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Sample records for massif western turkey

  1. Defining conditions of garnet growth across the central and southern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, T. M.; Catlos, E. J.; Kelly, E. D.; Cemen, I.; Ozerdem, C.; Atakturk, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Here we apply thermodynamic modeling using Theriak-Domino to garnet-bearing rocks from the central and southern portions of the Menderes Massif to gain insight into the dynamics of western Turkey as the region experienced a transition from collisional to extensional tectonics. To this end, we report new pressure-temperature (P-T) paths from garnet-bearing rocks collected along the Alasehir detachment fault, a prominent exhumation structure in the central portion of the Menderes Massif in western Turkey, constituting the southern margin of the Alasehir Graben. These paths are compared to those from the Selimiye shear zone in the Southern (Cine) Massif. Two Alasehir garnets collected from the same outcrop record two P-T paths: 1) a prograde path beginning at 565oC and 6.4 kbar increasing to 592 oC and 7.5 kbar; and 2) near isobaric growth initiating at 531oC and 7.1 kbar and terminating at 571oC and 7.3 kbar. High-resolution P-T paths could not be modeled for the majority of Alasehir samples due to diffusional modification of garnet. However, conditions were estimated by garnet isopleth thermobarometry at the point of highest spessartine content for each crystal. Calculated P-T values for this subset of samples range between 566-651oC and 6.2-6.8 kbar. Despite this broad range, these P-T conditions are consistent with what is observed in the modeled paths. Th-Pb ages of matrix monazite range from 35.8±3.0 to 20.6±2.4 Ma, suggesting metamorphism in the central Menderes Massif occurred over a 15 m.y. period. Selimiye shear zone rocks show distinct N-shaped P-T paths, suggesting garnets in the central and southern portion of the Menderes Massif record distinctly different tectonic histories.

  2. Magmatism and crustal extension: Constraining activation of the ductile shearing along the Gediz detachment, Menderes Massif (western Turkey)

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    Rossetti, Federico; Asti, Riccardo; Faccenna, Claudio; Gerdes, Axel; Lucci, Federico; Theye, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The Menderes Massif of western Turkey is a key area to study feedback relationships between magma generation/emplacement and activation of extensional detachment tectonics. Here, we present new textural analysis and in situ U-(Th)-Pb titanite dating from selected samples collected in the transition from the undeformed to the mylonitized zones of the Salihli granodiorite at the footwall of the Neogene, ductile-to-brittle, top-to-the-NNE Gediz-Alaşheir (GDF) detachment fault. Ductile shearing was accompanied by the fluid-mediated sub-solidus transformation of the granodiorite to orthogneiss, which occurred at shallower crustal levels and temperatures compatible with the upper greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions (530-580 °C and P system ages during fluid-assisted syn-tectonic re-crystallisation in the transition from magma crystallization and emplacement (at 16-17 Ma) to the syn-tectonic, solid-state shearing (at 14-15 Ma). A minimum time lapse of ca. 1-2 Ma is then inferred between the crustal emplacement of the Salihli granodiorite and nucleation of the ductile extensional shearing along the Gediz detachment. The reconstruction of the cooling history of the Salihli granodiorite documents a punctuated evolution dominated by two episodes of rapid cooling, between 14 Ma and 12 Ma ( 100 °C/Ma) and between 3 and 2 Ma ( 105 °C/Ma). We relate the first episode to nucleation and development of post-emplacement of ductile shearing along the GDF and the second to brittle high-angle faulting, respectively. Our dataset suggests that in the Menderes Massif the activation of ductile extension was a consequence, rather than the cause, of magma emplacement in the extending crust.

  3. Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemen, I; Catlos, E J; Gogus, O; Diniz, E; Hancer, M

    2008-01-01

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is located on the eastern side of the Aegean Extended Terrane and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene during the formation of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal-slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alasehir and the south-dipping Bueyuek Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alasehir, Bueyuek Menderes, and Simav grabens, containing high

  4. Post-collisional magmatism and ore-forming systems in the Menderes massif: new constraints from the Miocene porphyry Mo-Cu Pınarbaşı system, Gediz-Kütahya, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibaş, Okan; Moritz, Robert; Chiaradia, Massimo; Selby, David; Ulianov, Alexey; Revan, Mustafa Kemal

    2017-12-01

    The Pınarbaşı Mo-Cu prospect is hosted within the Pınarbaşı intrusion, which is exposed together with the NW-SE-trending Koyunoba, Eğrigöz, and Baklan plutons along the northeastern border of the Menderes massif. The Pınarbaşı intrusion predominantly comprises monzonite, porphyritic granite, and monzodiorite. All units of the Pınarbaşı intrusion have sharp intrusive contacts with each other. The principal mineralization style at the Pınarbaşı prospect is a porphyry-type Mo-Cu mineralization hosted predominantly by monzonite and porphyritic granite. The porphyry type Mo-Cu mineralization consists mostly of stockwork and NE- and EW-striking sub-vertical quartz veins. Stockwork-type quartz veins hosted by the upper parts of the porphyritic granite within the monzonite, are typically enriched in chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrite, and limonite. The late NE- and EW-striking normal faults cut the stockwork vein system and control the quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-fahlore-galena veins, as well as molybdenite-hematite-bearing silicified zones. Lithogeochemical and whole-rock radiogenic isotope data (Sr, Nd and Pb) of the host rocks, together with Re-Os molybdenite ages (18.3 ± 0.1 Ma - 18.2 ± 0.1 Ma) reveal that the monzonitic and granitic rocks of the Pınarbaşı intrusion were derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle-lower crust during Oligo-Miocene post-collisional magmatism. The lithospheric mantle was metasomatised by fluids and subducted sediments, and the mantle-derived melts interacted with lower crust at 35-40 km depth. This mechanism explains the Mo and Cu enrichments of the Pınarbaşı intrusion during back-arc magmatism. We conclude that the melt of the Pınarbaşı intrusion could have rapidly ascended to mid-crustal levels, with only limited crustal assimilation along major trans-lithospheric faults as a result of thinning of the middle to upper crust during regional extension, and resulted in the development of porphyry

  5. Influence of the Istranca-Rhodope Massifs and strands of the North Anatolian Fault on oil potential of Thrace Basin, NW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) is an intermontane trough bounded to the north and west by the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs. Recent subsurface studies of the NW portion of the Thrace Basin have led to the identification of two trends in geothermal gradient, both of which are oriented approximately NW-SE (i.e. parallel to the depositional axis of the basin). Geological and geophysical data indicate that, due to the thrust of the Istranca Massif upon the Rhodope Massif, the subsurface temperature may have increased in the northern part of the basin. Other controls were wrench-fault activity of the Splays of the North Anatolian Fault (SNAF) and continuing basinal subsidences. The thermal history of the southern part of the basin was affected by Miocene ophiolitic emplacement to the west in Greece. The presence of a belt of intrabasinal palaeotopography (mainly Palaeozoic rocks) also contributed to increased geothermal gradients in the southern part of the study area. The basin is divisible into northern and southern zones of subsidence, which are separated by the Kuleli-Babaeski High. During the Oligocene, subsidence rates were highest in the northern zone and in the western sector of the southern zone. Later, during the Miocene, basin subsidence was associated with intense tectonic activity of the SNAF and with the emplacement of ophiolites to the west. A map of the top of the oil generation zone, based on TTI values calculated by the Lopatin method, indicates the presence of two maturation zones in the basin ; these were separated by the Late Oligocene Kuleli-Babaeski High. Oil generation in these zones was influenced by rapid subsidence, by a NW-SE oriented wrench fault system associated with the NAF and also by tectonic activity of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs in the study area

  6. Geology of the Menderes Massif and the Lycian Nappes South of Denizli, Western Taurides

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    Aral İ. OKAY

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Mount Honaz region in the Western Taurides is made up of superimposed several tectonic units. In the west, monotonous green metashales called the Honaz shale occur at the base of the tectonic stack. Honaz shale is tectonically overlain by weakly metamorphosed, massif white limestone, thinly bedded cherty limestone and shale which covers the Mendercs massif. Menderes massif is in turn tectonically overlain by the Sandak complex of the Lycian nappes made up of Mesozoic dolomites and limestones and ophiolite mainly of harzburgite lies oven the Sandak complex. All these tectonic units form an eastward overturned major anticline called the Honaz anticline; a pelagic sedimentary sequence of Late Cretaceous—Middle/Late Eocene age, called the Göbecik Tepe complex, occurs tectonically beneath the overturned limb of the Honaz anticline. The Göbecik Tepe complex constitutes the relative autochthonous in the region of the Mount Honaz. Different tectonic units in the Mount Honaz region show effects of Late Cretaceous, Middle Eocene and Late Eocene/Oligocene tectonics. Obduction of the ophiolite over the Sandak complex probably occurred during the Late Cretaceous, while the age of thrusting of the Sandak complex over the Menderes massif is probably Middle Eocene. Emplacement of these tectonic units over the Göbecik Tepe complex and the formation of the Honaz anticline is of Late Eocene/Oligocene age.

  7. Reconciling the geological history of western Turkey with plate circuits and mantle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, N.; van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Spakman, W.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    We place the geological history since Cretaceous times in western Turkey in a context of convergence, subduction, collision and slab break-off. To this end, we compare the west Anatolian geological history with amounts of Africa-Europe convergence calculated from the Atlantic plate circuit, and the seismic tomography images of the west Anatolian mantle structure. Western Turkish geology reflects the convergence between the Sakarya continent (here treated as Eurasia) in the north and Africa in the south, with the Anatolide-Tauride Block (ATB) between two strands of the Neotethyan ocean. Convergence between the Sakarya and the ATB started at least ~95-90Myr ago, marked by ages of metamorphic soles of ophiolites that form the highest structural unit below Sakarya. These are underlain by high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Tavsanli and Afyon zones, and the Ören Unit, which in turn are underlain by the Menderes Massif derived from the ATB. Underthrusting of the ATB below Sakarya was since ~50Ma, associated with high-temperature metamorphism and widespread granitic magmatism. Thrusting in the Menderes Massif continued until 35 Ma, after which there is no record of accretion in western Turkey. Plate circuits show that since 90 Ma, ~1400 km of Africa-Europe convergence occurred, of which ~700 km since 50 Ma and ~450 km since 35Ma. Seismic tomography shows that the African slab under western Turkey is decoupled from the African Plate. This detached slab is a single, coherent body, representing the lithosphere consumed since 90 Ma. There was no subduction re-initiation after slab break-off. ATB collision with Europe therefore did not immediately lead to slab break-off but instead to delamination of subducting lithospheric mantle from accreting ATB crust, while staying attached to the African Plate. This led to asthenospheric inflow below the ATB crust, high-temperature metamorphism and felsic magmatism. Slab break-off in western Turkey probably occurred

  8. Petrology of Ortsog-Uul peridotite-gabbro massif in Western Mongolia

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    Shapovalova, M.; Tolstykh, N.; Shelepaev, R.; Cherdantseva, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Ortsog-Uul mafic-ultramafic massif of Western Mongolia is located in a tectonic block with overturned bedding. The massif hosts two intrusions: a rhythmically-layered peridotite-gabbro association (Intrusion 1) and massive Bt-bearing amphibole-olivine gabbro (Intrusion 2). Intrusions 1 and 2 have different petrology features. Early Intrusion 1 (278±2.5Ma) is characterized by lower concentrations of alkalis, titanium and phosphorus than late Intrusion 2 (272±2Ma). The chondrite-normalized REE and primitive mantle-normalized rare elements patterns of Ortsog-Uul intrusions have similar curves of elements distribution. However, Intrusion 2 is characterized higher contents of REE and rare elements. High concentrations of incompatible elements are indicative of strong fractionation process. It has been suggested that Intrusions 1 and 2 derived from compositionally different parental melts. Model calculations (COMAGMAT-3.57) show that parental melts of two intrusions were close to high-Mg picrobasaltic magmas. The concentration of MgO in melt is 16.21 (Intrusion 1) and 16.17 (Intrusion 2). Isotopic data of Ortsog-Uul magmatic rocks exhibit different values of εNd (positive and negative) for Intrusion 1 and 2, respectively.

  9. Radioactivity measurement in soils, sediments and water from Salihli Basin, western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakac, M.; Kumru, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Salihli Basin (about 3500 km 2 ), which is located latitude 38 deg 25' - 38 deg 35' North and longitude 27 deg 58' - 28 deg 25' East, is found on the river of Gediz the second longest river in Aegean Sea. The Gediz river originates in the vicinity of Murat Mountain and flows into the Aegean Sea in western Turkey. Gediz river carries industry effluents and mine discharges frequently inundates its flood plains. Salihli Basin is also one of the flood plain basins which has these properties The bedrock structure of the basin is composed mainly of metamorphic and volcanic rocks of the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Neogene ages. Uranium deposits in the Koprubasi area (Salihli Basin) of western Turkey occur in fluvial sedimentary rocks, which Lire underlaid by high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif. In the present study, soil, sediment and water samples were collected from the basin, its environment and riverbank. Sediment and soil samples were analysed for uranium, thorium and potassium by gamma-spectroscopy method; for radium by collector chamber method. Water samples were analysed for radium by collector chamber method. Moreover, groundwaters and streams' soils, sediments and waters within the basin were analysed for above natural radioactive elements. The objective of this, study is to determine the level of natural radioactivity in Salihli Basin. Uranium, thorium, potassium und radium concentrations and their frequency distributions were plotted graphically

  10. Behaviour of uranium during late-Hercynian and alpine metamorphisms in the Aiguilles rouges and Belledonne (Valorcine, Lauziere) massifs. Western Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negga, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this research thesis is to define the origin of numerous uranium anomalies in the external crystalline Alpine massifs, more precisely the massif of the Aiguilles Rouges and the massif of Belledonne. The primary cause of uranium mineralization in the first massif appears to have been the retrograde metamorphism events of the late-Hercynian age. In the second massif, the same conditions of uranium mineralization appear to have been realised, but with a much higher calcium activity in the fluids. After having explained the choice of the selected areas, the sampling and the chemical analysis performed, the author describes the geological and structural framework of Western Alps: geological history of the paleozoic platform, regional geology of the studied massifs. The next part reports the petrographic and geochemical study, the analysis of the mineral chemistry, of the alteration and the metamorphism. Then the author describes the geochemistry of uranium and thorium within the studied structures

  11. Foraminiferal and radiolarian biostratigraphy of the youngest (Late Albian through Late Cenomanian) sediments of the Tatra massif, Central Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąk, Krzysztof; Bąk, Marta

    2013-06-01

    Bąk, K. and Bąk M. 2013. Foraminiferal and radiolarian biostratigraphy of the youngest (Late Albian through Late Cenomanian) sediments of the Tatra massif, Central Western Carpathians. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 223-237. Warszawa. The foraminiferal and radiolarian biostratigraphy of selected sections of the Zabijak Formation, the youngest sediments of the Tatra massif (Central Western Carpathians), have been studied. Benthic foraminifers, mainly agglutinated species, occur abundantly and continuously throughout the studied succession, while planktic foraminifers are generally sparse. Five planktic and two benthic foraminiferal zones have been recognized. The marly part of the Zabijak Formation comprises the Pseudothalmanninella ticinensis (Upper Albian) through the Rotalipora cushmani (Upper Cenomanian) planktic foraminiferal zones, and the Haplophragmoides nonioninoides and Bulbobaculites problematicus benthic foraminiferal zones. The radiolarians were recognized exclusively in the Lower Cenomanian part of the formation.

  12. Tectonic strain changes affecting the development of deep seated gravitational slope deformations in the Bohemian Massif and Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stemberk, Josef; Hartvich, Filip; Blahůt, Jan; Rybář, Jan; Krejčí, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 289, SI (2017), s. 3-17 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15007; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Deep seated gravitational slope deformations * Displacement monitoring * Tectonic strain changes * Bohemian Massif * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  13. Three steps of serpentinization in an eclogitized oceanic serpentinization front (Lanzo Massif - Western Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    DEBRET, Baptiste; NICOLLET, christian; ANDREANI, Muriel; SCHWARTZ, Stéphane; GODARD, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    The Lanzo peridotite massif is a fragment of oceanic lithosphere generated in an ocean-continent transition context and eclogitized during alpine collision. Despite the subduction history, the massif has preserved its sedimentary oceanic cover, suggesting that it may have preserved its oceanic structure. It is an exceptional case for studying the evolution of a fragment of the lithosphere from its oceanization to its subduction and then exhumation. We present a field and petrological study re...

  14. Tectonic evolution of a part of the Tethyside orogenic collage: The Kargi Massif, northern Turkey

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    Tüysüz, Okan

    1990-02-01

    The central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment, one of the major tectonic units in Turkey, provides critical data for evaluating the Cimmeride and Alpide evolution of the Mediterranean Tethysides. Tectonic events that affected the central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment since the end of the Paleozoic, generated east-west trending belts with the event of every episode redeforming and partly obliterating the structures of previous episodes. This evolution may be conveniently described in terms of three major episodes: (1) Two different realms of pre-Dogger oceanic rocks are present in the area. The northern realm coincided with main branch of Paleo-Tethys that was being actively destroyed by south dipping subduction. The southern realm, the Karakaya ocean, a back arc basin related to this subduction, began opening by rifting of a retroarc carbonate platform during the Permo-Triassic. To the west a continental domain with sparse magmatism seperated the two oceanic areas. Toward the east the two oceans become united by the wedging out of the continental domain. These two pre-Dogger oceans closed during the Lias, and their remnants were emplaced between the southern margin of Laurasia and the fragments of the Cimmerian continent. (2) The second episode partly overlapped the first with rifting south of the Cimmerian continent fragment during the Lias. This rifting was followed by a transgression which covered the ruins of the Cimmeride orogenic belt by the Malm. This rifting concurrently led to the development of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys and a south facing Atlantic-type continental margin. A southerly thickening sedimentary prism developed on this margin during the Lias to early Cretaceous interval. (3) The floor of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys began to be consumed along the north dipping subduction zone beneath the previosly constructed continental margin. This convergent margin generated a magmatic arc to the north and to the south a subduction

  15. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kananian, A.; Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H.; Darvishzadeh, A.; Sabzehi, M.; Whitechurch, H.; Ricou, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km 2 ) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ( 40 K- 40 Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  16. The topographic signature of Quaternary tectonic uplift in the Ardennes massif (Western Europe)

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    Sougnez, N.; Vanacker, V.

    2011-04-01

    Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 y. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This study aims to analyze the link between tectonic uplift rates and landscape morphology based on slope and channel morphometric indexes. To achieve this objective, we selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif (a Palaeozoic massif of NW Europe, principally located in Belgium) that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm yr-1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our analysis indicates that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronic, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  17. The topographic signature of Quaternary tectonic uplift in the Ardennes massif (Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sougnez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 y. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This study aims to analyze the link between tectonic uplift rates and landscape morphology based on slope and channel morphometric indexes. To achieve this objective, we selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif (a Palaeozoic massif of NW Europe, principally located in Belgium that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm yr−1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our analysis indicates that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronic, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  18. Lu-Hf geochronology on cm-sized garnets using microsampling: New constraints on garnet growth rates and duration of metamorphism during continental collision (Menderes Massif, Turkey)

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    Schmidt, Alexander; Pourteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2015-12-01

    This study shows Lu-Hf geochronology of zoned garnet crystals contained in mica schists from the southern Menderes Massif, Turkey. Selected samples are four 3-5 cm large garnet megacrysts of which several consecutive garnet shells have been sampled with a micro-saw and analyzed for dating. The results are used to extract growth rates of garnet, and also to improve the time constraint for Alpine-aged overprint of the Pan-African basement in the Menderes Massif. Lu-Hf ages of the sampled garnet shells are determined by two-point garnet-only isochrons using the garnets' Lu-depleted rim compositions. This yields a consistent decrease of age information from core to rim segments of individual garnet crystals and the calculated isochron ages propose a time frame of growth between 42.6 ± 1.9 and 34.8 ± 3.1 Ma. Major element profiles in the investigated garnets characterize zoning patterns indicative of prograde conditions: Rayleigh fractionated bell-shaped Mn and decreasing Fe/(Fe + Mg) are recorded by the garnets' core to rim compositions. Therefore the obtained Lu-Hf ages record timing of early prograde growth for the cores of the garnets. Two of the large garnet crystals also yield isochron ages of 58.83 ± 0.69 and 50.16 ± 0.84 Ma in their innermost cores, which appear to record an early nucleation event. This view, however, is not in concordance with the observed major element profiles of these garnets, and therefore is interpreted with caution. Termination of the garnet growth period is determined through the calculation of radial growth rates based on the size of the garnets and the Lu-Hf ages obtained for consecutive shells. Extrapolation of these rates potentially constrains the total duration for garnet growth terminating at 31 ± 6 Ma. Comparison of the growth rates calculated for individual crystals shows a variety of slow and fast growing garnets, and similar results have been previously obtained with the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systems. The new data

  19. The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (western Makran, Southern Iran): new geological and geochronological data; Le massif ophiolitique de Kahnuj (Makran occidental, Iran meridional): nouvelles donnees geologiques et geochronologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kananian, A. [University of Tarbiat Modarress, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juteau, Th.; Bellon, H. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, 29 - Brest (France); Darvishzadeh, A. [University of Teheran, Geological Dept., Faculty of Science, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzehi, M. [Geological Survey of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Whitechurch, H. [Universite Louis Pasteur, EOST, Institut de Physique du Globe, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Ricou, L.E. [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-05-01

    The ophiolite massif of Kahnuj (600 km{sup 2}) consists, from bottom to top, of layered gabbros, isotropic gabbros and ouralite gabbros, agmatites of dioritic to plagio-granitic composition, a sheeted dyke complex and lastly a basaltic pillow lava unit. Amphiboles from gabbros were dated ({sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar ages) between 156 and 139 Ma and the agmatites are nearly contemporaneous. Potassic granitic veins dated at 93-88 Ma are related to the development of the Ganj arc complex. (authors)

  20. Radiogeochronologic data on rocks of crystalline massifs of Western Carpathians and their interpretation in radiogeochronologic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.

    1979-01-01

    The results are summed up and evaluated of the measurement of the age of various crystalline rocks in the Western Carpathians using the method of isotope dating. The obtained results show that the rocks in the Western Carpathians were formed in the period of the Variscian and Alpine orogenesis, ie., 90 to 550 million years ago. A list of problems is given which must be resolved using radiogeochronological methods for age determination of geological processes and for specifying the stratigraphy of crystalline rocks in the Western Carpathians. (Ha)

  1. U-Th-Pb dating of the Brossasco ultrahigh-pressure metagranite, Dora-Maira massif, western Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, J.L.; Montel, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chopin, C. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Geologie

    1999-01-01

    The Brossasco metagranite is part of the coherent ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane in the Dora-Maira massif and, although it has reached Alpine peak metamorphic conditions of about 725 C/30 kbar, still locally preserves an undeformed magmatic texture. In order to obtain new chronological constraints on this key area of the western Alps, we studied the behaviour of the U-Th-Pb system in zircons and monazites from such an undeformed facies. Only zircon fractions containing very small needle-shaped inclusions are concordant at 304{+-}3 Ma. This result is interpreted as the emplacement age of the granite. All other zircons show an old inherited memory and the more U-rich of these crystals were affected by an episodic Pb loss with a poorly defined lower intercept at 60{+-}45 Ma. Both TIMS (thermo-ionisation mass spectrometry) and electron-microprobe analysis of monazites show that this last event has also disturbed their U-Pb and Th-Pb isotopic systems, without resetting them completely. Comparison with cofacial rock-types which have been completely reworked under these extreme P-T conditions shows that deformation and mass transfer as well as the nature of the protoliths and the characteristics of their zircons have a much more pronounced influence on the behaviour of isotopic systems than the temperature and/or pressure parameters. This evidence is an obvious limitation to the use of the blocking-temperature concept. (orig.)

  2. U-Th-Pb dating of the Brossasco ultrahigh-pressure metagranite, Dora-Maira massif, western Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.L.; Montel, J.M.; Chopin, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Brossasco metagranite is part of the coherent ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane in the Dora-Maira massif and, although it has reached Alpine peak metamorphic conditions of about 725 C/30 kbar, still locally preserves an undeformed magmatic texture. In order to obtain new chronological constraints on this key area of the western Alps, we studied the behaviour of the U-Th-Pb system in zircons and monazites from such an undeformed facies. Only zircon fractions containing very small needle-shaped inclusions are concordant at 304±3 Ma. This result is interpreted as the emplacement age of the granite. All other zircons show an old inherited memory and the more U-rich of these crystals were affected by an episodic Pb loss with a poorly defined lower intercept at 60±45 Ma. Both TIMS (thermo-ionisation mass spectrometry) and electron-microprobe analysis of monazites show that this last event has also disturbed their U-Pb and Th-Pb isotopic systems, without resetting them completely. Comparison with cofacial rock-types which have been completely reworked under these extreme P-T conditions shows that deformation and mass transfer as well as the nature of the protoliths and the characteristics of their zircons have a much more pronounced influence on the behaviour of isotopic systems than the temperature and/or pressure parameters. This evidence is an obvious limitation to the use of the blocking-temperature concept. (orig.)

  3. Fluvial response to Holocene volcanic damming and breaching in the Gediz and Geren rivers, western Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, W.; Veldkamp, A.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Maddy, D; Demir, T.; Schriek van der, T.; Reimann, T.; Wallinga, J.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the complex late Holocene evolution of the Gediz River north of Kula, western Turkey, when a basaltic lava flow dammed and filled this river valley. Age control was obtained using established and novel feldspar luminescence techniques on fluvial sands below and on top of the

  4. Serological and microbial survey of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from six western states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, B A; Thomas, C B; Yuill, T M

    1992-01-01

    From 1986 to 1989, sera from wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), including three subspecies (M. gallopavo intermedia, M. gallopavo merriami and M. gallopavo mexicana) trapped in six western states were tested for antibody to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) (n = 724), M. synoviae (MS) (n = 461) and M. meleagridis (MM) (n = 354) using the rapid plate agglutination (RPA) assay. Subsamples of these sera were also evaluated using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for antibody to MG (n = 664) and MS (n = 403). Attempts were made to isolate mycoplasmas by swabbing the trachea and cloaca of 190 live wild turkeys and from various tissues (sinus, nasal turbinates, trachea, lung, ovaries and oviduct) from 76 turkeys at necropsy. Isolates were identified using an immunobinding assay. Seroprevalence of MG, MS and MM in the RPA test was highly variable among years and geographic sites, ranging from 0 to 85%, 0 to 87%, and 0 to 83%, respectively, for each mycoplasma species. Of the 724 wild turkey sera tested, 200 (28%) were positive using the RPA assay, while only 20 (3%) of 664 sera tested using the HI assay were positive (at a titer greater than/= 1:80) for antibody to MG. Of the 461 sera tested 178 (39%) were RPA positive for MS, whereas none of the 403 samples tested by HI were positive for MS. Antibody to MM was detected in 72 (20%) of 354 turkey sera tested by RPA. Mycoplasmas were cultured from 81 (30%) of 266 wild turkeys, including 48 that were sampled live and 33 that were examined by necropsy. Mycoplasmas were isolated from every population in which culture was attempted. M. gallopavonis (MGP) was isolated from 37 (46%) of 81 birds which yielded mycoplasma, representing seven of 12 populations sampled. MG was isolated from lower respiratory tissues of one Rio Grande wild turkey trapped in Texas. M. synoviae was isolated from five of 16 Merriam's wild turkeys trapped in Arizona. Sera of birds from which MG or MS was isolated were positive to the respective

  5. Mother-child memory conversations and self-construal in Eastern Turkey, Western Turkey and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Acar, Basak; Leichtman, Michelle D

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven mothers and their four-year-old children from Eastern Turkey (N = 32 pairs), Western Turkey (N = 30 pairs) and the USA (N = 25 pairs) participated in a study of mother-child memory talk as a reflection of mothers' self construal, in view of differences in the function of memory talk across cultures. Mother-child pairs were audio-recorded while talking about shared past and anticipated future events. Mothers completed the Balanced Integration-Differentiation questionnaire measure of self-construal and were scored as high or low on individuation and relatedness orientations. Mothers' memory and future talk showed similar patterns of cultural differences: American mothers provided the most voluminous, descriptive and elaborative talk, while Eastern Turkish mothers showed the highest level of repetitiveness, and Western Turkish mothers' talk fell in between. Children's memory talk was similar across cultures. In all cultures, mothers who scored high on both individuation and relatedness (balanced self-construal subtype) engaged in more voluminous and contexted memory talk, and individuation was associated with more elaborative talk about future events. Results are discussed in light of literature on cultural differences in self-construal and memory function.

  6. Sediment Yields of Basins in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CAMBAZOĞLU, Mustafa Kemal; GÖĞÜŞ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Soil loss and sediment yield are estimated for the basins of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey with different prediction models. The universal soil loss equation (USLE) is the first model applied in this study. Due to the lack of reliable measurement data, the results determined by the application of the USLE using weighted average factors are compared with the results from geographical information system supported USLE predictions undertaken in the TEFER studies performed in th...

  7. Geogenic Groundwater Contamination: A Case Study Of Canakkale - Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    Study area is located NW of Turkey. Total area of the drainage basin is 465 square kilometers and mostly covered by volcanic rocks. Majority of these rocks have highly altered and lost their primary properties because of alteration processes. Especially argillic alteration is common. Tectonic movements and cooling fractures were created suitable circulation environment of groundwater in the rocks (secondary porosity). Alteration affects the composition of groundwater and some rock elements pass into groundwater during the movement of water in the cavities of rocks. High concentration of natural contaminants related to water-rock interaction in spring water has been studied in this research. Field measurements such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity carried out in 500 water points (spring, drilling, well and stream). 150 water samples taken from the water points and 50 rock samples taken from the source of springs has been investigated in point of major anion-cations, heavy metals and trace elements. Some components in the water such as pH (3.5-9.1), specific electrical conductivity (84-6400 microS/cm), aluminum (27-44902 ppb), iron (10-8048 ppb), manganese (0.13-8740 ppb), nickel (0.2-627 ppb), lead (0.1-42.5 ppb) and sulphate (10 to 1940 ppm) extremely high or low in the springs sourced from especially highly altered Miocene aged volcanic rocks. Some measured parameters highly above according to European Communities Drinking Water Regulations (2007) and TS266 (2015-Intended for Human Consumption Water Regulations of Turkey) drinking water standards. The most common element which is found in the groundwater is aluminum that is higher than to the drinking water standards (200 microg/L). The highest levels of the Al values measured in acidic waters with very low pH (3.4) emerging from altered volcanic rocks because of acid mine drainage in Obakoy district, north of the study area. The abundance of this element in

  8. The timberline as result of the interactions among forest, abiotic environment and human activity in the Babia Gora massif, Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajczak, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The timberline is one of the clearest and most easily discernible boundaries in nature (Troll 1973). Among the existing conceptual models clarifying the complex nature of the relationship between the timberline and the environment and human impact, the fullest seems to be the one presented by K. Holtmeier (2009). The quoted author comprehensively characterizes the timberline, taking into account its course, appearance and ecological characteristics. The aim of the work is to quantitatively assess the factors influencing the course of timberline and its changes over the last ca. 400 years in the Babia Góra massif (1725 m a.s.l.), the highest flysch ridge in the Western Carpathians, which is formed as an asymmetric ridge of kuesta type. Forests mainly in the upper montane zone have preserved their natural character in many areas. Old spruce tree growths are a particular advantage of the Babia Góra Mt., being there on the predominant section of the altitude zone of the timberline. In the rest of this zone, spruce forests have been under a direct or indirect influence of changes resulting from grazing with its 400-year history and forestry taking place about 100 years ago. The 60 m difference between the average altitude of the timberline on the northern (1335 m a.s.l.) and the southern slope (1395 m a.s.l.) on the Babia Góra Mt. can be explained with climatic conditions of these areas. The average gradient of the slope within the timberline ecotone on the southern slope of the massif is by 100 smaller, and the amount of solar energy delivered during the growing season is 40% higher (960 kWh/m2) than on the northern slope. The higher position of the timberline on the windward southern slope is favored by the dominant winds from S-W sector, thinner snow cover and earlier melting due to the lower precipitation on the slope and also due to the winnowing of snow onto the steep northern slope of the ridge. On the southern slope of the ridge there are no larger snow

  9. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Jomolhari massif: Variations in timing of syn-collisional metamorphism across western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Young, David; Roberts, Nick M. W.

    2014-03-01

    Our current understanding of the rates and timescales of mountain-building processes is largely based on information recorded in U-bearing accessory minerals such as monazite, which is found in low abundance but which hosts the majority of the trace element budget. Monazite petrochronology was used to investigate the timing of crustal melting in migmatitic metasedimentary rocks from the Jomolhari massif (NW Bhutan). The samples were metamorphosed at upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions (~ 0.85 GPa, ~ 800 °C), after an earlier High-Pressure stage (P > 1.4 GPa), and underwent partial melting through dehydration melting reactions involving muscovite and biotite. In order to link the timing of monazite growth/dissolution to the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the samples, we identified 'chemical fingerprints' in major and accessory phases that were used to back-trace specific metamorphic reactions. Variations in Eu anomaly and Ti in garnet were linked to the growth and dissolution of major phases (e.g. growth of K-feldspar and dehydration melting of muscovite/biotite). Differences in M/HREE and Y from garnet core to rim were instead related to apatite breakdown and monazite-forming reactions. Chemically zoned monazite crystals reacted multiple times during the metamorphic evolution suggesting that the Jomolhari massif experienced a prolonged high-temperature metamorphic evolution from 36 Ma to 18 Ma, significantly different from the P-T-time path recorded in other portions of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in Bhutan. Our data demonstrate unequivocally that the GHS in Bhutan consists of units that experienced independent high-grade histories and that were juxtaposed across different tectonic structures during exhumation. The GHS may have been exhumed in response to (pulsed) mid-crustal flow but cannot be considered a coherent block.

  10. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Turkey has an area of 296 185 sq mi or 767 120 square kilometers. The geology is dominated lay Tertiary and post-Tertiary rocks which are very widespread but extensive outcrops of Mesozoic rocks also occur. Paleozoic rocks, mainly gneisses, mica schists and quartzites occur in the ancient massifs, principally the Istranca massif in Thrace, the Merideres massif in western Anatolia and the Karrshir massif in central Anatolia. Prospecting for uranium began in Turkey in 1953 and the Atomic Energy Raw Materials Division of the Maden Tetkikive Arama Enstitusu (M.T.A.) was founded in 1956. By 1962 a total of 78% of the whole country had been covered by serial radiometric reconnaissance prospecting. Uranium was discovered at Kasar in western Anatolia in 1961 and several hundred tons of reserves estimated two years later. Uranium prospecting was largely recessed from 1963 to 1967. IAEA/UNDP assistance was provided in 1962-63 and 1965 and between 1974 and 1977 in a detailed exploration programme in the Kasar area. In the whole country nearly 600 anomalies and occurrences had been identified by 1963. Several occurrences principally in Western Anatolia had been assigned a small reserve. A recent official estimate places the total national reserve at 3150 tonnes uranium in the less than 30% category of reasonably assured resources. A speculative Potential of between 30,000 and 50,000 tonnes uranium is considered to be reasonable. (author)

  11. Derivation of P-T paths from high-pressure metagranites - Examples from the Gran Paradiso Massif, western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Metamorphosed granites (SiO2 ≥ 70 wt.%) are, in fact, a common rock type in high pressure (HP) and ultrahigh pressure (UHP) terrains, but these rocks were rarely used to derive metamorphic P-T paths. To test the suitability of HP metagranites for such derivations, two metagranites from the Gran Paradiso Massif were studied applying elemental mapping of phengite and garnet and calculated P-T pseudosections contoured by various chemical and modal parameters. Both rocks contain phengite with maximum Si contents of about 3.42 Si per formula unit (pfu) and 3.55 Si pfu in cores, and accessory garnet which is compositionally zoned. Garnet core compositions are rich in grossular component (XCa up to 0.72). Only a rough P-T path could be derived with peak pressures below 2 GPa because, for instance, Si contents in phengite become geobarometrically insensitive at HP conditions, when biotite is not anymore stable. A test of the pseudosection approach to a metagranite from the North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt resulted in an ambiguous finding. In fact, compositions of garnet and phengite in this rock are indicative of both UHP and specific HP conditions ( 1.3 GPa, 530 °C), but the latter conditions fit the entire mineralogical observations better.

  12. Planning for Heritage Preservation in Western Turkey: A GIS Approach to Archaeotourism and Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis, Caitlin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Marmara Lake basin, western Turkey, the burial mounds of Bin Tepe are constantly threatened by looting, development, and agricultural expansion. This study outlines a Geographic Information Systems (GIS methodology used to plan for a solution to preservation through archaeotourism development and agricultural policy compromise in the region. The components of this study include determining how to best take advantage of the scenic view of the mounds for tourism, projecting the potential future visual impact of growing olive trees, and developing a plan to mitigate this impact with unplanted zones. Fieldwork in 2011 both confirmed and furthered GIS analyses.

  13. Seismotectonics of Western Turkey: A Synthesis of Source Parameters and Rupture Histories of Recent Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymaz, T.; Tan, O.; Yolsal, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Aegean region, including western Turkey and Greece, is indeed one of the most seismically active and rapidly deforming continental domains in the Earth. The wide range of deformational processes occurring in this region means that the eastern Mediterranean provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the complex kinematics of continental collision, including strike-slip faulting and crustal extension, as well as associated seismicity and volcanism. The tectonic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region is dominated by effects of subduction along the Hellenic (Aegean) arc and of continental collision in eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus. Northward subduction of the African plate beneath western Anatolia and the Aegean region is causing crustal extension in the overlying Aegean province. The interplay between dynamic effects of the relative motions of adjoining plates thus controls large-scale crustal deformation and the associated earthquake activity in Turkey. The Aegean region has been subject to extension since Miocene time, and this extension has left a pronounced expression in the present-day topography. It is further widely accepted that the rapid extension observed in western Turkey is mainly accommodated by large active normal faults that control the geomorphology which is dominated by a series of E-W trending normal-fault-bounded horst and graben structures; the N-S extension inferred from these structures is consistent with regional earthquake focal mechanisms. The E-W trending Menderes graben, the NE-SW trending Burdur, Acigol and Baklan, and NW-SE trending Dinar and Sultandag-Aksehir basins all bounded by large faults form a system of half-graben whose orientation is evident in both the topography and the tilting of Neogene sediments adjacent to them. We have studied source mechanisms and rupture histories of ˜20 earthquakes using body-waveform modelling, and have compared the shapes and amplitudes of teleseismic long-period P

  14. The Pliocene initiation and Early Pleistocene volcanic disruption of the palaeo-Gediz fluvial system, Western Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Demir, T.; Bridgland, D.R.; Veldkamp, A.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.; Schreve, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report our latest observations concerning a Pliocene and Early Pleistocene record from Western Turkey. The sedimentary sequence described comprises the fluvial deposits of an Early Pleistocene palaeo-Gediz river system and its tributaries prior to the onset of volcanism around Kula

  15. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms among men in a rural district of Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsal, A.; Ayranci, U.; Tozun, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men aged 40 years or older, as well as to compare characteristics of patients with and without LUTS. Methodology: The paper is a cross-sectional survey conducted on men with LUTS in a district of western Turkey between November 1 and December 31. The questionnaire was filled in by a face to face method, and consisted of the men's socio-demographic characteristics, LUTS related characteristics, and the questions pertaining to international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Results: The prevalence of LUTS was 51.5%. The comparative analyses between patients who had and those who did not have LUTS showed that patients in settlement area Kaymaz, those aged 70 and over, those with primary school education and below, those who were married, those who had recurrent UTI, those who were using medicines continuously, those with a history of previous surgery, those with family history of LUTS had a higher prevalence of LUTS. Conclusion: In conclusion the number of the respondents having LUTS was common among men in this region of Turkey. (author)

  16. Hydrogeological Modelling of the Geothermal Waters of Alaşehir in the Continental Rift Zone of the Gediz, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ӧzgür, Nevzat; Bostancı, Yesim; Anilır Yürük, Ezgi

    2017-12-01

    In western Anatolia, Turkey, the continental rift zones of the Büyük Menderes, Küçük Menderes and Gediz were formed by extensional tectonic features striking E-W generally and representing a great number of active geothermal systems, epithermal mineralizations and volcanic rocks from Middle Miocene to recent. The geothermal waters are associated with the faults which strike preferentially NW-SE and NE-SW and locate diagonal to general strike of the rift zones of the Menderes Massif. These NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults were probably generated by compressional tectonic regimes which leads to the deformation of uplift between two extensional rift zones in the Menderes Massif. The one of these rift zones is Gediz which is distinguished by a great number of geothermal waters such as Alaşehir, Kurşunlu, Çamurlu, Pamukkale and Urganlı. The geothermal waters of Alaşehir form the biggest potential in the rift zone of Gediz with a capacity of about 100 to 200 MWe. Geologically, the gneisses from the basement rocks in the study area which are overlain by an Paleozoic to Mesozoic intercalation of mica schists, quartzites and marbles, a Miocene intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones and Plio-Quaternary intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones discordantly. In the study area, Paleozoic to Mesozoic quartzites and marbles form the reservoir rocks hydrogeologically. The geothermal waters anions with Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and HCO3>Cl> dominant anions are of Na-HCO3 type and can be considered as partial equilibrated waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures area of about 185°C in accordance with measured reservoir temperatures. Stabile isotopes of δ18O versus δ2H of geothermal waters of Alaşehir deviate from the meteoric water line showing an intensive water-rock interaction under high temperature conditions. These data are well correlated with the results of the

  17. Risk Factors for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güliz Fatma Yavaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in subjects aged over 40 years in Western Turkey and to quantify its association with several systemic risk factors. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The research was conducted in Afyonkarahisar, a middle Anatolian city, between November 2005 and February 2006. A total of 1533 subjects aged 40 years or more were included in the study. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiac disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habitus (meat, chicken, and fish consumption were asked. Level of blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin B12, and thyroid-stimulating-hormone were determined. Ophthalmic examination was performed, and intraocular pressure was measured by tonopen. Subjects with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more and/or with a cupping/disc ratio of 0.3 or more were told to come to the clinic for visual field analysis and gonioscopy. Subjects with a typical glaucomatous visual field defect and an open angle were recorded as POAG. Risk factors for POAG were determined by chi-square test. Re sults: Prevalence of POAG was found to be 2% (30 subjects and the only associated risk factor was age (p=0.05. Dietary habitus was also not associated with glaucoma (p>0.05. Dis cus si on: This study provides a population-based data about the prevalence and risk factors of POAG in Turkey. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 87-90

  18. Quantification of vertical movement of low elevation topography combining a new compilation of global sea-level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Braun, Jean; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2017-07-01

    A wide range of methods are available to quantify Earth's surface vertical movements but most of these methods cannot track low amplitude (5 Ma, e.g. cosmogenic isotope studies) vertical movements characteristic of plate interiors. The difference between the present-day elevation of ancient sea-level markers (deduced from well dated marine deposits corrected from their bathymetry of deposition) and a global sea-level (GSL) curve are sometimes used to estimate these intraplate vertical movements. Here, we formalized this method by re-assessing the reliability of published GSL curves to build a composite curve that combines the most reliable ones at each stage, based on the potential bias and uncertainties inherent to each curve. We suggest i) that curves which reflect ocean basin volume changes are suitable for the ca. 100 to 35 Ma ;greenhouse; period ii) whereas curves that reflects ocean water volume changes are better suited for the ca. 35 to 0 Ma ;icehouse; interval and iii) that, for these respective periods, the fit is best when using curves that accounts for both volume changes. We used this composite GSL curve to investigate the poorly constrained Paleogene to Neogene vertical motions of the Armorican Massif (western France). It is characterized by a low elevation topography, a Variscan basement with numerous well dated Cenozoic marine deposits scattered upon it. Using our method, we identify low amplitude vertical movements ranging from 66 m of subsidence to 89 m of uplift over that time period. Their spatial distribution argues for a preferred scale of deformation at medium wavelengths (i.e., order 100 km), which we relate to the deformation history of northwestern European lithosphere in three distinct episodes. i) A phase of no deformation between 38 and 34 Ma, that has been previously recognized at the scale of northwestern Europe, ii) a phase of low subsidence between 30 and 3.6 Ma, possibly related to buckling of the lithosphere and iii) a phase of

  19. An Equivalent Moment Magnitude Earthquake Catalogue for Western Turkey and its Quantitative Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptokaropoulos, Konstantinos; Vasilios, Karakostas; Eleftheria, Papadimitriou; Aggeliki, Adamaki; Onur, Tan; Zumer, Pabuçcu

    2013-04-01

    Earthquake catalogues consist a basic product of seismology, resulting from complex procedures and suffering from natural and man-made errors. The accumulation of these problems over space and time lead to inhomogeneous catalogues which in turn lead to significant uncertainties in many kinds of analyses, such as seismicity rate evaluation and seismic hazard assessment. A major source of catalogue inhomogeneity is the variety of magnitude scales (i.e. Mw, mb, MS, ML, Md), reported from different institutions and sources. Therefore an effort is made in this study to compile a catalogue as homogenous as possible regarding the magnitude scale for the region of Western Turkey (26oE - 32oE longitude, 35oN - 43oN latitude), one of the most rapidly deforming regions worldwide with intense seismic activity, complex fault systems and frequent strong earthquakes. For this purpose we established new relationships to transform as many as possible available magnitudes into equivalent moment magnitude scale, M*w. These relations yielded by the application of the General Orthogonal Regression method and the statistical significance of the results was quantified. The final equivalent moment magnitude was evaluated by taking into consideration all the available magnitudes for which a relation was obtained and also a weight inversely proportional to their standard deviation. Once the catalogue was compiled the magnitude of completeness, Mc, was investigated in both space and time regime. The b-values and their accuracy were also calculated by the maximum likelihood estimate. The spatial and temporal constraints were selected in respect to seismicity recording level, since the state and evolution of the local and regional seismic networks are unknown. We modified and applied the Goodness of Fit test of Wiemer and Wyss (2000) in order to be more effective in datasets that are characterized by smaller sample size and higher Mcthresholds. The compiled catalogue and the Mcevaluation

  20. Pleistocene speleothem fracturing in the foreland of the Western Carpathians: a case study from the seismically active eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bábek, O.; Briestenský, Miloš; Přecechtělová, G.; Štěpančíková, Petra; Hellstrom, J.C.; Drysdale, R.N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2015), s. 491-506 ISSN 1641-7291 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/0573 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : speleothems * U/Th series dating * palaeoseismicity * Pleistocene * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.858, year: 2015

  1. The Nysa-Morava Zone: an active tectonic domain with Late Cenozoic sedimentary grabens in the Western Carpathians' foreland (NE Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, P.; Bábek, O.; Štěpančíková, Petra; Švancara, J.; Pazdírková, J.; Sedláček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2015), s. 963-990 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/0573; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Upper Morava Basin * tectonic evolution * seismicity * sedimentary grabens Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  2. Integrated geophysical investigations in the Hisar geothermal field, Demirci, western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEzuerlan, Guelcin [Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey). Faculty of Mines, Geophysical Engineering Department; Sahin, M. Huedavendigar [Department of Geophysics, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-04-15

    The shallow, low-temperature geothermal field of Hisar, in western Turkey, was studied by means of vertical electrical sounding (VES), Wenner, self-potential (SP) and very low-frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) profiling surveys. The VES survey, conducted along the valley in an E-W direction, provided lithological and structural information that is in good agreement with the well data, and suggests that the field is characterized by low-resistivity values (=30Om). Because the resistivity structure in a N-S direction could not be investigated due to the rough topography towards the north, SP, Wenner and VLF-EM measurements were made to identify and characterize a possible hot-fluid carrying fault/fracture zone that forms one of the boundaries of the valley. There is a good correlation between the results of the SP, VLF-EM and Wenner surveys, which confirm the existence of the NE-SW striking fault zone that had been inferred from geologic information. Tensional fractures that developed perpendicular to the fault zone were also identified. Consistent with the results of the SP and Wenner profilings, the two-dimensional model derived from VLF-EM data and a Karous-Hjelt current density pseudo-section detected the conductive fault zones bearing the geothermal fluids. (author)

  3. Effect of soil conditions on predicted ground motion: Case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Elcin; Chávez-García, Francisco J.; Polat, Orhan

    2014-04-01

    We present a site effect study for the city of Izmir, Western Anatolia, Turkey. Local amplification was evaluated using state-of-practice tools. Ten earthquakes recorded at 16 sites were analysed using spectral ratios relative to a reference site, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios, and an inversion scheme of the Fourier amplitude spectra of the recorded S-waves. Seismic noise records were also used to estimate site effects. The different estimates are in good agreement among them, although a basic uncertainty of a factor of 2 seems difficult to decrease. We used our site effect estimates to predict ground motion in Izmir for a possible M6.5 earthquake close to the city using stochastic modelling. Site effects have a large impact on PSV (pseudospectral velocity), where local amplification increases amplitudes by almost a factor of 9 at 1 Hz relative to the firm ground condition. Our results allow identifying the neighbourhoods of Izmir where hazard mitigation measurements are a priority task and will also be useful for planning urban development.

  4. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copuroglu, Oguzhan; Andic-Cakir, Ozge; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.; Kuehnel, Radko

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO 2 . The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  5. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copuroglu, Oguzhan, E-mail: O.Copuroglu@CiTG.TUDelft.NL [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of CiTG, Materials and Environment, Stevinweg 1, 2628CN, Delft (Netherlands); Andic-Cakir, Ozge [Ege University, Civil Engineering Dept., 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M. [Geological Survey of Norway, Dept. of Mineral Characterization, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kuehnel, Radko [Burgemeester Merkusstraat 5, 2645 NJ, Delfgauw (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO{sub 2}. The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  6. Genotyping of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavasoglu, Cengiz; Bilgic, Altinay; Durmaz, Riza; Gunal, Selami

    2004-01-01

    Although the rate of multiple drug resistance is high there is no published data on the transmission rate of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Aegean region of Western Turkey that are based on molecular methods. IS6110 and pTBN12 restriction fragment lengthpolymorphism (RFLP) methods were used for typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from 26 sputum samples from 26 patients. 19 of rifampin-resistant isolates (73.1%) contained 6 to 11 copies of 156110. Eighteen different IS6110 DNA fingerprint patterns were observed in the 26 rifampin resistant isolates. 23 of the 26 rifampin-resistant isolates were also resistant to isoniazid. When evaluated together, both methods yielded 21 (80.9%) different banding patterns and the level of clustering was 34.6%. The average number per pattern was 1.23 (26/21). IS6110 fingerprinting suggests that the rifampin-resistant isolates obtained from the Aegean region had a relatively high clustering rate and were clonally related. These findings showed that the rifampin-resistant isolates are actively transmitted between patients. Urgent measures should be taken to prevent the spread of these resistant strains. (author)

  7. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  8. Growth response of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani) plantations to thinning intensity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Serdar; Catal, Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the growth response of 25 yr old Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) plantation to thinnings of different intensities in Isparta in western Turkey. The thinning intensity was measured by using the residual basal area (%) as parameter. In spring of 2005, three treatments were tested; light, moderate and heavy thinning with respectively 10, 25 and 35% of basal area removed. The statistical design of the experiment was a randomized incomplete block with two blocks and three treatments. Variables such as diameter at breast height (diameter) and height were measured. Growth rate ratios of diameter in moderately thinned and heavily thinned stands were 1.02 and 1.03, respectively. Basal area growth rates in moderately thinned and heavily thinned plots were 0.93 and 1.05, respectively. The largest values for the mean tree were observed with the heaviest thinning treatment. Absolute diameter increment was positively correlated with initial diameter in all plots. Relative diameter growth was negatively correlated with initial diameter. Growth rate interpretations were supported by analysis of variance using Duncan's test of range multiple. The results obtained show significant differences between treatments for tree height growth, for the two inventories carried out (2005, 2008). However diameter basal area and volume were no found between treatments for tree.

  9. Soil erosion determinations using 137Cs technique in the agricultural regions of Gediz Basin, Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sac, M.; Ymurtaci, E.; Yener, G.; Ugur, A.; Ozden, B.; Camgoz, B.

    2004-01-01

    Gediz basin is one of the regions where intense agricultural activities take place in Western Turkey. Erosion and soil degradation has long been causing serious problems to cultivated fields in the basin. This work describes the application of two different 137 Cs models for estimating soil erosion rates in cultivated sites of the region. Soil samples were collected from five distinct cultivated regions subject to soil erosion. The variations of 137 Cs concentrations with depth in soil profiles were investigated. Soil loss rates were calculated from 137 Cs inventories of the samples using both Proportional Model (PM) and Simplified Mass Balance Model (SMBM). When Proportional Model was used, erosion and deposition rates varied from -15 to -28 t ha -1 y -1 and from +5 to +41 t ha ha -1 y -1 , respectively, they varied from -16 to -33 t ha -1 y -1 and from +5 to +55 t ha -1 y -1 with Simplified Mass Balance Model. A good agreement was observed between the results of two models up to 30 t ha -1 y -1 soil loss and gain in the study area. Ulukent, a small representative agricultural field, was selected to compare the present data of 137 Cs techniques with the results obtained by Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) applied in the area before. (authors)

  10. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, S; Kadioglu, Y K; Akyol, A A

    2008-01-01

    ) studies reveal that the main bulding rock units of Ilyas Bey Mosque are mainly composed of 4 main units these are marble, metalimestone, mica gneiss and granodiorite. The marble, metalimestone with the mica gneiss were obtained from Menderes Massif in Western Anatolia. The granodiorite columns might be obtained from Kozak Pluton in the north of Bergama-Izmir line of western Anatolia

  11. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, S [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geophysical Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Kadioglu, Y K [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geological Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akyol, A A [Ankara University, Baskent Vac. High Sch. Prog. of Restoration and Cons., Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: kadi@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: akyol@ankara.edu.tr

    2008-07-01

    ) studies reveal that the main bulding rock units of Ilyas Bey Mosque are mainly composed of 4 main units these are marble, metalimestone, mica gneiss and granodiorite. The marble, metalimestone with the mica gneiss were obtained from Menderes Massif in Western Anatolia. The granodiorite columns might be obtained from Kozak Pluton in the north of Bergama-Izmir line of western Anatolia.

  12. Stochastic approaches for time series forecasting of boron: a case study of Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Omer Faruk

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, a seasonal and non-seasonal prediction of boron concentrations time series data for the period of 1996-2004 from Büyük Menderes river in western Turkey are addressed by means of linear stochastic models. The methodology presented here is to develop adequate linear stochastic models known as autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and multiplicative seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) to predict boron content in the Büyük Menderes catchment. Initially, the Box-Whisker plots and Kendall's tau test are used to identify the trends during the study period. The measurements locations do not show significant overall trend in boron concentrations, though marginal increasing and decreasing trends are observed for certain periods at some locations. ARIMA modeling approach involves the following three steps: model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking. In the model identification step, considering the autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) results of boron data series, different ARIMA models are identified. The model gives the minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) is selected as the best-fit model. The parameter estimation step indicates that the estimated model parameters are significantly different from zero. The diagnostic check step is applied to the residuals of the selected ARIMA models and the results indicate that the residuals are independent, normally distributed, and homoscadastic. For the model validation purposes, the predicted results using the best ARIMA models are compared to the observed data. The predicted data show reasonably good agreement with the actual data. The comparison of the mean and variance of 3-year (2002-2004) observed data vs predicted data from the selected best models show that the boron model from ARIMA modeling approaches could be used in a safe manner since the predicted values from these models preserve the basic

  13. Flood disaster and protection measures in Turkey Case Study: May 1998 flood disaster at North Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurer, Ibrahim; Ozguier, Hamza

    2004-01-01

    Due to geographical location, geology, and topography, Turkey undergoes three main types of natural disasters related to gravity flows; floods, landslides, and snow avalanches. Flooding is second important natural hazard after earthquakes with 18 floods and 23 deaths per year, on average. During 20-21 May 1998, the rainfall which was equal to about four times of long-term mean annual rainfall total of north western Black Sea geographical region of Turkey affected 35.000 m 2 , damaged 1300 km highway, 600 km roads to the villages, and 60 km railway. After the recession of the flood waters, the field survey done proved that 12 highway bridges, 91 small bridges on village roads and 6900 highway culverts, 13.800 m retaining wall and about 500 houses were severely damaged. During the last five years, with the loans and credits provided by World Bank, a series of flood protection structures were designed and built for the rehabilitation of the region. Mostly concentrating on non-structural flood protection studies, a work programme has been drafted in this framework to develop flood management and to reduce or eliminate long-term risk and damage to people and their property from natural hazards and their effects. In this case study, the factors causing the flood disaster are given, and the flood event is analyzed from hydrologic and morphologic points of view. Also the different types of the flood protection measures are exemplified and the experience gained in controlling the flood damages is presented.(Author)

  14. Trace element behavior during serpentinization/de-serpentinization of an eclogitized oceanic lithosphere: A LA-ICPMS study of the Lanzo ultramafic massif (Western Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    DEBRET, Baptiste; ANDREANI, Muriel; GODARD, Marguerite; NICOLLET, Christian; SCHWARTZ, Stéphane; LAFAY, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Serpentinites are one of the major components of the oceanic lithosphere and are stable in the slab and the mantle wedge up to 100-150 km depth in subduction zones. During oceanic mantle hydration and alteration, they trap trace and fluid mobile (FME: B, Li, As, Sb, Rb, Ba, Cs, Sr, U and Pb) elements that participate to elemental transfer occurring between the dehydrating slab and the mantle wedge in subduction context. The Lanzo massif is an eclogitized oceanic lithosphere that preserved its...

  15. Hydrochemical zonation of the western part of Göksu Delta aquifer system, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, U. E.; Çelik, M.; Arslan, Ş.; Engin, H.

    2012-04-01

    In general, coastal areas are preferred places for human settlement, especially at places where infrastructure routes benefit from rivers, streets, or harbours. As a result, these areas usually suffer from rising population and endure increasingly high demand on natural resources like water. Göksu Delta, located in southern Turkey, is one of the important wetland areas of Turkey at the Mediterranean coast. It is divided into two parts by Göksu River. The western part of the delta, which is the subject matter of this study, hosts fertile agricultural fields, touristic places and a Special Environmental Protection Area. These properties of the region lead to a water-dependent ecosystem where groundwater has widely been used for agricultural and domestic purposes. When the exploitation of groundwater peaked in the middle of 1990s, the groundwater levels dropped and seawater intruded. General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works tried to stop seawater intrusion by building irrigation channels connected to Göksu River and banned drilling of new wells for groundwater exploitation, although it is hard to control the drilling of wells without official permit. Geological studies show that the delta is composed of terrestrial sediments including clay to coarse sand deposited during Quaternary. The heterogeneous sediments of Göksu Delta cause hydrogeological features of the aquifer systems to be heterogeneous and anisotropic. Hydrogeological investigations, therefore, indicate mainly two different aquifers, shallow and deep, separated by an aquitard. The shallow aquifer is under unconfined to confined conditions from north to south while the deep aquifer is under confined conditions. This study focuses on hydrogeochemical zonation in terms of hydrochemical processes that affect the Göksu Delta aquifer systems. For this purpose, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies are conducted to understand the salinisation and softening processes of groundwater. The physicochemical

  16. Assessment of Groundwater Supply Impacts for a Mine Site in Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agartan, E.; Yazicigil, H.

    2010-12-01

    A nickel mine located in Turgutlu town in Western Turkey requires 135 L/s of water for the mining processes. The initial studies pointed out that part of the supply will be met by pumping water from the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. The purpose of this study is to assess the impacts associated with meeting groundwater supply requirements for the mine. Scope of the study involved development of the groundwater flow model of the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system, determination of the alternative groundwater pumping scenarios, assessment of the impacts associated with each scenario and selection of the most feasible scenario in the aspect of environmental and technical factors. Turgutlu town is located in one of the most tectonically active areas in Turkey which is characterized by an E-W trending Gediz Graben formed as a result of N-S directed extension. Gediz River as a major surface water resource in the study area flows from east to west, passes through Gediz Graben and is connected to the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. Quaternary deposits and Neogene rocks, showing better aquifer properties than the other formations of the Gediz Graben, form the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. Quaternary deposits form the principal aquifer, and Neogene rocks form the secondary aquifer in the study area. Therefore, a two layered groundwater flow model of the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system was established using MODFLOW. The model was calibrated under steady state conditions assuming that the conditions in 1991 prior to the significant development represented a pseudo-steady state in the aquifer system. Calibration was carried out for hydraulic conductivity, recharge and boundary conditions. To get today’s groundwater levels, wells being drilled after 1991 were added to the model. In the scope of this study, two potential scenarios were considered, and their effects on the aquifer systems were evaluated. The locations of the scenario wells were determined so that they will

  17. Carcass traits of improved and indigenous lamb breeds of North-Western Turkey under an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omur Kocak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the carcass quality of Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds in north-western Turkey under an intensive production system. After weaning at approximately 85 days of age, 46 lambs from Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds were fattened for 56 days. Slaughter weights were 47.39, 45.68, 47.27, 31.08 and 29.82 kg and chilled carcass weights were 23.35, 22.33, 23.51, 14.33 and 13.75 kg, respectively (P<0.001. Improved Turkish Merino and Ramlic and indigenous Kivircik lambs had higher carcass measurements than indigenous Chios and Imroz lambs. Chios lamb carcasses had the highest tail root fat yellowness and tail percentage while having the lowest fatness score, omental and mesenteric fat percentage and kidney knob and channel fat percentage. Turkish Merino lambs had higher shoulder percentage, lean percentage and lean/total fat ratio in the hind leg and produced less total fat in the hind leg than Ramlic and Kivircik lambs. These results indicate that improved Turkish Merino might be used to produce high quality lamb carcasses in north-western Turkey. Among indigenous breeds Kivircik showed an outstanding carcass production performance.

  18. Evaluation of Süleymanköy (Diyarbakir, Eastern Turkey) and Seferihisar (Izmir, Western Turkey) Self Potential Anomalies with Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftan, Ilknur; Sindirgi, Petek

    2013-04-01

    Self-potential (SP) is one of the oldest geophysical methods that provides important information about near-surface structures. Several methods have been developed to interpret SP data using simple geometries. This study investigated inverse solution of a buried, polarized sphere-shaped self-potential (SP ) anomaly via Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks ( MLPNN ). The polarization angle ( α ) and depth to the centre of sphere ( h )were estimated. The MLPNN is applied to synthetic and field SP data. In order to see the capability of the method in detecting the number of sources, MLPNN was applied to different spherical models at different depths and locations.. Additionally, the performance of MLPNN was tested by adding random noise to the same synthetic test data. The sphere model successfully obtained similar parameters under different S/N ratios. Then, MLPNN method was applied to two field examples. The first one is the cross section taken from the SP anomaly map of the Ergani-Süleymanköy (Turkey) copper mine. MLPNN was also applied to SP data from Seferihisar Izmir (Western Turkey) geothermal field. The MLPNN results showed good agreement with the original synthetic data set. The effect of The technique gave satisfactory results following the addition of 5% and 10% Gaussian noise levels. The MLPNN results were compared to other SP interpretation techniques, such as Normalized Full Gradient (NFG), inverse solution and nomogram methods. All of the techniques showed strong similarity. Consequently, the synthetic and field applications of this study show that MLPNN provides reliable evaluation of the self potential data modelled by the sphere model.

  19. Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazarı, north-western Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main objective of this study is to assess the health hazards due to radon gas accumulation and to compare the concentrations in different kinds of workplaces, in the city of Adapazarı, one of the most important industrial cities of Turkey. For this purpose, radon activity concentration measurements were carried out in ...

  20. Turkey Bridging Eastern and Western Civilizations and Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duruhan, Kemal

    2007-01-01

    History has always witnessed the confrontation and differentiation of the East and the West and sometimes that of North and South, as in the rare examples of Africa, America, and Korea. Sometimes, this struggle occurred between classes or religions, and sometimes it occurred between nations. In this article, the author discusses how Turkey has…

  1. Composite volcanoes in the south-eastern part of İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Helvacı, Cahit; Pécskay, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    During the Early-Middle Miocene (Western Anatolia) several volcanic fields occur along a NE-SW-trending shear zone, known as İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone. This is a deformed crustal-scale sinistral strike-slip fault zone crossing the Bornova flysch and extending along the NW-boundary of the Menderes Massif by accommodating the differential deformation between the Cycladic and Menderes core complexes within the Aegean extensional system. Here we discuss the volcanic activity in Yamanlar and Yuntdağı fields that is closely related to the extensional tectonics of the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone and in the same time with the episodic core complex denudation of the Menderes Massif. This study documents two composite volcanoes (Yamanlar and Yuntdağı), whose present vent area is strongly eroded and cut by a variety of strike-slip and normal fault systems, the transcurrent NW-SE being the dominant one. The erosional remnants of the vent areas, resembling a shallow crater intrusive complex, illustrate the presence of numerous dykes or variably sized neck-like intrusions and lava flows, typically associated with hydrothermal alteration processes (propylitic and argillic). Such vent areas were observed in both the examined volcanic fields, having ~ 6 km in diameter and being much more eroded toward the south, along the NW-SE fault system. Lava flows and lava domes are sometimes associated with proximal block and ash flow deposits. In the cone-building association part, besides lava flows and remnants of lava domes, rare block and ash and pumice-rich pyroclastic flow deposits, as well as a series of debris-flow deposits, have been observed. The rocks display a porphyritic texture and contain various proportions of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, amphibole, rare biotite and corroded quartz. The examined rocks fall at the limit between calc-alkaline to alkaline field, and plot predominantly in high-K andesite and dacite fields and one is rhyolite. The trace

  2. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52% during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  3. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  4. Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western Turkey Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK Project No: ÇAYDAG-114Y066), and EU-HORIZON-2020: COST Actions: Earth System Science and Environmental Management: ES1401 - Time Dependent Seismology (TIDES).

  5. New prospects in the political economy of inner-Caspian hydrocarbons and western energy corridor through Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, Mert

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes a new conceptualization on Caspian energy system and the transit routes that pass through Turkey. Firstly, it puts forward the term of 'inner-Caspian', comprising Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Secondly, it identifies sub-systems of 'western energy corridor through Turkey' (WECT) by diversifying: (1) 'WECT inner-Caspian', which includes hydrocarbon transportation from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan; (2) 'WECT Russia', which is currently composed of Blue Stream gas pipeline and oil transportation by tankers through Turkish straits; and (3) 'WECT Middle East', which refers to Iranian, Iraqi and Egyptian hydrocarbons. Thirdly, this paper makes a comparative analysis on WECT systems through selected economic (reserves, supply/demand, production and transportation costs), geo-political (e.g. moves of the concerned actors), political (e.g. recent developments in government structures) and security (especially in terms of transport) indicators which bring out that 'it is more reasonable for the EU to first embrace WECT inner-Caspian, then develop WECT Middle-East in order to diversify its energy supply'

  6. Petrogenesis, detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology, and tectonic implications of the Upper Paleoproterozoic Seosan iron formation, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Jang, Yirang; Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Park, Jung-Woo; Yi, Keewook; Choi, Seon-Gyu

    2018-05-01

    This study involves investigations on the Upper Paleoproterozoic iron formation (viz., Seosan iron formation) from the Seosan Group, Gyeonggi Massif of the southwestern Korean Peninsula. It occurs as thin banded layers within meta-arkosic sandstone, formed by alternating processes of chemical (hydrothermal) and detrital depositions under a shallow marine environment. It mainly consists of alternating layers of iron oxides, mostly hematite, and quartz. Minor amounts of magnetite surrounded by muscovite, clinopyroxene and amphibole indicate hydrothermal alteration since its formation. Meta-arkosic sandstone is composed of recrystallized or porphyroclastic quartz and microcline, with small amounts of hematite and pyrite clusters. The Seosan iron formation has high contents of total Fe2O3 and SiO2 with positive Eu anomalies similar to those of other Precambrian banded iron formations, and its formation is clearly related to hydrothermal alteration since its deposition. Detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology data from a meta-arkosic sandstone (SN-1) and an iron formation (SN-2) show mainly two age groups of ca. 2.5 Ga and ca. 1.9-1.75 Ga. This together with intrusion age of the granite gneiss (ca. 1.70-1.65 Ga) clearly indicate that the iron formations were deposited during the Upper Paleoproterozoic. The dominant Paleoproterozoic detrital zircon bimodal age peaks preserved in the Seosan iron formation compare well with those from the South China Craton sedimentary basins, reflecting global tectonic events related to the Columbia supercontinent in East Asia.

  7. Sustainable development and management of an aquifer system in western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyan, Jale; Yazicigil, Hasan

    This study presents the establishment of sustainable development and management policies for the Küçük Menderes River Basin aquifer system in western Turkey. Geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical data are used conjunctively to define various hydrogeological units and their geometry. Distributions of hydraulic-parameter values and recharge are estimated by geostatistical methods and hydrologic simulations, respectively. A finite-difference groundwater flow model is used to represent the unconfined flow in the aquifer system. The model has been calibrated under steady state and transient conditions. The resulting model was used to test seven management scenarios for a planning period of 21 years to determine the so-called safe yield and sustainable yield of the aquifer system and to investigate the potential impacts of four planned surface water reservoirs on groundwater resources in the basin. The results demonstrate that the continuation of the present pumping rates exceeds both the safe yield and the sustainable yield of the aquifer system. Consequently, the growing need for irrigation water should be met by the construction of the planned surface water reservoirs and the implementation of efficient water management policies and plans. Cette étude présente la proposition d'une politique de développement et de gestion durables du système aquifère du bassin du Petit Mendérès dans l'ouest de la Turquie. Des données géologiques, hydrogéologiques et géophysiques ont été utilisées conjointement pour définir les différentes unités hydrogéologiques et leur géométrie. Les distributions des paramètres hydrauliques et de la recharge ont été estimées respectivement par des méthodes géostatistiques et des simulations hydrologiques. Un modèle d'écoulement souterrain aux éléments finis a été utilisé pour représenter l'écoulement non captif dans le système aquifère. Le modèle a été calibré dans des conditions de r

  8. REE, Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon study of eclogites from the Alpine External Massifs (Western Alps): Evidence for crustal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.L.; Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich; Menot, R.P.; Peucat, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    A geochemical and geochronological study of the Alpine External Crystalline Massifs (AECM) of Aiguilles Rouges, Belledonne and Argentera was undertaken in order to constrain the geodynamic evolution of this segment of the Variscan foldbelt. Another aim of the study is to characterize the behaviour of isotopic markers, in particular the U-Pb zircon system, under high-grade metamorphic conditions. The whole-rock geochemistry of eclogites and amphibolites was investigated using major and trace element (including the REE) analytical techniques; isotopic studies were performed by application of the Sm-Nd whole-rock and U-Pb zircon methods. In terms of regional geological history, the early development of metamorphic and magmatic activity in the AECM is typical of the extensional tectonic regime observed throughout the Variscan foldbelt during the Cambro-Ordovician (i.e. basic magmatism dated at 475-450 Ma). The composition of the metabasic rocks is closely similar to tholeiites emplaced into thinned continental crust which are generally associated with the initial stages of oceanic rifting. The source regions for these metabasics are characterized by initial ε Nd values between +6 and +8, suggesting depleted mantle sources influenced by a weak crustal component and/or the existence of a metasomatised lithosphere. The multi-stage eclogite-facies metamorphism is dated at 425-395 Ma (i.e. Silurian). An application of the U-Pb method, associated with the artificial abrasion of zircon grains, has led to the recognition of a weak crustal contamination in the metabasic protoliths. This is implied by the Archaean and Lower Proterozoic upper intercepts on Concordia - devoid of geological significance - which reflect the presence of a pre-existing basement to the AECM. (orig./WL)

  9. Helminth parasites of the levantine frog (Pelophylax bedriagae Camerano, 1882 from the western part of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demır S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four Pelophylax bedriagae (Levantine Frog from Turkey (İzmir and Manisa Provinces were examined for helminth parasites. The frogs were collected between 2012 and 2014 years. Eight species of helminth parasites were recorded: 3 species of Nematoda (Rhabdias bufonis, Cosmocerca ornata, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, 3 species of Digenea (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Haematoloechus bre-viansa, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, 1 species of Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus ranae and 1 species of Hirudinea (Hirudo medicinalis. Pelophylax bedriagae is a new host record for these parasite species.

  10. Structural and Tectonic Composition and Origins of the Magnesite Deposit within the Dúbravský Massif near Jelšava, based on studies at the 220 m elev. Level (Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Kondela

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesite deposit Jelsava – Dubravsky Massif represents one of the foremost deposits in Europe, even in the world, in terms of itsreserves size. A geological exploration and development of new blocks between the elevation levels of 220m and 320 m allowed moredetailed studies of structural and tectonic development within the deposit, which yielded new results. As the mining continues deeper,it becomes essential to understand details of the youngest extension phase of the deposit deformation. This stage, combined withthe earlier deformation stages, completes the deposit’s complex structural development which significantly influences the distributionof mined raw materials, the stability of mine workings and the mining operations’ safety. This paper summarizes individual structuresstudied and their characteristics. A special attention was devoted to youngest structures, which most likely developed duringthe Neo-Alpine stage. These structures completed the current block composition of the deposit and thus are the proof that even the oldestunits within the Western Carpathians bear signs of the youngest deformation stages.

  11. Late Cenozoic cooling history of the central Menderes Massif and the contribution of erosion to rock exhumation during active continental extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilius, Nils-Peter; Wölfler, Andreas; Heineke, Caroline; Glotzbach, Christoph; Hetzel, Ralf; Hampel, Andrea; Akal, Cüneyt; Dunkl, István

    2017-04-01

    The Menderes Massif constitutes the western part of the Anatolide belt in western Turkey and experienced a prolonged history of post-orogenic extension. A large amount of the extension was accommodated by the two oppositely dipping Gediz and Büyük Menderes detachment faults, which led to the exhumation of the central Menderes Massif (Gessner et al., 2013). Previous studies proposed a synchronous, bivergent exhumation of the central Menderes Massif since the Miocene (Gessner et al., 2001), although only the evolution of the north-dipping Gediz detachment is well constrained (Buscher et al., 2013). Detailed structural and thermochronological investigations from the south-dipping Büyük Menderes detachment have still been missing. Here we present results from different thermochronometers, which constrain the cooling and exhumation history of footwall and hanging wall rocks of the Büyük Menderes detachment. Our new zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track ages of footwall rocks from the Büyük Menderes detachment document two phases of increased cooling and exhumation (Wölfler et al., in revision). The first episode of increased footwall exhumation ( 0.9 km/Myr) occurred during the middle Miocene, followed by a second phase during latest Miocene and Pliocene ( 1.0 km/Myr). Apatite fission track ages yield a slip rate for the Pliocene movement along the Büyük Menderes detachment of 3.0 (+1.1/-0.6) km/Myr. Thermochronological data of hanging wall units reflect a slow phase of exhumation ( 0.2 km/Myr) in the late Oligocene and an increased exhumation rate of 1.0 km/Myr during the early to middle Miocene, when hanging wall units cooled below 80 °C. In comparison with the Gediz detachment, our thermochronological data from the Büyük Menderes detachment confirms the concurrent activity of both detachments during the late Miocene and Pliocene. With respect to the relative importance of normal faulting and erosion to rock exhumation, a comparison with 10Be

  12. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, M; Kadioglu, Y K

    2008-01-01

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble

  13. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, M [Ankara University Faculty of Letters Archeological Department Ankara (Turkey); Kadioglu, Y K [Ankara University Engineering Faculty Geol. Eng. Department Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kadioglu@humanity.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: kadi@eng.ankara.edu.tr

    2008-07-01

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble.

  14. The impact of Outer Western Carpathian nappe tectonics on the recent stress-strain state in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Moravosilesian Zone, Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Grygar, R.; Koníček, Petr; Waclawik, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2012), s. 3-11 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Variscan orogeny * Upper Silesian Coal Basin * recent stress fields * Outer Western Carpathians * paleostress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2012 http://versita.metapress.com/content/0326174t34663755/

  15. From Eastern Europe to Western China; The Growing Role of Turkey in the World and it’s Implications for Western Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Growing trade with the Arab world, and the increased presence of Arab investment in Turkey, introduced a slightly more acceptable "Islamic orienta...to market economies with very limited economic in- centives for Turkey. Turkey has only limited abilities to invest and even less money available for...Russia. From the Russian side, too, the bugaboo of "Pan-Turkism," so long touted by a Soviet Union fearful of resurgent internal nationalisms, has now be

  16. Notes on Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera) Species Collected by Bait Traps in OrganicVineyard and Orchards of Kemalpaşa (İzmir), Western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÜZÜM, Ahu; TANYERİ, Rukiye; GÜLPERÇİN, Nilay; TEZCAN, Serdar; YILDIRIM, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera species collected by bait traps during the months of June-October in organic vineyard and orchards in Kemalpaşa district, (İzmir) of Western Turkey were evaluated in this study. As a result, six species belonging 2007 to two families of Hymenoptera were determined. Those were Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758, Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Polistes dominulus (Christ, 1791) and Polistes gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767). Amon...

  17. Nutritional status in mentally disabled children and adolescents: A study from Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakime Nogay, Nalan

    2013-04-01

    To assess the nutritional status of mentally disabled children in Turkey on the basis of anthropometric indicators and dietary intake. The sample of the study consisted of 77 mentally disabled children with ages between 10 and 18 years. The body mass index and body fat ratios of the children were calculated by measuring their body weight, height, and the skinfold thickness of their triceps and subscapular. Their three-day nutrition consumption was recorded in order to determine their nutrient intake. When the body weights of the children were evaluated according to their ages, 14.3% of the children were found to be thin. The shortness rate among the participants was 28.6%. The shortness ratio was found to increase with age and girls had a higher inclination for shortness than boys. The ratios of those with ≤5(th) percentile upper middle arm circumference were 32.7% in the 10-13 age group, and 36.0% in the 14-18 age group. The folic acid and calcium intakes of girls in the 10-13 age group, and the calcium intakes of boys in the 10-13 age group were under the suggested values. In the 14-18 age group the vit C and calcium intakes of girls and the calcium intakes of boys were under the recommended values. The prevalence of malnutrition is high among mentally disabled children. In order to raise their quality of life, mentally disabled children must be provided with sufficient nutritional support.

  18. Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazarı, north-western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapdan, Enis; Altinsoy, Nesrin

    2014-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the health hazards due to radon gas accumulation and to compare the concentrations in different kinds of workplaces, in the city of Adapazarı, one of the most important industrial cities of Turkey. For this purpose, radon activity concentration measurements were carried out in schools, factories, offices and outdoors using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Results show that the mean radon activity concentrations (RAC) in schools, offices and factories were found to be 66, 76 and 27 Bq/m3, respectively, with an outdoor concentration of 14 Bq/m3. The average concentrations were found to decrease as follows for different types of industries: automotive > electronic > metal > textile. Because the maximum measured radon concentrations are 151 Bq/m3 in the schools, 173 Bq/m3 in the offices and 52 Bq/m3 in the factories, the limits of ICRP are not exceeded in any of the buildings in the region. In addition, the estimated mean annual effective doses to the people in the workplace, students, office workers and factory workers have been calculated as 0.27, 0.63 and 0.20 mSv/y, respectively for the region.

  19. Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazari, north-western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapdan, Enis; Altinsoy, Nesrin

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the health hazards due to radon gas accumulation and to compare the concentrations in different kinds of workplaces, in the city of Adapazari, one of the most important industrial cities of Turkey. For this purpose, radon activity concentration measurements were carried out in schools, factories, offices and outdoors using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Results show that the mean radon activity concentrations (RAC) in schools, offices and factories were found to be 66, 76 and 27 Bq/m 3 , respectively, with an outdoor concentration of 14 Bq/m 3 . The average concentrations were found to decrease as follows for different types of industries: automotive > electronic > metal > textile. Because the maximum measured radon concentrations are 151 Bq/m 3 in the schools, 173 Bq/m 3 in the offices and 52 Bq/m 3 in the factories, the limits of ICRP are not exceeded in any of the buildings in the region. In addition, the estimated mean annual effective doses to the people in the workplace, students, office workers and factory workers have been calculated as 0.27, 0.63 and 0.20 mSv/y, respectively for the region. (author)

  20. Prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Arslantas, Didem; Unsal, Alaettin

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted between March 1 and April 29, 2011 on married women aged 15-49 years. Exposure to at least one of these types of violence at least one time within the past one year was regarded as the presence of domestic violence. Chi-square test and Logistic Regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence against women was found to be 39.0%. About 38,4% and 26.8% of women reported verbal and psychological violence respectively. The risk factors found for the domestic violence included youngest age group, an educational level of secondary/high school for men, form of the first marriage, number of children, alcohol and gambling habits of the husband. Conclusion: Our study found higher prevalence of domestic violence than expected. Verbal violence is also a significant problem particularly in terms of its consequences. It was concluded that further informative studies are needed on domestic violence to find out the causative factors to chalk out preventive strategies. PMID:25225532

  1. Site properties for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) in semi-natural forests of south western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Kürsad; Gulsoy, Serkan; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    We explored the semi-natural forests in south western Anatolia along a gradient between Mediterranean and continental climates to determine the site requirements of Juniperus excelsa in Turkey. We hypothesized that environmental variables and indicator species can be used to predict differences in occurrence and cover of J. excelsa and can therefore support decision making in reforestation management planning. Plant species composition and environmental variables were assessed in 153 plots. Association between J. excelsa and other plant species and environmental variables were analyzed using Fisher exact probability tests and stepwise discriminant analysis. High altitude (> 1000 m) as a proxy for an Oromediterranean climate, and high surface stoniness as a proxy for low competition by other tree species, are positive site properties for J. excelsa. The tree species avoids Eumediterranean and Supramediterranean plant communities. Twelve plant species, including the herbs Dianthus zonatus, Ajuga chamaepitys and Paronchia carica and the shrub Cotoneaster nummularia may be used as site indicators for J. excelsa restoration. Platanus orientalis, with similar site requirements but at present negatively associated to J. excelsa due to competitive effects, may be considered an additional indicator if stand conversion (harvesting and replacing P. orientalis) is part of the management plan.

  2. Prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Arslantas, Didem; Unsal, Alaettin

    2014-09-01

    Objective : To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey. This descriptive study was conducted between March 1 and April 29, 2011 on married women aged 15-49 years. Exposure to at least one of these types of violence at least one time within the past one year was regarded as the presence of domestic violence. Chi-square test and Logistic Regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Prevalence of domestic violence against women was found to be 39.0%. About 38,4% and 26.8% of women reported verbal and psychological violence respectively. The risk factors found for the domestic violence included youngest age group, an educational level of secondary/high school for men, form of the first marriage, number of children, alcohol and gambling habits of the husband. Our study found higher prevalence of domestic violence than expected. Verbal violence is also a significant problem particularly in terms of its consequences. It was concluded that further informative studies are needed on domestic violence to find out the causative factors to chalk out preventive strategies.

  3. A radiological survey of the Eğrigöz granitoid, Western Anatolia/Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaz Öztürk, B; Yaprak, G; Çam, N F; Candan, O

    2015-06-01

    A radiological survey of the granitoid areas throughout Western Anatolia was conducted during 2007-14. As a part of this radiological survey, this article presents results obtained from Eğrigöz pluton, which lies in the northeastern region of Western Anatolia. In the investigated area, the activity measurements of the natural gamma-emitting radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the granitic rock samples and soils have been carried out by means of the NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry system. The activity concentrations of the relevant natural radionuclides in the granite samples appeared in the ranges as follows: (226)Ra, 28-95 Bq kg(-1); (232)Th, 50-122 Bq kg(-1) and (40)K, 782-1365 Bq kg(-1), while the typical ranges of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities in the soil samples were found to be 7-184, 11-174 and 149-1622 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Based on the available data, the radiation hazard parameters associated with the surveyed rocks/soils are calculated. The corresponding absorbed dose rates in air from all those radionuclides were always much lower than 200 nGy h(-1) and did not exceed the typical range of worldwide average values noted in the UNSCEAR (2000) report. Furthermore, the data are also used for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides and the corresponding gamma dose rates of the surveyed area. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  5. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim

    2015-05-26

    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than

  6. Seismic structure and tectonics of the Alasehir--Gediz Graben, Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Sezer

    The Aegean Extensional Province (AEP) in Western Anatolia includes three major graben systems that have formed as a result of N-S tectonic extension in the latest Cenozoic. The 6 to 30-km-wide Alasehir--Gediz Graben (AGG) in the north contains ˜3-km-thick Miocene and Plio-Quaternary, alluvial--fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. I have used seismic profiles, well-log data and the regional stratigraphy to identify the key stratigraphic units, their bounding surfaces and vertical thicknesses, and to document the subsurface structural architecture of the AGG. A north-dipping detachment fault exposed in the southern shoulder of the AGG basin occurs at 2--2.5 km at depth beneath the graben fill, and is dissected by ˜E--W--striking, synthetic to antithetic, high-angle normal faults. The graben system is crosscut by NNE-oriented cross faults, showing several km of recurrence interval and 10s of meters of vertical displacement. These faults divide the graben into several sub-basins and display positive and negative flower structures. The structural architecture in the sub-basins shows important variations in stratigraphic thicknesses, fault geometry-displacement and deformation patterns, indicating that cross faulting played a critical role in the evolution of the AAG.

  7. Seismicity and Seismotectonic Properties of The Sultandağı Fault Zone (Afyonkarahisar-Konya): Western Anatolia,Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, D.; Gunes, Y.; Kekovali, K.; Kara, M.; Gorgun, E.

    2017-12-01

    n this study we investigated seismicity and source characteristics of the Sultandağı Fault Zone (SFZ). As known Western Anatolia is one of the most important seismically active region in Turkey. The relative movement of the African-Arabian plates, it causes the Anatolian Plate to movement to the west-Southwest direction 2.5 cm per year and this result provides N-S direction with extensional regime in the recent tectonic. In this study, especially with the assessment of seismic activity occurring in Afyon and around between 200-2002 years, we have been evaluated to date with seismic activity as well as fault mechanism solution. We analyzed recent seismicity and distribution of earthquakes in this region. In the last century, 3 important earthquakes occurred in the Sultandağı Fault zone (Afyon-Akşehir Graben), this result shown it was seismic active and broken fault segments caused stress balance in the region and it caused to occur with short intervals of earthquakes in 2000 and 2002, triggering each other. The scope of this tudy, we installed new BB stations in the region and we have been done of the fault plane solutions for important earthquakes. The focal mechanisms clearly exhibit the activation of a NE-SW trending normal faulting system along the SFZ region. The results of stress analysis showed that the effective current tectonic evolution of normal faulting in this region. This study is supported by Bogazici University Research Projects Commission under SRP/BAP project No. 12280. Key Words: Sultandağı fault zone, normal faulting, seismicity, fault mechanism

  8. Constraints on Water Reservoir Lifetimes From Catchment-Wide 10Be Erosion Rates—A Case Study From Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Caroline; Hetzel, Ralf; Akal, Cüneyt; Christl, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    The functionality and retention capacity of water reservoirs is generally impaired by upstream erosion and reservoir sedimentation, making a reliable assessment of erosion indispensable to estimate reservoir lifetimes. Widely used river gauging methods may underestimate sediment yield, because they do not record rare, high-magnitude events and may underestimate bed load transport. Hence, reservoir lifetimes calculated from short-term erosion rates should be regarded as maximum values. We propose that erosion rates from cosmogenic 10Be, which commonly integrate over hundreds to thousands of years, are useful to complement short-term sediment yield estimates and should be employed to estimate minimum reservoir lifetimes. Here we present 10Be erosion rates for the drainage basins of six water reservoirs in Western Turkey, which are located in a tectonically active region with easily erodible bedrock. Our 10Be erosion rates for these catchments are high, ranging from ˜170 to ˜1,040 t/km2/yr. When linked to reservoir volumes, they yield minimum reservoir lifetimes between 25 ± 5 and 1,650 ± 360 years until complete filling, with four reservoirs having minimum lifespans of ≤110 years. In a neighboring region with more resistant bedrock and less tectonic activity, we obtain much lower catchment-wide 10Be erosion rates of ˜33 to ˜95 t/km2/yr, illustrating that differences in lithology and tectonic boundary conditions can cause substantial variations in erosion even at a spatial scale of only ˜50 km. In conclusion, we suggest that both short-term sediment yield estimates and 10Be erosion rates should be employed to predict the lifetimes of reservoirs.

  9. Analysis of suicide deaths in a 15-year period in Eskisehir, western Anatolia, Turkey and the determination of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Akkaya, Harun; Balci, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that every year 1 million people die all around the world due to suicide. The average rate of suicide in the world is reported as 16/100,000. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and discuss the suicide cases in our city Eskisehir that is located in western Anatolia. This is a retrospective study covering the period 1997-2011. All deaths in Eskisehir caused due to the consumption of forensic medicines in a 15-year period between 1997 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 553 cases were determined to be suicidal following both forensic and criminal investigations, and were included in the study. Furthermore, death examination and autopsy reports were investigated, and judicial investigation records were also taken into account. In this period, the average rate of suicide in our city was determined as 5.1/100,000 of which 71.4% of the cases were male. It was determined that the suicides most commonly occurred between the ages of 19 and 29 (32.4%, n=179). The most commonly encountered suicide method was hanging (60.9%, n=337). It was ascertained that the suicide rate in our city was lower than the average rate in the world, but it was higher than the average rate in Turkey. Unemployment was determined as the most common risk factor in our study. A follow-up should be provided for people with a history of attempting to commit suicide or with a tendency to committing suicide due to a psychological disorder.

  10. Reassessment of 50 years of seismicity in Simav-Gediz grabens (Western Turkey), based on earthquake relocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasozen, E.; Nissen, E.; Bergman, E. A.; Walters, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Western Turkey is a rapidly deforming region with a long history of high-magnitude normal faulting earthquakes. However, the locations and slip rates of the responsible faults are poorly constrained. Here, we reassess a series of large instrumental earthquakes in the Simav-Gediz region, an area exhibiting a strong E-W gradient in N-S extension rates, from low rates bordering the Anatolian Plateau to much higher rates in the west. We start with investigating a recent Mw 5.9 earthquake at Simav (19 May 2011) using InSAR, teleseismic body-wave modeling and field observations. Next, we exploit the small but clear InSAR signal to relocate a series of older, larger earthquakes, using a calibrated earthquake relocation method which is based on the hypocentroidial decomposition (HDC) method for multiple event relocation. These improved locations in turn provide an opportunity to reassess the regional style of deformation. One interesting aspect of these earthquakes is that the largest (the Mw 7.2 Gediz earthquake, March 1970) occurred in an area of slow extension and indistinct surface faulting, whilst the well-defined and more rapidly extending Simav graben has ruptured in several smaller, Mw 6 events. However, our relocations highlight the existence of a significant gap in instrumental earthquakes along the central Simav graben, which, if it ruptured in a single event, could equal ~Mw 7. We were unable to identify fault scarps along this section due to dense vegetation and human modification, and we suggest that acquiring LiDAR data in this area should be a high priority in order to properly investigate earthquake hazard in the Simav graben.

  11. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence in western Turkey: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumrutbas, Ali E; Bozkurt, Ali I; Tas, Erdogan; Acar, Cenk I; Alkis, Okan; Coban, Kazim; Cetinel, Bulent; Aybek, Zafer

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in western Turkey. This cross-sectional, population-based survey was carried out between May and October 2012. A random sample of 2128 women and men aged ≥18 years was selected from the health registries. A questionnaire including sociodemographic data, comorbid conditions, lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence symptoms, body mass index, vital signs, and dipstick urinalysis was developed. The questions were answered by the participants, and remaining data were provided by the site staff. International Continence Society definitions were used. A total of 1571 (74%) individuals agreed to participate, and analysis were carried out on 1555 people (636 men [40.9%] and 919 women [59.1%]) after 16 individuals with a nitrite-positive dipstick test were excluded. Lower urinary tract symptoms were reported by 71.0% of the study population. The prevalence of storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms were 56.1% (44.2% men, 64.1% women), 39.3% (40.9% men, 37.8% women) and 30.7% (38.6% men, 28.7% women), respectively. The most prevalent storage symptom was urgency, which was reported by 29.3% of the study population (20.1% men, 35.6% women). The prevalence of urge, stress and mixed urinary incontinence were: 6.5% (3.9% men, 8.2% women), 14.1% (3.9% men, 21.2% women) and 5.6% (0.8% men, 9.0% women), respectively. The present study is the first and largest population-based survey evaluating the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in Turkey. Our findings show these symptoms are highly prevalent in western Turkey. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. THERMOCHRONOLOGY OF MINGLING DYKES IN WEST SANGILEN (SOUTH‐EAST TUVA, RUSSIA: EVIDENCE OF THE COLLAPSE OF THE COLLISIONAL SYSTEM IN THE NORTH‐WESTERN EDGE OF THE TUVA‐MONGOLIA MASSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Vladimirov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In West Sangilen (South‐East Tuva, Russia, there are outcrops of metamorphic and magmatic complexes of early Caledonides, which are related to the period of long‐term collisional and post‐collisional events in the north‐ western edge of the Tuva‐Mongolian massif. The evolution of orogenic structures in West Sangilen is an example of the collapse of folded structures in case of changes in tectonic regimes from compression and transpression (collision period to intra‐ and marginal continental transform‐shear extension (post‐collision period. Numerous geologic fea‐ tures give evidence of changes in the kinematics and characteristics of deformations, as well as in the conditions of metamorphism and magmatism in the study region. However, thinning of the crust during the collapse of the colli‐ sional orogenic structure has not been supported by any direct data. Indicators of such events are the complexes of combined dykes, which are abundant in West Sangilen, especially in the area between the Erzin and Naryn rivers and on the right bank of the Erzin river. The most representative object is a combined basite‐granite dyke at the foot of the Tavit‐Dag mountain. Its position is controlled by the strike‐slip fault system. The thermochronological analysis of mingling rocks shows different ages of the closure of isotope systems: 494.8±5.4 Ma (U/Pb, zircon, basites, 489.7±7 Ma (U/Pb, zircon, granitoids, 471.2±1.9 Ma (Ar/Ar , amphibole, basites, and 462.5±1.0 Ma (Ar/Ar, biotite, basites. Taking into account the parameters of the closure of isotope systems (~800–900 °C, zircon, U/Pb; ~500 °C, amphi‐ bole, Ar/Ar; ~300 °C, biotite, Ar/Ar, the cooling curve of the mingling dyke is estimated. It corresponds to lowering of the temperature by 600 °C (900 °С  500 °С  300 °C in the period from 500 (494.8±5.4 Ma to 461 (462.5±1.0 Ma. It is shown that the recent thermal events did not affect the mingling dyke located

  13. Expedition 357 Preliminary Report: Atlantis Massif Serpentinization and Life

    OpenAIRE

    Früh-Green, GL; Orcutt, BN; Green, S; Cotterill, C; McCaig, AM; Expedition 357 Scientists,

    2016-01-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 357 successfully cored an east–west transect across the southern wall of Atlantis Massif on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to study the links between serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. The primary goals of this expedition were to (1) examine the role of serpent...

  14. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in naturally infected Phlebotomus tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata in a focus of human and canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbel, Yusuf; Karakuş, Mehmet; Arserim, Suha K; Kalkan, Şaban Orçun; Töz, Seray

    2016-03-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported from 38 provinces of Turkey and dogs are accepted as main reservoir hosts. Kuşadası town, belonging to Aydın province and located in western part of Turkey, is endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum MON1 and MON98. In this study, phlebotomine survey was conducted to determine the vector sand fly species and to identify sand fly blood meal sources. In August and September 2012, 1027 sand fly specimens were caught using CDC light traps. Eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species with the dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi (61.34%) were detected. A total of 622 female sand flies (571 Phlebotomus; 51 Sergentomyia) were checked for Leishmania infection by direct dissection of the midgut. The half of the midgut content was inoculated into NNN culture for isolation of the parasite. Leishmania species-specific ITS1 real time PCR, conventional PCR assays of ITS1 and hsp70 genes and subsequent sequencing were performed from extracted DNAs. A region of cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of vertebrates based PCR was used to determine the source of blood meal of sand flies. In microscopical examinations, two female specimens (0.32%) were found naturally infected with high number and different stages of promastigotes. No growth was observed in NNN culture but Leishmania DNA was obtained from both specimens. First positive specimen was identified as P. tobbi and L. infantum DNA was detected. Second specimen was Sergentomyia dentata, but Leishmania DNA could not be identified on species level. A total of 16 blood-fed female P. tobbi specimens were used for blood meal analysis and eight, three and one specimens were positive for human, dog and mouse, respectively. This is the first detection of Leishmania promastigotes using microscopical examination in P. tobbi and S. dentata in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in western part of Turkey. Our results indicate that, (i) P. tobbi is

  15. Occurrence of Porodaedalea pini (Brot.: Fr. Murr. in pine forests of the lake district in south-western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lehtijärvi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of basidiocarps of the white rot fungus Porodaedalea (Phellinus pini on Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana and P. brutia was investigated in six stands, covering a total land area of some 650 hectares, in Isparta province of the Lake District in Turkey. The height above ground of the lowermost P. pini basidiocarp was measured on each trunk. Basidiocarps of P. pini were found on thirty-eight trees, 32 P. nigra subsp. pallasiana (84.2% of the total and six P. brutia (15.8%. The breast-height diameter of P. nigra individuals with P. pini ranged from 41 to 188 cm (average 77.7 cm and that of P. brutia with P. pini from 68 to 96 cm (average 76.4 cm. Basidiocarps were mostly found on the lower part of the trunks of old trees. In addition to pathological aspects, the ecological role of the fungus in old-growth pine forests is discussed in relation to nature conservancy and biodiversity.

  16. GIS-based site selection methodology for hybrid renewable energy systems: A case study from western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Nazli Yonca; Kentel, Elcin; Sebnem Duzgun, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We proposed a site selection methodology for renewable energy systems. ► Fuzzy logic and geographic information system tools are used. ► Alternative locations are evaluated in terms of economic and environmental criteria. - Abstract: Renewable energy sources are presently being considered as alternatives to fossil fuels, because they are perpetual, environmentally friendly, and release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere while producing energy. A disadvantage of renewable energy systems, however, is that continuous energy generation is not possible by using only one type of renewable energy system, since renewable energy resources depend on climate and weather conditions. Two or more renewable energy systems can be integrated into a hybrid system to overcome this problem so that when one resource is not available, the other can continue producing energy. Another disadvantage of renewable energy sources is that they are not available at every geographic location. Their use is mostly advantageous at remote locations that often are of high ecological value. Thus, identification of preferable locations for renewable energy systems is a decision-making problem that requires evaluation of the potential of the resource together with economic and environmental limitations. This paper introduces a methodology for site selection of hybrid wind solar–PV renewable energy systems. First, environmental acceptability and economic feasibility objectives are identified through a comprehensive review of the literature, current Turkish laws and legislations, and interviews with the General Directorate of Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration of Turkey. Second, viable locations in terms of environmental acceptability and economic feasibility are determined through a fuzzy decision-making procedure that uses ordered weighted averaging algorithm for aggregating multiple objectives. Then, priority sites are identified

  17. Impact of deforestation on soil carbon stock and its spatial distribution in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuker, Mehmet Ali; Guney, Mert; Oral, H Volkan; Copty, Nadim K; Onay, Turgut T

    2015-01-01

    Land use management is one of the most critical factors influencing soil carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. This study evaluates the impact of land use change on the soil carbon stock in the Karasu region of Turkey which in the last two decades has undergone substantial deforestation to expand hazelnut plantations. Analysis of seasonal soil data indicated that the carbon content decreased rapidly with depth for both land uses. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between the surface carbon stock (defined over 0-5 cm depth) in agricultural and forested areas is statistically significant (Agricultural = 1.74 kg/m(2), Forested = 2.09 kg/m(2), p = 0.014). On the other hand, the average carbon stocks estimated over the 0-1 m depth were 12.36 and 12.12 kg/m(2) in forested and agricultural soils, respectively. The carbon stock (defined over 1 m depth) in the two land uses were not significantly different which is attributed in part to the negative correlation between carbon stock and bulk density (-0.353, p < 0.01). The soil carbon stock over the entire study area was mapped using a conditional kriging approach which jointly uses the collected soil carbon data and satellite-based land use images. Based on the kriging map, the spatially soil carbon stock (0-1 m dept) ranged about 2 kg/m(2) in highly developed areas to more than 23 kg/m(2) in intensively cultivated areas as well as the averaged soil carbon stock (0-1 m depth) was estimated as 10.4 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SOME IMPORTANT SHOOT AND STEM FUNGI IN PINE (Pinus spp.) AND FIRS (Abies sp.) IN WESTERN BLACKSEA REGION, TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAZANÇ, Nuri Kaan; MADEN, Salih

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine fungal diseases of pines and firs observed on the shoots and the stems in the Western Blacksea Region (Karabük, Ulus and Bartın State Forest Enterprises) between the years of 2001–2004. Five different fungi were determined on pines (Pinus sp.) and firs (Abies sp.) by this study. Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum which cause rust diseases were determined only on pines. Sphaeropsis sapinea and Gremmeniella abietina were determined on pines an...

  19. Modeling of the Foca-Uzunada magnetic anomaly and thermal structure in the gulf of Izmir, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Attila; Bilim, Funda; Cifci, Gunay; Okay, Seda

    2018-05-01

    The Gulf of Izmir (GoI) is one of the largest gulfs in the Aegean Sea, Turkey. There is a large magnetic anomaly extending in the NE-SW direction between Foca and Uzunada (Uzun Island) in the gulf. Previously, Curie Point Depth (CPD), geothermal gradient, heat-flow and radiogenic heat production maps of the onshore part of the Aegean region were constructed from the aeromagnetic data. In this study, the same maps except radiogenic heat production map are presented for the offshore part and the largest magnetic anomaly in the northern part of the gulf is focused, particularly. As a result, the thermal structure of GoI is clearly defined and according to the results of this study, CPD values were found from 7 km in the NE of Foca to 10 km through the south of the gulf. The geothermal gradient values vary between 50 and 80 °C/km. Maximum heat flow values around the anomaly are calculated as 200 and 215 mW/m2 according to the thermal conductivity coefficients of 2.5 W m-1 K-1 and 2.7 W m-1 K-1, respectively. Although the anomaly is located in the Izmir Gulf; CPD, geothermic gradient, heat flow anomalies are shifted through the north of Foca and Aliaga towns in the Candarli Bay. This prominent anomaly in the Gulf of Izmir is associated with the magmatics that were encountered at 969 m in the Foca-1 well although it was drilled about 2 km away from the outermost closed contour of the magnetic anomaly. The anomaly is also modeled three dimensionally (3D) in this study. In the model map, the top of the causative body is completely located in the outer part of the gulf, and is very shallow at about 0.5 km while its bottom is inclined through the west of Cigli and Menemen. From this viewpoint, it is possible to suggest that the causative body is inclined through the Foca Peninsula. However, its closed contours are in the NE direction, through the Candarli Bay. Top depth of the causative body is also calculated from the basement horizon on the seismic sections crossing this

  20. Clarifying the interplate main tectonic elements of Western Anatolia, Turkey by using GNSS velocities and Bouguer gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çırmık, Ayça; Pamukçu, Oya

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the GNSS and gravity data were processed and compared together for examining the continental structures of the Western Anatolia region which has very complicated tectonism. The GNSS data of three national projects were processed and GNSS velocities were found as approximately 25 mm per year towards southwest with respect to the Eurasia fixed frame. In order to investigate the interplate motions of the region, the Anatolian and Aegean block solutions were calculated and the differences in directions and amplitudes of velocities were observed particularly in the Anatolian block solution. Due to the Anatolian block solutions, the study area was grouped into three regions and compared with the tectonic structures as the first time for Western Anatolia by this study. Additionally, W-E and N-S relative GNSS solutions were obtained for observing the possible tectonic borders of the study area. Besides, 2nd order horizontal derivative and low-pass filter methods were applied to Bouguer gravity anomalies and the results of the gravity applications and the changes on crustal-mantle interface were compared with the GNSS horizontal velocities.

  1. Massification of Higher Education and Students' Accommodation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Massification of Higher Education and Students' Accommodation: The ... of students' accommodation at the University of Dar es salaam (UDSM) over the past 50 years. ... and the quality of learning, as well as the quality of students' life.

  2. Calcite veining and feeding conduits in a hydrothermal system: Insights from a natural section across the Pleistocene Gölemezli travertine depositional system (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezzuoli, Enrico; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Rimondi, Valentina; Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Gandin, Anna; Meccheri, Marco; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç

    2018-02-01

    Linking the architecture of structural conduits with the hydrothermal fluids migrating from the reservoir up to the surface is a key-factor in geothermal research. A contribution to this achievement derives from the study of spring-related travertine deposits, but although travertine depositional systems occur widely, their feeding conduits are only rarely exposed. The integrated study carried out in the geothermal Gölemezli area, nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin, western Anatolia, Turkey), focused on onyx-like calcite veins (banded travertine) and bedded travertine well exposed in a natural cross-section allowing the reconstruction of the shallower part of a geothermal system. The onyx-like veins represent the thickest vein network (> 150 m) so far known. New field mapping and structural/kinematic analyses allowed to document a partially dismantled travertine complex (bedded travertine) formed by proximal fissure ridges and distal terraced/pools depositional systems. The banded calcite veins, WNW-trending and up to 12 m thick, developed within a > 200 m thick damaged rock volume produced by parallel fault zones. Th/U dating indicates a long lasting (middle-late Pleistocene) fluids circulation in a palaeo-geothermal system that, due to its location and chemical characteristics, can be considered the analogue of the nearby, still active, Pamukkale system. The isotopic characteristics of the calcite veins together with data from fluid inclusions analyses, allow the reconstruction of some properties (i.e. temperature, salinity and isotopic composition) and processes (i.e. temperature variation and intensity of degassing) that characterized the parent fluids and the relation between degassing intensity and specific microfabric of calcite crystals (elongated/microsparite-micrite bands), controlled by changes/fluctuations of the physico-chemical fluid characteristics.

  3. 222Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A.; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of 222 Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential. - Highlights: • The concentration of 222 Rn in groundwater depends on the zone of the granitoid massif which is exposed on the ground surface. • The highest 222 Rn concentrations occur in the least eroded granitoid massifs, the lowest in massifs with exposed root parts. • The stronger the erosional dissection of a granitoid massif, the lower 222 Rn concentration in groundwaters in this massif. • Not all granitoid massifs are areas with groundwaters containing high concentrations of 222 Rn. • The least eroded granitoid massifs are radon prone areas with the occurrence of high-radon and radon groundwaters

  4. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Lower-``middle'' Oligocene units in the northern part of the Western Taurides (İncesu area, Isparta, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiraz, Mehmet Serkan; Akgün, Funda; Örçen, Sefer

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Lower-"middle" Oligocene sediments based on the fauna from the Delikarkası Formation and the microflora from the İncesu Formation of the İncesu area (northern part of the western Taurides, Isparta province, Turkey). In the area, the Oligocene sediments show a regressive succession, which begins with the limestones of the Delikarkası Formation indicating marine conditions followed by conglomerates, sandstones and coaly mudstones of alluvial and fluvial (shallow marine-continental) origin. A well preserved foraminiferal assemblage including Nummulitesintermedius, Nummulitesvascus and Halkyardiamaxima proves an Early Oligocene age for the Delikarkası Formation. Due to palynological markers such as Boehlensipollishohli, Slowakipollishippophaëoides, Dicolpopolliskockelii, Magnolipollisneogenicus ssp. minor, Plicapollispseudoexcelsus, Caryapollenitessimplex and Intratriporopollenitesinstructus the İncesu Formation, which concordantly rests on the Delikarkası Formation, may be assigned to the Early-"middle" Oligocene. From the palynomorph assemblage, three zones have been recognised according to abundance of species. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of C.simplex and Momipitespunctatus and rarely presence of tricolpate and tricolporate pollen. Zone 2 consists mainly of Inaperturopollenitesdubius, Leiotriletesmaxoides ssp. maximus, Verrucatosporitesfavus,Verrucatosporitesalienus and infrequently marine dinoflagellate cysts. Zone 3 is characterized by a high percentage of ferns such as Echinatisporis? chattensis and Polypodiaceoisporitessaxonicus. The presence of marine dinoflagellate cysts like Apectodinium sp. and Cleistosphaeridium sp., back-mangrove elements such as Acrostichumaureum and lepidocaryoid palms (e.g. Longapertitesdiscordis, Longapertitespunctatus and Longapertitespsilatus) in the sediments of the İncesu Formation imply coastal or near-coastal conditions

  5. Mineralogic-chemical and physical characteristics of the mud in Ä°zmir (western Turkey): suitability for use in pelotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Karakaya, Muazzez; Karakaya, Necati

    2013-04-01

    The study conducted on peloid used spas in İzmir city region (western part of Turkey) included the investigation of the mineralogical, physico-chemical and geochemical properties of the three types of peloid samples in order to assess the suitability of the material for healing- aesthetic-related purposes. In situ formed muds in lagoons near the Aegean Sea (named as first group) and inner swamp muds (second group) unprocessed and raw have been using therapy and thermal baths. Mud and hot springs at around the Aegean Sea have been popular since ancient times for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, musculoskeletal disorders in the region. The mineralogical characteristics of the thermal muds are in accordance with the geological origin of the material and water sources. Mineralogic composition, mineral content and morphologic properties of the samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Chemical composition of the muds and thermal waters were determined by ICP-EAS and ICP-MS. Both of the sediment is fine- to medium size-grained and composed mostly of clay minerals, partially quartz, feldspar, carbonates, and halite, and rarely gypsum. The mineralogic composition of the muds controls the physico-chemical properties of the muds. Anion e.g., Cl, Br, and SO4, contents the thermal waters of the first group is extremely different and so the springs contain a high level of sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, and calcium bicarbonate. The water temperature is 45 oC with a pH of 6.95 and electrical conductivity (EC) is 4.5 mS/lt in the first group while 71 oC with a pH 6.58 and EC is 2.52 mS/lt in the second ones. However, major and some of the trace element concentration of the mud samples are nearly similar, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Sb, Se, T and Zn content of the first group is exceptionally lower than the second ones. And the hazardous element concentrations are extremely higher than the pharmaceutical clay in the second

  6. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  7. The Gondwana Orogeny in northern North Patagonian Massif: Evidences from the Caita Có granite, La Seña and Pangaré mylonites, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural analyses in the northern part of the North Patagonia Massif, in the foliated Caita Có granite and in La Seña and Pangaré mylonites, indicate that the pluton was intruded as a sheet-like body into an opening pull-apart structure during the Gondwana Orogeny. Geochronological studies in the massif indicate a first, lower to middle Permian stage of regional deformation, related to movements during indentation tectonics, with emplacement of foliated granites in the western and central areas of the North Patagonian Massif. Between the upper Permian and lower Triassic, evidence indicates emplacement of undeformed granitic bodies in the central part of the North Patagonian Massif. A second pulse of deformation between the middle and upper Triassic is related to the emplacement of the Caita Có granite, the development of mylonitic belts, and the opening of the Los Menucos Basin. During this pulse of deformation, compression direction was from the eastern quadrant.

  8. Main geological problems of Western Anatolia and the significance of the Bodrum magmatic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Y

    2008-01-01

    Western Anatolian Extended Terrain in Turkey stretches from the Balkan region in the north to the Taurides in the south. It contains a number of major tectonic entities including the Menderes Massif, the volcanic associations and the Neogene terrestrial cover sequence. In recent years the initiation of the N-S extension is viewed as a major factor responsible from the development of all these tectonic units. The initiation of the extension is regarded going back to the early Oligocene period. The data derived from our mapping project reveal that these units have developed under different tectonic regimes during different periods; for example the Menderes Massif, began to have formed during the late Creteceous and its development continued into the Miocene period. The Magmatic associations were formed in two separated phases; the early phase began during the Eocene- Oligocene time long before the extension started. The late phase is closely associated with the extensional regime. The Neogene sedimentary successions have 3 stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. The field data displays further that the N-S extension has not been uninterrupted. A major interruption occurred during the Early Pliocene period, and a region-wide, flat-lying erosional surface, as a key horizon, was developed

  9. Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team

  10. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Stable Isotope Investigation of Gürkuyu Sb Mineralization (Gediz-Kütahya-NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim ÖZEN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The Gürkuyu Sb mineralization is located in the western part of Anatolian tectonic belt, in southern part of İzmir-Ankara zone and in northern part of Menderes Massif. The mineralization located at west of the Koca hill in east of Gürkuyu village of Gediz (Kütahya-Turkey has been characterized through the detailed examinations involving sulfur and oxygen isotope. Serpentinites of Dağardı melange and crystallized limestones of Budağan limestone were hydrothermally altered by hydrothermal solutions, come from fissures and fractures due to tectonic movement during the thrust of melange and occurred silicified zone. Gürkuyu Sb mineralization suggest that occurred in this silicified zone. In Gürkuyu mineralization, primary ore minerals are antimonite and pyrite, secondary ore minerals are senarmontite, valentinite, orpiment and realgar. Quartz and calcite are the most common gangue minerals. In Gürkuyu Sb mineralization, δ34S values of stibnite are ranged from 1.0 ‰ to 1.3 ‰. δ18O values of quartz are ranged is 15.8 ‰ in Gürkuyu mineralization. Sulfur and oxygen isotope values are similar to the values for magmatic rocks and to the values for fluids of magmatic origin.Keywords: Stable isotope, Gürkuyu, Sb mineralization, Gediz, Kütahya, NW Turkey.

  11. Heat flow map of the Bohemian massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermak, V [Geophys. Inst., CS Acad. of Sci.

    1977-01-01

    Forty seven heat flow values for the Bohemian massif were used to determine the heat flow pattern of the area. By including data from neighboring countries it was possible to draw an isothermal map outlining the geothermal activity. As a result, it is possible to closely correlate the heat flow and the tectonic structure. It is obvious that the areas of high geothermal activity correspond to zones of crustal weakness associated with two major faults bordering the rigid central section of the massif. The highest heat flow values coincide with the axis of the sedimentary basin. The development of these heat flow patterns should assist in the recognition of probable areas of geothermal resources and several promising sites are readily discernible.

  12. Detection of rock strength at Branisko massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarová Edita

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available When monitoring and optimizing the driving proces of the exploratory gallery by a computer system, conditions for verification of the interaction between desintegrating head of driving machine and rock massif were created. One of the output values of this mathematical model is the model strength at a simple pressure ótlH, which is defined as a pressure at the discus and the massif contact during the desintigration (a near limit of massif strength. By geological and geological engineering exploration, the section of length 2340 m was divided into fourty-two geological sections and five quasi-homogeneous massif enviroments. In the article, results of scleroscopic strength óCI , the strength in a simple pressure determined from the point load test and the strength at simple pressure ótlH are confronted . The main advance of the electronic geomechanical monitoring is the density of gained information. The two-seconds sample period of input and output data during the driving process makes it possible to describe driving circumstances in an almost continual way for each millimeter of the built tunnel. Then the information about changes of disintegrated rock properties, have the same density (frequency. By comparing a quantity of data gained by examining the index of point strength, scleroscopic strength and the model strength in a simple pressure from the monitoring process of driving process it is obvious that during the driving of exploratory gallery of motorway tunnel Branisko, a proportion of data number from the three “type examinations” of strength was reached and it was approximately 1:7:5000. Approximately in the same proportion, there were determined values for the 42 geologic sections (I. – XLII., which were defined in detail by the geologic, engineering geologic, hydrogeologic and geotechnic research.. The presented quantity values of presented rock mass strength for each geologic section are presented by their arithmetic average

  13. Les Gammaridae (Crustaces, Amphipodes) du Massif Central

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedmakers, Annemarie

    1974-01-01

    Une prospection systématique des eaux courantes du Massif Central a permis de reconnaître le nombre d’espèces des Gammaridés présentes dans cette région. On a trouvé les espèces suivantes: Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus, 1758), G. fossarum Koch, 1835, et G. ibericus Margalef, 1951. G. ibericus, espèce

  14. Re–Os geochemistry and geochronology of the Ransko gabbro–peridotite massif, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ackerman, Lukáš; Pašava, J.; Erban, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 7 (2013), s. 799-804 ISSN 0026-4598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Re–Os * geochronology * gabbro * Bohemian Massif * Ni–Cu mineralization Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2013

  15. Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif is established through the use of geological and geophysical analysis. The positive gravity anomalies located near the Atlantic coast are due to 535 and 540 Ma old rocks belonging to the Pampean Orogeny (Precambrian–middle Cambrian, which are widely recognized in central and northern Argentina. The Famatinian Cycle (Ordovician–Devonian is represented by a Silurian–Devonian marine basin equivalent to those of eastern-central Argentina and South Africa, and which was deformed at the end of the Devonian by an ∼E–W to WNW–ESE compressional event, part of the Famatinian Orogeny. Containing strong gravity gradients, the NW–SE belt is coincident with fault zones which were originated during the Gondwanide Orogeny. This event also produced NW–SE overthrusting of the Silurian–Devonian sequences and strike-slip faults that displaced blocks in the same direction. This deformation event belongs to the Gondwanide Orogeny that includes movements related to a counterclockwise rotation of blocks in northern Patagonia. The strong negative anomalies located in the western part of the area stem from the presence of rocks of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto basin interbedded in the Marifil Complex. These volcaniclastic sequences show mild deformation of accommodation zones in a pre-Jurassic paleorelief.

  16. An improved reconstruction of May-June precipitation using tree-ring data from western Turkey and its links to volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Nesibe; Akkemik, Unal; Güner, H Tuncay; Dalfes, H Nüzhet; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D; Ozeren, M Sinan; Kındap, Tayfun

    2013-09-01

    We developed a high quality reconstruction of May-June precipitation for the interior region of southwestern Turkey using regional tree-ring data calibrated with meteorological data from Burdur. In this study, three new climate sensitive black pine chronologies were built. In addition to new chronologies, four previously published black pine chronologies were used for the reconstruction. Two separate reconstructions were developed. The first reconstruction used all site chronologies over the common interval AD 1813-2004. The second reconstruction used four of the chronologies with a common interval AD 1692-2004. R² values of the reconstructions were 0.64 and 0.51 with RE values of 0.63 and 0.51, respectively. During the period AD 1692-1938, 41 dry and 48 wet events were found. Very dry years occurred in AD 1725, 1814, 1851, 1887, 1916, and 1923, while very wet years occurred in AD 1736, 1780, 1788, 1803, and 1892. The longest dry period was 16 years long between 1860 and 1875. We then explored relationships between the reconstructed rainfall patterns and major volcanic eruptions, and discovered that wetter than normal years occurred during or immediately after the years with the largest volcanic eruptions.

  17. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  18. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the

  19. Petrology and geochemistry of the high-Cr podiform chromitites of the Köycegiz ophiolite, southwest Turkey: implications for the multi-stage evolution of the oceanic upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fahui; Yang, Jingsui; Dilek, Yildirim; Wang, ChunLian; Hao, Xiaolin; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lian, Dongyang

    2018-03-01

    Ophiolites exposed across the western Tauride belt in Turkey represent tectonically emplaced fragments of oceanic lithosphere obducted onto the continental margin following the closure of the Neotethys Ocean during the Late Cretaceous. The ultramafic massif of Köycegiz, which is located in the ophiolitic belt of southwestern Turkey, is a major source of metallurgical chromitite ore. The massif comprises a base of tectonized harzburgite with minor dunite overlain by a magmatic sequence of wehrlite, pyroxenite, troctolite and gabbro. Only sparse refractory chromitites occur within the harzburgites; in contrast, the upper and middle sections of the peridotite sequence contain abundant metallurgical chromitites. The peridotites record abundant evidence of mantle metasomatism on various scales, as the Fo values of olivine in harzburgite are 90.1-95.4, whereas those in dunite are 90.1-91.8. The compositions of the melts passing through the peridotites changed gradually from arc tholeiite to boninite due to melt-rock reactions, thus producing more Cr-rich chromitites in the upper part of the body. Most of the chromitites have high Cr numbers (77-78), although systematic changes in the compositions of the olivine and chromian spinel occur from the harzburgites to the dunite envelopes to the chromitites, reflecting melt-rock reactions. The calculated ΔlogfO2 (FMQ) values range from - 2.77 to + 1.03 in the chromitites, - 2.73 to -0.01 in the harzburgites, and - 1.65 to + 0.45 in the dunites. All of the available evidence suggests that the Köycegiz ophiolite formed in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) mantle wedge. These models indicate that the harzburgites represent the products of first-stage melting and low degrees of melt-rock interaction that occurred in a mid-ocean ridge (MOR) environment. In contrast, the chromitites and dunites represent the products of second-stage melting and related refertilization, which occurred in an SSZ environment.

  20. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Turkey. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Turkey estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 21 000 to 55 000 tonnes of uranium. This potential is expected to lie in areas of Neogene and possibly other Tertiary sediments, in particular in the areas of the Menderes Massif and Central Anatolia. The mission describes a proposed exploration programme with expenditures over a five year period of between $80 million and $110 million, with nearly half of the amount being spent on drilling. (author)

  1. An overview on geochemistry of Proterozoic massif-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A critical study of 311 published WR chemical analyses, isotopic and mineral chemistry of ... Keywords. Massif anorthosite complexes; overview; geochemistry; high-Al gabbro. J. Earth ...... (123–2920 ppm) unlike the experimental results of.

  2. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  3. Radionuclide distribution of Holocene sediments and its effects on the habitat of recent foraminifers: A case study from the Western Marmara Sea (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal Yumun, Zeki; Kam, Erol; Murat Kılıc, Ali

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Radionuclides cause radioactive contamination in aquatic environments just as other non-biodegradable pollutants, such as heavy metals, sink to the seafloor and accumulate in the sediments. These radioactive pollutants especially affect benthic foraminifera living on the sediment surface or in the sediments in the seafloor. Foraminifera were used as bioindicators to analyze the effect of radioactivity pollution on ecosystems. In this study, we have investigated natural and artificial radionuclide (232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs) distribution in sediment samples taken in the living areas of benthic foraminifera in the Western Marmara Sea by means of gamma spectrometry. Accordingly, 29 core samples taken in 2016 from depths of about 20-35 m close to the shores of the Marmara Sea were used. Core samples representing the pollution of the study area were collected at locations such as discharge points for domestic and industrial areas, port locations, and others. Other samples were taken from areas unaffected or less affected by pollution. The radionuclide concentration activity values in the sediment samples obtained from the locations, in Bq/kg, were 137Cs, 0.9-9.4; 232Th, 18.9-86; 226Ra, 10-50; 40K, 24.4-670. These values were compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) data, and an environmental analysis was carried out. The 226Ra series, the 232Th series, and the 40K radionuclides accumulate naturally, and they are also increasing continuously due to anthropogenic pollution. Although the 226Ra values obtained throughout the study areas remained within normal limits according to the UNSCEAR values, the 40K and 232Th series values were found to be higher in almost all locations. According to these results, the main causes of radioactive pollution in the investigation area are agricultural and mining activities. Keywords: Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, Cs-137, radionuclide, Western Marmara Sea, Foraminifera

  4. Hydrogeological Modelling of Some Geothermal Waters of Ivrindi, Havran and Gönen in the Province Capital of Balikesir, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Nevzat; Ugurlu, Zehra; Memis, Ümit; Aydemir, Eda

    2017-12-01

    In this study, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and isotope geochemical features of Havran, Gönen and Ivrindi within the province capital of Balıkesir, Turkey were investigated in detail. The Early Triassic Karakaya formation in the study area of Havran forms the oldest rocks consisting of spilitic basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites. There are limestone blocks in this formation with intercalations with sandstones and with feldspar contents, quartzite, conglomerates and siltstones. Oligocene to Miocene granodiorite intrusions were generated in association with intensively volcanic events in the area. Between Upper Oligocene and Early Miocene, andesitic and dacitic pyroclastic rocks cropped out due to intensively volcanism. Later, conglomerates, sandstones, claystones, marls and limestones as lacustrine sediments formed from Middle to Upper Miocene in the study area. In the study area of Gönen, the Lower Triassic Karakaya formation consists of basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites and forms the basement rocks overlain by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sandy limestones. Upper and Middle Miocene volcanics which can be considered intensive Biga Peninsula volcanos outcrop in the area. These andesitic lava flows are of black, gray and red color with intensive fissures. Neogene lacustrine sediments consist of conglomerates, sandstones, marl, claystone and clayey limestones. Upper Miocene to Pliocene rhyolitic pyroclastics and dacitic lava flows are the volcanic rocks which are overlain by Pliocene conglomerates, sandstones and claystones. In the study area of Ivrindi, the Çaldağ limestones are the oldest formation in Permian age. Çavdartepe metamorphic rocks are of Lower Triassic in which can be observed marbles sporadically. The Kınık formation consisting of conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones and limestones are of Lower Triassic age and display a lateral Stratigraphic progress with volcanic rocks. Upper

  5. An analysis of the murder of women in a 10-year period in Eskişehir Province located in western Anatolia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Akkaya, Harun; Balci, Yasemin

    2013-08-01

    Murder of women generally occurs as a result of violence by their husbands and relatives. We evaluated the female victims of murder in Eskişehir, located in western Anatolia, where the education level is high in this study. Our aim was to assess and discuss data related to the victims and murderers. A total of 141 women's murder cases were analysed in the study. After a legal process and the results of the autopsies during 2002-2011 in Eskişehir, 715 subjects found to have died as a result of murder were chosen. Cases were evaluated in terms of their age, marital status, education level, relationship to the murderer, reasons for violence, type of action and reasons for death. It was determined that 48.2% (n = 68) of the victims had been killed by the husband and 7.8% (n = 11) by the ex-husband. Murderers generally stated that the reason of murder was the woman's request for divorce or breaking up (n = 40, 28.4%). In compliance with the literature, the women were most commonly killed by their husbands in our study. Enhancing women's status and preventing violence against women will decrease such murders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often

  7. Constraining the deformation and exhumation history of the Ronda Massif, Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myall, Jack; Donaldson, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Ronda peridotite, southern Spain is comprised of four peridotite units hosted within metasedimentary units of the Betic Cordillera, Western Alps. These four areas of differing mineral facies are termed: the Garnet Mylonite , the Foliated Spinel Peridotite, the Granular Spinel Peridotite and the Foliated Plagioclase Peridotite. Whilst two of these units show a strong NE-SW foliation, the granular unit has no foliation and the Plagioclase facies shows a NW-SE foliation. The massif is separated from the metasedimentary host through a mylonite shear zone to the NW and thrust faults to the SE. The Garnets contain rims of Kelyphite which when combined with the rims of Spinel on the Plagioclase crystals illustrate the complicated exhumation of this massif. The Kelyphite shows the breakdown of garnet back to spinel and pyroxene showing the deeper high pressure high temperature mineral is under shallowing conditions whereas in contrast to this the low pressure low temperature plagioclase crystals have spinel rims showing that they have been moved into deeper conditions. The P-T-t pathway of the massif suggests slow exhumation to allow for partial recrystallisation of not only the garnets and plagioclases but of a 100m band of peridotite between the Foliated Spinel Peridotite and the Granular Spinel Peridotite facies. The tectonic model for the Ronda Peridotite that best describes the field data and subsequent lab work of this study is Mantle Core complex and slab roll back models. These models support mantle uprising during an extensional event that whereby slab roll back of the subducting lithosphere provides uplift into a void and emplacement into the crust. Further extension and final exhumation causes rotation of a mantle wedge into its present day position.

  8. Tourist Traffic In The Aconcagua Massif Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is an analysis of tourist traffic in the Aconcagua massif, one of the most popular peaks of the Seven Summits. On the basis of statistical data, the tourist traffic was analysed in a temporal and spatial perspective. The applied data made it possible to capture the dynamics of visits in the period 2000/2001 – 2012/2013 and with a breakdown into months, which helped analyse the tourist traffic in this area. In each of the analysed periods, January dominates. Data concerning the origin of tourists according to countries and continents, their age, gender and type of mountaineering activity were also taken into account. Most tourists came from Argentina, the USA and Germany. These are people of age groups 21–30 (33% and 31–40 (31%. Men account for over 75% of visitors. The favourite mountaineering activity is climbing (about 60%. Aconcagua has invariably been a very popular peak among tourists and climbers. It is a place for training and acclimatisation for alpinists, participating in Himalayan expeditions and climbers collecting peaks of the Seven Summits.

  9. Turkey: A Geostrategic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fanale, Rosalie A

    2001-01-01

    ...] America"s primary national security interest in Turkey is regional stability. U.S. strategy aims for Turkey to be a strong regional player, able to act in support of U.S. interests in a troubled region.

  10. Features of change of permanent snow patches in the Mongun-Taiga Massif, 1966–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ganyushkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to perennial snow patches of Mongun-Taiga mountain massif (south-western Tuva, their morphology, present state and dynamics over the last 45 years. We created a scheme of snow patch classification with regard to genesis of relief and position on the slopes. Dynamics of snow patches is analyzed for periods between several time points – 1966 (on basis of aerial photos, 2000, 2007–2008 and 2011 (on basis of field measurements and observations. From 1966 to 2008 the number of snow patches decreased by 4 times, the total area – by 15 times, the altitudinal zone of snow patches moved 250–300 m up. In 2008–2011 the altitudinal zone of snow patches partly recovered, its lower limit moved 250 m down, periglacial snow patches recovered, a new type – snow patches of buried ice and debris-covered glaciers appeared. It could be the first face of the process of small glaciers recovery in the massif. Using the changes of the altitudinal position of snow patches in comparison with data of the closest meteorological station we estimated the amount of annual precipitation, critical for the existence of local snow patches.

  11. Rapakivi texture in porphyritic dikes within the Karavanke Granitic Massif (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bellieni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern Karavanke Granitic Massif straddles the Slovenian–Austrian border. The investigated area lies in northern Slovenia, and extends from the western Slovenian–Austrian border to the east for about 30 km, with a maximum width of 2 km. The massif exhibits a bimodal magmatic association comprising mainly syenogranite and syenite with contemporaneous gabbroic rocks. Rocks of intermediate composition are less abundant and show field, textural and chemical features suggesting that they have formed as a result of the interaction (mixing and mingling between felsic and mafic magmas. Plagioclasemantled alkali feldspars occur in dikes of porphyritic syenite, which cut larger bodies of gabbroic rocks. Field, mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical evidences suggest that the porphyritic syenite is a hybrid rock, formed by the interaction of mafic and felsic magmas. The formation of plagioclase-mantled alkali feldspar can be explained by the introduction of alkali feldspar from felsic, syenogranitic magma into more mafic magma, causing local undercooling in the portion of mafic magma surrounding the crystals. This resulted in the growth of cellular plagioclase, with quartz infilling, in a thermally and compositionally equilibrating system.

  12. Carboniferous high-pressure metamorphism of Ordovician protoliths in the Argentera Massif (Italy), Southern European Variscan belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Ferrando, Simona; Compagnoni, Roberto; Lombardo, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    The age of high-pressure metamorphism is crucial to identify a suitable tectonic model for the vast Variscan orogeny. Banded H P granulites from the Gesso-Stura Terrain in the Argentera Massif, Italy, have been recently described (Ferrando et al., 2008) relicts of high-pressure metamorphism in the western part of the Variscan orogen. Bulk rock chemistry of representative lithologies reveals intermediate silica contents and calc-alkaline affinity of the various cumulate layers. Enrichment in incompatible elements denotes a significant crustal component in line with intrusion during Ordovician rifting. Magmatic zircon cores from a Pl-rich layer yield scattered ages indicating a minimum protolith age of 486 ± 7 Ma. Carboniferous zircons (340.7 ± 4.2 and 336.3 ± 4.1 Ma) are found in a Pl-rich and a Pl-poor layer, respectively. Their zoning, chemical composition (low Th/U, flat HREE pattern and Ti-in-zircon temperature) and deformation indicate that they formed during the high-pressure event before decompression and mylonitisation. The proposed age for high-pressure metamorphism in the Argentera Massif proves that subduction preceded anatexis by less than 20 Ma. The new data allow a first-order comparison with the Bohemian Massif, which is located at the eastern termination of the Variscan orogen. Similarities in evolution at either end of the orogen support a Himalayan-type tectonic model for the entire European Variscides.

  13. Massification to Marketization of Higher Education: Private University Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jashim Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Massification of higher education is a contemporary phenomenon, and Bangladesh is an excellent example of massification in the sector. With increased alertness worldwide among nations, policy-makers and development bodies, massification of higher education is a requirement of time. Increasing number of youth also contribute to the phenomenon…

  14. Late Cenozoic cooling history of the central Menderes Massif: Timing of the Büyük Menderes detachment and the relative contribution of normal faulting and erosion to rock exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfler, Andreas; Glotzbach, Christoph; Heineke, Caroline; Nilius, Nils-Peter; Hetzel, Ralf; Hampel, Andrea; Akal, Cüneyt; Dunkl, István; Christl, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    Based on new thermochronological data and 10Be-derived erosion rates from the southern part of the central Menderes Massif (Aydın block) in western Turkey, we provide new insights into the tectonic evolution and landscape development of an area that undergoes active continental extension. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He data reveal that the footwall of the Büyük Menderes detachment experienced two episodes of enhanced cooling and exhumation. Assuming an elevated geothermal gradient of 50 °C/km, the first phase occurred with an average rate of 0.90 km/Myr in the middle Miocene and the second one in the latest Miocene and Pliocene with a rate of 0.43 km/Myr. The exhumation rates between these two phases were lower and range from 0.14 to 0.24 km/Myr, depending on the distance to the detachment. Cosmogenic nuclide-based erosion rates for catchments in the Aydın block range from 0.1 to 0.4 km/Myr. The similarity of the erosion rates on both sides of the Aydın block (northern and southern flank) indicate that a rather symmetric erosion pattern has prevailed during the Holocene. If these millennial erosion rates are representative on a million-year timescale they indicate that, apart from normal faulting, erosion in the hanging wall of the Büyük Menderes detachment fault did also contribute to the exhumation of the metamorphic rocks.

  15. Massification and Quality Assurance in Tertiary Education: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sets out to examine massification and its impact on quality assurance in tertiary education and the extent to which lecturer–student ratio, adequacy of infrastructure and pedagogical resources affect quality in tertiary institutions. Two research questions and one hypothesis were posed to guide the investigation.

  16. An Andean type Palaeozoic convergence in the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schulmann, K.; Konopásek, J.; Janoušek, V.; Lexa, O.; Lardeaux, J.-M.; Edel, J.-B.; Štípská, P.; Ulrich, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 341, č. 2-3 (2009), s. 266-286 ISSN 1631-0713 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Saxothuringian oceanic subduction * building of Variscan orogenic root system * channel flow Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.931, year: 2009

  17. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  18. The geology of uranium in the Saint-Sylvestre granite district (Limousin, Massif Central, France); La geologie de l'uranium dans le massif granitique de Saint-Sylvestre (Limousin - Massif Central Francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquaire, C.; Moreau, M.; Barbier, J.; Ranchin, G.; Carrat, H.G.; Coppens, R.; Senecal, J.; Koszotolanyi, C.; Dottin, H

    1969-07-01

    This report concerns the geology of uranium in Limousin, more particularly in the St-Sylvestre massif, and the related phenomena: regional geology, petrographic and geochemical zonal distribution observed in various granite massifs, uranium movement in connection with surface alteration, geochronology of uranium ore. The work is made up of six articles covering the various scientific aspects listed above. Each article is headed with an abstract. The paper comprises the following chapters: Foreword by Marcel ROUBAULT. 1. Ch. MARQUAIRE, M. MOREAU Outline of geological conditions in Northern Limousin and distribution of uraniferous occurrences. 2. J. BARBIER, G. RANCHIN, H. G. CARRAT and R. COPPENS Geology of the St-Sylvestre Massif and uranium geochemistry - Introduction to laboratory studies - Problems of methodology. 3. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Petrographical and geochemical zones in the St-Sylvestre granite massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central'). 4. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Uranium geochemistry in the St-Sylvestre Massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central') - Occurrences of primary geochemical uranium and replacement processes. 5. J. SENEGAL Monograph of the Brugeaud orebody. 6. R. COPPENS, Ch. KOSZTOLANYI and H. DOTTIN Geochronological study of the Brugeaud mine. 1969. (authors) [French] Ce memoire est consacre a la geologie de l'uranium dans le Limousin, plus specialement dans le massif de St-Sylvestre, et aux phenomenes qui s'y rattachent: geologie regionale, phenomenes de zonalite petrographique et geochimique dans certains massifs granitiques, mouvements de l'uranium lies a l'alteration superficielle, geochronologie du minerai d'uranium. L'ouvrage comprend six articles qui recouvrent les differents aspects scientifiques enumeres. Chacun de ces six articles est precede d'un resume. La composition du memoire st la suivante: Marcel ROUBAULT, Preface. 1. Ch. MARQUAIRE, M. MOREAU Esquisse geologique du

  19. The geology of uranium in the Saint-Sylvestre granite district (Limousin, Massif Central, France); La geologie de l'uranium dans le massif granitique de Saint-Sylvestre (Limousin - Massif Central Francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquaire, C; Moreau, M; Barbier, J; Ranchin, G; Carrat, H G; Coppens, R; Senecal, J; Koszotolanyi, C; Dottin, H

    1969-07-01

    This report concerns the geology of uranium in Limousin, more particularly in the St-Sylvestre massif, and the related phenomena: regional geology, petrographic and geochemical zonal distribution observed in various granite massifs, uranium movement in connection with surface alteration, geochronology of uranium ore. The work is made up of six articles covering the various scientific aspects listed above. Each article is headed with an abstract. The paper comprises the following chapters: Foreword by Marcel ROUBAULT. 1. Ch. MARQUAIRE, M. MOREAU Outline of geological conditions in Northern Limousin and distribution of uraniferous occurrences. 2. J. BARBIER, G. RANCHIN, H. G. CARRAT and R. COPPENS Geology of the St-Sylvestre Massif and uranium geochemistry - Introduction to laboratory studies - Problems of methodology. 3. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Petrographical and geochemical zones in the St-Sylvestre granite massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central'). 4. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Uranium geochemistry in the St-Sylvestre Massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central') - Occurrences of primary geochemical uranium and replacement processes. 5. J. SENEGAL Monograph of the Brugeaud orebody. 6. R. COPPENS, Ch. KOSZTOLANYI and H. DOTTIN Geochronological study of the Brugeaud mine. 1969. (authors) [French] Ce memoire est consacre a la geologie de l'uranium dans le Limousin, plus specialement dans le massif de St-Sylvestre, et aux phenomenes qui s'y rattachent: geologie regionale, phenomenes de zonalite petrographique et geochimique dans certains massifs granitiques, mouvements de l'uranium lies a l'alteration superficielle, geochronologie du minerai d'uranium. L'ouvrage comprend six articles qui recouvrent les differents aspects scientifiques enumeres. Chacun de ces six articles est precede d'un resume. La composition du memoire st la suivante: Marcel ROUBAULT, Preface. 1. Ch. MARQUAIRE, M. MOREAU Esquisse geologique du Nord Limousin et repartition des mineralisations

  20. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF REPUBLIC OF TURKEY WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan GÜZEL

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Republic of Turkey’s relationships with Western world in general, and with EU in special. Putting forth the relationship betweeen EU and Republic of Turkey in a clear manner, underlying factors of Republic of Turkey’s accession to the EU has been discussed in accordance with the main problem of Republic of Turkey, including overpopulation and unemployment rate. However, it is essential for EU to consider geostrategical position of Republic of Turkey bringing Europe and Asi...

  1. Migration and self-esteem: A qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article examining the impact of migration experience on self-esteem of girls enrolled at primary schools in Turkey. It is based on a broader study that explored edueational and coping strategies of internal migrant girls living in a suburban town in the western part of Turkey. The study showed

  2. Uranium mineralization in the Bohemian Massif and its exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matolin, M.; Pluskal, O.; Rene, M.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term systematic and planned uranium survey including airborne, carborne, ground, logging and laboratory radiometric measurements as well as geological and geochemical investigations have shown a difference in radioactivity of two regional geological units in Czechoslovakia. The higher regional radioactivity of the Variscan granitoid rocks of the Bohemian Massif differs from that of the West Carpathians and is associated with more frequent uranium mineralization. Endogenous vein-type uranium mineralization has a spatial association with high-radioactivity granitoids in the Bohemian Massif. Airborne prospection defined rock radioactivity features on a regional scale while surface and subsurface radiometric and geological investigations using various techniques localized important uranium deposits. Complex statistical evaluation of numerous geophysical and geological data was studied in order to delineate uranium-favourable areas. (author)

  3. Hydrogeology of the Olševa massif (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Krivic

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Olševa consists of highly pervious carbonates, forming a relatively big fractured and karstified aquifer. Due to its high-altitude mountainous nature, the aquifer is unpolluted and therefore has to be regarded as a potential source of drinking water for the future.The Olševa aquifer is tectonically divided into three parts. Groundwater from the two smaller aquifers, covering areas of 1,9 and 0,8 km2, located in eastern part of Ol{eva massif, flows toward Northeast into Meža river basin. In spite of several transversal faults, the rest of Olševa massif forms a relatively uniform aquifer that is conveying groundwater in westerly direction towards Rjavica valley. Rjavica valley in Austria represents the discharge area of a majority of groundwater from the main Ol{eva aquifer.

  4. Origin, evolution and geothermometry of the thermal waters in the Gölemezli Geothermal Field, Denizli Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Meccheri, Marco; Yavuzer, İbrahim; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat

    2018-01-01

    The Gölemezli Geothermal Field (GGF) is one of the best known geothermal fields in western Anatolia (Turkey). The exploited fluids are of meteoric origin, mixed with deep magmatic fluids, which interacted with the metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif. The geothermal fluids are channeled along Quaternary faults belonging to the main normal faults system delimiting the northern side of the Denizli Basin and their associated transfer zones. In this study, hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of the thermal and cold waters allow us to determine water-rock interactions, fluid paths and mixing processes. Two groups of thermal waters have been distinguished: (i) Group 1A, comprising Na-SO4 type and Ca-SO4 type and (ii) Group 1B, only consisting Ca-HCO3 type waters. Differently, two groups were recognized in the cold waters: (i) Group 2A, corresponding to Ca-HCO3 type and (ii) Group 2B, including Mg-HCO3 type. Their geochemical characteristics indicate interactions with the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif and with the Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks. Dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions modify thermal water composition in the reservoir of the GGF. High correlation in some ionic ratios and high concentrations of some minor elements suggest an enhanced water-rock interaction. None of the thermal waters has been reached a complete chemical re-equilibrium, possibly as a result of mixing with cold water during their pathways. Geothermal reservoir temperatures are calculated in the range of 130-210°C for the Gölemezli field. Very negative δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios are respectively between -8.37 and -8.13‰ and -61.09 and -59.34‰ for the SO4-rich thermal waters, and ca. - 8.40 and -8.32‰ and - 57.80 and -57.41‰ for the HCO3-rich thermal waters. Low tritium (link existing between fractures and fluid convection in the extensional settings. In this view, the GGF is a very good example of geothermal field associated to active

  5. Quelques phases granitiques intrusives dans le Massif des Trois Seigneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, W.H.

    1956-01-01

    Pendant les étés de 1953, 1954 et 1955 j’ai effectué des travaux de terrain dans le Massif des Trois Seigneurs, Pyrénées orientales, sous la direction du Professeur L.U. de Sitter. Ces travaux de terrain comprennent entre autres le levé d’une carte géologique de la partie centrale et Sud-Ouest de ce

  6. Labour migration from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, S

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with Turkish labor migration to Western Europe. Earlier and recent patterns of labor migration, characteristics of migrants by occupation, area of destination, and by geographical origins are discussed. Economic and demographic consequences of labor migration are also analyzed. It is estimated that Turkey's population will reach 73 million at the year 2000 with the present growth rate of 2.48% annually. Considering the efforts made to slow down the present high fertility rates and assuming that the decrease in labor force participation during 1970-1980 continues, the author concludes that the labor supply will increase with a growth rate of 2% annually for the next 13-15 years. Thus, the labor supply will reach 26.6 million people in the year 2000 from the 1980 level of 17.8 million. Assuming also that the income/employment elasticity of .25 which was observed throughout the period of 1960-1980 will not change until 2000, the annual growth rate of employment may be estimated as 1.5%. Thus, the number of people employed will reach 20 million in the year 1990 and 23.2 million in the year 2000. 8.8 million people will join the labor market as new entrants between 1980 and 2000. Only 6 million people out of 8.8 million will be employed. Thus, in the year 2000, it is estimated that 2.8 million new unemployed people will be added to the already open unemployment figure 1980 census data give the number of unemployed as .6 million people. Adding the 2.8 million new unemployed to this figure totals 3.4 million unemployed in 2000. The State Planning Organization's estimate of labor surplus for 1980 was 2.5 million people. When 2.8 million unemployed people are added to this figure, the labor surplus for the year 2000 reaches 5.3 million people.

  7. Turkey's natural gas necessity, consumption and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is an important candidate to be the 'energy corridor' in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Furthermore, Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy consumption. Naturally, Turkish natural gas usage is projected to increase remarkably in coming years, with the prime consumers, expected to be industry and power plants. Energy demand of Turkey is growing by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. In addition, natural gas consumption is the fastest growing primary energy source in Turkey. Gas sales started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters), in 1987 and reached approximately 22 bcm in 2003. This article deals with energy policies and natural gas consumption of Turkey. Besides modernization of present lines and realization of capacity increase, new lines will also be needed. In this context, Turkey, due to its geographical location is, in an important position to vary European supply. Therefore, Turkey's role as a transitory area gains importance

  8. Subduction metamorphism in the Himalayan ultrahigh-pressure Tso Morari massif: An integrated geodynamic and petrological modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; Reuber, Georg S.; White, Richard W.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Weller, Owen M.

    2017-06-01

    The Tso Morari massif is one of only two regions where ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism of subducted crust has been documented in the Himalayan Range. The tectonic evolution of the massif is enigmatic, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism vary from ∼2.4 GPa to ∼4.8 GPa. This uncertainty is problematic for constructing large-scale numerical models of the early stages of India-Asia collision. To address this, we provide new constraints on the tectonothermal evolution of the massif via a combined geodynamic and petrological forward-modelling approach. A prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path has been derived from thermomechanical simulations tailored for Eocene subduction in the northwestern Himalaya. Phase equilibrium modelling performed along this P-T path has described the petrological evolution of felsic and mafic components of the massif crust, and shows that differences in their fluid contents would have controlled the degree of metamorphic phase transformation in each during subduction. Our model predicts that peak P-T conditions of ∼2.6-2.8 GPa and ∼600-620 ∘C, representative of 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), could have been reached just ∼3 Myr after the onset of subduction of continental crust. This P-T path and subduction duration correlate well with constraints reported for similar UHP eclogite in the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan Himalaya, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of what may have been a ∼400-km-long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. A maximum overpressure of ∼0.5 GPa was calculated in our simulations for a homogeneous crust, although small-scale mechanical heterogeneities may produce overpressures that are larger in magnitude. Nonetheless, the extremely high pressures for peak metamorphism reported by some workers (up to 4.8 GPa) are unreliable owing to conventional thermobarometry

  9. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  10. Coping strategies among internal migrant students in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study that explored educational challenges and coping mechanisms of internal migrant girls whose families moved from the rural areas in the east to the western parts of Turkey. The study revealed that internal migrant girls have encountered a number of

  11. Microhabitats of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    Merriam’s Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) are associated with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the western United States, but are not native to the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Black Hills population was established by transplanting birds from New Mexico and Colorado between 1948 and...

  12. Mohorovicic discontinuity depth analysis beneath North Patagonian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Dacal, M. L.; Tocho, C.; Aragón, E.

    2013-05-01

    The North Patagonian Massif is a 100000 km2, sub-rectangular plateau that stands out 500 to 700 m higher in altitude than the surrounding topography. The creation of this plateau took place during the Oligocene through a sudden uplift without noticeable internal deformation. This quite different mechanical response between the massif and the surrounding back arc, the short time in which this process took place and a regional negative Bouguer anomaly in the massif area, raise the question about the isostatic compensation state of the previously mentioned massif. In the present work, a comparison between different results about the depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the North Patagonian Massif and a later analysis is made. It has the objective to analyze the crustal thickness in the area to contribute in the determination of the isostatic balance and the better understanding of the Cenozoic evolution of the mentioned area. The comparison is made between four models; two of these were created with seismic information (Feng et al., 2006 and Bassin et al., 2000), another model with gravity information (Barzaghi et al., 2011) and the last one with a combination of both techniques (Tassara y Etchaurren, 2011). The latter was the result of the adaptation to the work area of a three-dimensional density model made with some additional information, mainly seismic, that constrain the surfaces. The work of restriction and adaptation of this model, the later analysis and comparison with the other three models and the combination of both seismic models to cover the lack of resolution in some areas, is presented here. According the different models, the crustal thickness of the study zone would be between 36 and 45 Km. and thicker than the surrounding areas. These results talk us about a crust thicker than normal and that could behave as a rigid and independent block. Moreover, it can be observed that there are noticeable differences between gravimetric and seismic

  13. Social Class Barriers of the Massification of Higher Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru-Jer, Wang

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid growth of higher education in Taiwan has led to an essential shift from education for the elite to the massification of higher education. Although this massification is making higher education more accessible, one of the main concerns is whether opportunities for higher education are the same among all social classes in…

  14. Long Wavelenth Subsidence of Western Europe during Late Eocene-Oligocene (38-23 Ma): Mantle Dynamic Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillocheau, Francois; Robin, Cécile; Bessin, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Western Europe (France, southern Britain, southern Belgium, western Germany) is subsiding during Late Eocene to Oligocene (38-23 Ma) as suggested by the growth of numerous small sedimentary basins mainly filled by lacustrine deposits with some brackish to marine deposits. This large-scale subsidence is coeval with the early stage of the so-called Oligocene rifts (in fact Late Bartonian to Rupelian): Lower Rhinegraben, Bresse, Limagnes. The subsiding domain extends from Cornwall to the Rhine Graben including the Armorican Massif, the southern Paris Basin, the northern Aquitaine Basin, the French Central Massif, the Ardennes-Eifel… This subsidence occurred at a period of global sea level fall and then an eustatic component cannot explain (1) the accommodation space creation and (2) the marine floding with a paroxysm during Early Oligocene times (Armorican Massif, ?Ardennes, French Massif central). This marine flooding also indicate that the relief of the Hercynian basement was less elevated and smoother than today. Some of those small "basins" were interpreted as little rifts, but new mapping (e.g. Puy-en-Velay or Forez Plain in the French Massif central) or new geophysical data (e.g. Rennes Basin in the Armorican massif) suggest that no faults control those basins or that they result from post-depositional collapses. This long wavelength subsidence is at the scale of the mantle dynamic. Possible mantle mechanisms and the relationships with the "Oligocene" rifts and the North Sea inversion will be discussed.

  15. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  16. Two-phase southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate constrained by Permian-Jurassic granitoids in the Erguna and Xing'an massifs (NE China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huichuan; Li, Yinglei; He, Hongyun; Huangfu, Pengpeng; Liu, Yongzheng

    2018-04-01

    Geodynamics of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate southward subduction are still pending problems. This paper presents new zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age and whole-rock geochemical data for the middle Permian to Middle Jurassic granitoids in the western Erguna and central Xing'an massifs. 267-264 Ma, 241 Ma and 173 Ma I-type granites, and 216 Ma A-type granites were identified in the Erguna and Xing'an massifs (NE China). The I-type granites were produced by partial melting of the lower mafic crust. The 216 Ma A-type granites were derived from partial melting of crustal materials with tonalitic to granodioritic compositions. The 267-264 Ma and 241 Ma I-type granites were generated in an Andean-type arc setting, wheras the 216 Ma A-type and 173 Ma granites were formed in supra subduction extensional setting. We summarized previous age data of the middle Permian to Middle Jurassic magmtaic rocks in the Erguna and Xing'an Massifs and identified two isolated phases of magmatic activity including the ca. 267-225 Ma and ca. 215-165 Ma periods, with a significant magmatic gap at ca. 225-215 Ma. These middle Permian to Middle Jurassic magmatic rocks are closely related to the southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk ocean. A two-stage tectonic evolutionary model was proposed to account for these geological observations in the Erguna and Xing'an massifs, involving Permian to Middle Triassic continuous southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate and Late Triassic to Jurassic slab-rollback and supra subduction extension.

  17. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  18. Energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. 73 percent of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 percent of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions and Europe. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; with quite abundant coal reserves. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Oil has the biggest share (39 percent) in total primary energy consumption, while natural gas has a share of 21 percent and increasing due to the recent diversification efforts of energy resources. Turkey has about 1percent of the total world hydroelectric potential and a considerable potential for electricity generation from wind. As of early 2004, Turkey had electric power generating capacity of around 32,000 megawatts (MW), and was building 13,000 MW more. Since adoption of Electricity Market Law in February 2001, there were significant changes towards liberalisation of power generation market and distribution in the country. Privatization of generation assets is envisaged to start in 2006. The Electricity Market Law set the stage for new supporting laws and regulations as well as new organization of the market: the Energy Market Regulation Agency (EMRA), that oversees the power, natural gas markets, oil markets and liquefied petroleum gases market, including setting tariffs, issuing licenses, and assuring competition; the Energy Market Regulatory Board, which runs the EMRA; the Energy Market Licensing Regulation and the Electricity Market Tariffs Regulation; 4-phase approach towards electric energy market

  19. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  20. Early fracturing in argillaceous massifs and related carbonate transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudoin, B.; Dennebouy, S.; Parize, O.; Brulhet, J.; Trouiller, A.

    2004-01-01

    To be sure of the stability in the future of underground storage in argillaceous massifs needs to understand the present-day properties of the sediment in the light of its history. It is why early fracturing and associated carbonate transfer in shaly-marly massifs is one of the major themes of the MINANDRA Partnership (Ecole des Mines de Paris + ANDRA + some collaborators). That joint program involves tens of geo-scientists, and we would like to present here the main objects we study and the methods we apply. The base of the project is made of selected large reference-outcrops where an early fracturing is undoubtedly visible in the field. Two sets of such outcrops are presently worked in south-eastern France: - Aptian-albian marls (Marnes Bleues), at Bevons (near 04-Sisteron) and Saint-Andre de Rosans (W. of 05-Serres). - Domerian marls, at Clue du Vancon (E. of 04-Sisteron). Both are made of thick marls and intercalated limestone beds and nodules. (authors)

  1. Geophysical monitoring as an information source of rock massif behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Bláha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical measurements are an integral part of engineering-geological investigation where theypresent a wide range of useful information about the tested geological medium and about its geotechnicalqualities. Lately, repeated geophysical measurements in different time intervals have been used to judgethe changes occurring in the rock massif. These measurements bear the characteristics of total monitoring.This total monitoring contains series of repeated measurements and further an integrated spectrum of linkedactivities including evaluation, comparison with the warning state and making a decision about takingprecautions. From the range of geophysical methods and methodologies used for monitoring in full sensewe may mention, for example, continuous seismoacoustic measurements in mining constructions; (whichmay result even in recalling of the personnel, and further, also seismic measurements in the surroundingsof atomic power stations and measurements considering the protection against radioactive elements and their decay components.As a full monitoring we may also classify measurements in dumping sites with the aid of repeated geoelectrical measurements in the system of fixed electrodes under impermeable foils.These measurements are mostly carried out from time to time followed by taking immediate action when the foil is found damaged. In practice the term monitoring is used, although not very correctly, for all periodically repeated measurements, which do not result in taking action or interference, but supply a wide range of information about the rock massif behavior in time.

  2. Geological and geophysical investigations at Sierra del Medio massif - Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucca, J.C.; Llambias, E.; Puigdomenech, H.H.; Cebrelli, E.; Castro, C.E.; Grassi, I.; Salinas, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    Geological investigations were performed at Sierra del Medio (Chubut Province), a mountainous massif of about 25 km by 8 km of migmatic origin, which emerges from a depressed tectonic trench or graben called Pampa de Gastre. The most ancient rocks belong to biotitic and anphibolic schist that passed almost entirely to tonalitoid migmatites with a second process producing granitic rocks. Boreholes were drilled on the basis of conclusions from Landsat satellites imagery and aerial photographic sets, folowed by field work on geological, petrographic, geophysical and hydrogeological features at surface, structural interpretation supported by geostatistical computations. Two sets of boreholes were drilled to investigate subsurface rock behaviour al 300 m depth and 800 m depth respectively, beginning at peripheral places and ending at the central part or selected site. Basic purposes of boreholes were to define structural and petrographic features of the rock massif by a good comprehension of master joints and faulting distribution with its belts of alteration mylonitization or brecciation, mechanical properties of samples, chemical composition and varitions, petrographic facies and mineralogy. Boreholes provided data to investigate joints, faults and dikes as general discontinuities for hydraulic research like permeability or effective hydraulic conductivity, and their geostatistical modelling. Boreholes are also being prepared for geophysical logging from which logthermal ones have already been completed. (Author) [es

  3. Gold in Accessory Zircon (the Kozhim Massif, Subpolar Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Yuliya; Pystin, Aleksandr

    2017-12-01

    The crystals of zircon due to their resistance to external impact of various processes can reveal information about the environment of their formation and the inclusions observed of them. Zircon contains different mineral inclusions: biotite, plagioclase, quartz, apatite, etc. However, there is no information about gold inclusions in the zircons from granites of the Sudpolar Urals. The study results of the inclusions of gold in accessory zircon of the Kozhim granitic massif are presented in this paper. The studied mineral is a dark-brown translucent short-prismatic crystal containing the inclusion of gold and the allocations of quartz. According to studies, the inclusion of gold formed during the growth of zircon and it is the gold covered with a thin film of oxide gold. It was confirmed that the crystallization of the studied zircon occurred at a temperature of 800°C and above on the stage of formation of granites of Kozhim massif. The assumption is made about the additional temperature in the course of which was caused by decreasing of temperature up to 700° C and below during postmagmatic stage.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the financial world is still dominated by conventional banks, based on western economic principles, the number of Islamic banks is on the rise. Islamic banks have originated from colonial India as a response of the Muslims to the British who attempted to westernize their society. Other similar financial operations based on Islamic Law (Shari’a were established in Pakistan, Malaysia and Egypt to facilitate access of rural poor to interest-free loans. However, being unprofitable, these operations did not survive for very long. Islamic banks, unlike conventional banks, are not based on interest and conduct their business in accordance with a wide array of ethical and moral issues. The modern phase of Islamic banking started in the 1970s when the Islamic Development Bank was founded in Saudi Arabia. Soon after, a number of commercial banks were established in the neighboring countries. From this core, over the last four decades, Islamic finance and banking has spread across the entire Muslim world and beyond to become a global phenomenon. This study examines the development of Islamic banking in Turkey in the wider context of global expansion. Turkey is an interesting case study because, although its population is nearly 100% Muslim, it is a secular state built on the model of Western European countries. However, lately, the moderate Islamic party in power since 2002 has shown some signs of openness towards a parallel banking system based on Islamic principles.

  5. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  6. The geology of uranium in the Saint-Sylvestre granite district (Limousin, Massif Central, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquaire, C.; Moreau, M.; Barbier, J.; Ranchin, G.; Carrat, H.G.; Coppens, R.; Senecal, J.; Koszotolanyi, C.; Dottin, H.

    1969-01-01

    This report concerns the geology of uranium in Limousin, more particularly in the St-Sylvestre massif, and the related phenomena: regional geology, petrographic and geochemical zonal distribution observed in various granite massifs, uranium movement in connection with surface alteration, geochronology of uranium ore. The work is made up of six articles covering the various scientific aspects listed above. Each article is headed with an abstract. The paper comprises the following chapters: Foreword by Marcel ROUBAULT. 1. Ch. MARQUAIRE, M. MOREAU Outline of geological conditions in Northern Limousin and distribution of uraniferous occurrences. 2. J. BARBIER, G. RANCHIN, H. G. CARRAT and R. COPPENS Geology of the St-Sylvestre Massif and uranium geochemistry - Introduction to laboratory studies - Problems of methodology. 3. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Petrographical and geochemical zones in the St-Sylvestre granite massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central'). 4. J. BARBIER and G. RANCHIN Uranium geochemistry in the St-Sylvestre Massif (Limousin - French 'Massif Central') - Occurrences of primary geochemical uranium and replacement processes. 5. J. SENEGAL Monograph of the Brugeaud orebody. 6. R. COPPENS, Ch. KOSZTOLANYI and H. DOTTIN Geochronological study of the Brugeaud mine. 1969. (authors) [fr

  7. Terrorism Effects on Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    Byzantium following Fatih Mehmet’s conquest of Istanbul in 1453, brought a new era of religious, political, social, econmic and cultural prosperity to the...radical decisions in order to force the liberal- econmic system towards a free market. Generally speaking, Turkey was a traditionally agricultural country

  8. Financial Sector Assessment : Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment of Turkey's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through missions in April, August-September 2006 and March, 2007. This report provides a summary of the main findings of the assessment and the policy priorities identified. The main objective of the FSAP is to assist the...

  9. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  10. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  11. 2002 Turkey Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Report includes developments and variations in energy sector of Turkey in 2002. In addition This report also includes activities and statistics in all the energy sector of our country in 2002. Energy Report hadn't been published in last two years due to some technique reasons

  12. Chromitites of the Akkarginskiy massif (the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the geological features of ultramafic rock and chrome ore deposits. It is shown that all studied deposits are podiform in morphology that is typical for the ophiolite ultramafic rocks. Morphological and chemical features of the accessory and oreforming spinels are described. Accessory chrome spinels from ultramafic rocks are middle-Cr and high-Cr in chemistry (>42% Cr2O3. All studied ore-forming chrome spinels from deposits in the Main Ore Zone are high-Cr (54–63% Cr2O3. Some middle-Cr oreforming spinels were found in deposit of the East Ore Zone (48% Cr2O3. We adduce a proof of the tectonic origin of present-day structure of the Akkarginskiy massif and its chrome ore deposits.

  13. HT-LP thermometamorphism modelling : Agly massif, French Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournaire Guille, Baptiste; Pascal, Marie-Lola; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Annen, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the strongly anomalous thermal gradients implied, HT-LP metamorphism is a worldwide type of processes in which magma emplacement and solidification at relatively high levels in the crust must be considered as a potentially major heat source. Thermal modelling (e.g. Annen et al. 2005) is an appropriate tool for constraining the part played by such processes in practical cases of thermometamorphism. We study the Agly massif, an exhumed part of middle crust from the Variscan belt in the French Pyrenees. This massif is a classical example of HT-LP metamorphism (Vielzeuf 1996), composed of a metasedimentary cover, mainly micaschists aged from upper Cambrian to Devonian, unconformably overlying an older basement of para- and orthogneisses. The Variscan metamorphic facies extend from greenschists, in the upper part of the cover, to granulites in the basement (Fonteilles 1976). The apparent geotherm of about 110°/km in the metasedimentary cover (amphibolite and greenschist facies) has given way to contrasting interpretations. Magmatic activity partly synchronous with and probably related to the Variscan thermometamorphism is observed at the outcropping level as at least 4 magmatic bodies of mantle origin (Touil 1994), of Stephanian age, including granodiorites and subordinate diorites and gabbros. Recent U/Pb datations on zircons (Tournaire-Guille et al., in prep) also reveal the presence of lower Cambrian magmatism in the gneisses, therefore confirming their interpretation as a pre-Variscan basement. The location (depth), volume (thickness), temperature (composition) and timing of magma emplacement are the parameters controlling the thermal effect to be modelled with a Matlab® code (Annen et al. 2005). In order to constrain these parameters, we have updated the lithostratigraphy and the PT conditions of the Variscan metamorphism in the Agly area. Mineralogic and petrologic data exploited in thermobarometric analyses compared with thermodynamic PerpleX modelling

  14. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  15. Primary discussion on the characteristics and metallogenesis of Lingshan composite massif in northeastern Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ping; Tian Bangsheng

    2005-01-01

    A large amount of measured data has been applied to elaborate magmatic metallogenesis of Lingshan composite massif in northeastern Jiangxi Province, and to set up a metallogenetic model for polymetallic deposits, the detailed description on the characteristics of Nb-Ta, W-Sn and Pb-Zn deposits have been given. It is suggested that the Lingshan composite massif is of a ring-like multiphase batholith. Both differences and regular changes exist in following aspects such as spatial distribution, petrology, petrochemistry, microelements, REE and so on. The genetic type of the massif is regarded as A-type granite. Important mineral resources associated with the massif are Nb-Ta, W-Sn and Pb-Zn deposits. (authors)

  16. ECOLOGY-ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF NEW RECLAMATION METHOD FOR CURRENTLY WORKING TECHNOGENIC MASSIFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Strizhenok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant problems of the mining industry is the need to reduce the negative impact of technogenic massifs formed by wastes of extraction and processing of mineral raw materials. This problem has a significant meaning for currently used massifs, because traditional ways of reclamation are not suitable for them. The article describes the results of a scientific study on the development of the most efficient reclamation method for currently used technogenic massifs. Described in detail the main results of the field observations, methods and equipment of laboratory experiments conducted to determine agro-chemical properties of the soil and optimal composition of binder agent. The article also provides ecological and economic assessment of the proposed method of reclamation. The study was conducted on the example of the real technogenic massif, formed by wastes of phosphorus ore processing.

  17. Social anxiety in three Western societies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam-Baggen, R.M.J. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Elal, G.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates whether empirical data support the notion that people in Western societies do not differ with regard to social anxiety. Social anxiety in Dutch students (N = 425) was compared with that experienced by students in the United States (N = 440) and Turkey (N = 349). Social

  18. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  19. Geophysical research results of buried relief and distribution groundwater runoff of the Aragats massif

    OpenAIRE

    V.P. Vardanyan; A.H. Hovhannisyan

    2017-01-01

    Based on the synthesis and reinterpretation of long-term data of geophysical studies together with the hydrology - hydrological materials it has been received new data about the buried topography and spatial distribution of groundwater runoff of the Aragats massif. First of all, it requires to determine the structure of its buried relief, which is basically a regional relief aquitard. The underground water sources are considered to be precipitation on the massif (approximately 83% of the tota...

  20. Lytostratigraphy of the eocene sediments in the Serbian-Macedonian Massif, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanova, Violeta; Petrov, Gose; Sijakova-Ivanova, Tena

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the lithostratography of the eocene sedimentary series in the Serbian Macedonian massif on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Sediments of Eocene age in the Serbian Macedonian massif are represented in the Delchevo, Deve Bair and Strumi ca basin, with the orientation of NW-SE to S-J. With lithostratigraphic studies of eocene sediments in the basins in SMM, 3 superposition lithostratigraphic units (lithozones) were isolated:...

  1. Age and Stratigraphic Relationships in Massif-Debris-Apron Terrain in Western Phlegra Montes, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, A.; Head, J. W.; Safaeinili, A.; Holt, J.; Plaut, J.; Posiolova, L.; Phillips, R.; Seu, R.; Sharad Team

    2010-03-01

    SHARAD returns from lobate debris aprons (LDA) near Phlegra Montes may show similarly high ice contents to other LDA on Mars; geomorphology and surface ages of the deposits confirm this detection and support a debris-covered-glacier origin for LDA.

  2. Shear wave crustal velocity model of the Western Bohemian Massif from Love wave phase velocity dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínský, Petr; Málek, Jiří; Brokešová, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2011), s. 81-104 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602; GA AV ČR IAA300460705; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : love waves * phase velocity dispersion * frequency-time analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2011 www.springerlink.com/content/w3149233l60111t1/

  3. Geological structure and prospects of noble metal ore mineralization of the Khayrkhan gabbroid massif (Western Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumshieva, K. R.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    An analysis of the distribution of noble metals in zones of sulfide mineralization makes it possible to justify the isolation of four ore-bearing horizons with a specific geochemical zonation. A rise in the gold content relative to palladium and platinum is observed from the bottom upwards along the section of the stratified series of gabbroids. The study of the mineral phases of sulphides and the noble minerals itself indicates the evolution of hydrothermal solutions, which determines the different activity and mobility of the fluid (mercury, tellurium, sulfur) and ore (copper, nickel, iron, platinum, gold and silver) components.

  4. Structural and kinematic evolution of a Miocene to Recent sinistral restraining bend: the Montejunto massif, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    The Montejunto massif lies in the apex of a large-scale restraining bend at the southern termination of a sinistral transpressive fault system, in the Lusitanian basin of Portugal. Cenozoic deformation within the Montejunto massif initiated with southerly directed thrusting along the southern boundary of the massif, in association with the development of the E-W oriented Montejunto anticline, probably during the Langhian. Deformation switched to the northern boundary of the massif, in association with a change to NW-directed thrusting and continued development of the Montejunto anticline. The youngest set of structures within the massif is related to the sinistral reactivation of the Arieiro fault system, and steeply inclined bedding. This late phase of deformation represents the accommodation of a component of sinistral displacement across the restraining bend along mechanical anisotropies formed during this progressive Cenozoic deformation event. Variation in the kinematic style of the Main Arieiro fault is related to the angle ( α) between the fault plane and the displacement vector. Where α≈20°, abrupt pene-contemporaneous switches in displacement direction are recorded along the fault, whereas strike-slip kinematics predominate where α<20°. The timing of deformation events in the Montejunto massif is uncertain. However, correlation with the established Cenozoic Africa/Europe plate convergence directions may provide potential temporal constraints.

  5. Glaciations, gradients, and geography: multiple drivers of diversification of bush frogs in the Western Ghats Escarpment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Riya C.; Jayarajan, Aditi; Shanker, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    The historical processes underlying high diversity in tropical biodiversity hotspots like the Western Ghats of Peninsular India remain poorly understood. We sampled bush frogs on 13 massifs across the Western Ghats Escarpment and examined the relative influence of Quaternary glaciations, ecological gradients and geological processes on the spatial patterns of lineage and clade diversification. The results reveal a large in situ radiation (more than 60 lineages), exhibiting geographical structure and clade-level endemism, with two deeply divergent sister clades, North and South, highlighting the biogeographic significance of an ancient valley, the Palghat Gap. A majority of the bush frog sister lineages were isolated on adjacent massifs, and signatures of range stasis provide support for the dominance of geological processes in allopatric speciation. In situ diversification events within the montane zones (more than 1800 m) of the two highest massifs suggest a role for climate-mediated forest-grassland persistence. Independent transitions along elevational gradients among sub-clades during the Miocene point to diversification along the elevational gradient. The study highlights the evolutionary significance of massifs in the Western Ghats with the high elevations acting as centres of lineage diversification and the low- and mid-elevations of the southern regions, with deeply divergent lineages, serving as museums. PMID:27534957

  6. Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in the Term of Social Geograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BENEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical process between Syria and Turkey has always high tension. According to Turkey, Syria is the country,which has hosted the Turkish enemies, which causes problems in the sharing of water resources and geographically it is seen as ‘’enemy country’’ because of interfering in Turkey's territorial integrity; According to Syria, Turkey is "enemy" is because it doesn’t share water resources in a fair way and as supporters of western countries, claiming rights over their territory (Hatay. In short, for many years strained relations with Syria-Turkey relations , by signing of the Treaty of Adana in 1998, good relations has been established with unpredictable speed in a short time . Escalating positive relations between Turkey and Syria in the years 1998-2011, and relations has again strained the outbreak of the Syria Civil War in 2011, and was even worse off period before 1998. Therefore the main goal of this study "Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in terms of Social Geography" is to examine the dynamics of it. For this purpose, treaties defining the Turkey-Syria relationship, the protocols, briefings given by officials were examined. Historical background of the two countries' relations in terms of social geography has been tried to put forward in chronological order

  7. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  8. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  9. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  10. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  11. Nursing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  12. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    military in the democratic process. 14. Heper, State Tradition, 45. 15. Andrew Mango , "The State of Turkey," Middle Eastern Studies, 13 (1977), 265...introducing free-market economics, privatization, export -promotion, a fully convertible currency, and a development philosophy of "build, operate, transfer Ŗ...to Ozal for the major export market it represented, s and he shared with the Turkish elite the symbolic importance of joining the premier politico

  13. Marriage Premium in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Murat A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. Our first contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey. Our results suggest that married men earn 27 percent more than single men and married women earn 4 percent less than single women. Our second contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey’s regions. For men, the wage difference is the smallest, 0.43, in Istanbul. The difference is highest in Akdeniz region. For women, the wage difference is smallest, -0....

  14. Turkey and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardim, G.

    1992-01-01

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Complex local Moho topography in the Western Carpathians: Indication of the ALCAPA and the European Plate contact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Środa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 638, 7 January (2015), s. 63-81 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08971S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Western Carpathians * seismic modelling * crustal structure * anomalous Moho * Bohemian Massif * Pannonian Basin Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.650, year: 2015

  16. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  17. DEFORESTATION ALONG THE MAYA MOUNTAIN MASSIF BELIZE-GUATEMALA BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Chicas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize’s Maya Mountain Massif (MMM have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize’s protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were −1.04% and −6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  18. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO 2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  19. Electricity restructuring in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezkyvrak, Oezlem

    2005-01-01

    Turkey implemented the electricity sector reform by which the Electricity Market Law no. 4628 passed in February 2001. Recently, all segments of the Turkish electricity sector are dominated by a vertically integrated, public-owned monopoly - Tuerkiye Elektrik Kurumu - the Turkish electricity institution. The Turkish electricity reform involves vertical deintegration of generation, transmission and distribution, introduction of competition into generation and retail sale, establishment of an independent regulatory authority and privatization of public generation and distribution entities. This article provides an overview of the Turkish electricity sector reform and defines some problems that may affect the reform success

  20. Nuclear Medicine in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical specialty that uses radionuclides for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and it is one of the most important peaceful applications of nuclear sciences. Nuclear Medicine has a short history both in Turkey and in the world. The first use of I-131 for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis in Turkey was in 1958 at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. In 1962, Radiobiological Institute in Ankara University Medical School was established equipped with well-type counters, radiometers, scalers, external counters and a rectilinear scanner. In 1965, multi-probe external detection systems, color dot scanners and in 1967, anger scintillation camera had arrived. In 1962, wet lab procedures and organ scanning, in 1965 color dot scanning, dynamic studies (blood flow - renograms) and in 1967 analogue scintillation camera and dynamic camera studies have started. In 1974, nuclear medicine was established as independent medical specialty. Nuclear medicine departments have started to get established in 1978. In 1974, The Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine (TSNM) was established with 10 members. The first president of TSNM was Prof. Dr. Yavuz Renda. Now, in the year 2000, TSNM has 349 members. Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine is a member of European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) and WFNMB Asia-Oceania. Since 1974, TSNM has organized 13 national Nuclear Medicine congresses, 4 international Nuclear Oncology congresses and 13 nuclear medicine symposiums. In 1-5 October 2000, 'The VII th Asia and Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology' was held in Istanbul, Turkey. Since 1992, Turkish Journal of Nuclear Medicine is published quarterly and it is the official publication of TSNM. There are a total of 112 Nuclear Medicine centers in Turkey. There are 146 gamma cameras. (52 Siemens, 35 GE, 16 Elscint, 14 Toshiba, 10 Sopha, 12 MIE, 8 Philips, 9 Others) Two cyclotrons are

  1. Local Seismicity of the Rainbow Massif on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, G.; Sohn, R. A.; Canales, J. P.; Dunn, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Rainbow massif, an oceanic core complex located in a nontransform discontinuity on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36°N), is notable for hosting high-temperature hydrothermal discharge through ultramafic rocks. Here we report results from a 9 month microearthquake survey conducted with a network of 13 ocean bottom seismometers deployed on and around the Rainbow massif as part of the MARINER experiment in 2013-2014. High rates ( 300 per day) of low-magnitude (average ML 0.5) microearthquakes were detected beneath the massif. The hypocenters do not cluster along deeply penetrating fault surfaces and do not exhibit mainshock/aftershock sequences, supporting the hypothesis that the faulting associated with the exhumation of the massif is currently inactive. Instead, the hypocenters demarcate a diffuse zone of continuous, low-magnitude deformation at relatively shallow (serpentinized ultramafic host rock, and although the seismic network we deployed was not capable of constraining the focal mechanism of most events, our analysis suggests that serpentinization may play an important role in microearthquake generation at the Rainbow massif.

  2. The Kurdistan Workers Party and a New Left in Turkey: Analysis of the revolutionary movement in Turkey through the PKK’s memorial text on Haki Karer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, J.P.; Akkaya, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the banners the left had been marching behind in the 1970s was that of a ‘Fully Independent Turkey!’ – and yet, while these radical voices evaluated Turkey’s status as that of a semi-colony (of Western capitalist imperialism), it had turned a blind eye to Turkey’s own role as itself a

  3. İkinci Dünya Savaşı Sonrasında Sovyet Tehdidi Karşısında Kalan Türkiye'nin Batı İle İşbirliği Yapma Süreci After the Second World War Against the Soviet Threat in Western Turkey to Cooperate With the Remaining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman YALÇIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Second World War began on the ashes of First World War.Unresolved problems were the main reason that caused The SecondWorld War. Turkey did not bow to pressures and started a new period oftime giving a National Combat. However, Second World War causedimportant problems for Turkey too. Import and export rates decreased.As soon as Second World War was over, although both sides laidtheir arms, Turkey had to keep 1.700.000 armed soldiers. Economicalproblems and being threatened by Soviets were quite important problemareas. In this situation, Turkey tried to find different ways to improve itsrelations with Western countries. American aid was received to meet therequirements of Turkish Army. American aid is known as TrumanDoctrine and Marshal Aid. Turkey which was included into this aid wassupported in this extent. As a result of this support, weapon systems were bought very cheap. After a while, substitute parts of those weapon systems created important cost.Turkey, took pain over being active member of international organizations, too. Being a member of United Nations, Turkey sent troops Korean War and attended the war there. Turkish army showed great bravery. After this success and determination, Turkey strengthened its position in international area being a NATO member. As a result of this situation, Turkey both took itself secure position against Soviet threat and has become a country which gives important support to peace since 1950s. Latest examples of this are Bosnian War, Kosovo Expedition and Afghanistan Expedition. İkinci Dünya Savaşı, Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın külleri üzerinde başlamıştır. Çözümsüz kalan uluslar arası sorunlar bu savaşın en önemli nedeni olmuştur. Türkiye Batılı devletlerin dayatmalarına boyun eğmemiş ve Milli Mücadele vererek yeni bir dönem başlatmıştır. Ne var ki, 2. Dünya Savaşı Türkiye için de önemli sorunlara neden olmuştur. Savaş yıllarında ithalat ve ihracat miktarı d

  4. Turkey's natural gas necessity, consumption and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, A.M. [Mining Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Cukurova University, 01330 Balcali, Adana (Turkey)]. E-mail: kilicm@cu.edu.tr

    2006-09-15

    Turkey is an important candidate to be the 'energy corridor' in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Furthermore, Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy consumption. Naturally, Turkish natural gas usage is projected to increase remarkably in coming years, with the prime consumers, expected to be industry and power plants. Energy demand of Turkey is growing by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. In addition, natural gas consumption is the fastest growing primary energy source in Turkey. Gas sales started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters), in 1987 and reached approximately 22 bcm in 2003. This article deals with energy policies and natural gas consumption of Turkey. Besides modernization of present lines and realization of capacity increase, new lines will also be needed. In this context, Turkey, due to its geographical location is, in an important position to vary European supply. Therefore, Turkey's role as a transitory area gains importance.

  5. Cystic echinococcosis in Central Alaninate, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazar, Suleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Sahin, Izzet; Cetinkaya, F.

    2006-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by infection with a larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a serious public health problem in Turkey. Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease; dogs and livestock are important hosts in transmission. The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate of CE in Kayseri Rural Area, Central Anatolia, Turkey. At the present study, we planned to evaluate the rate of CE in Kayseri rural area in Central Anatolia between 2000 and 2002. We investigated 2,242 subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA), and we examined the seropositivity by using Western blotting (WB). The seropositivity rate was 2.7% by ELISA and IFA. We retested seropositive serum samples and 200 seronegative sera by WB. Seropositive serum samples were studied using abdominal ultrasound and chest x-ray to confirmed the presence of hydatid cyst and we found 10 (0.5%) different localized cysts. The results of our study indicate that Kayseri rural area has a high endemicity of human CE. (author)

  6. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger, Last.fm, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  7. The Alto Moxoto Terrain in Eastern Paraiba ('Caldas Brandao Massif')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Benjamim Bley de Brito; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; Souza, Solange Lucena de; Schmus, William Randall Van; Fernandes, Tania Maria Gomes

    2001-01-01

    The Alto Moxoto Terrane (TAM), at the east of Paraiba State is mostly composed of sheared ortho gneisses, porphyritic granodioritic gneisses and it bears an imbricated sheet of Al-rich (garnet-biotite-sillimanite) gneisses, deeply affected by migmatization phenomena. This litho-structural assemblage is drawing a regional asymmetric anti formal structure, with its axial zone running parallel to the B R-230 highway (E-W trending). It is limited in both, north (Alto Pajeu terrane) and south (Rio Capibaribe terrane) sides by important shear zones, which are feather faults connected with the development of the Pernambuco lineament, to the southwest. The adopted designation of 'terrane' is based upon its singular geological features, in terms of lithological and structural characteristics, Paleoproterozoic in age and sharp limits with the different confining terranes. TAM is here considered as a mega-fragment of the Atlantica Super continent, that was built up by the Paleoproterozoic Collage ('Transamazonian') and that was preserved in the framework of West Gondwana (Brasiliano/Pan African Collage) as a 'terrane'. This terrane shows conspicuous continuity to the far interior of the province, to the southwestern part of Pernambuco State, and so doing, it demonstrates that the former designation of 'Caldas Brandao Massif must be ruled out, as obsolete for many reasons. Geochronological determinations using Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and U-Pb methods confirm the Paleoproterozoic age of this terrane, with the presence of some Archean protoliths as well as the various degrees of structural reworking and isotopic reseting promoted by the Brasiliano Cycle. This cycle was responsible for some intrusive granites, for most of the general geological features, like usual informal limits and even the present shape of the TAM, a typical reworked 'basement inlier'. (author)

  8. Geochemical aspects of alkaline massif of Banhadao, PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C.B.; Dutra, C.V.

    1987-01-01

    The alkaline massif of Banhadao, located near Cerro Azul, State of Parana, southern Brazil, occupies an area of about 8 Km 2 and is constituted by three magnetic associations: a group of mesocratic to leucocratic coarse nepheline syenites (NeS) (melanite NeS, NeS I, and light reddish and grey varieties of NeS II); a second group of medium to fine-grained ultrabasic to basic rocks (phlogopite melteigites and petrologically related malignites and feldspar-melanite ijolites); and a group of fine-grained to aphanitic phonolotic dikes, cutting NeS. The rocks of the complex are miaskitic, showing low concentrations of trace elements (V, Th and mainly REE), lack of rare metal silicates, and relative abundance of apatite and sphene. NeS are distinguished by a differentiation trend in which highly differentiated end members are enriched in alkalis and Al 2 O 3 , with decrease in MgO, FeO (total), CaO and TiO 2 . The less differentiated melanite-rich rocks show higher concentrations in Zr, Nb, Y and V. Phlogopite melteigites and associated rocks show the highest contents of MgO, FeO (total), CaO and TiO 2 , and the lowest concentration of alkalis and Al 2 O 3 ; they are significantly enriched in Ba and are the only rocks with detectable amounts of Ni, Cu and Cr. The phonolites are chemically similar to NeS. The Banhadao rocks were probably formed during successive intrusions of two different magmas types. The source of NeS and phonolites was probably a nephelinitic magma, while phlogopite melteigites and related rocks were probably derived from an alkali-enriched ferromagnesian magna. Both parent magmas probably derived by melting of rocks of the lower crust or upper mantle. (author) [pt

  9. The rockfall observatory in the Reintal, Wetterstein Massif, German Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpa, Anne; Turowski, Jens M.; Hovius, Niels

    2017-04-01

    The Reintal is an Alpine valley in the Wetterstein Massif close to the Zugspitze, Germany's highest mountain. Due to the variety of active geomorphic processes, including rockfalls off the steep limestone cliffs, debris flows, and snow avalanches, and the river Partnach, the Reintal has been the field area of many geomorphological and hydrological research campaigns over the last few decades. In 2014, the Geomorphology Section of the GFZ Potsdam started to install a monitoring network to detect and classify rockfalls in the Reintal. The network includes six seismic stations, optical and infrared cameras, and two weather stations measuring air and rock temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation. The continuous observations of the network are supplemented by repeated field campaigns including terrestrial laser scans of a prominent rockfall niche at the Hochwanner mountain. The about 1,500 m high north face of the Hochwanner experienced the detachment of a 2.8 Mio m3 rockfall about 500 years ago that created the so-called Steingerümpel (German for rock debris deposit) and dammed the river Partnach. The cliff still shows high rockfall activity, and an 80,000 m3 block can be expected to fall in the near future. In this contribution, the layout of the observatory and details of the seismic network centered around the Hochwanner north face are described. Furthermore, the network data of a severe thunderstorm event in June 2016, that triggered many rockfalls and debris flows in the Reintal, is presented.

  10. Petrology, geochemistry and source characteristics of the Burpala alkaline massif, North Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vladykin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Burpala alkaline massif contains rocks with more than 50 minerals rich in Zr, Nb, Ti, Th, Be and rare earth elements (REE. The rocks vary in composition from shonkinite, melanocratic syenite, nepheline and alkali syenites to alaskite and alkali granite and contain up to 10% LILE and HSFE, 3.6% of REE and varying amounts of other trace elements (4% Zr, 0.5% Y, 0.5% Nb, 0.5% Th and 0.1% U. Geological and geochemical data suggest that all the rocks in the Burpala massif were derived from alkaline magma enriched in rare earth elements. The extreme products of magma fractionation are REE rich pegmatites, apatite–fluorite bearing rocks and carbonatites. The Sr and Nd isotope data suggest that the source of primary melt is enriched mantle (EM-II. We correlate the massif to mantle plume impact on the active margin of the Siberian continent.

  11. First data on Sm-Nd systematization of Khanka Massif metamorphic rocks, Primor'e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, M.A.; Khanchuk, A.I.; Zhuravlev, D.Z.; Lavrik, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The age of the metamorphic rocks of the Khanka massif, Primor'e, is determined through the method of the Sm-Nd isotopic dating. The results of the isotopic studies on the amphibolites of the Nakhimov suite of the Khanka massif indicated that the rocks of this suite are not older than 1.7 billion years. The obtained age corresponds to the time of the amphibolite protolith formation, the source whereof is the moderately depleted mantle. The isotopic age of the amphibole and plagioclase mineral fractions constitutes 733 ± 25 mln years, which reflects the time of the Nakhimov suite rocks metamorphism [ru

  12. Uranium and thorium in rocks and minerals of Zaangarsk alkaline massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmodin, S.M.; Gofman, A.M.; Ksenzova, V.I.; Malmova, Z.V.; Nemirovskaya, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    U and Th distribution in rocks of the massif of alkaline-granitoid formation is studied using the methods of γ-spectrometry and neutron- fragment radiography. Predominant accumulation of U and Th in final products of magmatic differentiation - foyaites - is established. U and Th concentrations increased sharply during postmagmatic stage of alkaline massif formation - in permatites and metasomatically alterated rocks (Th/U and U/K ratios can serve as criteria for identification of such formations). The increase of U part, connected with accessory minerals in pegmatites and metasomatically alterated rocks, is pointed out. For U in postmagmatically alterated rocks high concentrations due to microcracks are characteristic [ru

  13. Sm-Nd dating of the Verkhneundytkansky massif of autonomous anorthosites (Aldanian Shield)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, M.K.; Lennikov, A.M.; Zhuravlev, D.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Geochronological investigation of four typical rocks of the Verkhneundyransky anorthosite massif as well as rock-forming minerals of one of the samples is carried out by the method of Sm-Nd dating. Model ayes of the investigated rocks which were calculated with respect to the depleted mantle, constitute 2.22-2.35 bullion ylars which well agrees with the isochronous age. The experimental points fall well on the regression line which attests that the crystallization of the investigated massif proceeded rather fast and the latter could not assimilate the crustal matter to a considerable extent

  14. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  15. Gender interaction in coed physical education: a study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Canan

    2009-01-01

    Although there has been a long-standing debate about whether a single-sex or mixed-sex environment is better for students in many Western countries, coeducation is one of the taken-for-granted issues in the modern Turkish education system. This study examined commonly expressed concerns about gender equity in a mixed-sex environment within the context of physical education (PE) in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to examine teacher-student interaction in the coed PE classroom, focusing on gender-stereotyped beliefs. Participants consisted of two PE teachers and 37 eighth-grade students from a private school situated in suburban Ankara Turkey. The modified observational instrument with the combination of Teacher-Student Interaction (TSI) and Interactions for Sex Equity in Classroom Teaching Observation System (INTERSECT) was used to assess teacher-student interaction in the classroom. In order to understand students' and teachers' gender-stereotyped beliefs, individual interviews were also conducted. The findings of this study indicated that both male and female PE teachers interact more frequently with boys, and this interaction was influenced by gender-stereotyped beliefs of both teachers and students. In sum, similar to many other western countries, the movement toward coeducation in Turkey has not automatically brought equal opportunities for girls or boys in PE.

  16. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  17. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  18. FINANCIAL CRISES AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERT URAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.

  19. The influence of tectonical structures on the stability rock massif in the area of the magnesite deposit Jelšava of the Dúbrava massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesite deposits Dúbrava and Miková are located in Carboniferous formations between Brádno and Ochtiná (Dúbrava massif. Carboniferous magnesites are, according to the lithostratigraphic division of Early Paleozoic complexes of Gemericum by Bajaník et al. (1983, situated in the Dobšiná Group, more precisely in the upper part of the Ochtiná Formation, in the environment of black schists with intercalation of metabasalts and their pyroclastics. In the lower parts of the formation are small-pebble conglomerates and polymict sandstones. Carbonatic bodies of the Dúbrava massif has the directional length, 4 500 m, course NE-SW, inclination 55-60o to SE and maximal thickness 600 m. A calculation in 1967 indicated above 500 millions kt of reserves whish after a modification of conditional parameters was reduced to its three fifths. Reserves excluded during the second calculation had a higher content of Fe2O3 causing the lowering of fireproof products quality.In the text the structural and stability conditions in the area of the Dúbrava deposit and the Miková deposit of the Dúbrava massif are analysed.

  20. Recommendations for Improving The Quality of Masters and Doctorate Education in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Zekai ŞEN

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, while academic staff is assessed quantitively, assessment on quality takes place only about students.evaluations are always applied mechanically through western standards without considering our cultural qualities. In this process, the staff member quality standards of Western countries stay outside theTurkish boundarie. Therefore, with every attempt to increase the quality of higher education, students' and research asisstants' quality is improved but the aimed quality is never re...

  1. Preparing Novice Principals in Australia and Turkey: How Similar Are Their Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Clarke, Simon; Styles, Irene; Beycioglu, Kadir

    2010-01-01

    Part of a 13-nation, cross-cultural study of the extent to which principals perceive their pre-appointment experiences had prepared them for the job, the International Study of Principal Preparation (ISPP), this paper compares the responses of novice principals in Turkey and Western Australia. Using a survey based on data from case studies of…

  2. Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Alper; Tayfur, Gokmen

    2011-12-01

    The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described. Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal fluid(s). The major sources of anthropogenic groundwater contamination are agricultural activities, mining waste, industrial waste, on-site septic tank systems, and pollution from imperfect well constructions. The analysis results revealed that natural contamination due to salt and gypsum are mostly found in Central and Mediterranean regions and arsenic in Aegean region. Geothermal fluids which contain fluoride poses a danger for skeleton, dental, and bone problems, especially in the areas of Denizli, Isparta, and Aydın. Discharges from surface water bodies contaminate groundwater by infiltration. Evidence of such contamination is found in Upper Kızılırmak basin, Gediz basin, and Büyük Melen river basin and some drinking water reservoirs in İstanbul. Additionally, seawater intrusion causes groundwater quality problems in coastal regions, especially in the Aegean coast. Industrial wastes are also polluting surface and groundwater in industrialized regions of Turkey. Deterioration of water quality as a result of fertilizers and pesticides is another major problem especially in the regions of Mediterranean, Aegean, Central Anatolia, and Marmara. Abandoned mercury mines in the western regions of Turkey, especially in Çanakkale, İzmir, Muğla, Kütahya, and Balıkesir, cause serious groundwater quality problems.

  3. Environmental characterization of lake ecosystems located in Serbo Macedonian massif (FYRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenec, Tadej; Serafimovski, Todor; Lojen, Sonja; Dolenec, Matej; Tasev, Goran; Kramar, Sabina; Rogan Šmuc, Nastja; Vrhovnik, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of recent lacustrine sediments, of Anodonta cygnea shells and of fish species Rutilus rutilus dojranensis from the Lake Dojran (FY Republic of Macedonia, southern part of the Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM)), which provide indirect evidence regarding biomineralization and calcification processes as well as various geological problems. Environmental pollution can seriously impair physiological functions such as the secre...

  4. The Massification of Higher Education in the UK: Aspects of Service Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Mihalis; Bullivant, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    This article explores several aspects of service quality for the provision of higher education. Alongside the trend of the massification of higher education over the past two decades, higher education institutions are required to review quality across a range of outputs, besides teaching and learning. The study was undertaken within the…

  5. N-S crustal shear system in the Bundelkhand massif: a unique ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    In the light of our detailed geological studies of the massif (Singh and Bhattacharya,. 2010 .... relations with, and displace, the earlier shear systems, i.e. BS1, BS2 and BS3 (Fig. 3D), (3) ..... and shear zone patterns: The South Indian case. Jour.

  6. Massification and Diversity of Higher Education Systems: Interplay of Complex Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah; Sebkova, Helena; Teichler, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a synthetic overview of the complex dimensions that shape the interrelations between the massification of higher education systems and their structure and composition. Many higher education systems worldwide expanded extensively in the last decades, and have undergone wide and deep structural changes. Most notably, the…

  7. Massification and Diversification as Complementary Strategies for Economic Growth in Developed and Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndorf, Darryl; Glass, Chris R.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous microeconomic studies demonstrate the significant individual returns to tertiary education; however, little empirical evidence exists regarding the effects of higher education massification and diversification agendas on long-term macroeconomic growth. The researchers used the Uzawa-Lucas endogenous growth model to tertiary education…

  8. Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks of the Intra-Sudetic Basin, Bohemian Massif: Petrological and geochemical characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Fediuk, F.; Lang, Miloš; Martinec, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2004), s. 127-153 ISSN 0009-2819 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013903 Keywords : Late Paleozoic * volcanic rocks * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2004

  9. Geophysical research results of buried relief and distribution groundwater runoff of the Aragats massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Vardanyan

    2017-03-01

    Overall, the new data concerning the structure of the buried relief of Aragats massif and the distribution of its underground runoff allow to develop effective measures for the selection of underground waters and their rational usage for the purpose of water supply and irrigation.

  10. Significance of geological units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as seen by ambient noise interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, L.; Gallovič, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 173, č. 5 (2016), s. 1663-1682 ISSN 0033-4553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2336; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : ambient noise * geological units * Bohemian Massif * velocity model Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  11. Permian fauna of the Krkonoše Piedmont Basin (Bohemian Massif, Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 70, 3/4 (2014), s. 131-142 ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : faunal lists * palaeogeography * palaeoenvironment * stratigraphy * Early Permian * Krkonoše Piedmont Basin * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene melilitic volcanic rocks of the Bohemian Massif: Petrology and mineral chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skála, Roman; Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Fediuk, F.; Balogh, K.; Hegner, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2015), s. 197-216 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Cenozoic volcanism * isotope geochemistry * melilitic rock * mineralogy * petrology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2015

  13. Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks with carbonatite affinity in the Bohemian Massif: Their sources and magma generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Štěpánková-Svobodová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, 1/2 (2014), s. 45-58 ISSN 0369-2086 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300130902 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : alkaline volcanic rocks * melilitic rocks * carbonatites * magma generation * metasomatism * Cenozoic * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Assessment of flora condition and transformation extent at the Degelen mountain massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Sejsebaev, A.T.; Sultanova, B.M.; Dzhanin, B.T.

    2000-01-01

    The article describes current condition of vegetation at the Degelen mountain massif and assessment of vegetation disturbance in areas of underground nuclear testing. It also presents results of studying flora transformation, species and cinotic composition, structural and spatial distribution within the Degelen technical site. (author)

  15. TOURISTIC POTENTIAL, MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE RARĂU MASSIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu OPREA-GANCEVICI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As a socio-economic activity, tourism is strongly influenced by numerous factors that determine the size and direction of tourist flows. Mountain tourism is no exception; the mountainous land relief, which generates this type of tourism, possesses a large array of factors which, by definition, represent true attractions for tourists (morphometric elements, types and landforms, oxygen-rich air, specific flora and fauna, but also several factors that may inhibit tourist activity proper (development capacity, climate, natural phenomena hazards.In particular, with reference to the Rarău Massif, we shall emphasize its tourist potential, especially the geomorphologic one, but we shall also highlight the evolution and the present state of infrastructure (accommodation facilities, tourist paths. The cartographic analysis and representation were obtained using dedicated software, generically called Geographic Informatics Systems (GIS, and a social research method as well – the questionnaire. As such, our research features several maps that highlight the differentiated land relief potential as well as the potential resulted from the application of questionnaires, thus bringing into the foreground the areas with maximal morphologic attractiveness and implicitly potential for tourist activity. In order to make the most of the entire massif and to diversify tourist routes we propose new itineraries with a view to covering the entire area more effectively and offering new exploration variants for the massif. The applied questionnaire proves the connection between the tourist potential of land relief and tourists’ perceptions of the tourist sights in the Rarău Massif.

  16. Modeling the uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif: Mechanical weakening under the Eifel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Balen, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Middle Pleistocene uplift in the Eifel has been interpreted as the isostatic response of the lithosphere to a deep buoyant hot body. The spatial and temporal distribution of the uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif Region has recently been constrained by new data of river incision that have been

  17. The Alleret Maar lacustrine sequence (French Massif Central): a 150 ka long early-middle Pleistocene continental paleoenvironmental record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, S.; Pastre, J.; Guillou, H.; Gauthier, A.; Scaillet, S.

    2008-12-01

    Lacustrine maar sequences of the French Massif Central are of great interest for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstructions of mid-latitudes Quaternary continental environments. In particular, the western Velay region yields exceptional sequences spanning the last 450 ka (Reille et al., J. Quat. Sci. 2000). However, older sequences remain largely unknown despite the presence of interbedded alkaline tephras allowing precise absolute radiochronological control of many lacustrine squences. The Alleret maar is a 1500 m wide phreatomagmatic crater that provides a long lacustrine sequence (41 m). The upper part of this sequence (AL2 core, 14.6 m) was studied between 2005 and 2006 (Pastre et al., C. R. Acad Sci, 2007). A 39Ar/40Ar date (557 ± 5ka) obtained from an interbedded tephra layer located at 7m as well as the associated pollen data attribute the beginning of this sequence to the MIS 15. Thanks to the AL3 core recovered in 2005 (40.6 m, CNRS Meudon) several new tephra layers were discovered in the bottom part of this lacustrine sequence. Three new 39Ar/40Ar ages (single crystal analyses) from trachytic tephra layers were obtained at the LSCE Argon Laboratory (France). These layers are located at -30.2, -36.2 and -39.2m. Ages obtained relative to the ACR-2 flux standard (1,201Ma, Kuiper et al., Science, 2008) range from 692 ± 6 ka (MSWD: 2.3, n=18) for the youngest (-30.2m) to 726 ± 9Ka Ka (MSWD: 2.2, n=12) for the lowest tephra located at -39.2m. These new dates indicate a relatively homogeneous deposition rate of 3.5cm/ka and that the last 10 meters cover the MIS 17-MIS18 period. According to these current radiochronological data the complete lacustrine sequence last more than 150ka. Ongoing sedimentary and pollen studies will allow to extend the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic records of the French Massif Central towards the beginning of the early middle Pleistocene.

  18. New Paleomagnetic Data From Upper Gabbros Supports Limited Rotation of Central Semail Massif in Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Sarah, T.; Hartley, E.; Martin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Paleomagnetic data from northern massifs of the Oman ophiolite demonstrate substantial clockwise rotations prior to or during obduction, yet data from southern massifs are recently suggested to be remagnetized during obduction and show subsequent smaller counterclockwise rotations. To better understand paleomagnetic data from the southern massifs, we conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of 21 sites in upper gabbros and 5 sites in lower crustal gabbros within the central Semail massif. Samples treated with progressive thermal demagnetization yield interpretable magnetizations with dominant unblocking between 500-580°C that implies characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components carried by low-titanium magnetite and nearly pure magnetite. Rock magnetic and scanning electron microscopy data provide additional support of the carriers of magnetization. ChRMs from sites with samples containing partially-serpentinized olivine are similar to sites with samples lacking olivine, where the carriers appear to be fine magnetite intergrowths in pyroxene. The overall in situ and tilt-corrected mean directions from upper gabbros are distinct from the lower gabbros, from previous data within the massif, and also directions from similar crustal units in adjacent Rustaq and Wadi Tayin massifs. After tilt correction for 10-15° SE dip of the crust-mantle boundary, the mean direction from upper gabbros is nearly coincident with in situ lower gabbros. The tilt-corrected direction from upper gabbros is also consistent with an expected direction from the Late Cretaceous apparent polar wander path for Arabia at the age of crustal accretion ( 95Ma). These results suggest the upper crustal section in Semail has likely only experienced minor tilting since formation and acquisition of magnetization. Due to slow cooling of middle to lower gabbros in fast-spread crust, the lower gabbro sites likely cooled later or after obduction, and thus yield a distinct

  19. Bottom to top lithosphere structure and evolution of western Eger Rift (Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Fiala, Jiří; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2010), s. 891-907 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : western Bohemian Massif * Eger (Ohře) Rift * lithosphere structure and development * mantle seismic anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.980, year: 2010

  20. Neo-Ottomanism" in the Regional Policy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnur Tadzhaddinovich Mehdiyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the ideology of Turkey's foreign policy. The term "neo-Ottomanism" is increasingly used in recent years in relation to the Turkish foreign policy. The concept of neo-Ottomanism, which ideology is the Prime Minister Davutoglu, implies a relationship of foreign policy of modern Turkey with the historical heritage of the Ottomans and its focus on return "last Ottoman", taking into account today's realities. The author examines this phenomenon in the context of the regional policy of Turkey in this period. The main directions of the strategy of neo are the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Crimea, and the Balkans. Particular attention is paid to manifestations of neo-Ottomanism in the post-Soviet region and the Middle East, as well as "soft power" strategy in the Turkish neo-Ottomanism. Activities of Ankara in the regions belonging to the sphere of its geopolitical interests is carried out on political, economic, religious, cultural and educational levels. Rapprochement with the political and business circles of influence of countries in the region is aimed at the formation of pro-Turkish lobby. "Arab Spring" has given Turkey a historic opportunity to realize its neo-Ottoman ambitions and create a new order in the Middle East. Turkey's rapprochement with the Islamic world during the 'Arab Spring' demonstrated that Ankara supported in conjunction with the Western nations protest and opposition movements in Egypt, Libya and Tunisia, aims to demonstrate to the West the growth of its influence in the region. Mediation is used in regional conflicts Turkish leadership as an instrument of "soft power", with which Ankara aims to increase its international and regional credibility. The result of "neo-Ottoman" Turkey's policy in relations with Russia became a serious crisis in all spheres of cooperation. Strategic mistakes made by the head of the republic R. Erdogan in the settlement of the Syrian crisis, may

  1. Unraveling the Quaternary river incision in the Moselle valley (Rhenish Massif, Germany): new insights from cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/26Al) of the Main Terrace complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Cordier, Stéphane; Harmand, Dominique; May, Simon Matthias; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Dunai, Tibor; Binnie, Steven; Brückner, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Throughout the whole river network of the Rhenish Massif, the terrace complex of the so-called Main Terrace forms the morphological transition between a wide upper palaeovalley (plateau valley) and a deeply incised lower valley. The youngest level of this Main Terrace complex (YMT), directly located at the edge of the incised valley, represents a dominant geomorphic feature in the terrace flight; it is often used as a reference level to identify the start of the main middle Pleistocene incision episode (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The latter probably reflects the major tectonic pulse that affected the whole Massif and was related to an acceleration of the uplift rates (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). The Main terraces are particularly well preserved in the lower Moselle valley and are characterized by a constant absolute elevation of their base along a 150 km-long reach. Despite that various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this horizontality (updoming, faulting...), all studies assumed an age of ca. 800 ka for the YMT, mainly based on the questionable extrapolation of palaeomagnetic data obtained in the Rhine valley. Therefore, a reliable chronological framework is still required to unravel the spatio-temporal characteristics of the Pleistocene evolution of the Moselle valley. In this study, we apply cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be/26Al) to fluvial sediments pertaining to the Main Terrace complex or to the upper Middle Terraces. Several sites along the lower Moselle were sampled following two distinct sampling strategies: (i) depth profiles where the original terrace (palaeo-)surface is well preserved and did not experience much postdepositional burial (e.g., loess cover); and (ii) the isochron technique where the sediment thickness exceeds 3 m. Cosmogenic nuclide ages recently obtained for three rivers in the Meuse catchment in the western Rhenish Massif demonstrated that the Main Terraces were younger than expected and their abandonment was diachronic along the

  2. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  3. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  4. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Meryem

    2004-10-01

    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.

  5. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  6. Geophysical investigations of the Seferihisar geothermal area, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drahor, Mahmut G.; Berge, Meric A. [Dokuz Eyluel University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geophysics, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Buca-Izmir (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Self-potential (SP), magnetic and very low frequency electromagnetic (EM-VLF) surveys were carried out in the Seferihisar geothermal area to identify major and minor fault zones and characterize the geothermal system. The SP study provided useful information on the local faults and subsurface fluid flow. The main SP anomalies appear mostly along and near active fault zones in the area of the Cumali, Tuzla and Doganbey hot springs. Two of these anomalies near the Tuzla hot springs were further evaluated by SP modelling. Total magnetic field values increase from the Doganbey to the Cumali hot springs. Modelling performed on the magnetic data indicates that between these two spring areas are four different regions or units that can be distinguished on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility values. Fraser filtering of EM-VLF data also indicates that there are three significant conductive zones in the regions around the Cumali, Tuzla and Doganbey hot springs, and that they lie between important fault systems. The EM-VLF and total (stacked) SP data show that the conductive tilt anomalies obtained by Fraser filtering generally coincide with negative SP areas. According to our geophysical investigations, new exploratory wells should be drilled into the conductive zones located between the Cumali and Tuzla hot springs. We further recommend that resistivity and magnetotelluric methods be carried out in the area to obtain additional information on the Seferihisar geothermal system. (author)

  7. Analyzing Turkey's data from TIMSS 2007 to investigate regional disparities in eighth grade science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erberber, Ebru

    Turkey is expected to be a full member of the European Union (EU) by 2013. In the course of its integration into the EU, Turkey has been simultaneously facing access, quality, and equity issues in education. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made on increasing the access. However, improving the country's low level of education quality and achieving equity in quality education across the regions continue to be a monumental challenge in Turkey. Most recently, results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 indicated that Turkey's educational achievement at the eighth grade, the end of compulsory primary education in Turkey, was far below that of other countries in the EU. Considering Turkey's long standing socioeconomic disparities between the western and eastern parts of the country, the challenges of improving overall education quality are coupled with the challenges of achieving equity in learning outcomes for students across the regions. This dissertation used data from TIMSS 2007 to document the extent of Turkey's regional differences in science achievement at the eighth grade and to investigate factors associated with these differences. Findings from a series of analyses using hierarchical linear models suggested that attempts to increase Turkish students' achievement and close the achievement gaps between regions should target the students in the undeveloped regions, particularly in Southeastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia. Designing interventions to improve competency in Turkish and to compensate for the shortcomings of insufficient parental education, limited home educational resources, poor school climate for academic achievement, and inadequate instructional equipment and facilities might be expected to close the regional achievement gaps as well as raise the overall achievement level in Turkey.

  8. Research of dynamical Characteristics of slow deformation Waves as Massif Responses on Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The research of massif state with use of approaches of open system theory [1-3] was developed for investigation the criterions of dissipation regimes for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. For realization of that research we used the data of seismic catalogue of Tashtagol mine. As a result of the analyze of that data we defined character morphology of phase trajectories of massif response, which was locally in time in a stable state: on the phase plane with coordinates released by the massif during the dynamic event energy E and lg(dE/dt) there is a local area as a ball of twisted trajectories and some not great bursts from that ball, which are not greater than 105 joules. In some time intervals that burst can be larger, than 105 joules, achieving 106 joules and yet 109 joules. [3]. Evidently there are two reciprocal depend processes: the energy accumulation in the attracted phase trajectories area and resonance fault of the accumulated energy. But after the fault the system returns again to the same attracted phase trajectories area. For analyzing of the thin structure of the chaotic area we decided to add the method of processing of the seismic monitoring data by new parameters. We shall consider each point of explosion as a source of seismic or deformation waves. Using the kinematic approach of seismic information processing we shall each point of the massif response use as a time point of the first arrival of the deformation wave for calculation of the wave velocity, because additionally we know the coordinates of the fixed response and the coordinates of explosion. The use of additional parameter-velocity of slow deformation wave propagation allowed us with use method of phase diagrams identify their hierarchic structure, which allow us to use that information for modeling and interpretation the propagation seismic and deformation waves in hierarchic structures. It is researched with use of that suggested processing method the thin

  9. PARASITIC MITES IN BACKYARD TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â

  10. U-Pb geochronology by La-CIP-MS and petrography of Sao Carlos massif - stanniferous province of Rondonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debowski, Beatriz P.; Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Nogueira, Camila; Almeida, Bruna Saar de

    2015-01-01

    U-Pb dating by ICP-MS-LA were performed in four samples of the Massif Sao Carlos massif, representative of the younger Granites of Rondonia belonging to the stanniferous province of the same State. Dated samples are granites of pink in colour and coarse-grained to porphyry with main mineralogy consisting of feldspar pertitic to mesopertitic, quartz, plagioclase in lower proportion, biotite and amphibole in some cases. Ages obtained were 986 ± 14 Ma, 974 ± 10 Ma, ± 8 Ma 992.7 and 996 ± 8 Ma and represent the age of crystallization of the Massif. Such ages are concordant with others reported on the bibliography ratifying the inclusion of the massif in the younger Granites of Rondonia, which are directly associated with the most significant mineralization of cassiterite in the State

  11. Problems of geologic survey of high level radioactive waste repositories illustrated on the testing site in the Melechov Massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlcoch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Major attention is paid to problems associated with the geologic maps of the prospective repository site, which lies within the Bohemian Massif. Structural geology, survey through boreholes, and primary database are also discussed briefly. (P.A.)

  12. Migration and self-esteem: a qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2009-01-01

    This article examining the impact of migration experience on self-esteem of girls enrolled at primary schools in Turkey. It is based on a broader study that explored educational and coping strategies of internal migrant girls living in a suburban town in the western part of Turkey. The study showed that students encountered a variety of challenges in their new school environment including adaptation, language, low socioeconomic background, peer relations, discrimination, and bullying. These challenges seemed to have a direct or indirect influence on the educational experiences of migrant girls, undermining their self-esteem in multiple and complex ways.

  13. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  14. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2014-01-01

    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  15. Influence of geotechnical properties of the rocks of massif Vajarska on the technology of used blasting operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreská ¼udmila

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical properties of a rock massif have a decisive influence on the technology of blasting operations and on the resulting fragmentation of the blast. Parameters of the blasting operations were given for the limestone deposit Vajarska on the base of knowledge about fractures of the massif Vajarska. The computer programm is used to choice new para-meters for the blasting operations in HIROCEM, a.s., Rohožník.

  16. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.

    2007-01-01

    We are at the beginning of a new millennium. At this stage, we are observing economic and social liberalization efforts and regional alliance projects throughout the world. In this very same process, we are also experiencing a more holistic concept called globalization, which covers rapid and simultaneous dissemination and integration of capital, labor, information and technology, world-wide. This globalization opened a new era where national market economies and local companies went into competition in the international arena. In this era, it became a necessity for the non-liberal economies to catch up with the developments in the international markets and be open to economic and political changes. These developments have brought along many radical economic and social changes throughout the world. Policies adopted in Turkey, with respect to the energy reform process, display a general tendency towards putting in place a legal framework that will support the implementation of good governance principles, and providing conformity with the relevant legislative infrastructure of both OECD and EU countries. Turkey has only limited reserves of oil and natural gas, but substantial reserves of coal, particularly lignite. Energy demand has grown at 4-5 % per annum over the past three decades and will continue to grow rapidly, which will require enormous investments in 2000 and 2020, with the most significant increase being that of natural gas. Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. 73 % of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 % of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions

  17. ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY: POPULATION PERCEPTION AND DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István EGRESI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banks have, over the last few decades, become very popular in the Gulf countries and in some countries in Southeast Asia with a majority Muslim population. They are on the rise even in some western cities such as London or New York which have witnessed a significant increase in their Muslim population. In this context, it is then surprising to see that in Turkey, a country in which almost 100% of the population is Muslim, the Islamic banking system is still in its incipient stage. This study has investigated the reasons for the underdevelopment of the Islamic banking system in Turkey. We found that, due to the long period of secularism, most Turks separate religion from business and select their bank based on financial advantages, diversity of financial products and quality of service rather than based on the need to adhere to Shari’a principles. Many people also do not trust that these institutions are really Shari’a-compliant and safe. This is partly due to the customers’ lack of understanding of how these banks operate and partly due to the numerous cases of bad practices reported by the media and the academic literature. We conclude that, while their assets and share will most probably increase over the next 10 years it seems very unlikely that Islamic banks will really become a sustainable alternative banking system in Turkey. The Islamic banking system will rather remain an additional or complementary banking system.

  18. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Cachoeira Deposit Massif, Caetite, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottura, J.A.; Albuquerque Filho, J.L.; Ojima, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrogeologic applications for the characterization of rock massifs in future mining activity areas are presented. The study was performed in the Cachoeira uranium deposit (Anomaly no.13 - Lagoa Real Project) located in the south-central portion of the state of Bahia, Caetite municipality, belonging to the Brazilian Nuclear Enterprise - NUCLEBRAS. The massif occuring in the area is composed of a group or series of rocks classified generically as gneisses, displaying different geotechnical classes. In order to consubstantiate the hydrogeologic/ hydrogeotechnical characterization, pumping and infiltration tests were performed, as well as periodic water level measurements in piezometers and drill-holes. In this manner, a hydrogeotechnical classification was made possible and a quantitative evaluation of the volume of water that will be drained was elaborated, orviding necessary contributions for research diggings and exploration. (D.J.M.) [pt

  19. Metagenomic identification of active methanogens and methanotrophs in serpentinite springs of the Voltri Massif, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Brazelton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of hydrogen and methane by geochemical reactions associated with the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks can potentially support subsurface microbial ecosystems independent of the photosynthetic biosphere. Methanogenic and methanotrophic microorganisms are abundant in marine hydrothermal systems heavily influenced by serpentinization, but evidence for methane-cycling archaea and bacteria in continental serpentinite springs has been limited. This report provides metagenomic and experimental evidence for active methanogenesis and methanotrophy by microbial communities in serpentinite springs of the Voltri Massif, Italy. Methanogens belonging to family Methanobacteriaceae and methanotrophic bacteria belonging to family Methylococcaceae were heavily enriched in three ultrabasic springs (pH 12. Metagenomic data also suggest the potential for hydrogen oxidation, hydrogen production, carbon fixation, fermentation, and organic acid metabolism in the ultrabasic springs. The predicted metabolic capabilities are consistent with an active subsurface ecosystem supported by energy and carbon liberated by geochemical reactions within the serpentinite rocks of the Voltri Massif.

  20. Musa massif: mapping, petrology and petrochemical, Rio Maria, SE from Para State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastal, M.C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies allow some insight on the genesis and evolution of the Musa Massif. The different facies of the granitic body are cogenetic, although each of these facies presents some peculiarities in its genesis and evolution. These data suggests that the granite magma evolution was complex or, alternatively, that the facies were generated by liquids derived from different sources. A model of magmatic emplacement, genesis and differentiation is proposed and discussed. The granitic facies show a calc-alkaline compositions, exhibiting strong analogies with cordilleran granites or magnetite granites. An age of 1692 +- 11 Ma (Rb/Sr) with IR of 0,70777 +- 0,00023 was obtained for different facies of Massif. A preliminary attempt to individualize geochronology the principal facies was done and showed that there is a coincidence between the ages and the emplacement sequence of these facies of the pluton. (author)

  1. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Korean War, when Turkey sent troops in support of the United Nations defense of South Korea. As a Muslim country, Turkey’s cooperation with the United...history of Turkish cinema : “Valley of the Wolves Iraq.” The United States military deemed the film and its viewers potentially dangerous enough that

  2. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  3. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  4. The Future of Secular Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    into the global trade market of “ franchises and brand-name import- export.”6 Through his power, Ozal sought to redefine Turkey along capitalist...entertainment along with access to theaters, bars and cafes . These fears were never realized. The Refah mayors have left well enough alone. They have

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  6. Biotechnology in Turkey: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Tunçer H

    2009-07-01

    The term biotechnology first appeared in the programs of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) in 1982. The State Planning Organization (SPO) in 1988 defined biotechnology and the scientific fields. Moreover, it put forward an institutional framework and suggested priority areas for research and development. Turkey has been researching and investing in biotechnology for almost four decades. This review covers the development of science and technology policy with its history, consensus and consequences, bio-industries in Turkey, and research activities in biotechnology at Turkish Universities. Details are provided by the research groups in response to a common request for information on their activities and major publications in the field. The information provided has been grouped under thematic topics within the broad theme of biotechnology, and summarized within these topics. Although many aspects of biotechnological research are being pursued in Turkey, it appears that the most common research activities of the field are in fermentation processes, environmental biotechnology, and biomedical engineering.

  7. September 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  8. Human Metapneumovirus in Turkey Poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379

  9. The Oldest Granites of Russia: Paleoarchean (3343 Ma) Subalkali Granites of the Okhotsk Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, V. K.; Bogomolov, E. S.; Glebovitskii, V. A.; Rodionov, N. V.

    2018-02-01

    The Paleoarchean age (3.34 Ga) of subalkali granite magmatism first established for the Kukhtui uplift of the Okhotsk Massif suggests a formation time of the mature continental K-rich crust in this region as early as the Paleoarchean. According to the geological structural, mineralogical-geochemical, geochronological, and isotopic-geochemical data, the Kukhtui uplift can be considered as the most ancient Paleoarchean province in Russia: the ancient consolidation core of the sialic protocrust of the Okhotsk-Omolon Craton.

  10. Automated data collection based on RoboDiff at the ESRF beamline MASSIF-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurizzo, Didier, E-mail: Didier.nurizzo@esrf.fr; Guichard, Nicolas; McSweeney, Sean; Theveneau, Pascal; Guijarro, Matias; Svensson, Olof; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Leonard, Gordon [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, 71, Avenue des Martyrs,CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Bowler, Matthew W. [EMBL Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS90181, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-07-27

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has a long standing history in the automation of experiments in Macromolecular Crystallography. MASSIF-1 (Massively Automated Sample Screening and evaluation Integrated Facility), a beamline constructed as part of the ESRF Upgrade Phase I program, has been open to the external user community since July 2014 and offers a unique completely automated data collection service to both academic and industrial structural biologists.

  11. Quaternary glaciation of the Lato Massif, Zanskar Range of the NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Elizabeth N.; Owen, Lewis A.; Saha, Sourav; Caffee, Marc W.; Murari, Madhav K.

    2018-03-01

    The glacial chronostratigraphy and history of the Lato Massif of Zanskar northern India is defined for the first time using geomorphic mapping and 10Be surface exposure dating. Three local glacial stages, the Lato, Shiyul and Kyambu, are dated to 244-49, 25-15 and 3.4-0.2 ka, respectively. The Lato glacial stage was the most extensive period of glaciation, characterized by expanded ice caps with glaciers advancing to ∼16 km from their present position. Large till deposits are associated with this glacial stage, which represent a time of heightened glacial erosion and localized incision, and increased rates of sediment transfer and deposition. The glacial style transitioned to entrenched valley glaciation during the Shiyul glacial stage. Hummocky moraine complexes reflecting fluctuating glacier margins characterize this glaciation. Glaciers have been confined to the cirques and headwalls of the massif during and since the Kyambu glacial stage. Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) reconstructions help define the shifts in glaciation over time, with ELA depressions changing from 470 ± 140, 270 ± 80 to 100 ± 30 m for the Lato, Shiyul and Kyambu glacial stages, respectively. The change of glacial style during the latter part of the Quaternary is similar to other regions of the Transhimalaya and Tibet suggesting that this pattern of glaciation may reflect regional climatic forcing. The evolution of the Lato Massif from an isolated alpine plateau to a steeply incised massif over the last several glacial-interglacial cycles may have also influenced the shifts from ice cap to valley glaciation.

  12. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  13. Man-induced transformation of mountain meadow soils of Aragats mountain massif (Armenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers issues of degradation of mountain meadow soils of the Aragats mountain massif of the Republic of Armenia and provides the averaged research results obtained for 2013 and 2014. The present research was initiated in the frames of long-term complex investigations of agroecosystems of Armenia’s mountain massifs and covered sod soils of high mountain meadow pasturelands and meadow steppe grasslands lying on southern slope of Mt. Aragats. With a purpose of studying the peculiarities of migration and transformation of flows of major nutrients namely carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus in study mountain meadow and meadow steppe belts of the Aragats massif we investigated water migration of chemical elements and regularities of their leaching depending on different belts. Field measurement data have indicated that organic carbon and humus in a heavily grazed plot are almost twice as low as on a control site. Lysimetric data analysis has demonstrated that heavy grazing and illegal deforestation have brought to an increase in intrasoil water acidity. The results generated from this research support a conclusion that a man’s intervention has brought to disturbance of structure and nutrient and water regimes of soils and loss of significant amounts of soil nutrients throughout the studied region.

  14. Geodynamic movements and deformations of the Sudetic structural unit of the Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, V.; Jechumtálová, Z.; Schenková, Z.; Kottnauer, P.

    2003-04-01

    The African plate pushes to European orogenic Alpine structures that transfer the compression further to Variscan structural units, including the Bohemian Massif. Central parts of the Bohemian Massif are relatively deep-seated and, therefore, some of marginal parts of the Massif and its border geological structures should be affected intensively and moved distinctly with respect to the central parts. The geodynamical GPS network EAST SUDETEN is located just over the area mentioned above, i.e. it covers both kinetically quasi-effected and quasi-non-effected structural blocks. GPS data observed already for six annual campaigns (1997-2002) were processed and movement vectors of individual network sites were assessed. Applied data processing did not allow errors in the horizontal direction 2 mm and in the vertical direction 5-6 mm to be exceeded. Since time series of coordinate changes for several network sites gave rather pronounce movement trends, preliminary deformations among individual structural blocks were evaluated and compared to other geological, geophysical and geodetic materials. The investigation has been supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, projects 205/97/0679 and 205/01/0480, and by the research programme of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic, project LN00A005 "Dynamics of the Earth".

  15. Crystal structure of modular sodium-rich and low-iron eudialyte from Lovozero alkaline massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenberg, K. A.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K., E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru; Aksenov, S. M. [Federal Scientific Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics”, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The structure of the sodium-rich representative of the eudialyte group found by A.P. Khomyakov at the Lovozero massif (Kola Peninsula) is studied by X-ray diffraction. The trigonal cell parameters are: a = 14.2032(1) and c = 60.612(1) Å, V = 10589.13 Å3, space group R3m. The structure is refined to the final R = 5.0% in the anisotropic approximation of atomic displacement parameters using 3742|F| > 3σ(F). The idealized formula (Z = 3) is Na{sub 37}Ca{sub 10}Mn{sub 2}FeZr{sub 6}Si{sub 50}(Ti, Nb){sub 2}O{sub 144}(OH){sub 5}Cl{sub 3} · H{sub 2}O. Like other 24-layer minerals of the eudialyte group, this mineral has a modular structure. Its structure contains two modules, namely, “alluaivite” (with an admixture of “eudialyte”) and “kentbrooksite,” called according to the main structural fragments of alluaivite, eudialyte, and kentbrooksite. The mineral found at the Lovozero alkaline massif shows some chemical and symmetry-structural distinctions from the close-in-composition labyrinthite modular mineral from the Khibiny massif. The difference between the minerals stems from different geochemical conditions of mineral formation in the two regions.

  16. Rainwater chemistry at the summit and southern flank of the Itatiaia massif, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, William Z. de; Almeida, Marcelo D. de

    2004-01-01

    Wet deposition and related rainwater chemistry were studied at the Itatiaia massif, on which is settled the Itatiaia National Park (INP). Samples were simultaneously collected on a weekly basis over 12 months, using automated wet and dry samplers, at the INP-Headquarters (INP-Hq; altitude=820 m) and the Itatiaia Plateau (It-Pt; altitude=2460 m). Conductivity, pH, Na + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , Cl - , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- were determined in 36 rainwater samples. Volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was lower at the INP-Hq (4.9) than at the It-Pt (5.3). Very strong correlation between Cl - and Na + was found for the INP-Hq (r=0.99). At the Itatiaia massif, SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + comprised together about 60% of the total inorganic ions and appear to exert the major control on rainwater pH. - Rainwater chemistry at the Itatiaia massif in SE Brazil is strongly dominated by S and N inorganic species, and influenced by human activities

  17. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  18. Tourist Activities-Disturbance Factors of Natural Environment in Ciucaș Massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminița Costina SĂFTOIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines how tourism activities can disturb the natural environment in Ciucaș Massif. Methods used are based on bibliographic research and GIS analysis of morphometric features. Results show that the Ciucaș Massif, as one of the most important mountain in central Romania, is made of conglomerates, which lend specific features to topography. Having several natural sights (The Old Ladies Council, The Sphinx of Bratocea, Zăganului Ridge this massif is declared a protected natural area. The geomorphologic processes: compactions, mudflows, the deepening of tourist paths, rills and gully erosion have a negative impact on the landscape and even on the entire environment, causing erosion and loss of soil and vegetation. Also, the increased number of tourist accommodation facilities and 21 marked tourist trails have resulted in shrinking of forest areas, hayfields and pastures.These numerous changes which occur in this mountain area, lead, in time, to radical, irreversible changes and can affect the local economic development.

  19. Geology and uranium occurrences in the Forez tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central'); Geologie et mineralisations uraniferes de la plaine tertiaire du Forez (Massif Central francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclos, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses - 92 (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part, the observations made during the geological survey of the Forez Tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central') are recalled. Then, using various methods, the author lists the formations according to chronology. Finally, a reconstitution of the geological history of this subsidence basin is attempted. In the second part, the occurrence of 17 uranium bearing geochemical anomalies is commented upon. Each of these various anomalies is given a place on the stratigraphic scale. This enables the author to put the successive phases of uranium deposition into their proper perspective in the history of the plain. In conclusion, the author points out the usefulness of these uraniferous geochemical anomalies. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, l'auteur rappelle les observations faites au cours de l'etude geologique de la plaine tertiaire du Forez (Massif Central francais). Puis se servant de differentes methodes, il etablit une chronologie des formations. Enfin, il termine par un essai de reconstitution de l'histoire geologique de ce bassin de subsidence. Dans la deuxieme partie, il commente la decouverte de 17 anomalies geochimiques uraniferes. Il situe ces differentes anomalies dans la serie stratigraphique. Ceci lui permet de replacer les depots successifs de l'uranium dans l'histoire de la plaine. Enfin, il indique l'interet de ces anomalies geochimiques uraniferes. (auteur)

  20. Levels of polonium-210 in the grapevine leaves in Alasehir district in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurboga, G.; Aytas Oelmez, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of present work is the estimation of Po-210 (polonium) content in the edible grapevine leaves (Vitis viniferae, L.cv Sultana syn.) collected from Gediz plain in Western Turkey. Alasehir District in Gediz plain is one of the most important wine culture region of Turkey. Grapevine leaves are important food material for Dolma in Turkish cuisine. Dolma is a name applied to such vegetables as grapevine leaves, cabbage leaves and green peppers stuffed ground meat or spiked rice. Levels of Po-210 in the grapevine leaves had not been analyzed before in Turkey. In this study, after wet ashing of grapevine leaves, Po-210 was spontaneously plated onto a copper disc from dilute hydrochloric acid medium and deposited activity was measured. The results for Po-210 in the grapevine leaves are compared with the other foodstuff values in the literature

  1. Approaches to death and dying: a cultural comparison of Turkey and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Darla D

    2015-01-01

    Three principles that guide the bioethics movement in the United States and other Western societies apply to the approaches of death and dying in both the United States and Turkey. These three principles, Autonomy, Beneficence, and justice, are reflected in the practices of people in both countries. The issue of autonomy is of greater concern to those in the United States, while decisions are made entirely with family and physician involvement in Turkey. Beneficence and Justice can be identified as ethical issues in both countries. Similarities with end-of-life experiences are linked by faith-based beliefs of Islam and Christianity. Differences in sociocultural influences, such as policies about advance directives in the United States, account for differences in end-of-life decision making. This article examines the spiritual, cultural, legal, and political factors that inform the experience of people in Turkey and in the United States when death is at hand.

  2. Turkey's status in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykol, F.; Oezkan, R.; Atila, B.; Hanguel, G.; Aksu, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Turkey is a country with dynamic economic development and rapid population growth and nuclear energy is an integral part of these dynamics. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) is in charge of regulation and control of all activities related to nuclear field, including safety inspections and licensing. The TAEA is also responsible for the sensitive task of improving public awareness of nuclear technology which includes the use of nuclear power. Turkey's experience with nuclear power dates back to the 1960's, as the first nuclear research reactor started to operate in Istanbul in 1962. There were various plans for the introduction of nuclear power to the country. However the plans for the construction of the first nuclear power in the country were postponed for an indefinite period in 2000. In the wake of this decision TAEA initiated the activities to establish a nuclear policy in the country which includes creating the technical know-how and establishing new generation nuclear power plants in Turkey. The Authority is also responsible for the safe use of nuclear energy in medicine, agriculture, animal health, industry, food irradiation and in all kinds of research activities. The authority has carried or is currently continuing 12 National Technical Cooperation, 30 Research Contract, 21 Regional Europe ongoing IAEA projects and 31 State Planning Organization projects. There were 7571 radiological, 208 radiotherapy, 3792 industrial and 214 instruments licensed and registered by the Radiation Health and Safety Department of the Authority. We are in the opinion that developing a nuclear technology substructure in both Turkey and Turkish Countries will be of great benefit for the Euro-Asia region. We must emphasize that Turkey is the partner of all nonproliferation treaties and has no intention of using nuclear power for non peaceful purposes whatsoever

  3. 10Be exposure dating of the timing of Neoglacial glacier advances in the Ecrins-Pelvoux massif, southern French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Melaine; Deline, Philip; Carcaillet, Julien; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Ermini, Magali; Aster Team

    2017-12-01

    Alpine glacier variations are known to be reliable proxies of Holocene climate. Here, we present a terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN)-based glacier chronology relying on 24 new 10Be exposure ages, which constrain maximum Neoglacial positions of four small to mid-sized glaciers (Rateau, Lautaret, Bonnepierre and Etages) in the Ecrins-Pelvoux massif, southern French Alps. Glacier advances, marked by (mainly lateral) moraine ridges that are located slightly outboard of the Little Ice Age (LIA, c. 1250-1860 AD) maximum positions, were dated to 4.25 ± 0.44 ka, 3.66 ± 0.09 ka, 2.09 ± 0.10 ka, c. 1.31 ± 0.17 ka and to 0.92 ± 0.02 ka. The '4.2 ka advance', albeit constrained by rather scattered dates, is to our knowledge exposure-dated here for the first time in the Alps. It is considered as one of the first major Neoglacial advance in the western Alps, in agreement with other regional paleoclimatological proxies. We further review Alpine and Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitude evidence for climate change and glacier activity concomitant with the '4.2 ka event'. The '2.1 ka advance' was not extensively dated in the Alps and is thought to represent a prominent advance in early Roman times. Other Neoglacial advances dated here match the timing of previously described Alpine Neoglacial events. Our results also suggest that a Neoglacial maximum occurred at Etages Glacier 0.9 ka ago, i.e. during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, c. 850-1250 AD). At Rateau Glacier, discordant results are thought to reflect exhumation and snow cover of the shortest moraine boulders. Overall, this study highlights the need to combine several sites to develop robust Neoglacial glacier chronologies in order to take into account the variability in moraine deposition pattern and landform obliteration and conservation.

  4. Quaternary river incision in the uplifted Rhenish massif (Ardennes, Belgium) - Insights from 10Be/26Al dating of river terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Siame, Lionel; Bovy, Benoît.; Demoulin, Alain

    2010-05-01

    Although it constitutes the main tool to unravel the regional recent tectonics, the chronology of the Pleistocene river incision is still poorly constrained within the uplifted Rhenish-Ardennes massif (Belgium, western Europe). Here, we measure cosmogenic nuclides concentrations (10Be and 26Al) in terrace quartz or quartzite sediments of several Ardennian rivers (Meuse, Ourthe and Amblève) in order to date the so-called Younger Main Terrace (YMT), a key-level in the network evolution. Though these dating methods are successfully used to determine ages of superficial (e.g., glacial) deposits, dating of fluvial terraces remains difficult. Possible predepositional exposures of the sampled material (inherited 10Be and 26Al) may indeed bias the measurements towards higher nuclide concentrations while several postdepositional processes (burial, erosion) may cause a lowering of the 10Be and 26Al concentrations. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties, the selected fluvial deposits (five locations) were sampled using a profiling technique on as thick as possible sections (more than 3 m). We present the first absolute dating of the YMT in the lower Meuse valley (nearby the Dutch boundary), where we obtained an age of 630 ka for a terrace deposit buried beneath 3 m of Weichselian loess. This age is consistent with some previously published estimates based on paleomagnetic data and MIS correlations. However, our ages for the same terrace level within the Ardennes are significantly younger: >400 ka in the lower Ourthe, and only ~220 ka still farther upstream, in the lower Amblève. We thus demonstrate that the post-YMT incision occurred diachronically in NE Ardennes. The ~0.5 Ma timespan needed by the erosion wave to propagate from the lower Meuse towards the Ardennian headwaters contradicts the long-held statement of a climatically driven incision that would have been synchronous throughout the catchment.

  5. New evidence of effusive and explosive volcanism in the Lower Carboniferous formations of the Moroccan Central Hercynian Massif: Geochemical data and geodynamic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarmouchant, A.; Smaili, H.; Bento dos Santos, T.; Dahire, M.; Sabri, K.; Ribeiro, M. L.; Driouch, Y.; Santos, R.; Calvo, R.

    2016-03-01

    The Azrou-Khénifra basin, located in the SE sector of the Moroccan Central Hercynian Massif of the Western Meseta of Morocco comprises volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks where two magmatic sequences can be distinguished: i) the Dhar Lahmar Sequence, composed of Upper Visean basaltic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits; and ii) the Kef Al Asri Sequence, composed of Visean - Serpukhovian intermediate to acid rocks. A continuous spatial and temporal evolution between the two volcano-sedimentary sequences was observed during the detailed geological work performed in the studied area. Petrography and geochemical studies additionally suggest a continuous compositional evolution from the more basic magmatic rocks to the intermediate/acid rocks, which implies a cogenetic magmatic differentiation controlled by crystal fractionation (with minor crustal assimilation) of a calc-alkaline trend magmatic suite. The inferred magmatic evolution is consistent with a geodynamic environment of an orogenic zone within an active continental margin setting. This partly explosive Visean - Serpukhovian volcanism, identified for the first time in the Western Meseta of Morocco, displays very similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics to its Eastern Meseta analogues, which implies that the emplacement of these magmatic rocks must have occurred in similar collisional geodynamic settings for both major geological domains, further constraining the evolution of this major crustal segment within the Carboniferous events that shaped the Hercynian Orogeny.

  6. The Security Aspect of Turkey-United States Relations: In Search For a New Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Svistunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security cooperation has always been an important aspect of the relations between Turkey and the USA. In Cold War era Turkish-American interaction within NATO played a crucial role in this cooperation. After that period the two countries began to search for a new model of their relations. Both Turkey and the USA started to use cooperation within NATO for the purpose of strengthening their global positions. At the same time the USA aspiration to use military bases in Turkey beyond NATO obligations frequently becomes a source of disagreement and crises in the relations of the two countries as it happened during the American intervention to Iraq in 2003. At present new challenges for regional security, especially in the Middle East, demands new forms of interaction between Turkey and the USA. The beginning of "the Arab spring" was met in Ankara and Washington with overlapping interest in changing conservative regimes and promoting "Turkish model". At the same time such questions as participation of Turkey in the fight against ISIL and the USA military cooperation with the Syrian Kurds, whom Ankara considers to be connected with the PKK terrorist organization, has brought serious contradictions between the two countries. The cause of these contradiction is the difference in the perception of threats in Turkey and in the Western countries. While the search for new forms of security cooperation meets with difficulties, NATO remains important for the relations between Turkey and the USA, despite traditionally high level of anti-NATO moods in the Turkish society.

  7. The Influence of Migration Crisis in Europe on EU-Turkey Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel P. Timofeyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of the migration crisis in the EU on the European Union's relations with Turkey. It is shown that for a number of reasons, including a result of EU actions taken from 2011 to 2015, EU has experienced an influx of migrants on a number of routes from the Western to the Eastern Mediterranean. The largest of them fell on Turkey, which has tried to use this factor to exert pressure on the EU in order to obtain economic and political preferences. The author examines the development of the EU migration policy in the context of the crisis, its trying to bring Turkey to cooperate and difficult negotiations, which took place at the summits of the EU-Turkey at the end of 2015. There have been disagreements among the EU countries, and the time factor, which Turkey took advantage of, advancing conditions for the closure of borders to Europe for migrants. Facing the influx of migrants the EU had to agree with a number of conditions, though not with all. The author shows that the agreement reached by the country in March 2016 is not universal, and a number of issues important to the resolution of the crisis, are waiting to be decided upon. However, according to the author, the development of the current crisis can lead both to the reform of the migration and border policy within the EU, and to restarting relations with Turkey. Though guessing on possibilities on Turkey's entry to the EU in the near future is still premature.

  8. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry.

  9. Neogene Uplift and Exhumation of Plutonic Bodies in the Beni Bou Ifrour Massif (Nador, northeastern Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Noëmie; Jolivet, Laurent; Branquet, Yannick; Bourdier, Jean-Louis; Jolivet, Marc; Marcoux, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In Neogene times, the whole Mediterranean Sea was the center of an intense magmatic activity. This post-collisional magmatism produced a large amount of volcanic edifices through the Alpine belts, together with some intrusives. These plutonic bodies can be associated with skarn-type mineralization, well-known in Elba Island or Serifos Island (Cyclades), where they are generally exhumed by detachment faults. In Morocco, the plutons hosted by the Beni Bou Ifrour massif are connected to the biggest skarn-type iron concentrations of the country (production > 60 Mt, reserves ≈ 25 Mt). The purpose of this work is to explain the late uplift of this massif and subsequent exhumation of the intrusives. As a final product of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence since ca. 70 Ma, the Rif Mountains constitute the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine belts. In the oriental part of this range, volcanic summits and Paleozoic to Mesozoic massifs outcrop in the surrounding Mio-Pliocene plains. The Beni Bou Ifrour massif, in the Nador province, consists in a dome-shaped folded Mesozoic series (Domerian to Barremian) affected by a slight epizonal regional metamorphism (ca. 14-12 Ma), dislocated by Neogene NE-SW faults and eventually sealed by upper Miocene transgressive sediments. The hosted intrusives (7.58 ± 0.03 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005) are the plutonic equivalents to the potassic calc-alkaline lavas (andesites mainly) from the surrounding "satellite" volcanic massifs. They turn out to stand in higher topographic position than the younger shoshonitic lavas of the neighboring Gourougou stratovolcano (6.12 ± 0.01 Ma; Duggen et al., 2005). Previous studies have attributed this uplift to the action of normal faults (pull-apart basins; Guillemin & Houzay, 1982), thrusting (Kerchaoui, 1985; 1995) or even of a caldeira resurgence (El Bakkali, 1995). To discriminate against those exhumation mechanisms, field work has been performed, coming along with new cross-sections to

  10. [Recent demographic trends in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, C

    1993-01-01

    Coverage of Turkey's vital registration system remains incomplete, and it cannot yet be used to measure annual population changes. Data and demographic indices based on the 1990 census and the 1989 National Demographic Survey are the most recent available. Turkey's population in 1990 was 56 million. The proportion urban increased to 59% from 49.2% in 1980. Nearly 35% of the population was under 15 years old, and the median age was 21.6 for males and 22.3 for females. The average age at first marriage in 1989 was 24.8 for men and 21.8 for women. Mortality has been in continuous decline. The crude death rate dropped from 16.4/1000 in 1960-65 to slightly under 8 in 1989. Life expectancy at birth was 63.3 for men and 66 for women. The infant mortality rate declined from 166 in 1965-70 to 85 in 1989. Rural or urban residence and maternal educational level were the most significant determinants of infant mortality differentials. Turkey's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1960 to 4.3 in 1978 and 3.4 in 1988-89. The crude birth rate declined from around 40/1000 in 1968 to under 28/1000 in 1989. Fertility began to decline in the last third of the nineteenth century in Istanbul and other large cities of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul's total fertility rate was a relatively low 3.9 even before World War I. Turkey adopted a policy to slow demographic growth in the mid 1960s, and family planning activities were supported by nongovernmental organizations. The direct impact of these policies on demographic behavior appears to have been somewhat limited, and the use of traditional methods of birth limitation remains widespread. Abortion was legalized in 1983 and is available at public hospitals. The proportion of married women aged 15-49 who use contraception increased from 38% in 1973 to 63% in 1988. Regional differentials in demographic indices are significant in Turkey, with the Anatolian East and Southeast lagging behind other regions in fertility and mortality decline

  11. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Turkey. September to November 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziehr, H.; Komura, A.

    1985-02-01

    The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Turkey estimates the Speculative Resources of the country to lie between 21 000 and 55 000 tonnes uranium. Past exploration in Turkey, dating from 1953, has indicated a very high number of uranium occurrences and radioactive anomalies, but ore deposits of significant size and grade have not been found. Present reserves amount to 4 600 tonnes uranium which can be allocated to approximately 15 sandstone type deposits in Neogene continental sediments. Several hundreds of other occurrences and radioactive anomalies exist where ore reserves have not been delineated. The uranium occurrences and radioactive anomalies can be divided according to host rock into (a) crystalline massif and (b) Tertiary continental sediment. The greatest geological potential for further resources is estimated to exist in the above mentioned two geological terrains. The most favourable geological potential exists in Neogene continental sedimentary basins near the crystalline massifs. Because surface exploration in the known favourable areas such as the Koepruebasi Basin has been so systematic, extensive, and successful, it is improbable that additional surface work will have much effect in increasing the number of new radioactive anomalies or uranium occurrences detected at the surface in these areas. Surface survey work in these areas should be mainly designed to assist the understanding of structures at depth. Surface reconnaissance survey work is, however, required in other parts of the above mentioned two geological terrains in this country. Before starting such a reconnaissance survey in new areas, the Mission suggests that a careful and extensive library study be conducted in close co-operation with sedimentologists, petrologists, and remote sensing specialists. The Mission suggests that in the medium term, 8 to 10 years, some 85 - 110 million U.S. Dollars be spent on airborne and ground surveys, including geological, radiometric, geochemical, and

  12. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  13. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  14. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Demir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  15. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  16. N-S crustal shear system in the Bundelkhand massif: A unique crustal evolution signature in the northern Indian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Bhattacharya, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Bundelkhand massif, located in the northern part of the Indian shield, is a poly-deformed and poly-metamorphic terrain. This paper reports a new shear system developed throughout the massif in the form of N-S trending quartz veins that are sometimes quartzo-feldspathic and rarely granitic in composition. The veins are vertical and commonly occur in conjugate sets. This tectono-magmatic event appears to represent the youngest shear system of the massif as it cross-cuts all the earlier shear systems (E-W, NE-SE and NW-SE). Emplacement of this N-S vein system may have taken place due to extensional processes that developed some cracks along which siliceous magma was vertically emplaced. The complete absence of signature of the N-S event from the surrounding sedimentary cover of Vindhyan Supergroup, Bijawar and Gwalior Groups suggests that this shear system is pre-tectonic to the nearly E-W trending passive basins developed at the margins of the Bundelkhand craton. Further, several workers have considered the Bundelkhand massif as a part of the Aravalli craton. However, due to the absence of N-S, as well as the other (i.e., E-W, NW-SE and NW-SE), tectonic fabrics of the Bundelkhand massif in other cratons of the Peninsular India, and vice versa, makes the Bundelkhand block a separate and unique craton of its own and is not part of the Aravalli craton.

  17. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  18. Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Middle to lower Upper Ordovician Postolonnec Formation in the Armorican Massif (France): integrating pXRF, gammay-ray and lithological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Loi, Alfredo; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Vandenbroucke, Thijs; Claeys, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The Middle to lower Upper Ordovician sections of the Crozon Peninsula area (Postolonnec Formation, Armorican Massif, western France) show multi-order eustatic sea-level changes (Dabard et al., 2015). The sections are characterized by siliciclastic facies, which were deposited in tidal to storm-dominated shelf environments. Dabard et al. (2015) analysed the facies, their stacking patterns, and gamma-ray data and applied backstripping to identify subsidence and several orders of sea-level change. The main stratigraphic constraints are coming from (chitinozoan) biostratigraphy. The 3th to 5th orders changes are hypothesized to correspond to various frequencies related to astronomical forcing. This study investigates the potential added value of portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF) and the application of spectral analyses. High-resolution (cm-scale) non-destructive pXRF and natural gamma-ray measurements were carried out on 14 m of section that was equally logged on a cm resolution. The pXRF measurements on the surface of the outcrops are compared with earlier results of wavelength dispersive XRF spectrometry and ICP-MS. The potassium records of the pXRF and gamma-ray logs are comparable and essentially reflect lithological variations (i.e., between mudstone and coarse sandstones). Other reliably measured elements also reflected lithological aspects such as clay-sandstone alternations (e.g. K, Rb, Ti), placer locations (Zr, Ce, Ti) and potentially clay mineralogy and condensation horizons (Ni, Zn, Co, Mn). Spectral analyses of the various proxies (lithology, natural gamma-ray and pXRF) are compared with each other. Both the new high-resolution data (14 m of section) as well as the published low-resolution data (which span almost 400 m of Darriwilian-Sandbian) were analyzed. The study reveals strong indications for the imprint of obliquity, precession and eccentricity. Obtaining age constraints, in addition to the existing biostratigraphical framework is a challenge in

  19. Timing and duration of Variscan high-pressure metamorphism in the French Massif Central: A multimethod geochronological study from the Najac Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Van Den Driessche, Jean

    2018-05-01

    Accurate dating of eclogite-facies metamorphism is of paramount importance in order to understand the tectonic evolution of an orogen. An eclogite sample from the Najac Massif (French Massif Central, Variscan belt) displays a zircon-bearing garnet-omphacite-amphibole-rutile-quartz peak assemblage. Pseudosection modeling suggests peak pressure conditions of 15-20 kbar, 560-630 °C. Eclogite-facies garnet displays Lu-enriched cores and Sm-rich rims and yields a Lu-Hf age of 382.8 ± 1.0 Ma and a Sm-Nd age of 376.7 ± 3.3 Ma. The ages are interpreted as marking the beginning of the prograde garnet growth during the initial stages of the eclogite-facies metamorphism, and the high-pressure (and temperature) peak reached by the rock, respectively. Zircon grains display chondrite-normalized REE spectra with variably negative, positive or no Eu anomalies and are characterized by either enriched or flat HREE patterns. However, they yield a well constrained in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, despite this REE pattern variability. Zr zonation in garnet, Y content in zircon and the diversity of zircon HREE spectra may suggest that zircon crystallized prior to and during incipient garnet growth on the prograde P-T path, recording the initial stages of the eclogite-facies conditions. Consequently, the zircon age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, comparable within error with the Lu-Hf age obtained on garnet, is interpreted as dating the beginning of the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Accordingly, the duration of the prograde part of the eclogite-facies event is estimated at 6.1 ± 4.3 Myr. Subsequent exhumation is constrained by an apatite U-Pb age at 369 ± 13 Ma.

  20. Kula Geopark: Turkeys first European and Global Geopark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Erdal; Zouros, Nickolas

    2014-05-01

    The Kula European and Global Geopark is situated in the Aegean Region of Turkey at Western Anatolia, within Manisa Province. The Geopark area covers 300 km2. The Kula Geopark area is the youngest volcanic region of Turkey where the volcanic activity continued up to prehistoric times. The outstanding volcanic structures of Kula Geopark area are well known at least for 2 thousand years. The great ancient Greek Geographer Strabo (63BC-24AD) in his majestic book "Geographica" named Kula as "Katakekaumene" (fire-born) because of the coal black lava. The geological significance and the cultural richness of Kula was mentioned by many foreign travellers and researchers like Charles Texier (1832) "Asia Minor" and Henry Washington's PhD thesis in 1893 where he named Kula basalts as "Kulaite". Kula Geopark area is awarded with high geodiversity representing 200 million years of earth history from Palaeozoic to Holocene including maars, monogenic cinder cones, successive lava flow plains, lava caves and tubes, craters, basalt columns, xenoliths, contact metamorphism, ash deposits, waterfalls in volcanic canyons, active karstic caves, badlands and fairy chimneys, mesa structures and schist tor, as far as 15 thousand years of fossil human foot prints preserved in volcanic ash. Kula Geopark is the land of miniature volcanoes where cinder cones are not higher than 150m. As a result, the geosites are easy to access and visiting the area requires very little risk, effort and time which makes the area excellent for geotourism and geoeducation. In addition to these outstanding natural and geological heritages, Kula Geopark reveals rich cultural, architectural historical, archaeological, and paleontological monuments. Kula represents well-preserved monuments of the 18th century Ottoman urban architecture in Turkey. The Kula Geopark Project was initiated in 2011 by PhD Erdal Gümüş with the support of the Kula Municipality. In September 2013 the Kula Geopark was certified as the first

  1. THE DEPICTION OF WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE IN TURKEY IN THE EDITORIAL CARTOONS OF THE ERA

    OpenAIRE

    BASARAN INCE, Gokcen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: For the peripheral modernisation projects, women have oftenly been the face of a rapidly modenising nation, shifting it from one civilisation to the other. The body of the women, its presentation and limits have always had connotative meanings, circumscribing her individuality within the identity of a nation. These assumptions are also valid for the modernisation case in Turkey in which women represented a vast transformation toward a Western and secular society. Granting of the suf...

  2. How are the emplacement of rare-element pegmatites, regional metamorphism and magmatism interrelated in the Moldanubian domain of the Variscan Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melleton, J.; Gloaguen, E.; Frei, D.; Novák, M.; Breiter, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2012), s. 1751-1773 ISSN 0008-4476 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : LCT pegmatite * rare-element-enriched magma * columbite-tantalite * LA-SF-ICP-MS dating * Variscan orogeny * Bohemian Massif * Moldanubian domain * Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.180, year: 2012

  3. Extensional ductile tectonics of the Sioule metamorphic series (Variscan French Massif Central)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, M.; Grolier, J.; Pons, J.

    1993-09-01

    In the Northern part of the Variscan French Massif Central, the Sioule series, from top to bottom, consists of a pre-Viséan granite, migmatite, gneiss and mica schist. Two ductile deformations have been recognized. The earlier phase is characterized by a north-east-south-west trending stretching lineation; the second phase, characterized by a north-west-south-east trending mineral, stretching and crenulation lineation, is better marked in the lower mica schist part than in the upper granito-gneissic part. This second phase occurred during retrogression of the metamorphic rocks; related shear criteria indicate a top to the south-west shear. The Namurian-Westphalian magmatic bodies such as the Echassières leucogranite, Pouzol-Servant microgranite and numerous north-east -south-west trending microgranite dykes are emplaced in extensional fractures related to the same north-west-south-east maximum stretching direction. The asymmetrical shapes of the two granitic massifs indicate that they intruded towards the south-east. The synkinematic retrogression of the metamorphic rocks, the shape of the magmatic bodies and a re-examination of the numerous available data support the interpretation that the deformation is due to the extensional tectonic regime related to the Variscan crustal re-quilibration. This interpretation is in agreement with the correlation of the Sioule series with the Chavanon series. The two series belong to a unique tectono-metamorphic unit left-laterally offset by the Stephanian motion of the Sillon Houiller fault. This study also shows that the Sillon Houiller did not play a significant part during the Namurian-Westphalian extensional tectonics of the Massif Central.

  4. Distribution of uranium, thorium and potassium in the alkaline rocks of Pocos de Caldas massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, E.B.

    1985-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas massif, with area about 800 Km 2 , represents the greatest complex of alkaline rocks existent in the American continent. Although values of U and Th are well Known in the mineralized areas, few has been registered with respect to the distribution of those elements outside the ore deposits. The rocks of the massif, in general, present high contents of U and Th when confronted with the surrouding country rocks. The distribution of the U and Th appoint a relevant additional data in the discussion on the hypothesis of nepheline syenites bodies formation in Pocos de Caldas by crystal fractionation processes. In this work are provided results of the U, Th and K distribution in the main petrographic facies occurring in the several studies places of the massif, yielded by gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of the samples. Those analysis disclose that khibinites present average values about 38 ppm U and 120 ppm Th; lujavrites, about 14 ppm U and more than 70 ppm Th; U-Th depleted nepheline synites, about 12 ppm U and 38 ppm Th, Th/U ratios are close to 3,0 in the nepheline syenites, about 3,7 in the phonolites, reaching values close to 4,0 in the khibinites. These values are comparable with others Th/U ratios of selected series of alkaline rocks reported in the international literature. Uranium and Th comparative data, attained by delayed neutron counting activation analysis also are given. The results obtained for the fluorimetric analysis show loss of U leaching is greater in the fine-grained rocks (phonolites) than coarse-grained ones (lujavrites, Khibinites). The autoradiographic studies reveal that radioactive elements are found concentrated in mineral phases. A new assessment of the radiogenic heat production it is also available. (Author) [pt

  5. VARIATION OF MACROMYCETES SPECIES COMPOSITION IN TWO FOREST HABITATS FROM GIUMALĂU MASSIF (EASTERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRSAN Ciprian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway spruce (Picea abies is the most common species with a large spreading in forests from Giumalău Massif. In this study the authors investigated the macromycetes species composition in two forest communities from Giumalău Massif: Hieracio transsilvanico-Piceetum and Leucanthemo waldsteinii-Fagetum. A total of 243 macromycetes species in 30 sampling areas have been identified. Changes in macromycetes species composition have been related to environmental factors (altitude and vegetation (canopy cover, plant species diversity. The results suggest that variation in macromycetes species composition in the two forests types from Giumalău Massif is directly related to abiotic factors (altitude, woody species composition and plants communities’ structure.

  6. Hydration of the Atlantis Massif: Halogen, Noble Gas and In-Situ δ18O Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. J.; Kendrick, M. A.; Rubatto, D.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of halogen (Cl, Br, I), noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and in situ oxygen isotope analysis have been utilized to investigate the fluid-mobile element record of hydration and alteration processes at the Atlantis Massif (30°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge). The sample suite investigated includes serpentinite, talc-amphibole ± chlorite schist and hydrated gabbro recovered by seafloor drilling undertaken at sites on a transect across the Atlantis Massif during IODP Expedition 357. Serpentine mesh and veins analysed in-situ by SHRIMP SI exhibit δ18O from 6‰ down to ≈0‰, suggesting serpentinization temperatures of 150 to >280°C and water/rock ratios >5. Differences of 1.5-2.5‰ are observed between adjacent generations of serpentine, but the δ18O range is similar at each investigated drilling site. Halogen and noble gas abundances in serpentinites, talc-amphibole schist and hydrated gabbro have been measured by noble gas mass spectrometry of both irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Serpentinites contain low abundances of halogens and noble gases (e.g. 70-430 ppm Cl, 4.7-12.2 x 10-14 mol/g 36Ar) relative to other seafloor serpentinites. The samples have systematically different Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios related to their mineralogy. Serpentinites retain mantle-like Br/Cl with a wide variation in I/Cl that stretches toward seawater values. Talc-amphibole schists exhibit depletion of Br and I relative to Cl with increasing Cl abundances, suggesting tremolite exerts strong control on halogen abundance ratios. Serpentinites show no evidence of interaction with halogen-rich sedimentary pore fluids. Iodine abundances are variable across serpentinites, and are decoupled from Br and Cl; iodine enrichment (up to 530 ppb) is observed within relatively oxidised and clay-bearing samples. Serpentinized harzburgites exhibit distinct depletion of Kr and Xe relative to atmospheric 36Ar in seawater. Oxygen isotope compositions and low abundances of both halogens

  7. Miocene metamorphism of pan-African granites in the Edough Massif (NE Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammor, D.; Lancelot, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Edough Massif is the eastern most crystalline core of the Maghrebides that represents the African segment of the west Mediterranean Alpine belt. U-Pb zircon dating provides upper intercept ages of 595± My and 606±55 My and orthogneiss of the lower unit and a deformed leucogranite of the upper pelitic unit, respectively. These ages suggest emplacement of the two granitoids during the Pan-African orogeny. Monazites from a paragneiss sample gave a 18± My U-Pb age that points to a Miocene age of the high-temperature metamorphism. (authors)

  8. Evidence for partial melting of eclogite from the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miyazaki, T.; Nakamura, D.; Tamura, A.; Svojtka, Martin; Arai, S.; Hirajima, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 6 (2016), s. 405-419 ISSN 1345-6296 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100131203 Program:Program interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : partial melting * eclogite * leucocratic pockets * Bohemian Massif * Moldanubian Zone Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.409, year: 2016

  9. Lateral displacement of crustal units relative to underlying mantle lithosphere: Example from the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, December (2017), s. 125-138 ISSN 1342-937X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2381; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15029; GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Teplá-Barrandian mantle lithosphere * Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss * Jáchymov Fault Zone Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 6.959, year: 2016

  10. Geology and uranium occurrences in the Forez tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duclos, P.

    1967-01-01

    In the first part, the observations made during the geological survey of the Forez Tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central') are recalled. Then, using various methods, the author lists the formations according to chronology. Finally, a reconstitution of the geological history of this subsidence basin is attempted. In the second part, the occurrence of 17 uranium bearing geochemical anomalies is commented upon. Each of these various anomalies is given a place on the stratigraphic scale. This enables the author to put the successive phases of uranium deposition into their proper perspective in the history of the plain. In conclusion, the author points out the usefulness of these uraniferous geochemical anomalies. (author) [fr

  11. A new species of Pristimantis (Anura, Craugastoridae) from the Cajas Massif, southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nivicela, Juan C.; Celi-Piedra, Elvis; Posse-Sarmiento, Valentina; Urgiles, Verónica L.; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from the highland paramos on the eastern slopes of the Cajas Massif, southern Andes of Ecuador, at 3400 m. This new species is characterized by having a distinctive reddish color, cutaneous macroglands in suprascapular region and surfaces of arm and legs, and by lacking dentigerous processes of vomers. The cutaneous macroglands are similar to those exhibited by several species of the Pristimantis orcesi group, and may suggest a close phylogenetic relationship. The new species could be a latitudinal substitution of Pristimantis orcesi in the southern Andes of Ecuador. PMID:29713233

  12. Forecast of promising areas for uranium prospection at the metamorphic Massif of Isla de la Juventud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora, L.E.; Macola, E.; Sanchez, J.; Torres, J.C.; Alaminos, C.; LLanes, A.; Morales, M.

    1995-01-01

    A mineralization conceptual model for uranium of the metamorphic Massif of Isla de la Juventud was established taking into account the study of the geological and metallogenic characteristic of the territory. The determined indications of mineralization were plotted on the geological map in order to conform a forecasting map and the selection of 22 hypothetical promising areas was carried out. As result of the field words three really promising areas were selected. A group of exploration techniques needed to evaluate the targets areas is presented

  13. Uranium mineralization possibilities in metamorphic Massif of Isla de Juventud, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora Dominguez, L.E.; Llanes Castro, A.I.; Pena Fortes, B.; Capote Rodriguez, G.

    1996-01-01

    The geologic and metallogenic characteristic of the metamorphic Massif shows the presence of possible uranium vein type mineralization as a result of a hidrotermal genetic process. Metalliferous fluids rising along the fault system were responsible for the deposition of the uranium in the reduction zones, i.e. presence of pyrite, organic matter and others. This type of uranium minerization is proposed for the Bibijagua area and for the Revolucion and Lela area the same type is expected. The gamma spectrometric analysis was used to evaluate the geological samples

  14. Minor elements, HREE and d18O distribution in UHP garnets from the Dora-Maira massif (western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, F.; Chazot, G.; Vielzeuf, D.; Chopin, C.

    2003-04-01

    The spatial distribution of minor elements, HREE and δ18O in garnet can be used as a probe of the availability and mobility of those elements and isotopes at the time of crystal growth, provided that the initial record was not significantly modified by intracrystalline diffusion and that growth took place under nearly constant pressure and temperature conditions. Garnets from three different Dora-Maira rock-types have been studied, (1) nearly pure pyrope (GT1) from the magnesian coesite-bearing quartzites, (2) almandine/pyrope dominant garnets (GT2) from jadeite-quartzite veins which crosscut the Mg-quartzite body, (3) almandine/grossular dominant garnets (GT3) from the country-rock gneiss, sampled in the vicinity of the quartzites. In GT1, minor elements are mainly Fe, Na and P. Na and P are incorporated according to a Na^+ + P5+ = Me2+ + Si4+ substitution with P_2O_5 contents up to 2000 to 2500 ppm. HREE concentrations obtained by LA-ICP-MS, vary by 2 orders of magnitude from core to rim. The δ18O ratio (Cameca 1270, Nancy), around 5 ppm (SMOW), is constant within error throughout the analysed crystals. In GT2, the situation is different since HREE concentrations appear remarkably constant within a given crystal and from one crystal to the other. In contrast with GT1, Na in GT2 is partly charge-balanced by yttrium incorporation. The δ18O ratio in GT2 of around 7 ppm is close to that encountered in GT3 (gneiss) between 7 and 8 ppm. In GT3, phosphorus content is close to detection limit (P_2O_5 below 300 ppm). HREE concentrations are highly variable from one crystal to the other and unfortunately, the size of garnet crystals does not allow profiling. Although δ18O ratio in garnet is imposed by the bulk-rock isotopic composition, HREE distribution is dominated by element availability through the fluid composition and/or absence/presence of accessory phases. The decrease in HREE and P concentration from GT1 cores to rims suggest that these elements are preferentially incorporated into garnet. Garnet growth leads to progressive depletion of these elements in the matrix. There is no significant influx of HREE during UHP garnet growth. The homogeneity of the δ18O ratio within garnet crystals is also an indication of UHP growth in a close metamorphic system. Jadeite-quartzite veins have geochemical characteristics close to that of the country-rock gneiss from which they could originate. They would then represent an evidence of Mg-quartzite and country gneiss interaction at UHP.

  15. Quality of life in recipients before and after liver transplantation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Yaprak S; Dicle, Aklime; Wellard, Sally

    2011-09-01

    Liver transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage liver disease. Most studies show a positive effect on quality of life after liver transplantation, but most studies are based on data from Western countries and little is known about quality of life in liver transplant recipients in Turkey or other developing countries. To investigate liver transplant recipients' quality of life and factors affecting it, before and 3 months after transplantation in western Turkey. Descriptive and comparative, with data collected prospectively. Two medical centers in Western Turkey. Sixty-five adult recipients of a liver transplant between May 15 and December 31,2007. Quality of life was measured by using the Nottingham Health Profile Turkish version, and sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from patients' records. Scores on all subscales of the Nottingham Health Profile differed significantly from before to after liver transplantation. The differences between the mean scores for quality of life before and after transplantation varied significantly with the patients' sex and disease severity.

  16. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  17. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  18. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Nader

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades Turkey has experienced a rapid increase in higher education student enrollment. This sharp increase in access to higher education has satisfied a strong social demand for university education but it has led to a growing surplus of university graduates who cannot find adequate jobs. As a result Turkey has entered an…

  19. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  20. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  1. The present status of safeguards in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.

    2001-01-01

    Republic of Turkey signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in Vienna, Austria on January 28, 1969 and the Treaty was ratified by Turkish Parliament on March 29, 1979. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Republic of Turkey signed the Safeguards Agreement on June 30, 1981. Turkey accepted the international safeguards administered by IAEA and at the same time its subsidiary arrangements and Facility attachments were enforced for all nuclear facilities as an Non-Nuclear-Weapon State party to NPT. Regulation on Nuclear Materials Accounting and Control, which was prepared in accordance with Agreement Between the Government of Turkey and IAEA for the application of Safeguard in Connection with the Treaty on NPT, has been put into force since it was published in Official Gazette on September 10, 1997. This study presents the essential futures of national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials in Turkey

  2. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  3. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  4. A-type granites from the Guéra Massif, Central Chad: Petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, and petrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Ha T.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Yeh, Meng-Wan; Lee, Tung-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The poorly studied Saharan Metacraton of North-Central Africa is located between the Arabian-Nubian Shield in the east, the Tuareg Shield in the west and the Central African Orogenic Belt in the south. The Saharan Metacraton is composed of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust and the relics of pre-Neoproterozoic components reactivated during the Pan-African Orogeny. The Republic of Chad, constrained within the Saharan Metacraton, comprises a Phanerozoic cover overlying Precambrian basement outcroppings in four distinct massifs: the Mayo Kebbi, Tibesti, Ouaddaï, and the Guéra. The Guéra massif is the least studied of the four massifs but it likely preserves structures that were formed during the collision between Congo Craton and Saharan Metacraton. The Guéra Massif is composed of mostly granitic rocks. The granitoids have petrologic features that are consistent with A-type granite, such as micrographic intergrowth of sodic and potassic feldspar, the presence of sodic- and iron-rich amphibole, and iron-rich biotite. Compositionally, the granitic rocks of the Guéra Massif have high silica (SiO2 ≥ 68.9 wt.%) content and are metaluminous to marginally peraluminous. The rocks are classified as ferroan calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic with moderately high to very high Fe* ratios. The first zircon U/Pb geochronology of the silicic rocks from the Guéra Massif yielded three main age groups: 590 Ma, 570 Ma, 560 Ma, while a single gabbro yielded an intermediate age ( 580 Ma). A weakly foliated biotite granite yielded two populations, in which the emplacement age is interpreted to be 590 ± 10 Ma, whereas the younger age (550 ± 11 Ma) is considered to be a deformation age. Furthermore, inherited Meso- to Paleoproterozoic zircons are found in this sample. The geochemical and geochronology data indicate that there is a temporal evolution in the composition of rocks with the old, high Mg# granitoids shifting to young, low Mg# granitoids. This reveals that the A-type granites in

  5. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Hallot, E.

    2009-09-01

    A good evaluation of the Quaternary uplift of the Rhenish shield is a key element for the understanding of the Cenozoic geodynamics of the western European platform in front of the alpine arc. Previous maps of the massif uplift relied on fluvial incision data since the time of the rivers' Younger Main Terrace to infer a maximum post-0.73 Ma uplift of ~ 290 m in the SE Eifel. Here, we propose a new interpretation of the incision data of the intra-massif streams, where anomalies in the terrace profiles would result from knickpoint retreat in the tributaries of the main rivers rather than from tectonic deformation. We also use additional geomorphological data referring to (1) deformed Tertiary planation surfaces, (2) the history of stream piracy that severely affected the Meuse basin in the last 1 Ma, and (3) incision data outside the Rhenish shield. A new map of the post-0.73 Ma uplift of the Rhenish shield is drawn on the basis of this enlarged dataset. It reduces the maximum amount of tectonic uplift in the SE Eifel to ~ 140 m and modifies the general shape of the uplift, namely straightening its E-W profile. It is also suggested that an uplift wave migrated across the massif, starting from its southern margin in the early Pleistocene and currently showing the highest intensity of uplift in the northern Ardennes and Eifel. These features seem to favour an uplift mechanism chiefly related to lithospheric folding and minimize the impact on the topography of a more local Eifel plume.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Extreme Saharan Dust Event over Turkey in March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki Baltaci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of an extraordinary Saharan dust episode over Turkey on 23–24 March 2016 and the atmospheric conditions that triggered this event were evaluated in detail. PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm observations from 97 air quality stations, METAR (Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Report observations at 64 airports, atmospheric soundings, and satellite products were used for the analysis. To determine the surface and upper levels of atmospheric circulation, National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Reanalysis data were applied to the extreme dust episodes. On 23 March 2016, high southwesterly winds due to the interaction between surface low- and high-pressure centers over Italy and Levant basin brought thick dust particles from Libya to Turkey. The daily PM10 data from 43 stations exceeded their long-term spring means over Turkey (especially at the northern and western stations. As a consequence of the longitudinal movement of the surface low from Italy to the Balkan Peninsula, and the quasi-stationary conditions of the surface high-pressure center allowed for the penetration of strong south and southwesterly winds to inner parts of the country on the following day. As a consequence, 100%, 90%, 88%, and 87% of the monitoring stations in Marmara (NW Turkey, central Anatolia, western (Aegean and northern (Black Sea regions of Turkey, respectively, exhibited above-normal daily PM10 values. In addition, while strong subsidence at the low levels of the atmosphere plays a significant role in having excessive daily PM10 values in Black Sea, dry atmospheric conditions and thick inversion level near the ground surface of Marmara ensured this region to have peak PM10 values ~00 Local Time (LT.

  7. Global energy perspective of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, H. Mete

    2006-01-01

    Global energy demand is growing rapidly at an average rate of 4% per year in parallel with the economy while EU-25 has only 0,8% during the last decade. Total primary energy supply is 87 818 000 toe of which 72% was imported; in comparison the average dependency rate is 49,5% in the EU. Such excessive dependency creates harmful effects on the national economy. Oil and natural gas imports bill was 19,5 billion US $ in 2005. Primary energy demand growth rate is twice as much of the production rate in the period 1980 2004. Fossil fuels accounts for 86% of Turkeys global energy supply in 2004. Population growth rate is one of the major parameters affecting the energy balance. Energy and electricity consumptions per capita are still one third of the EUs average.. Turkeys coal reserves needs to be utilized at higher rate and hydropower, wind power and geothermal energy potentials should be developed in order to decrease the imported energy dependence, soon. Due to the buy or pay bilateral agreements with suppliers, storage capabilities should be realized for excessive natural gas supply. Turkeys average growth rate of electricity production is 8,1% while installed capacity has 8,5% for the last 25 years. The present total installed capacity is 39 020 MW in which renewables has a share of 34%. Total electricity production was 162 TWh in 2005 of which 75,4% was supplied by thermal power plants. Share of natural gas is 44% of the annual electricity production. Considering the present power plants and the ones under construction, electricity supply and demand will be in balance till the year of 2010 (with high demand scenario) or 2015 (with low demand scenario). Nuclear power is being considered for electricity supply security after 2015. But, the general approach for supply security is first to develop the domestic coal reserves, renewable energy resources.

  8. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  9. Thalassemia mutations in Gaziantep, Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... Table 3. Frequency of β-thalassemia mutations in the Eastern Mediterranean. Mutation. This study Turkey Cyprus Greece Syria Palestine Bulgaria Azerbaijan Iran Iraq. IVS 1.110 (G>A). 29.1. 39.3. 79.7. 42.1. 24.1. 17.6. 24.2. 20.2. 4.8 1.9. IVS 2.1 (G>A). 12.3. 4.7. -. 3.3. 4.2. 2.9. -. -. 33.9 18.3. IVS 1.1 (G>A).

  10. Cyber Security Analysis of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Senturk, Hakan; Çil, Zaim; Sağıroğlu, Şeref

    2016-01-01

    Considering the criticality of the cyber security threat in the 21st century, it is presumed that the nations are busy with series of activities in order to protect their security in the cyber space domain. In this paper, in light of the recent developments in the cyber security field, Turkey’s cyber security analysis is performed using a macro analysis model. We researched for the measures taken in Turkey with respect to those in the other countries, reviewed the posture, the activities and ...

  11. Shared Psychotic Disorder (Folie à Deux in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Cinemre

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Shared psychotic disorder or folie à deux is a rare and relatively unknown syndrome. Large case series are needed to find out and clarify the etiological factors and the phenomenology of shared psychotic disorder by comparing the cases from different society and cultures. In this study, we reviewed all reported cases of shared psychotic disorder that had been published or presented in Turkey since 1962. To reach this aim, we have searched Pubmed/Medline, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Ulakbim Turkish Medical Index, Turkish Psychiatric Index databases for published records originating from Turkey. We have also manually searched poster abstract books of congresses held in Turkey between 1962 and 2009. All cases eligible for inclusion into this study have been evaluated one by one and grouped as primary or secondary cases. The features of these cases were investigated for a number of variables including age, sex, educational level, occupation, the presence of shared delusion and hallucinations, diagnosis, management, onset of illness, family history, IQ, social isolation, the nature of the relationship and classification system used for diagnosis. The results have showed that the syndrome is more frequently observed among women, within same family members and between sisters. Social isolation was the most common risk factor in these patients and most patients shared hallucinations with their partners along with their delusions. Several secondary cases required antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of their symptoms. Though these features were inline with literature findings, the present findings from Turkish population were different from previous studies with regards to the presence of olfactory hallucinations, absence of grandiose delusions and the number of affected family members. The results mostly supported the challenges and discussions in western countries. To understand this most pathological form of interpersonal relationships

  12. A revision of the spider genus Raveniola (Araneae, Nemesiidae. I. Species from Western Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Zonstein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 is found to be represented in Western Asia by 16 species: ♂♀ R. adjarica sp. nov. (Georgia, ♂ R. anadolu sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂ R. arthuri Kunt & Yağmur, 2010 (Turkey, ♂ R. birecikensis sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. dunini sp. nov. (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, ♂♀ R. hyrcanica Dunin, 1988 (Azerbaijan, ♂ R. marusiki sp. nov. (Iran, ♂ R. mazandaranica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 (Iran, ♂♀ R. micropa (Ausserer, 1871 (Turkey, ♀ R. nana sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. niedermeyeri (Brignoli, 1972 (Iran, ♂♀ R. pontica (Spassky, 1937 (Russia, Georgia, ♀ R. sinani sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. turcica sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. vonwicki Zonstein, 2000 (Iran and ♂♀ R. zaitzevi (Charitonov, 1948 (Azerbaijan, Georgia = ♀ Brachythele recki Mcheidze, 1983, syn. nov. Eight species are newly described; others are redescribed from types and/or conspecific material. Males of R. micropa and R. zaitzevi, hitherto unknown, are described for the first time. Data on the variability, relationships, distribution, and ecology of all considered species are also provided.

  13. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  14. Plio-Quaternary river incision rates inferred from burial dating (Al-26/Be-10) of in cave-deposited alluvium in the Meuse catchment (E Belgium): new insights into the uplift history of the Ardennes massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Peeters, Alexandre; Demoulin, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Although the Late Cenozoic uplift of the intraplate Variscan Ardennes/Rhenish massif (N Europe) has been long studied, its causes, shape and timing are still under debate (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). This is mainly due to the scarcity of reliable ages for uplift markers, such as Quaternary terrace staircases along the deeply-incised valleys or Late Tertiary planation surfaces. In parallel, multi-level cave systems in limestone rocks, wherein abandoned phreatic passages filled with alluvium represent former phases of fluvial base-level stability, record the history of regional river incision (Anthony & Granger, 2007). Here, we present new burial ages (Al-26/Be-10) from fluvial gravels washed in a multi-level cave system developed in Devonian limestones of the lower Ourthe valley (main Ardennian tributary of the Meuse). Our results highlight a significant increase of incision rates from the Middle Pleistocene on, and allow reconstructing the incision history in the northern part of the Ardennes over the last 3.4 Ma. These long-term incision rates derived from burial ages are then discussed in relation to the existing studies dealing with river incision and/or tectonic uplift of the Ardennes/Rhenish massif (e.g. Demoulin & Hallot, 2009; Rixhon et al., 2011). Our cosmogenic nuclide ages thus enlarge the data pool required to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of the drainage system's incision response to combined tectonic and climatic signals. References Anthony, D., Granger, D.E., 2007. A new chronology for the age of Appalachian erosional surfaces determined by cosmogenic nuclides in cave sediments. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 874-887 Demoulin, A., Hallot, E., 2009. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe). Tectonophysics 474, 696-708. Rixhon, G., et al., 2011. Quaternary river incision in NE Ardennes (Belgium): Insights from Be-10/Al-26 dating of rive terraces. Quaternary Geochronology 6

  15. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  16. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  17. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kucukomeroglu, B.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.

    2011-01-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and 137 Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h -1 and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y -1 . In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y -1 from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: → →The study highlights activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil. → The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. → The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. → Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. → The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  18. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ORIENTAL SPRUCE (PICEA ORIENTALIS ECOSYSTEMS IN EASTERN BLACKSEA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Tüfekçioğlu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been getting more attention from scientific community recently. Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey will get significant influences from the climate change according to regional climate model (RegCM3. Oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L. is an important tree species of Turkey and it only grows in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. With the increase in global warming, spruce forests started to have serious bark beetle problems. More than 200 000 trees died in the region recently due to bark beetle attack. We used existing literature related to oriental spruce and future climate of the region and field observations done in the different times to assess current status of the spruce stands. Future climate of the region has been predicted using RegCM3 regional climate model. Climate change could significantly influence distribution, diversity, structure and stability of the oriental spruce ecosystems. According to RegCM3 regional climate model, the temperatures will increase 2-4 °C in the region in the next century. Future climate scenarios predict 200-300 mm increases in precipitation in the eastern part of the region while the western part won't have any increase in precipitation in the next century. Temperature increases in the western part of the region can cause more stress on spruce trees and would probably increase bark beetle attacks. Also, fire could become an important threat in the western part of the region. It is possible to observe 400-800 m upward shift in the spruce belt in the western part. Treeline of spruce stands would probably move upward both in western and eastern part of the North-eastern Blacksea Region.

  19. Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2006-04-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  20. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. Selection of a particular biomass for energy requirements is influenced by its availability, source and transportation cost, competing uses and prevalent fossil fuel prices. Utilization of biomass is a very attractive energy resource, particularly for developing countries since biomass uses local feedstocks and labor. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to provide much of its energy requirement. More efficient use of biomass in producing energy, both electrical and thermal, may allow Turkey to reduce petroleum imports, thus affecting its balance of payments dramatically. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries in the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being one of the major resources in Turkey. Biomass waste materials can be used in Turkey to provide centralized, medium- and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production. Turkey's first biomass power project is under development in Adana province, at an installed capacity of 45 MW. Two others, at a total capacity of 30 MW, are at the feasibility study stage in Mersin and Tarsus provinces. Electricity production from biomass has been found to be a promising method in the nearest future in Turkey

  1. The mountains influence on Turkey Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensoy, Serhat

    2004-01-01

    Since the Black sea mountains at the north of the country and the Taurus mountains in the south lay parallel to the seashore and rise very sharply rain clouds can not penetrate to the internal part of the country. Rain clouds drops most of their water on the slopes opposite the sea. As rain clouds pass over the mountains and reach Central Anatolia they have no significant capability of rain. For this reason, the Central Anatolia does not have very much precipitation. The difference between the rates of precipitation on the inner and outer slopes seems to be effective on the expansion of plants. For example, there is a subtropical climate prevailing on the Black sea shore between Sinop and Batum where precipitation is more than 1000-2000 mm yearly. Going from Sinop to the mouth of the Sakarya River the rate of precipitation goes down to 800-1250 mm in a year. Running from the Sakarya River to the western area covering Thrace the climate seems to be continental, and in the area dominant plant cover is of the Mediterranean type. Since the succession of the mountains in Western Anatolia lay perpendicular to the seashore, rain clouds penetrate towards the inner regions for about 400 km. The continental climate with long, dry and summer affects this area. In the Eastern region of Anatolia, since the elevation of the mountains exceeds 2500-3000 m, valleys are disorderly scattered and located at high elevations, and the northern Black sea mountains and Caucasian mountains hold the rain clouds, the area is effected by the continental climate with long and very cold winters. Consequently precipitation at the lgdir River goes down to 300 mm while it is 500-800 mm in most of areas and 1000-1500 mm in some regions towards northern Mu and Bingol provinces. As mentioned above, high mountains, which hold rain clouds, surround the Central Anatolia, which has caused drought in this region. In the central Anatolia covering Afyon, Eski hir, Ankara, Qankiri, Qorum, Amasya, Kayseri

  2. The hydrothermal alteration in the context of geologic evolution from Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Massif, MG-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Massif covers 800 km 2 , a quarter of which is hydrothermally altered. Such proportion is uncommon, when compared to the know alkaline massifs of the world. The hydrothermal alteration is associated with Zr, U and Mo mineralizations which are predominantly located in the central-southern portion of the massif, in the central-eastern circular structure. The colour of the altered rock (and its soil) in that area is typically whitish beige to yellowish white and is regionally called potassic rock. The Osamu Utsumi Mine, also referred to as the uranium ore of Campo do Cercado, is located 25 Km to the south of Pocos de Caldas City and was explored, from 1977 to 1989, through the open pit method. A sequence of alteration minerals adapted to lowering temperatures should be expected; however, only illite and alkaline feldspar are observed in the hydrothermally altered portions of the massif, and their formation must have been controlled mainly by kinetic, other than thermal factors. The irrestrict circulation of relatively hotter hydrothermal fluids must have happened at the beginning of the process, diminishing immediately after the cooling of the brecciated areas (and the subjacent magmatic body), leading the system to kinetics levels that made subsequent hydrothermal alteration impossible. (author)

  3. Uraninite, coffinite and brannerite from shear-zone hosted uranium deposits of the Bohemian Massif (Central European Variscan belt)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    René, Miloš; Dolníček, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 50. ISSN 2075-163X Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : uranium deposits * mineralogy * uraninite * coffinite * brannerite * Moldanubian Zone * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.088, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/2075-163X/7/4/50

  4. Temporal evolution of mineralization events in the Bohemian Massif inferred from the Re-Os geochronology of molybdenite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ackerman, Lukáš; Haluzová, Eva; Creaser, R. A.; Pašava, J.; Veselovský, F.; Breiter, Karel; Erban, V.; Drábek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2017), s. 651-662 ISSN 0026-4598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Re-Os * geochronology * molybdenite * Bohemian Massif * granite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.396, year: 2016

  5. Permo-Carboniferous volcanism in late Variscan continental basins of the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic): geochemical characteristic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Pešek, J.; Štěpánková-Svobodová, Jana; Bosák, Pavel; Lloyd, F. E.; Seckendorff, von, V.; Lang, Miloš; Novák, Jiří Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2006), s. 37-56 ISSN 0009-2819 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Permo-Carboniferous * volcanics * continental basin * Bohemian Massif * underplating * crustal anatexis * Sr-Nd isotopes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.824, year: 2006

  6. Comprenhensive Program of Engineering and Geologic Surveys for Designing and Constructing Radioactive Waste Storage Facilities in Hard Rock Massifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, T.; Milovidov, V.; Prokopoca, O.; Jardine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and engineering-geological research conducted at the 'Yeniseisky' site obtained data on climatic, geomorphologic, geological conditions, structure and properties of composing rock, and conditions of underground water recharge and discharge. These results provide suficient information to make an estimate of the suitability of locating a radioactive waste (RW) underground isolation facility at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif.

  7. Monazite and zircon as major carriers of Th, U, and Y in peraluminous granites: examples from the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 6 (2016), s. 767-785 ISSN 0930-0708 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13600S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : zircon * monazite * granites * trace elements * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.236, year: 2016

  8. Granitic magma emplacement and deformation during early-orogenic syn-convergent transtension: The Stare Sedlo complex, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, J.; Chadima, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, JUL (2015), s. 50-66 ISSN 0264-3707 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) * Bohemian Massif * pluton emplacement * granite * transtension * Variscan orogeny Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2015

  9. Modelling the Middle Pleistocene uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif: Thermo-mechanical weakening under the Eifel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Balen, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Middle Pleistocene uplift in the Eifel has been interpreted as the isostatic response of the lithosphere to a deep buoyant hot body. The spatial and temporal distribution of the uplift in the Ardennes-Rhenish Massif Region has recently been constrained by new data of river incision that have been

  10. The Dilemma and Solutions for the Conflicts between Equality and Excellence in the Massification of Higher Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiou-Huai, Wang

    2012-01-01

    Equality and excellence are two core values underlying many educational endeavors; however, they are often in conflict and controversy. This article intends to examine the dilemma created by such controversies in the context of massification of higher education in Taiwan and attempt to provide solutions from both the theoretical and policy…

  11. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic dynamics of the Bohemian Massif inferred from the paleostress history of the Lusatian Fault Belt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coubal, Miroslav; Málek, Jiří; Adamovič, Jiří; Štěpančíková, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, July 1 (2015), s. 26-49 ISSN 0264-3707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/0573 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : paleostress * fault kinematics * Lusatian Fault Belt * Elbe fault system * Bohemian Massif * Alpine foreland Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2015

  12. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Erhan, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other

  13. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  14. Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rossi; Daniel Leigh

    2002-01-01

    In light of the strong correlation between exchange rate movements and domestic prices in Turkey, it is important to assess the impact of the exchange rate on domestic prices, in particular as Turkey moves to an inflation targeting regime. This paper uses a recursive vector autoregression model to investigate the impact of exchange rate movements on prices in Turkey. We find that (i) the impact of the exchange rate on prices is over after about a year, but is mostly felt in the first four mon...

  15. Effect of rapid rigor mortis processes on protein functionality in pectoralis major muscle of domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, M; Greaser, M L; Sosnicki, A A

    1997-08-01

    The pale, soft, exudative (PSE) phenomenon in turkey pectoralis major (breast) muscle was studied using a combination of biochemical, meat quality, microscopic, and gel electrophoresis techniques. Breast muscle samples were collected from turkeys characterized by slow vs fast postmortem glycolysis assessed by muscle pH at 20 min after death. The PSE group was characterized by lower muscle ATP (P < .05) and higher lactate levels (P < .05) compared with the normal group. Excess water-holding capacity and cooking yield were significantly lower (P < .05) in the PSE group than in normal turkeys. Breast muscle of the PSE group was also lighter (P < .05) than that in the normal group as determined by Minolta L* values. The SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that phosphorylase, a soluble enzyme, became tightly associated with the myofibrils in muscle from the PSE group. Also, less myosin could be solubilized from PSE vs normal myofibril samples. The results indicate that irreversible myosin insolubility due to low pH and high-temperature conditions is decisive in the development of PSE turkey breast muscle.

  16. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Kocaeli basin, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakelle, B.; Oeztuerk, N.; Erkol, A.Y.; Koese, A.; Varinlioglu, A.; Yilmaz, F.

    2002-01-01

    The city of Kocaeli is in the western part of Anatolia in Turkey and has a population of approximately 1.000.000. There is no information about radioactivity in the Kocaeli soils samples so far. For this reason, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in soil samples from 27 different sampling stations in Kocaeli Basin and its surroundings have been determined. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils. The typical concentrations of 137 Cs, 238 U, 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th found in surface soil samples ranged from 2 ± 0.6 to 25 ± 6 Bq/kg, from 11 ± 4 to 49 ± 10 Bq/kg, from 161 ± 30 to 964 ± 127 Bq/kg, from 10 ± 4 to 58 ± 11 Bq/kg, and from 11 ± 3 to 65 ± 13 Bq/kg, respectively. (author)

  17. The Vascular Flora of Rarău Massif (Eastern Carpathians, Romania. Note I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Oprea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the flora of the Rarău Massif, an area lying in the northeastern part of Romania, nearby the town of Câmpulung Moldovenesc. This study attempt to list all the vascular plants (i.e. ferns, conifers, and flowering plants from the whole area of Rarău Massif. Till now, there are published several papers on this area, but no paper deals with the whole surface of Rarău Massif. The research was carried out between 2000 to 2011. During the study period, 1377 taxa (1089 species and 288 subspecies, belonging to 95 families and 411 genera; 43 of the species belong to Pteridophytes, 8 belongs to Gymnosperms, and 1038 belongs to Angiosperms (835 Dicotyledons, 203 Monocotyledons subdivisions. The largest families (in terms of the number of species and subspecies included are: Asteraceae (167, Poaceae (78, Brassicaceae (53, Rosaceae and Lamiaceae (50, Scrophulariaceae and Cyperaceae (47, Caryophyllaceae and Ranunculaceae (42. The highest number of species, of a certain genus, is like the next: Carex L. (39, Centaurea L. (25, Hieracium L. (21, Festuca L. (19, Senecio L. (12, Cirsium, Pilosella, and Poa (11, etc. Since the flora of the area is analysed according to Raunkiaer’s life forms, the results are as follows: Hemicryptophytes 605 species (H=55.6%, Cryptophytes (also called Geophytes 137 species (G=12.6%, Therophytes 120 species (11.0%, Phanerophytes 84 species (Ph=7.7%, Chamaephytes 57 species (Ch=5.2%, Hemitherophytes 77 species (Ht=7.1%, Helo-hydatophytes 8 species (HH=0.7%, and Epiphytes 1 species (Ep=0.1%. The phytogeographic elements are the next ones: European=375 species (36.6%, Eurasian=349 species (34.0%, Circumboreal=148 species (14.8%, Cosmopolite=37 species (3.6%, Carpathians=31 species (3.0%, Pontics=19 species (1.9%, Mediterranean-submediterrannean=11 species (1.1%, and Adventitious=2 species (0.2%. The number of endemic and near-endemic taxa (species and subspecies within the study area is 53 (5.2%.

  18. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  19. Geothermal Field Investigations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, N.; Özer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a type of energy that are found in the accessible depth of the crust, in the reservoirs by way of the permeable rocks, specially in heated fluid. Geothermal system is made of 3 main components; heat source, reservoir, and fluid bearing heat. Geothermal system mechanism is comprise of fluid transmission. Convection current (heat transmission) is caused by heating and causes the fluid in the system to expand. Heated fluid with low density show tendency to rise in system. Geothermal system occurs with variable geophysics and geochemical properties. Geophysical methods can determine structural properties of shallow and deep reservoirs with temperature, mineralization, gas amount, fluid movement, faulting, and sudden change in lithostratigraphic strata. This study revealed possible reservoir structures and showed examples of geophysics and gas measuring results in Turkey which is wealthy in regard to Geothermal sources.

  20. Wage Inequality and Wage Mobility in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Dalgıç, Başak; Güven, Aytekin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates wage inequality and wage mobility in Turkey using the Surveys on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). This is the first paper that explores wage mobility for Turkey. It differs from the existing literature by providing analyses of wage inequality and wage mobility over various socioeconomic groups such as gender, age, education and sector of economic activity. We first present an overview of the evolution of wages and wage inequality over the period 2005-2011. Next, w...

  1. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  2. U.S.-Turkey Strategic Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2012-01-01

    FY 2012-2013. Project Leads: Clement, Victoria and Gingeras, Ryan The primary objectives of this effort are twofold: to better understand and identify solutions to the current and potential challenges to U.S. national security interests in the Middle East, and to enhance understanding of and cooperation with Turkey through a Track II dialogue. The dialogue will provide policymakers with accessible intelligence, informed by on the ground discussions with relevant stakeholders in Turkey. NA

  3. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  4. Past nuclear power project experiences of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutukcuoglu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, developments in the world for utilization of nuclear energy and, in parallel to these developments, works undertaken in Turkey are summarized. Besides this, future prospects in the field of nuclear energy in the world and in Turkey, and our opinion about the action to be taken in our county, in the light of past experiences of nuclear power projects that could not be succeeded, are presented

  5. U/Pb dating: brioverian age of the Erquy series (Armorican massif, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocherie, A.; Chantraine, J.; Egal, E.; Fanning, C.M.; Dabard, M.P.; Paris, F.; Le Herisse, A.

    2001-01-01

    New U/Pb analyses obtained with a high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) fix an age of 608 ± 7 Ma for spilites of the Erquy series, in Cadomian rocks of the Armorican massif, France. This Neo-proterozoic age re-integrates this unit into the Brioverian, the age it was initially assigned to. A Rb/sr whole-rock dating in the 1970's had undermined the regional Cadomian model, by suggesting an Ordovician age for these rocks; this was apparently further supported by the discovery of organic remains, interpreted as Paleozoic micro-fossils. The reassessment of this paleontologic attribution and the new isotope dating are a final confirmation of the age of this series. (authors)

  6. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  7. Characterization of potassic materials of Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, P.; Navarro, F.C.; Roveri, C.D.; Bergerman, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium, which has featured in Brazil's agricultural sector and in the world's in the application of fertilizers, is present in magmatic rocks, such as nepheline syenite and phonolite, found in the Alkaline Massif of Pocos de Caldas (AMPC). The rare earth elements (REE), in turn, also occur in this region and have important uses in various industrial fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of potassic rocks of AMPC in the fertilizer and rare earths industry. Five samples were collected and characterized. It was observed that there was no preferential concentration by granulometric range of potassium oxide, alumina, silica and iron oxide. Feldspathic mass, potash feldspar, and muscovite were found in all samples. The samples show REE with amounts greater than those found in the earth's crust, except for lutetium and scandium and possessed average content of potassium oxide from 8.70 to 14.40%. (author)

  8. Mineral compositions of plutonic rocks from the Lewis Hills massif, Bay of Islands ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan E.; Elthon, Don

    1988-01-01

    Mineral compositions of residual and cumulate rocks from the Lewis Hills massif of the Bay of Islands ophiolite complex are reported and interpreted in the context of magnetic processes involved in the geochemical evolution of spatially associated diabase dikes. The mineral compositions reflect greater degrees of partial melting than most abyssal peridotites do and appear to represent the most depleted end of abyssal peridotite compositions. Subsolidus equilibration between Cr-Al spinal and olivine generally has occurred at temperatures of 700 to 900 C. The spinel variations agree with the overall fractionation of basaltic magmas producing spinels with progressively lower Cr numbers. The compositions of clinopyroxenes suggest that the fractionation of two different magma series produced the various cumulate rocks.

  9. GLOBAL SOURCING: A THEORETICAL STUDY ON TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac GOKMEN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sourcing is to source from the global market for goods and services across national boundaries in order to take advantage of the global efficiencies in the delivery of a product or service. Such efficiencies are consists of low cost skilled labor, low cost raw materials and other economic factors like tax breaks and deductions as well as low trade tariffs. When we assess the case regarding to Turkey, global sourcing is an effective device for some firms. The domestic firms in Turkey at various industries are inclined to global source finished or intermediate goods from the world markets, finish the production process in Turkey and export. Eventually, on the one hand the export volume of Turkey increases, but on the other hand the import of a considerable volume of finished or intermediate goods bring about a negative trade balance and loss of jobs in Turkey. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the concept of global sourcing transactions on Turkey resting on comprehensive publications.

  10. Oil and gas market developments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Turkey's strategic location makes it a natural 'energy bridge' between major oil and gas producing areas in the Middle East and Caspian Sea regions on one hand and consumer markets in Europe on the other. Oil consumption has increased in recent years in Turkey, and this trend is expected to continue, with growth of 2-3% annually in coming years. The annual oil consumption of the country is around 31.3 million tons, while 83% of total consumption is supplied from imports and only 17% is supplied from indigenous production. Oil provides around 43% of Turkey's total energy requirements, but its share is declining (as the share of natural gas rises). On the other hand, due to diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas was newly introduced into the Turkish economy in 1987 and has been growing rapidly. Turkey's natural gas reserves seem limited and current gas production in the country meets 2.8% of domestic consumption requirements. The annual natural gas consumption of Turkey is around 14.7 billion m 3 and is assumed to increase by 12% per annum. Turkish natural gas use is projected to increase dramatically in coming years, with the prime consumers expected to be industry and power plants. Turkey has chosen natural gas as the preferred fuel for the massive amount of new power plant capacity to be added in coming years. (Author)

  11. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  12. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  13. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  14. Thorium research and development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güngör, Görkem

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has a great potential regarding thorium resources. Thorium exploration activities have been done in the past mainly by state organizations for determining the thorium resources in Turkey. Thorium occurs as complex mineral together with barite, fluorite and rare earth elements (REE). The increase in global demand for REE creates the opportunity for REE production which will also produce thorium as a by-product. The development of nuclear energy program in Turkey provides the stimulus for research and development activities in nuclear technologies. The final declaration of the workshop emphasizes the importance of thorium reserves in Turkey and the necessity for thorium exploration and development activities in order to determine the feasibility of thorium mining and fuel cycle in Turkey. These activities should be conducted together with the development of technologies for separation of these complex minerals and purification of thorium, REE and other minerals to be utilized as commercial products. There are advanced academic research studies on thorium fuel cycle which should be supported by the industry in order to commercialize the results of these studies. Turkey should be integrated to international R and D activities on ADS which is expected to commercialize on medium term. The legislative framework should be developed in order to provide the industrial baseline for nuclear technologies independent from nuclear regulatory activities

  15. The cooling history and the depth of detachment faulting at the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeesters, Nicole; Cheadle, Michael J.; John, Barbara E.; Reiners, Peter W.; Gee, Jeffrey; Grimes, Craig B.

    2012-10-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are domal exposures of oceanic crust and mantle interpreted to be denuded to the seafloor by large slip oceanic detachment faults. We combine previously reported U-Pb zircon crystallization ages with (U-Th)/He zircon thermochronometry and multicomponent magnetic remanence data to determine the cooling history of the footwall to the Atlantis Massif OCC (30°N, MAR) and help establish cooling rates, as well as depths of detachment faulting and gabbro emplacement. We present nine new (U-Th)/He zircon ages for samples from IODP Hole U1309D ranging from 40 to 1415 m below seafloor. These data paired with U-Pb zircon ages and magnetic remanence data constrain cooling rates of gabbroic rocks from the upper 800 m of the central dome at Atlantis Massif as 2895 (+1276/-1162) °C Myr-1 (from ˜780°C to ˜250°C); the lower 600 m of the borehole cooled more slowly at mean rates of ˜500 (+125/-102) °C Myr-1(from ˜780°C to present-day temperatures). Rocks from the uppermost part of the hole also reveal a brief period of slow cooling at rates of ˜300°C Myr-1, possibly due to hydrothermal circulation to ˜4 km depth through the detachment fault zone. Assuming a fault slip rate of 20 mm/yr (from U-Pb zircon ages of surface samples) and a rolling hinge model for the sub-surface fault geometry, we predict that the 780°C isotherm lies at ˜7 km below the axial valley floor, likely corresponding both to the depth at which the semi-brittle detachment fault roots and the probable upper limit of significant gabbro emplacement.

  16. A study on evaluating the power generation of solar-wind hybrid systems in Izmir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulgen, K. [Ege Univ., Solar Energy Inst., Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, A. [Ege Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-03-15

    Turkey is abundant in terms of renewable energy resources. Residential and industrial utilization of solar energy started in the 1980s, while the first Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) windmill park, located at Alacati, Izmir, was commissioned in 1998. Additionally, power generation through solar-wind hybrid systems has recently appeared on the Turkish market. This study investigates the wind and solar thermal power availability in Izmir, located in the western part of Turkey. Simple models were developed to determine wind, solar, and hybrid power resources per unit area. Experimental data, consisting of hourly records over a 5 yr period, 1995-1999, were measured in the Solar/Wind Meteorological Station of the Solar Energy Institute at Ege University. Correlations between solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, a daily, and a monthly basis. It can be concluded that possible applications of hybrid systems could be considered for the efficient utilization of these resources. (Author)

  17. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.

    2013-01-01

    from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...... turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48......) of a turkey company that produces 99% of domestic turkey meat in Finland were interviewed about background information, management at the farm, and stress factors related to NE outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with SmaI restriction enzyme resulted in 30 PFGE patterns among the 92 C...

  18. Geologic-geochemical characteristics of Guidong granitic massif and recognition of geo-tectonic environment at the time of its emplacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianhong, Li; Shanyuan, Wei; Mingyue, Feng [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Liang, Liang [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China)

    2004-11-01

    Based on the study of geologic characteristics, such as mineralogic assemblage, structural and textural features of granite of Guidong granitic massif, and by using petrochemical, trace-element and isotopic data, and some petrochemical, trace-element and isotopic diagrams widely applied to the identification of geo-tectonic environments, authors recognize that Guidong granitic massif was emplaced in post-orogenic collision environment. (authors)

  19. Instrument-Aided Assessment of the Effect of Natural and Technogenic Factors on the Geomechanical State of a Massif Enclosing an HPP Turbine Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, N. N., E-mail: Abramov@goi.kolasc.net.ru; Epimakhov, Yu. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mining Institute, Kola Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    A package of geophysical criteria has been developed using seismic spatiotemporal tomography (SST) of a rock massif to perform an instrument-aided assessment of the effect of natural and technogenic factors on the geomechanical state of a rock massif enclosing an underground turbine room at an HPP. Results are presented for a detailed assessment for the underground turbine room at the Verkhnyaya Tuloma HPP on the Kola peninsula.

  20. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  1. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2008 as well radon activity concentrations measured in dwellings, and absorbed gamma dose rates in air obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and gross alpha/beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples are to be found as 26.0±0.9 Bq kg - 1, 31.6±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and438.5tively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs is to be found as 10.5±1.0 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor caused from the external exposure from natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated as 49.4 nGy h - 1 and 0.06 mSv y - 1, repectively. The activitity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples are lowere than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide is not observed. The mean value of the activity concentration of 4 0K measured in food samples in seven categories is found as 129.8±11.3 Bq kg - 1. While the values of the activity concentration of 1 37Cs are below the MDA except mushroom and hazelnut. The mean activity concentration of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples is 0.61 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure due to radiation

  3. Turkey-U.S. Defense Cooperation: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    to cultivate stability or to be unduly provocative to neighboring countries. • Arms sales and industrial cooperation: Turkey continues to seek... mushroomed and Kurdish secessionist sentiment within Turkey caused concerns in the 1990s following the establishment of an autonomous Kurdish zone...a member of NATO), and has counted on previously close Turkey-Israel military relations to cultivate U.S.-Turkey-Israel military cooperation

  4. Migration Crisis and New Opportunities for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Miheev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the relationship of the European Union and Turkey. Against the backdrop of the immigration crisis, that has gripped almost all countries in Europe, the EU states were forced to appeal to the Turkish Government for assistance. Europe requested to withhold part of the f refugees on the territory of Turkey. The EU promised financial support. The Government of RecepTayyip Erdogan linked problems with the issue of refugees entering the country in the EU. The author analyzes the possibility of positive promotion of the negotiation process on Turkey's EU membership. Focuses on the settlement of the Cyprus problem, as one of the three major political obstacles to Turkey in Europe. We are seeing a situation in which EU political circles are willing to exert pressure on the Cyprus conflict and to push for the signing of a formal treaty on the settlement of problem. Some progress in the negotiation process between the communities of Cyprus EU starts to participate in the negotiations on Cyprus, together with the United Nations. Creates good conditions for the settlement of the conflict. Such a way of resolving the long-standing territorial-community conflict creates much more new problems on the island. Obstacles to the integration of Turkey into the EU will become even more.

  5. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE NEET IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bilgen Susanli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, drawing on data from the Household Labor Force Surveys over the period 2004-2013, it examines the determinants of the NEET (Not in Employment, Education or Training status for the Turkish youth. This is particularly important for Turkey as it has the highest NEET rate among the OECD countries. Second, it describes the movement of the youth across four states: education, employment, unemployment and inactivity. Probit results indicate that gender and educational attainment are key factors for explaining the NEET status. Findings also show that a greater number of household members that are in employment is associated with a lower likelihood of NEET. Transition analyses reveal that the state of inactivity remains highly persistent despite the substantial fall over the sample period. In addition, the rise in the persistence of education between 2007 and 2009 underlines the choice of the youth to stay in education in response to the fall in labor market prospects.

  7. Turkey Point tritium. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.; Dorsey, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972-73 the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) began operation of two nuclear reactors at Turkey Point on lower Biscayne Bay. One radioactive by-product resulting from the operation of the nuclear reactors, tritium, provides a unique opportunity to study transport and exchange processes on a local scale. Since the isotope in the form of water is not removed from the liquid effluent, it is discharged to the cooling canal system. By studying its residence time in the canal and the pathways by which it leaves the canals, knowledge of evaporative process, groundwater movement, and bay exchange with the ocean can be obtained. Preliminary results obtained from measurement of tritium levels, both in the canal system and in the surrounding environment are discussed. Waters in lower Biscayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds receive only a small portion of the total tritium produced by the nuclear plant. The dominating tritium loss most likely is through evaporation from the canals. The capability of measuring extremely low HTO levels allows the determination of the evaporation rate experimentally by measuring the tritium levels of air after having passed over the canals

  8. Sm-Nd age of ultrabasite-basite massifs of east part of Baikal-Mujya ophiolite belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izokh, A.Eh.; Gibsher, A.S.; Zhuravlev, D.Z.; Balykin, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two stratified ultrabasite-basite massifs of the Urals mountains were selected for isotope-geochemical studies. The intrusives, related to plutonic members of the island-arc associations, were used for dating. The Sm-Nd method indicated that one more belt, namely the Vend belt, is taking shape in the Baikal-Mujya tectonic collage alongside with the later Riphean (pre-Baikal) episubconduction belt of stratified intrusives [ru

  9. Boundaries of mantle–lithosphere domains in the Bohemian Massif as extinct exhumation channels for high-pressure rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2013), s. 973-987 ISSN 1342-937X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA ČR GAP210/12/2381; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * mantle lithosphere domains * fossil olivine fabric * high pressure Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 8.122, year: 2013

  10. Volcanic and geochemical evolution of the Teno massif, Tenerife, Canary Islands: some repercussions of giant landslides on ocean island magmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Troll, Valentin R.; Walter, Thomas R.; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale, catastrophic mass wasting is a major process contributing to the dismantling of oceanic intraplate volcanoes. Recent studies, however, have highlighted a possible feedback relationship between flank collapse, or incipient instability, and subsequent episodes of structural rearrangement and/or renewed volcano growth. The Teno massif, located in northwestern Tenerife (Canary Islands), is a deeply eroded Miocene shield volcano that was built in four major eruptive phases punctuated ...

  11. Peculiarity of rock massif deformation under explosion impact (by the example of Zarechie area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, Eh.M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper systematize the results of study of man-caused situation formed outside the central zone of underground nuclear explosion (CZ UNE), at a testing area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) - Zarechie. The consequence effects of nuclear testing appeared in the rock massif and on the ground surface in the radius of 0.3-5 km from event epicenter are described. (author)

  12. Constraints on the origin of gabbroic rocks from the Moldanubian-Moravian units boundary (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic and Austria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Ackerman, Lukáš; Kachlík, V.; Hegner, E.; Balogh, K.; Langrová, Anna; Luna, J.; Fediuk, F.; Lang, M.; Filip, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2010), s. 175-191 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013403; GA AV ČR IAA300130902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : gabbroic rocks * geochemistry * Sr-Nd isotopes * K-Ar ages * Moravian Unit * Moldanubian Unit * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2010

  13. Joint inversion of teleseismic P waveforms and surface-wave group velocities from ambient seismic noise in the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 107-140 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA AV ČR IAA300120709; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : receiver function * seismic noise * joint inversion * Bohemian Massif * velocity structure Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2012

  14. Developing the lithotectonic framework and model for sulphide mineralization in the Jebilet Massif, Morocco: implications for regional exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Lusty, Paul A.J.; Goodenough, Kathryn M.; Essaifi, Abderrahim; Maacha, Lhou

    2015-01-01

    The central Jebilet massif, part of the North African Variscan Belt, hosts significant polymetallic sulphide mineralization. It is generally considered syngenetic and has many features of volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) mineralization. However, some characteristics are not compatible with a classic VMS model and two alternative scenarios for formation have been proposed. Our preliminary research favours a complex, multi-stage development of the sulphide deposits...

  15. Structure, emplacement, and tectonic setting of Late Devonian granitoid plutons in the Teplá–Barrandian unit, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, J.; Kratinová, Zuzana; Trubač, J.; Janoušek, V.; Sláma, Jiří; Mrlina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 7 (2011), s. 1477-1495 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300120702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Teplá-Barrandian unit * Variscan orogeny * granite * pluton * subduction Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2011

  16. Seismic refraction technique aplications in the geotechnical characterization of the Cachoeira deposit massif, Caetite, State of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagutti Filho, W.; Oliveira Braga, T. de.

    1984-01-01

    Geophysical surveys throught the Cachoeira Uranium deposit massif were carried out with the purpose of assisting in the geotechnical characterization for the implantation of the Mining-Industrial Complex projects on the Lagoa Real uranium deposits, Caetite municipality, state of Bahia, Brazil. This study discusses the methodology utilized in the geophysical surveys and their results as well as their applications to the geotechnical characterization as a whole. (D.J.M.) [pt

  17. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai

    2016-08-01

    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  18. Seismotectonic significance of the 2008–2010 Walloon Brabant seismic swarm in the Brabant Massif, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Shah, Anjana K.; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Between 12 July 2008 and 18 January 2010 a seismic swarm occurred close to the town of Court-Saint-Etienne, 20 km SE of Brussels (Belgium). The Belgian network and a temporary seismic network covering the epicentral area established a seismic catalogue in which magnitude varies between ML -0.7 and ML 3.2. Based on waveform cross-correlation of co-located earthquakes, the spatial distribution of the hypocentre locations was improved considerably and shows a dense cluster displaying a 200 m-wide, 1.5-km long, NW-SE oriented fault structure at a depth range between 5 and 7 km, located in the Cambrian basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic Anglo-Brabant Massif. Waveform comparison of the largest events of the 2008–2010 swarm with an ML 4.0 event that occurred during swarm activity between 1953 and 1957 in the same region shows similar P- and S-wave arrivals at the Belgian Uccle seismic station. The geometry depicted by the hypocentral distribution is consistent with a nearly vertical, left-lateral strike-slip fault taking place in a current local WNW–ESE oriented local maximum horizontal stress field. To determine a relevant tectonic structure, a systematic matched filtering approach of aeromagnetic data, which can approximately locate isolated anomalies associated with hypocentral depths, has been applied. Matched filtering shows that the 2008–2010 seismic swarm occurred along a limited-sized fault which is situated in slaty, low-magnetic rocks of the Mousty Formation. The fault is bordered at both ends with obliquely oriented magnetic gradients. Whereas the NW end of the fault is structurally controlled, its SE end is controlled by a magnetic gradient representing an early-orogenic detachment fault separating the low-magnetic slaty Mousty Formation from the high-magnetic Tubize Formation. The seismic swarm is therefore interpreted as a sinistral reactivation of an inherited NW–SE oriented isolated fault in a weakened crust within the Cambrian core of

  19. Large plates and small blocks: The Variscan orogeny in the Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2017-04-01

    The Bohemian Massif of the Central European Variscides consists of several late Proterozoic / early Paleozoic low-strain crustal units, namely the Bruno-Vistulian continental block of the Laurussian plate that is juxtaposed with the Tepla-Barrandian Unit and the Lausitz block of the Gondwana plate. These pre-Variscan low-strain units are separated by high-strain zones that contain the mid- and lower crustal record of the Variscan orogeny (400-300 Ma), with nappes reflecting successive subduction exhumation events, voluminous migmatites and a wide range of geochemically contrasting granites. Although the principal constraints are undisputed, there is no consensus regarding the general tectonics of this area. Here we present a plate tectonic model explaining the Bohemian Massif as an orogenic wedge with a Gondwana pro-wedge and a Laurussia retro-wedge area. The principal formation steps are as follows. Subduction of the oceanic crust of the Gondwana plate, i.e. the southern part of the Rheic Ocean eventually followed by continental subduction of the distal Peri-Gondwana shelf produced the early Devonian (U)HP complexes now exposed in the uppermost allochthonous units. The arrival of the Tepla-Barrandian Cadomian block initiates a flip of subduction polarity, leading to the complete closure of the Rheic Ocean in the late Devonian coeval with the exhumation of the early Variscan (U)HP units. Caused by the Lausitz block entering the plate boundary zone in the early Carboniferous, this early subduction accretion stage was followed by continent continent collision. The resulting orogenic wedge is characterized by an intra-continental subduction zone in the pro-wedge area superimposed by the crustal stack of early and mid-Variscan accreted units. Due to heating of the subducted slab in the mantle, the isothermal exhumation of this deeply buried continental crust caused HT-LP metamorphism during the final transpressional stage. Lateral extrusion tectonics coeval with the

  20. Late Carboniferous remagnetisation of Palaeozoic rocks in the NE Rhenish Massif, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwing, A.; Bachtadse, V.; Soffel, H. C.

    During stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetisation experiments on Devonian and Lower Carboniferous carbonate and clastic rocks from the north-eastern part of the Rhenish Massif, Germany, three components of magnetisation (A, B, C) are identified. Component A is a recent viscous overprint that parallels the local present day geomagnetic field. Component B is mainly observed from 260 up to 550 °C during thermal demagnetisation and is carried by magnetite. In two localities, where red siltstones and red carbonate rocks were sampled, component B is stable up to 670 °C, indicating the presence of hematite. Three clusters of in situ B directions can be identified, which are controlled by the tectonic position of the sampling areas. These are from NW to SE: the Remscheid anticline (RA), the Lüdenscheid syncline (LS) and the Attendorn and Wittgenstein synclines (AS/WS). Standard and inclination-only fold tests, using parametric resampling, yield optimal statistical parameters at increasing amounts of untilting ranging from 0% in the South up to 57% in the North of the NE Rhenish Massif. Despite the variations in optimal untilting, the resulting site mean directions of component B do not differ significantly in inclination. These results are interpreted to reflect the acquisition of magnetisation during progressive northward migration of the deformation front in Late Carboniferous times. The resulting palaeolatitudes (RA: 1°S +2°-3°; LS: 2°S +3°-2°; AS/WS: 1°S +3°-4°) are in good agreement with the predicted position of the sampling area in the Late Carboniferous, as derived from a published Apparent Polar Wander Path for Baltica and Laurentia. The unblocking temperature spectra and the synfolding nature of B yield strong evidence that chemical processes, possibly driven by fluid migration during orogenesis, caused this remagnetisation. A third component C was observed in zones of tight folding with steeply dipping to overturned bedding planes and is

  1. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. From opening to subduction of an oceanic domain constrained by LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating (Variscan belt, Southern Armorican Massif, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, J.-L.; Ballèvre, M.; Peucat, J.-J.; Cornen, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the Variscan belt of Western Europe, the lifetime and evolution of the oceanic domain is poorly constrained by sparse, outdated and unreliable multigrain ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon dating. In this article, we present a complete in situ LA-ICP-MS dataset of about 300 U-Pb zircon analyses obtained on most of the ophiolitic and eclogitic outcrops of Southern Brittany, comprising new dating of previously published zircon populations and newly discovered rock samples. In situ dating and cathodo-luminescence imaging of each zircon grain yields new absolute time-constraints on the evolution of the Galicia-Moldanubian Ocean. The new results confirm that the opening of this oceanic domain is well defined at about 490 Ma. In contrast, the generally-quoted 400-410 Ma-age for the high-pressure event related to the subduction of the oceanic crust is definitely not recorded in the zircons of the eclogites. In light of these new data, we propose that the obduction of oceanic rocks occurred at about 370-380 Ma while the high-pressure event is recorded at 355 Ma in only a few zircon grains of some eclogite samples. Additionally, this large scale dating project demonstrates that the zircons from eclogites do not systematically recrystallise during the high pressure event and consequently their U-Pb systems do not record that metamorphism systematically. These zircons rather preserve the isotopic memory of the magmatic crystallization of their igneous protolith. Another example of an eclogite sample from the French Massif Central illustrates the frequent mistake in the interpretation of the ages of the early hydrothermal alteration of zircons in the oceanic crust versus partial or complete recrystallization during eclogite facies metamorphism.

  3. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  4. Domain structure and texture in fine grained symplectite from garnet breakdown in peridotite xenoliths (Zinst, Bavaria, Bohemian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, G.; Špaček, P.; Abart, R.

    2012-04-01

    Lherzolite xenoliths entrained in Oligocene basanite at the locality of Zinst (Bavaria, western Bohemian Massif) contain rare fine-grained symplectites forming about 5 millimeter sized patches comprising several microstructurally and chemically distinct concentric zones. The symplectites reflect a complex reaction history of lherzolite during decompression and interaction with melt. Here we focus on ultra-fine grained symplectite with an integrated bulk composition expressed in terms of garnet end-member component percentages as Prp(69-71)Alm(11-13)Grs(2.5-5)And(7.5-10)Uvr(4). According to the composition and the microstructural occurrence in lherzolite the ultra-fine grained symplectite is interpreted as a product of isochemical garnet breakdown, although the precursor phase is not preserved. Under cross polarized light patches with similar extinction show a domain microstructure in symplectite. BSE images reveal an intimate intergrowth of orthopyroxene, spinel and plagioclase. All phases have a shape preferred orientation within distinct domains, whereas discontinuous SPO changes occur at microstructural domain boundaries. Three types of symplectite were microstructurally discerned: The most pristine type A occurs in a 10-30 micrometers wide zone along the symplectite margin. Spinel forms several tens of nanometers wide rods or lamellae within Opx, whereas Pl and Opx represent the symplectite matrix. All phases show a strong SPO with the maximum elongation perpendicular to the symplectite boundary. At edges of this interface, the SPO of the symplectite phases changes accordingly. Discontinuities in SPO may coincide with changes in crystallographic orientation. EBSD data showed that symplectite phases have strict crystallographic orientation relations with Opx(100)//Spl(111) and Opx(010)//Spl(110). Whereas the initial lattice orientation is controlled by adjacent phases at the symplectite boundary, the crystallographic orientation within symplectite domains

  5. THE END OF IMF - TURKEY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUNGUN DENIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  6. THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2016-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages.Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. Weconcentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Althoughwomen earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entirewage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distribution. Moresurpris...

  7. Potential Prospects of Turkey in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgulu, Mehmet Emre

    2010-01-01

    As the global crisis surrounds us, Turkey, as a country with huge prospects, needs to establish new political and commercial links with the rest of the world in order to lessen the effects of the global crisis. This can be a way to take the load off Turkey’s shoulders. These links can be found in the continent Africa. As the host of world’s several fastest growing economies, the continent offers new opportunities for Turkey. These opportunities can be utilized as either in the form of Foreign...

  8. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Atlantis Bank Gabbro Massif, SW Indian Ridge: the Largest Know Exposure of the Lower Crust in the Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, H. J.; Kvassnes, A. J.; Kinoshita, H.; MacLeod, C. J.; Robinson, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    Until the discovery of oceanic core complexes little was known and much inferred about the lower ocean crust at slow-spreading ridges. Their study shows the ocean crust isn't simply a uniform layer-cake of pillow lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, but is highly variable in thickness, composition and architecture, and even absent over large regions. The 660 km2 Atlantis Bank Gabbro Massif in the rift-mountains of the SW Indian Ridge flanking the Atlantis II Transform is the magmatic end member for ocean core complexes, and best approximates `average' slow-spread crust. Thus it has been a focus for drilling since its discovery in 1986, leading to the current attempt to drill to Moho there (Project SloMo). There are 3 ODP and IODP drill holes on its crest: 1508-m deep Hole 735B, 158-m deep Hole 1105A, and 809.4-m deep Hole U1473. These provide a 200 Kyr view of lower crustal accretion at a slow-spread ocean ridge. Here we extend this view to 2.7 Myr. Mapping and sampling shows the gabbro massif extends nearly the length of a single 2nd order magmatic ridge segment. With numerous inliers of the dike-gabbro transition at numerous locations, and a crust-mantle boundary, traced for 30-km along the transform wall, it would appear to represent a full section of the lower crust. As Moho is at 5.5 ± 1 km mbsf near Hole 735B, and 4.5 km beneath the transform, it is likely a serpentinization front. The crust-mantle boundary was crossed by dives at 4 locations. In each case gabbros at the base of the crust crystallized from melt that had previously fractionated 50% or more from a likely parent. Thus the gabbro massif must be laterally zoned, and the parental mantle melts had to have been emplaced at the center of the paleo-ridge segment, before intruding laterally to the distal end of the complex. Gabbros on a lithospheric flow line down the center of the massif closely resemble those from the drill holes. This shows that while lateral variations in crustal composition and

  10. Petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence of crustal assimilation processes in the Ponte Nova alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Montecinos Munoz, Patricio; Enrich, Gaston Eduardo Rojas; Alves, Adriana; Ruberti, Excelso; Gomes, Celsode Barros

    2016-09-01

    Crustal assimilation plus crystal fractionation processes of different basanite magma batches control the evolution of the Ponte Nova cretaceous alkaline mafic-ultramafic massif in SE Brazil. This massif is composed of several intrusions, the main ones with a cumulate character. Disequilibrium features in the early-crystallized phases (e.g., corrosion and sieve textures in cores of clinopyroxene crystals, spongy-cellular-textured plagioclase crystals, gulf corrosion texture in olivine crystals) and classical hybridization textures (e.g., blade biotite and acicular apatite crystals) provide strong evidence of open-system behavior. All samples are olivine- and nepheline-normative rocks with basic-ultrabasic and potassic characters and variable incompatible element enrichments. The wide ranges of whole-rock 87Sr/86Sri and 143Nd/144Ndi ratios (0.70432-0.70641 and 0.512216-0.512555, respectively) are indicative of crustal contribution from the Precambrian basement host rocks. Plagioclase and apatite 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70422-0.70927) obtained for the most primitive samples of each intrusion indicate disequilibrium conditions from early- to principal-crystallization stages. Isotope mixing-model curves between the least contaminated alkaline basic magma and heterogeneous local crustal components indicate that each intrusion of the massif is differentiated from the others by varied degrees of crustal contribution. The primary mechanisms of crustal contribution to the Ponte Nova massif involve the assimilation of host rock xenoliths during the development of the chamber environment and the assimilation of partial melts from the surrounding host rocks. Thermodynamic models using the melts algorithm indicate that parental alkaline basic magmas can be strongly affected by contamination processes subsequently to their initial stages of crystallization when there is sufficient energy to assimilate partial melts of crustal host rocks. The assimilation processes are considered to

  11. STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF THE NİĞDE MASSIF IN THE ÇAMARDI (NİĞDE DISTRICT

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    Ramazan DEMİRCİOĞLU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Çamardı (Niğde district, the Niğde Massif is composed of marbles, gneisses, quartzites and amphibolites. These rocks of the Massif have been cut by Cretaceous aged granodiorites. The Paleocene-Eocene aged low-grade metamorphic rocks constitute the autochthonous cover of the Massif. These units are tectonically overlain by the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene aged flyschoid and island arc type rocks. The Oligocene-Quaternary aged terrestrial and volcanic rocks constitute the youngest units in the district. The metamorphics of the Niğde Massif have been subjected to at least four phase ductile deformation (D1, D2, D3, and D4 and folding. Through the D1 phase deformation, the rocks of the Massif have been folded as recumbent-isoclinal folds (F1-F2 phase folding and have gained a structure with a foliation (S1 which is parallel to the axial planes. Owing to the isoclinal and intense folding of the bedding planes (S0 of the rocks, bedding transposition have developed and transposed folding structures have formed. Through the D2 phase deformation, northeast-southwest trending and both northeast and southwest dipping map scale folds (F3 phase folding have developed. As a result of the interference of F1-F2 and F3 phase folds, in the district, folds, generated by Type-2 folding, have formed (mushroom folds. Second phase mesoscopic folds are of tight-isoclinal geometry and display asymmetrical and inclined fold feature. In the study area, as a result of   D3 phase folding a large dome structure has developed in the district. And D4 phase folds have formed map scale synformal and antiformal structures that are trending approximately perpendicular to D2 phase, plunging south-east and trending northwest-southeast. Through D4 phase deformation, the cover rocks have been deformed together with the basement rocks (F5 phase that they overlie. The microscopic observations show that Cretaceous-Eocene aged rocks have been subjected to low

  12. Internal structure of the Aar Massif: What can we learn in terms of exploration for deep geothermal energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwegh, Marco; Baumberger, Roland; Wehrens, Philip; Schubert, Raphael; Berger, Alfons; Maeder, Urs; Spillmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The successful use of deep geothermal energy requires 3D flow paths, which allow an efficient heat exchange between the surrounding host rocks and the circulating fluids. Recent attempts to exploit this energy resource clearly demonstrate that the new technology is facing sever problems. Some major problems are related to the prediction of permeability, the 3D structure of the flow paths and the mechanical responses during elevated fluid pressures at depths of several kilometers. Although seemingly new in a technical perspective, nature is facing and solving similar problems since the beginning of the Alpine orogeny. Based on detailed studies in the Hasli Valley (Aar Massif) we can demonstrate that deformation and fluid flow are strongly localized along mechanical anisotropies (e.g. lithological variations, brittle and ductile faults). Some of them already evolved during Variscan and post-Variscan times. Interestingly, these inherited structures are reactivated over and over again during the Alpine orogeny. Their reactivation occurred at depths of ~13-15 km with elevated temperatures (400-475°C) and involved both ductile and brittle deformation processes. Brittle deformation in form of hydrofracking was always present due to the circulating fluids. It is this process, which was and still is responsible for seismic activity. With progressive uplift and exhumation of the Aar Massif, ductile deformation structures became replaced by brittle cataclasites and fault gouges during fault activity at shallower crustal levels. Existing hydrotest data from the Grimsel Test Site (Nagra's underground research laboratory) indicate that these brittle successors of the ductile shear zones are domains of enhanced recent fluid percolation. Note that although being exposed today, the continuation of these fault structures are still active at depth in both brittle and ductile deformation modes, a fact that can be inferred from recent uplift rates and the active seismicity. On the

  13. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  14. Obesity prevalence in Gaziantep, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcirpici Birgul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with reduced quality of life, development of serious chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, increased medical care costs, and premature death. Environmental effects, especially feeding habits may cause hyperinsulinemia and obesity. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to reduce the proportion of adults who are obese to 15%. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1647 persons in a sample representing Gaziantep, Turkey. Over the selected 329 houses, 310 houses were reached (94.2% and data about 1315 related persons was collected. The body mass index (BMI shows the relationship between the weight and the height of people, calculated by the ratio of mass by kg over the square value of height measure. In statistical analyses chi-square, student′s t -test and logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The mean BMI increased with time for both sex, whereas decreased for 60+ age group. The fastest increase for both sex was seen while transition from 18 year to 19-29 age groups occurred. Another increase in women was in 30-39 age group; BMI=25.08±4.39 in 19-29 ages whilst BMI=29.02±5.79 in 30-39 ages. The increases in both sex in other age groups were not as much as in this group. Conclusion: Obesity is not only a problem in the Gaziantep but is also a major health concern in Europe and other regions of the world. As an accepted method against obesity, life-style changes should be put into use from childhood supported in school and family life.

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides, gross alpha/beta activities and air gamma dose rates in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2007 are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural ( 238 U, 232 Th, 2 26Ra, 4 :0K and 7 Be) and artificial ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238-239+240 Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. Results show that 137 Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident in 1986 exist in some of samples even in low levels. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in the studied surface soil samples were found as 32.1 Bq kg -1 , 35.0 Bq kg -1 , 29.0 Bq kg -1 and 446.7 Bq kg -1 , respectively, while the mean activity concentrations of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 18.4 Bq kg -1 . While the activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the analyzed food samples are lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA), 134 Cs and 7 Be radionuclides are not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides are 0.24 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. (Includes 4 tables and 7 figures)

  16. The Taavinunnanen gabbro massif. A compilation of results from geological, geophysical and hydrogeological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentzschein, B.; Tullborg, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The gabbro massif at Taavinunnanen, northern Sweden, is one of the study sites which has been investigated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) in order to study different geological environments within the scope of the long-range program for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. A 700 metres long borehole was drilled within the gabbro. Regional geophysics, geological mapping, petrographical studies, mineralogical studies of rock-forming materials and of fracture fillings as well as hydrogeological tests were carried out. The gabbro shows primary differentiation. Thus, the composition varies from gabbroic to ultrabasic. The gabbro body is intersected by severeal granite dikes. These dikes exhibit a higher hydraulic conductivity and a higher fracture frequency than the gabbro. Comparison of hydraulic conductivity and fracture frequency in the gabbro itself indicates a high degree of sealing of the fractures mainly caused by smectites. Calcite is almost lacking down to a depth of 75 metres, indicating a relatively rapid transport of surface waters down to this depth. With 27 refs. (author)

  17. Ultramafites in the Gogolow-Jordanow massif and their predicted raw material evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciemniewska, M.; Czemier-Kowalska, M.; Lindner, M.; Salacinski, R.

    1981-01-01

    Based on mineralogical-petrographic analysis, it was established that the primary rocks of ultramafites were dunites and verlites which were exposed to intensive serpentinization, talcing, amphibolization, chloritization and carbonization. The constant components of rocks are ore minerals of paragenesis: chromite-ferrospinel-magnetite. Geochemical studies indicated the content (g/T): Cr 100-4800, Ni 100-3500, Co 30-160, Cu 1-100, while the computed values of the correlation coefficient revealed the existence of a link between Cr Ni, Co and Cr, Co and Ni. The mineralogical-petrographic composition, as well as the geological position of the studied massif indicate its affiliation to the ultramafites of the Alpine type and formation at the early stage of development of the geosyncline in the boundary zone between the consolidated gneiss block of the Archean and the mobile zone in relation to the deep faults. Although industrial concentrations of the expected were not found, the conducted observations make it possible to approach development of new prospecting concepts. Manifestation of the chromite mineralization and the ore accumulation in the region should be considered hydrothermal-metasomatic.

  18. Elastic and electrical properties and permeability of serpentinites from Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon-Suarez, Ismael; Bayrakci, Gaye; Minshull, Tim A.; North, Laurence J.; Best, Angus I.; Rouméjon, Stéphane

    2017-11-01

    Serpentinized peridotites co-exist with mafic rocks in a variety of marine environments including subduction zones, continental rifts and mid-ocean ridges. Remote geophysical methods are crucial to distinguish between them and improve the understanding of the tectonic, magmatic and metamorphic history of the oceanic crust. But, serpentinite peridotites exhibit a wide range of physical properties that complicate such a distinction. We analysed the ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities (Vp, Vs) and their respective attenuation (Qp-1, Qs-1), electrical resistivity and permeability of four serpentinized peridotite samples from the southern wall of the Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, collected during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 357. The measurements were taken over a range of loading-unloading stress paths (5-45 MPa), using ∼1.7 cm length, 5 cm diameter samples horizontally extracted from the original cores drilled on the seafloor. The measured parameters showed variable degrees of stress dependence, but followed similar trends. Vp, Vs, resistivity and permeability show good inter-correlations, while relationships that included Qp-1 and Qs-1 are less clear. Resistivity showed high contrast between highly serpentinized ultramafic matrix (>50 Ω m) and mechanically/geochemically altered (magmatic/hydrothermal-driven alteration) domains (serpentinization and the alteration state of the rock, contrasted by petrographic analysis. This study shows the potential of combining seismic techniques and controlled source electromagnetic surveys for understanding tectonomagmatic processes and fluid pathways in hydrothermal systems.

  19. Hydrochemical characteristics and spatial analysis of groundwater quality in parts of Bundelkhand Massif, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Ahmad; Ali, Umair

    2018-03-01

    The tribulations of water quality have become more serious than the quantity, as the environmental evils are getting more severe day by day in different parts of the world. Large number of components like soil, geology, sewage disposal, effluents and other environmental conditions in which the water tends to reside or move and interact with ground and biological characteristics, greatly persuade the groundwater quality. Therefore, hydrochemical study has been carried out graphically and spatially in GIS environment in part of Bundelkhand Massif. The hydrochemical study exposes the water quality by measuring the concentration of parameters and comparing them with the drinking water and irrigation standards. Groundwater samples have been collected and analysed for physiochemical characteristics in order to understand the hydrochemistry of the water. The results revealed that ground water is alkaline in nature and total hardness observed in all samples falls under moderately hard to very hard category. At some places higher concentration of Cl- could be dangerous from health point of view. Major hydrochemical facies were identified using Piper Trilinear diagram and Durov diagrams, etc. Analysis of different determinations such as sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and per cent sodium revealed that most of the samples are unsuitable for irrigation. It was also observed that the quality of groundwater was not suitable for drinking purpose in industrial and irrigation area. In the area, few sampling sites showed unsuitability because of influences of urban and industrial waste discharge, aquifer material mineralogy, other anthropogenic activities and increased human interventions.

  20. First insights on the molybdenum-copper Bled M'Dena complex (Eglab massif, Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagraa, Karima; Salvi, Stefano; Béziat, Didier; Debat, Pierre; Kolli, Omar

    2017-03-01

    Molybdenum-Copper showings in the Eglab massif (eastern part of the Reguibat rise of Algeria), are found in quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite of the Bled M'Dena complex, a Paleoproterozoic circular structure of ∼5 km in diameter, comprising volcanic and intrusive suites. The latter consist of quartz-diorite, quartz-monzodiorite and granodiorite with a metaluminous normative composition. They display an "adakitic character" with moderate light rare-earth element (LREE) enrichment, minor Eu anomalies, high Sr/Y ratio and low Yb concentration, suggestive of a hydrous, arc magma of volcanic-arc affinity. The mineralization occurs mostly in quartz + molybdenite + chalcopyrite stockwork veins marked by widespread propylitic alteration along the selvages. Molybdenite and chalcopyrite are commonly associated with calcite, which precipitated at relatively late stages of the hydrothermal alteration. Fluid inclusions related to the mineralization stage, range from aqueous to aqueous-carbonic to solid bearing. The latter inclusions have the highest homogenization temperature (up to ∼400 °C), are salt saturated, and commonly contain molybdenite and/or chalcopyrite crystals. The petrology and geochemistry of the host rocks, the style of the hydrothermal alteration, the ore mineral associations, and the characteristics of the fluid inclusions, are all coherent in indicating that the Bled M'Dena represents a Paleoproterozoic porphyry style Mo mineralization, which is far unreported in the African continent.

  1. Stimulation Of The Methane Production With The Use Of Changing Of The Rock Massif Physical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baev Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial coalbed methane production success is majorly defined by the effectiveness of the use of special gas inflow stimulation methods. The necessity of using of such methods issubject to the aspects of searching and displacement of methane within the coal compound. Theanalysis of the ways of methane production stimulation from virgin coal formations is given. The description of the process of hydraulic fracturing (fracturing as the most common stimulation method during the commercial coalbed methane production as well as its major advantages are presented. The present work provides data about the initiated laboratory research of sands collected from Kemerovo region deposits for the purpose of finding of the most prospective samples by means of anchoring of fractures. The prospectivity and ability to implement the hydraulic fracturing with the use of locally available sands acting as proppants are shown. The influence of the strain-stress state of the rock massif on the alteration of permeability and the necessity of its extension study with respect to different technological features of hydraulic fracturing is shown

  2. IODP Expedition 340T: Borehole Logging at Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Blackman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 340T returned to the 1.4-km-deep Hole U1309D at Atlantis Massif to carry out borehole logging including vertical seismic profiling (VSP. Seismic, resistivity, and temperature logs were obtained throughout the geologic section in the footwall of this oceanic core complex. Reliable downhole temperature measurements throughout and the first seismic coverage of the 800–1400 meters below seafloor (mbsf portionof the section were obtained. Distinct changes in velocity, resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility characterize the boundaries of altered, olivine-rich troctolite intervals within the otherwise dominantly gabbroic se-quence. Some narrow fault zones also are associated with downhole resistivity or velocity excursions. Small deviations in temperature were measured in borehole fluid adjacent to known faults at 750 mbsf and 1100 mbsf. This suggests that flow of seawater remains active along these zones of faulting and rock alteration. Vertical seismic profile station coverage at zero offsetnow extends the full length of the hole, including the uppermost 150 mbsf, where detachment processes are expected to have left their strongest imprint. Analysis of wallrock properties, together with alteration and structural characteristics of the cores from Site U1309, highlights the likely interplay between lithology, structure, lithospheric hydration, and core complex evolution.

  3. Lichen flora particular features of Degelen mountain massif in location of underground nuclear explosion carrying out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdarkhanova, G.S.; Andreeva, E.I.; Tuleubaev, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    The 25 kinds of dominant lichens of the Degelen mountain massif of the former Semipalatinsk test site are studied. It is defined, that complex of ecological factors have influence on spreading of lichen flora ceno-population. Lichens heterogeneousness in ability to radionuclides accumulation is determining of variety its anatomic-morphologic structure and physiological activity as well as physico-chemical properties of soils in places of its inhabited place. It is determined, that lichens are able to exist within limits of exposure dose capacity 18-3000 μR/h and under radioactivity by α-radiation 233-426 Bq/kg, by β-radiation 7000-15000 Bq/kg and Cs 137 150-620 Bq/kg. The largest accumulating ability have Parmelia scortea (570 Bq/kg), Parmelia fraudans (620 Bq/kg), Parmelia cetrata (470 Bq/kg), Parmelia conspersa (340 Bq/kg). Cesium-137 in lichens in 2-8 times higher than maximum permissible dose. Complete relation is showed between lichens and inhabitated substrates created conditions for determination of radiation situation by precise characteristics of lichen flora

  4. Micro-FTIR and EPMA Characterisation of Charoite from Murun Massif (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lacalamita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA were performed on a single crystal of charoite from Murun Massif (Russia in order to get a deeper insight into the vibrational features of crystals with complex structure and chemistry. The micro-FTIR study of a single crystal of charoite was collected in the 6000–400 cm−1 at room temperature and after heating at 100°C. The structural complexity of this mineral is reflected by its infrared spectrum. The analysis revealed a prominent absorption in the OH stretching region as a consequence of band overlapping due to a combination of H2O and OH stretching vibrations. Several overtones of the O-H and Si-O stretching vibration bands were observed at about 4440 and 4080 cm−1 such as absorption possibly due to the organic matter at about 3000–2800 cm−1. No significant change due to the loss of adsorbed water was observed in the spectrum obtained after heating. The occurrence of well-resolved water bending vibration bands at about 1595 and 1667 cm−1 accounts for more than one structural water molecule as expected by charoite-90 polytype structure model from literature. The chemical composition of the studied crystal is close to the literature one.

  5. Spatial variability in channel and slope morphology within the Ardennes Massif, and its link with tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sougnez, N.; Vanacker, V.

    2010-09-01

    Geomorphic processes that produce and transport sediment, and incise river valleys are complex; and often difficult to quantify over longer timescales of 103 to 105 years. Morphometric indices that describe the topography of hill slopes, valleys and river channels have commonly been used to compare morphological characteristics between catchments and to relate them to hydrological and erosion processes. This work focuses on a wide range of slope and river channel morphometric indices to study their behavior and strength in regions affected by low to moderate tectonic activity. We selected 10 catchments of about 150 to 250 km2 across the Ardennes Massif that cover various tectonic domains with uplift rates ranging from about 0.06 to 0.20 mm year-1 since mid-Pleistocene times. The morphometric analysis indicates that the slope and channel morphology of third-order catchments is not yet in topographic steady-state, and exhibits clear convexities in slope and river profiles. Our data indicate that the fluvial system is the main driver of topographic evolution and that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is reflected in the distribution of channel steepness and convexity. The spatial variation that we observe in slope and channel morphology between the 10 third-order catchments suggests that the response of the fluvial system was strongly diachronous, and that a transient signal of adjustment is migrating from the Meuse valley towards the Ardennian headwaters.

  6. Geochemistry of Spodosols formed in holocene till, Norra Storfjaellet Massif, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earl-goulet, J.R.; Mahaney, W.C.; Milner, M.W.; Hancock, R.G.V.

    1997-01-01

    Silt and clay size fractions of soils, from a transect of six Spodosols formed in the Norra Storfjaellet Massif, were analyzed by neutron activation to determine the degree to which pedogenic processes have influenced the distribution of macro, micro and trace elements. The distributions of Mg, Ca and Fe, together with Co, Cr and other trace elements in the profiles, suggest the presence of different parent materials, with A and E horizons arising from an influx of aeolian sediment. Translocation processes, both physical and chemical, occurred in the soil concentrating Fe and Br in the spodic(Bs) horizons of the profiles. The rare earth elements (REEs) are predominantly associated with the heavy mineral fraction of the soil material. The distributions of chondrite normalized REEs patterns of the profiles indicate that light rare earth element (LREE) concentrations increase with horizon depth. The depletion of LREEs in the upper soil horizons confirms the presence of material that is chemically different from that in the lower horizons, thus indicating a distinct chemical difference from the local glacial deposits. (author)

  7. Grouping of Cities In Terms Of Primary Health Indicators in Turkey: An Application of Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan TEKİN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that to determine the differences between cities that locate in Turkey is important in the context of primary health care indicators. The subject of this study is the classification of cities in Turkey in terms of health indicators. The cluster analysis method which is the one of the data mining and multivariate statistical methods is used for classification method. The main objective of the study is to examine the point of results of movement transformation in health in terms of basic health indicators on the basis of cities.. In this context, 81 cities, in Turkey are grouped with sixteen health indicators which is assumed to demonstrate the effectiveness of health care services, by the years of 2013. And also compared with the health and socio-economic development ranking in the previous studies. Providences are gathered in 21, 13, 11, 7 and 5 clusters. 11’s, 7’s and 5’s clusters are determined as the most significant clusters. As a result of the study the development gap between eastern and western provinces emerges in terms of the health variables.

  8. Early Period of Modern Architecture in Turkey - A Case Study of Eskisehir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasozen, Rana

    2017-10-01

    Modern architecture in the Western World bore fruit at the beginning of the 20th Century in consequence of the process of modernity and seeking of the proper architecture for it. It was formed firstly towards the end of the 1920s. The main reason of this nonsynchronous development was the inadequacy of enlightenment and industrial revolution during the Ottoman Empire and the lack of formation of an intellectual infrastructure which provides the basis of modernity. However, the Ottoman Westernization occurring in the 19th century constituted the foundations of the Republic modernity founded in 1923. The earliest modern architectural designs in Turkey were first practised by European architects after the foundation of the Republic and internalised and practised extensively by the native architects afterwards. The early modern architecture of Turkey, named as “1930s Modernism”, continued until the beginning of the World War II. This period was formed in between the periods of first and second nationalist architecture movements. The early modern architecture period of Turkey was a period which high-quality designs were made. It was practised and internalised not only in big cities such as Ankara and in Istanbul, but also in the medium and small cities of the country. This situation was not just about a formal exception but about the internalisation of modernity by the society. Eskisehir is one of the most important pioneering cities of the Republic period in terms of industrial and educational developments. The earliest modern buildings were built as the public buildings by the state and non-citizen architects in the inadequate conditions of the country in terms of economy and professional people. The earliest modern houses of the city designed by these architects were the prototypes for the later practices which offered the citizens a new lifestyle. The modern houses were the symbols of prestige and status for the owners and the dwellers. The features of early

  9. Energy policy and climate change in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    The problem of massive emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO 2 emissions worldwide. In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country; with more than half of the energy requirement being supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture contents. Because of increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy sources

  10. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  11. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  12. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  13. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  14. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  15. Review of Turkey's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, M. Arif

    2008-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has a long history. Biomass, for instance, has been used for heating and cooking, while wind has been used in the irrigation of fields and to drive windmills for centuries. Although Turkey has many energy resources, all of these with the exception of coal and hydropower, cannot meet the total energy demand. Turkey has been importing resources to meet this deficit. These resources have become increasingly expensive and also have undesirably high emissions ratings. Turkey has an extensive shoreline and mountains and is rich in renewable energy potential. The share of renewables on total electricity generation is 29.63% while that of natural gas is 45% for the year 2006. The projection prepared for the period between 2006 and 2020 aims an annual growth of 8% for the total electricity generation. According to this projection, it is expected that renewables will have a share about 23.68% with a decrease of 5.95% while natural gas will have a share about 33.38% for 2020. This paper presents the present state of world renewable energy sources and then looks in detail at the potential resources available in Turkey. Energy politics are also considered. (author)

  16. Military Intervention, Kemalism, and Politics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    to inadequate or misdirected actions by the military during their tenure following the interventions. Despite the checkered history of democratic... ikeas .). AtaturK: Founder or a Modern State. London: C. Hurst.19. Hianeo. Anarew. "Turkey’s Ten Year Itch" in Tne wor!6 Today, 4oi 45 N’o. F. eb 1969

  17. Teacher Perspective on Internet Censorship in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktay, Sayim

    2018-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase both in the number of users and the number of websites providing data since the invention of Internet; it has become the richest and most used source of information. However, several countries, including Turkey, resort to censorship owing to the fact that anybody can publish on the Internet with sometimes…

  18. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  19. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    a higher level of attention being paid to the importance of Africa in the public statements of ... policy is based on equal partnership and includes investing in, bringing new .... country can be measured by its economic, cultural and diplomatic activism in ..... business circles also have a strong interest in Turkey's integration into.

  20. On a collection of Opisthobranchia from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.

    1961-01-01

    This paper deals with the Opisthobranchia collected by the Netherlands Biological Expedition to Turkey 1959. The collection is deposited in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. The material was chiefly collected in three areas, viz. the Bay of Antalya and the Bay of Mersin (formerly

  1. Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, Turkey, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, Ferit; Orkun, Omer; Ulu, Aslihan; Kurtaran, Behice; Komur, Suheyla; Inal, A Seza; Erdogan, Damla; Tasova, Yesim; Aksu, Hasan S Z

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was diagnosed for a man in Turkey. He had been bitten by a Hyalomma marginatum tick, from which PCR detected rickettsial DNA. Sequence analysis of the DNA identified R. sibirica mongolitimonae. Immunofluorescence assay of patient serum indicated R. conorii, which cross-reacts. PCR is recommended for rickettsiosis diagnoses.

  2. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  3. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing

  4. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  5. Characterization of proacrosin/acrosin system after liquid storage and cryopreservation of turkey semen (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, M; Liszewska, E; Dietrich, G J; Ciereszko, A

    2012-09-15

    This study was designed to identify the effect of liquid storage at 4 °C for 48 h and cryopreservation on the proacrosin/acrosin system of turkey spermatozoa. Anti-acrosin I antibodies were produced and used to demonstrate Western blot analysis profile of the proacrosin/acrosin system of sperm and seminal plasma and possible changes in the proacrosin/acrosin system of turkey sperm stored for 2.5, 24, and 48 h or cryopreserved. At the same time acrosin-like activity was examined by the measurement of amidase activity of sperm extracts, sperm suspension, and seminal plasma of turkey semen. A computer-assisted sperm analysis system was used to monitor the sperm motility characteristics of turkey sperm stored for 48 h or cryopreserved. Different profiles of the sperm proacrosin/acrosin system were observed regarding the presence or absence of inhibitors (p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidine benzoate [NPGB] and Kazal family inhibitor) during the extraction process. When NPGB was present three main bands were observed with the molecular weight ranging from 66 to 35 kDa. Bands corresponding to acrosin I and II were not observed. In sperm extract without NPGB, three or four bands were observed with the molecular weight ranging from 41 to 30 kDa. The bands corresponding to acrosin I and II were observed. During liquid storage a decrease in sperm motility and an increase in sperm-extracted amidase activity were observed. After 24 and 48 h of storage, extracted amidase activity was higher than at 2.5 h by 24% and 31%, respectively. However, no changes in the Western blot analysis profiles of sperm extract and seminal plasma were visible during liquid storage. After cryopreservation a decrease in sperm motility and all sperm motility parameters were observed. In contrast to liquid storage, cryopreservation did not increase extracted amidase activity. However, changes in Western blot analysis profiles were visible in sperm extract and seminal plasma after cryopreservation. After

  6. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Akyol

    2016-08-01

    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2009 and absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 34,7 ± 1,7 Bq kg - 1, 35,4 ± 0,8 Bq kg - 1 and 450,0 ± 17,9 Bq kg - 1, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 11,6 ± 0,5 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 54,6 nGy h - 1 and 0,07 mSv y - 1, respectively. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 0,28 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, l 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 193,0 μSv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring programme in 2009 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any significant

  8. A Catalogue of Source Parameters of Moderate and Strong Earthquakes for Turkey and its Surrounding Area (1938-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, D.; Toksoz, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Turkey and Surrounding area, especially North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), Western Turkey, cost of the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea regions are seismically very active and undergoing rapid deformation. Earthquakes with M >6.0 do occur every couple of years regularly in this region, Moderate-magnitude seismicity (4.04.0 which were calculated of the fault-source parameters for Turkey and its surrounding area between 1938-2015. The fault source parameters of total over the 1200 earthquakes were calculated. The fault-source parameters of about 56.0 % of the all events were calculated with this study and 44.0 % of the rest were obtained from the other sources. The parameters of the old and incomplete events also were calculated in order to prepare the homogeneous and extended fault- source parameters set in the study. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was supported by the Department of Science Fellowship and Grant programs of TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey).

  9. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  10. Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çürük

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in Turkey. The incidence of beta thalassemia and sickle cell trait (HbAS is 2.0% and 0.3% respectively. In addition to HbS, 51 abnormal hemoglobins and 42 different beta thalassemia mutations have been detected by DNA analysis. In Turkey, beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia cause major health problems. For thirty years, screening programs for carriers, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have sought to prevent hemoglobinopathies. In 1983, the first prenatal diagnosis center was established for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia at Hacettepe University, Ankara. After many populationscreening studies, a law was passed in 1993 by the Turkish Parliament for the eradication of hemoglobinopathies. Forty-one premarital screening centers were set up by the Ministry of Health in the 33 provinces where most of the transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients live. The mothers at risk for hemoglobinopathies were given genetic counseling and directed to prenatal diagnosis centers. Since 1990, four prenatal diagnosis centers have been established at university hospitals in Adana, Antalya, Istanbul and Izmir. A total of 5255 prenatal diagnoses have been made for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia in 5 centers; 1338 fetuses have been diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygotes for hemoglobinopathies. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on families who had decided to terminate the pregnancy if it were to be found that the fetus was affected. 血红蛋白病是土耳其最为常见的遗传性疾病。乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性状(HbAS)的发病率分别为2.0%和0.3%。除HbS外,已通过NDA分析检测出51种异常血红蛋白和42种乙型地中海贫血突变基因。在土耳其,乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性贫血会导致严重的健康问题。30年来,一直在为病原携带者提供筛选项目,以及遗传咨询和产前诊断服务,

  11. Les dykes basiques du massif ancien de l'Ourika (Atlas de Marrakech, Maroc): géochimie et significationThe basic dykes of the Ourika old massif (High Atlas of Marrakech): Geochemistry and significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ahmed; Marignac, Christian; Bouabdelli, Mohamed

    The Precambrian massif of Ourika is crosscut by two systems of basic dykes, striking N40°E and N90-120°E. Using incompatible trace elements, the two systems form two distinct chemical groups, displaying a continental tholeiitic affinity. The composition variations between the two defined groups can be due to heterogeneities of mantle sources and to contamination, during the magma ascent, by the continental crust. The emplacement of these basic dykes, before the late-PIII formations, can be related to the Neoproterozoic distension generalised to the Anti-Atlas chain. To cite this article: A. Barakat et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 827-833.

  12. Visibility analysis of fire lookout towers in the Boyabat State Forest Enterprise in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Omer; Topaloglu, Ozer; Altunel, Arif Oguz; Cetin, Mehmet

    2017-07-01

    For a successful fire suppression, it is essential to detect and intervene forest fires as early as possible. Fire lookout towers are crucial assets in detecting forest fires, in addition to other technological advancements. In this study, we performed a visibility analysis on a network of fire lookout towers currently operating in a relatively fire-prone region in Turkey's Western Black Sea region. Some of these towers had not been functioning properly; it was proposed that these be taken out of the grid and replaced with new ones. The percentage of visible areas under the current network of fire lookout towers was 73%; it could rise to 81% with the addition of newly proposed towers. This study was the first research to conduct a visibility analysis of current and newly proposed fire lookout towers in the Western Black Sea region and focus on its forest fire problem.

  13. Turkey Entering the European Union Through the Balkan Doors: in the Style of a Great Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronting an increasing EU opposition from a number of influential member states to its membership the AKP government adopted a multilateral approach to its foreign policy making resulting in dynamic economic and diplomatic policies with the countries from Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Balkans region. In this article we analyzed the effects and consequences of a paradigmatic shift in Turkish foreign policy in the Western Balkans in relation to the country's EU membership prospects. Through its pro-active economic and diplomatic initiatives in the region Turkey has been proving itself as indispensable country for the European Union membership. Thus, if the Turkish government concentrates more on solving its internal problems and continues its pro-active diplomacy in Western Balkans, among other regions, it could become not only a regional but also a global power.

  14. Petrological and geochemical studies of alkaline rocks from continental Brazil. The tunas massif, state of Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, C.B.; Barbieri, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Tunas massif, outcropping 80 km from the city of Curitiba, Parana State, southern Brazil, covers about 22 km 2 . It intruded into Precambrian metaigneous and metasedimentary units about 80 Ma ago (K/Ar and Rb/Sr data); five subcircular volcanic structures are recognized. Syenites and alkali syenites (plus some pulaskites) are the main rock-types, with subordinate alkali gabbros, syenogabbros, essexites and syenodiorites; small late syenitic dikes are also found. Magmatic breccias containing clasts of all rock-types are widespread. Main minerals are feldspars (both alkali feldspars and plagioclases, varying from bytownite to more sodic members), Ca-pyroxenes (Ti-salites grading towards ferrosalites and aegirine-augites), amphiboles (mainly pargasites, although kaersutites and katophorites are also present), Fe-biotites (sometimes enriched in Ti), olivines (hortonolites to ferrohortonolites), quartz and feldspathoids (both fresh and altered nephelines and sodalites); main accessories are Ti-magnetites (with exsolved ilmenite) and apatite. In the AFM diagram, whole rock chemistry depicts a typical alkaline trend. Binary variation diagrams (D.I. vs. several elements) show positive correlation for Si, Na and K, and negative slopes for Mg and Ca. The variation in the amounts of Ni, Cr and V with differentiation can be explained by withdrawal of olivine, Ca-pyroxenes and magnetite, and that of Sr and Ba by the fractionation of feldspars. The rocks are also relatively enriched in REE, a trend which is more pronounced for the light REE. Mass balance calculations show that the overall differentiation trend of the Tunas rocks can be explained by crystal fractionation, although several complexities arise and point to more complex genetic patterns. Isotopic Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with a mantle origin for the parental magma; dike rocks, however, with 87 Sr 86 Sr i = 0.70777 - 0.70806, were probably contaminated by crustal material. (author) [pt

  15. Isotopic characteristic of meteoric water and groundwater in Ahaggar massif (central Sahara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saighi, O.; Michelot, J.L.; Filly, A.

    2001-01-01

    The mean contents of both oxygen-18 and deuterium in precipitation from the Ahaggar massif (central Sahara) are: δ 18 O = -3 per mille and 2 H = -15 per mille. The heterogeneity in meteoric events and the great scattering of these isotopic contents can be ascribed to the origins and the histories of air masses. The main contribution comes from the inflow of the Guinean monsoon during summer months. During winter, the N/W winds, arriving in the area from the Moroccan coast, provide some rains. The deuterium excess of these precipitation are up to +10 per mille, indicating that the air masses generating these rains are supplied by the recycling of the continental air moisture. Groundwater resources are produced in some little phreatic aquifers, which are recharged by sporadic wadi floods. Aquifer zones that are the most favourable are located in the valleys and occur as three overlying levels of unequal importance: the alluvial aquifer, the weathered zone of the underlying substratum and the deep aquifer of fissured basement. The alluvial aquifer contain weakly mineralised water (0.3 g/l). Their stable isotopes contents (δ 18 O∼ -2.7 per mille) and 14 C activity of them (> 100 pmc) are comparable to present meteoric water, allowing modern meteoric waters to be identified. The weathered zone groundwater's are more mineralised (0.8 g/l) and its isotopic contents (δ 18 O∼ -4.2 per mille) and intermediate radiocarbon activity, prove their old water component. The basement's groundwater are more mineralised (> 1 g/l) and their very depleted isotopic contents (δ 18 O∼ -9 per mille) diverge clearly from the present precipitation. Furthermore, the absence of 3 H and 14 C activity of them, prove an old heritage, resulting from recharge during the last humid episode of the Holocene. (author)

  16. Pb and O isotope systematics in granulite facies xenoliths, French Massif Central: Implications for crustal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, H.; Kempton, P.D.; Harmon, R.S.; Briot, D.; Leyreloup, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Pb and O isotope data are represented for a suite of granulite facies xenoliths found within Tertiary alkaline volcanic rocks of the Massif Central, France. The suite consists of ultramafic and mafic cumulates, metagabbros which are considered to represent basic liquids, felsic meta-igneous lithologies (charnockites) and metasediments. Ranges of δ 18 O values are +6.9 to +9.8per mille for mafic xenoliths, +9.3 to +10.2per mille for felsic meta-igneous samples and +6.1 to +11.8per mille for the metasediments. By comparison, δ 18 O values for mantle peridotites from the same region range from +5.1 to +6.9per mille, whilst local Hercynian granitoids vary from +8.6 to +12.0per mille. The 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios of the granulite xenoliths are between 17.77 and 19.19, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios vary from 15.51 to 15.69, and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios range from 38.07 to 40.07. In general, metasedimentary granulites have the more radiogenic Pb isotope compositions, whereas mafic meta-igneous samples are less radiogenic. These isotopic characteristics can be explained as the result of the interaction of mafic magmas with the metasedimentary crust into which they intruded. The release of heat also provoked melting of the more fusible parts of the lower crust and led to the formation of late-orogenic Hercynian granitoids. However, an additional component which provides less radiogenic Pb is also needed in the source of the granitoids; this may be the felsic meta-igneous xenoliths or middle/upper crustal gneisses. (orig.)

  17. Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry of coexisting alkaline magma series, Cantal, Massif Central, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, H.

    1984-01-01

    Sr and Nd isotope analyses are presented for Tertiary continental alkaline volcanics from Cantal, Massif Central, France. The volcanics belong to two main magma series, silica-saturated and silica-undersaturated (with rare nephelinites). Trace element and isotopic data indicate a common source for the basic parental magmas of both major series; the nephelinites in contrast must have been derived from a mantle source which is isotopically and chemically distinct from that which gave rise to the basalts and basanites. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr initial ratios range from 0.7034 to 0.7056 in the main magma series (excluding rhyolites) and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios vary between 0.512927 and 0.512669; both are correlated with increasing SiO 2 in the lavas. The data can be explained by a model of crustal contamination linked with fractional crystallisation. This indicates that crustal magma chambers are the sites of differentiation since only rarely do evolved magmas not show a crustal isotopic signature and conversely basic magmas have primitive isotopic ratios unless they contain obviuos crustal-derived xenocrysts. Potential contaminants include lower crustal granulites or partial melts of upper crustal units. Equal amounts of contamination are required for both magma series, refuting hypotheses of selective contamination of the silica-saturated series. The isotopic characteristics of the apparently primary nephelinite lavas demonstrates widespread heterogeneity in the mantle beneath Cantal. Some rhyolites, previously thought to be extremely contaminated or to be crustally derived, are shown to have undergone post-emplacement hydrothermal alteration. (orig.)

  18. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  19. Nature of radioactive contamination of components of ecosystems of streamflows from tunnels of Degelen massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitskiy, A.V.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides data on environmental contamination due to radionuclides' migration with water. As a result of investigations there was obtained data on character of contamination of soil cover, surface water and underflow from tunnels of Degelen massif. Character of radionuclides' spatial distribution in environment was also shown. Mobility ranges of radionuclides' vertical and horizontal movements have been established in soils both across and along the stream flow. There was also shown a possibility to forecast radionuclides' concentration in soil by specific activity of these radionuclides in water. Different concentrations of radionuclides in associated components of the ecosystem (surface waters – ground waters – soils) have shown disequilibrium of their condition in this system. Generalization of investigation results for tunnel water streams' with water inflows, chosen as investigation objects in this work, allows to forecast radionuclides' behavior in meadow soils and other ecosystems of water streams from tunnels of Degelen test site. Based on analysis of curves, describing radionuclides' behavior in horizontal direction, we can forecast, that at this stage 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu would not be distributed more than 1.5 km from the access to the daylight surface, 90 Sr – not more than 2 km. - Highlights: • Contamination of soil cover, surface water and groundwater from tunnels of Degelen nuclear test area. • Radionuclides in associated components of the ecosystem showed disequilibrium. • Forecast that 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu will not be distributed more than 1.5 km from tunnel exits. • Forecast that 90 Sr will not be distributed more than 2 km

  20. THE GLACIER COMPLEXES OF THE MOUNTAIN MASSIFS OF THE NORTH-WEST OF INNER ASIA AND THEIR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Chistyakov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the glaciation of the mountain massifs Mongun-Taiga, Tavan-Boghd-Ola, Turgeni-Nuru, and Harhira-Nuru. The glaciation is represented mostly by small forms that sometimes form a single complex of dome-shaped peaks. According to the authors, the modern glaciated area of the mountain massifs is 21.2 km2(Tavan-Boghd-Ola, 20.3 km2 (Mongun-Taiga, 42 km2 (Turgeni-Nuru, and 33.1 km2 (Harhira-Nuru. The area of the glaciers has been shrinking since the mid 1960’s. In 1995–2008, the rate of reduction of the glaciers’ area has grown considerably: valley glaciers were rapidly degrading and splitting; accumulation of morainic material in the lower parts of the glaciers accelerated. Small glaciers transformed into snowfields and rock glaciers. There has been also a degradation of the highest parts of the glaciers and the collapse of the glacial complexes with a single zone of accumulation into isolated from each other glaciers. Reduced snow cover area has led to a rise in the firn line and the disintegration of a common accumulation area of the glacial complex. In the of the Mongun-Taiga massif, in 1995–2008, the firn line rose by 200–300 m. The reduction of the glaciers significantly lagged behind the change in the position of the accumulation area boundary. In the past two years, there has been a significant recovery of the glaciers that could eventually lead to their slower degradation or stabilization of the glaciers in the study area.

  1. Using remote sensing imagery and GIS to identify land cover and land use within Ceahlau Massif (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CRACU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using remote sensing imagery and GIS to identify land cover and land use within Ceahlău Massif (Romania. In this study we considerer land cover and land use asessment within Ceahlău Massif (Romania using satellite imagery and GIS . To achieve this goal, we used a Landsat 7 ETM + satellite image, which was processed using specialized software in analyzing satellite images and GIS software in several stages:  Downloading, importing and layer stack of all spectral bands composing satellite image;  Establishment of areas of interest for each category of land cover and land use, which were digitized on - screen and for which spectral signatures characteristics were established;  Supervised image classification using Maximum Likelihood Method;  Importing the resulting m ap (raster in GIS environment and creating the final land cover/land use map for Ceahlău Massif. In the study area we identified nine land cover/land use classes: deciduous forests, mixed forests, coniferous forests, secondary grasslands, subalpine vegeta tion, alpine meadows, agricultural land, lakes and built area. By analizing the spatial distribution of these classes, it was found that forests are the best represented class, occupying an area of 188.4 km² (56.4% of total, followed by secondary grassl and, which occupies an area of 68.2 km² (20.4% of total, lakes (26.6 km² or 7.98% of total and agricultural land (16.1 km² or 4.86%

  2. Perceptions of social and environmental changes in a Mediterranean forest during the last 100 years: the Gavarres Massif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carreras, Roser; Ubeda, Xavier; Outeiro, Luís; Asperó, Francesc

    2014-06-01

    During the last century the landscape of the mid-Mediterranean mountains has undergone major transformations. The precipitous decline in the economic viability of forest products has engendered ever-thickening forests and agricultural lands have reverted to forest land cover. The related exodus of existing inhabitants since 1960 has led to new styles of occupancy: residential and touristic land uses have emerged while the primary and secondary sectors have largely disappeared. The object of the present study is to review how these transformations have developed in a specific area of north-eastern of Catalonia, known as the Gavarres Massif. The study applies a qualitative approach, based on interviews with stakeholders including active members of the local community and others who utilize or visit the area, all of whom are representatives of different social groups with a wide range of interests and points of view with regard to the massif. The information collected from the perspectives and opinions of the participants is coupled with objective data about the area. The result of this investigation is a rich variety of perceptions on landscape and social transformation and its current functional dynamics. Analyzing the information obtained allows us to understand the fact that the disappearance of the rural world is directly related to the collapse of an entire economic system that relied on the environment. In this study, two divergent points of view arise, one which supports recovering past landscapes and another which favours managing changes, conserving the existing landscape. Proposals for the current and future territorial management of Les Gavarres are presented. The diversity of opinions which emerges with regard to managing necessary changes in the massif emphasizes the importance of increased social dialogue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Palaeomagnetism in the Sines massif (SW Iberia) revisited: evidences for Late Cretaceous hydrothermal alteration and associated partial remagnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, P.; Silva, P. F.; Moita, P.; Kratinová, Z.; Marques, F. O.; Henry, B.

    2013-10-01

    This study revisits the palaeomagnetism of the Sines massif (˜76 Ma) in the southwestern Iberian Margin (Portugal). The palaeomagnetic analysis was complemented by a comprehensive study of the magnetic mineralogy by means of rock magnetic measurements and petrographic observations. The overall dispersion of palaeomagnetic directions (declination ranging between ˜N0° and ˜N50°) and their migration observed during stepwise demagnetizations have revealed the superposition of remanence components. We interpret this complex palaeomagnetic behaviour as related to the regional hydrothermalism associated with the last stages of Late Cretaceous magmatic activity. This environment favoured mineralogical alteration and a partial chemical remagnetization, giving in most samples a composite magnetization, which has been erroneously interpreted as the primary one in a previous study, then leading to a questionable model for Cretaceous Iberia rotation. Nonetheless, for some samples a single component has been isolated. Interesting rock magnetic properties and microscopic observations point to a well-preserved magnetic mineralogy for these samples, with magnetite clearly of primary origin. The associated ChRM mean direction (D/I = 3.9°/46.5°, α95 = 1.7°, N = 31 samples) then represents the true primary magnetization of the Sines massif. This new palaeomagnetic direction and the corresponding palaeomagnetic pole (long = 332.0°, lat = -79.5°, A95 = 1.7°) agrees with those from the other palaeomagnetic works for the same period and region (e.g. the Sintra and Monchique massifs), yielding a lack of significant rotation of Iberia relative to stable Europe since the uppermost Late Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian).

  4. Tectonic evolution of part of the Southern Metamorphic Belt of the Armorican Massif including the Ile de Groix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lawrence Edward

    The Southern Metamorphic Belt (SMB) of the Armorican Massifextends 400km along the south coast of Brittany and into Vendee. It is separated from the Central Armorican Domain by a major, late-Hercynian shear belt, known as the South Armorican Shear Zone. In the area studied, belts of metasedimentary and metavolcanic schist of uncertain age are separated by belts of granitic gneiss; areas of migmatite and Hercynian granite plutons cross-cut these belts. Three distinctive lithologic assemblages have been identified in the schist belts, characteristic of different depositional environments: the Le Pouldu Group, Kerleven and Gouesnach formations probably originated as abyssal black shales deposited on oceanic crust; the St. Laurent Formation and Melgven Schists probably formed as distal greywacke deposits on a deep continental shelf; the Nerly and Beg-Meil formations probably formed in a proximal marine or fluviatile environment. These disparate assemblages were tectonically juxtaposed by overthrusting (obduction) before an amphibolite facies metamorphism and deformation during the Cadomian Orogeny. The Moelan Gneiss, a Lower Ordovician alkali-granite intrusion, postdates M1/D1 and probably formed in a rifting environment at the onset of ocean-floor spreading along an axis south of the present Armorican Massif. The famous blueschists of the Ile de Groix probably formed in a subduction zone on the south side of the ocean and were obducted onto the passive southern margin of the Armorican Massif following closure of the ocean and continental collision. A second phase of regional deformation, producing a cataclastic foliation in the Moelan Gneiss, probably resulted from the collision. Large-scale overthrusting of the southern continent onto the Armorican Massif took place, causing metamorphism with partial melting at depth generating migmatites. A third phase of pervasive deformation may correlate with oroclinal bending of the Ibero-Armorican Arc during the Hercynian

  5. Fission track and petrostructural analysis of carbonatic massif of Tamazert ( high central Atlas, Morocco) and neogene reactivation of the north-atlasic fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziad, N.; Khazrouni, S.; Tayebi, M.; Bouabdli, A.; Poupeau, G.

    2001-01-01

    The uranium fission-track dating method is used in geochronological survey of basic apatites extracted from the Tamazert complex. The result of this survey coupled with those of petrostructural analysis of this massif enabled as to distinguish three age groups: 32.4 Myr, 23.3 Myr and 12.6 Myr. The first age corresponds to the setting up of the massif, whereas the two other ages indicate later emissions. The setting up of the sill whose age is 12.6 Myr induced a partial rejuvenation of the emission age og the massif. This late volcanic emission is probably related to the north-atlasic fault activity. 4 figs., 1 tab., 30 refs. (au)

  6. K-Ar cooling age profile from Joinville massif (PR and SC, Brazil) and Dom Feliciano belt (SC, Brazil) - Tectonics entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siga Junior, O.; Basei, M.A.S.; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    A K-Ar cooling age profile using different minerals from metamorphic rocks of the Joinville Massif and Dom Feliciano Belt is presented. Three main geochronological domains are distinguishable, from NW to SE: 1) Northern part of the Joinville Massif (NJM); 2) Southern part of the Joinville Massif (SJM) and 3) Dom Feliciano Belt (DBF). Geochronological domains 1 and 3 yielded K-Ar values in the range 800-500 Ma and 700-500 Ma, respectively, which show a clear influence of the Brasiliano Cycle. The granulite terrain comprising the SMJ exhibits ages older than 1700 Ma, indicating that this area was cool during the Late Proterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. The SJM and NJM limit is marked by a rapid Transition from Early Proterozoic ages in the SJM to Late Proterozoic ages in the NJM. On the other hand the contact between the SJM and DFB is interpreted as a thrust at a high, relatively cool crustal level. (author)

  7. Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

    2010-07-01

    Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

  8. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple

  9. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  10. Interpretation of the chemical compositions of the cumulates of the gabro-anorthositic massif of Piau River - Bahia State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, M.J.M.; Demange, M.; Fonteilles, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Rio Piau gabbroic and anorthositic complex is an Archean layered body; intrusive in the charnokitic and enderbitic terrains of the Jequie nucleous (Sao Francisco Craton, Bahia State, Brazil). The geochemical data of the Rio Piau massif consists of two magmatic series, better identified by REE, titanium, phosphorous, niobium and gallium contents. These two magmatic series show an evolution following the typical tholeiitic and several types of cumulatic rocks. The evolution of each magmatic series is made up by differentiation and accumulation, from basic terms (MgO = 10%) up to intermediate terms (MgO = 2%) and shows an evolution similar to the Skaergaard trends. (author) [pt

  11. K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating results of the Malyshevsky leucogranite massif (eastern slope of the Middle Urals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.N.; Ivanov, K.S.; Ronkin, Yu.L.; Levin, V.Ya.; Bushlyakov, I.N.; Lepikhina, O.P.; Popova, O.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The age of leucogranites and minerals forming the Malyshevsky massif was identified by the methods of K-Ar- and Rb-Sr dating for refining the sequence of magmatic complexes formation on the eastern slope of the Middle Urals. The obtained isotope age values, i.e. 229-277 mln. years (K-Ar) and 277.1±1.1 mln. years (Rb-Sr), permit considering the age of 277 mln. years as the period of the leucogranites formation and of the associated molybdenum mineralization [ru

  12. Les roches basiques et ultrabasiques des Lacs Robert et le Trias de Chamrousse (Massif de Belledonne) Etude petrologique et geologique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tex, den E.

    1950-01-01

    La région que j’ai étudiée et relevée est située dans les Alpes françaises, à environ 4° longitude est et 50°15’ latitude nord, et à environ 2000 mètres d’altitude. Elle fait partie de la chaîne dite „chaîne de Belledonne” qui s’étend des massifs de Beaufort et du Grand Mont dans le N N E jusqu’à

  13. An epidemiological study of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektas, Ayhan; Pektas, Bilgehan M; Kula, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric pulmonary hypertension within the entire Turkish population over a period of 5 years using the registry of the National Health Insurance System. All individuals aged pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension were identified. The overall annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 11.7 cases/million, whereas the overall annual incidence of secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 9.5 cases/million. There was a gradual and significant increase in the annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and that of secondary pulmonary hypertension during the 5-year study period (p=0.001 for both). In the years 2012 and 2013, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension was significantly more frequent in children aged pulmonary hypertension, whereas the female to male ratio was 1.1:1 for secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood. The incidence of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey is higher than those reported for the Western populations. Moreover, no female dominance could be observed. These discrepancies may be attributed to the differences in the study design, study cohort, timing of the study, and the definitions adopted for pulmonary hypertension classification.

  14. Geochronology and geochemistry of early Paleozoic intrusive rocks from the Khanka Massif in the Russian Far East: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Feng; Ge, Wen-Chun; Sorokin, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents new geochronological and geochemical data for early Paleozoic intrusive rocks from the Khanka Massif in the Russian Far East, with the aim of elucidating the Paleozoic evolution and tectonic attributes of the Khanka Massif. New U-Pb zircon data indicate that early Paleozoic magmatism within the Khanka Massif can be subdivided into at least four stages: 502, 492, 462-445, and 430 Ma. The 502 Ma pyroxene diorites contain 58.28-59.64 wt% SiO2, 2.84-3.69 wt% MgO, and relatively high Cr and Ni contents. Negative εHf(t) values (- 1.8 to - 0.4), along with other geochemical data, indicate that the primary magma was derived from partial melting of mafic lower crust with the addition of mantle material. The 492 Ma syenogranites have high SiO2 and K2O contents, and show positive Eu anomalies, indicating the primary magma was generated by partial melting of lower crust at relatively low pressure. The 445 Ma Na-rich trondhjemites display high Sr/Y ratios and positive εHf(t) values (+ 1.8 to + 3.9), indicating the primary magma was generated by partial melting of thickened hydrous mafic crust. The 430 Ma granitoids have high SiO2 and K2O contents, zircon εHf(t) values of - 5.4 to + 5.8, and two-stage model ages of 1757-1045 Ma, suggesting the primary magma was produced by partial melting of heterogeneous Proterozoic lower crustal material. The geochemistry of these early Paleozoic intrusive assemblages indicates their formation in an active continental margin setting associated with the subduction of a paleo-oceanic plate beneath the Khanka Massif. The εHf(t) values show an increasingly negative trend with increasing latitude, revealing a lateral heterogeneity of the lower crust beneath the Khanka Massif. Regional comparisons of the magmatic events indicate that the Khanka Massif in the Russian Far East has a tectonic affinity to the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif rather than the adjacent Jiamusi Massif.

  15. Quality of slaughter material ? BIG 6 heavy turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Kryza; Marian Pietrzak; Ewa Gornowicz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a randomized assessment of slaughter material in the form of intensively farmed turkeys obtained by large poultry slaughter and meat processing plants. The assessment involved determining the slaughter value and physical characteristics of the meat. Samples (23 male and 12 female turkeys) were collected from the processing line of a large commercial poultry processing facility, and hybrid turkeys of a BIG 6 heavy breeding line came from different producers....

  16. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy in Turkey: Public Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Emrah

    2018-01-01

    Turkey intends tobuild three nuclear power stations in the Akkuyu, Sinopand Igneada regions to meet its increasing energy demands. This policy,however, is still a highly controversial topic in Turkey as nuclear energy hasboth advantages and disadvantages. The related literature on this topic isdivided into two groups; supporters claim that nuclear energy may decreaseTurkey's energy dependency on other countries, as it already importsapproximately 70% of its total energy demand. In contra...

  17. Geology and uranium occurrences in the Forez tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central'); Geologie et mineralisations uraniferes de la plaine tertiaire du Forez (Massif Central francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclos, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses - 92 (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part, the observations made during the geological survey of the Forez Tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central') are recalled. Then, using various methods, the author lists the formations according to chronology. Finally, a reconstitution of the geological history of this subsidence basin is attempted. In the second part, the occurrence of 17 uranium bearing geochemical anomalies is commented upon. Each of these various anomalies is given a place on the stratigraphic scale. This enables the author to put the successive phases of uranium deposition into their proper perspective in the history of the plain. In conclusion, the author points out the usefulness of these uraniferous geochemical anomalies. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, l'auteur rappelle les observations faites au cours de l'etude geologique de la plaine tertiaire du Forez (Massif Central francais). Puis se servant de differentes methodes, il etablit une chronologie des formations. Enfin, il termine par un essai de reconstitution de l'histoire geologique de ce bassin de subsidence. Dans la deuxieme partie, il commente la decouverte de 17 anomalies geochimiques uraniferes. Il situe ces differentes anomalies dans la serie stratigraphique. Ceci lui permet de replacer les depots successifs de l'uranium dans l'histoire de la plaine. Enfin, il indique l'interet de ces anomalies geochimiques uraniferes. (auteur)

  18. Isolation of a highly pathogenic influenza virus from turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, M S; Allan, G M; McCracken, R M; McParland, P J

    1985-01-01

    An influenza virus was isolated from turkeys with an acute disease causing 30% mortality. The virus was subtyped as H5 N8. The nomenclature A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5 N8) is proposed for this isolate. The virus had an ICPI of 1.80 to 1.85 for 1-day-old chicks and an IVPI of 2.74 for 6-week-old chickens. Following oronasal inoculation of juvenile and adult turkeys, chickens and ducks with the isolate, 100% mortality occurred in turkeys and chickens. No clinical signs were observed in inoculated ducks, but all developed serum antibody titres against the virus.

  19. Turkey's response to threats of weapons of mass destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Guray.

    2001-01-01

    Unlike most of its NATO allies, Turkey did not emerge from the Cold War with enhanced security. The acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missiles by its neighbors in the Middle Eastâ Iran, Iraq and Syriaâ creates a serious security concern for Turkey. This thesis analyzes the numerous threats posed to Turkey by its neighborsα nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and their ballistic missiles. It evaluates Turkeyαs defense options to counter these thre...

  20. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  1. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Zehra [Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Durak, Hatice [Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear energy in Turkey. Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The global demand for electricity is rapidly increasing. There is growing uncertainty in regard to the supply and prices of oil and natural gas. These considerations have opened new prospects for the development of nuclear energy on a global state. Despite the negative impact of the Fukushima Daichi accident, still some countries are considering or have expressed interest in developing nuclear power programmes. As the country using nuclear technology is primarily responsible for safety and as operational safety cannot be out sourced, building of sound safety expertise and strong safety culture is an essential precondition for the country introducing nuclear technology. Turkey's energy policy is naturally focused on the security, sustainability and competitiveness of energy supply. It is designed to sustain targeted economic and social growth in the long run. Turkey remains resolutely committed to the goal of ensuring safe, secure and peaceful utilization of nuclear energy

  3. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis; Durak, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  4. A Case of Familial Polydactyly From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billur Sezgin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polydactyly is among the most frequently encountered congenital anomalies of the extremities. Although it is usually presented in an isolated and sporadic manner, familial cases can also be rarely encountered. Such familial polydactyly cases usually follow an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable genetic penetration and are usually bilateral and symmetric. A case of rare familial polydactyly from Turkey is presented. Four siblings, two girls and two boys, presented with bilateral, symmetric preaxial polydactyly affecting both hands and feet. These siblings also had four other unaffected siblings along with an affected father and grandmother (the father’s mother. Although the cases portrayed duplication at different levels, the general definition of familial polydactyly with bilateral, symmetric inheritance is observed in these cases. Other rare familial polydactyly cases have been reported in the literature as well, and this case serves as a typical example of this rare entity from Turkey.

  5. Contamination of fodder and radioactivity in turkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Olszewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactivity was determined in mixed fodder (IB, IC, IE) and in turkeys which were given that feeding stuff. In animals (25 males and 25 females) fed with the above mixed fodder for 16-24 weeks radioactivity was assessed in internal organs and in their tissues. It was found that radioactivity ranged from 322.2 Bq/kg to 190.6 Bq/kg. In males the highest contamination was found in the spleen (average 0.108 Bq/g), in skeletal muscles (0.082 Bq/g), and in the liver (0.080 Bq/g), and the lowest in the skin (0.046 Bq per 1 g). The findings indicate that radioactivity of carcasses and internal organs in turkeys fed with contamined fodder was much lower than that in fodder. 6 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  6. Electricity generation: a case study in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale electricity generation provides versatile energy of the highest quality. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary sources of this energy. However, these fossil energy sources are limited and using fossil energy sources has the undesirable effect of releasing emissions that burden the environment and alter the climate. Therefore, governments and companies all over the world should find new and renewable energy sources. On the other hand, over the past two decades, power station construction programs in the developing countries accounted for nearly 30% of total public investment. In a large number of these countries, shortages of electricity have become a critical constraint to economic growth. In Turkey, from 1980 to 1995, the amount for electricity generated increased about fourfold from 23,275 Gwh to 86,247 Gwh, and annual growth rates were in the double digits. This is a good development, but not enough for Turkey. (author)

  7. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  8. Determinants of Industrial Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA OZTURK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of emphasizing the importance of industrial production for the sustainable growth and development of Turkey has been a topic of discussion in political and academia circles. The growth in industrial production (output depends on the investment in manufacturing sectors and the demand for the products. Along with internal demand, Turkey tries to support its manufacturing base with export (incentives. Manufacturing items occupy the greatest share of products in export sales. The development of manufacturing capabilities of the country is clearly based on the demand from inside and out. The effect of Turkey’s export on its industrial production throughout 2000’s has been analyzed. For this purpose we developed a VAR model where industrial production index was the dependent variable and export, investment, and interest rate were independent variables. All independent variables were found to be significantly explaining industrial production.

  9. Effects of heavy metal pollution on foraminifers in the Marmara Sea (Balıkesir-Canakkale-Tekirdag, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal Yumun, Zeki

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate the effects of heavy metal pollution on Holocene foraminiferal assemblages in the sediments of Marmara Sea (Balikesir-Canakkale-Tekirdag, Turkey). For this purpose four drilling samples, one from Bandirma (Balikesir/Turkey), two from Erdek Bay (Erdek-Bandirma/Turkey) and one from Tekirdag (Turkey) have been taken. Additionally core samples taken from 43 different locations in the Western Marmara Sea also have been examined. Foraminiferal assemblages were identified and changes in heavy metal concentrations were determined (spatially) in the vertical direction by means of drilling samples; in the vertical direction for geochronology and in the horizontal direction by the areal distribution of the core samples. In this research an average value defined as Pollution Index (PI) was used for the first time in order to summarize the results of geochemical analyses. Within the scope of this method, the pollution index value is obtained by dividing the sum of average value ratios of heavy metal measurement values by the number of measurements. It was observed that the number of individuals and species decreased where the heavy metal measured values (MV) were higher than the pollution index and increased where the heavy metal values were lower than the pollution index when obtained index value was correlated separately with the numbers of foraminifer individuals and species. It was also observed that foraminifera were completely absent in some locations where PI was less than MV. Morphological changes were observed in three foraminifer species, Elphidium crispum, Massilina secans, and Ammonia compacta, in the core samples taken in areas where industrial wastes are discharged into the southern parts of the Marmara Sea. At some locations, between Misakca-Denizkent, and Erdek-Balikesir, Turkey, where the heavy metal density was high it haven't been any foraminifer species were achieved. The pollution index (PI) value measured in this

  10. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKANLI, Özlem

    2001-01-01

    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...

  11. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  12. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  13. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P

    2002-05-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus.

  14. ANALYSIS OF WAGE INEQUALITY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Acun, Serdar

    2018-01-01

    Discussion of the notion of wages has consistently taken place in economicliterature. The way in which wages come to exist and are defined, and what theequilibrium point is have been the center of this discussion. The significant share of wages in total income hasraised its importance further. According to Turkey income and livingconditions data for 2015, wages and salaries held the proportion with 52.5 % oftotal income. As a consequence of that, the effect of wage inequality on incomeinequal...

  15. Turkey and Copyleft Music Production : Reflectionson Bandista

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabov, Ilkin

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on copyleft music production in Turkey through a case study on Bandista, amusic collective with strong oppositional stance formed in 2006 in Istanbul. Describing itsmusical performances as "situationist experiment of rage and rapture" Bandista becameimmensely popular in the Turkish political music scenery after releasing its debut album De tefabula narratur in 2009 under the copyleft scheme. The article tries to look at the copyleft withthe notion of 'music as performance...

  16. Chronic toxicity of fumonisins in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, D; Bailly, J-D; Skiba, F; Métayer, J-P; Grosjean, F; Guerre, P

    2007-09-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that are found worldwide. They are mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides during its development on corn. The main toxic effects of these molecules have been well characterized in poultry in the case of acute exposure, but the subclinical and economic effects of chronic exposure are less known. Whereas the latest European recommendations suggest that maximal levels of fumonisins in corn could reach 60 mg/kg and the maximal contamination of poultry feeds could reach 20 mg/kg, no study is available at this level in turkeys. The aim of the present work was thus to characterize the effects of exposure to fumonisins (concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2/kg of feed) on feed consumption and growth in turkeys over a period of 9 wk. Main biochemical parameters of the liver and alteration of sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in plasma, liver, and kidney. The main results showed no effect on feed consumption and growth in exposed turkeys. Moreover, no effect was observed on the weight of tissues and markers of liver injury. By contrast, a disruption of sphingolipid metabolism was clear at a level of exposure of 10 and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2 mg/kg of feed. Both hepatic and kidney concentrations of sphinganine increased gradually throughout the exposure period. These results reveal that disruption of sphingolipid metabolism is an early and sensitive biomarker of fumonisins exposure in turkeys; the consequences on these alterations remain to be established.

  17. Wage Inequality in Turkey: 2002-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bakis, Ozan; Polat, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of wage inequality over the last decade in Turkey using household labor force survey between 2002 and 2010. During the period between 2002 and 2004, the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers stayed almost constant while their relative wages have decreased in the benefit of less educated workers. However, in the second period between 2004 and 2010 the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers had risen while t...

  18. COMPARING MODERNIZATION IN IRAN AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoum Parhizkari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines and comparesthe questions whether there are anydifferences between Iran and Turkey inmodernization and if this is the casewhether this is gender equality, family values, or secularity that causes suchdifferences. Data from the Iranian andthe Turkish part of the World ValuesSurvey (WVS forth wave are used forthe empirical analysis. Conceptual andmethodological effects influence the structural equation model.

  19. Issues of Teaching Tuvan Language in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita B. Kungaa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuvan language is taught and studied both in the Republic of Tuva and beyond its borders. Alongside with other Turkic languages, it is taught at a number of universities in Turkey – and like all languages belonging to the same group, it is taught to Turkish students not as a foreign, but as a cognate tongue. Speaking from her own experience as lecturer in Tuvan language and literature at the University of Ankara (1997-2003, the author shares her opinions on the issues language instructors frequently face when teaching Tuvan to Turkish students. Since all Turkic languages are understood to stem back to a single ancestor – Proto-Turkic language, the absolute majority of Turkologists see them as dialects of this ancestor tongue. Correspondingly, in their learning experience Turkish students distinguish between foreign languages and those cognate to their mother tongue. Overall, about 20 Turkish universities offer courses in various Turkic languages. At the moment, quite a lot of specialists in Tuvan – both researchers and educators – work in Turkey. However, there is a marked lack of student motivation to study Tuvan. Students see little incentives of professional career growth except becoming an academic linguist. Another notable issue is the absence of textbooks, study manuals, or Tuvan-Turkish and Turkish-Tuvan phrasebooks which could facilitate achieving the required level of command of Tuvan by Turkish students. This problem as yet remains unsolved. For Turkish students, learning Tuvan opens the prospect of becoming a Turkologist. For the Republic of Tuva, the presence of such specialists would help popularize Tuvan culture and enhance collaboration between Tuva and Turkey in the areas of science, culture and economy. This will also help develop the relations between Turkey and Russian Federation.

  20. REMITTANCES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin KARAMELIKLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.