracy effect, are presented. Numerical calculations are performed without any additional approximations, and explicit dependences of the chemical potentials on temperature are constructed at a fixed density of gas particles. Approximate polynomial dependences of chemical potentials on temperature are obtained that allow for the results to be used in further studies without re-applying the involved numerical methods. The ease of using the obtained representations is demonstrated on examples of deformation of distribution for a population of energy states at low temperatures, and on the impact of quantum statistics (exchange interaction) on the equations of state for ideal gases and some of the thermodynamic properties thereof. The results of this study essentially unify two opposite limiting cases in an intermediate region that are used to describe the equilibrium states of ideal gases, which are well known from university courses on statistical physics, thus adding value from an educational point of view.
Latyshev, A. V.; Gordeeva, N. M.
2017-09-01
We obtain an analytic solution of the boundary problem for the behavior (fluctuations) of an electron plasma with an arbitrary degree of degeneracy of the electron gas in the conductive layer in an external electric field. We use the kinetic Vlasov-Boltzmann equation with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision integral and the Maxwell equation for the electric field. We use the mirror boundary conditions for the reflections of electrons from the layer boundary. The boundary problem reduces to a one-dimensional problem with a single velocity. For this, we use the method of consecutive approximations, linearization of the equations with respect to the absolute distribution of the Fermi-Dirac electrons, and the conservation law for the number of particles. Separation of variables then helps reduce the problem equations to a characteristic system of equations. In the space of generalized functions, we find the eigensolutions of the initial system, which correspond to the continuous spectrum (Van Kampen mode). Solving the dispersion equation, we then find the eigensolutions corresponding to the adjoint and discrete spectra (Drude and Debye modes). We then construct the general solution of the boundary problem by decomposing it into the eigensolutions. The coefficients of the decomposition are given by the boundary conditions. This allows obtaining the decompositions of the distribution function and the electric field in explicit form.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daily, Michael D. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Wei, Guowei [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Baker, Nathan A. [Computational and Statistical Analytics Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)
2013-11-28
Implicit solvent models are important tools for calculating solvation free energies for chemical and biophysical studies since they require fewer computational resources but can achieve accuracy comparable to that of explicit-solvent models. In past papers, geometric flow-based solvation models have been established for solvation analysis of small and large compounds. In the present work, the use of realistic experiment-based parameter choices for the geometric flow models is studied. We find that the experimental parameters of solvent internal pressure p = 172 MPa and surface tension γ = 72 mN/m produce solvation free energies within 1 RT of the global minimum root-mean-squared deviation from experimental data over the expanded set. Our results demonstrate that experimental values can be used for geometric flow solvent model parameters, thus eliminating the need for additional parameterization. We also examine the correlations between optimal values of p and γ which are strongly anti-correlated. Geometric analysis of the small molecule test set shows that these results are inter-connected with an approximately linear relationship between area and volume in the range of molecular sizes spanned by the data set. In spite of this considerable degeneracy between the surface tension and pressure terms in the model, both terms are important for the broader applicability of the model.
On maximal massive 3D supergravity
Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K
2010-01-01
ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...
On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foda, O.
1987-01-01
Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. (orig.)
On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, O.
1987-06-04
Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.
Light weakly interacting massive particles
Gelmini, Graciela B.
2017-08-01
Light weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are dark matter particle candidates with weak scale interaction with the known particles, and mass in the GeV to tens of GeV range. Hints of light WIMPs have appeared in several dark matter searches in the last decade. The unprecedented possible coincidence into tantalizingly close regions of mass and cross section of four separate direct detection experimental hints and a potential indirect detection signal in gamma rays from the galactic center, aroused considerable interest in our field. Even if these hints did not so far result in a discovery, they have had a significant impact in our field. Here we review the evidence for and against light WIMPs as dark matter candidates and discuss future relevant experiments and observations.
Massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage.
Kiracofe, H L; Peterson, N
1975-06-01
All reported cases of massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage have involved healthy young primigravidas and blacks have predominated (4 of 7 women). Coagulopathies and underlying renal disease have been absent. Hematuria was painless in 5 of 8 cases. Hemorrhage began within 24 hours in 1 case, within 48 hours in 4 cases and 4 days post partum in 3 cases. Our first case is the only report in which hemorrhage has occurred in a primipara. Failure of closure or reopening of pyelovenous channels is suggested as the pathogenesis. The hemorrhage has been self-limiting, requiring no more than 1,500 cc whole blood replacement. Bleeding should stop spontaneously, and rapid renal pelvic clot lysis should follow with maintenance of adequate urine output and Foley catheter bladder decompression. To date surgical intervention has not been necessary.
Cosmological attractors in massive gravity
Dubovsky, S; Tkachev, I I
2005-01-01
We study Lorentz-violating models of massive gravity which preserve rotations and are invariant under time-dependent shifts of the spatial coordinates. In the linear approximation the Newtonian potential in these models has an extra ``confining'' term proportional to the distance from the source. We argue that during cosmological expansion the Universe may be driven to an attractor point with larger symmetry which includes particular simultaneous dilatations of time and space coordinates. The confining term in the potential vanishes as one approaches the attractor. In the vicinity of the attractor the extra contribution is present in the Friedmann equation which, in a certain range of parameters, gives rise to the cosmic acceleration.
Massive Black Holes and Galaxies
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.
Stable massive particles at colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.
2006-11-01
We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.
Gálisová, Lucia
2018-05-01
Ground-state properties of a hybrid double-tetrahedral chain, in which the localized Ising spins regularly alternate with triangular plaquettes occupied by a variable number of mobile electrons, are exactly investigated. We demonstrate that the zero-temperature phase diagram of the model involves several non-degenerate, two-fold degenerate and macroscopically degenerate chiral phases. Low-temperature dependencies of the entropy and specific heat are also examined in order to gain a deeper insight into the degeneracy of individual ground-state phases and phase transitions. It is shown that a diversity of the ground-state degeneracy manifests itself in multiple-peak structures of both thermodynamic quantities. A remarkable temperature dependencies of the specific heat with two and three Schottky-type maxima are discussed in detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furukawa, H.; Nishihara, K.
1992-01-01
The spherical-cell model [F. Perrot, Phys. Rev. A 25, 489 (1982); M. W. C. Dharma-wardana and F. Perrot, ibid. 26, 2096 (1982)] is improved to investigate laser-produced hot, dense plasmas. The free-electron distribution function around a test free electron is calculated by using the Fermi integral in order that the free-electron--free-electron correlation function includes Fermi-degeneracy effects, and also that the calculation includes the discrete-ion effect. The free-electron--free-electron, free-electron--ion, and ion-ion correlation effects are coupled, within the framework of the hypernetted-chain approximation, through the Ornstein-Zernike relation. The effective ion-ion potential includes the effect of a spatial distribution of bound electrons. The interparticle correlation functions and the effective potential acting on either an electron or an ion in hot, dense plasmas are calculated numerically. The Fermi-degeneracy effect on the correlation functions between free electrons becomes clear for the degeneracy parameter θ approx-lt 1. The discrete-ion effect in the calculation of the correlation functions between free electrons affects the electron-ion pair distribution functions for r s approx-gt 3. As an application of the proposed model, the strong-coupling effect on the stopping power of charged particles [Xin-Zhong Yan, S. Tanaka, S. Mitake, and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. A 32, 1785 (1985)] is estimated. While the free-electron--ion strong-coupling effect and the Fermi-degeneracy effect incorporated in the calculation of the free-electron distribution function around a test free electron enhance the stopping number, the quantum-diffraction effect incorporated in the quantal hypernetted-chain equations [J. Chihara, Prog. Theor. Phys. 72, 940 (1984); Phys. Rev. A 44, 1247 (1991); J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8715 (1991)] reduces the stopping number substantially
Massive Star Burps, Then Explodes
2007-04-01
Berkeley -- In a galaxy far, far away, a massive star suffered a nasty double whammy. On Oct. 20, 2004, Japanese amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki saw the star let loose an outburst so bright that it was initially mistaken for a supernova. The star survived, but for only two years. On Oct. 11, 2006, professional and amateur astronomers witnessed the star actually blowing itself to smithereens as Supernova 2006jc. Swift UVOT Image Swift UVOT Image (Credit: NASA / Swift / S.Immler) "We have never observed a stellar outburst and then later seen the star explode," says University of California, Berkeley, astronomer Ryan Foley. His group studied the event with ground-based telescopes, including the 10-meter (32.8-foot) W. M. Keck telescopes in Hawaii. Narrow helium spectral lines showed that the supernova's blast wave ran into a slow-moving shell of material, presumably the progenitor's outer layers ejected just two years earlier. If the spectral lines had been caused by the supernova's fast-moving blast wave, the lines would have been much broader. artistic rendering This artistic rendering depicts two years in the life of a massive blue supergiant star, which burped and spewed a shell of gas, then, two years later, exploded. When the supernova slammed into the shell of gas, X-rays were produced. (Credit: NASA/Sonoma State Univ./A.Simonnet) Another group, led by Stefan Immler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., monitored SN 2006jc with NASA's Swift satellite and Chandra X-ray Observatory. By observing how the supernova brightened in X-rays, a result of the blast wave slamming into the outburst ejecta, they could measure the amount of gas blown off in the 2004 outburst: about 0.01 solar mass, the equivalent of about 10 Jupiters. "The beautiful aspect of our SN 2006jc observations is that although they were obtained in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the optical and in X-rays, they lead to the same conclusions," says Immler. "This
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huan-Yu Bi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC eliminates QCD renormalization scale-setting uncertainties using fundamental renormalization group methods. The resulting scale-fixed pQCD predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme and show rapid convergence. The coefficients of the scale-fixed couplings are identical to the corresponding conformal series with zero β-function. Two all-orders methods for systematically implementing the PMC-scale setting procedure for existing high order calculations are discussed in this article. One implementation is based on the PMC-BLM correspondence (PMC-I; the other, more recent, method (PMC-II uses the Rδ-scheme, a systematic generalization of the minimal subtraction renormalization scheme. Both approaches satisfy all of the principles of the renormalization group and lead to scale-fixed and scheme-independent predictions at each finite order. In this work, we show that PMC-I and PMC-II scale-setting methods are in practice equivalent to each other. We illustrate this equivalence for the four-loop calculations of the annihilation ratio Re+e− and the Higgs partial width Γ(H→bb¯. Both methods lead to the same resummed (‘conformal’ series up to all orders. The small scale differences between the two approaches are reduced as additional renormalization group {βi}-terms in the pQCD expansion are taken into account. We also show that special degeneracy relations, which underly the equivalence of the two PMC approaches and the resulting conformal features of the pQCD series, are in fact general properties of non-Abelian gauge theory.
Kotegawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Keiki; Kuwata, Yoshiki; Hayashi, Junichi; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takahiro; Ohta, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo
2018-05-01
A single crystal of RuAs obtained with the Bi-flux method shows obvious successive metal-insulator transitions at TMI 1˜255 K and TMI 2˜195 K. The x-ray diffraction measurement reveals the formation of a superlattice of 3 ×3 ×3 of the original unit cell below TMI 2, accompanied by a change of the crystal system from the orthorhombic structure to the monoclinic one. Simple dimerization of the Ru ions is not seen in the ground state. The multiple As sites observed in the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum also demonstrate the formation of the superlattice in the ground state, which is clarified to be nonmagnetic. The divergence in 1 /T1 at TMI 1 shows that a symmetry lowering by the metal-insulator transition is accompanied by strong critical fluctuations of some degrees of freedom. Using the structural parameters in the insulating state, the first-principles calculation reproduces successfully the reasonable size of nuclear quadrupole frequencies νQ for the multiple As sites, ensuring the high validity of the structural parameters. The calculation also gives a remarkable suppression in the density of states near the Fermi level, although the gap opening is insufficient. A coupled modulation of the calculated Ru d -electron numbers and the crystal structure proposes the formation of a charge density wave in RuAs. Some lacking factors remain, but it is shown that a lifting of degeneracy protected by the nonsymmorphic symmetry through the superlattice formation is a key ingredient for the metal-insulator transition in RuAs.
An effective theory of massive gauge bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doria, R.M.; Helayel Neto, J.A.
1986-01-01
The coupling of a group-valued massive scalar field to a gauge field through a symmetric rank-2 field strenght is studied. By considering energies very small compared with the mass of the scalar and invoking the decoupling theorem, one is left with a low-energy effective theory describing a dynamics of massive vector fields. (Author) [pt
On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes
Foda, O.
1987-01-01
Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are
Massive vector fields and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.
1977-04-01
A massive vector field inside the event horizon created by the static sources located outside the black hole is investigated. It is shown that the back reaction of such a field on the metric near r = 0 cannot be neglected. The possibility of the space-time structure changing near r = 0 due to the external massive field is discussed
Management of massive haemoptysis | Adegboye | Nigerian Journal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: This study compares two management techniques in the treatment of massive haemotysis. Method: All patients with massive haemoptysis treated between January 1969 and December 1980 (group 1) were retrospectively reviewed and those prospectively treated between January 1981 and August 1999 ...
Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars
Köhler, K.; Borzyszkowski, M.; Brott, I.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.
2012-01-01
Context. Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. Aims. We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity,
Nonsingular universe in massive gravity's rainbow
Hendi, S. H.; Momennia, M.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.
2017-06-01
One of the fundamental open questions in cosmology is whether we can regard the universe evolution without singularity like a Big Bang or a Big Rip. This challenging subject stimulates one to regard a nonsingular universe in the far past with an arbitrarily large vacuum energy. Considering the high energy regime in the cosmic history, it is believed that Einstein gravity should be corrected to an effective energy dependent theory which could be acquired by gravity's rainbow. On the other hand, employing massive gravity provided us with solutions to some of the long standing fundamental problems of cosmology such as cosmological constant problem and self acceleration of the universe. Considering these aspects of gravity's rainbow and massive gravity, in this paper, we initiate studying FRW cosmology in the massive gravity's rainbow formalism. At first, we show that although massive gravity modifies the FRW cosmology, but it does not itself remove the big bang singularity. Then, we generalize the massive gravity to the case of energy dependent spacetime and find that massive gravity's rainbow can remove the early universe singularity. We bring together all the essential conditions for having a nonsingular universe and the effects of both gravity's rainbow and massive gravity generalizations on such criteria are determined.
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
Using massive digital libraries a LITA guide
Weiss, Andrew
2014-01-01
Some have viewed the ascendance of the digital library as some kind of existential apocalypse, nothing less than the beginning of the end for the traditional library. But Weiss, recognizing the concept of the library as a ""big idea"" that has been implemented in many ways over thousands of years, is not so gloomy. In this thought-provoking and unabashedly optimistic book, he explores how massive digital libraries are already adapting to society's needs, and looks ahead to the massive digital libraries of tomorrow, coveringThe author's criteria for defining massive digital librariesA history o
Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan
2018-05-01
The X-ray to radio afterglow emission of GRB 170817A / GW 170817 so far scales as Fν∝ν-0.6t0.8 with observed frequency and time, consistent with a single power-law segment of the synchrotron spectrum from the external shock going into the ambient medium. This requires the effective isotropic equivalent afterglow shock energy in the visible region to increase as ˜t1.7. The two main channels for such an energy increase are (i) radial: more energy carried by slower material (in the visible region) gradually catches up with the afterglow shock and energizes it, and (ii) angular: more energy in relativistic outflow moving at different angles to our line of sight, whose radiation is initially beamed away from us but its beaming cone gradually reaches our line of sight as it decelerates. One cannot distinguish between these explanations (or combinations of them) using only the X-ray to radio Fν(t). Here we demonstrate that the most promising way to break this degeneracy is through afterglow imaging and polarization, by calculating the predicted evolution of the afterglow image (its size, shape and flux centroid) and linear polarization Π(t) for different angular and/or radial outflow structures that fit Fν(t). We consider two angular profiles - a Gaussian and a narrow core with power-law wings in energy per solid angle, as well as a (cocoon motivated) (quasi-) spherical flow with radial velocity profile. For a jet viewed off-axis (and a magnetic field produced in the afterglow shock) Π(t) peaks when the jet's core becomes visible, at ≈2tp where the lightcurve peaks at tp, and the image can be elongated with aspect ratios ≳ 2. A quasi-spherical flow has an almost circular image and a much lower Π(t) (peaking at ≈tp) and flux centroid displacement θfc (a spherical flow has Π(t) = θfc = 0 and a perfectly circular image).
Massive congenital tricuspid insufficiency in the newborn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogren, H.G.; Ikeda, R.; Riemenschneider, T.A.; Merten, D.F.; Janos, G.G.
1979-01-01
Three cases of massive congenital tricuspid incompetence in the newborn are reported and discussed from diagnostic, pathologic and etiologic points of view. The diagnosis is important as cases have been reported with spontaneous resolution. (Auth.)
Current management of massive hemorrhage in trauma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R
2012-01-01
ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution, and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved...
How I treat patients with massive hemorrhage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Oliveri, Roberto
2014-01-01
Massive hemorrhage is associated with coagulopathy and high mortality. The transfusion guidelines up to 2006 recommended that resuscitation of massive hemorrhage should occur in successive steps using crystalloids, colloids and red blood cells (RBC) in the early phase, and plasma and platelets...... in the late phase. With the introduction of the cell-based model of hemostasis in the mid 1990ties, our understanding of the hemostatic process and of coagulopathy has improved. This has contributed to a change in resuscitation strategy and transfusion therapy of massive hemorrhage along with an acceptance...... outcome, although final evidence on outcome from randomized controlled trials are lacking. We here present how we in Copenhagen and Houston, today, manage patients with massive hemorrhage....
Massive cerebellar infarction: a neurosurgical approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salazar Luis Rafael Moscote
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Cerebellar infarction is a challenge for the neurosurgeon. The rapid recognition will crucial to avoid devastating consequences. The massive cerebellar infarction has pseudotumoral behavior, should affect at least one third of the volume of the cerebellum. The irrigation of the cerebellum presents anatomical diversity, favoring the appearance of atypical infarcts. The neurosurgical management is critical for massive cerebellar infarction. We present a review of the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José William Cornejo Ochoa
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Acquired (non-Wilsonian hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD is a rare, irreversible neurologic syndrome that occurs in patients with associated chronic liver disease. It is characterized by progressive dysfunction of extrapyramidal and cerebellar systems. Although clinical and laboratory findings are helpful in the differentiation from Wilson´s disease, the underlying pathophysiology has not been clearly elucidated. These patients have hyperammonemia or abnormal ammonia tolerance tests and high manganese concentrations. Some neurological signs are dysarthria, ataxia, tremor and dementia, with recurrent attacks of hepatic encephalopathy. Pyramidal tract signs are usually present. T1-weighted images demonstrate increased signal intensity in the basal ganglia, although cerebellum seems to be spared. However, bilateral signal abnormalities in the dentate nuclei on T2-weighted images can occur in AHD, indistinguishable from those of Wilson's disease. Such gray matter lesions can be found in hepatocerebral degeneration due to deposition of paramagnetic substances in the putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic region, red nucleus, quadrigeminal plate and anterior pituitary. We describe the case of a 3.5 year-old male patient with an hepatic miofibroblastic tumor who had been followed for one year. Neurologic examination and mental status were normal, except for the presence of bilateral palmomental reflexes and the characteristic MRI findings of AHD. There were no Kayser-Fleischer corneal rings. In conclusion AHD can be found in children with liver disease and no apparent neurological findings and MRI abnormalities in T1 may be the only way of diagnosing this entity. La degeneración hepatocebral adquirida (DHCA es un síndrome neurológico raro e irreversible que ocurre en pacientes con enfermedad hepática crónica. Se caracteriza por una disfunción progresiva de los sistemas extrapiramidal y cerebeloso. Aunque los hallazgos clínicos y de laboratorio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Saio, Tomohide; Ushio, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Mitsuhiro; Yokochi, Masashi; Ogura, Kenji; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko
2012-01-01
Pseudo contact shifts (PCSs) induced by paramagnetic lanthanide ions fixed in a protein frame provide long-range distance and angular information, and are valuable for the structure determination of protein–protein and protein–ligand complexes. We have been developing a lanthanide-binding peptide tag (hereafter LBT) anchored at two points via a peptide bond and a disulfide bond to the target proteins. However, the magnetic susceptibility tensor displays symmetry, which can cause multiple degenerated solutions in a structure calculation based solely on PCSs. Here we show a convenient method for resolving this degeneracy by changing the spacer length between the LBT and target protein. We applied this approach to PCS-based rigid body docking between the FKBP12-rapamycin complex and the mTOR FRB domain, and demonstrated that degeneracy could be resolved using the PCS restraints obtained from two-point anchored LBT with two different spacer lengths. The present strategy will markedly increase the usefulness of two-point anchored LBT for protein complex structure determination.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobashigawa, Yoshihiro; Saio, Tomohide [Hokkaido University, Department of Structural Biology, Faculty of Advanced Life Science (Japan); Ushio, Masahiro [Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Life Science (Japan); Sekiguchi, Mitsuhiro [Astellas Pharma Inc., Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Labs, Department of Drug Discovery (Japan); Yokochi, Masashi; Ogura, Kenji; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko, E-mail: finagaki@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Hokkaido University, Department of Structural Biology, Faculty of Advanced Life Science (Japan)
2012-05-15
Pseudo contact shifts (PCSs) induced by paramagnetic lanthanide ions fixed in a protein frame provide long-range distance and angular information, and are valuable for the structure determination of protein-protein and protein-ligand complexes. We have been developing a lanthanide-binding peptide tag (hereafter LBT) anchored at two points via a peptide bond and a disulfide bond to the target proteins. However, the magnetic susceptibility tensor displays symmetry, which can cause multiple degenerated solutions in a structure calculation based solely on PCSs. Here we show a convenient method for resolving this degeneracy by changing the spacer length between the LBT and target protein. We applied this approach to PCS-based rigid body docking between the FKBP12-rapamycin complex and the mTOR FRB domain, and demonstrated that degeneracy could be resolved using the PCS restraints obtained from two-point anchored LBT with two different spacer lengths. The present strategy will markedly increase the usefulness of two-point anchored LBT for protein complex structure determination.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alcyr Alves de Oliveira
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Existen pocos modelos animales de degeneración cognitiva que podrían ser considerados tan importantes como el modelo de lesión colinérgica de la enfermedad de Alzheimer. La enfermedad de Alzheimer es una patología neurodegenerativa asociada con el envejecimiento y con degeneración cognitiva acentuada y progresiva. Sus complejas y múltiples vías neurales secuenciales pueden conducir a la comprensión de que las intervenciones de agente único pueden ser insuficiente para impactar el curso de esta enfermedad. El tratamiento farmacológico actual es paliativo y, aunque pueda retardar el progreso de la enfermedad, no es capaz de ofrecer una cura. La combinación de drogas y sustancias antioxidantes han sido investigadas, sin embargo, existen pocos estudios que demuestran resultados consistentes basados en esta presunción. Así, el objetivo de este artículo fue destacar las terapias basadas en la reposición celular como potencial tratamiento para enfermedades del sistema nervioso periférico y central.
Radial measurements of IMF-sensitive absorption features in two massive ETGs
Vaughan, Sam P.; Davies, Roger L.; Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.
2018-03-01
We make radial measurements of stellar initial mass function (IMF) sensitive absorption features in the two massive early-type galaxies NGC 1277 and IC 843. Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrogaph (SWIFT), we obtain resolved measurements of the Na I 0.82 and FeH 0.99 indices, amongst others, finding both galaxies show strong gradients in Na I absorption combined with flat FeH profiles at ˜0.4 Å. We find these measurements may be explained by radial gradients in the IMF, appropriate abundance gradients in [Na/Fe] and [Fe/H], or a combination of the two, and our data are unable to break this degeneracy. We also use full spectral fitting to infer global properties from an integrated spectrum of each object, deriving a unimodal IMF slope consistent with Salpeter in IC 843 (x = 2.27 ± 0.17) but steeper than Salpeter in NGC 1277 (x = 2.69 ± 0.11), despite their similar FeH equivalent widths. Independently, we fit the strength of the FeH feature and compare to the E-MILES and CvD12 stellar population libraries, finding agreement between the models. The IMF values derived in this way are in close agreement with those from spectral fitting in NGC 1277 (x_{CvD}=2.59^{+0.25}_{-0.48}, x_{E-MILES}=2.77± 0.31), but are less consistent in IC 843, with the IMF derived from FeH alone leading to steeper slopes than when fitting the full spectrum (x_{CvD}=2.57^{+0.30}_{-0.41}, x_{E-MILES}=2.72± 0.25). This work highlights the importance of a large wavelength coverage for breaking the degeneracy between abundance and IMF variations, and may bring into doubt the use of the Wing-Ford band as an IMF index if used without other spectral information.
Critical N = (1, 1) general massive supergravity
Deger, Nihat Sadik; Moutsopoulos, George; Rosseel, Jan
2018-04-01
In this paper we study the supermultiplet structure of N = (1, 1) General Massive Supergravity at non-critical and critical points of its parameter space. To do this, we first linearize the theory around its maximally supersymmetric AdS3 vacuum and obtain the full linearized Lagrangian including fermionic terms. At generic values, linearized modes can be organized as two massless and 2 massive multiplets where supersymmetry relates them in the standard way. At critical points logarithmic modes appear and we find that in three of such points some of the supersymmetry transformations are non-invertible in logarithmic multiplets. However, in the fourth critical point, there is a massive logarithmic multiplet with invertible supersymmetry transformations.
HOW TO FIND YOUNG MASSIVE CLUSTER PROGENITORS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bressert, E.; Longmore, S.; Testi, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
2012-10-20
We propose that bound, young massive stellar clusters form from dense clouds that have escape speeds greater than the sound speed in photo-ionized gas. In these clumps, radiative feedback in the form of gas ionization is bottled up, enabling star formation to proceed to sufficiently high efficiency so that the resulting star cluster remains bound even after gas removal. We estimate the observable properties of the massive proto-clusters (MPCs) for existing Galactic plane surveys and suggest how they may be sought in recent and upcoming extragalactic observations. These surveys will potentially provide a significant sample of MPC candidates that will allow us to better understand extreme star-formation and massive cluster formation in the Local Universe.
Primordial inhomogeneities from massive defects during inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Karami, Asieh; Rostami, Tahereh, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: karami@ipm.ir, E-mail: t.rostami@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-10-01
We consider the imprints of local massive defects, such as a black hole or a massive monopole, during inflation. The massive defect breaks the background homogeneity. We consider the limit that the physical Schwarzschild radius of the defect is much smaller than the inflationary Hubble radius so a perturbative analysis is allowed. The inhomogeneities induced in scalar and gravitational wave power spectrum are calculated. We obtain the amplitudes of dipole, quadrupole and octupole anisotropies in curvature perturbation power spectrum and identify the relative configuration of the defect to CMB sphere in which large observable dipole asymmetry can be generated. We observe a curious reflection symmetry in which the configuration where the defect is inside the CMB comoving sphere has the same inhomogeneous variance as its mirror configuration where the defect is outside the CMB sphere.
Massive type IIA supergravity and E10
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henneaux, M.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Persson, D.; Jamsin, E.
2009-01-01
In this talk we investigate the symmetry under E 10 of Romans' massive type IIA supergravity. We show that the dynamics of a spinning particle in a non-linear sigma model on the coset space E 10 /K(E 10 ) reproduces the bosonic and fermionic dynamics of massive IIA supergravity, in the standard truncation. In particular, we identify Romans' mass with a generator of E 10 that is beyond the realm of the generators of E 10 considered in the eleven-dimensional analysis, but using the same, underformed sigma model. As a consequence, this work provides a dynamical unification of the massless and massive versions of type IIA supergravity inside E 10 . (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Massive stars and X-ray pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henrichs, H.
1982-01-01
This thesis is a collection of 7 separate articles entitled: long term changes in ultraviolet lines in γ CAS, UV observations of γ CAS: intermittent mass-loss enhancement, episodic mass loss in γ CAS and in other early-type stars, spin-up and spin-down of accreting neutron stars, an excentric close binary model for the X Persei system, has a 97 minute periodicity in 4U 1700-37/HD 153919 really been discovered, and, mass loss and stellar wind in massive X-ray binaries. (Articles 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 have been previously published). The first three articles are concerned with the irregular mass loss in massive stars. The fourth critically reviews thoughts since 1972 on the origin of the changes in periodicity shown by X-ray pulsars. The last articles indicate the relation between massive stars and X-ray pulsars. (C.F.)
A Massively Parallel Face Recognition System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lahdenoja Olli
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We present methods for processing the LBPs (local binary patterns with a massively parallel hardware, especially with CNN-UM (cellular nonlinear network-universal machine. In particular, we present a framework for implementing a massively parallel face recognition system, including a dedicated highly accurate algorithm suitable for various types of platforms (e.g., CNN-UM and digital FPGA. We study in detail a dedicated mixed-mode implementation of the algorithm and estimate its implementation cost in the view of its performance and accuracy restrictions.
Massive gravity and Fierz-Pauli theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasi, Alberto; Maggiore, Nicola
2017-01-01
Linearized gravity is considered as an ordinary gauge field theory. This implies the need for gauge fixing in order to have well-defined propagators. Only after having achieved this, the most general mass term is added. The aim of this paper is to study of the degrees of freedom of the gauge fixed theory of linearized gravity with mass term. The main result is that, even outside the usual Fierz-Pauli constraint on the mass term, it is possible to choose a gauge fixing belonging to the Landau class, which leads to a massive theory of gravity with the five degrees of freedom of a spin-2 massive particle. (orig.)
Massive gravity and Fierz-Pauli theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasi, Alberto [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Maggiore, Nicola [I.N.F.N.-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy)
2017-09-15
Linearized gravity is considered as an ordinary gauge field theory. This implies the need for gauge fixing in order to have well-defined propagators. Only after having achieved this, the most general mass term is added. The aim of this paper is to study of the degrees of freedom of the gauge fixed theory of linearized gravity with mass term. The main result is that, even outside the usual Fierz-Pauli constraint on the mass term, it is possible to choose a gauge fixing belonging to the Landau class, which leads to a massive theory of gravity with the five degrees of freedom of a spin-2 massive particle. (orig.)
SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars
Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.
2017-06-01
Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.
A Massively Parallel Face Recognition System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ari Paasio
2006-12-01
Full Text Available We present methods for processing the LBPs (local binary patterns with a massively parallel hardware, especially with CNN-UM (cellular nonlinear network-universal machine. In particular, we present a framework for implementing a massively parallel face recognition system, including a dedicated highly accurate algorithm suitable for various types of platforms (e.g., CNN-UM and digital FPGA. We study in detail a dedicated mixed-mode implementation of the algorithm and estimate its implementation cost in the view of its performance and accuracy restrictions.
Massive rectal bleeding from colonic diverticulosis
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ABEOLUGBENGAS
Rapport De Cas: Nous mettons un cas d'un homme de 79 ans quiàprésente une hémorragie rectal massive ... cause of overt lower gastrointestinal (GI) ... vessels into the intestinal lumen results in ... placed on a high fibre diet, and intravenous.
Improved visibility computation on massive grid terrains
Fishman, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Wolfson, O.; Agrawal, D.; Lu, C.-T.
2009-01-01
This paper describes the design and engineering of algorithms for computing visibility maps on massive grid terrains. Given a terrain T, specified by the elevations of points in a regular grid, and given a viewpoint v, the visibility map or viewshed of v is the set of grid points of T that are
Facial transplantation for massive traumatic injuries.
Alam, Daniel S; Chi, John J
2013-10-01
This article describes the challenges of facial reconstruction and the role of facial transplantation in certain facial defects and injuries. This information is of value to surgeons assessing facial injuries with massive soft tissue loss or injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Difference equations in massive higher order calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bierenbaum, I.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.; Schneider, C.
2007-07-01
The calculation of massive 2-loop operator matrix elements, required for the higher order Wilson coefficients for heavy flavor production in deeply inelastic scattering, leads to new types of multiple infinite sums over harmonic sums and related functions, which depend on the Mellin parameter N. We report on the solution of these sums through higher order difference equations using the summation package Sigma. (orig.)
FRW Cosmological Perturbations in Massive Bigravity
Comelli, D; Pilo, L
2014-01-01
Cosmological perturbations of FRW solutions in ghost free massive bigravity, including also a second matter sector, are studied in detail. At early time, we find that sub horizon exponential instabilities are unavoidable and they lead to a premature departure from the perturbative regime of cosmological perturbations.
Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deser, S; Franklin, J
2010-01-01
We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null. (note)
NOTE: Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity
Deser, S.; Franklin, J.
2010-05-01
We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null.
Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deser, S [Physics Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Franklin, J, E-mail: deser@brandeis.ed, E-mail: jfrankli@reed.ed [Reed College, Portland, OR 97202 (United States)
2010-05-21
We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null. (note)
Massively parallel sequencing of forensic STRs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parson, Walther; Ballard, David; Budowle, Bruce
2016-01-01
The DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) is reviewing factors that need to be considered ahead of the adoption by the forensic community of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies. MPS produces sequence data that...
Massive hydraulic fracturing gas stimulation project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appledorn, C.R.; Mann, R.L.
1977-01-01
The Rio Blanco Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Project was fielded in 1974 as a joint Industry/ERDA demonstration to test the relative formations that were stimulated by the Rio Blanco Nuclear fracturing experiment. The project is a companion effort to and a continuation of the preceding nuclear stimulation project, which took place in May 1973. 8 figures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orlando Ragnisco
2010-12-01
Full Text Available A novel family of exactly solvable quantum systems on curved space is presented. The family is the quantum version of the classical Perlick family, which comprises all maximally superintegrable 3-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with spherical symmetry. The high number of symmetries (both geometrical and dynamical exhibited by the classical systems has a counterpart in the accidental degeneracy in the spectrum of the quantum systems. This family of quantum problem is completely solved with the techniques of the SUSYQM (supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We also analyze in detail the ordering problem arising in the quantization of the kinetic term of the classical Hamiltonian, stressing the link existing between two physically meaningful quantizations: the geometrical quantization and the position dependent mass quantization.
Ortín Martínez, Arturo
2015-01-01
. Objetivo. Determinar el número total y la topografía de la población de conos en roedores adultos utilizando rutinas automatizadas que nos permita investigar objetivamente los efectos de diferentes modelos experimentales de patologías humanas tales como la degeneración macular asociada a la edad (DMAE), retinosis pigmentaria (RP) y la neuropatía óptica glaucomatosa (NOG) sobre la población de fotorreceptores. Material y métodos. Se han utilizado cinco cepas distinta de roedor...
Ortín Martínez, Arturo
2015-01-01
Objetivo. Determinar el número total y la topografía de la población de conos en roedores adultos utilizando rutinas automatizadas que nos permita investigar objetivamente los efectos de diferentes modelos experimentales de patologías humanas tales como la degeneración macular asociada a la edad (DMAE), retinosis pigmentaria (RP) y la neuropatía óptica glaucomatosa (NOG) sobre la población de fotorreceptores. Material y métodos. Se han utilizado cinco cepas distinta de roedores: Sprague-Dawle...
A rare case of massive hepatosplenomegaly due to acute ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
massive hepatosplenomegaly include chronic lymphoproliferative malignancies, infections (malaria, leishmaniasis) and glycogen storage diseases (Gaucher's disease).[4] In our case the probable causes of the massive hepatosplenomegaly were a combination of late presentation after symptom onset, leukaemic infiltration.
Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stanworth, Simon J; Morris, Timothy P; Gaarder, Christine
2010-01-01
ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens o...
Massive vulval oedema in multiple pregnancies at Bugando Medical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this report we describe two cases of massive vulval oedema seen in two ... passage of yellow-whitish discharge per vagina (Figure 1). Examination revealed massive oedema, and digital vaginal examination was difficult due to tenderness.
Massively Parallel Algorithms for Solution of Schrodinger Equation
Fijany, Amir; Barhen, Jacob; Toomerian, Nikzad
1994-01-01
In this paper massively parallel algorithms for solution of Schrodinger equation are developed. Our results clearly indicate that the Crank-Nicolson method, in addition to its excellent numerical properties, is also highly suitable for massively parallel computation.
Massively Parallel Computing: A Sandia Perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Greenberg, David S.; Hendrickson, Bruce; Heroux, Michael A.; Plimpton, Steve J.; Tomkins, James L.; Womble, David E.
1999-05-06
The computing power available to scientists and engineers has increased dramatically in the past decade, due in part to progress in making massively parallel computing practical and available. The expectation for these machines has been great. The reality is that progress has been slower than expected. Nevertheless, massively parallel computing is beginning to realize its potential for enabling significant break-throughs in science and engineering. This paper provides a perspective on the state of the field, colored by the authors' experiences using large scale parallel machines at Sandia National Laboratories. We address trends in hardware, system software and algorithms, and we also offer our view of the forces shaping the parallel computing industry.
Massive ovarian edema, due to adjacent appendicitis.
Callen, Andrew L; Illangasekare, Tushani; Poder, Liina
2017-04-01
Massive ovarian edema is a benign clinical entity, the imaging findings of which can mimic an adnexal mass or ovarian torsion. In the setting of acute abdominal pain, identifying massive ovarian edema is a key in avoiding potential fertility-threatening surgery in young women. In addition, it is important to consider other contributing pathology when ovarian edema is secondary to another process. We present a case of a young woman presenting with subacute abdominal pain, whose initial workup revealed marked enlarged right ovary. Further imaging, diagnostic tests, and eventually diagnostic laparoscopy revealed that the ovarian enlargement was secondary to subacute appendicitis, rather than a primary adnexal process. We review the classic ultrasound and MRI imaging findings and pitfalls that relate to this diagnosis.
Adapting algorithms to massively parallel hardware
Sioulas, Panagiotis
2016-01-01
In the recent years, the trend in computing has shifted from delivering processors with faster clock speeds to increasing the number of cores per processor. This marks a paradigm shift towards parallel programming in which applications are programmed to exploit the power provided by multi-cores. Usually there is gain in terms of the time-to-solution and the memory footprint. Specifically, this trend has sparked an interest towards massively parallel systems that can provide a large number of processors, and possibly computing nodes, as in the GPUs and MPPAs (Massively Parallel Processor Arrays). In this project, the focus was on two distinct computing problems: k-d tree searches and track seeding cellular automata. The goal was to adapt the algorithms to parallel systems and evaluate their performance in different cases.
Stochastic spin-one massive field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, S.C.
1984-01-01
Stochastic quantization schemes of Nelson and Parisi and Wu are applied to a spin-one massive field. Unlike the scalar case Nelson's stochastic spin-one massive field cannot be identified with the corresponding euclidean field even if the fourth component of the euclidean coordinate is taken as equal to the real physical time. In the Parisi-Wu quantization scheme the stochastic Proca vector field has a similar property as the scalar field; which has an asymptotically stationary part and a transient part. The large equal-time limit of the expectation values of the stochastic Proca field are equal to the expectation values of the corresponding euclidean field. In the Stueckelberg formalism the Parisi-Wu scheme gives rise to a stochastic vector field which differs from the massless gauge field in that the gauge cannot be fixed by the choice of boundary condition. (orig.)
Frontiers of massively parallel scientific computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, J.R.
1987-07-01
Practical applications using massively parallel computer hardware first appeared during the 1980s. Their development was motivated by the need for computing power orders of magnitude beyond that available today for tasks such as numerical simulation of complex physical and biological processes, generation of interactive visual displays, satellite image analysis, and knowledge based systems. Representative of the first generation of this new class of computers is the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). A team of scientists was provided the opportunity to test and implement their algorithms on the MPP. The first results are presented. The research spans a broad variety of applications including Earth sciences, physics, signal and image processing, computer science, and graphics. The performance of the MPP was very good. Results obtained using the Connection Machine and the Distributed Array Processor (DAP) are presented
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zanella, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele; Santos, André F.
2013-01-01
In order to make the Internet of Things a reality, ubiquitous coverage and low-complexity connectivity are required. Cellular networks are hence the most straightforward and realistic solution to enable a massive deployment of always connected Machines around the globe. Nevertheless, a paradigm...... shift in the conception and design of future cellular networks is called for. Massive access attempts, low-complexity and cheap machines, sporadic transmission and correlated signals are among the main properties of this new reality, whose main consequence is the disruption of the development...... Access Reservation, Coded Random Access and the exploitation of multiuser detection in random access. Additionally, we will show how the properties of machine originated signals, such as sparsity and spatial/time correlation can be exploited. The end goal of this paper is to provide motivation...
Massive Predictive Modeling using Oracle R Enterprise
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
R is fast becoming the lingua franca for analyzing data via statistics, visualization, and predictive analytics. For enterprise-scale data, R users have three main concerns: scalability, performance, and production deployment. Oracle's R-based technologies - Oracle R Distribution, Oracle R Enterprise, Oracle R Connector for Hadoop, and the R package ROracle - address these concerns. In this talk, we introduce Oracle's R technologies, highlighting how each enables R users to achieve scalability and performance while making production deployment of R results a natural outcome of the data analyst/scientist efforts. The focus then turns to Oracle R Enterprise with code examples using the transparency layer and embedded R execution, targeting massive predictive modeling. One goal behind massive predictive modeling is to build models per entity, such as customers, zip codes, simulations, in an effort to understand behavior and tailor predictions at the entity level. Predictions...
Impact analysis on a massively parallel computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zacharia, T.; Aramayo, G.A.
1994-01-01
Advanced mathematical techniques and computer simulation play a major role in evaluating and enhancing the design of beverage cans, industrial, and transportation containers for improved performance. Numerical models are used to evaluate the impact requirements of containers used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for transporting radioactive materials. Many of these models are highly compute-intensive. An analysis may require several hours of computational time on current supercomputers despite the simplicity of the models being studied. As computer simulations and materials databases grow in complexity, massively parallel computers have become important tools. Massively parallel computational research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its application to the impact analysis of shipping containers is briefly described in this paper
Massive scalar field evolution in de Sitter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Markkanen, Tommi [Department of Physics, King’s College London,Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Rajantie, Arttu [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2017-01-30
The behaviour of a massive, non-interacting and non-minimally coupled quantised scalar field in an expanding de Sitter background is investigated by solving the field evolution for an arbitrary initial state. In this approach there is no need to choose a vacuum in order to provide a definition for particle states, nor to introduce an explicit ultraviolet regularization. We conclude that the expanding de Sitter space is a stable equilibrium configuration under small perturbations of the initial conditions. Depending on the initial state, the energy density can approach its asymptotic value from above or below, the latter of which implies a violation of the weak energy condition. The backreaction of the quantum corrections can therefore lead to a phase of super-acceleration also in the non-interacting massive case.
How Massive Single Stars End Their Life
Heger, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Woosley, S. E.; Langer, N.; Hartmann, D. H.
2003-01-01
How massive stars die-what sort of explosion and remnant each produces-depends chiefly on the masses of their helium cores and hydrogen envelopes at death. For single stars, stellar winds are the only means of mass loss, and these are a function of the metallicity of the star. We discuss how metallicity, and a simplified prescription for its effect on mass loss, affects the evolution and final fate of massive stars. We map, as a function of mass and metallicity, where black holes and neutron stars are likely to form and where different types of supernovae are produced. Integrating over an initial mass function, we derive the relative populations as a function of metallicity. Provided that single stars rotate rapidly enough at death, we speculate on stellar populations that might produce gamma-ray bursts and jet-driven supernovae.
Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvornikov, M.S.; Studenikin, A.I.
2004-01-01
Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino are studied in a minimally extended standard model in an arbitrary R ξ gauge and taking into account the dependence on the masses of all interacting particles. The contribution from all Feynman diagrams to the electric, magnetic, and anapole form factors, in which the dependence of the masses of all particles as well as on gauge parameters is accounted for exactly, are obtained for the first time in explicit form. The asymptotic behavior of the magnetic form factor for large negative squares of the momentum of an external photon is analyzed and the expression for the anapole moment of a massive neutrino is derived. The results are generalized to the case of mixing between various flavors of the neutrino. Explicit expressions are obtained for the electric, magnetic, and electric dipole and anapole transitional form factors as well as for the transitional electric dipole moment
HII regions in collapsing massive molecular clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yorke, H.W.; Bodenheimer, P.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.
1982-01-01
Results of two-dimensional numerical calculations of the evolution of HII regions associated with self-gravitating, massive molecular clouds are presented. Depending on the location of the exciting star, a champagne flow can occur concurrently with the central collapse of a nonrotating cloud. Partial evaporation of the cloud at a rate of about 0.005 solar masses/yr results. When 100 O-stars are placed at the center of a freely falling cloud of 3x10 5 solar masses no evaporation takes place. Rotating clouds collapse to disks and the champagne flow can evaporate the cloud at a higher rate (0.01 solar masses/yr). It is concluded that massive clouds containing OB-stars have lifetimes of no more than 10 7 yr. (Auth.)
Measuring Parameters of Massive Black Hole Binaries with Partially Aligned Spins
Lang, Ryan N.; Hughes, Scott A.; Cornish, Neil J.
2011-01-01
The future space-based gravitational wave detector LISA will be able to measure parameters of coalescing massive black hole binaries, often to extremely high accuracy. Previous work has demonstrated that the black hole spins can have a strong impact on the accuracy of parameter measurement. Relativistic spin-induced precession modulates the waveform in a manner which can break degeneracies between parameters, in principle significantly improving how well they are measured. Recent studies have indicated, however, that spin precession may be weak for an important subset of astrophysical binary black holes: those in which the spins are aligned due to interactions with gas. In this paper, we examine how well a binary's parameters can be measured when its spins are partially aligned and compare results using waveforms that include higher post-Newtonian harmonics to those that are truncated at leading quadrupole order. We find that the weakened precession can substantially degrade parameter estimation, particularly for the "extrinsic" parameters sky position and distance. Absent higher harmonics, LISA typically localizes the sky position of a nearly aligned binary about an order of magnitude less accurately than one for which the spin orientations are random. Our knowledge of a source's sky position will thus be worst for the gas-rich systems which are most likely to produce electromagnetic counterparts. Fortunately, higher harmonics of the waveform can make up for this degradation. By including harmonics beyond the quadrupole in our waveform model, we find that the accuracy with which most of the binary's parameters are measured can be substantially improved. In some cases, the improvement is such that they are measured almost as well as when the binary spins are randomly aligned.
Massively parallel evolutionary computation on GPGPUs
Tsutsui, Shigeyoshi
2013-01-01
Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are metaheuristics that learn from natural collective behavior and are applied to solve optimization problems in domains such as scheduling, engineering, bioinformatics, and finance. Such applications demand acceptable solutions with high-speed execution using finite computational resources. Therefore, there have been many attempts to develop platforms for running parallel EAs using multicore machines, massively parallel cluster machines, or grid computing environments. Recent advances in general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) have opened u
FMFT. Fully massive four-loop tadpoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pikelner, Andrey [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2017-07-15
We present FMFT - a package written in FORM that evaluates four-loop fully massive tadpole Feynman diagrams. It is a successor of the MATAD package that has been successfully used to calculate many renormalization group functions at three-loop order in a wide range of quantum field theories especially in the Standard Model. We describe an internal structure of the package and provide some examples of its usage.
Towards Massive Machine Type Cellular Communications
Dawy, Zaher; Saad, Walid; Ghosh, Arunabha; Andrews, Jeffrey G.; Yaacoub, Elias
2015-01-01
Cellular networks have been engineered and optimized to carrying ever-increasing amounts of mobile data, but over the last few years, a new class of applications based on machine-centric communications has begun to emerge. Automated devices such as sensors, tracking devices, and meters - often referred to as machine-to-machine (M2M) or machine-type communications (MTC) - introduce an attractive revenue stream for mobile network operators, if a massive number of them can be efficiently support...
Massive Schwinger model at finite θ
Azcoiti, Vicente; Follana, Eduardo; Royo-Amondarain, Eduardo; Di Carlo, Giuseppe; Vaquero Avilés-Casco, Alejandro
2018-01-01
Using the approach developed by V. Azcoiti et al. [Phys. Lett. B 563, 117 (2003), 10.1016/S0370-2693(03)00601-4], we are able to reconstruct the behavior of the massive one-flavor Schwinger model with a θ term and a quantized topological charge. We calculate the full dependence of the order parameter with θ . Our results at θ =π are compatible with Coleman's conjecture on the phase diagram of this model.
Harmonic polylogarithms for massive Bhabha scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czakon, M.; Riemann, T.
2005-08-01
One- and two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, HPLs and GPLs, appear in calculations of multi-loop integrals. We discuss them in the context of analytical solutions for two-loop master integrals in the case of massive Bhabha scattering in QED. For the GPLs we discuss analytical representations, conformal transformations, and also their transformations corresponding to relations between master integrals in the s- and t-channel. (orig.)
Massive Open Online Courses and economic sustainability
Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu R.; Lundqvist, Karsten O.; Williams, Shirley A.
2015-01-01
Millions of users around the world have registered on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) offered by hundreds of universities (and other organizations) worldwide. Creating and offering these courses costs thousands of pounds. However, at present, revenue generated by MOOCs is not sufficient to offset these costs. The sustainability of MOOCs is a pressing concern as they incur not only upfront creation costs but also maintenance costs to keep content relevant, as well as on-going facilitation ...
Weakly interacting massive particles and stellar structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouquet, A.
1988-01-01
The existence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may solve both the dark matter problem and the solar neutrino problem. Such particles affect the energy transport in the stellar cores and change the stellar structure. We present the results of an analytic approximation to compute these effects in a self-consistent way. These results can be applied to many different stars, but we focus on the decrease of the 8 B neutrino flux in the case of the Sun
Non Pauli-Fierz Massive Gravitons
Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele
2008-01-01
We study general Lorentz invariant theories of massive gravitons. We show that, contrary to the standard lore, there exist consistent theories where the graviton mass term violates Pauli-Fierz structure. For theories where the graviton is a resonance this does not imply the existence of a scalar ghost if the deviation from Pauli-Fierz becomes sufficiently small at high energies. These types of mass terms are required by any consistent realization of the DGP model in higher dimension.
FMFT: fully massive four-loop tadpoles
Pikelner, Andrey
2018-03-01
We present FMFT - a package written in FORM that evaluates four-loop fully massive tadpole Feynman diagrams. It is a successor of the MATAD package that has been successfully used to calculate many renormalization group functions at three-loop order in a wide range of quantum field theories especially in the Standard Model. We describe an internal structure of the package and provide some examples of its usage.
Alishahiha, Mohsen; Naseh, Ali; Shirzad, Ahmad
2014-12-03
We study linearized equations of motion of the newly proposed three dimensional gravity, known as minimal massive gravity, using its metric formulation. We observe that the resultant linearized equations are exactly the same as that of TMG by making use of a redefinition of the parameters of the model. In particular the model admits logarithmic modes at the critical points. We also study several vacuum solutions of the model, specially at a certain limit where the contribution of Chern-Simons term vanishes.
Magnetic fields and massive star formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)
2014-09-10
Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.
Comment on ''Topologically Massive Gauge Theories''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezerra de Mello, E.R.
1988-01-01
In a recent paper by R. Pisarski and S. Rao concerning topologically massive quantum Yang--Mills theory, the expression of the P-even part of the non-Abelian gauge field self-energy at one-loop order is shown to obey a consistency condition, which is not fulfilled by the formula originally presented by S. Deser, R. Jackiw, and S. Templeton. In this comment, I present a recalculation which agress with Pisarski and Rao. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc
SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN WINGS LOCAL CLUSTERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentinuzzi, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Moles, M.; Kjaergaard, P.; Vanzella, E.
2010-01-01
Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 have been found to have small physical sizes, and hence to be superdense. Several mechanisms, including minor mergers, have been proposed for increasing galaxy sizes from high- to low-z. We search for superdense massive galaxies in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.04 10 M sun , are mostly S0 galaxies, have a median effective radius (R e ) = 1.61 ± 0.29 kpc, a median Sersic index (n) = 3.0 ± 0.6, and very old stellar populations with a median mass-weighted age of 12.1 ± 1.3 Gyr. We calculate a number density of 2.9 x 10 -2 Mpc -3 for superdense galaxies in local clusters, and a hard lower limit of 1.3 x 10 -5 Mpc -3 in the whole comoving volume between z = 0.04 and z = 0.07. We find a relation between mass, effective radius, and luminosity-weighted age in our cluster galaxies, which can mimic the claimed evolution of the radius with redshift, if not properly taken into account. We compare our data with spectroscopic high-z surveys and find that-when stellar masses are considered-there is consistency with the local WINGS galaxy sizes out to z ∼ 2, while a discrepancy of a factor of 3 exists with the only spectroscopic z > 2 study. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a large evolution in radius for the most massive galaxies with M * > 4 x 10 11 M sun compared to similarly massive galaxies in WINGS, i.e., the brightest cluster galaxies.
EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE PROTOSTARS VIA DISK ACCRETION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yorke, Harold W.
2010-01-01
Mass accretion onto (proto-)stars at high accretion rates M-dot * > 10 -4 M sun yr -1 is expected in massive star formation. We study the evolution of massive protostars at such high rates by numerically solving the stellar structure equations. In this paper, we examine the evolution via disk accretion. We consider a limiting case of 'cold' disk accretion, whereby most of the stellar photosphere can radiate freely with negligible backwarming from the accretion flow, and the accreting material settles onto the star with the same specific entropy as the photosphere. We compare our results to the calculated evolution via spherically symmetric accretion, the opposite limit, whereby the material accreting onto the star contains the entropy produced in the accretion shock front. We examine how different accretion geometries affect the evolution of massive protostars. For cold disk accretion at 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , the radius of a protostar is initially small, R * ≅ a few R sun . After several solar masses have accreted, the protostar begins to bloat up and for M * ≅ 10 M sun the stellar radius attains its maximum of 30-400 R sun . The large radius ∼100 R sun is also a feature of spherically symmetric accretion at the same accreted mass and accretion rate. Hence, expansion to a large radius is a robust feature of accreting massive protostars. At later times, the protostar eventually begins to contract and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) for M * ≅ 30 M sun , independent of the accretion geometry. For accretion rates exceeding several 10 -3 M sun yr -1 , the protostar never contracts to the ZAMS. The very large radius of several hundreds R sun results in the low effective temperature and low UV luminosity of the protostar. Such bloated protostars could well explain the existence of bright high-mass protostellar objects, which lack detectable H II regions.
Extensive tumor reconstruction with massive allograft
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zulmi Wan
1999-01-01
Massive deep-frozen bone allografts were implanted in four patients after wide tumor resection. Two cases were solitary proximal femur metastases, secondary to Thyroid cancer and breast cancer respectively; while the other two cases were primary in nature i.e. Chondrosarcoma proximal humerus and Osteosarcoma proximal femur. All were treated with a cemented alloprosthesis except in the upper limb where shoulder fusion was performed. Augmentation of these techniques were done with a segment 1 free vascularised fibular composite graft to the proximal femur of breast secondaries and proximal humerus Chondrosarcoma. Coverage of the wound of the latter was also contributed by lattisimus dorsi flap. The present investigations demonstrated the massive bone allografts were intimately anchored by host bone and there had been no evidence of aseptic loosening at the graft-cement interface. This study showed that with good effective tumor control, reconstructive surgery with massive allografts represented a good alternative to prosthetic implants in tumors of the limbs. No infection was seen in all four cases
Cosmology in general massive gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L.
2014-01-01
We study the cosmological FRW flat solutions generated in general massive gravity theories. Such a model are obtained adding to the Einstein General Relativity action a peculiar non derivative potentials, function of the metric components, that induce the propagation of five gravitational degrees of freedom. This large class of theories includes both the case with a residual Lorentz invariance as well as the case with rotational invariance only. It turns out that the Lorentz-breaking case is selected as the only possibility. Moreover it turns out that that perturbations around strict Minkowski or dS space are strongly coupled. The upshot is that even though dark energy can be simply accounted by massive gravity modifications, its equation of state w eff has to deviate from -1. Indeed, there is an explicit relation between the strong coupling scale of perturbations and the deviation of w eff from -1. Taking into account current limits on w eff and submillimiter tests of the Newton's law as a limit on the possible strong coupling scale, we find that it is still possible to have a weakly coupled theory in a quasi dS background. Future experimental improvements on short distance tests of the Newton's law may be used to tighten the deviation of w eff form -1 in a weakly coupled massive gravity theory
Massive transfusion protocols: current best practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsu YM
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Yen-Michael S Hsu,1 Thorsten Haas,2 Melissa M Cushing1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs are established to provide rapid blood replacement in a setting of severe hemorrhage. Early optimal blood transfusion is essential to sustain organ perfusion and oxygenation. There are many variables to consider when establishing an MTP, and studies have prospectively evaluated different scenarios and patient populations to establish the best practices to attain improved patient outcomes. The establishment and utilization of an optimal MTP is challenging given the ever-changing patient status during resuscitation efforts. Much of the MTP literature comes from the trauma population, due to the fact that massive hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable trauma-related death. As we come to further understand the positive and negative clinical impacts of transfusion-related factors, massive transfusion practice can be further refined. This article will first discuss specific MTPs targeting different patient populations and current relevant international guidelines. Then, we will examine a wide selection of therapeutic products to support MTPs, including newly available products and the most suitable of the traditional products. Lastly, we will discuss the best design for an MTP, including ratio-based MTPs and MTPs based on the use of point-of-care coagulation diagnostic tools. Keywords: hemorrhage, MTP, antifibrinolytics, coagulopathy, trauma, ratio, logistics, guidelines, hemostatic
Galaxy bispectrum from massive spinning particles
Moradinezhad Dizgah, Azadeh; Lee, Hayden; Muñoz, Julian B.; Dvorkin, Cora
2018-05-01
Massive spinning particles, if present during inflation, lead to a distinctive bispectrum of primordial perturbations, the shape and amplitude of which depend on the masses and spins of the extra particles. This signal, in turn, leaves an imprint in the statistical distribution of galaxies; in particular, as a non-vanishing galaxy bispectrum, which can be used to probe the masses and spins of these particles. In this paper, we present for the first time a new theoretical template for the bispectrum generated by massive spinning particles, valid for a general triangle configuration. We then proceed to perform a Fisher-matrix forecast to assess the potential of two next-generation spectroscopic galaxy surveys, EUCLID and DESI, to constrain the primordial non-Gaussianity sourced by these extra particles. We model the galaxy bispectrum using tree-level perturbation theory, accounting for redshift-space distortions and the Alcock-Paczynski effect, and forecast constraints on the primordial non-Gaussianity parameters marginalizing over all relevant biases and cosmological parameters. Our results suggest that these surveys would potentially be sensitive to any primordial non-Gaussianity with an amplitude larger than fNL≈ 1, for massive particles with spins 2, 3, and 4. Interestingly, if non-Gaussianities are present at that level, these surveys will be able to infer the masses of these spinning particles to within tens of percent. If detected, this would provide a very clear window into the particle content of our Universe during inflation.
Effects of massive transfusion on oxygen availability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Otávio Costa Auler Jr
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine oxygen derived parameters, hemodynamic and biochemical laboratory data (2,3 Diphosphoglycerate, lactate and blood gases analysis in patients after cardiac surgery who received massive blood replacement. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Heart Institute (Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients after cardiac surgery who received massive transfusion replacement; six of them evolved to a fatal outcome within the three-day postoperative follow-up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The non-survivors group (n=6 presented high lactate levels and low P50 levels, when compared to the survivors group (p<0.05. Both groups presented an increase in oxygen consumption and O2 extraction, and there were no significant differences between them regarding these parameters. The 2,3 DPG levels were slightly reduced in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that patients who are massively transfused following cardiovascular surgery present cell oxygenation disturbances probably as a result of O2 transport inadequacy.
Emergent universe with wormholes in massive gravity
Paul, B. C.; Majumdar, A. S.
2018-03-01
An emergent universe (EU) scenario is proposed to obtain a universe free from big-bang singularity. In this framework the present universe emerged from a static Einstein universe phase in the infinite past. A flat EU scenario is found to exist in Einstein’s gravity with a non-linear equation of state (EoS). It has been shown subsequently that a physically realistic EU model can be obtained considering cosmic fluid composed of interacting fluids with a non-linear equation of state. It results a viable cosmological model accommodating both early inflation and present accelerating phases. In the present paper, the origin of an initial static Einstein universe needed in the EU model is explored in a massive gravity theory which subsequently emerged to be a dynamically evolving universe. A new gravitational instanton solution in a flat universe is obtained in the massive gravity theory which is a dynamical wormhole that might play an important role in realizing the origin of the initial state of the emergent universe. The emergence of a Lorentzian universe from a Euclidean gravity is understood by a Wick rotation τ = i t . A universe with radiation at the beginning finally transits into the present observed universe with a non-linear EoS as the interactions among the fluids set in. Thus a viable flat EU scenario where the universe stretches back into time infinitely, with no big bang is permitted in a massive gravity.
Transcatheter emboilization therapy of massive colonic bleeding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, G. H.; Oh, J. H.; Yoon, Y.
1996-01-01
To evaulate the efficacy and safety of emergent superselective transcatheter embolization for controlling massive colonic bleeding. Six of the seven patients who had symptom of massive gastrointestinal bleeding underwent emergent transcatheter embolization for control of the bleeding. Gastrointestinal bleeding in these patients was originated from various colonic diseases: rectal cancer(n=1), proctitis(n=1), benign ulcer(n=1), mucosal injury by ventriculoperitoneal shunt(n=1), and unknown(n=2). All patients except one with rectal cancer were critically ill. Superselective embolization were done by using Gelfoam particles and/or coils. The vessels embolized were ileocolic artery(n=1). superior rectal artery(n=2), inferior rectal artery (n=1), and middle and inferior rectal arteries(n=1). Hemostasis was successful immediately in all patients. Two underwnet surgery due to recurrent bleeding developed 3 days after the procedure(n=1) or in associalion with underlying rectal cancer(n=1). On surgical specimen of two cases, there was no mucosal ischemic change. Transcatheter embolization is a safe and effective treatment of method for the control of massive colonic bleeding
Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stanworth, Simon J; Morris, Timothy P; Gaarder, Christine
2010-01-01
ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens...... of modern trauma care are targeted to the early correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of trauma massive transfusion based on clinical outcomes. We also examined whether the concept was useful in that early prediction of massive...... transfusion as a concept in trauma has limited utility, and emphasis should be placed on identifying patients with massive hemorrhage and acute traumatic coagulopathy....
Thermodynamics inducing massive particles' tunneling and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Baocheng; Cai, Qing-yu; Zhan, Ming-sheng
2010-01-01
By calculating the change of entropy, we prove that the first law of black hole thermodynamics leads to the tunneling probability of massive particles through the horizon, including the tunneling probability of massive charged particles from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and the Kerr-Newman black hole. Novelly, we find the trajectories of massive particles are close to that of massless particles near the horizon, although the trajectories of massive charged particles may be affected by electromagnetic forces. We show that Hawking radiation as massive particles tunneling does not lead to violation of the weak cosmic-censorship conjecture. (orig.)
Thermodynamics inducing massive particles' tunneling and cosmic censorship
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Baocheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Cai, Qing-yu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China); Zhan, Ming-sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Cold Atom Physics, Wuhan (China)
2010-08-15
By calculating the change of entropy, we prove that the first law of black hole thermodynamics leads to the tunneling probability of massive particles through the horizon, including the tunneling probability of massive charged particles from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and the Kerr-Newman black hole. Novelly, we find the trajectories of massive particles are close to that of massless particles near the horizon, although the trajectories of massive charged particles may be affected by electromagnetic forces. We show that Hawking radiation as massive particles tunneling does not lead to violation of the weak cosmic-censorship conjecture. (orig.)
Revealing evolved massive stars with Spitzer
Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Fabrika, S.
2010-06-01
Massive evolved stars lose a large fraction of their mass via copious stellar wind or instant outbursts. During certain evolutionary phases, they can be identified by the presence of their circumstellar nebulae. In this paper, we present the results of a search for compact nebulae (reminiscent of circumstellar nebulae around evolved massive stars) using archival 24-μm data obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. We have discovered 115 nebulae, most of which bear a striking resemblance to the circumstellar nebulae associated with luminous blue variables (LBVs) and late WN-type (WNL) Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We interpret this similarity as an indication that the central stars of detected nebulae are either LBVs or related evolved massive stars. Our interpretation is supported by follow-up spectroscopy of two dozen of these central stars, most of which turn out to be either candidate LBVs (cLBVs), blue supergiants or WNL stars. We expect that the forthcoming spectroscopy of the remaining objects from our list, accompanied by the spectrophotometric monitoring of the already discovered cLBVs, will further increase the known population of Galactic LBVs. This, in turn, will have profound consequences for better understanding the LBV phenomenon and its role in the transition between hydrogen-burning O stars and helium-burning WR stars. We also report on the detection of an arc-like structure attached to the cLBV HD 326823 and an arc associated with the LBV R99 (HD 269445) in the LMC. Partially based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). E-mail: vgvaram@mx.iki.rssi.ru (VVG); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); fabrika@sao.ru (SF)
A Massively Parallel Code for Polarization Calculations
Akiyama, Shizuka; Höflich, Peter
2001-03-01
We present an implementation of our Monte-Carlo radiation transport method for rapidly expanding, NLTE atmospheres for massively parallel computers which utilizes both the distributed and shared memory models. This allows us to take full advantage of the fast communication and low latency inherent to nodes with multiple CPUs, and to stretch the limits of scalability with the number of nodes compared to a version which is based on the shared memory model. Test calculations on a local 20-node Beowulf cluster with dual CPUs showed an improved scalability by about 40%.
Deflection of massive neutrinos by gravitational fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fargion, D.
1981-01-01
The curvature undergone by massive neutrino trajectories, passing by a mass M at a distance b from the center of a body, is examined. Calculations led to the following angle of deflection: δ rho = 2GM/b#betta# 2 sub(infinity)C 2 (1 + #betta# 2 sub(infinity)), where #betta#sub(infinity) is the dimensionless velocity of the particle at infinity. The ultrarelativistic limit (#betta#sub(infinity) = 1) coincides with the usual massless deflection. Physical consequences are considered. (author)
Body contouring following massive weight loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vijay Langer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.
Non-Pauli-Fierz Massive Gravitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol; Redi, Michele
2008-01-01
We study general Lorentz invariant theories of massive gravitons. We show that, contrary to the standard lore, there exist consistent theories where the graviton mass term violates Pauli-Fierz structure. For theories where the graviton is a resonance, this does not imply the existence of a scalar ghost if the deviation from a Pauli-Fierz structure becomes sufficiently small at high energies. These types of mass terms are required by any consistent realization of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model in higher dimension
Massive Preperitoneal Hematoma after a Subcutaneous Injection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hideki Katagiri
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Preperitoneal hematomas are rare and can develop after surgery or trauma. A 74-year-old woman, receiving systemic anticoagulation, developed a massive preperitoneal hematoma after a subcutaneous injection of teriparatide using a 32-gauge, 4 mm needle. In this patient, there were two factors, the subcutaneous injection of teriparatide and systemic anticoagulation, associated with development of the hematoma. These two factors are especially significant, because they are widely used clinically. Although extremely rare, physicians must consider this potentially life-threatening complication after subcutaneous injections, especially in patients receiving anticoagulation.
Hadroproduction of massive lepton pairs and QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, E.L.
1979-04-01
A survey is presented of some current issues of interest in attempts to describe the production of massive lepton pairs in hadronic collisions at high energies. I concentrate on the interpretation of data in terms of the parton model and on predictions derived from quantum-chromodynamics (QCD), their reliability and their confrontation with experiment. Among topics treated are the connection with deep-inelastic lepton scattering, universality of structure functions, and the behavior of cross-sections as a function of transverse momentum
Discovery of massive neutral vector mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1976-01-01
Personal accounts of the discovery of massive neutral vector mesons (psi particles) are given by researchers S. Ting, G. Goldhaber, and B. Richter. The double-arm spectrometer and the Cherenkov effect are explained in a technical note, and the solenoidal magnetic detector is discussed in an explanatory note for nonspecialists. Reprints of three papers in Physical Review Letters which announced the discovery of the particles are given: Experimental observation of a heavy particle J, Discovery of a narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation, and Discovery of a second narrow resonance in e + e - annihilation. A discussion of subsequent developments and scientific biographies of the three authors are also presented. 25 figures
Monopole Solutions in Topologically Massive Gauge Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming; Koh, Pin-Wai
2010-01-01
Monopoles in topologically massive SU(2) Yang-Mils-Higgs gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions with a Chern-Simon mass term have been studied by Pisarski some years ago. He argued that there is a monopole solution that is regular everywhere, but found that it does not possess finite action. There were no exact or numerical solutions being presented by him. Hence it is our purpose to further investigate this solution in more detail. We obtained numerical regular solutions that smoothly interpolates between the behavior at small and large distances for different values of Chern-Simon term strength and for several fixed values of Higgs field strength.
Massively parallel Fokker-Planck code ALLAp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batishcheva, A.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Craddock, G.G.; Djordjevic, V.
1996-01-01
The recently developed for workstations Fokker-Planck code ALLA simulates the temporal evolution of 1V, 2V and 1D2V collisional edge plasmas. In this work we present the results of code parallelization on the CRI T3D massively parallel platform (ALLAp version). Simultaneously we benchmark the 1D2V parallel vesion against an analytic self-similar solution of the collisional kinetic equation. This test is not trivial as it demands a very strong spatial temperature and density variation within the simulation domain. (orig.)
Massive Asynchronous Parallelization of Sparse Matrix Factorizations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chow, Edmond [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
2018-01-08
Solving sparse problems is at the core of many DOE computational science applications. We focus on the challenge of developing sparse algorithms that can fully exploit the parallelism in extreme-scale computing systems, in particular systems with massive numbers of cores per node. Our approach is to express a sparse matrix factorization as a large number of bilinear constraint equations, and then solving these equations via an asynchronous iterative method. The unknowns in these equations are the matrix entries of the factorization that is desired.
The Black Hole Radiation in Massive Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Arraut
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We apply the Bogoliubov transformations in order to connect two different vacuums, one located at past infinity and another located at future infinity around a black hole inside the scenario of the nonlinear theory of massive gravity. The presence of the extra degrees of freedom changes the behavior of the logarithmic singularity and, as a consequence, the relation between the two Bogoliubov coefficients. This has an effect on the number of particles, or equivalently, on the black hole temperature perceived by observers defining the time arbitrarily.
Bultinck, Patrick; Van Neck, Dimitri; Acke, Guillaume; Ayers, Paul W
2012-02-21
The Fukui function is considered as the diagonal element of the Fukui matrix in position space, where the Fukui matrix is the derivative of the one particle density matrix (1DM) with respect to the number of electrons. Diagonalization of the Fukui matrix, expressed in an orthogonal orbital basis, explains why regions in space with negative Fukui functions exist. Using a test set of molecules, electron correlation is found to have a remarkable effect on the eigenvalues of the Fukui matrix. The Fukui matrices at the independent electron model level are mathematically proven to always have an eigenvalue equal to exactly unity while the rest of the eigenvalues possibly differ from zero but sum to zero. The loss of idempotency of the 1DM at correlated levels of theory causes the loss of these properties. The influence of electron correlation is examined in detail and the frontier molecular orbital concept is extended to correlated levels of theory by defining it as the eigenvector of the Fukui matrix with the largest eigenvalue. The effect of degeneracy on the Fukui matrix is examined in detail, revealing that this is another way by which the unity eigenvalue and perfect pairing of eigenvalues can disappear.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Javier Florez Bolivar
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la apropiación que hicieron una serie de intelectuales colombianos sobre el racial que distintos autores del mundo europeo y estadounidense, ampliamente inspirados las ideas del racismo científico, consolidaron en el transito en el siglo XIX al XX. Tomando como base debate conocido como la degeneración de las razas, intento sustentar la idea de que los discursos que torno a los sectores negros y mulatos se construyeron en los mismos tuvieron unos reales concretos que derivaron en disposiciones ampliamente utilizadas en contextos Cartagena, hasta el punto de incidir en las practicas sociales de los individuos al radicalizar las relaciones socio-raciales que históricamente han caracterizado esta sociedad, y con ello se una suerte de racismo institucional entre los años de 1910 y 1930.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mochalov, M. A., E-mail: postmaster@ifv.vniief.ru; Il’kaev, R. I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russia Research Institute for Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, A. L.; Blikov, A. O.; Ogorodnikov, V. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russia Research Institute for Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, V. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Iosilevskii, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
We report on the experimental results on the quasi-isentropic compressibility of a strongly nonideal deuterium plasma that have been obtained on setups of cylindrical and spherical geometries in the pressure range of up to P ≈ 5500 GPa. We describe the characteristics of experimental setups, as well as the methods for the diagnostics and interpretation of the experimental results. The trajectory of metal shells that compress the deuterium plasma was detected using powerful pulsed X-ray sources with a maximal electron energy of up to 60 MeV. The values of the plasma density, which varied from ρ ≈ 0.8 g/cm{sup 3} to ρ ≈ 6 g/cm{sup 3}, which corresponds to pressure P ≈ 5500 GPa (55 Mbar), were determined from the measured value of the shell radius at the instant that it was stopped. The pressure of the compressed plasma was determined using gasdynamic calculations taking into account the actual characteristics of the experimental setups. We have obtained a strongly compressed deuterium plasma in which electron degeneracy effects under the conditions of strong interparticle interaction are significant. The experimental results have been compared with the theoretical models of a strongly nonideal partly degenerate plasma. We have obtained experimental confirmation of the plasma phase transition in the pressure range near 150 GPa (1.5 Mbar), which is in keeping with the conclusion concerning anomaly in the compressibility of the deuterium plasma drawn in [1].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Bihong; Zhang Yue; Chen Jincan
2006-01-01
The Stirling refrigeration cycle using an ideal Bose-gas as the working substance is called the Bose-Stirling refrigeration cycle, which is different from other thermodynamic cycles such as the Carnot cycle, Ericsson cycle, Brayton cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle and Atkinson cycle working with an ideal Bose gas and may be operated across the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of the Bose system. The performance of the cycle is investigated, based on the equation of state of an ideal Bose gas. The inherent regenerative losses of the cycle are considered and the coefficient of performance and the amount of refrigeration of the cycle are calculated. The results obtained here are compared with those derived from the classical Stirling refrigeration cycle, using an ideal gas as the working substance. The influence of quantum degeneracy and inherent regenerative losses on the performance of the Bose Stirling refrigeration cycle operated in different temperature regions is discussed in detail, and consequently, general performance characteristics of the cycle are revealed
Testing the Larson relations in massive clumps
Traficante, A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Elia, D.; Fuller, G. A.; Merello, M.; Molinari, S.; Peretto, N.; Schisano, E.; Di Giorgio, A.
2018-06-01
We tested the validity of the three Larson relations in a sample of 213 massive clumps selected from the Herschel infrared Galactic Plane (Hi-GAL) survey, also using data from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey of 3-mm emission lines. The clumps are divided into five evolutionary stages so that we can also discuss the Larson relations as a function of evolution. We show that this ensemble does not follow the three Larson relations, regardless of the clump's evolutionary phase. A consequence of this breakdown is that the dependence of the virial parameter αvir on mass (and radius) is only a function of the gravitational energy, independent of the kinetic energy of the system; thus, αvir is not a good descriptor of clump dynamics. Our results suggest that clumps with clear signatures of infall motions are statistically indistinguishable from clumps with no such signatures. The observed non-thermal motions are not necessarily ascribed to turbulence acting to sustain the gravity, but they might be a result of the gravitational collapse at the clump scales. This seems to be particularly true for the most massive (M ≥ 1000 M⊙) clumps in the sample, where exceptionally high magnetic fields might not be enough to stabilize the collapse.
Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter.
Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S
2016-03-11
The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01M_{p} is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter.
Massive neutrinos in almost-commutative geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephan, Christoph A.
2007-01-01
In the noncommutative formulation of the standard model of particle physics by Chamseddine and Connes [Commun. Math. Phys. 182, 155 (1996), e-print hep-th/9606001], one of the three generations of fermions has to possess a massless neutrino. [C. P. Martin et al., Phys. Rep. 29, 363 (1998), e-print hep-th-9605001]. This formulation is consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments and the known bounds of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix). But future experiments which may be able to detect neutrino masses directly and high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix might need massive neutrinos in all three generations. In this paper we present an almost-commutative geometry which allows for a standard model with massive neutrinos in all three generations. This model does not follow in a straightforward way from the version of Chamseddine and Connes since it requires an internal algebra with four summands of matrix algebras, instead of three summands for the model with one massless neutrino
Rio Blanco massive hydraulic fracture: project definition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
A recent Federal Power Commission feasibility study assessed the possibility of economically producing gas from three Rocky Mountain basins. These basins have potentially productive horizons 2,000 to 4,000 feet thick containing an estimated total of 600 trillion cubic feet of gas in place. However, the producing sands are of such low permeability and heterogeneity that conventional methods have failed to develop these basins economically. The Natural Gas Technology Task Force, responsible for preparing the referenced feasibility study, determined that, if effective well stimulation methods for these basins can be developed, it might be possible to recover 40 to 50 percent of the gas in place. The Task Force pointed out two possible underground fracturing methods: Nuclear explosive fracturing, and massive hydraulic fracturing. They argued that once technical viability has been demonstrated, and with adequate economic incentives, there should be no reason why one or even both of these approaches could not be employed, thus making a major contribution toward correcting the energy deficiency of the Nation. A joint Government-industry demonstration program has been proposed to test the relative effectiveness of massive hydraulic fracturing of the same formation and producing horizons that were stimulated by the Rio Blanco nuclear project
MASSIVE PLEURAL EFFUSION: A CASE REPORT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Putu Bayu Dian Tresna Dewi
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Pleural effusion is abnormal fluid accumulation within pleural cavity between the parietal pleura and visceralis pleura, either transudation or exudates. A 47 year-old female presented with dyspneu, cough, and decreased of appetite. She had history of right lung tumor. Physical examination revealed asymmetric chest movement where right part of lung was lagged during breathing, vocal fremitus on the right chest was decreased, dullness at the right chest, decreased vesicular sound in the right chest, enlargement of supraclavicular and colli dextra lymph nodes, and hepatomegali. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis. Clinical chemistry analysis showed hipoalbumin and decreased liver function. Blood gas analysis showed hypoxemia. Pleural fluid analysis showed an exudates, murky red liquid color filled with erythrocytes, number of cells. Cytological examination showed existence of a non-small cell carcinoma tends adeno type. From chest X-ray showed massive right pleural effusion. Based on history, physical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with massive pleural effusion et causa suspected malignancy. She had underwent pleural fluid evacuation and treated with analgesics and antibiotics.
Massive clot formation after tooth extraction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santosh Hunasgi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Oral surgical procedures mainly tooth extraction can be related with an extended hemorrhage owed to the nature of the process resulting in an "open wound." The attempt of this paper is to present a case of massive postoperative clot formation after tooth extraction and highlight on the oral complications of surgical procedures. A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Dental Clinic for evaluation and extraction of grossly decayed 46. Clinical evaluation of 46 revealed root stumps. Extraction of the root stumps was performed, and it was uneventful. Hemostasis was achieved and postsurgical instructions were specified to the patient. The patient reported to the clinic, the very subsequent morning with a criticism of bleeding at the extraction site. On clinical examination, bleeding was noted from the socket in relation to 46. To control bleeding, oral hemostatic drugs Revici - E (Ethamsylate 500 mg was prescribed and bleeding was stopped in 2 h. However, a massive clot was formed at the extraction site. Further, this clot resolved on its own in 1-week time. Despite the fact that dental extraction is considered to be a minor surgical procedure, some cases may present with life-threatening complications including hemorrhage. Vigilant and significant history taking, physical and dental examinations prior to dental procedures are a must to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.
One-loop calculations with massive particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oldenborgh, G.J. van.
1990-01-01
In this thesis some techniques for performing one-loop calculations with massive particles are presented. Numerical techniques are presented necessary for evaluating one-loop integrals which occur in one-loop calculations of photon-photon scattering. The algorithms have been coded in FORTRAN (to evaluate the scalar integrals) and the algebraic language FORM (to reduce the tensor integrals to scalar integrals). Applications are made in the theory of the strong interaction, QCD, i.e. in handling one-loop integrals with massive particles, in order to regulate the infinities by mass parameters encountered in this theory. However this simplifies the computation considerably, the description of the proton structure functions have to be renormalized in order to obtain physical results. This renormalization is different from the published results for the gluon and thus has to be redone. The first physics results that have been obtained with these new methods are presented. These concern heavy quark production in semi-leptonic interactions, for instance neutrino charm production and top production at the electron-proton (ep) collider HERA and the proposed LEP/LHC combination. Total and differential cross-sections for one-loop corrections to top production at the HERA and proposed LEP/HLC ep colliders are given and structure functions for charmed quark production are compared with previously published results. (author). 58 refs.; 18 figs.; 5 tabs
Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia
2015-01-01
Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model
Evolution of massive close binary stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masevich, A.G.; Tutukov, A.V.
1982-01-01
Some problems of the evolution of massive close binary stars are discussed. Most of them are nonevolutionized stars with close masses of components. After filling the Roche cavity and exchange of matter between the components the Wolf-Rayet star is formed. As a result of the supernovae explosion a neutron star or a black hole is formed in the system. The system does not disintegrate but obtains high space velocity owing to the loss of the supernovae envelope. The satellite of the neutron star or black hole - the star of the O or B spectral class loses about 10 -6 of the solar mass for a year. Around the neighbouring component a disc of this matter is formed the incidence of which on a compact star leads to X radiation appearance. The neutron star cannot absorb the whole matter of the widening component and the binary system submerges into the common envelope. As a result of the evolution of massive close binary systems single neutron stars can appear which after the lapse of some time become radiopulsars. Radiopulsars with such high space velocities have been found in our Galaxy [ru
Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hennebelle, Patrick; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
2018-05-01
Recent observations suggest an that intensive molecular cloud collision can trigger massive star/cluster formation. The most important physical process caused by the collision is a shock compression. In this paper, the influence of a shock wave on the evolution of a molecular cloud is studied numerically by using isothermal magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity. Adaptive mesh refinement and sink particle techniques are used to follow the long-time evolution of the shocked cloud. We find that the shock compression of a turbulent inhomogeneous molecular cloud creates massive filaments, which lie perpendicularly to the background magnetic field, as we have pointed out in a previous paper. The massive filament shows global collapse along the filament, which feeds a sink particle located at the collapse center. We observe a high accretion rate \\dot{M}_acc> 10^{-4} M_{⊙}yr-1 that is high enough to allow the formation of even O-type stars. The most massive sink particle achieves M > 50 M_{⊙} in a few times 105 yr after the onset of the filament collapse.
MASSIVE+: The Growth Histories of MASSIVE Survey Galaxies from their Globular Cluster Colors
Blakeslee, John
2017-08-01
The MASSIVE survey is targeting the 100 most massive galaxies within 108 Mpc that are visible in the northern sky. These most massive galaxies in the present-day universe reside in a surprisingly wide variety of environments, from rich clusters to fossil groups to near isolation. We propose to use WFC3/UVIS and ACS to carry out a deep imaging study of the globular cluster populations around a selected subset of the MASSIVE targets. Though much is known about GC systems of bright galaxies in rich clusters, we know surprisingly little about the effects of environment on these systems. The MASSIVE sample provides a golden opportunity to learn about the systematics of GC systems and what they can tell us about environmental drivers on the evolution of the highest mass galaxies. The most pressing questions to be addressed include: (1) Do isolated giants have the same constant mass fraction of GCs to total halo mass as BCGs of similar luminosity? (2) Do their GC systems show the same color (metallicity) distribution, which is an outcome of the mass spectrum of gas-rich halos during hierarchical growth? (3) Do the GCs in isolated high-mass galaxies follow the same radial distribution versus metallicity as in rich environments (a test of the relative importance of growth by accretion)? (4) Do the GCs of galaxies in sparse environments follow the same mass function? Our proposed second-band imaging will enable us to secure answers to these questions and add enormously to the legacy value of existing HST imaging of the highest mass galaxies in the universe.
Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendi, S.H.; Bordbar, G.H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: ghbordbar@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: behzad.eslampanah@gmail.com, E-mail: sh.panahiyan@gmail.com [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-01
Motivated by the recent interests in spin−2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.
Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity
Hendi, S. H.; Bordbar, G. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.
2017-07-01
Motivated by the recent interests in spin-2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.
Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendi, S.H.; Bordbar, G.H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S.
2017-01-01
Motivated by the recent interests in spin−2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.
Massive supermultiplets in four-dimensional superstring theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Wanzhe; Lüst, Dieter; Schlotterer, Oliver
2012-01-01
We extend the discussion of Feng et al. (2011) on massive Regge excitations on the first mass level of four-dimensional superstring theory. For the lightest massive modes of the open string sector, universal supermultiplets common to all four-dimensional compactifications with N=1,2 and N=4 spacetime supersymmetry are constructed respectively - both their vertex operators and their supersymmetry variations. Massive spinor helicity methods shed light on the interplay between individual polarization states.
Exact Solutions in 3D New Massive Gravity
Ahmedov, Haji; Aliev, Alikram N.
2011-01-01
We show that the field equations of new massive gravity (NMG) consist of a massive (tensorial) Klein-Gordon-type equation with a curvature-squared source term and a constraint equation. We also show that, for algebraic type D and N spacetimes, the field equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) can be thought of as the “square root” of the massive Klein-Gordon-type equation. Using this fact, we establish a simple framework for mapping all types D and N solutions of TMG into NMG. Finally, we present new examples of types D and N solutions to NMG.
Holographic heat engine within the framework of massive gravity
Mo, Jie-Xiong; Li, Gu-Qiang
2018-05-01
Heat engine models are constructed within the framework of massive gravity in this paper. For the four-dimensional charged black holes in massive gravity, it is shown that the existence of graviton mass improves the heat engine efficiency significantly. The situation is more complicated for the five-dimensional neutral black holes since the constant which corresponds to the third massive potential also contributes to the efficiency. It is also shown that the existence of graviton mass can improve the heat engine efficiency. Moreover, we probe how the massive gravity influences the behavior of the heat engine efficiency approaching the Carnot efficiency.
Very massive runaway stars from three-body encounters
Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia
2011-01-01
Very massive stars preferentially reside in the cores of their parent clusters and form binary or multiple systems. We study the role of tight very massive binaries in the origin of the field population of very massive stars. We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between single (massive) stars and a very massive binary with parameters similar to those of the most massive known Galactic binaries, WR 20a and NGC 3603-A1. We found that these three-body encounters could be responsible for the origin of high peculiar velocities (≥70 km s-1) observed for some very massive (≥60-70 M⊙) runaway stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (e.g. λ Cep, BD+43°3654, Sk -67°22, BI 237, 30 Dor 016), which can hardly be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario. The production of high-velocity massive stars via three-body encounters is accompanied by the recoil of the binary in the opposite direction to the ejected star. We show that the relative position of the very massive binary R145 and the runaway early B-type star Sk-69°206 on the sky is consistent with the possibility that both objects were ejected from the central cluster, R136, of the star-forming region 30 Doradus via the same dynamical event - a three-body encounter.
Massively parallel Fokker-Planck calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirin, A.A.
1990-01-01
This paper reports that the Fokker-Planck package FPPAC, which solves the complete nonlinear multispecies Fokker-Planck collision operator for a plasma in two-dimensional velocity space, has been rewritten for the Connection Machine 2. This has involved allocation of variables either to the front end or the CM2, minimization of data flow, and replacement of Cray-optimized algorithms with ones suitable for a massively parallel architecture. Calculations have been carried out on various Connection Machines throughout the country. Results and timings on these machines have been compared to each other and to those on the static memory Cray-2. For large problem size, the Connection Machine 2 is found to be cost-efficient
Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vamik D. Volkan
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This chapter examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression. When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.
Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers.
Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin
2016-03-15
The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.
Signatures of massive sgoldstinos at hadron colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perazzi, Elena; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio
2000-01-01
In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model with a very light gravitino, the effective theory at the weak scale should contain not only the goldstino G-tilde, but also its supersymmetric partners, the sgoldstinos. In the simplest case, the goldstino is a gauge-singlet and its superpartners are two neutral spin-0 particles, S and P. We study possible signals of massive sgoldstinos at hadron colliders, focusing on those that are most relevant for the Tevatron. We show that inclusive production of sgoldstinos, followed by their decay into two photons, can lead to observable signals or to stringent combined bounds on the gravitino and sgoldstino masses. Sgoldstino decays into two gluon jets may provide a useful complementary signature
Scalable Strategies for Computing with Massive Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Kane
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents two complementary statistical computing frameworks that address challenges in parallel processing and the analysis of massive data. First, the foreach package allows users of the R programming environment to define parallel loops that may be run sequentially on a single machine, in parallel on a symmetric multiprocessing (SMP machine, or in cluster environments without platform-specific code. Second, the bigmemory package implements memory- and file-mapped data structures that provide (a access to arbitrarily large data while retaining a look and feel that is familiar to R users and (b data structures that are shared across processor cores in order to support efficient parallel computing techniques. Although these packages may be used independently, this paper shows how they can be used in combination to address challenges that have effectively been beyond the reach of researchers who lack specialized software development skills or expensive hardware.
Computational chaos in massively parallel neural networks
Barhen, Jacob; Gulati, Sandeep
1989-01-01
A fundamental issue which directly impacts the scalability of current theoretical neural network models to massively parallel embodiments, in both software as well as hardware, is the inherent and unavoidable concurrent asynchronicity of emerging fine-grained computational ensembles and the possible emergence of chaotic manifestations. Previous analyses attributed dynamical instability to the topology of the interconnection matrix, to parasitic components or to propagation delays. However, researchers have observed the existence of emergent computational chaos in a concurrently asynchronous framework, independent of the network topology. Researcher present a methodology enabling the effective asynchronous operation of large-scale neural networks. Necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing concurrent asynchronous convergence are established in terms of contracting operators. Lyapunov exponents are computed formally to characterize the underlying nonlinear dynamics. Simulation results are presented to illustrate network convergence to the correct results, even in the presence of large delays.
Substructure of Highly Boosted Massive Jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alon, Raz [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)
2012-10-01
Modern particle accelerators enable researchers to study new high energy frontiers which have never been explored before. This realm opens possibilities to further examine known fields such as Quantum Chromodynamics. In addition, it allows searching for new physics and setting new limits on the existence of such. This study examined the substructure of highly boosted massive jets measured by the CDF II detector. Events from 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider were collected out of a total integrated luminosity of 5.95 fb$^{-1}$. They were selected to have at least one jet with transverse momentum above 400 GeV/c. The jet mass, angularity, and planar flow were measured and compared with predictions of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, and were found to be consistent with the theory. A search for boosted top quarks was conducted and resulted in an upper limit on the production cross section of such top quarks.
The Search for Stable, Massive, Elementary Particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Peter C.
2001-01-01
In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches--what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review
Hadronic production of massive lepton pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, E.L.
1982-12-01
A review is presented of recent experimental and theoretical progress in studies of the production of massive lepton pairs in hadronic collisions. I begin with the classical Drell-Yan annihilation model and its predictions. Subsequently, I discuss deviations from scaling, the status of the proofs of factorization in the parton model, higher-order terms in the perturbative QCD expansion, the discrepancy between measured and predicted yields (K factor), high-twist terms, soft gluon effects, transverse-momentum distributions, implications for weak vector boson (W +- and Z 0 ) yields and production properties, nuclear A dependence effects, correlations of the lepton pair with hadrons in the final state, and angular distributions in the lepton-pair rest frame
Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.
2016-01-01
. In this case the WIMP miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian Interacting Massive Particle......, we show that the most natural mass larger than $0.01\\,\\textrm{M}_p$ is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the CMB. This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the KK graviton mode...... as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark...
Effect of massive disks on bulge isophotes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monet, D.G.; Richstone, D.O.; Schechter, P.L.
1981-01-01
Massive disks produce flattened equipotentials. Unless the stars in a galaxy bulge are preferentially hotter in the z direction than in the plane, the isophotes will be at least as flat as the equipotentials. The comparison of two galaxy models having flat rotation curves with the available surface photometry for five external galaxies does not restrict the mass fraction which might reside in the disk. However, star counts in our own Galaxy indicate that unless the disk terminates close to the solar circle, no more than half the mass within that circle lies in the disk. The remaining half must lie either in the bulge or, more probably, in a third dark, round, dynamically distinct component
Neural nets for massively parallel optimization
Dixon, Laurence C. W.; Mills, David
1992-07-01
To apply massively parallel processing systems to the solution of large scale optimization problems it is desirable to be able to evaluate any function f(z), z (epsilon) Rn in a parallel manner. The theorem of Cybenko, Hecht Nielsen, Hornik, Stinchcombe and White, and Funahasi shows that this can be achieved by a neural network with one hidden layer. In this paper we address the problem of the number of nodes required in the layer to achieve a given accuracy in the function and gradient values at all points within a given n dimensional interval. The type of activation function needed to obtain nonsingular Hessian matrices is described and a strategy for obtaining accurate minimal networks presented.
Climate models on massively parallel computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitart, F.; Rouvillois, P.
1993-01-01
First results got on massively parallel computers (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data and Simple Instruction Multiple Data) allow to consider building of coupled models with high resolutions. This would make possible simulation of thermoaline circulation and other interaction phenomena between atmosphere and ocean. The increasing of computers powers, and then the improvement of resolution will go us to revise our approximations. Then hydrostatic approximation (in ocean circulation) will not be valid when the grid mesh will be of a dimension lower than a few kilometers: We shall have to find other models. The expert appraisement got in numerical analysis at the Center of Limeil-Valenton (CEL-V) will be used again to imagine global models taking in account atmosphere, ocean, ice floe and biosphere, allowing climate simulation until a regional scale
Massive Outflows Associated with ATLASGAL Clumps
Yang, A. Y.; Thompson, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Tian, W. W.
2018-03-01
We have undertaken the largest survey for outflows within the Galactic plane using simultaneously observed {}13{CO} and {{{C}}}18{{O}} data. Out of a total of 919 ATLASGAL clumps, 325 have data suitable to identify outflows, and 225 (69% ± 3%) show high-velocity outflows. The clumps with detected outflows show significantly higher clump masses ({M}clump}), bolometric luminosities ({L}bol}), luminosity-to-mass ratios ({L}bol}/{M}clump}), and peak H2 column densities ({N}{{{H}}2}) compared to those without outflows. Outflow activity has been detected within the youngest quiescent clump (i.e., 70 μ {{m}} weak) in this sample, and we find that the outflow detection rate increases with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, {L}bol}/{M}clump}, and {N}{{{H}}2}, approaching 90% in some cases (UC H II regions = 93% ± 3%; masers = 86% ± 4%; HC H II regions = 100%). This high detection rate suggests that outflows are ubiquitous phenomena of massive star formation (MSF). The mean outflow mass entrainment rate implies a mean accretion rate of ∼ {10}-4 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, in full agreement with the accretion rate predicted by theoretical models of MSF. Outflow properties are tightly correlated with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, and {L}bol}/{M}clump} and show the strongest relation with the bolometric clump luminosity. This suggests that outflows might be driven by the most massive and luminous source within the clump. The correlations are similar for both low-mass and high-mass outflows over 7 orders of magnitude, indicating that they may share a similar outflow mechanism. Outflow energy is comparable to the turbulent energy within the clump; however, we find no evidence that outflows increase the level of clump turbulence as the clumps evolve. This implies that the origin of turbulence within clumps is fixed before the onset of star formation.
Modular action on the massive algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saffary, T.
2005-12-01
The subject of this thesis is the modular group of automorphisms (σ m t ) t element of R , m>0, acting on the massive algebra of local observables M m (O) having their support in O is contained in R 4 . After a compact introduction to micro-local analysis and the theory of one-parameter groups of automorphisms, which are used extensively throughout the investigation, we are concerned with modular theory and its consequences in mathematics, e.g., Connes' cocycle theorem and classification of type III factors and Jones' index theory, as well as in physics, e.g., the determination of local von Neumann algebras to be hyperfinite factors of type III 1 , the formulation of thermodynamic equilibrium states for infinite-dimensional quantum systems (KMS states) and the discovery of modular action as geometric transformations. However, our main focus are its applications in physics, in particular the modular action as Lorentz boosts on the Rindler wedge, as dilations on the forward light cone and as conformal mappings on the double cone. Subsequently, their most important implications in local quantum physics are discussed. The purpose of this thesis is to shed more light on the transition from the known massless modular action to the wanted massive one in the case of double cones. First of all the infinitesimal generatore δ m of the group (σ m t ) t element of R is investigated, especially some assumptions on its structure are verified explicitly for the first time for two concrete examples. Then, two strategies for the calculation of σ m t itself are discussed. Some formalisms and results from operator theory and the method of second quantisation used in this thesis are made available in the appendix. (orig.)
METHYL CYANIDE OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MASSIVE PROTOSTARS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Bieging, J. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States)
2013-07-01
We report the results of a survey in the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition toward a sample of massive proto-stellar candidates. The observations were carried out with the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham, AZ. We detected this molecular line in 9 out of 21 observed sources. In six cases this is the first detection of this transition. We also obtained full beam sampled cross-scans for five sources which show that the lower K-components can be extended on the arcminute angular scale. The higher K-components, however, are always found to be compact with respect to our 36'' beam. A Boltzmann population diagram analysis of the central spectra indicates CH{sub 3}CN column densities of about 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, and rotational temperatures above 50 K, which confirms these sources as hot molecular cores. Independent fits to line velocity and width for the individual K-components resulted in the detection of an increasing blueshift with increasing line excitation for four sources. Comparison with mid-infrared (mid-IR) images from the SPITZER GLIMPSE/IRAC archive for six sources show that the CH{sub 3}CN emission is generally coincident with a bright mid-IR source. Our data clearly show that the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition is a good probe of the hot molecular gas near massive protostars, and provide the basis for future interferometric studies.
MASSIVE INFANT STARS ROCK THEIR CRADLE
2002-01-01
Extremely intense radiation from newly born, ultra-bright stars has blown a glowing spherical bubble in the nebula N83B, also known as NGC 1748. A new NASA Hubble Space Telescope image has helped to decipher the complex interplay of gas and radiation of a star-forming region in a nearby galaxy. The image graphically illustrates just how these massive stars sculpt their environment by generating powerful winds that alter the shape of the parent gaseous nebula. These processes are also seen in our Milky Way in regions like the Orion Nebula. The Hubble telescope is famous for its contribution to our knowledge about star formation in very distant galaxies. Although most of the stars in the Universe were born several billions of years ago, when the Universe was young, star formation still continues today. This new Hubble image shows a very compact star-forming region in a small part of one of our neighboring galaxies - the Large Magellanic Cloud. This galaxy lies only 165,000 light-years from our Milky Way and can easily be seen with the naked eye from the Southern Hemisphere. Young, massive, ultra-bright stars are seen here just as they are born and emerge from the shelter of their pre-natal molecular cloud. Catching these hefty stars at their birthplace is not as easy as it may seem. Their high mass means that the young stars evolve very rapidly and are hard to find at this critical stage. Furthermore, they spend a good fraction of their youth hidden from view, shrouded by large quantities of dust in a molecular cloud. The only chance is to observe them just as they start to emerge from their cocoon - and then only with very high-resolution telescopes. Astronomers from France, the U.S., and Germany have used Hubble to study the fascinating interplay between gas, dust, and radiation from the newly born stars in this nebula. Its peculiar and turbulent structure has been revealed for the first time. This high-resolution study has also uncovered several individual stars
Lattice degeneracies of geometric fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1983-05-01
We give the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom carried by geometric fermions on all lattices of maximal symmetries in d = 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. These numbers are lattice dependent, but in the (free) continuum limit, part of the degrees of freedom have to escape to infinity by a Wilson mechanism built in, and 2sup(d) survive for any lattice. On self-reciprocal lattices we compare the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions with the minimal numbers of naive fermions on these lattices and argue that these numbers are equal. (orig.)
A spin-4 analog of 3D massive gravity
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kovacevic, Marija; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.; Yin, Yihao
2011-01-01
A sixth-order, but ghost-free, gauge-invariant action is found for a fourth-rank symmetric tensor potential in a three-dimensional (3D) Minkowski spacetime. It propagates two massive modes of spin 4 that are interchanged by parity and is thus a spin-4 analog of linearized 'new massive gravity'. Also
Collaborative Calibrated Peer Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses
Boudria, Asma; Lafifi, Yacine; Bordjiba, Yamina
2018-01-01
The free nature and open access courses in the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) allow the facilities of disseminating information for a large number of participants. However, the "massive" propriety can generate many pedagogical problems, such as the assessment of learners, which is considered as the major difficulty facing in the…
Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait
Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul
2011-01-01
Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight
On massive gravitons in 2+1 dimensions
Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul; Lazkoz, R; Vera, R
2010-01-01
The Fierz-Pauli (FP) free field theory for massive spin-2 particles can be extended, in a spacetime of (1+2) dimensions (3D), to a generally covariant parity-preserving interacting field theory, in at least two ways. One is "new massive gravity" (NMG), with an action that involves curvature-squared
Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg
2010-08-25
Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.
Complicated Massive Choledochal Cyst: A Case Report | Okoromah ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Choledochal cysts are rare congenital anomalies resulting from congenital dilatations of the common bile duct (CBD) and usually they present during infancy with cholestatic jaundice. This report is on a massive-sized choledochal cyst associated with massive abdominal distention, respiratory embarrassment, postprandial ...
Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma
Stanworth, Simon J.; Morris, Timothy P.; Gaarder, Christine; Goslings, J. Carel; Maegele, Marc; Cohen, Mitchell J.; König, Thomas C.; Davenport, Ross A.; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Johansson, Pär I.; Allard, Shubha; Johnson, Tony; Brohi, Karim
2010-01-01
The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens of modern trauma care are
The coupling between pulsation and mass loss in massive stars
Townsend, Rich
2007-01-01
To what extent can pulsational instabilities resolve the mass-loss problem of massive stars? How important is pulsation in structuring and modulating the winds of these stars? What role does pulsation play in redistributing angular momentum in massive stars? Although I cannot offer answers to these questions, I hope at the very least to explain how they come to be asked.
An Alternative Technique in the Control of Massive Presacral Rectal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Bleeding control was provided by GORE‑TEX® graft. We conclude that fıxatıon of GORE‑TEX® aortic patch should be kept in mind for uncontrolled massive presacral bleeding. KEYWORDS: GORE‑TEX® graft, presacral bleeding, rectal cancer. An Alternative Technique in the Control of Massive Presacral Rectal. Bleeding: ...
The VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars
Evans, C.; Langer, N.; Brott, I.; Hunter, I.; Smartt, S.J.; Lennon, D.J.
2008-01-01
The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars was an ESO Large Programme to understand rotational mixing and stellar mass loss in different metallicity environments, in order to better constrain massive star evolution. We gathered high-quality spectra of over 800 stars in the Galaxy and in the Magellanic
Massive Splenomegaly in Children: Laparoscopic Versus Open Splenectomy
Hassan, Mohamed E.; Al Ali, Khalid
2014-01-01
Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic splenectomy for massive splenomegaly is still a controversial procedure as compared with open splenectomy. We aimed to compare the feasibility of laparoscopic splenectomy versus open splenectomy for massive splenomegaly from different surgical aspects in children. Methods: The data of children aged
Interactions between massive dark halos and warped disks
Kuijken, K; Persic, M; Salucci, P
1997-01-01
The normal mode theory for warping of galaxy disks, in which disks are assumed to be tilted with respect to the equator of a massive, flattened dark halo, assumes a rigid, fixed halo. However, consideration of the back-reaction by a misaligned disk on a massive particle halo shows there to be strong
Massive Born--Infeld and Other Dual Pairs
Ferrara, S
2015-01-01
We consider massive dual pairs of p-forms and (D-p-1)-forms described by non-linear Lagrangians, where non-linear curvature terms in one theory translate into non-linear mass-like terms in the dual theory. In particular, for D=2p and p even the two non-linear structures coincide when the non-linear massless theory is self-dual. This state of affairs finds a natural realization in the four-dimensional massive N=1 supersymmetric Born-Infeld action, which describes either a massive vector multiplet or a massive linear (tensor) multiplet with a Born-Infeld mass-like term. These systems should play a role for the massive gravitino multiplet obtained from a partial super-Higgs in N=2 Supergravity.
Method of degassifying a massive of rock
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levin, M M; Krivosheev, V O; Preobrazhenskaia, E I; Talapkerov, A Sh; Taushkin, G T
1979-05-30
This invention concerns the mining industry, chiefly the coal industry, and can be used for the degasification of coal layers and interfering rock. The method of preliminary extraction of gas with underground development of burning minerals, including the pumping of gas through a collector, carried in the plane of the degasifying layer, discharged from rock pressure by means of extracting the lower lying layer, is known. However, the given method does not make it possible to degasify the interfering rock. Another method, consisting of the fact that from the mining development in the lateral rock, chambers are made, from which a group of wells are bored, and the latter are united with the gas removing system, is well known. This method has the inadequacy that the well of each chamber is connected to the gas removing system of the pipelines, and this leads to an increase in the price of the method. A new system is presented for the degasification of the massive of rock which is presented in an illustration...... The advantage of the suggested method consists of the fact that material outlays are reduced for the unification of each chamber with the gas removing pipeline, and besides this, the wells, connecting the chambers are drains for the surrounding rock, which increases the effectiveness of the degasification.
Massive hybrid parallelism for fully implicit multiphysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaston, D. R.; Permann, C. J.; Andrs, D.; Peterson, J. W.
2013-01-01
As hardware advances continue to modify the supercomputing landscape, traditional scientific software development practices will become more outdated, ineffective, and inefficient. The process of rewriting/retooling existing software for new architectures is a Sisyphean task, and results in substantial hours of development time, effort, and money. Software libraries which provide an abstraction of the resources provided by such architectures are therefore essential if the computational engineering and science communities are to continue to flourish in this modern computing environment. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework enables complex multiphysics analysis tools to be built rapidly by scientists, engineers, and domain specialists, while also allowing them to both take advantage of current HPC architectures, and efficiently prepare for future supercomputer designs. MOOSE employs a hybrid shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel model and provides a complete and consistent interface for creating multiphysics analysis tools. In this paper, a brief discussion of the mathematical algorithms underlying the framework and the internal object-oriented hybrid parallel design are given. Representative massively parallel results from several applications areas are presented, and a brief discussion of future areas of research for the framework are provided. (authors)
Massively Parallel Dimension Independent Adaptive Metropolis
Chen, Yuxin
2015-05-14
This work considers black-box Bayesian inference over high-dimensional parameter spaces. The well-known and widely respected adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm is extended herein to asymptotically scale uniformly with respect to the underlying parameter dimension, by respecting the variance, for Gaussian targets. The result- ing algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (DIAM) algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non-Gaussian targets. This algorithm is further improved, and the possibility of probing high-dimensional targets is enabled, via GPU-accelerated numerical libraries and periodically synchronized concurrent chains (justified a posteriori). Asymptoti- cally in dimension, this massively parallel dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (MPDIAM) GPU implementation exhibits a factor of four improvement versus the CPU-based Intel MKL version alone, which is itself already a factor of three improve- ment versus the serial version. The scaling to multiple CPUs and GPUs exhibits a form of strong scaling in terms of the time necessary to reach a certain convergence criterion, through a combination of longer time per sample batch (weak scaling) and yet fewer necessary samples to convergence. This is illustrated by e ciently sampling from several Gaussian and non-Gaussian targets for dimension d 1000.
Multiplexed microsatellite recovery using massively parallel sequencing
Jennings, T.N.; Knaus, B.J.; Mullins, T.D.; Haig, S.M.; Cronn, R.C.
2011-01-01
Conservation and management of natural populations requires accurate and inexpensive genotyping methods. Traditional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), marker analysis remains a popular genotyping method because of the comparatively low cost of marker development, ease of analysis and high power of genotype discrimination. With the availability of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), it is now possible to sequence microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries in multiplex pools. To test this approach, we prepared seven microsatellite-enriched, barcoded genomic libraries from diverse taxa (two conifer trees, five birds) and sequenced these on one lane of the Illumina Genome Analyzer using paired-end 80-bp reads. In this experiment, we screened 6.1 million sequences and identified 356958 unique microreads that contained di- or trinucleotide microsatellites. Examination of four species shows that our conversion rate from raw sequences to polymorphic markers compares favourably to Sanger- and 454-based methods. The advantage of multiplexed MPS is that the staggering capacity of modern microread sequencing is spread across many libraries; this reduces sample preparation and sequencing costs to less than $400 (USD) per species. This price is sufficiently low that microsatellite libraries could be prepared and sequenced for all 1373 organisms listed as 'threatened' and 'endangered' in the United States for under $0.5M (USD).
Massive stellar content of some Galactic supershells
Kaltcheva, Nadejda; Golev, Valeri
2015-08-01
The giant Galactic H II regions provide a unique opportunity to study the OB-star influence on the surrounding interstellar matter. In this contribution, several multi-wavelength surveys (Wisconsin H-α Mapper Northern Sky Survey, Southern H-α Sky Survey Atlas, MSX Mid-IR Galactic Plane Survey, WISE All-Sky Data Release, CO survey of the Milky Way, and the Southern Galactic Plane HI Survey) are combined with available intermediate-band uvbyβ photometry to attempt a precise spatial correlation between the OB-stars and the neutral and ionized material. Our study is focused on the H I supershell GSH 305+01-24 in Centaurus, the Car OB2 supershell, the Cygnus star-forming complex and the GSH 224-01+24 shell toward the GMN 39/Seagull nebula region. We refine the massive stellar content of these star-forming fields and study the energetics of its interaction with the shells’ material.
Collective excitations of massive flavor branes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgios Itsios
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2+1-dimensional intersections, we further study alternative quantization and the zero sound of the resulting anyonic fluid. We finally extend these results to non-zero temperature and magnetic field and compute the diffusion constant in the hydrodynamic regime. The numerical results we find match the predictions by the Einstein relation.
EFFECTIVE SUMMARY FOR MASSIVE DATA SET
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Radhika
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The research efforts attempt to investigate size of the data increasing interest in designing the effective algorithm for space and time reduction. Providing high-dimensional technique over large data set is difficult. However, Randomized techniques are used for analyzing the data set where the performance of the data from part of storage in networks needs to be collected and analyzed continuously. Previously collaborative filtering approach is used for finding the similar patterns based on the user ranking but the outcomes are not observed yet. Linear approach requires high running time and more space. To overcome this sketching technique is used to represent massive data sets. Sketching allows short fingerprints of the item sets of users which allow approximately computing similarity between sets of different users. The concept of sketching is to generate minimum subset of record that executes all the original records. Sketching performs two techniques dimensionality reduction which reduces rows or columns and data reduction. It is proved that sketching can be performed using Principal Component Analysis for finding index value
Massive neutral particles on heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olivares, Marco; Villanueva, J.R.
2013-01-01
The motion of massive particles in the background of a charged black hole in heterotic string theory, which is characterized by a parameter α, is studied in detail in this paper. Since it is possible to write this space-time in the Einstein frame, we perform a quantitative analysis of the time-like geodesics by means of the standard Lagrange procedure. Thus, we obtain and solve a set of differential equations and then we describe the orbits in terms of the elliptic p-Weierstrass function. Also, by making an elementary derivation developed by Cornbleet (Am. J. Phys. 61(7):650-651, 1993) we obtain the correction to the angle of advance of perihelion to first order in α, and thus, by comparing with Mercury's data we give an estimation for the value of this parameter, which yields an heterotic solar charge Q s un ≅ 0.728 [Km]=0.493 M s un. Therefore, in addition to the study on null geodesics performed by Fernando (Phys. Rev. D 85:024033, 2012), this work completes the geodesic structure for this class of space-time. (orig.)
Cosmology with coalescing massive black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, Scott A; Holz, Daniel E
2003-01-01
The gravitational waves generated in the coalescence of massive binary black holes will be measurable by LISA to enormous distances. Redshifts z ∼ 10 or larger (depending somewhat on the mass of the binary) can potentially be probed by such measurements, suggesting that binary coalescences can be made into cosmological tools. We discuss two particularly interesting types of probe. First, by combining gravitational-wave measurements with information about the cosmography of the universe, we can study the evolution of black-hole masses and merger rates as a function of redshift, providing information about the growth of structures at high redshift and possibly constraining hierarchical merger scenarios. Second, if it is possible to associate an 'electromagnetic' counterpart with a coalescence, it may be possible to measure both redshift and luminosity distance to an event with less than ∼1% error. Such a measurement would constitute an amazingly precise cosmological standard candle. Unfortunately, gravitational lensing uncertainties will reduce the quality of this candle significantly. Though not as amazing as might have been hoped, such a candle would nonetheless very usefully complement other distance-redshift probes, in particular providing a valuable check on systematic effects in such measurements
Minimal N=4 topologically massive supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuzenko, Sergei M. [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley W.A. 6009 (Australia); Novak, Joseph [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Sachs, Ivo [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität,Theresienstraße 37, D-80333 München (Germany)
2017-03-21
Using the superconformal framework, we construct a new off-shell model for N=4 topologically massive supergravity which is minimal in the sense that it makes use of a single compensating vector multiplet and involves no free parameter. As such, it provides a counterexample to the common lore that two compensating multiplets are required within the conformal approach to supergravity with eight supercharges in diverse dimensions. This theory is an off-shell N=4 supersymmetric extension of chiral gravity. All of its solutions correspond to non-conformally flat superspaces. Its maximally supersymmetric solutions include the so-called critical (4,0) anti-de Sitter superspace introduced in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP08(2012)024, and well as warped critical (4,0) anti-de Sitter superspaces. We also propose a dual formulation for the theory in which the vector multiplet is replaced with an off-shell hypermultiplet. Upon elimination of the auxiliary fields belonging to the hypermultiplet and imposing certain gauge conditions, the dual action reduces to the one introduced in https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.94.065028.
Massively parallel computation of conservation laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbey, M [Univ. Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France); Levine, D [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
1990-01-01
The authors present a new method for computing solutions of conservation laws based on the use of cellular automata with the method of characteristics. The method exploits the high degree of parallelism available with cellular automata and retains important features of the method of characteristics. It yields high numerical accuracy and extends naturally to adaptive meshes and domain decomposition methods for perturbed conservation laws. They describe the method and its implementation for a Dirichlet problem with a single conservation law for the one-dimensional case. Numerical results for the one-dimensional law with the classical Burgers nonlinearity or the Buckley-Leverett equation show good numerical accuracy outside the neighborhood of the shocks. The error in the area of the shocks is of the order of the mesh size. The algorithm is well suited for execution on both massively parallel computers and vector machines. They present timing results for an Alliant FX/8, Connection Machine Model 2, and CRAY X-MP.
Bulk yields of nucleosynthesis from massive stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnett, W.D.
1978-01-01
Preliminary estimates are made of the absolute yields of abundant nuclei synthesized in observed stars. The compositions of nine helium stars of mass 3 or =10M/sub sun/ is estimated. A variety of choices for the initial mass function (IMF) are used to calculate the yield per stellar generation. For standard choices of the (IMF) the absolute and relative yields of 12 C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg, the Si to Ca group, and the iron group agree with solar system values, to the accuracy of the calculations. The relative yields are surprisingly insensitive to the slope of the IMF. In a second approach, using standard estimates (Ostriker, Richstone, and Thuan) for the current rate of stellar death, I find the present rate of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood to be about 10%of the average rate over galactic history. This result is consistent with many standard models of galactic evolution (for example, the Schmidt model in which star formation goes as gas density squared). It appears that if the star formation rate is high enough to produce the stars we see around us, then the nucleosynthesis rate is large enough to produce the processed nuclei (except 4 He) seen in those stars. The typical nucleosynthesis source is massive (Mapprox. =30 M/sub sun/); the death rate of such stars is a small fraction (3-10%) of recent estimates of the total rate of supernovae
Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter
Garny, Mathias; Sloth, Martin S.
2016-03-10
The Standard Model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the Standard Model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the WIMP miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian Interacting Massive Particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than $0.01\\,\\textrm{M}_p$ is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the CMB. This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the KK graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar...
Massive hybrid parallelism for fully implicit multiphysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaston, D. R.; Permann, C. J.; Andrs, D.; Peterson, J. W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)
2013-07-01
As hardware advances continue to modify the supercomputing landscape, traditional scientific software development practices will become more outdated, ineffective, and inefficient. The process of rewriting/retooling existing software for new architectures is a Sisyphean task, and results in substantial hours of development time, effort, and money. Software libraries which provide an abstraction of the resources provided by such architectures are therefore essential if the computational engineering and science communities are to continue to flourish in this modern computing environment. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework enables complex multiphysics analysis tools to be built rapidly by scientists, engineers, and domain specialists, while also allowing them to both take advantage of current HPC architectures, and efficiently prepare for future supercomputer designs. MOOSE employs a hybrid shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel model and provides a complete and consistent interface for creating multiphysics analysis tools. In this paper, a brief discussion of the mathematical algorithms underlying the framework and the internal object-oriented hybrid parallel design are given. Representative massively parallel results from several applications areas are presented, and a brief discussion of future areas of research for the framework are provided. (authors)
Massive neutral particles on heterotic string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olivares, Marco [Pontificia Universidad de Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro de Astrofisica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)
2013-12-15
The motion of massive particles in the background of a charged black hole in heterotic string theory, which is characterized by a parameter {alpha}, is studied in detail in this paper. Since it is possible to write this space-time in the Einstein frame, we perform a quantitative analysis of the time-like geodesics by means of the standard Lagrange procedure. Thus, we obtain and solve a set of differential equations and then we describe the orbits in terms of the elliptic p-Weierstrass function. Also, by making an elementary derivation developed by Cornbleet (Am. J. Phys. 61(7):650-651, 1993) we obtain the correction to the angle of advance of perihelion to first order in {alpha}, and thus, by comparing with Mercury's data we give an estimation for the value of this parameter, which yields an heterotic solar charge Q{sub s}un {approx_equal} 0.728 [Km]=0.493 M{sub s}un. Therefore, in addition to the study on null geodesics performed by Fernando (Phys. Rev. D 85:024033, 2012), this work completes the geodesic structure for this class of space-time. (orig.)
MASSIVE HYBRID PARALLELISM FOR FULLY IMPLICIT MULTIPHYSICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cody J. Permann; David Andrs; John W. Peterson; Derek R. Gaston
2013-05-01
As hardware advances continue to modify the supercomputing landscape, traditional scientific software development practices will become more outdated, ineffective, and inefficient. The process of rewriting/retooling existing software for new architectures is a Sisyphean task, and results in substantial hours of development time, effort, and money. Software libraries which provide an abstraction of the resources provided by such architectures are therefore essential if the computational engineering and science communities are to continue to flourish in this modern computing environment. The Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework enables complex multiphysics analysis tools to be built rapidly by scientists, engineers, and domain specialists, while also allowing them to both take advantage of current HPC architectures, and efficiently prepare for future supercomputer designs. MOOSE employs a hybrid shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel model and provides a complete and consistent interface for creating multiphysics analysis tools. In this paper, a brief discussion of the mathematical algorithms underlying the framework and the internal object-oriented hybrid parallel design are given. Representative massively parallel results from several applications areas are presented, and a brief discussion of future areas of research for the framework are provided.
Massive Fermi gas in the expanding universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trautner, Andreas, E-mail: atrautner@uni-bonn.de [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)
2017-03-01
The behavior of a decoupled ideal Fermi gas in a homogeneously expanding three-dimensional volume is investigated, starting from an equilibrium spectrum. In case the gas is massless and/or completely degenerate, the spectrum of the gas can be described by an effective temperature and/or an effective chemical potential, both of which scale down with the volume expansion. In contrast, the spectrum of a decoupled massive and non-degenerate gas can only be described by an effective temperature if there are strong enough self-interactions such as to maintain an equilibrium distribution. Assuming perpetual equilibration, we study a decoupled gas which is relativistic at decoupling and then is red-shifted until it becomes non-relativistic. We find expressions for the effective temperature and effective chemical potential which allow us to calculate the final spectrum for arbitrary initial conditions. This calculation is enabled by a new expansion of the Fermi-Dirac integral, which is for our purpose superior to the well-known Sommerfeld expansion. We also compute the behavior of the phase space density under expansion and compare it to the case of real temperature and real chemical potential. Using our results for the degenerate case, we also obtain the mean relic velocity of the recently proposed non-thermal cosmic neutrino background.
A Massive Star Census of the Starburst Cluster R136
Crowther, Paul
2012-10-01
We propose to carry out a comprehensive census of the most massive stars in the central parsec {4"} of the starburst cluster, R136, which powers the Tarantula Nebula in the LMC. R136 is both sufficiently massive that the upper mass function is richly populated and young enough that its most massive stars have yet to explode as supernovae. The identification of very massive stars in R136, up to 300 solar masses, raises general questions of star formation, binarity and feedback in young massive clusters. The proposed STIS spectral survey of 36 stars more massive than 50 solar masses within R136 is ground-breaking, of legacy value, and is specifically tailored to a} yield physical properties; b} detect the majority of binaries by splitting observations between Cycles 19 and 20; c} measure rotational velocities, relevant for predictions of rotational mixing; d} quantify mass-loss properties for very massive stars; e} determine surface compositions; f} measure radial velocities, relevant for runaway stars and cluster dynamics; g} quantify radiative and mechanical feedback. This census will enable the mass function of very massive stars to be measured for the first time, as a result of incomplete and inadequate spectroscopy to date. It will also perfectly complement our Tarantula Survey, a ground-based VLT Large Programme, by including the most massive stars that are inaccessible to ground-based visual spectroscopy due to severe crowding. These surveys, together with existing integrated UV and optical studies will enable 30 Doradus to serve as a bona-fide template for unresolved extragalactic starburst regions.
Massive Black Hole Implicated in Stellar Destruction
2010-01-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Magellan telescopes suggest that a dense stellar remnant has been ripped apart by a black hole a thousand times as massive as the Sun. If confirmed, this discovery would be a cosmic double play: it would be strong evidence for an intermediate mass black hole, which has been a hotly debated topic, and would mark the first time such a black hole has been caught tearing a star apart. This scenario is based on Chandra observations, which revealed an unusually luminous source of X-rays in a dense cluster of old stars, and optical observations that showed a peculiar mix of elements associated with the X-ray emission. Taken together, a case can be made that the X-ray emission is produced by debris from a disrupted white dwarf star that is heated as it falls towards a massive black hole. The optical emission comes from debris further out that is illuminated by these X-rays. The intensity of the X-ray emission places the source in the "ultraluminous X-ray source" or ULX category, meaning that it is more luminous than any known stellar X-ray source, but less luminous than the bright X-ray sources (active galactic nuclei) associated with supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies. The nature of ULXs is a mystery, but one suggestion is that some ULXs are black holes with masses between about a hundred and several thousand times that of the Sun, a range intermediate between stellar-mass black holes and supermassive black holes located in the nuclei of galaxies. This ULX is in a globular cluster, a very old and crowded conglomeration of stars. Astronomers have suspected that globular clusters could contain intermediate-mass black holes, but conclusive evidence for this has been elusive. "Astronomers have made cases for stars being torn apart by supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies before, but this is the first good evidence for such an event in a globular cluster," said Jimmy Irwin of the University
Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heisenberg, Lavinia [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji, E-mail: Lavinia.heisenberg@googlemail.com, E-mail: r.kase@rs.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)
2016-11-01
In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v {sup 2} || φ{sup 2} are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w {sub DE} in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w {sub DE}{sup (iso)} typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.
Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rothe, R.E.
1998-04-01
Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.
Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rothe, R.E.
1998-01-01
Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use
Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-01-01
In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v 2 || φ 2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w DE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w DE (iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.
Remarks on search methods for stable, massive, elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perl, Martin L.
2001-01-01
This paper was presented at the 69th birthday celebration of Professor Eugene Commins, honoring his research achievements. These remarks are about the experimental techniques used in the search for new stable, massive particles, particles at least as massive as the electron. A variety of experimental methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for halo particles in the galaxy and searches for exotic particles in bulk matter are described. A summary is presented of the measured limits on the existence of new stable, massive particle
Massive Black Hole Binaries: Dynamical Evolution and Observational Signatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Dotti
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The study of the dynamical evolution of massive black hole pairs in mergers is crucial in the context of a hierarchical galaxy formation scenario. The timescales for the formation and the coalescence of black hole binaries are still poorly constrained, resulting in large uncertainties in the expected rate of massive black hole binaries detectable in the electromagnetic and gravitational wave spectra. Here, we review the current theoretical understanding of the black hole pairing in galaxy mergers, with a particular attention to recent developments and open issues. We conclude with a review of the expected observational signatures of massive binaries and of the candidates discussed in literature to date.
Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization II: Massive fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.
2008-01-01
We consider the perturbative computation of the N-point function of chiral densities of massive free fermions at finite temperature within the thermofield dynamics approach. The infinite series in the mass parameter for the N-point functions are computed in the fermionic formulation and compared with the corresponding perturbative series in the interaction parameter in the bosonized thermofield formulation. Thereby we establish in thermofield dynamics the formal equivalence of the massive free fermion theory with the sine-Gordon thermofield model for a particular value of the sine-Gordon parameter. We extend the thermofield bosonization to include the massive Thirring model
Massive gravity with mass term in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakasone, Masashi; Oda, Ichiro
2009-01-01
We analyze the effect of the Pauli-Fierz mass term on a recently established, new massive gravity theory in three space-time dimensions. We show that the Pauli-Fierz mass term makes the new massive gravity theory nonunitary. Moreover, although we add the gravitational Chern-Simons term to this model, the situation remains unchanged and the theory stays nonunitary despite that the structure of the graviton propagator is greatly changed. Thus, the Pauli-Fierz mass term is not allowed to coexist with mass-generating higher-derivative terms in the new massive gravity.
Deployment and Implementation Strategies for Massive MIMO in 5G
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Panzner, Berthold; Zirwas, Wolfgang; Dierks, Stefan
2015-01-01
for 5G is a successful and cost-efficient integration in the overall network concept. This work highlights deployment and implementation strategies for massive MIMO in the context of 5G indoor small cell scenarios. Different massive MIMO deployment scenarios are analyzed for a standard 3GPP indoor...... to spatial streams is varied stepwise from equality to a factor of ten. For implementation of massive MIMO in 5G networks trends in beamforming techniques, mutually coupled subarrays, over the calibration procedure and estimated ADC performance in 2020 time-frame are discussed. Based on the debate the paper...
Massive IIA string theory and Matrix theory compactification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowe, David A.; Nastase, Horatiu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2003-01-01
We propose a Matrix theory approach to Romans' massive Type IIA supergravity. It is obtained by applying the procedure of Matrix theory compactifications to Hull's proposal of the massive Type IIA string theory as M-theory on a twisted torus. The resulting Matrix theory is a super-Yang-Mills theory on large N three-branes with a space-dependent noncommutativity parameter, which is also independently derived by a T-duality approach. We give evidence showing that the energies of a class of physical excitations of the super-Yang-Mills theory show the correct symmetry expected from massive Type IIA string theory in a lightcone quantization
A Massive-born Neutron Star with a Massive White Dwarf Companion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cognard, Ismaël; Guillemot, Lucas; Theureau, Gilles [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, Université d’Orléans/CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02 (France); Freire, Paulo C. C. [Station de radioastronomie de Nançay, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS/INSU, F-18330 Nançay (France); Tauris, Thomas M.; Wex, Norbert; Graikou, Eleni; Kramer, Michael; Desvignes, Gregory; Lazarus, Patrick [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Stappers, Benjamin; Lyne, Andrew G. [Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bassa, Cees [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radioastronomy, Postbus 2, 7900 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands)
2017-08-01
We report on the results of a 4 year timing campaign of PSR J2222−0137, a 2.44 day binary pulsar with a massive white dwarf (WD) companion, with the Nançay, Effelsberg, and Lovell radio telescopes. Using the Shapiro delay for this system, we find a pulsar mass m {sub p} = 1.76 ± 0.06 M {sub ⊙} and a WD mass m {sub c} = 1.293 ± 0.025 M {sub ⊙}. We also measure the rate of advance of periastron for this system, which is marginally consistent with the general relativity prediction for these masses. The short lifetime of the massive WD progenitor star led to a rapid X-ray binary phase with little (< 10{sup −2} M {sub ⊙}) mass accretion onto the neutron star; hence, the current pulsar mass is, within uncertainties, its birth mass, which is the largest measured to date. We discuss the discrepancy with previous mass measurements for this system; we conclude that the measurements presented here are likely to be more accurate. Finally, we highlight the usefulness of this system for testing alternative theories of gravity by tightly constraining the presence of dipolar radiation. This is of particular importance for certain aspects of strong-field gravity, like spontaneous scalarization, since the mass of PSR J2222−0137 puts that system into a poorly tested parameter range.
On the equivalence of massive qed with renormalizable and in unitary gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.
1978-03-01
In the framework of BPHZ renormalization procedure, we discuss the equivalence between 4-dimensional renormalizable massive quantum electrodynamics (Stueckelberg lagrangian), and massive QED in the unitary gauge
Black holes in massive gravity as heat engines
Hendi, S. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.; Liu, H.; Meng, X.-H.
2018-06-01
The paper at hand studies the heat engine provided by black holes in the presence of massive gravity. The main motivation is to investigate the effects of massive gravity on different properties of the heat engine. It will be shown that massive gravity parameters modify the efficiency of engine on a significant level. Furthermore, it will be pointed out that it is possible to have a heat engine for non-spherical black holes in massive gravity, and therefore, we will study the effects of horizon topology on the properties of heat engine. Surprisingly, it will be shown that the highest efficiency for the heat engine belongs to black holes with the hyperbolic horizon, while the lowest one belongs to the spherical black holes.
Video and Course Context Discussion on Massive Open Online Courses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dubosson, Magali; Emad, Sabine; Broillet, Alexandra
2014-01-01
Video and Course Content Discussion on Massive Open Online Courses: An Exploratory Research—Magali Dubosson (HEG Fribourg), Sabine Emad (HEG Genève), Alexandra Broillet (University of Geneva and Webster University Geneva), Constance Kampf (Aarhus University, Denmark)...
Abstracting massive data for lightweight intrusion detection in computer networks
Wang, Wei; Liu, Jiqiang; Pitsilis, Georgios; Zhang, Xiangliang
2016-01-01
detection. Data abstraction refers to abstract or extract the most relevant information from the massive dataset. In this work, we propose three strategies of data abstraction, namely, exemplar extraction, attribute selection and attribute abstraction. We
Generalized massive gravity in arbitrary dimensions and its Hamiltonian formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Chao; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2013-01-01
We extend the four-dimensional de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity model to a general scalar massive-tensor theory in arbitrary dimensions, coupling a dRGT massive graviton to multiple scalars and allowing for generic kinetic and mass matrix mixing between the massive graviton and the scalars, and derive its Hamiltonian formulation and associated constraint system. When passing to the Hamiltonian formulation, two different sectors arise: a general sector and a special sector. Although obtained via different ways, there are two second class constraints in either of the two sectors, eliminating the BD ghost. However, for the special sector, there are still ghost instabilities except for the case of two dimensions. In particular, for the special sector with one scalar, there is a ''second BD ghost''
Computer network prepared to handle massive data flow
2006-01-01
"Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an internationl network of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (2 pages)
Topologically massive gravity and Ricci-Cotton flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lashkari, Nima; Maloney, Alexander, E-mail: lashkari@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: maloney@physics.mcgill.ca [McGill Physics Department, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)
2011-05-21
We consider topologically massive gravity (TMG), which is three-dimensional general relativity with a cosmological constant and a gravitational Chern-Simons term. When the cosmological constant is negative the theory has two potential vacuum solutions: anti-de Sitter space and warped anti-de Sitter space. The theory also contains a massive graviton state which renders these solutions unstable for certain values of the parameters and boundary conditions. We study the decay of these solutions due to the condensation of the massive graviton mode using Ricci-Cotton flow, which is the appropriate generalization of Ricci flow to TMG. When the Chern-Simons coupling is small the AdS solution flows to warped AdS by the condensation of the massive graviton mode. When the coupling is large the situation is reversed, and warped AdS flows to AdS. Minisuperspace models are constructed where these flows are studied explicitly.
Topologically massive gravity and Ricci-Cotton flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashkari, Nima; Maloney, Alexander
2011-01-01
We consider topologically massive gravity (TMG), which is three-dimensional general relativity with a cosmological constant and a gravitational Chern-Simons term. When the cosmological constant is negative the theory has two potential vacuum solutions: anti-de Sitter space and warped anti-de Sitter space. The theory also contains a massive graviton state which renders these solutions unstable for certain values of the parameters and boundary conditions. We study the decay of these solutions due to the condensation of the massive graviton mode using Ricci-Cotton flow, which is the appropriate generalization of Ricci flow to TMG. When the Chern-Simons coupling is small the AdS solution flows to warped AdS by the condensation of the massive graviton mode. When the coupling is large the situation is reversed, and warped AdS flows to AdS. Minisuperspace models are constructed where these flows are studied explicitly.
Bronchial artery embolisation for the treatment of massive ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
tion and circulatory collapse or, more often, aspiration and consequent asphyxiation. ... be considered early in the evolution of massive haemoptysis. BAE for the ... Traitement des hemoptysies par embolization de la circulation system-. Fig. 7.
Three-loop massive tadpoles and polylogarithms through weight six
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kniehl, B.A.; Pikelner, Andrey F.; Veretin, Oleg L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2017-05-15
We evaluate the three-loop massive vacuum bubble diagrams in terms of polylogarithms up to weight six. We also construct the basis of irrational constants being harmonic polylogarithms of arguments e{sup kiπ/3}.
Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.
1984-10-01
Considerations of the age and density of, as well as the evolution of structure in, the Universe lead to constraints on the masses and lifetimes of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). 26 references
Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.
1984-10-01
Considerations of the age and density of, as well as the evolution of structure in, the Universe lead to constraints on the masses and lifetimes of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). 26 references.
Efficient channel estimation in massive MIMO systems - a distributed approach
Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2016-01-01
We present two efficient algorithms for distributed estimation of channels in massive MIMO systems. The two cases of 1) generic, and 2) sparse channels is considered. The algorithms estimate the impulse response for each channel observed
A dynamical theory for linearized massive superspin 3/2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, James S. Jr.; Koutrolikos, Konstantinos
2014-01-01
We present a new theory of free massive superspin Y=3/2 irreducible representation of the 4D, N=1 Super-Poincaré group, which has linearized non-minimal supergravity (superhelicity Y=3/2) as it’s massless limit. The new results will illuminate the underlying structure of auxiliary superfields required for the description of higher massive superspin systems
Towards an alternative unification of massless and massive vector bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doria, R.M.; Helayel Neto, J.A.; Pugnetti, S.; Smith, A.W.
1984-01-01
A possible extension of the gauge principle is presented where two distinct gauge potentials are introduced in association with a single U(1) gauge group, each of them being taken to interact with a different kind of matter field. In such a picture, a massive vector boson naturally shows up in the physical spectrum. A massive photon without Higgs can be introduced. Renormalizability is seen to be a feature of the model. Possible supersymmetrizations are also contemplated. (Author) [pt
On the inflationary perturbations of massive higher-spin fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kehagias, Alex [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Riotto, Antonio, E-mail: kehagias@central.ntua.gr, E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@unige.ch [Department of Theoretical Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP), 24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2017-07-01
Cosmological perturbations of massive higher-spin fields are generated during inflation, but they decay on scales larger than the Hubble radius as a consequence of the Higuchi bound. By introducing suitable couplings to the inflaton field, we show that one can obtain statistical correlators of massive higher-spin fields which remain constant or decay very slowly outside the Hubble radius. This opens up the possibility of new observational signatures from inflation.
On the evolution of stellar systems with a massive center
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurzadyan, V.G.; Kocharyan, A.A.
1986-01-01
The evolution of stellar systems with the massive center is investigated within the framework of dynamic system theory. Open dissipative systems, for which the Liouville theorem of the phase volume preservation is not implemented, are considered. Equations determining variation, in time, of main physical system parameters have been derived and studied. Results of the investigation show a principal possibility for determining the evolution path of stellar systems with the massive centers depending on physical parameters
Reconstructing the massive black hole cosmic history through gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sesana, Alberto; Gair, Jonathan; Berti, Emanuele; Volonteri, Marta
2011-01-01
The massive black holes we observe in galaxies today are the natural end-product of a complex evolutionary path, in which black holes seeded in proto-galaxies at high redshift grow through cosmic history via a sequence of mergers and accretion episodes. Electromagnetic observations probe a small subset of the population of massive black holes (namely, those that are active or those that are very close to us), but planned space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can measure the parameters of 'electromagnetically invisible' massive black holes out to high redshift. In this paper we introduce a Bayesian framework to analyze the information that can be gathered from a set of such measurements. Our goal is to connect a set of massive black hole binary merger observations to the underlying model of massive black hole formation. In other words, given a set of observed massive black hole coalescences, we assess what information can be extracted about the underlying massive black hole population model. For concreteness we consider ten specific models of massive black hole formation, chosen to probe four important (and largely unconstrained) aspects of the input physics used in structure formation simulations: seed formation, metallicity ''feedback'', accretion efficiency and accretion geometry. For the first time we allow for the possibility of 'model mixing', by drawing the observed population from some combination of the 'pure' models that have been simulated. A Bayesian analysis allows us to recover a posterior probability distribution for the ''mixing parameters'' that characterize the fractions of each model represented in the observed distribution. Our work shows that LISA has enormous potential to probe the underlying physics of structure formation.
Three-dimensional massive gravity and the bigravity black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banados, Maximo; Theisen, Stefan
2009-01-01
We study three-dimensional massive gravity formulated as a theory with two dynamical metrics, like the f-g theories of Isham-Salam and Strathdee. The action is parity preserving and has no higher derivative terms. The spectrum contains a single massive graviton. This theory has several features discussed recently in TMG and NMG. We find warped black holes, a critical point, and generalized Brown-Henneaux boundary conditions.
Quark–hadron phase transition in massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atazadeh, K., E-mail: atazadeh@azaruniv.ac.ir
2016-11-15
We study the quark–hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark–hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.
Kundt solutions of minimal massive 3D gravity
Deger, Nihat Sadik; Sarıoǧlu, Ã.-zgür
2015-11-01
We construct Kundt solutions of minimal massive gravity theory and show that, similar to topologically massive gravity (TMG), most of them are constant scalar invariant (CSI) spacetimes that correspond to deformations of round and warped (A)dS. We also find an explicit non-CSI Kundt solution at the merger point. Finally, we give their algebraic classification with respect to the traceless Ricci tensor (Segre classification) and show that their Segre types match with the types of their counterparts in TMG.
Observations of Bright Massive Stars Using Small Size Telescopes
Beradze, Sopia; Kochiashvili, Nino
2017-11-01
The size of a telescope determines goals and objects of observations. During the latest decades it becomes more and more difficult to get photometric data of bright stars because most of telescopes of small sizes do not operate already. But there are rather interesting questions connected to the properties and evolution ties between different types of massive stars. Multi-wavelength photometric data are needed for solution of some of them. We are presenting our observational plans of bright Massive X-ray binaries, WR and LBV stars using a small size telescope. All these stars, which are presented in the poster are observational targets of Sopia Beradze's future PhD thesis. We already have got very interesting results on the reddening and possible future eruption of the massive hypergiant star P Cygni. Therefore, we decided to choose some additional interesting massive stars of different type for future observations. All Massive stars play an important role in the chemical evolution of galaxies because of they have very high mass loss - up to 10-4M⊙/a year. Our targets are on different evolutionary stages and three of them are the members of massive binaries. We plan to do UBVRI photometric observations of these stars using the 48 cm Cassegrain telescope of the Abastumani Astrophisical Observatory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vilma Muñetón-Gómez
2004-06-01
Full Text Available El uso de las neuronas sensoriales primarias ha aportado avances en el entendimiento de las razones por las cuales falla la regeneración cuando el sistema nervioso central (SNC es dañado. La rizotomía dorsal se puede usar como un modelo experimental de las lesiones por avulsión del plexo braquial, una lesión en la cual son desprendidas, en su punto de entrada en la médula espinal, las ramas centrales de los aferentes primarios causando una disfunción motora y sensorial grave e irreversible del miembro superior. En el presente trabajo, se examinó la organización central de los aferentes primarios en ratas Wistar adultas. Éstas fueron divididas en controles normales no lesionados y en animales rizotomizados entre los niveles cervical 3 y torácico 3 (C3-T3. Se estudió la deaferentación de los subtipos de axones sensoriales utilizando anticuerpos específicos contra el péptido relacionado con el gen de la calcitonina (CGRP, el receptor purinérgico (P2X3, el receptor de baja afinidad p75 para el factor de crecimiento nervioso (NGF y contra la subunidad ? de la toxina de cólera (TC?. Otro subtipo fue marcado con la lectina Griffonia simplicifolia IB4. La inmunohistoquímica y la microscopía óptica de alta resolución demostraron que el modelo animal de rizotomía completa del plexo braquial reproduce diversos déficit observados en las lesiones humanas. Esta lesión produce diferentes grados de degeneración terminal entre los diversos tipos de aferentes primarios que definen subpoblaciones de neuronas sensoriales. En los niveles de la médula espinal estudiados (entre C6 y C8, la deaferentación fue parcial para las fibras peptidérgicas GCRP-positivas, en contraste con la eliminación de las fibras no peptidérgicas y las mielinizadas. La rizotomía dorsal es un modelo experimental apropiado para estudiar las alteraciones sensoriales como el dolor agudo y la alodinia, así como los factores que podrían afectar la regeneración en
Fermionic zero-norm states and enlarged supersymmetries of Type II string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J.-C.
2000-01-01
We calculate the NS-R fermionic zero-norm states of the type II string spectrum. The massless and some possible massive zero-norm states are seen to be responsible for the space-time supersymmetry. The existence of other fermionic massive zero-norm states with higher spinor-tensor indices correspond to new enlarged boson-fermion symmetries of the theory at high energy. We also discuss the R-R charges and R-R zero-norm states and justify the idea that the perturbative string does not carry the massless R-R charges. (orig.)
Sarhan, Mohammad Abdelfattah
2017-12-01
The present work investigates the efficiency of applying volume seismic attributes to differentiate between massive and non-massive carbonate sedimentary successions on using seismic data. The main objective of this work is to provide a pre-drilling technique to recognize the porous carbonate section (probable hydrocarbon reservoirs) based on seismic data. A case study from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene carbonate successions of Abu Gharadig Basin, northern Western Desert of Egypt has been tested in this work. The qualitative interpretations of the well-log data of four available wells distributed in the study area, namely; AG-2, AG-5, AG-6 and AG-15 wells, has confirmed that the Upper Cretaceous Khoman A Member represents the massive carbonate section whereas the Eocene Apollonia Formation represents the non-massive carbonate unit. The present work have proved that the most promising seismic attributes capable of differentiating between massive and non-massive carbonate sequences are; Root Mean Square (RMS) Amplitude, Envelope (Reflection Strength), Instantaneous Frequency, Chaos, Local Flatness and Relative Acoustic Impedance.
MASSIVE STARS IN THE Cl 1813-178 CLUSTER: AN EPISODE OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE W33 COMPLEX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Messineo, Maria; Davies, Ben; Figer, Donald F.; Trombley, Christine; Kudritzki, R. P.; Valenti, Elena; Najarro, F.; Michael Rich, R.
2011-01-01
Young massive (M > 10 4 M sun ) stellar clusters are a good laboratory to study the evolution of massive stars. Only a dozen of such clusters are known in the Galaxy. Here, we report about a new young massive stellar cluster in the Milky Way. Near-infrared medium-resolution spectroscopy with UIST on the UKIRT telescope and NIRSPEC on the Keck telescope, and X-ray observations with the Chandra and XMM satellites, of the Cl 1813-178 cluster confirm a large number of massive stars. We detected 1 red supergiant, 2 Wolf-Rayet stars, 1 candidate luminous blue variable, 2 OIf, and 19 OB stars. Among the latter, twelve are likely supergiants, four giants, and the faintest three dwarf stars. We detected post-main-sequence stars with masses between 25 and 100 M sun . A population with age of 4-4.5 Myr and a mass of ∼10, 000 M sun can reproduce such a mixture of massive evolved stars. This massive stellar cluster is the first detection of a cluster in the W33 complex. Six supernova remnants and several other candidate clusters are found in the direction of the same complex.
Topologically massive gravity and its conformal limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertl, S.
2012-01-01
Three dimensional gravity has been known for some time to be a playground for testing ideas and problems of higher dimensional gravitational theories. Nevertheless its status as a toy model for quantum gravity is still uncertain. Already in 1986 Brown and Henneaux discovered that three dimensional quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is dual to a two dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) in the sense that the Hilbert space must fall into unitary representation of two copies of the Virasoro algebra. They obtained, in quantizing this theory, an asymptotic Virasoro algebra with central charges c L =c R =(3 l)/(2 G N ), where G N is Newton's constant and ℓ parameterizes the cosmological constant. Almost ten years later black hole solutions for this three dimensional theory were discovered by Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli. In the same period of time further milestones of relevance for this work have been established: the AdS/CFT correspondence by Maldacena in 1997 and the proposal by Witten in 2007 to define three dimensional quantum gravity in terms of its dual CFT. Over the last few years many attempts have been made to construct gravitational theories in three dimensions that could serve as toy models for quantum gravity. Since a pure Einstein-Hilbert action with a negative cosmological constant lacks additional degrees of freedom one can remedy this by adding a gravitational Chern-Simons term. This results in a theory that exhibits black holes and gravitons and is called topologically massive gravity (TMG). The first part of this thesis deals with finding exact solutions of TMG. This is an interesting problem already at the classical level since non-trivial solutions to the equations of motion are hard to find and only few are known. An efficient way to find solutions is to dimensionally reduce the theory by using two commuting Killing vectors. This results in a (0+1)-dimensional model in which it is then possible to classify all stationary axi
The massive multiple system HD 64315
Lorenzo, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Vilardell, F.; Garcia, M.; Evans, C. J.; Montes, D.
2017-10-01
respective Roche lobes, and share a common envelope in an overcontact configuration. The non-eclipsing binary is a detached system composed of two stars with spectral types around O6 V with minimum masses of 10.8 M⊙ and 10.2 M⊙, and likely masses ≈ 30 M⊙. Conclusions: HD 64315 provides a cautionary tale about high-mass star isolation and multiplicity. Its total mass is likely above 90M⊙, but it seems to have formed without an accompanying cluster. It contains one the most massive overcontact binaries known, a likely merger progenitor in a very wide multiple system. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory under programmes 078.D-0665(A), 082-D.0136 and 093.A-9001(A). Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.
Most Massive Globular Cluster in Our Galaxy
1994-05-01
Far down in the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus, a diffuse spot of light can be perceived with the unaided eye. It may be unimpressive, but when seen through a telescope, it turns out to be a beautiful, dense cluster of innumerable stars [1]. Omega Centauri, as this object is called, is the brightest of its type in the sky. We refer to it as a "globular cluster", due to its symmetric form. It belongs to our Milky Way galaxy and astrophysical investigations have shown that it is located at a distance of about 16,500 light-years (1 light-year = 9,460,000,000,000 km). Nobody knows for sure how many individual stars it contains, but recent estimates run into the millions. Most of these stars are more than 10,000 million years old and it is generally agreed that Omega Centauri has a similar age. Measurements of its motion indicate that Omega Centauri plows through the Milky Way in an elongated orbit. It is not easy to understand how it has managed to keep its stars together during such an extended period. MEASURING STELLAR VELOCITIES IN OMEGA CENTAURI A group of astronomers [2] have recently carried through a major investigation of Omega Centauri. After many nights of observations at the ESO La Silla observatory, they now conclude that not only is this globular cluster the brightest, it is indeed by far the most massive known in the Milky Way. The very time-consuming observations were made during numerous observing sessions over a period of no less than 13 years (1981-1993), with the photoelectric spectrometer CORAVEL mounted on the 1.5-m Danish telescope at La Silla. The CORAVEL instrument (COrelation RAdial VELocities) was built in a joint effort between the Geneva (Switzerland) and Marseilles (France) observatories. It functions according to the cross-correlation technique, by means of which the spectrum of the observed star is compared with a "standard stellar spectrum" [3]. HOW HEAVY IS OMEGA CENTAURI? In the present study, a total of 1701
Massive Multiplayer Online Gaming: A Research Framework for Military Training and Education
2005-03-01
Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta...Massive Multiplayer Online Games 2.1 Massive Multiplayer Online Games Defined Massive multiplayer online games (MMOGs) allow users to interact ...2002) suggested various principles for group design and interactions in “massively multiplayer games ” (p. 1). In particular, he agued that it
Hyper-massive cloud, shock and stellar formation efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louvet, Fabien
2014-01-01
O and B types stars are of paramount importance in the energy budget of galaxies and play a crucial role enriching the interstellar medium. However, their formation, unlike that of solar-type stars, is still subject to debate, if not an enigma. The earliest stages of massive star formation and the formation of their parent cloud are still crucial astrophysical questions that drew a lot of attention in the community, both from the theoretical and observational perspective, during the last decade. It has been proposed that massive stars are born in massive dense cores that form through very dynamic processes, such as converging flows of gas. During my PhD, I conducted a thorough study of the formation of dense cores and massive stars in the W43-MM1 supermassive structure, located at 6 kpc from the sun. At first, I showed a direct correlation between the star formation efficiency and the volume gas density of molecular clouds, in contrast with scenarios suggested by previous studies. Indeed, the spatial distribution and mass function of the massive dense cores currently forming in W43-MM1 suggests that this supermassive filament is undergoing a star formation burst, increasing as one approaches its center. I compared these observational results with the most recent numerical and analytical models of star formation. This comparison not only provides new constraints on the formation of supermassive filaments, but also suggests that understanding star formation in high density, extreme ridges requires a detailed portrait of the structure of these exceptional objects. Second, having shown that the formation of massive stars depends strongly on the properties of the ridges where they form, I studied the formation processes of these filaments, thanks of the characterization of their global dynamics. Specifically, I used a tracer of shocks (SiO molecule) to disentangle the feedback of local star formation processes (bipolar jets and outflows) from shocks tracing the pristine
Spontaneous Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation, massive modes, and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluhm, Robert; Fung Shuhong; Kostelecky, V. Alan
2008-01-01
Theories with spontaneous local Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation contain massless Nambu-Goldstone modes, which arise as field excitations in the minimum of the symmetry-breaking potential. If the shape of the potential also allows excitations above the minimum, then an alternative gravitational Higgs mechanism can occur in which massive modes involving the metric appear. The origin and basic properties of the massive modes are addressed in the general context involving an arbitrary tensor vacuum value. Special attention is given to the case of bumblebee models, which are gravitationally coupled vector theories with spontaneous local Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation. Mode expansions are presented in both local and spacetime frames, revealing the Nambu-Goldstone and massive modes via decomposition of the metric and bumblebee fields, and the associated symmetry properties and gauge fixing are discussed. The class of bumblebee models with kinetic terms of the Maxwell form is used as a focus for more detailed study. The nature of the associated conservation laws and the interpretation as a candidate alternative to Einstein-Maxwell theory are investigated. Explicit examples involving smooth and Lagrange-multiplier potentials are studied to illustrate features of the massive modes, including their origin, nature, dispersion laws, and effects on gravitational interactions. In the weak static limit, the massive mode and Lagrange-multiplier fields are found to modify the Newton and Coulomb potentials. The nature and implications of these modifications are examined.
Multimodality imaging findings of massive ovarian edema in children
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahmoush, Hisham [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Stanford, CA (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A.; Chauvin, Nancy A. [University of Pennsylvania, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce R. [University of Pennsylvania, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2017-05-15
Massive ovarian edema is a rare benign condition that predominantly affects childbearing women as well as preadolescent girls. It is thought to result from intermittent or partial torsion of the ovary compromising the venous and lymphatic drainage but with preserved arterial supply. The clinical features of massive ovarian edema are nonspecific and can simulate tumors, leading to unnecessary oophorectomy. To demonstrate imaging features that should alert radiologists to consider the diagnosis of massive ovarian edema preoperatively so that fertility-sparing surgery may be considered. We identified five girls diagnosed with massive ovarian edema at pathology. Presenting symptoms, sidedness, imaging appearance, preoperative diagnosis, and operative and histopathological findings were reviewed. Age range was 9.6-14.3 years (mean age: 12.5 years). Common imaging findings included ovarian enlargement with edema of the stroma, peripherally placed follicles, isointense signal on T1-W MRI and markedly hyperintense signal on T2-W MRI, preservation of color Doppler flow by US, and CT Hounsfield units below 40. The uterus was deviated to the affected side in all patients. Two of the five patients had small to moderate amounts of free pelvic fluid. Mean ovarian volume on imaging was 560 mL (range: 108-1,361 mL). While the clinical presentation of massive ovarian edema is nonspecific, an enlarged ovary with stromal edema, peripherally placed follicles and preservation of blood flow may be suggestive and wedge biopsy should be considered intraoperatively to avoid unnecessary removal of the ovary. (orig.)
Formation of massive seed black holes via collisions and accretion
Boekholt, T. C. N.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Fellhauer, M.; Klessen, R. S.; Reinoso, B.; Stutz, A. M.; Haemmerlé, L.
2018-05-01
Models aiming to explain the formation of massive black hole seeds, and in particular the direct collapse scenario, face substantial difficulties. These are rooted in rather ad hoc and fine-tuned initial conditions, such as the simultaneous requirements of extremely low metallicities and strong radiation backgrounds. Here, we explore a modification of such scenarios where a massive primordial star cluster is initially produced. Subsequent stellar collisions give rise to the formation of massive (104-105 M⊙) objects. Our calculations demonstrate that the interplay among stellar dynamics, gas accretion, and protostellar evolution is particularly relevant. Gas accretion on to the protostars enhances their radii, resulting in an enhanced collisional cross-section. We show that the fraction of collisions can increase from 0.1 to 1 per cent of the initial population to about 10 per cent when compared to gas-free models or models of protostellar clusters in the local Universe. We conclude that very massive objects can form in spite of initial fragmentation, making the first massive protostellar clusters viable candidate birth places for observed supermassive black holes.
Cosmological stability bound in massive gravity and bigravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J.
2013-01-01
We give a simple derivation of a cosmological bound on the graviton mass for spatially flat FRW solutions in massive gravity with an FRW reference metric and for bigravity theories. This bound comes from the requirement that the kinetic term of the helicity zero mode of the graviton is positive definite. The bound is dependent only on the parameters in the massive gravity potential and the Hubble expansion rate for the two metrics. We derive the decoupling limit of bigravity and FRW massive gravity, and use this to give an independent derivation of the cosmological bound. We recover our previous results that the tension between satisfying the Friedmann equation and the cosmological bound is sufficient to rule out all observationally relevant FRW solutions for massive gravity with an FRW reference metric. In contrast, in bigravity this tension is resolved due to different nature of the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that in bigravity theories there exists an FRW solution with late-time self-acceleration for which the kinetic terms for the helicity-2, helicity-1 and helicity-0 are generically nonzero and positive making this a compelling candidate for a model of cosmic acceleration. We confirm that the generalized bound is saturated for the candidate partially massless (bi)gravity theories but the existence of helicity-1/helicity-0 interactions implies the absence of the conjectured partially massless symmetry for both massive gravity and bigravity
WHAT SETS THE INITIAL ROTATION RATES OF MASSIVE STARS?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, Anna L.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2012-01-01
The physical mechanisms that set the initial rotation rates in massive stars are a crucial unknown in current star formation theory. Observations of young, massive stars provide evidence that they form in a similar fashion to their low-mass counterparts. The magnetic coupling between a star and its accretion disk may be sufficient to spin down low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to well below breakup at the end stage of their formation when the accretion rate is low. However, we show that these magnetic torques are insufficient to spin down massive PMS stars due to their short formation times and high accretion rates. We develop a model for the angular momentum evolution of stars over a wide range in mass, considering both magnetic and gravitational torques. We find that magnetic torques are unable to spin down either low-mass or high-mass stars during the main accretion phase, and that massive stars cannot be spun down significantly by magnetic torques during the end stage of their formation either. Spin-down occurs only if massive stars' disk lifetimes are substantially longer or their magnetic fields are much stronger than current observations suggest.
Multimodality imaging findings of massive ovarian edema in children
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahmoush, Hisham; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Chauvin, Nancy A.; Pawel, Bruce R.
2017-01-01
Massive ovarian edema is a rare benign condition that predominantly affects childbearing women as well as preadolescent girls. It is thought to result from intermittent or partial torsion of the ovary compromising the venous and lymphatic drainage but with preserved arterial supply. The clinical features of massive ovarian edema are nonspecific and can simulate tumors, leading to unnecessary oophorectomy. To demonstrate imaging features that should alert radiologists to consider the diagnosis of massive ovarian edema preoperatively so that fertility-sparing surgery may be considered. We identified five girls diagnosed with massive ovarian edema at pathology. Presenting symptoms, sidedness, imaging appearance, preoperative diagnosis, and operative and histopathological findings were reviewed. Age range was 9.6-14.3 years (mean age: 12.5 years). Common imaging findings included ovarian enlargement with edema of the stroma, peripherally placed follicles, isointense signal on T1-W MRI and markedly hyperintense signal on T2-W MRI, preservation of color Doppler flow by US, and CT Hounsfield units below 40. The uterus was deviated to the affected side in all patients. Two of the five patients had small to moderate amounts of free pelvic fluid. Mean ovarian volume on imaging was 560 mL (range: 108-1,361 mL). While the clinical presentation of massive ovarian edema is nonspecific, an enlarged ovary with stromal edema, peripherally placed follicles and preservation of blood flow may be suggestive and wedge biopsy should be considered intraoperatively to avoid unnecessary removal of the ovary. (orig.)
Massive stars in the Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy
Garcia, Miriam
2018-02-01
Low metallicity massive stars hold the key to interpret numerous processes in the past Universe including re-ionization, starburst galaxies, high-redshift supernovae, and γ-ray bursts. The Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy [SagDIG, 12+log(O/H) = 7.37] represents an important landmark in the quest for analogues accessible with 10-m class telescopes. This Letter presents low-resolution spectroscopy executed with the Gran Telescopio Canarias that confirms that SagDIG hosts massive stars. The observations unveiled three OBA-type stars and one red supergiant candidate. Pending confirmation from high-resolution follow-up studies, these could be the most metal-poor massive stars of the Local Group.
Photon emission from massive projectile impacts on solids.
Fernandez-Lima, F A; Pinnick, V T; Della-Negra, S; Schweikert, E A
2011-01-01
First evidence of photon emission from individual impacts of massive gold projectiles on solids for a number of projectile-target combinations is reported. Photon emission from individual impacts of massive Au(n) (+q) (1 ≤ n ≤ 400; q = 1-4) projectiles with impact energies in the range of 28-136 keV occurs in less than 10 ns after the projectile impact. Experimental observations show an increase in the photon yield from individual impacts with the projectile size and velocity. Concurrently with the photon emission, electron emission from the impact area has been observed below the kinetic emission threshold and under unlikely conditions for potential electron emission. We interpret the puzzling electron emission and correlated luminescence observation as evidence of the electronic excitation resulting from the high-energy density deposited by massive cluster projectiles during the impact.
Massive fields as systematics for single field inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Hongliang; Wang, Yi, E-mail: hjiangag@connect.ust.hk, E-mail: phyw@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)
2017-06-01
During inflation, massive fields can contribute to the power spectrum of curvature perturbation via a dimension-5 operator. This contribution can be considered as a bias for the program of using n {sub s} and r to select inflation models. Even the dimension-5 operator is suppressed by Λ = M {sub p} , there is still a significant shift on the n {sub s} - r diagram if the massive fields have m ∼ H . On the other hand, if the heavy degree of freedom appears only at the same energy scale as the suppression scale of the dimension-5 operator, then significant shift on the n {sub s} - r diagram takes place at m =Λ ∼ 70 H , which is around the inflationary time-translation symmetry breaking scale. Hence, the systematics from massive fields pose a greater challenge for future high precision experiments for inflationary model selection. This result can be thought of as the impact of UV sensitivity to inflationary observables.
Satisfying the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion with massive particles
Peise, J.; Kruse, I.; Lange, K.; Lücke, B.; Pezzè, L.; Arlt, J.; Ertmer, W.; Hammerer, K.; Santos, L.; Smerzi, A.; Klempt, C.
2016-03-01
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, as shown successfully with light fields. Here, we report on the production of massive particles which meet the EPR criterion for continuous phase/amplitude variables. The created quantum state of ultracold atoms shows an EPR parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 standard deviations below the threshold of 1/4. Our state presents a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality with massive particles and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology.
Simulating nonlinear cosmological structure formation with massive neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Arka; Dalal, Neal, E-mail: abanerj6@illinois.edu, E-mail: dalaln@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States)
2016-11-01
We present a new method for simulating cosmologies that contain massive particles with thermal free streaming motion, such as massive neutrinos or warm/hot dark matter. This method combines particle and fluid descriptions of the thermal species to eliminate the shot noise known to plague conventional N-body simulations. We describe this method in detail, along with results for a number of test cases to validate our method, and check its range of applicability. Using this method, we demonstrate that massive neutrinos can produce a significant scale-dependence in the large-scale biasing of deep voids in the matter field. We show that this scale-dependence may be quantitatively understood using an extremely simple spherical expansion model which reproduces the behavior of the void bias for different neutrino parameters.
Massive stars in colliding wind systems: the GLAST perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf
2007-01-01
Colliding winds of massive stars in binary systems arc considered as candidate sites of high-energy non-thermal photon emission. They are already among the suggested counterparts for a few individual unidentified EGRET sources, but may constitute a detectable source population for the GLAST observatory.The present work investigates such population study of massive colliding wind systems at high-energy gamma-rays. Based on the recent detailed model (Reimer et al. 2006) for non-thermal photon production in prime candidate systems, we unveil the expected characteristics of this source class in the observables accessible at LAT energies. Combining the broadband emission model with the presently cataloged distribution of such systems and their individual parameters allows us to conclude on the expected maximum number of LAT-detections among massive stars in colliding wind binary systems
A discrete ordinate response matrix method for massively parallel computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanebutte, U.R.; Lewis, E.E.
1991-01-01
A discrete ordinate response matrix method is formulated for the solution of neutron transport problems on massively parallel computers. The response matrix formulation eliminates iteration on the scattering source. The nodal matrices which result from the diamond-differenced equations are utilized in a factored form which minimizes memory requirements and significantly reduces the required number of algorithm utilizes massive parallelism by assigning each spatial node to a processor. The algorithm is accelerated effectively by a synthetic method in which the low-order diffusion equations are also solved by massively parallel red/black iterations. The method has been implemented on a 16k Connection Machine-2, and S 8 and S 16 solutions have been obtained for fixed-source benchmark problems in X--Y geometry
Cosmological viability of theories with massive spin-2 fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koennig, Frank
2017-03-30
Theories of spin-2 fields take on a particular role in modern physics. They do not only describe the mediation of gravity, the only theory of fundamental interactions of which no quantum field theoretical description exists, it furthermore was thought that they necessarily predict massless gauge bosons. Just recently, a consistent theory of a massive graviton was constructed and, subsequently, generalized to a bimetric theory of two interacting spin-2 fields. This thesis studies both the viability and consequences at cosmological scales in massive gravity as well as bimetric theories. We show that all consistent models that are free of gradient and ghost instabilities behave like the cosmological standard model, LCDM. In addition, we construct a new theory of massive gravity which is stable at both classical background and quantum level, even though it suffers from the Boulware-Deser ghost.
Simulating nonlinear cosmological structure formation with massive neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Arka; Dalal, Neal
2016-01-01
We present a new method for simulating cosmologies that contain massive particles with thermal free streaming motion, such as massive neutrinos or warm/hot dark matter. This method combines particle and fluid descriptions of the thermal species to eliminate the shot noise known to plague conventional N-body simulations. We describe this method in detail, along with results for a number of test cases to validate our method, and check its range of applicability. Using this method, we demonstrate that massive neutrinos can produce a significant scale-dependence in the large-scale biasing of deep voids in the matter field. We show that this scale-dependence may be quantitatively understood using an extremely simple spherical expansion model which reproduces the behavior of the void bias for different neutrino parameters.
Massive MIMO meets small cell backhaul and cooperation
Yang, Howard H
2017-01-01
This brief explores the utilization of large antenna arrays in massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) for both interference suppression, where it can improve cell-edge user rates, and for wireless backhaul in small cell networks, where macro base stations can forward data to small access points in an energy efficient way. Massive MIMO is deemed as a critical technology for next generation wireless technology. By deploying an antenna array that has active elements in excess of the number of users, massive MIMO not only provides tremendous diversity gain but also powers new aspects for network design to improve performance. This brief investigates a better utilization of the excessive spatial dimensions to improve network performance. It combines random matrix theory and stochastic geometry to develop an analytical framework that accounts for all the key features of a network, including number of antenna array, base station density, inter-cell interference, random base station deployment, and network tra...
Magnetic resonance imaging of massive bone allografts with histologic correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoeffner, E.G.; Soulen, R.L.; Ryan, J.R.; Qureshi, F.
1996-01-01
The objective of this study was to better understand the MRI appearance of massive bone allografts. The MRI findings of three massive bone allografts imaged in vivo were correlated with the histologic findings following removal of the allografts. A fourth allograft, never implanted, was imaged and evaluated histologically. Allografts were placed for the treatment of primary or recurrent osteosarcoma. The in-vivo allografts have a heterogeneous appearance on MRI which we attribute to the revascularization process. Fibrovascular connective tissue grows into the graft in a patchy, focal fashion, down the medullary canal from the graft-host junction and adjacent to the periosteum. The marrow spaces are initially devoid of normal cellular elements and occupied by fat and gelatinous material. This normal postoperative appearance of massive bone allografts must not be interpreted as recurrent neoplasm or infection in the allograft. Recognition of these complications rests on features outside the marrow. (orig./MG)
International Conference on Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows
Soria, Julio
2015-01-01
This book contains the outcome of the international meeting on instability, control and noise generated by massive flow separation that was organized at the Monash Center, in Prato, Italy, September 4-6, 2013. The meeting served as the final review of the EU-FP7 Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows Marie Curie travel grant and was supported by the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development. Fifty leading specialists from twelve countries reviewed the progress made since the 50s of the last century and discussed modern analysis techniques, advanced experimental flow diagnostics, and recent developments in active flow control techniques from the incompressible to the hypersonic regime. Applications involving massive flow separation and associated instability and noise generation mechanisms of interest to the aeronautical, naval and automotive industries have been addressed from a theoretical, numerical or experimental point of view, making this book a unique source containing the stat...
Peering to the Heart of Massive Star Birth
Tan, Jonathan
2015-10-01
We propose a small survey of massive/intermediate-mass protostars with WFC3/IR to probe J and H band continuum emission, the Pa-beta and the [FeII] emission. The protostar sample is already the subject of approved SOFIA-FORCAST observations from 10-40 microns. Combined with sophisticated radiative transfer models, these observations are providing the most detailed constraints on the nature of massive protostars, their luminosities, outflow cavity structures and orientations, and distribution of surrounding dense core gas and dust. Recently, we were also awarded ALMA Cycle 3 time to study these sources at up to 0.14 resolution. The proposed HST observations, with very similar resolution, have three main goals: 1) Detect and characterize J and H band continuum emission from the massive/intermediate-mass protostars, which is expected to arise from jet and outflow knot features and from scattered light emerging from the outflow cavities; 2) Detect and characterize Pa-beta and [FeII] line emission tracing ionized and FUV-illuminated regions around the massive protostars, important diagnostics of the protostellar source and its outflow structure; 3) Search for lower-mass protostars that may be clustered around the forming massive protostar. All of these objectives will help test massive star formation theories. The high sensitivity and angular resolution of WFC3/IR enables these observations to be carried out efficiently in a timely fashion. Mid-Cycle observations are critical for near contemporaneous observation with ALMA, since jet/outflow knots may have large proper motions, and to maximize the potential time baseline for a future HST study of jet/outflow proper motions.
Molecular Cloud Structures and Massive Star Formation in N159
Nayak, O.; Meixner, M.; Fukui, Y.; Tachihara, K.; Onishi, T.; Saigo, K.; Tokuda, K.; Harada, R.
2018-02-01
The N159 star-forming region is one of the most massive giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We show the 12CO, 13CO, CS molecular gas lines observed with ALMA in N159 west (N159W) and N159 east (N159E). We relate the structure of the gas clumps to the properties of 24 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) that include 10 newly identified YSOs based on our search. We use dendrogram analysis to identify properties of the molecular clumps, such as flux, mass, linewidth, size, and virial parameter. We relate the YSO properties to the molecular gas properties. We find that the CS gas clumps have a steeper size–linewidth relation than the 12CO or 13CO gas clumps. This larger slope could potentially occur if the CS gas is tracing shocks. The virial parameters of the 13CO gas clumps in N159W and N159E are low (<1). The threshold for massive star formation in N159W is 501 M ⊙ pc‑2, and the threshold for massive star formation in N159E is 794 M ⊙ pc‑2. We find that 13CO is more photodissociated in N159E than N159W. The most massive YSO in N159E has cleared out a molecular gas hole in its vicinity. All the massive YSO candidates in N159E have a more evolved spectral energy distribution type in comparison to the YSO candidates in N159W. These differences lead us to conclude that the giant molecular cloud complex in N159E is more evolved than the giant molecular cloud complex in N159W.
Dale, J. E.; Ercolano, B.; Bonnell, I. A.
2013-03-01
We extend our previous smoothed particle hydrodynamics parameter study of the effects of photoionization from O-stars on star-forming clouds to include initially unbound clouds. We generate a set of model clouds in the mass range 104-106 M⊙ with initial virial ratios Ekin/Epot = 2.3, allow them to form stars and study the impact of the photoionizing radiation produced by the massive stars. We find that, on the 3 Myr time-scale before supernovae are expected to begin detonating, the fraction of mass expelled by ionizing feedback is a very strong function of the cloud escape velocities. High-mass clouds are largely unaffected dynamically, while low-mass clouds have large fractions of their gas reserves expelled on this time-scale. However, the fractions of stellar mass unbound are modest and significant portions of the unbound stars are so only because the clouds themselves are initially partially unbound. We find that ionization is much more able to create well-cleared bubbles in the unbound clouds, owing to their intrinsic expansion, but that the presence of such bubbles does not necessarily indicate that a given cloud has been strongly influenced by feedback. We also find, in common with the bound clouds from our earlier work, that many of the systems simulated here are highly porous to photons and supernova ejecta, and that most of them will likely survive their first supernova explosions.
Anaesthetic management of a child with massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faisal Shamim
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Vascular tumors affect the head and neck commonly but arteriovenous malformations are rare. Vascular malformations are often present at birth and grow with the patient, usually only becoming significant later in childhood. Embolization has been the mainstay of treatment in massive and complex arteriovenous malformations. We present a case of massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation in a 7-year-old boy causing significant workload on right heart and respiratory distress. The management of angioembolization under general anaesthesia and anaesthetic concerns are presented.
Massive mu pair production in a vector field theory model
Halliday, I G
1976-01-01
Massive electrodynamics is treated as a model for the production of massive mu pairs in high-energy hadronic collisions. The dominant diagrams in perturbation theory are identified and analyzed. These graphs have an eikonal structure which leads to enormous cancellations in the two-particle inclusive cross section but not in the n-particle production cross sections. Under the assumption that these cancellations are complete, a Drell-Yan structure appears in the inclusive cross section but the particles accompanying the mu pairs have a very different structure compared to the parton model. The pionization region is no longer empty of particles as in single parton models. (10 refs).
A visualization of null geodesics for the bonnor massive dipole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Andree Oliva Mercado
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In this work we simulate null geodesics for the Bonnor massive dipole metric by implementing a symbolic-numerical algorithm in Sage and Python. This program is also capable of visualizing in 3D, in principle, the geodesics for any given metric. Geodesics are launched from a common point, collectively forming a cone of light beams, simulating a solid-angle section of a point source in front of a massive object with a magnetic field. Parallel light beams also were considered, and their bending due to the curvature of the space-time was simulated.
Proliferation of massive destruction weapons: fantasy or reality?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, M.
2001-01-01
This article evaluates the threat of massive destruction weapons (nuclear, chemical, biological) for Europe and recalls the existing safeguards against the different forms of nuclear proliferation: legal (non-proliferation treaty (NPT), comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), fissile material cut off treaty (FMCT) etc..), technical (fabrication of fissile materials, delays). However, all these safeguards can be overcome as proven by the activities of some countries. The situation of proliferation for the other type of massive destruction weapons is presented too. (J.S.)
Electromagnetic field properties in the vicinity of a massive wormhole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novikov, I. D.; Shatskiy, A. A., E-mail: shatskiy@asc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Centre, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2011-12-15
It is proved that not only massless but also traversable massive wormholes can have electromagnetic 'hair.' An analysis is also presented of the passage from a traversable wormhole to the limit of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole, with the corresponding disappearance of 'hair.' A general method is developed for solving stationary axisymmetric Maxwell's equations in the field of a massive, spherically symmetric wormhole. As a particular example of application of the method, a solution is found to the axisymmetric magnetostatic problem for a current loop in the field of the Bronnikov-Ellis-Morris-Thorne wormhole.
Massive and massless gauge fields of any spin and symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussain, F.; Jarvis, P.D.
1988-05-01
An analysis of the BRST approach to massive and massless gauge fields of any spin and symmetry is presented. Previous results on massless gauge fields are extended to totally antisymmetric massless tensors and Kaehler-Dirac particles. Two methods for arriving at a BRST invariant, massive theory from the corresponding massless one are discussed. The first allows for an interpretation in terms of dimensional reduction, while the second keeps the BRST operator of the massless theory, but employs gauge invariant fields. (author). 10 refs
Geometric approach to a massive p form duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arias, Pio J.; Leal, Lorenzo; Perez-Mosquera, J. C.
2003-01-01
Massive theories of Abelian p forms are quantized in a generalized path representation that leads to a description of the phase space in terms of a pair of dual nonlocal operators analogous to the Wilson loop and the 't Hooft disorder operators. Special attention is devoted to the study of the duality between the topologically massive and self-dual models in 2+1 dimensions. It is shown that these models share a geometric representation in which just one nonlocal operator suffices to describe the observables
PARALLEL SPATIOTEMPORAL SPECTRAL CLUSTERING WITH MASSIVE TRAJECTORY DATA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Z. Gu
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Massive trajectory data contains wealth useful information and knowledge. Spectral clustering, which has been shown to be effective in finding clusters, becomes an important clustering approaches in the trajectory data mining. However, the traditional spectral clustering lacks the temporal expansion on the algorithm and limited in its applicability to large-scale problems due to its high computational complexity. This paper presents a parallel spatiotemporal spectral clustering based on multiple acceleration solutions to make the algorithm more effective and efficient, the performance is proved due to the experiment carried out on the massive taxi trajectory dataset in Wuhan city, China.
RAMA: A file system for massively parallel computers
Miller, Ethan L.; Katz, Randy H.
1993-01-01
This paper describes a file system design for massively parallel computers which makes very efficient use of a few disks per processor. This overcomes the traditional I/O bottleneck of massively parallel machines by storing the data on disks within the high-speed interconnection network. In addition, the file system, called RAMA, requires little inter-node synchronization, removing another common bottleneck in parallel processor file systems. Support for a large tertiary storage system can easily be integrated in lo the file system; in fact, RAMA runs most efficiently when tertiary storage is used.
QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS AFTER MASSIVE PULMONARY EMBOLISM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragan Kovačić
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary embolism is a disease, which has a 30% mortality if untreated, while an early diagnosis and treatment lowers it to 2–8%. Health related quality of life (HRQL of patients who survived massive pulmonary embolism is unknown in published literature. In our research we tried to apply experience of foreign experts in estimation of quality of life in some other diseases to the field of massive pulmonary embolism.Patients and methods. Eighteen patients with shock or hypotension due to massive pulmonary embolism, treated with thrombolysis, between July 1993 and November 2000, were prospectively included in the study. Control group included 18 gender and age matched persons. There were no significant differences regarding demographic data between the groups. The HRQL and aerobic capacity of patients and control group were tested with short questions and questionnaires (Veterans brief, self administered questionnaire (VSAQ, EuroQuality questionnaire (EQ, Living with heart failure questionnaire (LlhHF. With LlhHF physical (F-LlhHF and emotional (E-LlhHF HRQL was assessed at hospitalization and 12 months later.Results. One year after massive pulmonary embolism aerobic capacity (–9.5%, p < 0.017 and HRQL (EQ (–34.5%, F-LlhHF (–85.4%, E-LlhHF (–48.7% decreased in massive pulmonary embolism group compared to aerobic capacity 6 months before massive pulmonary embolism and HRQL. Heart rate before thrombolysis correlated with aerobic capacity (r = 0.627, p < 0.01, EQ (r = 0.479, p < 0.01 and F-LlhHF (r = 0.479, p = 0.04 1 year after massive pulmonary embolism. Total pulmonary resistance at 12 hours after start of treatment correlated with aerobic capacity at 1 year (r = 0.354, p < 0.01.With short question (»Did you need any help in everyday activities in last 2 weeks?« we successfully separated patients with decreased HRQL in EQ (74.3 ± 20.8 vs. 24.5 ± 20.7, p < 0.001 and F-LlhHF (21.7 ± 6.7 vs. 32.8 ± 4.3, p < 0.01, but we
Bosonization of fermions coupled to topologically massive gravity
Fradkin, Eduardo; Moreno, Enrique F.; Schaposnik, Fidel A.
2014-03-01
We establish a duality between massive fermions coupled to topologically massive gravity (TMG) in d=3 space-time dimensions and a purely gravity theory which also will turn out to be a TMG theory but with different parameters: the original graviton mass in the TMG theory coupled to fermions picks up a contribution from fermion bosonization. We obtain explicit bosonization rules for the fermionic currents and for the energy-momentum tensor showing that the identifications do not depend explicitly on the parameters of the theory. These results are the gravitational analog of the results for 2+1 Abelian and non-Abelian bosonization in flat space-time.
Bosonization of fermions coupled to topologically massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, Eduardo; Moreno, Enrique F.; Schaposnik, Fidel A.
2014-01-01
We establish a duality between massive fermions coupled to topologically massive gravity (TMG) in d=3 space–time dimensions and a purely gravity theory which also will turn out to be a TMG theory but with different parameters: the original graviton mass in the TMG theory coupled to fermions picks up a contribution from fermion bosonization. We obtain explicit bosonization rules for the fermionic currents and for the energy–momentum tensor showing that the identifications do not depend explicitly on the parameters of the theory. These results are the gravitational analog of the results for 2+1 Abelian and non-Abelian bosonization in flat space–time.
Bosonization of fermions coupled to topologically massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fradkin, Eduardo [Department of Physics and Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States); Moreno, Enrique F. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Schaposnik, Fidel A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Física La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2014-03-07
We establish a duality between massive fermions coupled to topologically massive gravity (TMG) in d=3 space–time dimensions and a purely gravity theory which also will turn out to be a TMG theory but with different parameters: the original graviton mass in the TMG theory coupled to fermions picks up a contribution from fermion bosonization. We obtain explicit bosonization rules for the fermionic currents and for the energy–momentum tensor showing that the identifications do not depend explicitly on the parameters of the theory. These results are the gravitational analog of the results for 2+1 Abelian and non-Abelian bosonization in flat space–time.
Complexity growth in minimal massive 3D gravity
Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.
2018-01-01
We study the complexity growth by using "complexity =action " (CA) proposal in the minimal massive 3D gravity (MMG) model which is proposed for resolving the bulk-boundary clash problem of topologically massive gravity (TMG). We observe that the rate of the complexity growth for Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole saturates the proposed bound by physical mass of the BTZ black hole in the MMG model, when the angular momentum parameter and the inner horizon of black hole goes to zero.
Color Magnitude Diagrams of Old, Massive GCs in M31
Caldwell, Nelson; Williams, B.; Dolphin, A. E.; Johnson, L. C.; Weisz, D. R.
2013-01-01
Multicolor stellar photometry of HST data of M31 collected as part of the PHAT project has been performed using the DOLPHOT suite of programs. We present results of color-magnitude diagrams created in F475W and F814W (BI) of more than 50 massive, old clusters. These are clusters in or projected on the disk. We compare the metallicities derived from the color of the giant branch stars with that derived from integrated light spectroscopy. As well, we compare the ages of massive, young clusters with those found from spectra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustavo Caponi
2009-09-01
Full Text Available En "De la degeneración des animales", de 1766, Buffon sostuvo un 'transformismo limitado' que, doce años después, en Las épocas de la naturaleza, sería complementado por una teoría materialista sobre el origen de la vida que ponía en evidencia que, para el cientista, esa alternativa estaba vedada: las condiciones bajo las cuales los seres vivos desarrollan sus existencias podrían explicar cómo las diferentes especies que componen los distintos géneros de animales se habrían formado a partir de la degeneración de una especie originaria. Pero, la constitución de esas múltiples cepas primigenias sólo podría explicarse por un súbito proceso de generación espontánea. Una limitación inherente al propio sistema de ideas que lo había llevado hasta ese transformismo limitado: la propia teoría de la generación y la reproducción que le servía de base inhibía la posibilidad de su radicalización.In "Of the degeneration of animals" (1766, Buffon espoused a kind of limited transformism. Yet twelve years later, in Epochs of Nature, he supplemented this with a materialist theory on the origin of life that left no room for this alternative: the conditions under which living beings develop could explain how the different species within each animal genus had formed through the degeneration of an originating species. But the formation of these multiple, originating varieties could only be explained by a sudden process of spontaneous generation. A limitation inherent to the very system of ideas that had taken Buffon to limited transformism - the underlying theory of generation and reproduction - preempted the possibility of its radicalization.
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): Current Applications and Future Potential
Milheim, William D.
2013-01-01
Massive Open Online Courses (or MOOCs) are the subject of numerous recent articles in "The Chronicle of Higher Education," "The New York Times," and other publications related to their increasing use by a variety of universities to reach large numbers of online students. This article describes the current state of these online…
The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.
2014-01-01
The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r b , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.
4 Massive Open Online Courses and How They Work
Gose, Ben
2012-01-01
Massive open online courses (MOOC's) are the latest development in online education. Over the past decade, millions of students have taken free online versions of existing courses at well-known universities like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but such courses often offered little more than reading lists and lecture notes. MOOC's are…
Massive Open Online Librarianship: Emerging Practices in Response to MOOCs
Mune, Christina
2015-01-01
Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently emerged as a disruptive pedagogy gaining rapid momentum in higher education. In some states, proposed legislations would accredit MOOCs to provide college-credit courses in the name of cost saving, efficiency and access. While debates rage regarding the place of MOOCs in higher education, some…
A New Framework for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)
Schoenack, Lindsie
2013-01-01
The challenges that massive open online courses (MOOCs) bring to the learning arena spur adult educators to improve delivery. A framework for a new type of MOOC is presented to address some of the challenges presented by earlier models. This new MOOC, called a mesoMOOC, can bridge several challenges that hinder current effective delivery of MOOCs…
Discussion on massive gravitons and propagating torsion in arbitrary dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernaski, C.A.; Vargas-Paredes, A.A.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.
2009-01-01
Full text. Massive gravity has been an issue of particular interest since the early days of Quantum Gravity. More recently, in connection with models based on brane-world scenarios, the discussion of massive gravitons is drawing a great deal of attention, in view of the possibility of their production at LHC and the feasibility of detection of quantum gravity effects at the TeV scale. In this paper, we reassess a particular R 2 -type gravity action in D dimensions, recently studied by Nakasone and Oda, taking now torsion effects into account. Considering that the vielbein and the spin connection carry independent propagating degrees of freedom, we conclude that ghosts and tachyons are absent only if torsion is non-propagating, and we also conclude that there is no room for massive gravitons. To include these excitations, we understand how to enlarge Nakasone-Oda's model by means of explicit torsion terms in the action and we discuss the unitarity of the enlarged model for arbitrary dimensions. To make this we construct a complete basis of operators that projects the degrees of freedom of the dynamical fields of the model in their irreducible spin decomposition. The outcome is that we find a set of Lagrangians with a massive graviton that, in D=4, reproduce those already studied in the literature. (author)
Are Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) Pedagogically Innovative?
Armellini, Alejandro; Padilla Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia
2016-01-01
While claims about pedagogic innovation in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are common, most reports provide no evidence to justify those claims. This paper reports on a survey aimed at exploring how different stakeholders describe MOOCs, focusing on whether they would consider them pedagogically innovative, and if so, why. Respondents (n =…
Massive Open Online Courses: Disruptive Innovations or Disturbing Inventions?
de Langen, Frank; van den Bosch, Herman
2013-01-01
According to Christensen and Horn, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are serving non-consumers. Although they are limited in the services they provide compared with traditional colleges, they offer free and accessible education to a broader audience, who cannot afford the traditional provision. However, this is a characteristic of online…
Performance of Air Pollution Models on Massively Parallel Computers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brown, John; Hansen, Per Christian; Wasniewski, Jerzy
1996-01-01
To compare the performance and use of three massively parallel SIMD computers, we implemented a large air pollution model on the computers. Using a realistic large-scale model, we gain detailed insight about the performance of the three computers when used to solve large-scale scientific problems...
Auditing the Accessibility of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs).
Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey; Coughlan, Tim
2017-01-01
The outcome from the research being reported in this paper is the design of an accessibility audit to evaluate Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for accessibility and to arrive at solutions and adaptations that can meet user needs. This accessibility audit includes expert-based heuristic evaluations and user-based evaluations of the MOOC platforms and individual courses.
Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.
2016-01-01
In a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) space–time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger–Wheeler–DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle–Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.
Massively Multiplayer Online Video Gaming as Participation in a Discourse
Steinkuehler, Constance A.
2006-01-01
This article has two primary goals: (a) to illustrate how a closer analysis of language can lead to fruitful insights into the activities that it helps constitute, and (b) to demonstrate the complexity of the practices that make up Massively Multiplayer Online Gaming (MMOGaming) through just such an analysis. The first goal is in response to the…
Can Massively Multiplayer Online Gaming Environments Support Team Training?
O'Connor, Debra L.; Menaker, Ellen S.
2008-01-01
Instructional games are created when training is deliberately added to a gaming environment or when gaming aspects are deliberately incorporated into training. One type of game that is currently attracting the attention of the education and training field is the massively multiplayer online game (MMOG). Because evidence about learning outcomes…
On covariant quantization of massive superparticle with first class constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huq, M.
1990-02-01
We use the technique of Batalin and Fradkin to convert the second class fermionic constraints of the massive superparticle into first class constraints. Then the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism has been used to quantize covariantly the resulting theory. Appropriate gauge fixing conditions lead to a completely quadratic action. Some interesting properties of the physical space wave functions are discussed. (author). 16 refs
Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion X. Chen1 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We report the possible accretion from companion in the mas- sive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO ...
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN CYLINDRICAL INDUCTION INDUCTOR SYSTEM WITH MASSIVE SHIELD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Piskun
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The processes in a cylindrical induction inductor system with a massive additional non-magnetic shield and a thin ferromagnetic sheet blank are considered and the formula for induced currents and the strength of excited fields have been obtained.
Mechanical Thrombectomy for Early Treatment of Massive Pulmonary Embolism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reekers, Jim A.; Baarslag, Henk Jan; Koolen, Maria G.J.; Delden, Otto van; Beek, Edwin J.R. van
2003-01-01
We report our technique and results of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy in a consecutive series of eight patients with massive PE. We also discuss the possible role of mechanical PE thrombectomy. Eight consecutive patients with acute massive PE, with or without hemodynamic impairment, were treated with mechanical thrombectomy. We used a modified 7-fr hydrolyzer catheter. The treatment was combined with systemic fibrinolysis. From the logistic and technical point we encountered no problems. All patients showed significant improvement while still in the angiography suite. There were no bleeding complications and no other events related to the procedure. Despite the clinical improvement, one patient died shortly after the procedure from cardiac failure. In all patients there was an acute increase in PO2 to normal values. Only a mean of about 50% of all local thrombus could be removed (range 30-80%). The mean PAP pre-intervention decreased only minimally from 42.5 mmHg to 36.3 mm Hg post-intervention (not significant). In three patients, the PAP continues to remain high at follow-up. The most important feature of mechanical thrombectomy for massive PE is the immediate improvement of the cardiac output, PO2, and clinical situation, overcoming the first critical hours after massive PE. The amount of thrombus reduction seems not to be an important parameter
After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.
Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred
2012-04-01
Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.
Massivizing multi-player online games on clouds
Shen, S.; Iosup, A.; Epema, D.H.J.
2013-01-01
Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) are an important type of distributed applications and have millions of users. Traditionally, MMOGs are hosted on dedicated clusters, distributed globally. With the advent of cloud computing, MMOGs such as Zynga's are increasingly run on cloud resources,
The QCD form factor of massive quarks and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moch, S.
2009-11-01
We review the electromagnetic form factor of heavy quarks with emphasis on the QCD radiative corrections at two-loop order in the perturbative expansion. We discuss important properties of the heavy-quark form factor such as its exponentiation in the high-energy limit and its role in QCD factorization theorems for massive n-parton amplitudes. (orig.)
Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy | Sinclair-Smith ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Two cases of a recently described entity, 'sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy,' occurring in Black males, are reported. Prominent cervical adenopathy was the main presenting feature in both. Histologically, these nodes were characterised by pronounced proliferation of sinus histiocytes which showed ...
Perturbation Theory of Massive Yang-Mills Fields
Veltman, M.
1968-08-01
Perturbation theory of massive Yang-Mills fields is investigated with the help of the Bell-Treiman transformation. Diagrams containing one closed loop are shown to be convergent if there are more than four external vector boson lines. The investigation presented does not exclude the possibility that the theory is renormalizable.
Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa
Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias
2014-01-01
Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…
Optical studies of massive X-ray binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuiderwijk, E.J.
1979-01-01
Photometric and spectroscopic studies of several optical counterparts of massive X-ray binaries are presented. Subjects of study were the binary systems:HD77581/4U0900-40 (Vela X-1), HD153919/4U1700-37, Wray 977/4U1223-62 and Sk160/4U0115-74 (=SMC X-1). (Auth.)
Astronomy for Astronomical Numbers: A Worldwide Massive Open Online Class
Impey, Chris D.; Wenger, Matthew C.; Austin, Carmen L.
2015-01-01
Astronomy: State of the Art is a massive, open, online class (MOOC) offered through Udemy by an instructional team at the University of Arizona. With nearly 24,000 enrolled as of early 2015, it is the largest astronomy MOOC available. The astronomical numbers enrolled do not translate into a similar level of engagement. The content consists of 14…
Massive Stars as Progenitors of Supernovae and GRBs
Langer, N.; van Marle, A.J.; Poelarends, A.J.T.; Yoon, S.C.
2007-01-01
The evolutionary fate of massive stars in our Milky Way is thought to be reasonably well understood: stars above Ëœ 8 M_o produce neutron stars and supernovae, while those above Ëœ 20...30 M_o are presumed to form black holes. At metallicities below that of the SMC, however, our knowledge becomes
A novel method of pannus suspension during massive panniculectomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saoussen Salhi
2015-09-01
With increasing rates of obesity, we can expect that the demand for abdominal panniculectomies will rise. We introduce the use of a device that eliminates the technical challenges encountered during massive panniculectomy while reducing operative time and morbidity. More importantly, it allows the solo surgeon to carry out this procedure without additional hands other than the scrub nurse.