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Sample records for masseter muscle afferent

  1. Inhibition of muscle spindle afferent activity during masseter muscle fatigue in the rat.

    Brunetti, Orazio; Della Torre, Giovannella; Lucchi, Maria Luisa; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Bortolami, Ruggero; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2003-09-01

    The influence of muscle fatigue on the jaw-closing muscle spindle activity has been investigated by analyzing: (1) the field potentials evoked in the trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmot) by trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) stimulation, (2) the orthodromic and antidromic responses evoked in the Vmes by stimulation of the peripheral and central axons of the muscle proprioceptive afferents, and (3) the extracellular unitary discharge of masseter muscle spindles recorded in the Vmes. The masseter muscle was fatigued by prolonged tetanic masseter nerve electrical stimulation. Pre- and postsynaptic components of the potentials evoked in the Vmot showed a significant reduction in amplitude following muscle fatigue. Orthodromic and antidromic potentials recorded in the Vmes also showed a similar amplitude decrease. Furthermore, muscle fatigue caused a decrease of the discharge frequency of masseter muscle spindle afferents in most of the examined units. The inhibition of the potential amplitude and discharge frequency was strictly correlated with the extent of muscle fatigue and was mediated by the group III and IV afferent muscle fibers activated by fatigue. In fact, the inhibitory effect was abolished by capsaicin injection in the masseter muscle that provokes selective degeneration of small afferent muscle fibers containing neurokinins. We concluded that fatigue signals originating from the muscle and traveling through capsaicin-sensitive fibers are able to diminish the proprioceptive input by a central presynaptic influence. In the second part of the study, we examined the central projection of the masseter small afferents sensitive to capsaicin at the electron-microscopic level. Fiber degeneration was induced by injecting capsaicin into the masseter muscle. Degenerating terminals were found on the soma and stem process in Vmes and on the dendritic tree of neurons in Vmot. This suggests that small muscle afferents may influence the muscle spindle activity through

  2. The role in masseter muscle activities of functionally elicited periodontal afferents from abutment teeth under overdentures.

    Mushimoto, E

    1981-09-01

    Five overdenture wearers with a small number of remaining natural teeth were selected to evaluate the effect of the afferent input from periodontal mechanoreceptors on masseter activity in man. As a control, a full denture wearer was included. The subjects were instructed to chew a piece of gum, and/or tap their teeth. Surface EmG from the bilateral masseter muscles were recorded and analysed. When functional pressure was applied, during chewing, to the abutment teeth as well as to mucosa through the denture base, masseter activities were encouraged. Following application of anaesthesia to the periodontal membrane of the abutments, masseter activities were reduced. The duration of the silent period (SP) appearing in the EMG burst following tooth tapping was significantly increased with root support compared to mucosal support only. With topical anaesthesia of the periodontal tissues, SP duration decreased significantly. In conclusion, it has become apparent that the pressure sensibility of abutment teeth bearing functional pressure under an overdenture base is capable of facilitating masseter activity, as one of the sources of oral sensory input during mastication.

  3. Idiopathic masseter muscle hypertrophy.

    Kebede, Biruktawit; Megersa, Shimalis

    2011-11-01

    Benign Masseteric Hypertrophy is a relatively uncommon condition that can occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pain may be a symptom, but most frequently a clinician is consulted for cosmetic reasons. In some cases prominent Exostoses at the angle of the mandible are noted. Although it is tempting to point to Malocclusion, Bruxism, clenching, or Temporomandibular joint disorders, the etiology in the majority of cases is unclear. Diagnosis is based on awareness of the condition, clinical and radiographic findings, and exclusion of more serious Pathology such as Benign and Malignant Parotid Disease, Rhabdomyoma, and Lymphangioma. Treatment usually involves resection of a portion of the Masseter muscle with or without the underlying bone.

  4. Evaluation of normal masseter muscles on ultrasonography

    Hwang, Hyoung Zoo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2008-01-01

    To assess the internal echo intensity and morphological variability of masseter muscles on ultrasonography and to establish diagnostic criterion of estimation. Participants consisted of 50 young adults (male 25, female 25) without pathologic conditions and with full natural dentitions. Sonographic examinations were done with real time ultrasound equipment as Logiq 500 (GE Medical Systems, Seoul, Korea) at 3 parts according to lines paralleling with ala-tragus line as reference line. The thickness and area of masseter muscles according to reference line in cross-sectional images were measured at rest and at maximum contraction. The visibility and width of the internal echogenic intensity of the masseter muscles were also assessed and the muscle appearance was classified into 4 types. Data were statistically analyzed by paired t-test and x2-test. 1. When comparing the thickness and area of masseter muscles concerning with gender, there was few significant difference between right and left sides, however, there were significant differences between males and females except for the greatest thickness of left side. 2. The changes of the greatest thickness and the area between rest and maximum contraction showed that the part of the least thickness manifested more increase at maximum contraction. 3. Each part the manifestations of the internal echogenic intensity of the masseter muscles were different depending on the locations. But there was no statistically significance. Changes of muscles thickness with contraction and internal echogenic intensity with locations showed great disparity within the masseter muscles, which will be diagnostic criteria for pathophysiologic and anatomic changes of masseter muscles.

  5. Esterase profile of human masseter muscle

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Vilmann, H

    1988-01-01

    The esterase profile of fresh human masseter muscle was investigated by use of histochemistry and electrophoresis. The histochemical methods included reactions for alpha-naphthyl esterase, myofibrillar ATPase, reverse myofibrillar ATPase and succinic dehydrogenase. In frozen sections of the muscle...... the coloured reaction product for esterases was present both as a diffuse sarcoplasmic coloration and as distinct granules. The intensity of diffuse reaction was used to classify the muscle fibres as strongly, moderately and weakly reacting. The fibres with strong esterase activity belonged to Type I and ii......C. iM and Type II A fibres showed a moderate esterase reaction and Type II B fibres had a low activity. The electrophoretic gels stained for esterase activity showed that the human masseter muscle possesses a slow migrating double band with high enzyme activity and a cascade of faster migrating...

  6. An animal model for human masseter muscle: histochemical characterization of mouse, rat, rabbit, cat, dog, pig, and cow masseter muscle

    Tuxen, A; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    The masseter muscle of several animal species was investigated by use of a histochemical method for the demonstration of acid-stable and alkali-stable myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The following subdivisions of fiber types were used: Type I fibers show weak ATPase activity at pH 9...... II and I fibers, with type II predominating. Cow masseter muscle consisted mainly of type I fibers, although some cow masseter muscles contained a very small number of type II fibers. Pig masseter muscle had both type I, II, and IM fibers. One of the characteristics of human masseter muscle is type...... IM fibers, which are rarely seen in muscles other than the masticatory muscles. Therefore, pig masseter muscle might be a suitable animal model for experimental studies, such as an investigation of the distribution and diameter of fiber types in the masticatory muscles before and after orthognathic...

  7. Fibrodysplasia ossificans circumscripta of the masseter muscle.

    Geist, J R; Bhatti, P; Plezia, R A; Wesley, R K

    1998-05-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans circumscripta (FOC) is a lesion characterized by localized calcification of the investing fascia of skeletal muscle. It is often related to repeated trauma and was formerly known as traumatic myositis ossificans. Surgical procedures involving muscles are also believed to be a factor in the origin of the lesion. When FOC develops in the muscles of mastication it can lead to severe trismus. A case is reported of FOC in the left masseter muscle of a 44-year-old man who presented with marked limitation of opening. It was believed that previous fractures of the left maxilla and mandible and/or the subsequent surgical treatments were responsible for the onset of FOC. The radiographic and microscopic features of FOC are discussed in relation to recent theories on the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the lesion.

  8. Experimentally induced masseter-pain changes masseter but not sternocleidomastoid muscle-related activity during mastication.

    Pasinato, Fernanda; Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C; Zeredo, Jorge Luis Lopes; Macedo, Sergio Bruzadelli; Corrêa, Eliane C R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of induced masseter-muscle pain on the amplitude of muscle activation, symmetry and coactivation of jaw- and neck-muscles during mastication. Twenty-eight male volunteers, mean age±SD 20.6±2.0years, participated in this study. Surface electromyography of the masseter and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was performed bilaterally during mastication of a gummy candy before and after injections of monosodium glutamate solution and isotonic saline solution. As a result, we observed a decrease in the amplitude of activation of the masseter muscle on the working side (p=0.009; d=0.34) and a reduction in the asymmetry between the working and the balancing side during mastication (p=0.007; d=0.38). No changes were observed either on the craniocervical electromyographic variables. In conclusion, experimentally induced pain reduced the masseter muscle activation on the working side, thereby reducing the physiological masseters' recruitment asymmetry between the two sides during mastication. No effects on SCM activity were detected. These results may partly explain the initial maladaptative changes underlying TMD conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of TRPV1 and ASIC3 channels in experimental occlusal interference-induced hyperalgesia in rat masseter muscle.

    Xu, X X; Cao, Y; Ding, T T; Fu, K Y; Li, Y; Xie, Q F

    2016-04-01

    Masticatory muscle pain may occur following immediate occlusal alteration by dental treatment. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channel-3 (ASIC3) mediate muscle hyperalgesia under various pathologic conditions. We have developed a rat model of experimental occlusal interference (EOI) that consistently induces mechanical hyperalgesia in jaw muscles. Whether TRPV1 and ASIC3 mediate this EOI-induced hyperalgesia is unknown. Rat model of EOI-induced masseter hyperalgesia was established. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and retrograde labelling combined with immunofluorescence were performed to evaluate the modulation of TRPV1 and ASIC3 expression in trigeminal ganglia (TGs) and masseter afferents of rats after EOI. The effects of intramuscular administration of TRPV1 and ASIC3 antagonists on the EOI-induced hyperalgesia in masseter muscle were examined. After EOI, gene expressions and protein levels of TRPV1 and ASIC3 in bilateral TGs were up-regulated. The percentage of ASIC3- (but not TRPV1-) positive neurons in masseter afferents increased after EOI. More small-sized and small to medium-sized masseter afferents expressed TRPV1 and ASIC3 separately following EOI. These changes peaked at day 7 and then returned to original status within 10 days after EOI. Intramuscular administration of the TRPV1 antagonist AMG-9810 partially reversed this mechanical hyperalgesia in masseter muscle. No improvement was exhibited after administration of the ASIC3 antagonist APETx2. Co-injection of AMG-9810 and APETx2 enhanced the effect of AMG-9810 administration alone. Peripheral TRPV1 and ASIC3 contribute to the development of the EOI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in masseter muscle. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  10. Histological study of rat masseter muscle following experimental occlusal alteration.

    Nishide, N; Baba, S; Hori, N; Nishikawa, H

    2001-03-01

    It has been suggested that occlusal interference results in masticatory muscle dysfunction. In our previous study, occlusal interference reduced the rat masseter energy level during masticatory movements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological alterations of rat masseter muscles following experimental occlusal alteration with unilateral bite-raising. A total of eight male adult Wistar rats were equally divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental rats wore bite-raising splints on the unilateral upper molar. However, 4 weeks after the operation, the anterior deep masseter muscles were removed and then stained for succinic acid dehydrogenase (SDH), haematoxylin eosin (HE) and myofibrillar ATPase. Most of the muscle fibres in experimental rats remained intact, although partial histological changes were observed, such as extended connective tissue, appearance of inflammatory cells in the muscle fibres and existence of muscle fibres with central nuclei and central cores. Moreover, the fibre area-fibre frequency histograms of experimental muscle indicated a broad pattern than that of controls. These results indicated that occlusal interference caused histological changes in masseter muscles and that this may be related to the fact that the masseter energy level was reduced during masticatory movements in unilateral bite-raised rats.

  11. Masseter muscle thickness in unilateral partial edentulism: An ultrasonographic study

    S Sathasivasubramanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teeth and facial muscles play a very important role in occlusal equilibrium and function. Occlusal derangement, seen in unilateral partially edentulous individuals, has an effect on masseter muscle anatomy and function. The present study aims to evaluate masseter muscle thickness in unilateral partial edentulism. Patients and Methods: Institutional ethics committee approval was obtained before the commencement of the study. The study involved patients who routinely visited the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sri Ramachandra University. The study sample included 27 unilateral edentulous patients (Group E and 30 controls (Group C. The masseter muscle thickness was evaluated using high-resolution ultrasound real-time scanner (linear transducer − 7.5–10 MHz at both relaxed and contracted states. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Duration of edentulism and muscle thickness was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The study patients' age ranged between 25 and 48 years (mean – 36 years. The comparative evaluation of masseter muscle thickness between the dentulous and edentulous sides of experimental group was statistically significant (P < 0.05. However, no statistically significant difference in masseter muscle thickness was found between the dentulous side of control and experimental groups. The correlation between the duration of partial edentulism and muscle thickness was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study proves masseter atrophy in the edentulous side. However, since the difference is found to be marginal with the present sample, a greater sample is necessary to establish and prove the present findings as well as to correlate with the duration of edentulism. Further studies are aimed to assess the muscle morphology after prosthetic rehabilitation.

  12. Effect of lack of later support in the masseter muscle

    Fernandez Lopez, Otton

    2007-01-01

    One of the main complaints during dental consultation has been pain in the zone of the masseter muscle, especially a lack of rear support. None research has published that reveals what has been the relationship between the rear support and histological alterations in muscle mass. Both topics have treated to relate through a process of tooth wear in laboratory animals and produce a lack of rear support. Cuts of the masseter muscles and specimens were subjected to microscopic study of light and electronic. The conclusion has been that by removing the rear support are produced important changes to histological level. (author) [es

  13. Histochemical and functional fibre typing of the rabbit masseter muscle

    Bredman, J. J.; Weijs, W. A.; Moorman, A. F.; Brugman, P.

    1990-01-01

    The fibre-type distribution of the masseter muscle of the rabbit was studied by means of the myosin-ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase reactions. Six different fibre types were found and these were unequally distributed between and within the anatomical compartments of the muscle. Most of the

  14. MOTOR UNIT TERRITORIES AND FIBER TYPES IN RABBIT MASSETER MUSCLE

    WEIJS, WA; JUCH, PJW; KWA, SHS; KORFAGE, JAM

    1993-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MHC) content and spatial distribution of the fibers of 11 motor units (MUs) of the rabbit masseter muscle were determined. The fibers of single MUs were visualized in whole-muscle serial sections by a negative periodic acid/Schiff reaction for glycogen after they had been

  15. THE CAPILLARY PATTERN IN HUMAN MASSETER MUSCLE DURING AGEING

    Erika Cvetko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ageing on the capillary network in skeletal muscles has produced conflicting results in both, human and animals studies. Some of the inconsistencies are due to non-comparable and biased methods that were applied on thin transversal sections, especially in muscles with complicated morphological structures, such as in human masseter muscle. We present a new immunohistochemical method for staining capillaries and muscle fibres in 100 µm thick sections as well as novel approach to 3D visualization of capillaries and muscle fibres. Applying confocal microscopy and virtual 3D stereological grids, or tracing capillaries in virtual reality, length of capillaries within a muscle volume or length of capillaries adjacent to muscle fibre per fibre length, fibre surface or fibre volume were evaluated in masseter muscle of young and old subjects by an unbiased approach. Our findings show that anatomic capillarity is well maintained in masseter muscle in old subjects; however, vascular remodelling occurs with age, which could be a response to changed muscle function and age-related muscle fibre type transformations.

  16. The capillary pattern in human masseter muscle during ageing

    Cvetko, E.; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Eržen, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2013), s. 135-144 ISSN 1580-3139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3D analysis * capillaries * confocal microscopy * human * masseter * muscle Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2013

  17. Hipertrofia benigna do músculo masseter Benign masseter muscle hypertrophy

    Daniel Zeni Rispoli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A hipertrofia idiopática do músculo masseter (HIM é uma patologia pouco freqüente e de causa desconhecida. Alguns autores correlacionam tal condição com hábitos de mascar gomas, disfunção da articulação temporomandibular (ATM, hipertrofias congênitas e funcionais, e distúrbios emocionais (nervosismo e ansiedade. A maioria dos pacientes queixa-se da alteração estética decorrente da assimetria facial, também chamada "face quadrada", no entanto, sintomas como trismo, protrusão e bruxismo também podem ocorrer. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: relatar um caso de HIM e descrever a sintomatologia e o tratamento realizado. O paciente relatava aumento bilateral na região do ângulo da mandíbula de evolução lenta e progressiva. Negava dor ou desconforto, porém se queixava de otalgia bilateral, trismo noturno e ansiedade. Ao exame físico, observou-se hipertrofia bilateral de masseter sem alterações inflamatórias no local. Foi indicado tratamento cirúrgico com abordagem extra-oral. Exames complementares são indicados na dúvida diagnóstica. A conduta terapêutica varia de conservadora a cirúrgica, sendo que esta depende principalmente da experiência e da habilidade do cirurgião.Idiopathic hypertrophy of the masseter muscle is a rare disorder of unknown cause. Some authors associate it with the habit of chewing gum, temporo-mandibular joint disorder, congenital and functional hypertrophies, and emotional disorders (stress and nervousness. Most patients complain of the cosmetic change caused by facial asymmetry, also called square face, however, symptoms such as trismus, protrusion and bruxism may also occur. The goals of the present investigation were: to report a case of idiopathic masseter hypertrophy, describe its symptoms and treatment. The patient reported bilateral bulging in the region of the mandible angle, of slow and progressive evolution. He did not complain of pain or discomfort, however there was bilateral

  18. Anatomic MRI study of a small muscle: the masseter

    Dheyriat, A.; Lissac, M.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Bonmartin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides functional information in an anatomic presentation allowing to distinguish soft tissues with high sensitivity. The goal of this study was to investigate the normal anatomy of the major masticatory muscle, the masseter, both at rest or during contraction by using three dimensional (3D) MRI. Eighteen subjects aged from 19 to 28 years, all in good health, were studied. Several experiments were first realized on phantoms to test the 3D-MRI technique. After reconstruction and segmentation processing, 3D acquisition, enabled obtaining data on the masseter anatomy. The normal anatomical position of the masseter was reported to the skin plan as the mean internal distance (7.9±0.42 mm) and external distance (15.2±0.41 mm). While there was no difference between internal distance, for sex or side, the external distance was significantly (p = 0.02) shorter in male (7.7±0.5 mm) than in female (8.8±0.4 mm) for both sides. The mean volume for all subjects and both sides (20.3±1.1 cm 3 ) did not change significantly between rest and exercise. The masseter volume was significantly (p 3 ) than in female (16.4±3.6 cm 3 ) groups. These physiological references may be useful for further MRI investigations of masticatory system pathologies. (authors)

  19. Modulation of jaw muscle spindle afferent activity following intramuscular injections with hypertonic saline.

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    2001-05-01

    Transient noxious chemical stimulation of small diameter muscle afferents modulates jaw movement-related responses of caudal brainstem neurons. While it is likely that the effect is mediated from the spindle afferents in the mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) via the caudally projecting Probst's tract, the mechanisms of pain induced modulations of jaw muscle spindle afferents is not known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that jaw muscle nociceptors gain access to muscle spindle afferents in the same muscle via central mechanisms and alter their sensitivity. Thirty-five neurons recorded from the Vmes were characterized as muscle spindle afferents based on their responses to passive jaw movements, muscle palpation, and electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve. Each cell was tested by injecting a small volume (250 microl) of either 5% hypertonic and/or isotonic saline into the receptor-bearing muscle. Twenty-nine units were tested with 5% hypertonic saline, of which 79% (23/29) showed significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during one or more phases of ramp-and-hold movements. Among the muscle spindle primary-like units (n = 12), MFRs of 4 units were facilitated, five reduced, two showed mixed responses and one unchanged. In secondary-like units (n = 17), MFRs of 9 were facilitated, three reduced and five unchanged. Thirteen units were tested with isotonic saline, of which 77% showed no significant changes of MFRs. Further analysis revealed that the hypertonic saline not only affected the overall output of muscle spindle afferents, but also increased the variability of firing and altered the relationship between afferent signal and muscle length. These results demonstrated that activation of muscle nociceptors significantly affects proprioceptive properties of jaw muscle spindles via central neural mechanisms. The changes can have deleterious effects on oral motor function as well as kinesthetic sensibility.

  20. Prolonging the duration of masseter muscle reduction by adjusting the masticatory movements after the treatment of masseter muscle hypertrophy with botulinum toxin type a injection.

    Wei, Jiao; Xu, Hua; Dong, Jiasheng; Li, Qingfeng; Dai, Chuanchang

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is widely used for the clinical treatment of masseteric hypertrophy. Until now, few reports have discussed how to prolong the duration of its effectiveness. This study evaluated that purposely adjusting the masticatory movements is possible of postponing the masseter muscle rehypertrophy. Ninety-eight patients were randomly and equally divided into 2 groups, and 35 U BTX-A per side was injected into the masseters. The thickness and volume of the masticatory muscles were measured by ultrasound and computerized tomography, respectively. Patients in Group 1 were instructed to strengthen their masticatory effort during the denervated atrophic stage of the masseter (the interval was evaluated by real-time ultrasound monitoring), whereas patients in Group 2 were not given this instruction. When the masseter muscle began to recover, patients in both groups were instructed to reduce their chewing. The duration of the masseter muscle rehypertrophy was significantly prolonged in Group 1 patients. The thickness and the volume of the other masticatory muscles were significantly increased in Group 1 but were either slightly decreased or insignificantly different in Group 2. Purposely strengthening masticatory muscle movement during the denervated atrophic stage of the masseter can prolong the duration of masseter rehypertrophy.

  1. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    Rodrigo A Guzmán-Venegas

    Full Text Available Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001.The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001. The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001. The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF.

  2. [Trigeminal purinergic P2X4 receptor involved in experimental occlusal interference-induced hyperalgesia in rat masseter muscle].

    Xu, Xiaoxiang; Cao, Ye; Ding, Tingting; Fu, Kaiyuan; Xie, Qiufei

    2016-03-01

    To explore the expression of purinergic p2X4 receptor (P2X4R) in trigeminal ganglion of rats after occlusal interference. Investigation of peripheral receptor mechanism of occlusal interference-induced masticatory muscle pain will aid the development of drug intervention against this condition. Experimental occlusal interference was established by application of 0.4 mm metal crown to the upper right first molar of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Real-time PCR assay was used to investigate P2X4R mRNA level in trigeminal ganglion in rats with occlusal interference for 3, 7, 10 and 14 days and in control rats without occlusal interference (n=5 in each). Retrograde labelling combining immunofluorescence was performed to evaluate the percentage of P2X4R-positive cells in masseter afferent neurons (n=5 in each group). Graded concentrations of P2XR antagonist TNP-ATP (0.1, 10, 125, 250, 500 μmol/L) or saline (n=5 in each group) was administrated in right masseter and the mechanical sensitivity of bilateral masseters was measured before occlusal interference application, before the injection, and 30 min as well as 60 min after the injection. Compared with control rats (P2X4R mRNA: right side: 1.00±0.26, left side: 0.94± 0.21; percentage of P2X4R-positive masseter afferents: right side: [64.3±6.3]%, left side: [67.7±5.8]%), the level of P2X4R mRNA in bilateral trigeminal ganglia (right side: 5.98±3.56; left side: 5.06±2.88) of rats with occlusal interference for 7 days up-regulated (Pocclusal interference-induced masseter hyperalgesia.

  3. Myosin heavy chain expression in rabbit masseter muscle during postnatal development

    Bredman, J. J.; Weijs, W. A.; Korfage, H. A.; Brugman, P.; Moorman, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC) during postnatal development was studied in the masseter muscle of the rabbit. Evidence is presented that in addition to adult fast and slow myosin, the rabbit masseter contains neonatal and 'cardiac' alpha-MHC. During postnatal growth myosin

  4. Protective Effects of Clenbuterol against Dexamethasone-Induced Masseter Muscle Atrophy and Myosin Heavy Chain Transition.

    Daisuke Umeki

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid has a direct catabolic effect on skeletal muscle, leading to muscle atrophy, but no effective pharmacotherapy is available. We reported that clenbuterol (CB induced masseter muscle hypertrophy and slow-to-fast myosin heavy chain (MHC isoform transition through direct muscle β2-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus, we hypothesized that CB would antagonize glucocorticoid (dexamethasone; DEX-induced muscle atrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition.We examined the effect of CB on DEX-induced masseter muscle atrophy by measuring masseter muscle weight, fiber diameter, cross-sectional area, and myosin heavy chain (MHC composition. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we used immunoblotting to study the effects of CB on muscle hypertrophic signaling (insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1 expression, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway, and calcineurin pathway and atrophic signaling (Akt/Forkhead box-O (FOXO pathway and myostatin expression in masseter muscle of rats treated with DEX and/or CB.Masseter muscle weight in the DEX-treated group was significantly lower than that in the Control group, as expected, but co-treatment with CB suppressed the DEX-induced masseter muscle atrophy, concomitantly with inhibition of fast-to-slow MHC isoforms transition. Activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway in masseter muscle of the DEX-treated group was significantly inhibited compared to that of the Control group, and CB suppressed this inhibition. DEX also suppressed expression of IGF1 (positive regulator of muscle growth, and CB attenuated this inhibition. Myostatin protein expression was unchanged. CB had no effect on activation of the Akt/FOXO pathway. These results indicate that CB antagonizes DEX-induced muscle atrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition via modulation of Akt/mTOR activity and IGF1 expression. CB might be a useful pharmacological agent for treatment of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy.

  5. Association of occlusal interference-induced masseter muscle hyperalgesia and P2X3 receptors in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    Sun, Shuzhen; Qi, Dong; Yang, Yingying; Ji, Ping; Kong, Jingjing; Wu, Qingting

    2016-03-02

    P2X3 receptor plays a role in nociception transmission of orofacial pain in temporomandibular disorder patients. A previous study found that P2X3 receptors in masseter muscle afferent neurons and the trigeminal ganglia were involved in masseter muscle pain induced by inflammation caused by chemical agents or eccentric muscle contraction. In this study, we attempted to investigate changes in P2X3 receptors in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in relation to the hyperalgesia of masseter muscles induced by occlusal interference. Experimental occlusal interference by crown application was established in 30 rats and another 30 rats were treated as sham controls. On days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after crown application, the mechanical pain threshold was examined by von-Frey filaments. The expression of the P2X3 receptor in Vc and PAG was investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. We found that mechanical pain threshold of bilateral masseter muscles decreased significantly after occlusal interference, which remained for the entire experimental period. The mRNA expression of the P2X3 receptor increased significantly and the number of P2X3R-positive neurons increased markedly in Vc and PAG accordingly. These results indicate that the upregulated expression of P2X3 receptors in Vc and PAG may contribute toward the development of orofacial pain induced by occlusal interference and P2X3 receptors in the PAG may play a key role in the supraspinal antiociception effect.

  6. Muscle Fatigue in the Temporal and Masseter Muscles in Patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction

    Krzysztof Woźniak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate muscle fatigue in the temporal and masseter muscles in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD. Two hundred volunteers aged 19.3 to 27.8 years (mean 21.50, SD 0.97 participated in this study. Electromyographical (EMG recordings were performed using a DAB-Bluetooth Instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany. Muscle fatigue was evaluated on the basis of a maximum effort test. The test was performed during a 10-second maximum isometric contraction (MVC of the jaws. An analysis of changes in the mean power frequency of the two pairs of temporal and masseter muscles (MPF% revealed significant differences in the groups of patients with varying degrees of temporomandibular disorders according to Di (P<0.0000. The study showed an increase in the muscle fatigue of the temporal and masseter muscles correlated with the intensity of temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms in patients. The use of surface electromyography in assessing muscle fatigue is an excellent diagnostic tool for identifying patients with temporomandibular dysfunction.

  7. Macrophages and mast cells in dystrophic masseter muscle: a light and electron microscopic study

    Kirkeby, S; Mikkelsen, H

    1988-01-01

    Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle, the num......Macrophages and mast cells in masseter muscle from normal and dystrophic mice were studied by light and electron microscopy. Acid phosphatase activity and FITC-dextran were used to identify and describe macrophages. Toluidine blue was used as a marker for mast cells. In dystrophic muscle...

  8. Masseter motor unit recruitment is altered in experimental jaw muscle pain

    Minami, I.; Akhter, R.; Albersen, I.; Burger, C.; Whittle, T.; Lobbezoo, F.; Peck, C.C.; Murray, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Some management strategies for chronic orofacial pain are influenced by models (e.g., Vicious Cycle Theory, Pain Adaptation Model) proposing either excitation or inhibition within a painful muscle. The aim of this study was to determine if experimental painful stimulation of the masseter muscle

  9. Influence of glutamate-evoked pain and sustained elevated muscle activity on blood oxygenation in the human masseter muscle.

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Arima, Taro; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Svensson, Peter; Castrillon, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain on intramuscular oxygenation during rest and sustained elevated muscle activity (SEMA). Seventeen healthy individuals participated in two sessions in which they were injected with glutamate and saline in random order. Each session was divided into three, 10-min periods. During the first (period 1) and the last (period 3) 10-min periods, participants performed five intercalated 1-min bouts of masseter SEMA with 1-min periods of 'rest'. At onset of the second 10-min period, glutamate (0.5 ml, 1 M; Ajinomoto, Tokyo, Japan) or isotonic saline (0.5 ml; 0.9%) was injected into the masseter muscle and the participants kept the muscle relaxed in a resting position for 10 min (period 2). The hemodynamic characteristics of the masseter muscle were recorded simultaneously during the experiment by a laser blood-oxygenation monitor. The results demonstrated that glutamate injections caused significant levels of self-reported pain in the masseter muscle; however, this nociceptive input did not have robust effects on intramuscular oxygenation during rest or SEMA tasks. Interestingly, these findings suggest an uncoupling between acute nociceptive activity and hemodynamic parameters in both resting and low-level active jaw muscles. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological significance of blood-flow changes for persistent jaw-muscle pain conditions. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  10. Masseter motor unit recruitment is altered in experimental jaw muscle pain.

    Minami, I; Akhter, R; Albersen, I; Burger, C; Whittle, T; Lobbezoo, F; Peck, C C; Murray, G M

    2013-02-01

    Some management strategies for chronic orofacial pain are influenced by models (e.g., Vicious Cycle Theory, Pain Adaptation Model) proposing either excitation or inhibition within a painful muscle. The aim of this study was to determine if experimental painful stimulation of the masseter muscle resulted in only increases or only decreases in masseter activity. Recordings of single-motor-unit (SMU, basic functional unit of muscle) activity were made from the right masseters of 10 asymptomatic participants during biting trials at the same force level and direction under infusion into the masseter of isotonic saline (no-pain condition), and in another block of biting trials on the same day, with 5% hypertonic saline (pain condition). Of the 36 SMUs studied, 2 SMUs exhibited a significant (p units were present only during the no-pain block and 10 units during the pain block only. The findings suggest that, rather than only excitation or only inhibition within a painful muscle, a re-organization of activity occurs, with increases and decreases occurring within the painful muscle. This suggests the need to re-assess management strategies based on models that propose uniform effects of pain on motor activity.

  11. Recurrent parotid swelling secondary to masseter muscle hypertrophy: a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Gaffuri, Michele; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Assandri, Fausto; Pereira, Pollyanna; Farronato, Giampietro

    2016-11-01

    To present a patient with an atypical recurrent parotid swelling due to masseter muscle hypertrophy and the diagnostic/therapeutic assessment to treat this condition. A patient referring recurrent right facial swelling underwent a complete multidisciplinary assessment of the parotid region that revealed masseter muscle hypertrophy, confirmed by means of clinical (otolaryngological and gnathological evaluation), radiological (utrasonography, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, and cone beam computed tomography), instrumental (electromyography to evaluate the right masseter muscle function and kinesiography to evaluate maximum right deflection - MaxRDefl and maximum opening - MaxMO) and sialendoscopy assessment where T0 indicates the pre-treatment values. All electromyographic and kinesiographic parameters were evaluated six months after the orthodontic application of a neuromuscular orthosis at T1. At T1, the effectiveness of the orthodontic therapy was demonstrated by the complete resolution of symptoms, and instrumental results documented more efficient muscle activity at rest and during clenching and a better mandibular position. At EMG T1, the resting and post-TENS values were, respectively, 1.2 and 1.8 microV. At kinesiography, MaxRDefl increased from 10.2 (T0) to 10.5 mm (T1); maxMO increased from 41.2 (T0) to 48 mm (T1). The proposed multidisciplinary assessment based on otolaryngological, gnathological, and radiological evaluation may be useful in the case of recurrent parotid swelling secondary to masseter muscle hypertrophy to plan an appropriate management with a removable neuromuscular orthosis.

  12. The pedicled masseter muscle transfer for smile reconstruction in facial paralysis: repositioning the origin and insertion.

    Matic, Damir B; Yoo, John

    2012-08-01

    The pedicled masseter muscle transfer (PMMT) is introduced as a new reconstructive option for dynamic smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis. The masseter muscle is detached from both its origin and insertion and transferred to a new position to imitate the function of the native zygomaticus major muscle. Part one of this study consisted of cadaveric dissections of 4 heads (eight sides) in order to determine whether the masseter muscle could be (a) pedicled solely by its dominant neurovascular bundle and (b) repositioned directly over the native zygomaticus major. The second part of the study consisted of clinical assessments in three patients in order to confirm the applicability of this muscle transfer. Commissure excursion and vector of contraction following PMMT were compared to the non-paralyzed side. In all eight sides, the masseter muscles were successfully isolated on their pedicle and transposed on top of and in-line with the ipsilateral zygomaticus major. The mean length of the masseter and its angle from Frankfurt's horizontal line after transposition compared favorably to the native zygomaticus major muscle. In the clinical cases, the mean commissure movements of the paralyzed and normal sides were 7 mm and 12 mm respectively. The mean angles of commissural movement for the paralyzed and normal sides were 62° and 59° respectively. The PMMT can be used as a dynamic reconstruction for patients with permanent facial paralysis. As we gain experience with the PMMT, it may be possible to use it as a first-line option for patients not eligible for free micro-neurovascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Masseter Muscle Hypertrophy and Pericardial Effusion in Kocher-Debre-Semelaigne Syndrome Child

    Taksande AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscular pseudohypertrophy associated with severe congenital hypothyroidism has been described as Kocher Debre Semelaigne syndrome, which is a rare disorder. We report a case of 9year old female child with hypothyroidism, limb muscular pseudo-hypertrophy with involvement of masseter muscle along with pericardial effusion in Kocher-Debré-Semelaigne syndrome.

  14. Clinical significance of isometric bite force versus electrical activity in temporal and masseter muscles

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L; Han, K

    1989-01-01

    significant with respect to unilateral, but not to bilateral force measurements. Only in the masseter muscle was strength of dynamic contractions during chewing significantly correlated to bite force. With the present method it was demonstrated that unilateral bite force is a simple clinical indicator...

  15. Wearing of complete dentures reduces slow fibre and enhances hybrid fibre fraction in masseter muscle

    Cvetko, E.; Karen, Petr; Eržen, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 8 (2012), s. 608-614 ISSN 0305-182X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : human masseter * MyHC isoforms * muscle fibre types Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.344, year: 2012

  16. Asymmetric activation of temporalis, masseter, and sternocleidomastoid muscles in temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Alves, Marcelo Correa; Bérzin, Fausto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the symmetry of the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the temporalis, masseter, and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles in volunteers divided into a control group and a temporomandibular disorder (TMD) group. The surface EMG recordings were made during mandibular rest position, maximal intercuspal position, and during the chewing cycle. Normalized EMG waves of paired muscles were compared by computing a percentage overlapping coefficient (POC). The difference between the groups and between the static and dynamic clenching tests was analyzed through repeated measures, ANOVA. Symmetry of the temporalis, masseter, and SCM muscles activity was smaller in the TMD group compared to the control group. The mandibular postures were also significantly different among themselves. The asymmetric activation of jaw and neck muscles was interpreted as a compensatory strategy to achieve stability for the mandibular and cervical systems during masticatory function.

  17. Masseter muscle myofibrillar protein synthesis and degradation in an experimental critical illness myopathy model.

    Hazem Akkad

    Full Text Available Critical illness myopathy (CIM is a debilitating common consequence of modern intensive care, characterized by severe muscle wasting, weakness and a decreased myosin/actin (M/A ratio. Limb/trunk muscles are primarily affected by this myopathy while cranial nerve innervated muscles are spared or less affected, but the mechanisms underlying these muscle-specific differences remain unknown. In this time-resolved study, the cranial nerve innervated masseter muscle was studied in a unique experimental rat intensive care unit (ICU model, where animals were exposed to sedation, neuromuscular blockade (NMB, mechanical ventilation, and immobilization for durations varying between 6 h and 14d. Gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, RT-PCR and morphological staining techniques were used to analyze M/A ratios, myofiber size, synthesis and degradation of myofibrillar proteins, and levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs. Results obtained in the masseter muscle were compared with previous observations in experimental and clinical studies of limb muscles. Significant muscle-specific differences were observed, i.e., in the masseter, the decline in M/A ratio and muscle fiber size was small and delayed. Furthermore, transcriptional regulation of myosin and actin synthesis was maintained, and Akt phosphorylation was only briefly reduced. In studied degradation pathways, only mRNA, but not protein levels of MuRF1, atrogin-1 and the autophagy marker LC3b were activated by the ICU condition. The matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 was inhibited and protective HSPs were up-regulated early. These results confirm that the cranial nerve innervated masticatory muscles is less affected by the ICU-stress response than limb muscles, in accordance with clinical observation in ICU patients with CIM, supporting the model' credibility as a valid CIM model.

  18. Masseter muscle surface electromyography in college students with a high degree of anxiety and temporomandibular disorder

    Eduarda de Lima Amarante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the electrical activity of masseter muscles, bilaterally, according to the presence or absence of Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD in college students with a high degree of anxiety. Methods: the study was conducted with a randomized sample of 31 Speech Therapy students aged between 17 and 32 years; 61.3% (n = 19 were females and 38.7% (n = 12 were males. They were divided into two groups, Group 1 (G1, comprising 11 students with TMD, and Group 2 (G2, composed of 20 students without TMD. The college students answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI for anxiety investigation, and were evaluated by the protocol Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD for TMD diagnosis. The evaluation of muscular electrical activity took into account the records in the conditions of rest, Sustained Maximum Voluntary Activity (SMVA and habitual chewing (HC. The data were analyzed using the version 22 IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. The statistical analysis was performed using Student t test to compare means between groups, considering < 0,05 as the significant p-value. Results: college students, of both groups, presented high levels of anxiety traits. Significant statistical differences were observed on the percentage of electrical activity of right masseter muscle in chewing function, as well as muscle fibers recruitment during chewing, which were higher on the group without TMD. Conclusion: college students with TMD and a high degree of anxiety presented lower means of masseter muscle electromyografic activity during chewing, in most conditions assessed, as compared to volunteers without TMD, except for the left masseter muscle in rest and chewing.

  19. Central projections and entries of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents.

    Della Torre, G; Lucchi, M L; Brunetti, O; Pettorossi, V E; Clavenzani, P; Bortolami, R

    1996-03-25

    The entry pathway and central distribution of A delta and C muscle afferents within the central nervous system (CNS) were investigated by combining electron microscopy and electrophysiological analysis after intramuscular injection of capsaicin. The drug was injected into the rat lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and extraocular (EO) muscles. The compound action potentials of LG nerve and the evoked field potentials recorded in semilunar ganglion showed an immediate and permanent reduction in A delta and C components. The morphological data revealed degenerating unmyelinated axons and terminals in the inner sublamina II and in the border of laminae I-II of the dorsal horn at L4-L5 and C1-C2 (subnucleus caudalis trigemini) spinal cord segments. Most degenerating terminals were the central bouton (C) of type I and II synaptic glomeruli. Furthermore, degenerating peripheral axonal endings (V2) presynaptic to normal C were found. Since V2 were previously found degenerated after cutting the oculomotor nerve (ON) or L4 ventral root, we conclude that some A delta and C afferents from LG and EO muscles entering the CNS by ON or ventral roots make axoaxonic synapses on other primary afferents to promote an afferent control of sensory input.

  20. Surgical Resolution of Bilateral Hypertrophy of Masseter Muscle Through Intraoral Approach.

    Trento, Guilherme Dos Santos; Benato, Leonardo Silva; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Masseter muscle hypertrophy is an untypical anomaly with no definite cause and its diagnosis is easily completed through physical examination and imaging examinations. In some cases, patient may report signs and symptoms of well-localizated pain. However, it is generally asymptomatic and patient's chief complaint is about esthetic because of facial asymmetry. In this case, surgery is carefully indicated. The aim of this article is to report a case of a male patient with no painful and functional complaints but an important unease over his facial asymmetry. Patient underwent surgery involving bilateral resection of mandibular angles and unilateral resection of masseter muscle through intraoral approach. Surgical approaches and techniques rely heavily on surgeon. There are few reports in the literature about this anomaly, but those available present several techniques. The surgeon's dexterity and knowledge become extremely important, whereas this procedure is essentiallyesthetic.

  1. Influence of chronic stress and oclusal interference on masseter muscle pain in rat.

    Simonić-Kocijan, Suncana; Uhac, Ivone; Braut, Vedrana; Kovac, Zoran; Pavicić, Daniela Kovacević; Fugosić, Vesna; Urek, Miranda Muhvić

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the individual effects of chronic stress and occlusal interference, as well as their combined influence on masseter muscle pain. Experiments were performed on 28 male Wistar rats. Animals were submitted to chronic stress procedure, exposed to occlusal interference, or exposed to both mantioned procedures. At the end of the procedure animals were submitted to orofacial formalin test, and nociceptive behavioral response was evaluated. Statisticaly significant difference of nociceptive behavioral response in chronicaly stressed rats and in the animals with occlusal interference in comparation to the control group were not obtained (p > 0.05). In contrast, nociceptive behavioral response was significantly increased in rats submitted to both of experimental procedures (p occlusal interference and chronic stress influence masseter muscle pain.

  2. Muscle weakness, afferent sensory dysfunction and exercise in knee osteoarthritis

    Roos, Ewa M.; Herzog, Walter; Block, Joel A

    2011-01-01

    Lower-extremity muscle strength and afferent sensory dysfunction, such as reduced proprioceptive acuity, are potentially modifiable putative risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Findings from current studies suggest that muscle weakness is a predictor of knee OA onset, while there is confli...... with previous knee injuries) are easily identified, and may benefit from exercise interventions to prevent or delay OA onset....... there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of muscle weakness in OA progression. In contrast, the literature suggests a role for afferent sensory dysfunction in OA progression but not necessarily in OA onset. The few pilot exercise studies performed in patients who are at risk of incident OA indicate...... a possibility for achieving preventive structure or load modifications. In contrast, large randomized controlled trials of patients with established OA have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of strengthening exercises. Subgroups of individuals who are at increased risk of knee OA (such as those...

  3. Effect of triiodothyronine on the maxilla and masseter muscles of the rat stomatognathic system

    M.V. Mariúba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The maxilla and masseter muscles are components of the stomatognathic system involved in chewing, which is frequently affected by physical forces such as gravity, and by dental, orthodontic and orthopedic procedures. Thyroid hormones (TH are known to regulate the expression of genes that control bone mass and the oxidative properties of muscles; however, little is known about the effects of TH on the stomatognathic system. This study investigated this issue by evaluating: i osteoprotegerin (OPG and osteopontine (OPN mRNA expression in the maxilla and ii myoglobin (Mb mRNA and protein expression, as well as fiber composition of the masseter. Male Wistar rats (~250 g were divided into thyroidectomized (Tx and sham-operated (SO groups (N = 24/group treated with T3 or saline (0.9% for 15 days. Thyroidectomy increased OPG (~40% and OPN (~75% mRNA expression, while T3 treatment reduced OPG (~40% and OPN (~75% in Tx, and both (~50% in SO rats. Masseter Mb mRNA expression and fiber type composition remained unchanged, despite the induction of hypo- and hyperthyroidism. However, Mb content was decreased in Tx rats even after T3 treatment. Since OPG and OPN are key proteins involved in the osteoclastogenesis inhibition and bone mineralization, respectively, and that Mb functions as a muscle store of O2 allowing muscles to be more resistant to fatigue, the present data indicate that TH also interfere with maxilla remodeling and the oxidative properties of the masseter, influencing the function of the stomatognathic system, which may require attention during dental, orthodontic and orthopedic procedures in patients with thyroid diseases.

  4. Influence of Chronic Stress and Oclusal Interference on Masseter Muscle Pain in Rat

    Simonić-Kocijan, Sunčana; Uhač, Ivone; Braut, Vedrana; Kovač, Zoran; Kovačević Pavičić, Daniela; Fugošić, Vesna; Muhvić Urek, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the individual effects of chronic stress and occlusal interference, as well as their combined influence on masseter muscle pain. Experiments were performed on 28 male Wistar rats. Animals were submitted to chronic stress procedure, exposed to occlusal interference, or exposed to both mantioned procedures. At the end of the procedure animals were submitted to orofacial formalin test, and nociceptive behavioral response was evaluated. Statisticaly significant dif...

  5. Entropy of Masseter Muscle Pain Sensitivity: A New Technique for Pain Assessment.

    Castrillon, Eduardo E; Exposto, Fernando G; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanosoto, Tomohiro; Arima, Taro; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Svensson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    To test whether manipulation of mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) of the masseter muscle is reflected in quantitative measures of entropy. In a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 20 healthy volunteers had glutamate, lidocaine, and isotonic saline injected into the masseter muscle. Self-assessed pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) was evaluated up to 10 minutes following the injection, and MPS was evaluated after application (at 5 minutes and 30 minutes) of three different forces (0.5 kg, 1 kg, and 2 kg) to 15 different sites of the masseter muscle. Finally, the entropy and center of gravity (COG) of the pain sensitivity scores were calculated. Analysis of variance was used to test differences in means of tested outcomes and Tukey post hoc tests were used to adjust for multiple comparisons. The main findings were: (1) Compared with both lidocaine and isotonic saline, glutamate injections caused an increase in peak, duration, and area under the NRS pain curve (P entropy values (P entropy values when assessed with 0.5 kg and 1.0 kg but not with 2.0 kg of pressure; and (4) COG coordinates revealed differences between the x coordinates for time (P entropy measures. Entropy allows quantification of the diversity of MPS, which may be important in clinical assessment of pain states such as myofascial temporomandibular disorders.

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Trigeminal Ganglion Contributes to Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Masseter Muscle During Temporomandibular Joint Inflammation.

    Ito, Reio; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Urata, Kentaro; Lee, Jun; Maruno, Mitsuru; Soma, Kumi; Okada, Shinji; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Iwata, Koichi

    To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. A total of 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the TMJ, the mechanical sensitivities of the masseter muscle and the overlying facial skin were measured. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation and TNFα expression in the TG were investigated immunohistochemically, and the effects of their inhibition on the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle were also examined. Student t test or two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni multiple comparisons test were used for statistical analyses. P < .05 was considered to reflect statistical significance. Mechanical allodynia in the masseter muscle was induced without any inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle after TMJ inflammation. SGC activation and an increased number of TNFα-immunoreactive cells were induced in the TG following TMJ inflammation. Intra-TG administration of an inhibitor of SGC activity or of TNFα-neutralizing antibody depressed both the increased number of TG cells encircled by activated SGCs and the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter following TMJ inflammation. These findings suggest that persistent masseter hypersensitivity associated with TMJ inflammation was mediated by SGC-TG neuron interactions via TNFα signaling in the TG.

  7. A morphological study of the masseter muscle using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with jaw deformities. Cases demonstrating mandibular deviation

    Higashi, Katsuhiko; Goto, Tazuko K.; Kanda, Shigenobu; Shiratsuchi, Yuji; Nakashima, Akihiko; Horinouchi, Yasufumi

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies on the cross-sectional area of masticatory muscles, which are correlated to the facial shape, have been reported for normal subjects in previous articles. However to date, there have been no such studies on masseter muscles at jaw-closing and jaw-opening in patients with jaw deformities involving mandibular deviation. The MRI data sets of the masseter muscles at jaw-closing and jaw-opening in 14 female patients with mandibular deviation, who demonstrated a more than 3-mm deviation in the median line in the lower first incisors in comparison to the upper ones, were utilized. The cross-sectional areas from the origin to the insertion at jaw-closing and jaw-opening which were reconstructed perpendicular to the three-dimensional long axis of each masseter muscle, each maximum cross-sectional area (MCSA) and the ratio of the change in MCSA after jaw-opening were analyzed. As a result, a significant difference was observed between the MCSA at jaw-closing and jaw-opening on the same side. However, no difference in MCSA was seen between the deviated and non-deviated side of the mandible. The line chart patterns of the masseter muscles from the origin to the insertion could be classified into four types. Our results suggest that it is important to analyze cross-sectional areas of the masseter muscles in each subject while considering the three-dimensional axis of each muscle. (author)

  8. Genetic response in masseter muscle after orthognathic surgery in comparison with healthy controls - A Microarray study.

    Marewski, Maya; Petto, Carola; Schneider, Matthias; Harzer, Winfried

    2017-04-01

    One third of adult patients with orthognathic surgery of a prognathic or retrognathic mandible show relapse. The sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible leads to a displacement of both parts up to 10 mm without any changes of muscle attachment. Changed mandible length needs adaptation of muscle capacity because of changed force to moment ratio. The aim of this Microarray study was to analyze the general genetic response of masseter muscle in patients with retrognathism or prognathism of the mandible six months after surgery in comparison with healthy untreated controls. We found in tissue samples from masseter muscle a reduction of different entities between patients and controls but less in retrognathic than in prognathic patients (274/429). The different entities to controls in prognathia were reduced from 1862 to 1749 but increased in retrognathia from 1070 to 1563. We have to consider that the total amount of different entities to the controls is higher in patients with prognathic mandible (7364) because of their strong genetic controlled development compared with that in patients with retrognathic mandible (4126), which is more environmentally influenced. It can be concluded that function follows form after surgical change with high inheritance. In retrognathic patients the adaptation could be delayed or the capacity of regeneration potential is not sufficient. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial Presentation of Renal Cell Carcinoma as a Metastatic Mass within the Masseter Muscle: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Han Bee; Cho, Woo Ho; Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Ji Hae; Kang, Min Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Jung [Dept. of Pathology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is often concomitant with distant metastasis, and these metastases are the first sign of an otherwise occult primary. Whereas metastasis of RCC to the head and neck has been reported, metastasis to the masseter muscle, which is composed of skeletal muscle, is quite rare. We now report the case of a 66-year-old man who had a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis, with RCC metastasis of a well-defined intensely enhancing hypervascular mass in the masseter muscle as the initial presentation. We present the imaging findings of this case and a literature review about radiologic differential diagnosis of intramasseteric masses.

  10. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by 31P-MRS

    Nishide, Naoto

    1997-01-01

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). 31 P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  11. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by {sup 31}P-MRS

    Nishide, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). {sup 31}P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  12. Entropy as a new measure of mechanical pain sensitivity in the masseter muscle

    Castrillon, Eduardo; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanosoto, Tomohiro

    ENTROPY AS A NEW MEASURE OF MECHANICAL PAIN SENSITIVITY IN THE MASSETER MUSCLE Author Block: E. E. Castrillon1, H. Sato2,3, T. Tanosoto4, T. Arima4, L. Baad-Hansen1, P. Svensson1, 1Clinical Oral Physiology, Århus Univ., Aarhus, Denmark, 2Dept. of Dentistry & Oral Physiology, Sch. of Med., Keio Un...... injections (Pmechanical pain sensitivity that captures new aspects of spatial characteristics and could therefore complement more classical assessments of TMD pain patients.......ENTROPY AS A NEW MEASURE OF MECHANICAL PAIN SENSITIVITY IN THE MASSETER MUSCLE Author Block: E. E. Castrillon1, H. Sato2,3, T. Tanosoto4, T. Arima4, L. Baad-Hansen1, P. Svensson1, 1Clinical Oral Physiology, Århus Univ., Aarhus, Denmark, 2Dept. of Dentistry & Oral Physiology, Sch. of Med., Keio Univ......., Tokyo, Japan, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Sci., Tokyo, Japan, 4Dept. of Oral Rehabilitation, Graduate Sch. of Dental Med., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan : Aim of Investigation: Manual palpation is a psychophysical technique to evaluate mechanical pain sensitivity in craniofacial muscles...

  13. Objective assessment of actual chewing side by measurement of bilateral masseter muscle electromyography.

    Yamasaki, Yo; Kuwatsuru, Rika; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Oki, Kyosuke; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity of objective assessment of actual chewing side by measurement of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the bilateral masseter muscles upon chewing test foods. The sample consisted of 19 healthy, dentate individuals. The subjects were asked to chew three types of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky, and chewing gum) for 10 strokes on the right side and then on the left side, and instructed to perform maximum voluntary clenching for 3s, three times. EMG activity from the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The data were collected in three different days. The root mean square EMG amplitude obtained from the maximum clenching task was used as the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Then, the level of amplitude against the MVC (%MVC) was calculated for the right and left sides on each stroke. The side with the larger %MVC value was judged as the chewing side, and the concordance rates (CRs) for the instructed chewing side (ICS) and the judged chewing side (JCS) were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the CRs were calculated to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. High CRs between the ICS and JCS for each test food were recognized. There were significant ICCs for beef jerky (R=0.761, Pchewing gum (R=0.785, Pchewing side during mastication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sarcoglycan complex in masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles of baboons: an immunohistochemical study

    G. Cutroneo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sarcoglycan complex consists of a group of single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that are essential to maintain the integrity of muscle membranes. Any mutation in each sarcoglycan gene causes a series of recessive autosomal dystrophin-positive muscular dystrophies. Negative fibres for sarcoglycans have never been found in healthy humans and animals. In this study, we have investigated whether the social ranking has an influence on the expression of sarcoglycans in the skeletal muscles of healthy baboons. Biopsies of masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles were processed for confocal immunohistochemical detection of sarcoglycans. Our findings showed that baboons from different social rankings exhibited different sarcoglycan expression profiles. While in dominant baboons almost all muscles were stained for sarcoglycans, only 55% of muscle fibres showed a significant staining. This different expression pattern is likely to be due to the living conditions of these primates. Sarcoglycans which play a key role in muscle activity by controlling contractile forces may influence the phenotype of muscle fibres, thus determining an adaptation to functional conditions. We hypothesize that this intraspecies variation reflects an epigenetic modification of the muscular protein network that allows baboons to adapt progressively to a different social status.

  15. Comparative data from young men and women on masseter muscle fibres, function and facial morphology

    Tuxen, A.; Bakke, M.; Pinholt, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aim was to relate information about masseter muscle fibres and function to aspects of facial morphology in a group of healthy young men. The secondary aim was to investigate possible sex differences using data previously obtained from a comparable group of age-matched, healthy women......, and the tissue examined for myosin ATPase activity. Further, the cross-sectional areas of the different fibre types were measured. In spite of using age-matched healthy men and women with a full complement of teeth, statistically significant sex differences were found among measures related to muscle function...... and some measures of facial morphology. Thus data from men and women should not be pooled uncritically. The greater bite force in men than women corresponded with the greater diameter and cross-sectional area of type II fibres. Further, the males had more anteriorly inclined mandibles and shorter anterior...

  16. [Experimental occlusal interference induces the expression of protein gene products and substance P in masseter muscles of rats].

    Cao, Ye; Li, Kai; Fu, Kai-yuan; Xie, Qiu-fei

    2010-02-18

    To investigate the peripheral mechanism by studying the histological changes of masseter muscles using HE stains and substance P (SP) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) immunohistochemical stains. Fifteen male Sprague-Dawley were randomly assigned into occlusal interference group (n=12) and control group (n=3). In occlusal interference group, 0.4 mm thick crowns were bonded to the rats' first molar of the maxillary. In the control group, rats were anesthetized and mouths were forced open for about 5 min but restorations were not applied. 1, 5, 10, and 21 d after 0.4 mm occlusal alteration treatment, mechanical pain thresholds of bilateral masseter muscles were quantitatively measured by modified electronic anesthesiometer in control group and occlusal interference group. The rats were euthanized by transcardiac perfusion after deep anesthetization at different time points. The paraffin sections of masseter muscles were made and processed for HE, SP, and PGP9.5 immunohistochemical staining. Decreased head withdrawal threshold to mechanical pressure was detected in masseter muscles on both sides following occlusal interference. Histological stains of masseter muscles presented intact following occlusal interference, and no inflammatory cells were observed in both sides. Intensely stained PGP9.5 was observed at 1 d in occlusal interference groups and maintained until the end of the experiment. SP expression was the most obviously increased at 5 d in both sides and gradually decreased to the level of control. Experimental occlusal interference-induced masticatory muscle pain is associated with peripheral sensitization of nociceptive neurons rather than muscle damage and inflammation.

  17. Three-dimensional CT might be a potential evaluation modality in correction of asymmetrical masseter muscle hypertrophy by botulinum toxin injection.

    No, Yeon A; Ahn, Byeong Heon; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwon

    2016-01-01

    For correction of this asymmetrical hypertrophy, botulinum toxin type A (BTxA) injection is one of convenient treatment modalities. Unfortunately, physical examination of masseter muscle is not enough to estimate the exact volume of muscle hypertrophy difference. Two Koreans, male and female, of bilateral masseter hypertrophy with asymmetricity were evaluated. BTxA (NABOTA(®), Daewoong, Co. Ltd., Seoul, Korea) was injected at master muscle site with total 50 U (25 U at each side) and volume change was evaluated with three-dimensional (3D) CT image analysis. Maximum reduction of masseter hypertrophy was recognized at 2-month follow-up and reduced muscle size started to restore after 3 months. Mean reduction of masseter muscle volume was 36% compared with baseline. More hypertrophied side of masseter muscle presented 42% of volume reduction at 2-month follow-up but less hypertrophied side of masseter muscle showed 30% of volume shrinkage. In conclusion, 3D CT image analysis might be the exact evaluation tool for correction of asymmetrical masseter hypertrophy by botulinum toxin injection.

  18. Temporalis and masseter muscle activity in patients with anterior open bite and craniomandibular disorders

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L

    1991-01-01

    values, particularly in subjects with muscular affection, but maximal activity increased significantly when biting on the splint. Maximal voluntary contraction was positively correlated to molar contact and negatively to anterior face height, mandibular inclination, vertical jaw relation and gonial angle......Activity in temporalis and masseter muscles, and traits of facial morphology and occlusal stability were studied in 22 patients (19 women, 3 men; 15-45 yr of age) with anterior open bite and symptoms and signs of craniomandibular disorders. Facial morphology was assessed by profile radiographs......, occlusal stability by tooth contacts, and craniomandibular function by clinical and radiological examination. Electromyographic activity was recorded by surface electrodes after primary treatment with a reflex-releasing, stabilizing splint. Maximal voluntary contraction was reduced compared to reference...

  19. Changes in the temporomandibular joint disc and temporal and masseter muscles secondary to bruxism in Turkish patients

    Hasan Garip

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the relationships between temporalis and masseter muscle hypertrophy and temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc displacement in patients with severe bruxism using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Methods: This retrospective study included 100 patients with severe bruxism, referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Marmara and Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey, between January 2015 and December 2016. Patients underwent TMJ MRI with a 1.5-T system in open and closed mouth positions. The masseter and temporalis muscles were measured in the axial plane when the patient’s mouth was closed. Results: At its thinnest, the disc averaged was 1.11±0.24 mm. At their thickest, the masseter averaged was 13.65±2.19 mm and temporalis muscles was 12.98±2.4 mm. Of the discs, 24% were positioned normally, 74% were positioned anteriorly, and 2% were positioned posteriorly. The temporalis muscle was significantly thicker in patients with normally positioned discs than in those with anteriorly positioned discs (p=0.035. Conclusions: The temporalis muscle was significantly thicker in patients with normally positioned discs than in those with anteriorly positioned discs (p=0.035. Additional studies should be conducted to evaluate the relationships between all masticatory and surrounding muscles and disc movements in patients with bruxism.

  20. Masseter muscle tension, chewing ability, and selected parameters of physical fitness in elderly care home residents in Lodz, Poland

    Gaszynska E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Gaszynska,1 Malgorzata Godala,2 Franciszek Szatko,1 Tomasz Gaszynski3 1Department of Hygiene and Health Promotion, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 2Department of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland; 3Department of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Poland Background: Maintaining good physical fitness and oral function in old age is an important element of good quality of life. Disability-related impairment of oral function contributes to a deterioration of the diet of older people and to the reduction of their social activity.Objectives: Investigate the association between masseter muscle tension, dental status, and physical fitness parameters.Materials and methods: Two hundred fifty-nine elderly care home residents (97 men, 162 women; mean age, 75.3±8.9 years were involved in this cross-sectional study. Their chewing ability was evaluated by masseter muscle tension palpation, differences of masseter muscle thickness, self-reported chewing ability, number of present and functional teeth, and number of posterior tooth pairs. Masseter muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography. To assess physical fitness, hand grip strength and the timed up-and-go test were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using body mass index and body cell mass index (BCMI, calculated on the basis of electrical bioimpedance measurements. Medical records were used to collect information on systemic diseases and the number of prescribed medications. Subjects were also evaluated for their ability to perform ten activities of daily living.Results: Ninety-seven percent of the subjects suffered from systemic diseases. The three most prevalent illnesses were cardiac/circulatory 64.5%, musculoskeletal 37.3%, and endocrine/metabolic/nutritional 29.3%. Of the participants, 1.5% were underweight and more than one third (34.4% were overweight. Malnutrition (BCMI below normal was found in almost

  1. Intramuscular temperature modulates glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain intensity in humans.

    Sato, Hitoshi; Castrillon, Eduardo E; Cairns, Brian E; Bendixen, Karina H; Wang, Kelun; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Wajima, Koichi; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain is altered by the temperature of the solution injected. Sixteen healthy volunteers participated and received injections of hot (48°C), neutral (36°C), or cold (3°C) solutions (0.5 mL) of glutamate or isotonic saline into the masseter muscle. Pain intensity was assessed with an electronic visual analog scale (eVAS). Numeric rating scale (NRS) scores of unpleasantness and temperature perception, pain-drawing areas, and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were also measured. Participants filled out the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Two-way or three-way repeated measures ANOVA were used for data analyses. Injection of hot glutamate and cold glutamate solutions significantly increased and decreased, respectively, the peak pain intensity compared with injection of neutral glutamate solution. The duration of glutamate-evoked pain was significantly longer when hot glutamate was injected than when cold glutamate was injected. No significant effect of temperature on pain intensity was observed when isotonic saline was injected. No effect of solution temperature was detected on unpleasantness, heat perception, cold perception, area of pain drawings, or PPTs. There was a significantly greater use of the "numb" term in the MPQ to describe the injection of cold solutions compared to the injection of both neutral and hot solutions. Glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain was significantly altered by the temperature of the injection solution. Although temperature perception in the jaw muscle is poor, pain intensity is increased when the muscle tissue temperature is elevated.

  2. Short-Term Sensorimotor Effects of Experimental Occlusal Interferences on the Wake-Time Masseter Muscle Activity of Females with Masticatory Muscle Pain.

    Cioffi, Iacopo; Farella, Mauro; Festa, Paola; Martina, Roberto; Palla, Sandro; Michelotti, Ambrosina

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the application of an acute alteration of the occlusion (ie, interference) on the habitual masseter electromyographic (EMG) activity of females with temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related muscular pain during wakefulness. Seven female volunteers with masticatory myofascial pain participated in a crossover randomized clinical trial. Gold foils were glued on an occlusal contact area (active occlusal interference, AI) or on the vestibular surface of the same molar (dummy interference, DI) and left for 8 days. The masseter electromyogram was recorded during wakefulness in the natural environment by portable recorders under interference-free, dummy-interference, and active-interference conditions. The number, amplitude, and duration of EMG signal fractions with amplitudes above 10% of the maximum voluntary contraction (activity periods, APs) were computed in all experimental conditions. Muscle pain, headache, and perceived stress were each assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS), and an algometer was used to assess masseter and temporalis pressure pain thresholds. Data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance. The frequency and duration of the recorded APs did not differ significantly between the experimental conditions (P>.05), but a small and significant reduction of the EMG mean amplitude of the APs occurred with AI (P.05). An active occlusal interference in female volunteers with masticatory muscle pain had little influence on the masseter EMG activity pattern during wakefulness and did not affect the pressure tenderness of the masseter and temporalis.

  3. SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF MASSETER AND TEMPORAL MUSCLES WITH USE PERCENTAGE WHILE CHEWING ON CANDIDATES FOR GASTROPLASTY.

    Santos, Andréa Cavalcante Dos; Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno da

    Surface electromyography identifies changes in the electrical potential of the muscles during each contraction. The percentage of use is a way to treat values enabling comparison between groups. To analyze the electrical activity and the percentage of use of masseter and temporal muscles during chewing in candidates for gastric bypass. It was used Surface Electromyography Miotool 200,400 (Miotec (r), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil) integrated with Miograph 2.0 software, involving patients between 20-40 years old. Were included data on electrical activity simultaneously and in pairs of temporal muscle groups and masseter at rest, maximum intercuspation and during the chewing of food previously classified. Were enrolled 39 patients (59 women), mean age 27.1+/-5.7. The percentage of use focused on temporal muscle, in a range of 11-20, female literacy (n=11; 47.82) on the left side and 15 (65.21) on the right-hand side. In the male, nine (56.25) at left and 12 (75.00) on the right-hand side. In masseter, also in the range of 11 to 20, female literacy (n=10; 43.48) on the left side and 11 (47.83) on the right-hand side. In the male, nine (56.25) at left and eight (50.00) on the right-hand side. 40-50% of the sample showed electrical activity in muscles (masseter and temporal) with variable values, and after processing into percentage value, facilitating the comparison of load of used electrical activity between the group, as well as usage percentage was obtained of muscle fibers 11-20% values involving, representing a range that is considered as a reference to the group studied. The gender was not a variable. A eletromiografia de superfície identifica variações dos potenciais elétricos dos músculos durante cada contração realizada. O percentual de uso é uma forma de tratar valores possibilitando comparação entre grupos. Analisar a atividade elétrica e o percentual de uso dos músculos masséteres e temporais durante a mastigação em candidatos à gastroplastia

  4. Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

    2014-03-01

    We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses.

  5. Does metabosensitive afferent fibers activity differ from slow- and fast-twitch muscles?

    Caron, Guillaume; Decherchi, Patrick; Marqueste, Tanguy

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the metabosensitive afferent response evoked by electrically induced fatigue (EIF), lactic acid (LA) and potassium chloride (KCl) in three muscle types. We recorded the activity of groups III-IV afferents originating from soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles. Our data showed a same pattern of response in the three muscles after chemical injections, i.e., a bell curve with maximal discharge rate at 1 mM for LA injections and a linear relationship between KCl concentrations and the afferent discharge rate. Furthermore, a stronger response was recorded after EIF in the gastrocnemius muscle compared to the two other muscles. The change in afferent discharge after 1 mM LA injection was higher for the gastrocnemius muscle compared to the response obtained with the corresponding concentration applied in the two other muscles, whereas changes to KCl injections did not dramatically differ between the three muscles. We conclude that anatomical (mass, phenotype, vascularization, receptor and afferent density…) and functional (flexor vs. extensor) differences between muscles could explain the amplitude of these responses.

  6. Effect of clenching on T2 and diffusion parameters of the masseter muscle

    Chikui, Toru; Kawazu, Toshiyuki; Kami, Yukiko; Yoshiura, Kazunori (Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)), e-mail: chikui@rad.dent.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Yuasa, Kenji (Section of Image Diagnosis, Dept. of Diagnostics and General Care, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan)); Ichihara, Takahiro (Dept. of Radiology, Fukuoka Dental College Medical and Dental Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Hatakenaka, Masamitsu (Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    2010-01-15

    Background: Persistent muscle contractions during clenching are considered to be one reason for temporomandibular disorders. However, no report has evaluated the effect of clenching on the masticatory muscles, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To investigate whether clenching has an effect on either T2 or the coefficients for diffusion of the masseter muscles (MM), and to evaluate the effect of the distribution of bite force on such indices. Material and Methods: Twenty-three subjects were examined. Bite force was measured by a pressure-sensitive sheet, and the force of the right and the left sides was calculated. MRI was used to evaluate T2, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and the primary (1), secondary (2), and tertiary eigenvalues (3). These indices on the stronger side of the bite force were compared to those on the weaker side. Thereafter, the indices were compared between at rest and during clenching. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the indices (T2, ADC, 1, 2, and 3) between the side of stronger bite force and the side with weaker. T2 increased by clenching, and the difference was significant in the side with stronger bite force (P = 0.006). ADC, 1, 2, and 3 increased significantly by clenching (P <0.01, P <0.01, P <0.01, and P <0.01, respectively) on both sides. The percentage of change of 2 by clenching was 26.2+-15.7% on the stronger side and 26.9+-18.6% on the weaker side, which was significantly greater than either that of 1 or 3. Conclusion: The coefficients for diffusion of the MM were sensitive to change by clenching, and 2 was the most sensitive. Moreover, the relative distribution of the bite forces had no effect on any of the indices

  7. Compression-induced hyperaemia in the rabbit masseter muscle: a model to investigate vascular mechano-sensitivity of skeletal muscle

    Turturici, Marco; Roatta, Silvestro

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the mechano-sensitivity of the vascular network may underlie rapid dilatory events in skeletal muscles. Previous investigations have been mostly based either on in vitro or on whole-limb studies, neither preparation allowing one to assess the musculo-vascular specificity under physiological conditions. The aim of this work is to characterize the mechano-sensitivity of an exclusively-muscular vascular bed in vivo. In five anesthetized rabbits, muscle blood flow was continuously monitored in the masseteric artery, bilaterally (n = 10). Hyperaemic responses were evoked by compressive stimuli of different extent (50, 100 and 200 mm Hg) and duration (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 s) exerted by a servo-controlled motor on the masseter muscle. Peak amplitude of the hyperaemic response ranged from 340 ± 30% of baseline (at 50 mm Hg) to 459 ± 57% (at 200 mm Hg) (P < 0.05), did not depend on stimulus duration and exhibited very good reliability (ICC = 0.98) when reassessed at 30 min intervals. The time course of the response depended neither on applied pressure nor on the duration of the stimulus. In conclusion, for its high sensitivity and reliability this technique is adequate to characterize mechano-vascular reactivity and may prove useful in the investigation of the underlying mechanisms, with implications in the control of vascular tone and blood pressure in health and disease. (paper)

  8. An electromyographic study on the sequential recruitment of bilateral sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscle activity during gum chewing.

    Guo, S-X; Li, B-Y; Zhang, Y; Zhou, L-J; Liu, L; Widmalm, S-E; Wang, M-Q

    2017-08-01

    Mandibular functions are associated with electromyographic activity of the jaw muscles and also the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). The precise spatiotemporal relation of SCM and masticatory muscles activities during chewing is worthy of investigation. To analyse the sequential recruitment of SCM and masseter activities during chewing as indicated by the spatiotemporal locations of their activity peaks. Jaw movements and bilateral surface electromyographic activity of SCM and masseter were recorded during gum chewing in 20 healthy subjects. The timing order was decided by comparing the length of time from the time when the opening started to the time when the surface electromyographic activity reached its peak value. Spatial order was analysed by locating the peak electromyographic activity onto a standard chewing cycle which was created based on 15 unilateral chewing cycles. Paired t-test, one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls post-test were used for comparisons. Although the Time to Peak for the balancing side SCM appeared shorter than for the other three tested muscles, most often it did not reach a level of significance. However, the location of the balancing side SCM's peak activity was further from the terminal chewing position (TCP) than the working side SCM and bilateral masseters (P < 0·05). The balancing side SCM activity reached its peak significantly further away from TCP than the other three tested muscles during chewing. Further studies with spatiotemporal variables included should be helpful to understand the roles of the head, neck and jaw muscles in orofacial and cervical dysfunctional problems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Test imf kursus - Referred Pain and Sensations Evoked by Standardized Palpation of the Masseter Muscle in Healthy Participants

    Masuda, Manabu; Iida, Takashi; Exposto, Fernando G

    2018-01-01

    , Tukey post hoc, and McNemar's tests with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Referred pain/sensations were most commonly evoked with the 2.0-kg stimulus (34.4% of participants; P significant effects of stimulus intensity on NRS...... scores for pain and unpleasantness, as well as for aftersensation (P significant effects on NRS scores for pain and unpleasantness for the 1.0- and 2.0-kg stimuli (P 2.0-kg stimulus (P .... The right masseter muscle was divided into 15 test sites. Mechanical sensitivity of the masseter was assessed with three mechanical stimuli (0.5 kg, 1.0 kg, or 2.0 kg) applied by palpometers to the 15 test sites for 5 seconds each site. Participants scored the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness...

  10. No effect of experimental occlusal interferences on pressure pain thresholds of the masseter and temporalis muscles in healthy women.

    Michelotti, A; Farella, M; Steenks, M H; Gallo, L M; Palla, S

    2006-04-01

    It has been suggested that occlusal interferences may lead to pain and tenderness of the masticatory muscles. Tender jaw muscles are more sensitive to pressure pain, as assessed by means of pressure algometry. We tested the effects of occlusal interferences on the pressure pain threshold of the jaw muscles by means of a double-blind randomized crossover experiment carried out on 11 young healthy females. Golden strips were glued either to an occlusal contact area (active interference) or to the vestibular surface of the same tooth (dummy interference) and left for 8 d each. Pressure pain thresholds of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were assessed under interference-free, dummy-interference and active-interference conditions. The results indicated that the application of an active occlusal interference, as used in this study, did not influence significantly the pressure pain thresholds of these muscles in healthy individuals.

  11. Effects of chronic Akt/mTOR inhibition by rapamycin on mechanical overload-induced hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition in masseter muscle.

    Umeki, Daisuke; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Mototani, Yasumasa; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Fujita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Saeki, Yasutake; Okumura, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway on masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain (MHC) transition in response to mechanical overload, we analyzed the effects of bite-opening (BO) on the hypertrophy and MHC composition of masseter muscle of BO-rats treated or not treated with rapamycin (RAPA), a selective mTOR inhibitor. The masseter muscle weight in BO-rats was significantly greater than that in controls, and this increase was attenuated by RAPA treatment. Expression of slow-twitch MHC isoforms was significantly increased in BO-rats with/without RAPA treatment, compared with controls, but the magnitude of the increase was much smaller in RAPA-treated BO-rats. Phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2), which preserves fast-twitch MHC isoforms in skeletal muscle, was significantly decreased in BO-rats, but the decrease was abrogated by RAPA treatment. Calcineurin signaling is known to be important for masseter muscle hypertrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition, but expression of known calcineurin activity modulators was unaffected by RAPA treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that the Akt/mTOR pathway is involved in both development of masseter muscle hypertrophy and fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition in response to mechanical overload with inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway and operates independently of the calcineurin pathway.

  12. Decreased contribution from afferent feedback to the soleus muscle during walking in patients with spastic stroke

    Mazzaro, Nazarena; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Grey, Michael James

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of afferent feedback to the soleus (SOL) muscle activity during the stance phase of walking in patients with spastic stroke. A total of 24 patients with hemiparetic spastic stroke and age-matched healthy volunteers participated in the study. A robotic actuator...... by the Ashworth score. These results indicate that although the stretch reflex response is facilitated during spastic gait, the contribution of afferent feedback to the ongoing locomotor SOL activity is depressed in patients with spastic stroke....

  13. The influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the postural activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles in young adults.

    Riise, C; Sheikholeslam, A

    1982-09-01

    The effects of an intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of postural activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles were studied in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions. The results indicate that, in man, there is postural activity in the anterior temporal and sometimes in the masseter muscles. The pattern of postural activity is influenced by the occurrence of an experimental occlusal interference, sometimes as early as 1 h after the insertion. After 48 h there was a significant increase of the activity in the anterior temporal muscles. This increased activity persisted until the interference was removed 1 week later and had almost disappeared 1 week after the removal.

  14. A intervenção fonoaudiológica no pós-operatório da hipertrofia benigna do músculo masseter The miofunctional oral intervention in the surgery treatment for the masseter muscle hipertrophy

    Laura Davison Mangilli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever a abordagem fonoaudiológica no pós-operatório de pacientes que realizaram correção cirúrgica da hipertrofia do músculo masseter. METODOLOGIA: foram coletados dados referentes à avaliação e ao tratamento fonoaudiológico de 4 prontuários de sujeitos de ambos os gêneros, com faixa etária entre 16 e 24 anos, com hipertrofia benigna do músculo masseter, tratados cirurgicamente. RESULTADOS: as principais queixas pós-cirúrgicas estiveram relacionadas à limitação da abertura da boca, à dor na região da cirurgia, à rigidez muscular e a estalo em região da ATM. A terapia fonoaudiológica baseou-se em orientação quanto à retirada de hábitos deletérios; termoterapia na região do músculo masseter; manipulação da musculatura envolvida extra e intrabucais; alongamento da musculatura facial e cervical; alavanca de abertura forçada de boca e exercícios de órgãos fonoarticulatórios. CONCLUSÕES: a terapia fonoaudiológica apresenta-se como uma possibilidade de complementação ao tratamento cirúrgico, na adequação da amplitude dos movimentos mandibulares, assim como na eliminação dos sintomas presentes no pós-cirúrgico e na conscientização dos hábitos deletérios, que são apontados pela literatura como possíveis fatores desencadeantes.AIM: the aim of this study was to describe miofunctional oral intervention in patients with Masseter muscle hipertrophy treated by surgery. METHODS: the sample consisted of 4 patients, male and female, with ages between 16 and 24 years, with Masseter muscle hipertrophy treated by surgery. RESULTS: the main complains on the postoperative were related to trismus, muscle rigidity, and clicking in the temporomandibular joint. The myofunctional oral therapy was based on orientation in the abnormal habits (bruxism, clenching elimination, hyperthermia induced in the masseter muscle, oral muscles massage, facial and cervical muscles stretching, miofunctional exercises and

  15. Muscle-specific integrins in masseter muscle fibers of chimpanzees: an immunohistochemical study.

    Gianluigi Vaccarino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most notably, recent comparative genomic analyses strongly indicate that the marked differences between modern human and chimpanzees are likely due more to changes in gene regulation than to modifications of the genes. The most peculiar aspect of hominoid karyotypes is that human have 46 chromosomes whereas gorillas and chimpanzees have 48. Interestingly, human and chimpanzees do share identical inversions on chromosome 7 and 9 that are not evident in the gorilla karyotype. Thus, the general phylogeny suggests that humans and chimpanzees are sister taxa; based on this, it seems that human-chimpanzee sequence similarity is an astonishing 99%. At this purpose, of particular interest is the inactivation of the myosin heavy chain 16 (MYH16 gene, most prominently expressed in the masticatory muscle of mammals. It has been showed that the loss of this gene in humans may have resulted in smaller masticatory muscle and consequential changes to cranio-facial morphology and expansion of the human brain case. Powerful masticatory muscles are found in most primates; contrarily, in both modern and fossil member Homo, these muscles are considerably smaller. The evolving hominid masticatory apparatus shifted towards a pattern of gracilization nearly simultaneously with accelerated encephalization in early Homo. To better comprehend the real role of the MYH16 gene, we studied the primary proteins present in the muscle fibers of humans and non-humans, in order to understand if they really can be influenced by MYH16 gene. At this aim we examined the muscle-specific integrins, alpha 7B and beta 1D-integrins, and their relative fetal isoforms, alpha 7A and beta 1A-integrins, analyzing, by immunohistochemistry, muscle biopsies of two components of a chimpanzee's group in captivity, an alpha male and a non-alpha male subjects; all these integrins participate in vital biological processes such as maintenance of tissue integrity, embryonic development, cell

  16. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF ELECTROMYOGRAMS OF THE MASSETER, TEMPORALIS, AND ANTERIOR DIGASTRIC MUSCLES OBTAINED BY SURFACE AND INTRAMUSCULAR ELECTRODES - RAW-EMG

    KOOLE, P; DEJONGH, HJ; BOERING, G

    Electromyographic activity was synchronously recorded by surface and intramuscular electrodes in the same muscle. The activity of the left masseter, left temporalis, and both bellies of the anterior digastric muscle was studied by this double registration technique. In rest position no

  17. The efficiency of botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of masseter muscle pain in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction and tension-type headache.

    Pihut, Malgorzata; Ferendiuk, Ewa; Szewczyk, Michal; Kasprzyk, Katarzyna; Wieckiewicz, Mieszko

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint dysfunction are often accompanied by symptoms of headache such as tension-type headache which is the most frequent spontaneous primary headache. Masseter muscle pain is commonly reported in this group. The purpose of the study was to assess the efficiency of intramuscular botulinum toxin type A injections for treating masseter muscle pain in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction and tension-type headache. This prospective outcome study consisted of 42 subjects of both genders aged 19-48 years diagnosed with masseter muscle pain related to temporomandibular joint dysfunction and tension-type headache. The subjects were treated by the intramuscular injection of 21 U (mice units) of botulinum toxin type A (Botox, Allergan) in the area of the greatest cross-section surface of both masseter bellies. Pain intensity was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) and verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) 1 week before the treatment and 24 weeks after the treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched pairs test (p ≤ 0,005). The results of this study showed a decrease in the number of referred pain episodes including a decrease in pain in the temporal region bilaterally, a reduction of analgesic drugs intake as well as a decrease in reported values of VAS and VNRS after injections (p = 0,000). The intramuscular botulinum toxin type A injections have been an efficient method of treatment for masseter muscle pain in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction and tension-type headache.

  18. Potential clinical application of masseter and temporal muscle massage treatment using an oral rehabilitation robot in temporomandibular disorder patients with myofascial pain.

    Ariji, Yoshiko; Nakayama, Miwa; Nishiyama, Wataru; Ogi, Nobumi; Sakuma, Shigemitsu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Kurita, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the safety, suitable treatment regimen, and efficacy of masseter and temporal muscle massage treatment using an oral rehabilitation robot. Forty-one temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with myofascial pain (8 men, 33 women, median age: 46 years) were enrolled. The safety, suitable massage regimen, and efficacy of this treatment were investigated. Changes in masseter muscle thickness were evaluated on sonograms. No adverse events occurred with any of the treatment sessions. Suitable massage was at pressure of 10 N for 16 minutes. Five sessions were performed every 2 weeks. Total duration of treatment was 9·5 weeks in median. Massage treatment was effective in 70·3% of patients. Masseter muscle thickness decreased with treatment in the therapy-effective group. This study confirmed the safety of massage treatment, and established a suitable regimen. Massage was effective in 70·3% of patients and appeared to have a potential as one of the effective treatments for myofascial pain.

  19. Comparison of clinical marking and ultrasound-guided injection of Botulinum type A toxin into the masseter muscles for treating bruxism and its cosmetic effects.

    Quezada-Gaon, Natacha; Wortsman, Ximena; Peñaloza, Osvaldo; Carrasco, Juan Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Botulinum toxin type A has been used for treating the hypertrophy of the masseter muscles and its cosmetic effects. Ultrasound is increasingly used in dermatology, along with the guidance of mini-invasive procedures. To evaluate the role of ultrasound for guiding the application of Botulinum A toxin in patients with cosmetic alterations due to bruxism, correlate the clinical landmarks with the ultrasound findings, and study the effect on the symptoms, cosmetics, and quality of life. Twenty individuals with bruxism and cosmetic alterations underwent an ultrasound-guided injection of Botulinum toxin type A in each masseter muscle. Clinical and ultrasound marking of the procedure was compared. Clinical and sonographic evaluation was performed at the time of injection and 3 months later. Ten normal individuals underwent ultrasound of the masseter muscles as a control group. Up to 65% of individuals showed anatomical variants of the salivary glands. The method for clinically marking the skin showed a frequently erroneous location of the anterior point (up to 40% of cases) that was proven by ultrasound to be out of the muscle. In 20% of cases, ultrasound showed that the needle should be longer to enter the muscle. After injection, most of the patients demonstrated a decrease of the symptoms and cosmetic and quality of life improvements. Ultrasound can be a potent tool for guiding the injection of Botulinum toxin into the masseter muscles. It may contribute to a more personalized procedure, better cosmetic results, and help to avoid potential complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reproducibility of estimation of blood flow in the human masseter muscle from measurements of 133Xe clearance

    Monteiro, A.A.; Kopp, S.

    1989-01-01

    The reproducibility of estimations of the masseter intramuscular blood flow (IMBF) was assessed bilaterally within and between clinical sessions. The 133 Xe clearance in nine normal individuals was measured before, during, and immediately after endurance of isometric contraction at an attempted level of 50% of maximum voluntary clenching contraction. An overall low reproducibility of the estimations was found. This result was probably caused by uncertainties about the excact site of intramuscular 133 Xe deposition, errors in assessment of the plots of clearance, and variabilities in the relative contraction levels sustained, especially in the overall muscle effort. In agreement with previous reports concerning other skeletal muscles, the 133 Xe clearance method provided inconsistent estimates of absolute values of IMBF also in this clinical setting. Although there was a high intra-individual variation in the relative level of isometric contraction sustained, the endurance test induced distinct changes in IMBF, among which the estimate of post-endurance hyperemia was the most consistent for each individual. Therefore, measurements of 133 Xe clearance seem to be useful to detect intra-induvidual changes in masseter IMBF resulting from isometric work. 21 refs

  1. Capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents modulate the monosynaptic reflex in response to muscle ischemia and fatigue in the rat.

    Della Torre, G; Brunetti, O; Pettorossi, V E

    2002-01-01

    The role of muscle ischemia and fatigue in modulating the monosynaptic reflex was investigated in decerebrate and spinalized rats. Field potentials and fast motoneuron single units in the lateral gastrocnemious (LG) motor pool were evoked by dorsal root stimulation. Muscle ischemia was induced by occluding the LG vascular supply and muscle fatigue by prolonged tetanic electrical stimulation of the LG motor nerve. Under muscle ischemia the monosynaptic reflex was facilitated since the size of the early and late waves of the field potential and the excitability of the motoneuron units increased. This effect was abolished after L3-L6 dorsal rhizotomy, but it was unaffected after L3-L6 ventral rhizotomy. By contrast, the monosynaptic reflex was inhibited by muscle fatiguing stimulation, and this effect did not fully depend on the integrity of the dorsal root. However, when ischemia was combined with repetitive tetanic muscle stimulation the inhibitory effect of fatigue was significantly enhanced. Both the ischemia and fatigue effects were abolished by capsaicin injected into the LG muscle at a dose that blocked a large number of group III and IV muscle afferents. We concluded that muscle ischemia and fatigue activate different groups of muscle afferents that are both sensitive to capsaicin, but enter the spinal cord through different roots. They are responsible for opposite effects, when given separately: facilitation during ischemia and inhibition during fatigue; however, in combination, ischemia enhances the responsiveness of the afferent fibres to fatigue.

  2. Isolated asymptomatic masseter muscle metastasis as first sign of metastatic disease in a patient with known melanoma

    Caroline Asirvatham Gjorup

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman diagnosed with a nodular melanoma on the right shoulder had a PET/CT scan 13 months later demonstrating a FDG-avid mass in the left masseter muscle, which was asymptomatic and not clinically evident. Pathologic analysis confirmed metastasis of melanoma. Further subcutaneous, intramuscular and bone metastases developed and the patient was treated with surgery and immunotherapy. The patient is in complete-remission with no evident metastases seen on PET/CT 2.5 years after treatment with adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL therapy. Asymptomatic skeletal muscle metastases identified with PET/CT can have therapeutic and prognostic implications and a PET/CT scan should be performed as a true whole-body scan.

  3. Afferent Innervation, Muscle Spindles, and Contractures Following Neonatal Brachial Plexus Injury in a Mouse Model.

    Nikolaou, Sia; Hu, Liangjun; Cornwall, Roger

    2015-10-01

    We used an established mouse model of elbow flexion contracture after neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI) to test the hypothesis that preservation of afferent innervation protects against contractures and is associated with preservation of muscle spindles and ErbB signaling. A model of preganglionic C5 through C7 NBPI was first tested in mice with fluorescent axons using confocal imaging to confirm preserved afferent innervation of spindles despite motor end plate denervation. Preganglionic and postganglionic injuries were then created in wild-type mice. Four weeks later, we assessed total and afferent denervation of the elbow flexors by musculocutaneous nerve immunohistochemistry. Biceps muscle volume and cross-sectional area were measured by micro computed tomography. An observer who was blinded to the study protocol measured elbow flexion contractures. Biceps spindle and muscle fiber morphology and ErbB signaling pathway activity were assessed histologically and immunohistochemically. Preganglionic and postganglionic injuries caused similar total denervation and biceps muscle atrophy. However, after preganglionic injuries, afferent innervation was partially preserved and elbow flexion contractures were significantly less severe. Spindles degenerated after postganglionic injury but were preserved after preganglionic injury. ErbB signaling was inactivated in denervated spindles after postganglionic injury but ErbB signaling activity was preserved in spindles after preganglionic injury with retained afferent innervation. Preganglionic and postganglionic injuries were associated with upregulation of ErbB signaling in extrafusal muscle fibers. Contractures after NBPI are associated with muscle spindle degeneration and loss of spindle ErbB signaling activity. Preservation of afferent innervation maintained spindle development and ErbB signaling activity, and protected against contractures. Pharmacologic modulation of ErbB signaling, which is being investigated as a

  4. Effect of mini-implant-supported mandibular overdentures on electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle during chewing of hard and soft food.

    Ashmawy, Tarek Mohy; El Talawy, Dina Bahgat; Shaheen, Nasser Hussein

    2014-09-01

    To objectively evaluate the effect of mini-implant- supported mandibular overdentures on electromyographic activity (EMG) of the masseter muscle during chewing of hard and soft foods. Twelve completely edentulous patients (4 females and 8 males) with maladaptive experience of wearing mandibular dentures received new maxillary and mandibular dentures. After 3 months of adaptation, four mini dental implants (MDIs) were inserted in the interforaminal region of the mandible, and the new mandibular dentures were connected to the implants immediately with O/ring attachments. The activity of masseter muscle (EMG) and the duration of chewing cycle were measured during chewing hard (carrot) and soft (gum) foods. The measurements were made 3 months after wearing each of the following prostheses: the new conventional dentures; and the MDI-retained mandibular overdentures. The EMG of masseter muscle increased and the DC decreased with MDI-retained mandibular overdentures when compared to conventional dentures. Hard food (carrot) was associated with increased EMG and decreased DC when compared to soft food (gum) for both conventional dentures and MDI-retained mandibular overdentures. Mini-implant-supported mandibular overdentures are associated with increased activity of masseter muscle and decreased duration of chewing cycle for both hard and soft foods when compared to conventional dentures.

  5. Electromyographic evaluation of masseter muscle activity in horses fed (i) different types of roughage and (ii) maize after different hay allocations.

    Vervuert, I; Brüssow, N; Bochnia, M; Cuddeford, D; Coenen, M

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were to monitor electromyographic (EMG) activity of masseter muscle in healthy horses fed (i) different types of roughage and (ii) maize after different hay allocations. Four horses were offered the following three diets ad libitum: hay, haylage or straw/alfalfa chaff (SAC). In a second trial, four horses were fed cracked maize (CM) and hay in three different orders: (i) CM after a 12-h overnight fast; (ii) CM immediately after restricted hay intake (0.6 kg hay/100 kg BW); or 3) CM after hay intake ad libitum. The activity of the masseter muscle was determined by EMG (IED(®) ), and the following were measured: amplitude (muscle action potential = MAP, maximum voltage) and duration of MAP (s). The intake of hay or haylage was associated with intense masseter muscle activity (MAP: hay, 10 ± 1.7 V; haylage, 11 ± 3.3 V; and duration of MAP: hay, 0.31 ± 0.04 s; haylage, 0.30 ± 0.04 s). Similar intense chewing was measured for SAC (MAP 13 ± 3.8 V), although duration of the chewing cycle was relatively short (0.22 ± 0.03 s, diet p haylage or SAC was associated with intensive masseter muscle activity that was likely to stimulate salivary flow rate. In contrast to roughage, concentrates like CM are consumed rapidly with less intensive masseter muscle activity. This situation is associated with a low salivary flow that may have an adverse effect on gastric function. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Group Ia afferents likely contribute to short-latency interlimb reflexes in the human biceps femoris muscle

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2017-01-01

    amplitudes (4 vs. 8°) at the same 150°/s velocity (p’s > 0.08). Conclusion: Because fast conducting group Ia muscle spindle afferents are sensitive to changes in muscle stretch velocity, while group II spindle afferents are sensitive to changes in amplitude (Grey et al., JPhysiol., 2001; Matthews, Trends...... Neurosci., 1991), group Ia velocity sensitive muscle spindle afferents likely contribute to the short-latency crossed spinal reflexes in the cBF muscle following iKnee joint rotations. This supports the findings for the short-latency crossed responses in the human soleus muscle (Stubbs & Mrachacz...... neurons in humans, with primary contributions from group Ia muscle spindle afferents....

  7. Influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication.

    Riise, C; Sheikholeslam, A

    1984-07-01

    Quantitative electromyography (EMG) was used to study, in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions, the effects of an experimental intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication. The results show that a small occlusal interference (about 0.5 mm) in the intercuspal position can change the co-ordination of muscular activity during mastication. In general, there was a prolonged contraction time as well as a reduction of the activity in all the investigated elevators, especially on the side of the interference. Furthermore, after 48 h several subjects preferred to chew unilaterally. After removal of the interference, the pattern of co-ordination of muscular activity returned almost to the pre-experimental pattern within 2 weeks.

  8. Fatigue-induced changes in group IV muscle afferent activity: differences between high- and low-frequency electrically induced fatigues.

    Darques, J L; Jammes, Y

    1997-03-07

    Recordings of group IV afferent activity of tibialis anterior muscle were performed in paralysed rabbits during runs of electrically induced fatigue produced by direct muscle stimulation at a high (100 Hz, high-frequency fatigue HFF) or a low rate (10 Hz, low-frequency fatigue LFF). In addition to analysis of afferent nerve action potentials, muscle force and compound muscle action potentials (M waves) elicited by direct muscle stimulation with single shocks were recorded. Changes in M wave configuration were used as an index of the altered propagation of membrane potentials and the associated efflux of potassium from muscle fibers. The data show that increased group IV afferent activity occurred during LFF as well as HFF trials and developed parallel with force failure. Enhanced afferent activity was significantly higher during LFF (maximal delta f(impulses) = 249 +/- 35%) than HFF (147 +/- 45%). No correlation was obtained between the responses of group IV afferents to LFF or to pressure exerted on tibialis anterior muscle. On the other hand, decreased M wave amplitude was minimal with LFF while it was pronounced with HFF. Close correlations were found between fatigue-induced activation of group IV afferents and decreases in force or M wave amplitude, but their strength was significantly higher with LFF compared to HFF. Thus, electrically induced fatigue activates group IV muscle afferents with a prominent effect of low-frequency stimulation. The mechanism of muscle afferent stimulation does not seem to be due to the sole increase in extracellular potassium concentration, but also by the efflux of muscle metabolites, present during fatiguing contractions at low rate of stimulation.

  9. Cysticercosis of masseter

    B Dilip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a cestodic paratise. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The most commonly infested body organs include subcutaneous tissues, brain and skeletal muscles. It is interesting to note that oral lesion of cysticercosis is a rare event. Here we report an isolated lesion of cysticercosis in the masseter muscle.

  10. Partial transformation from fast to slow muscle fibers induced by deafferentation of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents.

    Brunetti, O; Barazzoni, A M; Della Torre, G; Clavenzani, P; Pettorossi, V E; Bortolami, R

    1997-11-01

    Mechanical and histochemical characteristics of the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle of the rat were examined 21 days after capsaicin injection into the LG muscle. The capsaicin caused a decrease in generation rate of twitch and tetanic tension and an increase in fatigue resistance of LG muscle. The histochemical muscle fiber profile evaluated by myosin adenosine triphosphatase and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase methods showed an increase of type I and IIC fibers and a decrease of the type IIB in whole muscle, and a decrease of the IIA, IIX fibers in the red part accompanied by their increase in the white part. Therefore the capsaicin treatment, which selectively eliminated fibers belonging to the III and IV groups of muscle afferents, induced muscle fiber transformation from fast contracting fatiguing fibers to slowly contracting nonfatiguing ones.

  11. Influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite in the intercuspal position.

    Sheikholeslam, A; Riise, C

    1983-05-01

    The effects of an intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite, were studied in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions. The results show that, during maximal and submaximal bite an occlusal interference (about 0.5 mm) in the intercuspal position is able to disturb the almost symmetric pattern of muscular activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles. Further, the level of muscular activity during maximal bite decreased significantly in all muscles studied. In some subjects, the decrease of muscular activity could still be observed one week after insertion of the interfering contact. After eliminating the interference, the muscular co-ordination pattern improved and the level of muscular activity increased significantly.

  12. Cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) with chronic cough and preserved muscle stretch reflexes: evidence for selective sparing of afferent Ia fibres.

    Infante, Jon; García, Antonio; Serrano-Cárdenas, Karla M; González-Aguado, Rocío; Gazulla, José; de Lucas, Enrique M; Berciano, José

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study was to describe five patients with cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) with chronic cough and preserved limb muscle stretch reflexes. All five patients were in the seventh decade of age, their gait imbalance having been initiated in the fifth decade. In four patients cough antedated gait imbalance between 15 and 29 years; cough was spasmodic and triggered by variable factors. Established clinical picture included severe hypopallesthesia predominating in the lower limbs with postural imbalance, and variable degree of cerebellar axial and appendicular ataxia, dysarthria and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus. Upper- and lower-limb tendon jerks were preserved, whereas jaw jerk was absent. Vestibular function testing showed bilateral impairment of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated normal motor conduction parameters and absence or severe attenuation of sensory nerve action potentials. Somatosensory evoked potentials were absent or severely attenuated. Biceps and femoral T-reflex recordings were normal, while masseter reflex was absent or attenuated. Sympathetic skin responses were normal. Cranial MRI showed vermian and hemispheric cerebellar atrophy predominating in lobules VI, VII and VIIa. We conclude that spasmodic cough may be an integral part of the clinical picture in CANVAS, antedating the appearance of imbalance in several decades and that sparing of muscle spindle afferents (Ia fibres) is probably the pathophysiological basis of normoreflexia.

  13. Changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics, by an infusion of the serotonin receptor type 3 antagonist granisetron.

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ioannidou, Kiriaki; Milosevic, Milena; Segerdahl, Märta; Ernberg, Malin

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether granisetron reduces masseter muscle pain and allodynia induced by hypertonic saline. Fifteen healthy women and 15 age-matched healthy men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. They first received bilateral injections of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscles (internal control). The evoked pain intensity and the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) were recorded during 30 minutes. Granisetron was then injected on one side and placebo (normal saline) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter, the hypertonic saline injections were repeated. Pain and PPT were again recorded. The first injection of hypertonic saline induced pain of similar intensity, duration, and pain area on both sides, but with larger pain area in the women (P = .017). The PPT did not change significantly. The second injection of hypertonic saline induced considerably less pain (62.5%), of shorter duration (44.1%), and of smaller area (77.4%) on the side pretreated with granisetron (P = .005). The PPT was increased on the granisetron side in the men (P = .002). The results of this study show that local injection of a single dose of granisetron attenuates masseter muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline. This article presents the changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics by infusion of granisetron. It appears that the pain-inducing effect in this experimental pain model is partly due to activation of 5-HT3-receptors. Hence, the results indicate that granisetron might offer a new treatment approach for localized myofascial pain.

  14. Role of cyclic AMP sensor Epac1 in masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition induced by β2-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Umeki, Daisuke; Mototani, Yasumasa; Jin, Huiling; Cai, Wenqian; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Saeki, Yasutake; Fujita, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

    2014-12-15

    The predominant isoform of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) in skeletal muscle is β2-AR and that in the cardiac muscle is β1-AR. We have reported that Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1), a new protein kinase A-independent cAMP sensor, does not affect cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or chronic isoproterenol (isoprenaline) infusion. However, the role of Epac1 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy remains poorly understood. We thus examined the effect of disruption of Epac1, the major Epac isoform in skeletal muscle, on masseter muscle hypertrophy induced by chronic β2-AR stimulation with clenbuterol (CB) in Epac1-null mice (Epac1KO). The masseter muscle weight/tibial length ratio was similar in wild-type (WT) and Epac1KO at baseline and was significantly increased in WT after CB infusion, but this increase was suppressed in Epac1KO. CB treatment significantly increased the proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb at the expense of that of MHC IId/x in both WT and Epac1KO, indicating that Epac1 did not mediate the CB-induced MHC isoform transition towards the faster isoform. The mechanism of suppression of CB-mediated hypertrophy in Epac1KO is considered to involve decreased activation of Akt signalling. In addition, CB-induced histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) phosphorylation on serine 246 mediated by calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), which plays a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, was suppressed in Epac1KO. Our findings suggest that Epac1 plays a role in β2-AR-mediated masseter muscle hypertrophy, probably through activation of both Akt signalling and CaMKII/HDAC4 signalling. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  15. NMClab, a model to assess the contributions of muscle visco-elasticity and afferent feedback to joint dynamics

    Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Mugge, Winfred; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a neuromusculoskeletal system results from the complex mechanical interaction between muscle visco-elasticity resulting from (co-)contraction and afferent feedback from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. As a result of the multiple interactions the individual effect of

  16. Bioenergetics and ATP Synthesis during Exercise: Role of Group III/IV Muscle Afferents.

    Broxterman, Ryan M; Layec, Gwenael; Hureau, Thomas J; Morgan, David E; Bledsoe, Amber D; Jessop, Jacob E; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the group III/IV muscle afferents in the bioenergetics of exercising skeletal muscle beyond constraining the magnitude of metabolic perturbation. Eight healthy men performed intermittent isometric knee-extensor exercise to task failure at ~58% maximal voluntary contraction under control conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl to attenuate group III/IV leg muscle afferents (FENT). Intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and pH were determined using phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS). The magnitude of metabolic perturbation was significantly greater in FENT compared with CTRL for [Pi] (37.8 ± 16.8 vs 28.6 ± 8.6 mM), [H2PO4] (24.3 ± 12.2 vs 17.9 ± 7.1 mM), and [ATP] (75.8% ± 17.5% vs 81.9% ± 15.8% of baseline), whereas there was no significant difference in [PCr] (4.5 ± 2.4 vs 4.4 ± 2.3 mM) or pH (6.51 ± 0.10 vs 6.54 ± 0.14). The rate of perturbation in [PCr], [Pi], [H2PO4], and pH was significantly faster in FENT compared with CTRL. Oxidative ATP synthesis was not significantly different between conditions. However, anaerobic ATP synthesis, through augmented creatine kinase and glycolysis reactions, was significantly greater in FENT than in CTRL, resulting in a significantly greater ATP cost of contraction (0.049 ± 0.016 vs 0.038 ± 0.010 mM·min·N). Group III/IV muscle afferents not only constrain the magnitude of perturbation in intramuscular Pi, H2PO4, and ATP during small muscle mass exercise but also seem to play a role in maintaining efficient skeletal muscle contractile function in men.

  17. The power features of Masseter muscle activity in tension-type and migraine without aura headache during open-close clench cycles

    Behrouz Alizadeh Savareh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Different types of headaches and TMJ click influence the masseter muscle activity. The aim of this study was to assess the trend of energy level of the electromyography (EMG activity of the masseter muscle during open-close clench cycles in migraine without aura (MOA and tension-type headache (TTH with or without TMJ click. Methods Twenty-five women with MOA and twenty four women with TTH participated in the study. They matched with 25 healthy subjects, in terms of class of occlusion and prevalence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ with click. The EMG of both masseter muscles were recorded during open-close clench cycles at a rate of 80 cycles per minute for 15 seconds. The mouth opening was restricted to two centimeters by mandibular motion frame. Signal processing steps have been done on the EMG as: noise removing, smoothing, feature extraction, and statistical analyzing. The six statistical parameters of energy computed were mean, Variance, Skewness, Kurtosis, and first and second half energy over all signal energy. Results A three-way ANOVA indicated that during all the cycles, the mean of energy was more and there was a delay in showing the peak of energy in the masseter of the left side with clicked TMJ in MOA group compared to the two other groups, while this pattern occurred inversely in the side with no-clicked TMJ (P < 0.009. The variation of energy was significantly less in MOA group compared to the two other groups in the no-clicked TMJ (P < 0.003. However, the proportion of the first or second part of signal energy to all energy showed that TTH group had less energy in the first part and more energy in the second part in comparison to the two other groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion The study showed different changes in the energy distribution of masseter muscle activity during cycles in MOA and TTH. MOA, in contrast to TTH, had lateralization effect on EMG and interacted with TMJ click.

  18. Anatomical analysis of human masseter using MRI

    Kitahara, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    To quantitatively elucidate individual variation in human masseter muscle, the cross sectional area of this muscle was measured in situ with MRI apparatus. The results were analyzed against age, body build and laterality in habitual mastication by bivariate correlation analysis. Materials included 52 healthy volunteers (26 males, 26 females). Right and left masseter areas and total cross sectional area of the face were measured in the same horizontal plane, and directly displayed on the console of the MRI apparatus. The areas of masseter muscles were not correlated with age or body build, but were positively correlated with the total cross sectional area of the face in the same horizontal plane. Because the left masseters tended to be larger than right, a method for evaluation of the relative size of each side of the messeters was established. This analysis revealed that the corrected dominance of the masseter corresponded, with high probability, to the habitual laterality in mastication. (author)

  19. Anatomical analysis of human masseter using MRI

    Kitahara, Masaki (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    To quantitatively elucidate individual variation in human masseter muscle, the cross sectional area of this muscle was measured in situ with MRI apparatus. The results were analyzed against age, body build and laterality in habitual mastication by bivariate correlation analysis. Materials included 52 healthy volunteers (26 males, 26 females). Right and left masseter areas and total cross sectional area of the face were measured in the same horizontal plane, and directly displayed on the console of the MRI apparatus. The areas of masseter muscles were not correlated with age or body build, but were positively correlated with the total cross sectional area of the face in the same horizontal plane. Because the left masseters tended to be larger than right, a method for evaluation of the relative size of each side of the messeters was established. This analysis revealed that the corrected dominance of the masseter corresponded, with high probability, to the habitual laterality in mastication. (author).

  20. The role of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents in fatigue-induced modulation of the monosynaptic reflex in the rat.

    Pettorossi, V E; Della Torre, G; Bortolami, R; Brunetti, O

    1999-03-01

    1. The role of group III and IV afferent fibres of the lateral gastrocnemious muscle (LG) in modulating the homonymous monosynaptic reflex was investigated during muscle fatigue in spinalized rats. 2. Muscle fatigue was induced by a series of increasing tetanic electrical stimuli (85 Hz, 600 ms) delivered to the LG muscle nerve. Series consisted of increasing train numbers from 1 to 60. 3. Potentials from the spinal cord LG motor pool and from the ventral root were recorded in response to proprioceptive afferent stimulation and analysed before and during tetanic muscle activations. Both the pre- and postsynaptic waves showed an initial enhancement and, after a '12-train' series, an increasing inhibition. 4. The enhancement of the responses to muscle fatiguing stimulation disappeared after L3-L6 dorsal root section, while a partial reflex inhibition was still present. Conversely, after section of the corresponding ventral root, there was only a reduction in the inhibitory effect. 5. The monosynaptic reflex was also studied in animals in which a large number of group III and IV muscle afferents were eliminated by injecting capsaicin (10 mM) into the LG muscle. As a result of capsaicin treatment, the fatigue-induced inhibition of the pre- and postsynaptic waves disappeared, while the response enhancement remained. 6. We concluded that the monosynaptic reflex inhibition, but not the enhancement, was mediated by those group III and IV muscle afferents that are sensitive to the toxic action of capsaicin. The afferents that are responsible for the response enhancement enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root, while those responsible for the inhibition enter the spinal cord through both the ventral and dorsal roots.

  1. Muscle afferent receptors engaged in augmented sympathetic responsiveness in peripheral artery disease

    Jianhua eLi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The exercise pressor reflex (EPR is a neural control mechanism responsible for the cardiovascular responses to exercise. As exercise is initiated, thin fiber muscle afferent nerves are activated by mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising in the contracting muscles. This leads to reflex increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate primarily through activation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Studies of humans and animals have indicated that the EPR is exaggerated in a number of cardiovascular diseases. For the last several years, studies have specifically employed a rodent model to examine the mechanisms at receptor and cellular levels by which responses of SNA and blood pressure to static exercise are heightened in peripheral artery disease (PAD, one of the most common cardiovascular disorders. A rat model of this disease has well been established. Specifically, femoral artery occlusion is used to study intermittent claudication that is observed in human PAD. The receptors on thin fiber muscle afferents that are engaged in this disease include transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1, purinergic P2X and acid sensing ion channel (ASIC. The role played by nerve growth factor (NGF in regulating those sensory receptors in the processing of amplified EPR was also investigated. The purpose of this review is to focus on a theme namely that PAD accentuates autonomic reflex responses to exercise and further address regulatory mechanisms leading to abnormal sympathetic responsiveness. This review will present some of recent results in regard with several receptors in muscle sensory neurons in contribution to augmented autonomic reflex responses in PAD. Review of the findings from recent studies would lead to a better understanding in integrated processing of sympathetic nervous system in PAD.

  2. Human Masseter Muscle Fibers From the Elderly Express Less Neonatal Myosin Than Those of Young Adults

    Cvetko, E.; Karen, Petr; Janáček, Jiří; Kubínová, Lucie; Plasencia, A.L.; Eržen, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 295, č. 8 (2012), s. 1364-1372 ISSN 1932-8486 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : aging * confocal microscopy * myosin heavy chain * immunohistochemistry * muscle fiber types Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2012

  3. Does pain in the masseter and anterior temporal muscles influence maximal bite force?

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Moreno, Amália; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; de Caxias, Fernanda Pereira; Turcio, Karina Helga Leal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pain and muscle force, and the relationship between them, in patients with muscle pain and bruxism, prior to and after treatment. Thirty women with bruxism and myofascial pain (Ia) were included in this study. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was made based on clinical diagnostic criteria, and awake bruxism diagnosis was made by patient questionnaires and the presence of tooth wear. The diagnosis of myofascial pain was established according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC-TMD). Dentulous or partially edentulous patients (rehabilitated with conventional fixed prostheses) were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pain treatment protocol included occlusal splints, patient education, and physiotherapy for 30days. Bite force was measured using a dynamometer at the central incisor and the first molar regions on both sides. The exams were performed at baseline, after 7days, and 30days after treatment. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare patient pain level response among the periods analyzed in the study. Bite force data were submitted to two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by the Tukey HSD test (pforce. Results revealed that there was a statistical difference in pain level over time for both muscles and sides (pforce exhibited significantly higher values after 30days of treatment, when compared with the baseline (pforce only for the temporal muscle in all periods analyzed (pforce. Pain level decreased and bite force increased in the molar region after treatment. No strong correlation or dispersion in the relationship between pain levels and bite force was seen in women with myofascial pain and bruxism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos temporal anterior e masseter em crianças respiradoras bucais e em respiradoras nasais Electrical Activity of the Anterior Temporal and Masseter Muscles in Mouth and Nasal Breathing Children

    Aline Ferla

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A respiração bucal tem sido estudada por causar sérios efeitos no desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático. OBJETIVO: Estudar, através da análise eletromiográfica, o padrão de atividade elétrica dos músculos temporal anterior e masseter em crianças com respiração bucal, comparando-os com o de crianças com respiração nasal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados dois grupos de crianças: 17 respiradoras bucais (RB e 12 respiradoras nasais (RN. As crianças foram submetidas à avaliação eletromiográfica bilateral dos músculos supracitados nas situações de máxima intercuspidação e mastigação habitual. Utilizou-se o eletromiógrafo Myosystem Br-1, com 12 canais de aquisição, amplificação com ganho total de 5938, taxa de aquisição de 4000Hz e filtro passa-faixa de 20-1000Hz. O sinal foi processado em RMS, mensurado em µV e analisado e expresso em %, normalizado. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente através do Teste t (Student. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o nível de atividade elétrica do grupo RB foi inferior para todos os músculos e estatisticamente significante somente para o temporal esquerdo; os respiradores bucais apresentaram predomínio de atividade elétrica no lado direito e no músculo temporal durante a mastigação habitual. CONCLUSÃO: A respiração bucal interferiu na atividade elétrica dos músculos estudados nas situações funcionais de máxima intercuspidação e mastigação habitual.Mouth breathing has been associated with severe impact on the development of the stomatognathic system. AIM: This paper aims to analyze the electromyographical findings and patterns of electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles in mouth and nasal breathing children. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The patients were divided into two groups: mouth breathers (n=17 and nasal breathers (n=12. The children underwent bilateral electromyographic examination of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles at

  5. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Wiese, Kristin M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Hua, Chia-ho; Daw, Najat; Navid, Fariba; Davidoff, Andrew M.; McGregor, Lisa; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; McCrarey, Lola

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board−approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  6. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    Krasin, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.krasin@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Wiese, Kristin M. [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Spunt, Sheri L. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Hua, Chia-ho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Daw, Najat [Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Navid, Fariba [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Davidoff, Andrew M. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); McGregor, Lisa [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); McCrarey, Lola [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board-approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  7. Inhibition of swallowing reflex following phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in nucleus tractus solitarii neurons in rats with masseter muscle nociception.

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Kitagawa, Junichi; Ueda, Koichiro; Iwata, Koichi

    2009-02-06

    Pain is associated with swallowing abnormalities in dysphagic patients. Understanding neuronal mechanisms underlying the swallowing abnormalities associated with orofacial abnormal pain is crucial for developing new methods to treat dysphagic patients. However, how the orofacial abnormal pain is involved in the swallowing abnormalities is not known. In order to evaluate neuronal mechanisms of modulation of the swallows by masticatory muscle pain, here we first induced swallows by topical administration of distilled water to the pharyngolaryngeal region. The swallowing reflex was significantly inhibited after capsaicin (10, 30mM) injection into the masseter muscle compared to vehicle injection. Moreover the number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-like immunoreactive (pERK-LI) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) was significantly increased in the rats with capsaicin injection into the masseter muscle compared to that with vehicle injection. Rostro-caudal distribution of pERK-LI neurons in the NTS was peaked at the obex level. The capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on swallowing reflex was reversed after intrathecal administration of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059. The present findings suggest that phosphorylation of ERK in NTS neurons may be involved in capsaicin-induced inhibition of swallowing reflex.

  8. Properties of tonic episodes of masseter muscle activity during waking hours and sleep in subjects with and without history of orofacial pain.

    Mude, Acing Habibie; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kato, Seiya; Minagi, Shogo

    2018-04-01

    To provide a scientific data related to the tonic activity of masseter muscle in subjects with and without history of orofacial pain during their normal daily life. Thirty-three subjects were divided into two groups, a pain history group (PHG) and a non-pain history group (non-PHG), based on their responses to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders questionnaire. After excluding four subjects with incomplete recordings, full-day masseter muscle surface EMGs of 29 subjects (10 men, 19 women; mean age 24.1 years) were analyzed. Tonic episode (TE) was defined as continuous EMG activity with a duration at least 2s with intensities above twice the baseline noise level. TEs were classified into 6 strength categories (40% of the maximum voluntary clenching (MVC)). The mean duration of activity observed in the non-PHG+2 SD was adopted as a cutoff for identifying sustained TE. During waking hours, the incidence of sustained TEs was significantly higher in the PHG than in the non-PHG (porofacial pain and the intensity range of 7.5-25% MVC would be an important range for future clenching studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Kinesthetic perception based on integration of motor imagery and afferent inputs from antagonistic muscles with tendon vibration.

    Shibata, E; Kaneko, F

    2013-04-29

    The perceptual integration of afferent inputs from two antagonistic muscles, or the perceptual integration of afferent input and motor imagery are related to the generation of a kinesthetic sensation. However, it has not been clarified how, or indeed whether, a kinesthetic perception would be generated by motor imagery if afferent inputs from two antagonistic muscles were simultaneously induced by tendon vibration. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a kinesthetic perception would be generated by motor imagery during co-vibration of the two antagonistic muscles at the same frequency. Healthy subjects participated in this experiment. Illusory movement was evoked by tendon vibration. Next, the subjects imaged wrist flexion movement simultaneously with tendon vibration. Wrist flexor and extensor muscles were vibrated according to 4 patterns such that the difference between the two vibration frequencies was zero. After each trial, the perceived movement sensations were quantified on the basis of the velocity and direction of the ipsilateral hand-tracking movements. When the difference in frequency applied to the wrist flexor and the extensor was 0Hz, no subjects perceived movements without motor imagery. However, during motor imagery, the flexion velocity of the perceived movement was higher than the flexion velocity without motor imagery. This study clarified that the afferent inputs from the muscle spindle interact with motor imagery, to evoke a kinesthetic perception, even when the difference in frequency applied to the wrist flexor and extensor was 0Hz. Furthermore, the kinesthetic perception resulting from integrations of vibration and motor imagery increased depending on the vibration frequency to the two antagonistic muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasonography as a tool to study afferent feedback from the muscle-tendon complex during human walking

    Cronin, Neil J.; Klint, Richard af; Grey, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    In humans, one of the most common tasks in everyday life is walking, and sensory afferent feedback from peripheral receptors, particularly the muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs (GTO), makes an important contribution to the motor control of this task. One factor that can complicate the ability...... with an examination of muscle activation to give a broader insight to neuromuscular interaction during walking. Despite the advances in understanding that these techniques have brought, there is clearly still a need for more direct methods to study both neural and mechanical parameters during human walking in order...... of these receptors to act as length, velocity and force transducers is the complex pattern of interaction between muscle and tendinous tissues, as tendon length is often considerably greater than muscle fibre length in the human lower limb. In essence, changes in muscle-tendon mechanics can influence the firing...

  11. Immediate effects of hamstring stretching alone or combined with ischemic compression of the masseter muscle on hamstrings extensibility, active mouth opening and pain in athletes with temporomandibular dysfunction.

    Espejo-Antúnez, Luis; Castro-Valenzuela, Elisa; Ribeiro, Fernando; Albornoz-Cabello, Manuel; Silva, Anabela; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan

    2016-07-01

    To assess the immediate effects of hamstrings stretching alone or combined with ischemic compression of the masseter muscle on hamstrings extensibility, active mouth opening and pain in athletes with temporomandibular dysfunction and hamstrings shortening. Forty-two participants were randomized to receive the stretching technique (n = 21) or the stretching plus the ischemic compression (n = 21). Outcome measures were: hamstrings extensibility, active mouth opening, pressure pain thresholds and pain intensity. Both interventions improved significantly active mouth opening (group 1: 35.7 ± 6.7 to 39.1 ± 7.6 mm, p Hamstrings stretching induced an acute improvement in hamstrings extensibility, active mouth opening and pain. Moreover, the addition of ischemic compression did not induce further improvements on the assessed parameters. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Bradykinin Contributes to Sympathetic and Pressor Responses Evoked by Activation of Skeletal Muscle Afferents P2X in Heart Failure

    Jihong Xing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Published data suggest that purinergic P2X receptors of muscle afferent nerves contribute to the enhanced sympathetic nervous activity (SNA and blood pressure (BP responses during static exercise in heart failure (HF. In this study, we examined engagement of bradykinin (BK in regulating responses of SNA and BP evoked by P2X stimulation in rats with HF. We further examined cellular mechanisms responsible for BK. We hypothesized that BK potentiates P2X currents of muscle dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons, and this effect is greater in HF due to upregulation of BK kinin B2 and P2X3 receptor. As a result, BK amplifies muscle afferents P2X-mediated SNA and BP responses. Methods: Renal SNA and BP responses were recorded in control rats and rats with HF. Western Blot analysis and patch-clamp methods were employed to examine the receptor expression and function of DRG neurons involved in the effects of BK. Results: BK injected into the arterial blood supply of the hindlimb muscles heightened the reflex SNA and BP responses induced by P2X activation with α,β-methylene ATP to a greater degree in HF rats. In addition, HF upregulated the protein expression of kinin B2 and P2X3 in DRG and the prior application of BK increased the magnitude of α,β-methylene ATP-induced currents in muscle DRG neurons from HF rats. Conclusion: BK plays a facilitating role in modulating muscle afferent P2X-engaged reflex sympathetic and pressor responses. In HF, P2X responsivness is augmented due to increases in expression of kinin B2 and P2X3 receptors and P2X current activity.

  13. Involvement of trigeminal transition zone and laminated subnucleus caudalis in masseter muscle hypersensitivity associated with tooth inflammation.

    Kohei Shimizu

    Full Text Available A rat model of pulpitis/periapical periodontitis was used to study mechanisms underlying extraterritorial enhancement of masseter response associated with tooth inflammation. Periapical bone loss gradually increased and peaked at 6 weeks after complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA application to the upper molar tooth pulp (M1. On day 3, the number of Fos-immunoreactive (IR cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA rats compared with M1 vehicle (veh rats in the trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris/caudalis transition zone (Vi/Vc. The number of Fos-IR cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA and masseter (Mass capsaicin applied (M1 CFA/Mass cap rats compared with M1 veh/Mass veh rats in the contralateral Vc and Vi/Vc. The number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK-IR cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA/Mass cap and M1 veh/Mass cap rats compared to Mass-vehicle applied rats with M1 vehicle or CFA in the Vi/Vc. Pulpal CFA application caused significant increase in the number of Fos-IR cells in the Vi/Vc but not Vc on week 6. The number of pERK-IR cells was significantly lager in the rats with capsaicin application to the Mass compared to Mass-vehicle treated rats after pulpal CFA- or vehicle-application. However, capsaicin application to the Mass did not further affect the number of Fos-IR cells in the Vi/Vc in pulpal CFA-applied rats. The digastric electromyographic (d-EMG activity after Mass-capsaicin application was significantly increased on day 3 and lasted longer at 6 weeks after pulpal CFA application, and these increase and duration were significantly attenuated by i.t. PD98059, a MEK1 inhibitor. These findings suggest that Vi/Vc and Vc neuronal excitation is involved in the facilitation of extraterritorial hyperalgesia for Mass primed with periapical periodontitis or acute pulpal-inflammation. Furthermore, phosphorylation of ERK in the Vi/Vc and Vc play pivotal roles in masseter hyperalgesia after pulpitis or

  14. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mouse skeletal muscle afferents are heteromers composed of ASIC1a, ASIC2, and ASIC3 subunits

    Gautam, Mamta; Benson, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are expressed in skeletal muscle afferents, in which they sense extracellular acidosis and other metabolites released during ischemia and exercise. ASICs are formed as homotrimers or heterotrimers of several isoforms (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, and ASIC3), with each channel displaying distinct properties. To dissect the ASIC composition in muscle afferents, we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to study the properties of acid-evoked currents (amplitude, pH sensitivity, the kinetics of desensitization and recovery from desensitization, and pharmacological modulation) in isolated, labeled mouse muscle afferents from wild-type (C57BL/6J) and specific ASIC−/− mice. We found that ASIC-like currents in wild-type muscle afferents displayed fast desensitization, indicating that they are carried by heteromeric channels. Currents from ASIC1a−/− muscle afferents were less pH-sensitive and displayed faster recovery, currents from ASIC2−/− mice showed diminished potentiation by zinc, and currents from ASIC3−/− mice displayed slower desensitization than those from wild-type mice. Finally, ASIC-like currents were absent from triple-null mice lacking ASIC1a, ASIC2a, and ASIC3. We conclude that ASIC1a, ASIC2a, and ASIC3 heteromers are the principle channels in skeletal muscle afferents. These results will help us understand the role of ASICs in exercise physiology and provide a molecular target for potential drug therapies to treat muscle pain.—Gautam, M., Benson, C. J. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mouse skeletal muscle afferents are heteromers composed of ASIC1a, ASIC2, and ASIC3 subunits. PMID:23109675

  15. Cardinal features of involuntary force variability can arise from the closed-loop control of viscoelastic afferented muscles

    Laine, Christopher M.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2018-01-01

    Involuntary force variability below 15 Hz arises from, and is influenced by, many factors including descending neural drive, proprioceptive feedback, and mechanical properties of muscles and tendons. However, their potential interactions that give rise to the well-structured spectrum of involuntary force variability are not well understood due to a lack of experimental techniques. Here, we investigated the generation, modulation, and interactions among different sources of force variability using a physiologically-grounded closed-loop simulation of an afferented muscle model. The closed-loop simulation included a musculotendon model, muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organ (GTO), and a tracking controller which enabled target-guided force tracking. We demonstrate that closed-loop control of an afferented musculotendon suffices to replicate and explain surprisingly many cardinal features of involuntary force variability. Specifically, we present 1) a potential origin of low-frequency force variability associated with co-modulation of motor unit firing rates (i.e.,‘common drive’), 2) an in-depth characterization of how proprioceptive feedback pathways suffice to generate 5-12 Hz physiological tremor, and 3) evidence that modulation of those feedback pathways (i.e., presynaptic inhibition of Ia and Ib afferents, and spindle sensitivity via fusimotor drive) influence the full spectrum of force variability. These results highlight the previously underestimated importance of closed-loop neuromechanical interactions in explaining involuntary force variability during voluntary ‘isometric’ force control. Furthermore, these results provide the basis for a unifying theory that relates spinal circuitry to various manifestations of altered involuntary force variability in fatigue, aging and neurological disease. PMID:29309405

  16. Cardinal features of involuntary force variability can arise from the closed-loop control of viscoelastic afferented muscles.

    Nagamori, Akira; Laine, Christopher M; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2018-01-01

    Involuntary force variability below 15 Hz arises from, and is influenced by, many factors including descending neural drive, proprioceptive feedback, and mechanical properties of muscles and tendons. However, their potential interactions that give rise to the well-structured spectrum of involuntary force variability are not well understood due to a lack of experimental techniques. Here, we investigated the generation, modulation, and interactions among different sources of force variability using a physiologically-grounded closed-loop simulation of an afferented muscle model. The closed-loop simulation included a musculotendon model, muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organ (GTO), and a tracking controller which enabled target-guided force tracking. We demonstrate that closed-loop control of an afferented musculotendon suffices to replicate and explain surprisingly many cardinal features of involuntary force variability. Specifically, we present 1) a potential origin of low-frequency force variability associated with co-modulation of motor unit firing rates (i.e.,'common drive'), 2) an in-depth characterization of how proprioceptive feedback pathways suffice to generate 5-12 Hz physiological tremor, and 3) evidence that modulation of those feedback pathways (i.e., presynaptic inhibition of Ia and Ib afferents, and spindle sensitivity via fusimotor drive) influence the full spectrum of force variability. These results highlight the previously underestimated importance of closed-loop neuromechanical interactions in explaining involuntary force variability during voluntary 'isometric' force control. Furthermore, these results provide the basis for a unifying theory that relates spinal circuitry to various manifestations of altered involuntary force variability in fatigue, aging and neurological disease.

  17. Avaliação eletromiográfica do músculo masseter em pessoas com paralisia facial periférica de longa duração Masseter muscle electromyographic assessment in subject with long lasting facial palsy

    Adriana Rahal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a atividade elétrica do músculo masseter em pessoas com paralisia facial periférica de longa duração. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo seis sujeitos de ambos os sexos, com paralisia facial há pelo menos doze meses, sem queixas mastigatórias e sem disfunção temporomandibular e com pelo menos seis dentes em cada hemiarcada. Todos preencheram um questionário de anamnese e em seguida foram submetidos à eletromiografia de superfície dos masseteres de ambos os lados. As provas eletromiográficas foram: posição habitual com lábios fechados, apertamento dentário, mastigação habitual e unilateral à direita e à esquerda com uva passa. RESULTADOS: em todas as provas eletromiográficas não foram observadas diferenças significantes (p=0,05 entre os lados com e sem paralisia facial. CONCLUSÃO: observou-se com o presente estudo que a força do músculo masseter não sofre influência da paralisia facial de longa duração.PURPOSE: to check the masseter electrical activity in long lasting facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six subjects, with facial paralysis for over a period of twelve months, males and females, took part in this study. Patients should not show any masticatory complaints or have any diagnoses of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction, having at least six teeth in each half dental ridge. All subjects filled out a questionnaire regarding oral habits and were assessed by surface electromyography of the masseter muscle of both sides. Electromyographic records were taken with lips closed at rest, teeth tightness, besides usual mastication, and unilateral mastication on both sides with raisins. RESULTS: in all electromyographic tests there were no statistically significant differences (p=0.05 between both sides, with and without facial paralysis. CONCLUSION: it was observed that the strength of the masseter muscle is not under the influence of long lasting facial paralysis.

  18. No effect of experimental occlusal interferences on pressure pain thresholds of the masseter and temporalis muscles in healthy women

    Michelotti, A; Farella, M; Steenks, MH; Gallo, LM; Palla, S

    It has been suggested that occlusal interferences may lead to pain and tenderness of the masticatory muscles. Tender jaw muscles are more sensitive to pressure pain, as assessed by means of pressure algometry. We tested the effects of occlusal interferences on the pressure pain threshold of the jaw

  19. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in mouse skeletal muscle afferents are heteromers composed of ASIC1a, ASIC2, and ASIC3 subunits

    Gautam, Mamta; Benson, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are expressed in skeletal muscle afferents, in which they sense extracellular acidosis and other metabolites released during ischemia and exercise. ASICs are formed as homotrimers or heterotrimers of several isoforms (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, and ASIC3), with each channel displaying distinct properties. To dissect the ASIC composition in muscle afferents, we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to study the properties of acid-evoked currents (amplitu...

  20. Masseter function and skeletal malocclusion.

    Sciote, J J; Raoul, G; Ferri, J; Close, J; Horton, M J; Rowlerson, A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to review the relationship between the function of the masseter muscle and the occurrence of malocclusions. An analysis was made of the masseter muscle samples from subjects who underwent mandibular osteotomies. The size and proportion of type-II fibers (fast) decreases as facial height increases. Patients with mandibular asymmetry have more type-II fibers on the side of their deviation. The insulin-like growth factor and myostatin are expressed differently depending on the sex and fiber diameter. These differences in the distribution of fiber types and gene expression of this growth factor may be involved in long-term postoperative stability and require additional investigations. Muscle strength and bone length are two genetically determined factors in facial growth. Myosin 1H (MYOH1) is associated with prognathia in Caucasians. As future objectives, we propose to characterize genetic variations using "Genome Wide Association Studies" data and their relationships with malocclusions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormal muscle afferent function in a model of Taxol chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy

    Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite muscle pain being a well-described symptom in patients with diverse forms of peripheral neuropathy, the role of neuropathic mechanisms in muscle pain have received remarkably little attention. We have recently demonstrated in a well-established model of chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy (CIPN) that the anti-tumor drug paclitaxel (Taxol) produces mechanical hyperalgesia in skeletal muscle, of similar time course to and with shared mechanism with cutaneous symptoms. In the present...

  2. Afferent-mediated modulation of the soleus muscle activity during the stance phase of human walking

    Nazarena, Mazzaro; Grey, Michael James; do Nascimento, Omar Feix

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of proprioceptive feedback to the amplitude modulation of the soleus muscle activity during human walking. We have previously shown that slow-velocity, small-amplitude ankle dorsiflexion enhancements and reductions applied during the stance...

  3. Long-Term Effects of Botulinum Toxin Complex Type A Injection on Mechano- and Metabo-Sensitive Afferent Fibers Originating from Gastrocnemius Muscle.

    Guillaume Caron

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate long term effects of motor denervation by botulinum toxin complex type A (BoNT/A from Clostridium Botulinum, on the afferent fibers originating from the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Animals were divided in 2 experimental groups: 1 untreated animals acting as control and 2 treated animals in which the toxin was injected in the left muscle, the latter being itself divided into 3 subgroups according to their locomotor recovery with the help of a test based on footprint measurements of walking rats: i no recovery (B0, ii 50% recovery (B50 and iii full recovery (B100. Then, muscle properties, metabosensitive afferent fiber responses to potassium chloride (KCl and lactic acid injections and Electrically-Induced Fatigue (EIF, and mechanosensitive responses to tendon vibrations were measured. At the end of the experiment, rats were killed and the toxin injected muscles were weighted. After toxin injection, we observed a complete paralysis associated to a loss of force to muscle stimulation and a significant muscle atrophy, and a return to baseline when the animals recover. The response to fatigue was only decreased in the B0 group. The responses to KCl injections were only altered in the B100 groups while responses to lactic acid were altered in the 3 injected groups. Finally, our results indicated that neurotoxin altered the biphasic pattern of response of the mechanosensitive fiber to tendon vibrations in the B0 and B50 groups. These results indicated that neurotoxin injection induces muscle afferent activity alterations that persist and even worsen when the muscle has recovered his motor activity.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Botulinum Toxin Complex Type A Injection on Mechano- and Metabo-Sensitive Afferent Fibers Originating from Gastrocnemius Muscle.

    Caron, Guillaume; Marqueste, Tanguy; Decherchi, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate long term effects of motor denervation by botulinum toxin complex type A (BoNT/A) from Clostridium Botulinum, on the afferent fibers originating from the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Animals were divided in 2 experimental groups: 1) untreated animals acting as control and 2) treated animals in which the toxin was injected in the left muscle, the latter being itself divided into 3 subgroups according to their locomotor recovery with the help of a test based on footprint measurements of walking rats: i) no recovery (B0), ii) 50% recovery (B50) and iii) full recovery (B100). Then, muscle properties, metabosensitive afferent fiber responses to potassium chloride (KCl) and lactic acid injections and Electrically-Induced Fatigue (EIF), and mechanosensitive responses to tendon vibrations were measured. At the end of the experiment, rats were killed and the toxin injected muscles were weighted. After toxin injection, we observed a complete paralysis associated to a loss of force to muscle stimulation and a significant muscle atrophy, and a return to baseline when the animals recover. The response to fatigue was only decreased in the B0 group. The responses to KCl injections were only altered in the B100 groups while responses to lactic acid were altered in the 3 injected groups. Finally, our results indicated that neurotoxin altered the biphasic pattern of response of the mechanosensitive fiber to tendon vibrations in the B0 and B50 groups. These results indicated that neurotoxin injection induces muscle afferent activity alterations that persist and even worsen when the muscle has recovered his motor activity.

  5. Acylcarnitines as markers of exercise-associated fuel partitioning, xenometabolism, and potential signals to muscle afferent neurons.

    Zhang, Jie; Light, Alan R; Hoppel, Charles L; Campbell, Caitlin; Chandler, Carol J; Burnett, Dustin J; Souza, Elaine C; Casazza, Gretchen A; Hughen, Ronald W; Keim, Nancy L; Newman, John W; Hunter, Gary R; Fernandez, Jose R; Garvey, W Timothy; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Fiehn, Oliver; Adams, Sean H

    2017-01-01

    that a weight-loss/fitness intervention alters plasma xenometabolites [i.e. cis-3,4-methylene-heptanoylcarnitine and γ-butyrobetaine (a co-metabolite possibly derived in part from gut bacteria)], suggesting that host metabolic health regulated gut microbe metabolism. Finally, we considered whether acylcarnitine metabolites signal to muscle-innervating afferents; palmitoylcarnitine at concentrations as low as 1-10 μm activated a subset (∼2.5-5%) of these neurons ex vivo. This supports the hypothesis that in addition to tracking exercise-associated shifts in fuel metabolism, muscle acylcarnitines act as signals of exertion to short-loop somatosensory-motor circuits or to the brain. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  6. APPLICATION OF MRI IN THE DIAGNOSTICS OF M. MASSETER

    Mariana Dimova-Gabrovska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a non-invasive diagnostic method which can provide detailed images of organs and structures of the human body. The purpose of this review is to explore and introduce the diagnostic capabilities of MRI in imaging m. masseter in conditions of norm and pathology. The material of the review is information of 20 literary sources selected from 530, found by keywordsfromJanuary to April 2017. The information about MRI imaging of the normal anatomy of m. masseter and the most common findings in muscle - muscle hypertrophy, inflammatory changes, vascular malformations, intramuscular hemangioma, cysticercosis and changes after radiotherapy was analyzed. In conclusion, the diagnostic capabilities of MRI of masseter muscle – both in the conditions of norm and pathology were confirmed. The method is considered to be reliable, objective, non-invasive and accurate.

  7. Muscle spindle thixotropy affects force perception through afferent-induced facilitation of the motor pathways as revealed by the Kohnstamm effect.

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of intrafusal thixotropy, a property affecting muscle spindle sensitivity, on the sense of force. For this purpose, psychophysical measurements of force perception were performed using an isometric force matching paradigm of elbow flexors consisting of matching different force magnitudes (5, 10 and 20% of subjects' maximal voluntary force). We investigated participants' capacity to match these forces after their indicator arm had undergone voluntary isometric conditioning contractions known to alter spindle thixotropy, i.e., contractions performed at long ('hold long') or short muscle lengths ('hold short'). In parallel, their reference arm was conditioned at the intermediate muscle length ('hold-test') at which the matchings were performed. The thixotropy hypothesis predicts that estimation errors should only be observed at low force levels (up to 10% of the maximal voluntary force) with overestimation of the forces produced following 'hold short' conditioning and underestimation following 'hold long' conditioning. We found the complete opposite, especially following 'hold-short' conditioning where subjects underestimated the force they generated with similar relative error magnitudes across force levels. In a second experiment, we tested the hypothesis that estimation errors depended on the degree of afferent-induced facilitation using the Kohnstamm phenomenon as a probe of motor pathway excitability. Because the stronger post-effects were observed following 'hold-short' conditioning, it appears that the conditioning-induced excitation of spindle afferents leads to force misjudgments by introducing a decoupling between the central effort and the cortical motor outputs.

  8. Estudo eletromiográfico do músculo masseter durante o apertamento dentário e mastigação habitual em adultos com oclusão dentária normal Electromyographic study of the masseter muscle during maximal voluntary clenching and habitual chewing in adults with normal occlusion

    Adriana Rahal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a diferença entre os lados na atividade eletromiográfica do masseter em indivíduos adultos com oclusão dentária normal. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 30 indivíduos saudáveis entre 21 e 30 anos e realizou-se eletromiografia de superfície nos músculos masseteres direito e esquerdo, durante apertamento em máxima intercuspidação e mastigação habitual com uva passa. Foram computados os valores médios dos três apertamentos dentários e dos 15 segundos da mastigação habitual para cada indivíduo. Foram considerados para a análise: o lado de maior valor e o de menor valor eletromiográfico. RESULTADOS: Durante o apertamento dentário, a diferença média entre os dois lados foi de 20,0 microvolts (μV com intervalo de confiança (95% entre 14,0 e 26,0 μV e durante a mastigação habitual, a diferença média entre os dois lados foi de 10,3 μV com intervalo de confiança (95% entre 6,7 e 13,8 μV. CONCLUSÃO: Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os lados, com relação entre eles de 24% para o apertamento dentário e de 27% para a mastigação habitual, em indiv duos adultos saudáveis.PURPOSE: To analyze the difference between both sides of the face during the electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle in adults with normal occlusion. METHODS: Thirty healthy individuals with ages ranging from 21 to 30 years old were selected. Surface electromyography was performed on right and left masseter muscles during maximal voluntary clenching and habitual chewing with raisins. The mean values of three teeth clenching and fifteen seconds of habitual chewing were calculated for each subject. The analysis considered the sides with higher and lower electromyographic activity. RESULTS: During maximal voluntary clenching, the mean difference between sides was 20.0 microvolts (μV, with confidence interval (95% between 14.0 and 26.0 μV. During habitual chewing, the mean difference between sides was 10.3

  9. Group II muscle afferents probably contribute to the medium latency soleus stretch reflex during walking in humans

    Grey, Michael James; Ladouceur, Michel; Andersen, Jacob B.

    2001-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine which afferents contribute to the medium latency response of the soleus stretch reflex resulting from an unexpected perturbation during human walking. 2. Fourteen healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.5 km h(-1) with the left ankle...... = 0.007), whereas the short latency component was unchanged (P = 0.653). 7. An ankle block with lidocaine hydrochloride was performed to suppress the cutaneous afferents of the foot and ankle. Neither the short (P = 0.453) nor medium (P = 0.310) latency reflexes were changed. 8. Our results support...

  10. Uso de toxina botulínica para tratamiento de la hipertrofía del músculo masetero Use of botulinum toxin for treatment of hypetrophy of the masseter muscle

    F. González Magaña

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Definimos la hipertrofia del músculo masetero como el crecimiento excesivo de la masa muscular de dicho músculo, de presentación subclínica y de etiología multifactorial. Presenta una incidencia entre los 20 a 40 años sin predilección de sexo. Desde que en 1880 Legg la describiera por primera vez, se han intentado múltiples tratamientos, desde los médicos hasta los quirúrgicos, siendo el tratamiento con toxina botulínica el de mayor aceptación en la actualidad. El objetivo del presente artículo es realizar una revisión bibliográfica y proveer una herramienta para el médico que se enfrente a la hipertrofia del músculo masetero, además de presentar un caso clínico unilateral y la técnica empleada para su tratamiento. Como método diagnóstico en el paciente empleamos TAC de cráneo y macizo facial con cortes finos a 1 mm, así como de la región maseterina y aplicamos toxina botulínica de acuerdo a la zona de seguridad propuesta por Nam-Ho Kim y en base a los puntos anatómicos que indica el mismo protocolo, a dosis de 50 U en intervalos de 3 meses. Empleamos también TAC postoperatorio como medio de evaluación del resultado. Los tratamientos médicos con toxina botulínica son variables en sus dosis, aplicaciones y técnicas, así como en los diferentes productos disponibles en el mercado. En nuestro caso, el resultado fue clínicamente satisfactorio, cubriendo en su totalidad las expectativas del paciente. Proponemos que la protocolización del paciente, las dosis adecuadas, el tiempo entre aplicaciones y los sitios anatómicos correctos de inyección, llevan a la corrección de la hipertrofia del músculo masetero.Masseter muscle hypertrophy is an overgrowth of muscle mass with subclinical presentation and multifactorial etiology, with an incidence between 20 to 40 years and without sex predilection. In 1880 Legg describes this pathology for the first time and since then have been reported and attempted to formally

  11. Anodal Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum Reduces Cerebellar Brain Inhibition but Does Not Influence Afferent Input from the Hand or Face in Healthy Adults.

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Young, Jessica; Bradnam, Lynley V

    2016-08-01

    The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem. The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults. Data from two studies evaluating effects of cerebellar anodal and sham tDCS are presented. The first study used a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol to investigate CBI and combined TMS and cutaneous stimulation of the digit to assess SAI. The second study evaluated effects on trigemino-cervical and trigemino-masseter reflexes using peripheral nerve stimulation of the face. Fourteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 1. CBI was observed at baseline and was reduced by anodal cerebellar DCS only (P < 0.01). There was SAI at interstimulus intervals of 25 and 30 ms at baseline (both P < 0.0001), but cerebellar tDCS had no effect. Thirteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 2. Inhibitory reflexes were evoked in the ipsilateral masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. There was no effect of cerebellar DCS on either reflex. Anodal DCS reduced CBI but did not change SAI or TRs in healthy adults. These results require confirmation in individuals with neurological impairment.

  12. Assessment of the sequential change of the masseter muscle by clenching: a quantitative analysis of T1, T2, and the signal intensity of the balanced steady-state free precession

    Chikui, Toru; Tokumori, Kenji; Kazunori, Yoshiura; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Yuasa, Kenji; Inatomi, Daisuke; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The persistent muscle contractions during clenching are thought to cause some temporomandibular disorders. However, no report has so far evaluated the effect of clenching on the masticatory muscles by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To investigate the effect of clenching with maximum voluntary contraction on the T1, T2, and signal intensity (SI) of the balanced fast field-echo (b FFE) of the masseter muscle. Material and Methods: A total of 11 volunteers participated. Multi-echo spin-echo echo-planar imaging was used for T2 measurements, and multi-shot Look-Locker sequence for T1 measurements. The Look-Locker sequence has been used for fast T1 mapping and this method has been applied for the imaging of various tissues. In addition, the b FFE was used due to the high temporal resolution. These three sequences lasted for 10 min and the participants were instructed to clench from 60 s to 80 s after the start of the data acquisition. T2, T1, and SI were normalized compared to pre-clenching values. Results: T2 decreased by clenching, which reflected a decrease of tissue perfusion due to the mechanical pressure. It increased rapidly after the clenching (peak value, 1.11±0.03; peak time, 16.8±7.6 s after the clenching), which corresponded to the reactive hyperemia and later, it gradually returned to the initial values (half period, 2.22±0.84 min). The change in the SI of the b FFE was triphasic and similar to that of T2 clenching. T1 increased after the cessation of the clenching and later gradually decreased during the recovery periods. However, the change of T1 was quite different from that of T2, with a lower peak value (1.04±0.02), a later peak time (36.0±28.0 s), and a longer half period (4.76±3.40 min) (P<0.0001, 0.0066, 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: The change in T2 was triphasic and we considered that it predominantly reflected the tissue perfusion.

  13. Changes in intramuscular cytokine levels during masseter inflammation in male and female rats

    Niu, Katelyn Y.; Ro, Jin Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine cytokine profiles in the masseter muscle before and after complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation and possible sex differences in the cytokine levels. Age matched male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected with CFA in the mid-region of the masseter muscle. Muscle tissue surrounding the injection site was extracted 6 hrs, 1, 3 and 7 days after the injection to measure TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-4 levels with Luminex multi-analyte p...

  14. Experimental muscle pain produces central modulation of proprioceptive signals arising from jaw muscle spindles.

    Capra, N F; Ro, J Y

    2000-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection with hypertonic saline, a well-established experimental model for muscle pain, on central processing of proprioceptive input from jaw muscle spindle afferents. Fifty-seven cells were recorded from the medial edge of the subnucleus interpolaris (Vi) and the adjacent parvicellular reticular formation from 11 adult cats. These cells were characterized as central units receiving jaw muscle spindle input based on their responses to electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve, muscle palpation and jaw stretch. Forty-five cells, which were successfully tested with 5% hypertonic saline, were categorized as either dynamic-static (DS) (n=25) or static (S) (n=20) neurons based on their responses to different speeds and amplitudes of jaw movement. Seventy-six percent of the cells tested with an ipsilateral injection of hypertonic saline showed a significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during opening and/or holding phases. The most remarkable saline-induced change was a significant reduction of MFR during the hold phase in S units (100%, 18/18 modulated). Sixty-nine percent of the DS units (11/16 modulated) also showed significant changes in MFRs limited to the hold phase. However, in the DS neurons, the MFRs increased in seven units and decreased in four units. Finally, five DS neurons showed significant changes of MFRs during both opening and holding phases. Injections of isotonic saline into the ipsilateral masseter muscle had little effect, but hypertonic saline injections made into the contralateral masseter muscle produced similar results to ipsilateral injections with hypertonic saline. These results unequivocally demonstrate that intramuscular injection with an algesic substance, sufficient to produce muscle pain, produces significant changes in the proprioceptive properties of the jaw movement-related neurons. Potential mechanisms involved in saline-induced changes in the

  15. Oral cavity reconstruction with the masseter flap

    Mahieu, R.; Russo, S.; Gualtieri, T.; Colletti, G.; Deganello, A.

    The purpose of this report is to highlight how an unusual, outdated, unpopular and overlooked reconstructive method such as the masseter flap can be a reliable, straightforward and effective solution for oral reconstruction in selected cases. We report the transposition of the masseter crossover

  16. Idiopathic Masseter Muscle Hypertrophy | Kebede | Ethiopian ...

    In some cases prominent Exostoses at the angle of the mandible are noted. Although it is tempting to point to Malocclusion, Bruxism, clenching, ... Diagnosis is based on awareness of the condition, clinical and radiographic findings, and ...

  17. Cerebro-afferent vessel and pupillary basal diameter variation induced by stomatognathic trigeminal proprioception: a case report.

    De Cicco, Vincenzo

    2012-09-03

    A patient affected by asymmetric hemodynamics of cerebro-afferent vessels underwent duplex color scanner investigations in occlusal proprioceptive un- and rebalance conditions. Pupillometric video-oculographic examinations were performed in order to spot connected trigeminal proprioceptive motor patterns able to interfere on sympathetic autonomic activity. The aim of this case report is to verify if involuntary jaw closing during swallowing, executed in unbalance and rebalance myoelectric activity, would be able to modify cerebral hemodynamics. A 56-year-old Caucasian Italian woman affected by asymmetric blood flow of cerebro-afferent vessels underwent an electromyographic investigation of her occlusal muscles in order to assess their occlusal functional balance. The extreme asymmetry of myoelectric activity in dental occlusion evidenced by electromyographic values suggested the rebalancing of the functions of occlusal muscles through concurrent transcutaneous stimulation of the trigeminal nerve supra- and submandibular motor branches. The above-mentioned method allowed the detection of a symmetric craniomandibular muscular relation that can be kept constant through the use of a cusp bite modeled on the inferior dental arch: called orthotic-syntropic bite for its peculiar use of electrostimulation. A few days later, the patient underwent a duplex color scanner investigation and pupillometric video-oculographic examinations in occlusal unbalance and rebalance conditions. A comparative data analysis showed that an unbalanced dental occlusal function may represent an interferential pattern on cerebral hemodynamics velocity and pupillometric evaluations have proved useful both in the analysis of locus coeruleus functional modalities and as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of pathologies involving locus coeruleus and autonomic systems. The inclusion of myoelectric masseter examinations can be useful in patients with asymmetric hemodynamics of cerebro-afferent

  18. CONTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS AND MYOSIN HEAVY-CHAIN COMPOSITION OF RABBIT MASSETER MOTOR UNITS

    KWA, SHS; WEIJS, WA; JUCH, PJW

    1. We studied isometric twitch peak force (TPF) and twitch contraction time (TCT) of 249 motor units of the masseter muscle in 41 rabbits after extracellular electrical stimulation of single trigeminal motoneurons in the brain stem. In 41 of these units we determined the amount of tension decrease

  19. Vascular smooth muscle cells express the alpha(1A) subunit of a P-/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+)Channel, and It is functionally important in renal afferent arterioles

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Jensen, Boye L.; Andreasen, D

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we tested whether the alpha(1A) subunit, which encodes a neuronal isoform of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) (P-/Q-type), was present and functional in vascular smooth muscle and renal resistance vessels. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...... preglomerular resistance vessels and aorta, as well as mesangial cells, and that P-type VDCCs contribute to Ca(2+) influx in aortic and renal VSMCs and are involved in depolarization-mediated contraction in renal afferent arterioles....

  20. Heterogeneity among muscle precursor cells in adult skeletal muscles with differing regenerative capacities.

    Pavlath, G K; Thaloor, D; Rando, T A; Cheong, M; English, A W; Zheng, B

    1998-08-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury, although studies of muscle regeneration have heretofore been limited almost exclusively to limb musculature. Muscle precursor cells in skeletal muscle are responsible for the repair of damaged muscle. Heterogeneity exists in the growth and differentiation properties of muscle precursor cell (myoblast) populations throughout limb development but whether the muscle precursor cells differ among adult skeletal muscles is unknown. Such heterogeneity among myoblasts in the adult may give rise to skeletal muscles with different regenerative capacities. Here we compare the regenerative response of a masticatory muscle, the masseter, to that of limb muscles. After exogenous trauma (freeze or crush injuries), masseter muscle regenerated much less effectively than limb muscle. In limb muscle, normal architecture was restored 12 days after injury, whereas in masseter muscle, minimal regeneration occurred during the same time period. Indeed, at late time points, masseter muscles exhibited increased fibrous connective tissue in the region of damage, evidence of ineffective muscle regeneration. Similarly, in response to endogenous muscle injury due to a muscular dystrophy, widespread evidence of impaired regeneration was present in masseter muscle but not in limb muscle. To explore the cellular basis of these different regenerative capacities, we analyzed the myoblast populations of limb and masseter muscles both in vivo and in vitro. From in vivo analyses, the number of myoblasts in regenerating muscle was less in masseter compared with limb muscle. Assessment of population growth in vitro indicated that masseter myoblasts grow more slowly than limb myoblasts under identical conditions. We conclude that the impaired regeneration in masseter muscles is due to differences in the intrinsic myoblast populations compared to limb muscles.

  1. Activation of GLP-1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells reduces the autoregulatory response in afferent arterioles and increases renal blood flow.

    Jensen, Elisa P; Poulsen, Steen S; Kissow, Hannelouise; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Deacon, Carolyn F; Jensen, Boye L; Holst, Jens J; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2015-04-15

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 has a range of extrapancreatic effects, including renal effects. The mechanisms are poorly understood, but GLP-1 receptors have been identified in the kidney. However, the exact cellular localization of the renal receptors is poorly described. The aim of the present study was to localize renal GLP-1 receptors and describe GLP-1-mediated effects on the renal vasculature. We hypothesized that renal GLP-1 receptors are located in the renal microcirculation and that activation of these affects renal autoregulation and increases renal blood flow. In vivo autoradiography using (125)I-labeled GLP-1, (125)I-labeled exendin-4 (GLP-1 analog), and (125)I-labeled exendin 9-39 (GLP-1 receptor antagonist) was performed in rodents to localize specific GLP-1 receptor binding. GLP-1-mediated effects on blood pressure, renal blood flow (RBF), heart rate, renin secretion, urinary flow rate, and Na(+) and K(+) excretion were investigated in anesthetized rats. Effects of GLP-1 on afferent arterioles were investigated in isolated mouse kidneys. Specific binding of (125)I-labeled GLP-1, (125)I-labeled exendin-4, and (125)I-labeled exendin 9-39 was observed in the renal vasculature, including afferent arterioles. Infusion of GLP-1 increased blood pressure, RBF, and urinary flow rate significantly in rats. Heart rate and plasma renin concentrations were unchanged. Exendin 9-39 inhibited the increase in RBF. In isolated murine kidneys, GLP-1 and exendin-4 significantly reduced the autoregulatory response of afferent arterioles in response to stepwise increases in pressure. We conclude that GLP-1 receptors are located in the renal vasculature, including afferent arterioles. Activation of these receptors reduces the autoregulatory response of afferent arterioles to acute pressure increases and increases RBF in normotensive rats. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Activation of GLP-1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells reduces the autoregulatory response in afferent arterioles and increases renal blood flow

    Jensen, Elisa Pouline; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2015-01-01

    was to localize renal GLP-1 receptors and describe GLP-1 mediated effects on the renal vasculature. We hypothesized that renal GLP-1 receptors are located in the renal microcirculation and activation of these affects renal autoregulation and increases renal blood flow. In vivo autoradiography using 125I-GLP-1......, 125I-exendin-4 (GLP-1 analog) and 125I-exendin 9-39 (GLP-1 receptor antagonist) was performed in rodents to localize specific GLP-1 receptor binding. GLP-1 mediated effects on blood pressure (BP), renal blood flow (RBF), heart rate (HR), renin secretion, urinary flow rate and Na+ and K+ excretion were...... conclude that GLP-1 receptors are located in the renal vasculature including afferent arterioles. Activation of these receptors reduces the autoregulatory response of afferent arterioles to acute pressure increases and increases renal blood flow in normotensive rats....

  3. Small vertical changes in jaw relation affect motor unit recruitment in the masseter.

    Terebesi, S; Giannakopoulos, N N; Brüstle, F; Hellmann, D; Türp, J C; Schindler, H J

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for recruitment of masseter muscle motor units (MUs), provoked by constant bite force, for different vertical jaw relations have not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of small changes in vertical jaw relation on MU recruitment behaviour in different regions of the masseter during feedback-controlled submaximum biting tasks. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 24·6 ± 2·4 years) were involved in the investigation. Intra-muscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded in different regions of the muscle. MUs were identified by the use of decomposition software, and root-mean-square (RMS) values were calculated for each experimental condition. Six hundred and eleven decomposed MUs with significantly (P recruitment behaviour were organised into localised MU task groups. MUs with different task specificity in seven examined tasks were observed. The RMS EMG values obtained from the different recording sites were also significantly (P recruitment was significantly (P recruited MUs and the RMS EMG values decreased significantly (P recruitment behaviour in discrete subvolumes of the masseter in response to small changes in vertical jaw relations. These fine-motor skills might be responsible for its excellent functional adaptability and might also explain the successful management of temporomandibular disorder patients by somatic intervention, in particular by the use of oral splints. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Localised task-dependent motor-unit recruitment in the masseter.

    Schindler, H J; Hellmann, D; Giannakopoulos, N N; Eiglsperger, U; van Dijk, J P; Lapatki, B G

    2014-07-01

    Localised motor-unit (MU) recruitment in the masseter was analysed in this study. We investigated whether differential activation behaviour, which has already been reported for distant masseter regions, can also be detected in small muscle subvolumes at the level of single MUs. Two bipolar fine-wire electrodes and an intra-oral 3D bite-force transmitter were used to record intra-muscular electromyograms (EMG) resulting from controlled bite-forces of 10 healthy human subjects (mean age 24.1 ± 1.2 years). Two-hundred and seventeen decomposed MUs were organised into localised MU task groups with different (P < 0.001) force-direction-specific behaviour. Proportions of MUs involved in one, two, three or four examined tasks were 46%, 31%, 18% and 5%, respectively. This study provides evidence of the ability of the neuromuscular system to modify the mechanical output of small masseter subvolumes by differential control of adjacent MUs belonging to distinct task groups. Localised differential activation behaviour of the masseter may be the crucial factor enabling highly flexible and efficient adjustment of the muscle activity in response to complex local biomechanical needs, for example, continually varying bite-forces during the demanding masticatory process. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. AN ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC STUDY OF WHETHER THE DIGASTRIC MUSCLES ARE CONTROLLED BY JAW-CLOSING PROPRIOCEPTORS IN MAN

    VANWILLIGEN, JD; MORIMOTO, T; BROEKHUIJSEN, ML; BIJL, GK; INOUE, T

    Whether in the oral system the digastric muscles (which lack muscle spindles) are under the control of proprioceptive information from the masseter muscles (which contain muscle spindles) was investigated by analysing whether and how the masseters and digastrics showed coordinated behaviour during a

  6. Development of fusimotor innervation correlates with group Ia afferents but is independent of neurotrophin-3

    Ringstedt, T; Copray, S; Walro, J; Kucera, J

    1998-01-01

    Fusimotor neurons, group Ia afferents and muscle spindles are absent in mutant mice lacking the gene for neurotrophin-3 (NT3). To partition the effect of Ia afferent or spindle absence from that of NT3 deprivation on fusimotor neuron development, we examined the fusimotor system in a mutant mouse

  7. Peripheral Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Orofacial Muscle Pain and Hyperalgesia

    Saloman, Jami L.

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, particularly those associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMD) are severely debilitating and affect approximately 12% of the population. Identifying peripheral nociceptive mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia, a prominent feature of persistent muscle pain, could contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for the management of TMD and other muscle pain conditions. This study provides evidence of functional interactions between ligand-gated channels, P2X3 and TRPV1/TRPA1, in trigeminal sensory neurons, and proposes that these interactions underlie the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. In the masseter muscle, direct P2X3 activation, via the selective agonist αβmeATP, induced a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia. Importantly, the αβmeATP-induced hyperalgesia was prevented by pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, or the TRPA1 antagonist, AP18. P2X3 was co-expressed with both TRPV1 and TRPA1 in masseter muscle afferents confirming the possibility for intracellular interactions. Moreover, in a subpopulation of P2X3 /TRPV1 positive neurons, capsaicin-induced Ca2+ transients were significantly potentiated following P2X3 activation. Inhibition of Ca2+-dependent kinases, PKC and CaMKII, prevented P2X3-mechanical hyperalgesia whereas blockade of Ca2+-independent PKA did not. Finally, activation of P2X3 induced phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine, residues in TRPV1 in trigeminal sensory neurons. Significant phosphorylation was observed at 15 minutes, the time point at which behavioral hyperalgesia was prominent. Similar data were obtained regarding another nonselective cation channel, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Our data propose P2X3 and NMDARs interact with TRPV1 in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization underlying masseter hyperalgesia. This study offers novel mechanisms by which individual pro-nociceptive ligand

  8. [Changes of productions of energy metabolism in masseter of rats induced by occlusal interference].

    Xu, X X; Cao, Y; Fu, K Y; Xie, Q F

    2017-02-18

    To investigate the effect of occlusal interference on the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle by studying the changes of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inosine monophosphate (IMP), phosphocreatine, creatine, lactate and pH level in masseter muscles of rats after occlusal interference. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into experimental group (n=40) and control group (n=10). In experimental group, 0.4 mm thick metal crown was cemented to the upper right first molar of the rat, and maintained for 3, 7, 10, 14 d separately (n=10 for each time point). No occlusal interference was applied for control group. Bilateral masseter muscles of all the rats were acquired under general anesthesia. The samples of 5 rats in each group were fully homogenized with 0.4 mol/L perchlorate (10 mL/g). The homogenates were centrifuged, filtered and analyzed for ATP, ADP, IMP, phosphocreatine, creatine and lactate content by high performance liquid chromatography. The other samples in each group were mixed with homogenates containing 5 mmol/L sodium iodoacetate (10 mL/g), then homogenized and measured for pH value by pH meter in thermostatic water bathunder 37 degrees centigrade. Compared with control group, ATP content in bilateral masseter of the rats increased 3 d after occlusal interference [right side:(5.36±0.13) μmol/g,left side:(5.77±0.25) μmol/g] (Pocclusal interference (Pocclusal interference and maintained the low level on 10 and 14 d [right side:(10.70±0.71) μmol/g, (11.57±0.52) μmol/g, (10.74±1.39) μmol/g, left side:(10.05±0.57) μmol/g, (10.75±1.12)μmol/g, (10.61±1.15) μmol/g](Pocclusal interference was observed (P>0.05). Occlusal interference influences the content of energy metabolites in masticatory muscle of rats, which may be related to the pathological process of masticatory muscles induced by occlusal interference, such as muscle pain, dysfunction and altered fiber architecture.

  9. Effect of hypnosis on masseter EMG recorded during the 'resting' and a slightly open jaw posture.

    Al-Enaizan, N; Davey, K J; Lyons, M F; Cadden, S W

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to determine whether minimal levels of electromyographic activity in the masseter muscle are altered when individuals are in a verified hypnotic state. Experiments were performed on 17 volunteer subjects (8 male, 9 female) all of whom gave informed consent. The subjects were dentate and had no symptoms of pain or masticatory dysfunction. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were made from the masseter muscles and quantified by integration following full-wave rectification and averaging. The EMGs were obtained (i) with the mandible in 'resting' posture; (ii) with the mandible voluntarily lowered (but with the lips closed); (iii) during maximum voluntary clenching (MVC). The first two recordings were made before, during and after the subjects were in a hypnotic state. Susceptibility to hypnosis was assessed with Spiegel's eye-roll test, and the existence of the hypnotic state was verified by changes in ventilatory pattern. On average, EMG levels expressed as percentages of MVC were less: (i) when the jaw was deliberately lowered as opposed to being in the postural position: (ii) during hypnosis compared with during the pre- and post-hypnotic periods. However, analysis of variance followed by post hoc tests with multiple comparison corrections (Bonferroni) revealed that only the differences between the level during hypnosis and those before and after hypnosis were statistically significant (P hypnosis, it appears that part of that EMG is of biological origin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Masticatory muscle activity during deliberately performed oral tasks

    Farella, M; Palla, S; Erni, S; Gallo, L M; Michelotti, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate masticatory muscle activity during deliberately performed functional and non-functional oral tasks. Electromyographic (EMG) surface activity was recorded unilaterally from the masseter, anterior temporalis and suprahyoid muscles in 11 subjects (5 men, 6 women; age = 34.6 ± 10.8 years), who were accurately instructed to perform 30 different oral tasks under computer guidance using task markers. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, repeated measurements analysis of variance (ANOVA) and hierarchical cluster analysis. The maximum EMG amplitude of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles was more often found during hard chewing tasks than during maximum clenching tasks. The relative contribution of masseter and anterior temporalis changed across the tasks examined (F ≥ 5.2; p ≤ 0.001). The masseter muscle was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more active than the anterior temporalis muscle during tasks involving incisal biting, jaw protrusion, laterotrusion and jaw cupping, the difference being statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The anterior temporalis muscle was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) more active than the masseter muscle during tasks performed in intercuspal position, during tooth grinding, and during hard chewing on the working side. Based upon the relative contribution of the masseter, anterior temporalis, and suprahyoid muscles, the investigated oral tasks could be grouped into six separate clusters. The findings provided further insight into muscle- and task-specific EMG patterns during functional and non-functional oral behaviors

  11. Patterns of experimentally induced pain in pericranial muscles

    Schmidt-Hansen, Peter Thede; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2006-01-01

    into the masseter muscle (anova: P pain areas (anova: P cervically innervated muscles had significantly different patterns of spread and referral of pain according to trigeminally vs....... cervically innervated dermatomes (P pain patterns and pain sensitivity in different craniofacial muscles in healthy volunteers, which may be of importance for further research on different craniofacial pain conditions.......Nociceptive mechanisms in the craniofacial muscle tissue are poorly understood. The pain pattern in individual pericranial muscles has not been described before. Experimental muscle pain was induced by standardized infusions of 0.2 ml 1 m hypertonic saline into six craniofacial muscles (masseter...

  12. Anatomy and physiology of phrenic afferent neurons.

    Nair, Jayakrishnan; Streeter, Kristi A; Turner, Sara M F; Sunshine, Michael D; Bolser, Donald C; Fox, Emily J; Davenport, Paul W; Fuller, David D

    2017-12-01

    Large-diameter myelinated phrenic afferents discharge in phase with diaphragm contraction, and smaller diameter fibers discharge across the respiratory cycle. In this article, we review the phrenic afferent literature and highlight areas in need of further study. We conclude that 1 ) activation of both myelinated and nonmyelinated phrenic sensory afferents can influence respiratory motor output on a breath-by-breath basis; 2 ) the relative impact of phrenic afferents substantially increases with diaphragm work and fatigue; 3 ) activation of phrenic afferents has a powerful impact on sympathetic motor outflow, and 4 ) phrenic afferents contribute to diaphragm somatosensation and the conscious perception of breathing. Much remains to be learned regarding the spinal and supraspinal distribution and synaptic contacts of myelinated and nonmyelinated phrenic afferents. Similarly, very little is known regarding the potential role of phrenic afferent neurons in triggering or modulating expression of respiratory neuroplasticity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Lida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    . EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5kPa, 10kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during...

  14. Efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy on masseter thickness and oral health-related quality of life in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Nascimento, Karla Santos; Carazzato, Simone; Barros, Alina Oliveira; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Diniz, Michele Baffi

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on bilateral masseter muscle thickness and amplitude of mouth opening in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP), and the impact on their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL). Three groups were included: experimental CP group (EG: n = 26 with oral complaints), positive control CP group (PCG: n = 26 without complaints), and negative control group (NCG: n = 26 without CP). In the EG, the masseter muscles on both sides were irradiated with an infrared low-level Ga-Al-As laser (λ = 808 ± 3 nm, 120 mW) using a 3 J/cm 2 energy dose per site, with a 20 s exposure time per site (spot area: 4 mm 2 ; irradiance: 3 W/cm 2 ; energy delivery per point: 2.4 J) six times over six consecutive weeks. Masseter thickness, assessed through ultrasonography, and the amplitude of mouth opening were measured in the EG before and after six applications of PBMT and once in the PCG and NCG. The Parental-Caregiver Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) was used to evaluate OHRQOL. ANOVA, chi-square, t tests, and multilevel linear regression were used for statistical analysis. In the EG, the study results revealed average increments of 0.77 (0.08) millimeter in masseter thickness (P < 0.05) and 7.39 (0.58) millimeter for mouth opening (P < 0.05) and reduction in all P-CPQ domains (P < 0.001), except for social well-being. The six applications of PBMT increased masseter thickness and mouth opening amplitude and reduced the impact of spastic CP on OHRQOL.

  15. Interdependency between mechanical parameters and afferent nerve discharge in remodeled diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat intestine.

    Zhao, Jingbo; Yang, Jian; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are very common in diabetic patients, but the pathogenesis is still not well understood. Peripheral afferent nerves may be involved due to the complex regulation of gastrointestinal function by the enteric nervous system. We aimed to characterize the stimulus-response function of afferent fibers innervating the jejunum in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rat model. A key question is whether changes in afferent firing arise from remodeled tissue or from adaptive afferent processes. Seven 32-week-old male GK rats and seven age-matched normal Wistar rats were studied. Firing from mesenteric afferent nerves was recorded in excised jejunal segments of seven GK rats and seven normal Wistar rats during ramp test, stress relaxation test, and creep test. The circumferential stress-strain, spike rate increase ratio (SRIR), and single unit firing rates were calculated for evaluation of interdependency of the mechanical stimulations and the afferent nerve discharge. Elevated sensitivity to mechanical stimuli was found for diabetic nerve bundles and single unit activity ( P <0.05). The stress relaxed less in the diabetic intestinal segment ( P <0.05). Linear association between SRIR and the thickness of circumferential muscle layer was found at high stress levels as well as for SRIR and the glucose level. Altered viscoelastic properties and elevated mechanosensitivity were found in the GK rat intestine. The altered nerve signaling is related to muscle layer remodeling and glucose levels and may contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by diabetic patients.

  16. In vitro quantification of strain patterns in the craniofacial skeleton due to masseter and temporalis activities.

    Maloul, Asmaa; Regev, Eran; Whyne, Cari M; Beek, Marteen; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2012-09-01

    Many complications in craniofacial surgery can be attributed to a lack of characterization of facial skeletal strain patterns. This study aimed to delineate human midfacial strain patterns under uniform muscle loading. The left sides of 5 fresh-frozen human cadaveric heads were dissected of all soft tissues except the temporalis and masseter muscles. Tensile forces were applied to the free mandibular ends of the muscles. Maxillary alveolar arches were used to restrain the skulls. Eight strain gauges were bonded to the surface of the midface to measure the strain under single muscle loading conditions (100 N). Maxillary strain gauges revealed a biaxial load state for both muscles. Thin antral bone experienced high maximum principal tensile strains (maximum of 685.5 με) and high minimum principal compressive strains (maximum of -722.44 με). Similar biaxial patterns of lower magnitude were measured on the zygoma (maximum of 208.59 με for maximum principal strains and -78.11 με for minimum principal strains). Results, consistent for all specimens and counter to previously accepted concepts of biomechanical behavior of the midface under masticatory muscle loading, included high strain in the thin maxillary antral wall, rotational bending through the maxilla and zygoma, and a previously underestimated contribution of the temporalis muscle. This experimental model produced repeatable strain patterns quantifying the mechanics of the facial skeleton. These new counterintuitive findings underscore the need for accurate characterization of craniofacial strain patterns to address problems in the current treatment methods and develop robust design criteria.

  17. Immunomodulation of afferent neurons in guinea-pig isolated airway.

    Riccio, M M; Myers, A C; Undem, B J

    1996-03-01

    1. The trachea, larynx and main bronchi with the right vagus nerve and nodose ganglion were isolated from guinea-pigs passively immunized 24 h previously with serum containing anti-ovalbumin antibody. 2. The airways were placed in one compartment of a Perspex chamber for recording of isometric tension while the nodose ganglion and attached vagus nerve were pulled into another compartment. Action potentials arriving from single airway afferent nerve endings were monitored extracellularly using a glass microelectrode positioned near neuronal cell bodies in the ganglion. Mechanosensitivity of the nerve endings was quantified using calibrated von Frey filaments immediately before and after exposure to antigen (10 micrograms ml-1 ovalbumin). 3. Ten endings responded to the force exerted by the lowest filament (0.078 mN) and were not further investigated. In airways from thirteen immunized guinea-pigs, the mechanical sensitivity of A delta afferent fibres (conduction velocity = 4.3 +/- 0.6 m s-1) was enhanced 4.1 +/- 0.9-fold following airway exposure to antigen (P action potential generation except in one instance when the receptive field was located over the smooth muscle. This ending also responded to methacholine suggesting that spatial changes in the receptive field, induced by muscle contraction, were responsible for the activation. 5. The mediators responsible for these effects are unknown, although histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and tachykinins do not appear to be essential. The increase in mechanical responsiveness was not associated with the smooth muscle contraction since leukotriene C4, histamine and tachykinins, which all caused a similar contraction to antigen, did not affect mechanical thresholds. Moreover, the antigen-induced increases in excitability persisted beyond the duration of the smooth muscle contraction. 6. These results demonstrate that antigen-antibody-mediated inflammatory processes may enhance the excitability of vagal afferent

  18. Modulation of the masseteric reflex by gastric vagal afferents.

    Pettorossi, V E

    1983-04-01

    Several investigations have shown that the vagal nerve can affect the reflex responses of the masticatory muscles acting at level either of trigeminal motoneurons or of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN). The present experiments have been devoted to establish the origin of the vagal afferent fibres involved in modulating the masseteric reflex. In particular, the gastric vagal afferents were taken into consideration and selective stimulations of such fibres were performed in rabbit. Conditioning electrical stimulation of truncus vagalis ventralis (TVV) reduced the excitability of the MTN cells as shown by a decrease of the antidromic response recorded from the semilunar ganglion and elicited by MTN single-shock electrical stimulation. Sympathetic and cardiovascular influences were not involved in these responses. Mechanical stimulation of gastric receptors, by means of gastric distension, clearly diminished the amplitude of twitch tension of masseteric reflex and inhibited the discharge frequency of proprioceptive MTN units. The effect was phasic and depended upon the velocity of distension. Thus the sensory volleys originating from rapid adapting receptors reach the brain stem through vagal afferents and by means of a polysynaptic connection inhibits the masseteric reflex at level of MTN cells.

  19. Afferent Endocrine Control of Eating

    Langhans, Wolfgang; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    The afferent endocrine factors that control eating can be separated into different categories. One obvious categorization is by the time course of their effects, with long-term factors that signal adiposity and short-term factors that operate within the time frame of single meals. The second...... obvious categorization is by the origin of the endocrine signalling molecules. The level of knowledge concerning the physiological mechanisms and relevance of the hormones that are implicated in the control of eating is clearly different. With the accumulating knowledge about the hormones' actions......, various criteria have been developed for when the effect of a hormone can be considered 'physiologic'. This chapter treats the hormones separately and categorizes them by origin. It discusses ALL hormones that are implicated in eating control such as Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone and glucagon-like peptide...

  20. Influence of botulinum toxin on rabbit jaw muscle activity and anatomy.

    Korfage, J A M; Wang, Jeffrey; Lie, S H J T J; Langenbach, Geerling E J

    2012-05-01

    Muscles can adapt their fiber properties to accommodate to new conditions. We investigated the extent to which a decrease in muscle activation can cause an adaptation of fiber properties in synergistic and antagonistic jaw muscles. Three months after the injection of botulinum toxin type A in one masseter (anterior or posterior) muscle changes in fiber type composition and fiber cross-sectional areas in jaw muscles were studied at the microscopic level. The injected masseter showed a steep increase in myosin type IIX fibers, whereas fast fibers decreased by about 50% in size. Depending on the injection site, both synergistic and antagonistic muscles showed a significant increase in the size of their fast IIA fibers, sometimes combined with an increased number of IIX fibers. Silencing the activity in the masseter not only causes changes in the fibers of the injected muscle but also leads to changes in other jaw muscles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Interdependency between mechanical parameters and afferent nerve discharge in remodeled diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat intestine

    Zhao J

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jingbo Zhao,1 Jian Yang,1 Donghua Liao,1 Hans Gregersen2 1Giome Academia, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Giome Center, Department of Surgery, Chinese University of Hong Kong and Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong Background: Gastrointestinal disorders are very common in diabetic patients, but the pathogenesis is still not well understood. Peripheral afferent nerves may be involved due to the complex regulation of gastrointestinal function by the enteric nervous system. Objective: We aimed to characterize the stimulus–response function of afferent fibers innervating the jejunum in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK type 2 diabetic rat model. A key question is whether changes in afferent firing arise from remodeled tissue or from adaptive afferent processes. Design: Seven 32-week-old male GK rats and seven age-matched normal Wistar rats were studied. Firing from mesenteric afferent nerves was recorded in excised jejunal segments of seven GK rats and seven normal Wistar rats during ramp test, stress relaxation test, and creep test. The circumferential stress–strain, spike rate increase ratio (SRIR, and single unit firing rates were calculated for evaluation of interdependency of the mechanical stimulations and the afferent nerve discharge. Results: Elevated sensitivity to mechanical stimuli was found for diabetic nerve bundles and single unit activity (P<0.05. The stress relaxed less in the diabetic intestinal segment (P<0.05. Linear association between SRIR and the thickness of circumferential muscle layer was found at high stress levels as well as for SRIR and the glucose level. Conclusion: Altered viscoelastic properties and elevated mechanosensitivity were found in the GK rat intestine. The altered nerve signaling is related to muscle layer remodeling and glucose levels and may contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by diabetic patients. Keywords: afferents, spike rate, stress–strain, creep

  2. Abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurones are strong synergists for expiration but are not synergists for Group I monosynaptic afferent inputs

    Ford, Tim W; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Kirkwood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    , 9 being in Group B Dist motoneurones. The complete absence of heteronymous monosynaptic Group I reflex excitation between muscles that are synergistically activated in expiration leads us to conclude that such connections from muscle spindle afferents of the thoracic nerves have little role...... in controlling expiratory movements but, where present, support other motor acts....

  3. Serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline adjust actions of myelinated afferents via modulation of presynaptic inhibition in the mouse spinal cord.

    David L García-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Gain control of primary afferent neurotransmission at their intraspinal terminals occurs by several mechanisms including primary afferent depolarization (PAD. PAD produces presynaptic inhibition via a reduction in transmitter release. While it is known that descending monoaminergic pathways complexly regulate sensory processing, the extent these actions include modulation of afferent-evoked PAD remains uncertain. We investigated the effects of serotonin (5HT, dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA on afferent transmission and PAD. Responses were evoked by stimulation of myelinated hindlimb cutaneous and muscle afferents in the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord. Monosynaptic responses were examined in the deep dorsal horn either as population excitatory synaptic responses (recorded as extracellular field potentials; EFPs or intracellular excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. The magnitude of PAD generated intraspinally was estimated from electrotonically back-propagating dorsal root potentials (DRPs recorded on lumbar dorsal roots. 5HT depressed the DRP by 76%. Monosynaptic actions were similarly depressed by 5HT (EFPs 54%; EPSCs 75% but with a slower time course. This suggests that depression of monosynaptic EFPs and DRPs occurs by independent mechanisms. DA and NA had similar depressant actions on DRPs but weaker effects on EFPs. IC50 values for DRP depression were 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 µM for 5HT, DA and NA, respectively. Depression of DRPs by monoamines was nearly-identical in both muscle and cutaneous afferent-evoked responses, supporting a global modulation of the multimodal afferents stimulated. 5HT, DA and NA produced no change in the compound antidromic potentials evoked by intraspinal microstimulation indicating that depression of the DRP is unrelated to direct changes in the excitability of intraspinal afferent fibers, but due to metabotropic receptor activation. In summary, both myelinated afferent-evoked DRPs and monosynaptic

  4. Isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy in a child: a case report with literature review

    Ranasinghe, Jagath C.; Wickramasinghe, Chandani; Rodrigo, Ganganath

    2018-01-01

    Background Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is a rare entity of masticatory muscle hypertrophy. All types of masticatory muscle hypertrophies have been documented of which temporalis muscle hypertrophy is one. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is most commonly bilateral and usually associated with other types of masticatory muscles hypertrophy such as masseter or pterygoid hypertrophy. However, isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is extremely rare and only 9 cases have been reported to...

  5. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of centrally positioned nuclei in mouse masticatory muscle fibers

    Vilmann, A; Vilmann, H; Kirkeby, S

    1989-01-01

    Cross-sections of normal digastric, temporalis and masseter muscles from 7- and 30-week-old mice were studied for centrally positioned nuclei. Such nuclei were inhomogeneously distributed throughout each muscle and varied markedly between specimens. The incidence of centrally positioned nuclei in...

  7. Does the habitual mastication side impact jaw muscle activity?

    Turcio, Karina Helga Leal; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Guiotti, Aimée Maria; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Brandini, Daniela Atili

    2016-07-01

    To compare electrical activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles on the habitual (HMS) and non-habitual mastication side (NHMS), during mastication and in the mandibular postural position. In addition, the increase in electrical activity during mastication was assessed for the HMS and NHMS, analysing both working (WSM) and non-working side during mastication (NWSM). A total of 28 healthy women (18-32 years) participated in the study. They were submitted to Kazazoglu's test to identify the HMS. Bioresearch 'Bio EMG' software and bipolar surface electrodes were used in the exams. The exams were conducted in the postural position and during the unilateral mastication of raisins, on both the HMS and NHMS. The working and non-working side on HMS and NHMS were assessed separately. The obtained data were then statistically analysed with SPSS 20.0, using the Paired Samples Test at a significance level of 95%. The differences in the average EMG values between HMS and NHMS were not statistically significant in the postural position (Temporal p=0.2; Masseter p=0.4) or during mastication (Temporal WSM p=0.8; Temporal NWSM p=0.8; Masseter WSM p=0.6; Masseter NWSM p=0.2). Differences in the increase in electrical activity between the masseter and temporal muscles occurred on the working side, on the HMS and NHMS (p=0.0), but not on the non-working side: HMS (p=0.9) and NHMS (p=0.3). The increase in electrical activity was about 35% higher in the masseter than in the temporal muscle. Mastication side preference does not significantly impact electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication or in postural position. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Schedule-induced masseter EMG in facial pain subjects vs. no-pain controls.

    Gramling, S E; Grayson, R L; Sullivan, T N; Schwartz, S

    1997-02-01

    Empirical reports suggest that oral habits (e.g., teeth clenching) may be behavioral mediators linking stress to muscle hyperreactivity and the development of facial pain. Another report suggests that excessive behavioral adjuncts develop in conjunction with fixed-time stimulus presentation. The present study assessed the extent to which the oral habits exhibited by facial pain patients are schedule-induced. Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) symptomatology (n = 15) and pain-free controls (n = 15) participated in a 4-phase experiment (adaptation, baseline, task, recovery) designed to elicit schedule-induced behaviors. Self-report of oral habits and negative affect were recorded after each phase. Objective measures of oral habits were obtained via behavioral observation and masseter EMG recordings. Results revealed that negative arousal significantly increased during the fixed-time (FT) task and was also associated with increased oral habits among the TMD subjects. Moreover, 40% of the TMD subjects and none of the controls exhibited a pattern of EMG elevations in the early part of the inter-stimulus interval that met a strict criteria for scheduled-induced behavior per se. Taken together, these results suggest that the TMD subjects were engaging in schedule-induced oral habits. The adjunctive behavior literature seems to provide a plausible explanation as to how oral habits develop and are maintained in TMD patients, despite their painful consequences.

  9. Afferent connectivity of the zebrafish habenulae

    Katherine Jane Turner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The habenulae are bilateral nuclei located in the dorsal diencephalon that are conserved across vertebrates.Here we describe the main afferents to the habenulae in larval and adult zebrafish.We observe afferents from the subpallium, nucleus rostrolateralis,posterior tuberculum, posterior hypothalamic lobe, median raphe, olfactory bulb to the right habenula and from the parapineal to the lefthabenula.In addition,we find afferents from a ventrolateral telencephalic nucleus that neurochemical and hodological data identify as the ventral entopeduncular nucleus(vENT,confirming and extending observations of Amo et al.(2014.Fate map and marker studies suggest that vENT originates from the diencephalic prethalamic eminence and extends into the lateral telencephalon from 48 to 120 hpf.No afferents to the habenula were observed from the dorsal entopeduncular nucleus(dENT.Consequently,we confirm that the vENT(and not the dENT should be considered as the entopeduncular nucleus proper in zebrafish.Furthermore,comparison with data in other vertebrates suggests that the vENT is a conserved basal ganglia nucleus,being homologous to the entopeduncular nucleus of mammals(internal segment of the globus pallidus of primates by both embryonic origin and projections,as previously suggested by Amo et al.(2014.Key words: habenula,connections,afferents,entopeduncular nucleus,posterior tuberculum,basal ganglia,zebrafish

  10. Afferent Connectivity of the Zebrafish Habenulae

    Turner, Katherine J.; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Yáñez, Julián; Anadón, Ramón; Wilson, Stephen W.; Folgueira, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The habenulae are bilateral nuclei located in the dorsal diencephalon that are conserved across vertebrates. Here we describe the main afferents to the habenulae in larval and adult zebrafish. We observe afferents from the subpallium, nucleus rostrolateralis, posterior tuberculum, posterior hypothalamic lobe, median raphe; we also see asymmetric afferents from olfactory bulb to the right habenula, and from the parapineal to the left habenula. In addition, we find afferents from a ventrolateral telencephalic nucleus that neurochemical and hodological data identify as the ventral entopeduncular nucleus (vENT), confirming and extending observations of Amo et al. (2014). Fate map and marker studies suggest that vENT originates from the diencephalic prethalamic eminence and extends into the lateral telencephalon from 48 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). No afferents to the habenula were observed from the dorsal entopeduncular nucleus (dENT). Consequently, we confirm that the vENT (and not the dENT) should be considered as the entopeduncular nucleus “proper” in zebrafish. Furthermore, comparison with data in other vertebrates suggests that the vENT is a conserved basal ganglia nucleus, being homologous to the entopeduncular nucleus of mammals (internal segment of the globus pallidus of primates) by both embryonic origin and projections, as previously suggested by Amo et al. (2014). PMID:27199671

  11. Excess glycogen does not resolve high ultimate pH of oxidative muscle.

    England, Eric M; Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Oliver, Emily M; Apaoblaza, Ariel; Scheffler, Tracy L; Shi, Hao; Gerrard, David E

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen content can impact the extent of postmortem pH decline. Compared to glycolytic muscles, oxidative muscles contain lower glycogen levels antemortem which may contribute to the higher ultimate pH. In an effort to explore further the participation of glycogen in postmortem metabolism, we postulated that increasing the availability of glycogen would drive additional pH decline in oxidative muscles to equivalent pH values similar to the ultimate pH of glycolytic muscles. Glycolysis and pH declines were compared in porcine longissimus lumborum (glycolytic) and masseter (oxidative) muscles using an in vitro system in the presence of excess glycogen. The ultimate pH of the system containing longissimus lumborum reached a value similar to that observed in intact muscle. The pH decline of the system containing masseter samples stopped prematurely resulting in a higher ultimate pH which was similar to that of intact masseter muscle. To investigate further, we titrated powdered longissimus lumborum and masseter samples in the reaction buffer. As the percentage of glycolytic sample increased, the ultimate pH decreased. These data show that oxidative muscle produces meat with a high ultimate pH regardless of glycogen content and suggest that inherent muscle factors associated with glycolytic muscle control the extent of pH decline in pig muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    Hitoshi eShitara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to primary motor cortex (M1 is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or electrically stimulated the right median nerve (MNS in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG. We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging.

  13. Facial reanimation by muscle-nerve neurotization after facial nerve sacrifice. Case report.

    Taupin, A; Labbé, D; Babin, E; Fromager, G

    2016-12-01

    Recovering a certain degree of mimicry after sacrifice of the facial nerve is a clinically recognized finding. The authors report a case of hemifacial reanimation suggesting a phenomenon of neurotization from muscle-to-nerve. A woman benefited from a parotidectomy with sacrifice of the left facial nerve indicated for recurrent tumor in the gland. The distal branches of the facial nerve, isolated at the time of resection, were buried in the masseter muscle underneath. The patient recovered a voluntary hémifacial motricity. The electromyographic analysis of the motor activity of the zygomaticus major before and after block of the masseter nerve showed a dependence between mimic muscles and the masseter muscle. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the spontaneous reanimation of facial paralysis. The clinical case makes it possible to argue in favor of muscle-to-nerve neurotization from masseter muscle to distal branches of the facial nerve. It illustrates the quality of motricity that can be obtained thanks to this procedure. The authors describe a simple implantation technique of distal branches of the facial nerve in the masseter muscle during a radical parotidectomy with facial nerve sacrifice and recovery of resting tone but also a quality voluntary mimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-Modal Calibration of Vestibular Afference for Human Balance.

    Martin E Héroux

    Full Text Available To determine how the vestibular sense controls balance, we used instantaneous head angular velocity to drive a galvanic vestibular stimulus so that afference would signal that head movement was faster or slower than actual. In effect, this changed vestibular afferent gain. This increased sway 4-fold when subjects (N = 8 stood without vision. However, after a 240 s conditioning period with stable balance achieved through reliable visual or somatosensory cues, sway returned to normal. An equivalent galvanic stimulus unrelated to sway (not driven by head motion was equally destabilising but in this situation the conditioning period of stable balance did not reduce sway. Reflex muscle responses evoked by an independent, higher bandwidth vestibular stimulus were initially reduced in amplitude by the galvanic stimulus but returned to normal levels after the conditioning period, contrary to predictions that they would decrease after adaptation to increased sensory gain and increase after adaptation to decreased sensory gain. We conclude that an erroneous vestibular signal of head motion during standing has profound effects on balance control. If it is unrelated to current head motion, the CNS has no immediate mechanism of ignoring the vestibular signal to reduce its influence on destabilising balance. This result is inconsistent with sensory reweighting based on disturbances. The increase in sway with increased sensory gain is also inconsistent with a simple feedback model of vestibular reflex action. Thus, we propose that recalibration of a forward sensory model best explains the reinterpretation of an altered reafferent signal of head motion during stable balance.

  15. Jaw muscles in older overdenture patients.

    Newton, James P; McManus, Frank C; Menhenick, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    To determine, using computer tomography (CT), whether the retention of a small number of teeth in the older adult used to support overdentures could affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) and X-ray density of two jaw closing muscles. Cross-sectional study of a group of older patients subdivided into dentate, edentulous and those wearing overdentures supported by two to five teeth. The sample consisted of 24 subjects aged 55-68 years. CSA and X-ray density of two jaw closing muscles, masseter and medial pterygoid were measured and evaluated using CT. There were no significant differences between left and right jaw muscles, but the CSA of the masseter muscles were significantly larger than the medial pterygoid muscles. The CSA of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles was significantly smaller in edentulous subjects compared with dentate subjects but no significant difference was observed between subjects wearing overdentures and those with a natural dentition. No significant differences were observed with the X-ray density between different muscles or dental states. The retention of a small number of teeth in the older adult used to support overdentures appears to sustain the CSA of two jaw closing muscles and therefore could enhance these patients' masticatory ability compared with those who were edentulous.

  16. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  17. Afferent loop syndrome - a case report

    Borges, Ana Karina Nascimento; Pinheiro, Marco Antonio Lopes; Galvao, Cristine Norwig

    2000-01-01

    The afferent loop syndrome occurs in patients with previous gastric surgery for tumor, when there is anastomotic edema, use of inappropriate reconstruction technique for gastro jejunostomy or recurrent gastric cancer. Complaints such jaundice, intermittent abdominal distension associated with pain, and vomiting should be investigated in order to rule out this syndrome. (author)

  18. Light and electron microscopy of contacts between primary afferent fibres and neurones with axons ascending the dorsal columns of the feline spinal cord.

    Maxwell, D J; Koerber, H R; Bannatyne, B A

    1985-10-01

    In addition to primary afferent fibres, the dorsal columns of the cat spinal cord contain ascending second-order axons which project to the dorsal column nuclei. The aim of the present study was to obtain morphological evidence that certain primary afferent axons form monosynaptic contacts with cells of origin of this postsynaptic dorsal column pathway. In ten adult cats, neurones with axons ascending the dorsal columns were retrogradely labelled with horseradish peroxidase using a pellet implantation method in the thoracic dorsal columns. In the lumbosacral regions of the same animals, primary afferent fibres were labelled intra-axonally with ionophoretic application of horseradish peroxidase. Tissue containing labelled axons was prepared for light and combined light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated that slowly adapting (Type I), hair follicle, Pacinian corpuscle and group Ia muscle spindle afferents formed monosynaptic contacts with labelled cells and light microscopical analysis suggested that they also received monosynaptic input from rapidly adapting (Krause) afferents. This evidence suggests that sensory information from large-diameter cutaneous and muscle spindle afferent fibres is conveyed disynaptically via the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway to the dorsal column nuclei. Some of the input to this pathway is probably modified in the spinal cord as the majority of primary afferent boutons forming monosynaptic contacts were postsynaptic to other axon terminals. The postsynaptic dorsal column system appears to constitute a major somatosensory pathway in the cat.

  19. Bilateral sensory deprivation of trigeminal afferent fibers on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature: A preliminary study

    Kothari, Mohit; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Svensson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in human limb muscles following modulation of sensory afferent inputs. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether bilateral local anaesthesia (LA) of the lingual ne...

  20. Estimation of the number of angiotensin II AT1 receptors in rat kidney afferent and efferent arterioles

    Razga, Zsolt; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2007-01-01

    of angiotensin II AT1 receptors along the length of the arterioles and per arteriole, we combined immunoelectron microscopy with stereology. RESULTS: The number of AT1 receptor molecules was significantly lower in the renin-positive smooth muscle cells (SMCs) than in the renin-negative SMCs of the afferent...

  1. Influence of genotype on contractile protein differentiation in different bovine muscles during foetal life

    Gagnière , Hélène; Ménissier , François; Geay , Yves; Picard , Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this work was to compare muscle fibre differentiation in two genetic types: "normal charolais" and double-muscled (DM) "INRA 95" cattles displaying muscle hypertrophy. Six muscles with different contractile and metabolic characteristics in adult animal: Masseter, Diaphragma (Di), Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus thoracis, Semitendinosus and Cutaneus trunci (CT) were excised from 60 to 260-day-old fœtuses of both genotypes. These muscles present different...

  2. The analgesic effect of photobiomodulation therapy (830 nm on the masticatory muscles: a randomized, double-blind study

    Sabrina Araújo Pinho Costa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study assesses the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (830 nm for myalgia treatment of masticatory muscles. Sixty patients with muscular myalgia were selected and randomly allocated into 2 groups (n=30: Group A comprised patients given a placebo (control, and Group B consisted of those undergoing photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT. PBMT and placebo were applied bilaterally to specific points on the masseter and temporal muscles. Referred pain elicited by palpation and maximum mouth opening were measured before (EV1 and after (EV2 the treatments. The data were analyzed using statistical tests, considering a significance level of 5%. No significant differences in range were observed for active or passive mouth opening (p ≥ 0.05. Comparing the final outcomes (EV1-EV2 of both treatments, statistical significance was verified for total pain in the right masseter muscle (p = 0.001 and total pain (p = 0.005. In EV2, significant differences in pain reported with palpation were found between Groups A and B for the following: left posterior temporal muscle (p = 0.025, left superior masseter muscle (p = 0.036, inferior masseter muscle (p = 0.021, total pain (left side (p = 0.009, total masseter muscle (left side (p = 0.014, total temporal (left side (p = 0.024, and total pain (p = 0.035. We concluded that PBMT (830 nm reduces pain in algic points, but does not influence the extent of mouth opening in patients with myalgia.

  3. The analgesic effect of photobiomodulation therapy (830 nm) on the masticatory muscles: a randomized, double-blind study.

    Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; Florezi, Giovanna Piacenza; Artes, Gisele Ebling; Costa, Jessica Ribeiro da; Gallo, Rosane Tronchin; Freitas, Patricia Moreira de; Witzel, Andrea Lusvarghi

    2017-12-18

    This study assesses the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (830 nm) for myalgia treatment of masticatory muscles. Sixty patients with muscular myalgia were selected and randomly allocated into 2 groups (n=30): Group A comprised patients given a placebo (control), and Group B consisted of those undergoing photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT). PBMT and placebo were applied bilaterally to specific points on the masseter and temporal muscles. Referred pain elicited by palpation and maximum mouth opening were measured before (EV1) and after (EV2) the treatments. The data were analyzed using statistical tests, considering a significance level of 5%. No significant differences in range were observed for active or passive mouth opening (p ≥ 0.05). Comparing the final outcomes (EV1-EV2) of both treatments, statistical significance was verified for total pain in the right masseter muscle (p = 0.001) and total pain (p = 0.005). In EV2, significant differences in pain reported with palpation were found between Groups A and B for the following: left posterior temporal muscle (p = 0.025), left superior masseter muscle (p = 0.036), inferior masseter muscle (p = 0.021), total pain (left side) (p = 0.009), total masseter muscle (left side) (p = 0.014), total temporal (left side) (p = 0.024), and total pain (p = 0.035). We concluded that PBMT (830 nm) reduces pain in algic points, but does not influence the extent of mouth opening in patients with myalgia.

  4. Physiological recruitment of motor units by high-frequency electrical stimulation of afferent pathways.

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Muceli, Silvia; Dosen, Strahinja; Laine, Christopher M; Farina, Dario

    2015-02-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation, but electrically evoked muscle activation is in several ways different from voluntary muscle contractions. These differences lead to challenges in the use of NMES for restoring muscle function. We investigated the use of low-current, high-frequency nerve stimulation to activate the muscle via the spinal motoneuron (MN) pool to achieve more natural activation patterns. Using a novel stimulation protocol, the H-reflex responses to individual stimuli in a train of stimulation pulses at 100 Hz were reliably estimated with surface EMG during low-level contractions. Furthermore, single motor unit recruitment by afferent stimulation was analyzed with intramuscular EMG. The results showed that substantially elevated H-reflex responses were obtained during 100-Hz stimulation with respect to a lower stimulation frequency. Furthermore, motor unit recruitment using 100-Hz stimulation was not fully synchronized, as it occurs in classic NMES, and the discharge rates differed among motor units because each unit was activated only after a specific number of stimuli. The most likely mechanism behind these observations is the temporal summation of subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials from Ia fibers to the MNs. These findings and their interpretation were also verified by a realistic simulation model of afferent stimulation of a MN population. These results suggest that the proposed stimulation strategy may allow generation of considerable levels of muscle activation by motor unit recruitment that resembles the physiological conditions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Shape determinative slice localization for patient-specific masseter modeling using shape-based interpolation

    Ng, H.P. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (Singapore); Biomedical Imaging Lab., Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore); Foong, K.W.C. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (Singapore); Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Ong, S.H. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Div. of Bioengineering, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Liu, J.; Nowinski, W.L. [Biomedical Imaging Lab., Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore); Goh, P.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    The masseter plays a critical role in the mastication system. A hybrid method to shape-based interpolation is used to build the masseter model from magnetic resonance (MR) data sets. The main contribution here is the localizing of determinative slices in the data sets where clinicians are required to perform manual segmentations in order for an accurate model to be built. Shape-based criteria were used to locate the candidates for determinative slices and fuzzy-c-means (FCM) clustering technique was used to establish the determinative slices. Five masseter models were built in our work and the average overlap indices ({kappa}) achieved is 85.2%. This indicates that there is good agreement between the models and the manual contour tracings. In addition, the time taken, as compared to manually segmenting all the slices, is significantly lesser. (orig.)

  6. Shape determinative slice localization for patient-specific masseter modeling using shape-based interpolation

    Ng, H.P.; Foong, K.W.C.; Ong, S.H.; Liu, J.; Nowinski, W.L.; Goh, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    The masseter plays a critical role in the mastication system. A hybrid method to shape-based interpolation is used to build the masseter model from magnetic resonance (MR) data sets. The main contribution here is the localizing of determinative slices in the data sets where clinicians are required to perform manual segmentations in order for an accurate model to be built. Shape-based criteria were used to locate the candidates for determinative slices and fuzzy-c-means (FCM) clustering technique was used to establish the determinative slices. Five masseter models were built in our work and the average overlap indices (κ) achieved is 85.2%. This indicates that there is good agreement between the models and the manual contour tracings. In addition, the time taken, as compared to manually segmenting all the slices, is significantly lesser. (orig.)

  7. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependant. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were...

  8. Modulation of long-latency afferent inhibition by the amplitude of sensory afferent volley.

    Turco, Claudia V; El-Sayes, Jenin; Fassett, Hunter J; Chen, Robert; Nelson, Aimee J

    2017-07-01

    Long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is the inhibition of the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) by the sensory afferent volley following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve. It is unknown how the activation of sensory afferent fibers relates to the magnitude of LAI. This study investigated the relationship between LAI and the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the median nerve (MN) and the digital nerves (DN) of the second digit. LAI was obtained by delivering nerve stimulation 200 ms before a TMS pulse delivered over the motor cortex. Experiment 1 assessed the magnitude of LAI following stimulation of the contralateral MN or DN using nerve stimulus intensities relative to the maximum SNAP (SNAP max ) of that nerve and two TMS intensities (0.5- and 1-mV MEP). Results indicate that MN LAI is maximal at ~50% SNAP max , when presumably all sensory afferents are recruited for TMS of 0.5-mV MEP. For DN, LAI appears at ~50% SNAP max and does not increase with further recruitment of sensory afferents. Experiment 2 investigated the magnitude of LAI following ipsilateral nerve stimulation at intensities relative to SNAP max Results show minimal LAI evoked by ipsilateral MN and no LAI following ipsilateral DN stimulation. Implications for future studies investigating LAI include adjusting nerve stimulation to 50% SNAP max to obtain maximal LAI. Additionally, MN LAI can be used as a marker for neurological disease or injury by using a nerve stimulation intensity that can evoke a depth of LAI capable of increasing or decreasing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first investigation of the relationship between long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) and the sensory afferent volley. Differences exist between median and digital nerve LAI. For the median nerve, LAI increases until all sensory fibers are presumably recruited. In contrast, digital nerve LAI does not increase with the recruitment of additional sensory fibers but

  9. Chloride is essential for contraction of afferent arterioles after agonists and potassium

    Jensen, B L; Ellekvist, Peter; Skøtt, O

    1997-01-01

    to norepinephrine, angiotensin II (ANG II), and potassium were measured after chloride depletion and compared with controls. Chloride depletion did not change arteriolar diameters, but the response to norepinephrine was markedly reduced when chloride was substituted with gluconate (n = 6) or isethionate (n = 6......). Reintroduction of chloride fully restored the sensitivity to norepinephrine. Contractions after ANG II and potassium were totally abolished in the absence of chloride (n = 6). In additional experiments (n = 7), the arteriolar contraction to 100 mM potassium was abolished only 1 min after removal of extracellular......A depolarizing chloride efflux has been suggested to activate voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells in response to vasoconstrictors. To test this proposal, rabbit afferent arterioles were microperfused, and the contractile dose responses...

  10. Population coding of forelimb joint kinematics by peripheral afferents in monkeys.

    Tatsuya Umeda

    Full Text Available Various peripheral receptors provide information concerning position and movement to the central nervous system to achieve complex and dexterous movements of forelimbs in primates. The response properties of single afferent receptors to movements at a single joint have been examined in detail, but the population coding of peripheral afferents remains poorly defined. In this study, we obtained multichannel recordings from dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons in cervical segments of monkeys. We applied the sparse linear regression (SLiR algorithm to the recordings, which selects useful input signals to reconstruct movement kinematics. Multichannel recordings of peripheral afferents were performed by inserting multi-electrode arrays into the DRGs of lower cervical segments in two anesthetized monkeys. A total of 112 and 92 units were responsive to the passive joint movements or the skin stimulation with a painting brush in Monkey 1 and Monkey 2, respectively. Using the SLiR algorithm, we reconstructed the temporal changes of joint angle, angular velocity, and acceleration at the elbow, wrist, and finger joints from temporal firing patterns of the DRG neurons. By automatically selecting a subset of recorded units, the SLiR achieved superior generalization performance compared with a regularized linear regression algorithm. The SLiR selected not only putative muscle units that were responsive to only the passive movements, but also a number of putative cutaneous units responsive to the skin stimulation. These results suggested that an ensemble of peripheral primary afferents that contains both putative muscle and cutaneous units encode forelimb joint kinematics of non-human primates.

  11. Changes in the main masticatory muscles in CT after mandibular condyle fracture

    Raustia, A.M.; Oikarinen, K.S.; Pyhtinen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The aim was to study changes in the main masticatory muscles after mandibular condyle fracture as seen by CT, comparing the densities and sizes of the masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles on the fractured side with those on the non-fractured side. More or less permanent muscular changes are detectable several years after the accident, especially in the lateral pterygoid muscle, which is attached to the condylar head. This muscle was statistically significantly smaller (p [de

  12. Effects of brainstem lesions on the masseter inhibitory reflex. Functional mechanisms of reflex pathways

    Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Cruccu, G.; Manfredi, M.; Koelman, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    The masseter inhibitory reflex (MIR) was investigated in 16 patients with localized brainstem lesions involving the trigeminal system. The MIR consists of two phases of EMG silence (S1 and S2) evoked by stimulation of the mental nerve during maximal clenching of the teeth. The extent of the lesions

  13. Sarcopenia as a predictor of mortality in elderly blunt trauma patients: Comparing the masseter to the psoas using computed tomography.

    Wallace, James D; Calvo, Richard Y; Lewis, Paul R; Brill, Jason B; Shackford, Steven R; Sise, Michael J; Sise, C Beth; Bansal, Vishal

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia, or age-related loss of muscle mass, is measurable by computed tomography (CT). In elderly trauma patients, increased mortality is associated with decreased psoas muscle cross-sectional area (P-Area) on abdominal CT. Fall is the leading cause of injury in the elderly, and head CT is more often obtained. Masseter muscle cross-sectional area (M-Area) is readily measured on head CT. Hypothesizing that M-Area is a satisfactory surrogate for P-Area, we compared the two as markers of sarcopenia and increased mortality in elderly trauma patients. All blunt-injured patients aged 65 years or older admitted to our trauma center during 2010 were included. Two-year postdischarge mortality was identified by matching records to county, state, and national death indices. Bilateral M-Area was measured on admission head CT at 2 cm below the zygomatic arch. Bilateral P-Area was measured on abdominal CT at the fourth vertebral body. Average M-Area and P-Area values were calculated for each patient. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the relationship of M-Area and P-Area with mortality. Model predictive performance was calculated using concordance statistics. Among 487 patients, 357 with M-Area and 226 with P-Area were identified. Females had smaller M-Area (3.43 cm vs 4.18 cm; p elderly trauma patients, M-Area is an equally valid and more readily available marker of sarcopenia and 2-year mortality than P-Area. Future study should validate M-Area as a metric to identify at-risk patients who may benefit from early intervention. Prognostic study, level III.

  14. Structure and function of masticatory muscles in a case of muscular dystrophy

    Bakke, M; Kirkeby, S; Jensen, B L

    1990-01-01

    Histologic examination of muscle biopsies and functional examination comprising electromyography and force measurements in a 19-yr-old boy with muscular dystrophy showed different wasting patterns of mandibular elevator and depressor muscles. Pronounced histopathologic changes were present...... depressor strength corresponded more to reference values. This difference of muscular wasting might be caused by protective enzymes in the digastric muscle and/or functionally induced damage of the masseter. As affection from muscular dystrophy may vary greatly between the masticatory muscles, structural...... in the masseter muscle, whereas pathologic findings in the anterior digastric muscle were limited to increased number of cells in slightly enlarged interfiber connective tissue. The masticatory pattern was distorted, and strength of mandibular elevator muscles was less than one third of the norm, whereas...

  15. Effect of stimulus parameters and contraction level on inhibitory responses in human jaw-closing muscles: Implications for contingent stimulation

    Jadidi, F; Wang, K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Examine the effect of stimulus duration as well as stimulus intensity and level of muscle contraction on the inhibitory responses in human jaw-closing muscles. Design: The inhibitory jaw-reflexes, ES1 and ES2, were recorded in the surface electromyogram (EMG) of masseter and temporal...

  16. Comparative jaw muscle anatomy in kangaroos, wallabies, and rat-kangaroos (marsupialia: macropodoidea).

    Warburton, Natalie Marina

    2009-06-01

    The jaw muscles were studied in seven genera of macropodoid marsupials with diets ranging from mainly fungi in Potorous to grass in Macropus. Relative size, attachments, and lamination within the jaw adductor muscles varied between macropodoid species. Among macropodine species, the jaw adductor muscle proportions vary with feeding type. The relative mass of the masseter is roughly consistent, but grazers and mixed-feeders (Macropus and Lagostrophus) had relatively larger medial pterygoids and smaller temporalis muscles than the browsers (Dendrolagus, Dorcopsulus, and Setonix). Grazing macropods show similar jaw muscle proportions to "ungulate-grinding" type placental mammals. The internal architecture of the jaw muscles also varies between grazing and browsing macropods, most significantly, the anatomy of the medial pterygoid muscle. Potoroines have distinctly different jaw muscle proportions to macropodines. The masseter muscle group, in particular, the superficial masseter is enlarged, while the temporalis group is relatively reduced. Lagostrophus fasciatus is anatomically distinct from other macropods with respect to its masticatory muscle anatomy, including enlarged superficial medial pterygoid and deep temporalis muscles, an anteriorly inflected masseteric process, and the shape of the mandibular condyle. The enlarged triangular pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, in particular, is distinctive of Lagsotrophus. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The relationships among jaw-muscle fiber architecture, jaw morphology, and feeding behavior in extant apes and modern humans.

    Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    The jaw-closing muscles are responsible for generating many of the forces and movements associated with feeding. Muscle physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA) and fiber length are two architectural parameters that heavily influence muscle function. While there have been numerous comparative studies of hominoid and hominin craniodental and mandibular morphology, little is known about hominoid jaw-muscle fiber architecture. We present novel data on masseter and temporalis internal muscle architecture for small- and large-bodied hominoids. Hominoid scaling patterns are evaluated and compared with representative New- (Cebus) and Old-World (Macaca) monkeys. Variation in hominoid jaw-muscle fiber architecture is related to both absolute size and allometry. PCSAs scale close to isometry relative to jaw length in anthropoids, but likely with positive allometry in hominoids. Thus, large-bodied apes may be capable of generating both absolutely and relatively greater muscle forces compared with smaller-bodied apes and monkeys. Compared with extant apes, modern humans exhibit a reduction in masseter PCSA relative to condyle-M1 length but retain relatively long fibers, suggesting humans may have sacrificed relative masseter muscle force during chewing without appreciably altering muscle excursion/contraction velocity. Lastly, craniometric estimates of PCSAs underestimate hominoid masseter and temporalis PCSAs by more than 50% in gorillas, and overestimate masseter PCSA by as much as 30% in humans. These findings underscore the difficulty of accurately estimating jaw-muscle fiber architecture from craniometric measures and suggest models of fossil hominin and hominoid bite forces will be improved by incorporating architectural data in estimating jaw-muscle forces. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  19. IGF and myostatin pathways are respectively induced during the earlier and the later stages of skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist.

    Abo, Tokuhisa; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Kaneko, Syuhei; Suga, Takeo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist, increases the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is reported to work as a potent positive regulator in the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. However, the precise regulatory mechanism for the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle induced by clenbuterol is unknown. Myostatin, a member of the TGFβ super family, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the function of myostatin and IGF in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol. To investigate the function of myostatin and IGF in regulatory mechanism for the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles, we analysed the expression of myostatin and phosphorylation levels of myostatin and IGF signaling components in the masseter muscle of rat to which clenbuterol was orally administered for 21 days. Hypertrophy of the rat masseter muscle was induced between 3 and 14 days of oral administration of clenbuterol and was terminated at 21 days. The expression of myostatin and the phosphorylation of smad2/3 were elevated at 21 days. The phosphorylation of IGF receptor 1 (IGFR1) and akt1 was elevated at 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that myostatin functions as a negative regulator in the later stages in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol, whereas IGF works as a positive regulator in the earlier stages. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Dynamic modulation of corticospinal excitability and short-latency afferent inhibition during onset and maintenance phase of selective finger movement.

    Cho, Hyun Joo; Panyakaew, Pattamon; Thirugnanasambandam, Nivethida; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-06-01

    During highly selective finger movement, corticospinal excitability is reduced in surrounding muscles at the onset of movement but this phenomenon has not been demonstrated during maintenance of movement. Sensorimotor integration may play an important role in selective movement. We sought to investigate how corticospinal excitability and short-latency afferent inhibition changes in active and surrounding muscles during onset and maintenance of selective finger movement. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and paired peripheral stimulation, input-output recruitment curve and short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) were measured in the first dorsal interosseus and abductor digiti minimi muscles during selective index finger flexion. Motor surround inhibition was present only at the onset phase, but not at the maintenance phase of movement. SAI was reduced at onset but not at the maintenance phase of movement in both active and surrounding muscles. Our study showed dynamic changes in corticospinal excitability and sensorimotor modulation for active and surrounding muscles in different movement states. SAI does not appear to contribute to motor surround inhibition at the movement onset phase. Also, there seems to be different inhibitory circuit(s) other than SAI for the movement maintenance phase in order to delineate the motor output selectively when corticospinal excitability is increased in both active and surrounding muscles. This study enhances our knowledge of dynamic changes in corticospinal excitability and sensorimotor interaction in different movement states to understand normal and disordered movements. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Histological identification of phrenic afferent projections to the spinal cord.

    Nair, Jayakrishnan; Bezdudnaya, Tatiana; Zholudeva, Lyandysha V; Detloff, Megan R; Reier, Paul J; Lane, Michael A; Fuller, David D

    2017-02-01

    Limited data are available regarding the spinal projections of afferent fibers in the phrenic nerve. We describe a method that robustly labels phrenic afferent spinal projections in adult rats. The proximal end of the cut phrenic nerve was secured in a microtube filled with a transganglionic tracer (cholera toxin β-subunit, CT-β, or Cascade Blue) and tissues harvested 96-h later. Robust CT-β labeling occurred in C3-C5 dorsal root ganglia cell bodies and phrenic afferent projections were identified in the mid-cervical dorsal horn (laminae I-III), intermediate grey matter (laminae IV, VII) and near the central canal (laminae X). Afferent fiber labeling was reduced or absent when CT-β was delivered to the intrapleural space or directly to the hemidiaphragm. Soaking the phrenic nerve with Cascade Blue also produced robust labeling of mid-cervical dorsal root ganglia cells bodies, and primary afferent fibers were observed in spinal grey matter and dorsal white matter. Our results show that the 'nerve soak' method effectively labels both phrenic motoneurons and phrenic afferent projections, and show that primary afferents project throughout the ipsilateral mid-cervical gray matter. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Severe hypoxia affects exercise performance independently of afferent feedback and peripheral fatigue.

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; Laursen, Paul B; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2012-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that hypoxia centrally affects performance independently of afferent feedback and peripheral fatigue, we conducted two experiments under complete vascular occlusion of the exercising muscle under different systemic O(2) environmental conditions. In experiment 1, 12 subjects performed repeated submaximal isometric contractions of the elbow flexor to exhaustion (RCTE) with inspired O(2) fraction fixed at 9% (severe hypoxia, SevHyp), 14% (moderate hypoxia, ModHyp), 21% (normoxia, Norm), or 30% (hyperoxia, Hyper). The number of contractions (performance), muscle (biceps brachii), and prefrontal near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) parameters and high-frequency paired-pulse (PS100) evoked responses to electrical muscle stimulation were monitored. In experiment 2, 10 subjects performed another RCTE in SevHyp and Norm conditions in which the number of contractions, biceps brachii electromyography responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M wave), and transcranial magnetic stimulation responses (motor-evoked potentials, MEP, and cortical silent period, CSP) were recorded. Performance during RCTE was significantly reduced by 10-15% in SevHyp (arterial O(2) saturation, SpO(2) = ∼75%) compared with ModHyp (SpO(2) = ∼90%) or Norm/Hyper (SpO(2) > 97%). Performance reduction in SevHyp occurred despite similar 1) metabolic (muscle NIRS parameters) and functional (changes in PS100 and M wave) muscle states and 2) MEP and CSP responses, suggesting comparable corticospinal excitability and spinal and cortical inhibition between SevHyp and Norm. It is concluded that, in SevHyp, performance and central drive can be altered independently of afferent feedback and peripheral fatigue. It is concluded that submaximal performance in SevHyp is partly reduced by a mechanism related directly to brain oxygenation.

  3. Ultrasonographic assessment of the swelling of the human masseter muscle after static and dynamic activity

    Bakke, M; Thomsen, C E; Vilmann, A

    1996-01-01

    min at maximum (median endurance time 7.1 min). For dynamic activity, the same individuals chewed gum unilaterally until exhaustion or 40 min at maximum (all endured 40 min) with a cycle time of 725 ms, an average load of 9.3% of maximal electromyographic activity (maxEMG) and a peak mean voltage...... analogue scales (VAS) revealed the concomitant occurrence of pain (static 11.9 VAS%; dynamic 5.9 VAS%), and discomfort (static 8.1 VAS%; dynamic 5.9 VAS%), and both sensations decreased to pre-exercise values after 20-min recovery. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly, more during static (12...

  4. Convergence of cranial visceral afferents within the solitary tract nucleus.

    McDougall, Stuart J; Peters, James H; Andresen, Michael C

    2009-10-14

    Primary afferent axons within the solitary tract (ST) relay homeostatic information via glutamatergic synapses directly to second-order neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). These primary afferents arise from multiple organ systems and relay multiple sensory modalities. How this compact network organizes the flow of primary afferent information will shape central homeostatic control. To assess afferent convergence and divergence, we recorded ST-evoked synaptic responses in pairs of medial NTS neurons in horizontal brainstem slices. ST shocks activated EPSCs along monosynaptic or polysynaptic pathways. Gradations in shock intensity discriminated multiple inputs and stimulus recruitment profiles indicated that each EPSC was unitary. In 24 pairs, 75% were second-order neurons with 64% receiving one direct ST input with the remainder receiving additional convergent ST afferent inputs (22% two; 14% three monosynaptic ST-EPSCs). Some (34%) second-order neurons received polysynaptic EPSCs. Neurons receiving only higher-order inputs were uncommon (13%). Most ST-EPSCs were completely independent, but 4 EPSCs of a total of 81 had equal thresholds, highly correlated latencies, and synchronized synaptic failures consistent with divergence from a single source ST axon or from a common interneuron producing a pair of polysynaptic EPSCs. We conclude that ST afferent inputs are remarkably independent with little evidence of substantial shared information. Individual cells receive highly focused information from the viscera. Thus, afferent excitation of second-order NTS neurons is generally dominated by single visceral afferents and therefore focused on a single afferent modality and/or organ region.

  5. Central representation of muscle pain and mechanical hyperesthesia in the orofacial region: a positron emission tomography study

    Kupers, Rron; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels Staehlin

    2004-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of the human brain have revealed a network of brain regions involved in the processing of nociceptive information. However, little is known of the cerebral processing of pain originating from muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebral activation...... pattern evoked by experimental jaw-muscle pain and its interference by simultaneous mechanical stimuli, which has been shown to evoke hyperesthesia. Ten healthy subjects participated in a PET study and jaw-muscle pain was induced by bolus injections of 5% hypertonic saline into the right masseter muscle....... Repeated von Frey hair stimulation (0.5 Hz) of the skin above the masseter muscle was used as the mechanical stimulus. Hypertonic saline injections caused strong muscle pain spreading to adjacent areas. von Frey stimulation was rated as non-painful but produced hyperesthesia during jaw-muscle pain. Jaw...

  6. Differential regulation of glutamate receptors in trigeminal ganglia following masseter inflammation

    Lee, Jongseok; Ro, Jin Y.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined whether N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and 5-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are constitutively expressed in trigeminal ganglia (TG) using Western blot analysis in male Sprague Dawley rats. We then investigated whether experimental induction of masseter inflammation influences glutamate receptor expressions by comparing the protein levels from naïve rats to th...

  7. The effect of unilateral partial edentulism to muscle thickness

    Koca-Ceylan, Golzem; Guler, Ahmet U.; Taskay-Yelmir, Nergiz; Lutfi, Incesu; Aksoz, Tolga

    2003-01-01

    Teeth and muscle play a very important role for occlusal equilibrium and function.when tooth loss begins ,it may also effect the function of muscle tissues. The thickness of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were measured bilaterally in 30 healthy fully dentate adults and in 30 unilateral edentulous patients by using ultrasonographic imaging. All scans were carried out by the same radiologist to eliminate the inter-observer difference, using a real time scanner (Toshiba SSA -270A,Japan). A 7.5 MHz linear transducer was used. The effect of age, sex, duration of partial edentulism, unilateral chewing habits of the individuals to the muscle thickness were also evaluated. In all subjects,facial proportion index was also determined. Main purpose of this study was to compare and establish the differences of muscle thickness between dentate and edentulous side in unilateral partial edentulous patients with ultrasonography and to test whether the variation in the thickness of the muscle is related to the variation in the facial and morphology. Ultrasonography revealed a large variation in the thickness of the masseter and temporolis muscles in experimental and controlled groups ,both relaxed and contracted conditions.The thickness of muscles in females was less in both conditions.In experimental group, a high negative correlation was found between the thickness of the masseter muscle and Facial Proportion Index ( FPI) in the females ,however, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the males. Also a high negative correlation was found in female control group. There was no statistically significant relationship between unilateral chewing habits and muscle thickness .In this study the duration of partial edentulism did not affect the thickness of the muscle.Further research is required to study muscular atrophy for comparison with total edentulism. (author)

  8. A study of the masticatory muscles morphology and function on asymmetric prognathism

    Kondoh, Hirotoshi

    1991-01-01

    Each case was measured to analyze the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount using Computed Tomography (CT) photos and P-A cephalogram. At the same time, the relation of morphology and function between the cross sectional area of muscle and mandibular malposition amount was analyzed to examine the function of masseter using electromyography. To determine the relation between morphology and function of masseter in asymmetric prognathism, 23 cases were chosen for the study from among 11 male and 12 female patients who were diagnosed as asymmetric prognathism. In asymmetric prognathism, both morphology and function in the mandibular malposition side were recognized to be larger than that in the cross sectional area of muscle side, on the examination of the cross sectional area of muscle and the activity of masseter. A highly significant and positive correlation was recognized in the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and the CT mandibular malposition amount which were examined by the CT photos. In the left and right difference between the masseteric and medial pterygoid section areas and in the left and right difference of the activity of masseter, there was also a highly positive and significant correlation. (author) 58 refs

  9. Non-specific esterases and esterproteases in masticatory muscles from the muscular dystrophic mouse

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Vilmann, H

    1989-01-01

    With the aid of histochemical and electrophoretic techniques activities for esterase and esterprotease were investigated in the digastric and masseter muscles from normal and dystrophic mice. The substrates used were alpha-naphthyl acetate and N-acetyl-L-alanine alpha-naphthyl ester. According...

  10. Mandibular angle resection and masticatory muscle hypertrophy - a technical note and morphological optimization.

    Andreishchev, A R; Nicot, R; Ferri, J

    2014-11-01

    Mandibular angle resection is rarely used, but is a highly effective means of correcting facial defects. We report a mandibular angle resection technique associated with the removal of a part of hypertrophic masseter muscles and resection of buccal fat pad. Anatomical reminders: the most important entities are the facial artery and vein, crossing the lower margin of the jaw just in front of the anterior boarder of the masseter muscle and the temporomaxillary vein, passing through the temporomaxillary fossa; preoperative aspects: the preoperative examination included a radiological assessment of the shape and size of the mandibular angle; surgical technique: an intra-oral approach was usually used. The most effective and convenient method for the osteotomy was using a reciprocating saw. This technique allowed achieving a smooth contour of masseter muscles during masticatory movements or at rest. Eleven mandibular angle resections were performed from 2001 to 2009. The surgery was supplemented by remodeling the lower margin of the jaw for 5 other patients. No permanent facial palsy was noted. One patient presented a unilateral long-term loss of sensitivity of the lower lip and chin. This surgical technique if simple even requires using good technical equipment, and observing a set of rules. Using these principles allows simplifying the surgical technique, and decreasing its morbidity. A part of the masseter muscles and the buccal fat pad can sometimes be resected to improve the morphological results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Acute pancreatitis and afferent loop syndrome. Case report].

    Barajas-Fregoso, Elpidio Manuel; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2013-01-01

    The afferent syndrome loop is a mechanic obstruction of the afferent limb before a Billroth II or Roux-Y reconstruction, secondary in most of case to distal or subtotal gastrectomy. Clinical case: Male 76 years old, with antecedent of cholecystectomy, gastric adenocarcinoma six years ago, with subtotal gastrectomy and Roux-Y reconstruction. Beginning a several abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, abdominal distension, without peritoneal irritation sings. Amylase 1246 U/L, lipase 3381 U/L. Computed Tomography with thickness wall and dilatation of afferent loop, pancreas with diffuse enlargement diagnostic of acute pancreatitis secondary an afferent loop syndrome. The afferent loop syndrome is presented in 0.3%-1% in all cases with Billroth II reconstruction, with a mortality of up to 57%, the obstruction lead accumulation of bile, pancreatic and intestinal secretions, increasing the pressure and resulting in afferent limb, bile conduct and Wirsung conduct dilatation, triggering an inflammatory response that culminates in pancreatic inflammation. The severity of the presentation is related to the degree and duration of the blockage.

  12. Afferent loop syndrome: Role of sonography and CT

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Afferent loop syndrome(ALS) is caused by obstruction of the afferent loop after subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth II gastrojejunostomy. Prompt diagnosis of ALS is important as perforation of the loop occurs. The aim of study is to ascertain the sonography and CT to diagnose ALS. We describe the radiologic findings in ten patients with ALS. The cause of ALS, established at surgery, included cancer recurrence (n=4), internal hernia (n=4), marginal ulcer (n=1), and development of cancer at the anastomosis site (n=1). Abdominal X-ray and sonography were performed in all cases, upper GI series in five cases and computed tomography in two cases. The dilated afferent loop was detected in only two cases out often patients in retrospective review of abdominal X-ray. ALS with recurrence of cancer was diagnosed in three cases by upper GI series. Of the cases that had sonography, the afferent loop was seen in the upper abdomen crossing transversely over the midline in all ten patients. The cause of ALS were predicated on the basis of the sonograms in three of the five patients. In two cases of computed tomography, the dilated afferent loop and recurrent cancer at the remnant stomach were seen.Our experience suggests that the diagnosis of afferent syndrome can be made on the basis of the typical anatomic location and shape of the dilated bowel loop in both sonography and computed tomography.

  13. Changes in the main masticatory muscles in CT after mandibular condyle fracture

    Raustia, A.M. (Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Prosthodontics and Stomatognathic Physiology); Oikarinen, K.S. (Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery); Pyhtinen, J. (Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1990-11-01

    The aim was to study changes in the main masticatory muscles after mandibular condyle fracture as seen by CT, comparing the densities and sizes of the masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles on the fractured side with those on the non-fractured side. More or less permanent muscular changes are detectable several years after the accident, especially in the lateral pterygoid muscle, which is attached to the condylar head. This muscle was statistically significantly smaller (p<0,001) on the fractured side. Examination of the masticatory muscles immediately after the fracture and at intervals afterwards could reveal more about the pathogenesis of the changes in these muscles. (orig.).

  14. Impact of Functional Appliances on Muscle Activity: A Surface Electromyography Study in Children

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Piątkowska, Dagmara; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Background Electromyography (EMG) is the most objective tool for assessing changes in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the tone of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles in growing children before and after 6 months of treatment with functional removable orthodontic appliances. Material/Methods The sample conisted of 51 patients with a mean age 10.7 years with Class II malocclusion. EMG recordings were performed by using a DAB-Bluetooth instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany). Recordings were performed in mandibular rest position, during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and during maximum effort. Results The results of the study indicated that the electrical activity of the muscles in each of the clinical situations was the same in the group of girls and boys. The factor that determined the activity of the muscles was their type. In mandibular rest position and in MVC, the activity of the temporalis muscles was significantly higher that that of the masseter muscels. The maximum effort test indicated a higher fatigue in masseter than in temporalis muscles. Conclusions Surface electromyography is a useful tool for monitoring muscle activity. A 6-month period of functional therapy resulted in changes in the activity of the masticatory muscles. PMID:25600247

  15. Afferent innervation of the utricular macula in pigeons

    Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were

  16. The effect of type of afferent feedback timed with motor imagery on the induction of cortical plasticity

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Voigt, Michael; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    : 8-35 mAmp) or a passive ankle movement (amplitude and velocity matched to a normal gait cycle) was applied such that the first afferent inflow would coincide with the PN of the MRCP. The change in the output of the primary motor cortex (M1) was quantified by applying single transcranial magnetic...... compared these two interventions (BCIFES and BCIpassive) where the afferent input was timed to arrive at the motor cortex during the PN of the MRCP. Twelve healthy participants attended two experimental sessions. They were asked to perform 30 dorsiflexion movements timed to a cue while continuous...... stimuli to the area of M1 controlling the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and measuring the motor evoked potential (MEP). Spinal changes were assessed pre and post by eliciting the TA stretch reflex. Both BCIFES and BCIpassive led to significant increases in the excitability of the cortical projections...

  17. Presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a visuo-motor skill in healthy humans

    Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Sensory information continuously converges on the spinal cord during a variety of motor behaviours. Here, we examined presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a novel motor skill. We tested whether repetition of two motor tasks with different degrees of difficulty......, a novel visuo-motor task involving the ankle muscles, and a control task involving simple voluntary ankle movements, would induce changes in the size of the soleus H-reflex. The slope of the H-reflex recruitment curve and the H-max/M-max ratio were depressed after repetition of the visuo-motor skill task...... of the monosynaptic Ia facilitation of the soleus H-reflex evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. The D1 inhibition was increased and the femoral nerve facilitation was decreased following the visuo-motor skill task, suggesting an increase in presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. No changes were observed...

  18. Separation and estimation of muscle spindle and tension receptor populations by vibration of the biceps muscle in the frog.

    Giszter, S F; Kargo, W J

    2002-10-01

    Frog spinal cord reflex behaviors have been used to test the idea of spinal primitives. We have suggested a significant role for proprioception in regulation of primitives. However the in vivo behavior of spindle and golgi tendon receptors in frogs in response to vibration are not well described and the proportions of these proprioceptors are not established. In this study, we examine the selectivity of muscle vibration in the spinal frog. The aim of the study was (1) to examine how hindlimb muscle spindles and GTO receptors are activated by muscle vibration and (2) to estimate the relative numbers of GTO receptors and spindle afferents in a selected muscle, for comparison with the mammal. Single muscle afferents from the biceps muscle were identified in the dorsal roots. These were tested in response to biceps vibration, intramuscular stimulation and biceps nerve stimulation. Biceps units were categorized into two types: First, spindle afferents which had a high conduction velocity (approximately 20-30 m/s), responded reliably (were entrained 1:1) to muscle vibration, and exhibited distinct pauses to shortening muscle contractions. Second, golgi tendon organ afferents, which had a lower conduction velocity (approximately 10-20 m/s), responded less reliably to muscle vibration at physiologic muscle lengths, but responded more reliably at extended lengths or with background muscle contraction, and exhibited distinct bursts to shortening muscle contractions. Vibration responses of these units were tested with and without muscle curarization. Ensemble (suction electrode) recordings from the dorsal roots were used to provide rough estimates of the proportions of the two muscle afferent types.

  19. Inhibition of Parkinsonian tremor with cutaneous afferent evoked by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.

    Hao, Man-Zhao; Xu, Shao-Qin; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Xu, Fu-Liang; Niu, Chuan-Xin M; Xiao, Qin; Lan, Ning

    2017-07-14

    Recent study suggests that tremor signals are transmitted by way of multi-synaptic corticospinal pathway. Neurophysiological studies have also demonstrated that cutaneous afferents exert potent inhibition to descending motor commands by way of spinal interneurons. We hypothesize in this study that cutaneous afferents could also affect the transmission of tremor signals, thus, inhibit tremor in patients with PD. We tested this hypothesis by activating cutaneous afferents in the dorsal hand skin innervated by superficial radial nerve using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Eight patients with PD having tremor dominant symptom were recruited to participate in this study using a consistent experimental protocol for tremor inhibition. Resting tremor and electromyogram (EMG) of muscles in the upper extremity of these subjects with PD were recorded, while surface stimulation was applied to the dorsal skin of the hand. Fifteen seconds of data were recorded for 5 s prior to, during and post stimulation. Power spectrum densities (PSDs) of tremor and EMG signals were computed for each data segment. The peak values of PSDs in three data segments were compared to detect evidence of tremor inhibition. At stimulation intensity from 1.5 to 1.75 times of radiating sensation threshold, apparent suppressions of tremor at wrist, forearm and upper arm and in the EMGs were observed immediately at the onset of stimulation. After termination of stimulation, tremor and rhythmic EMG bursts reemerged gradually. Statistical analysis of peak spectral amplitudes showed a significant difference in joint tremors and EMGs during and prior to stimulation in all 8 subjects with PD. The average percentage of suppression was 61.56% in tremor across all joints of all subjects, and 47.97% in EMG of all muscles. The suppression appeared to occur mainly in distal joints and muscles. There was a slight, but inconsistent effect on tremor frequency in the 8 patients with PD tested. Our

  20. Limb venous distension evokes sympathetic activation via stimulation of the limb afferents in humans

    Cui, Jian; McQuillan, Patrick M.; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently shown that a saline infusion in the veins of an arterially occluded human forearm evokes a systemic response with increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure. In this report, we examined whether this response was a reflex that was due to venous distension. Blood pressure (Finometer), heart rate, and MSNA (microneurography) were assessed in 14 young healthy subjects. In the saline trial (n = 14), 5% forearm volume normal saline was infused in an arterially occluded arm. To block afferents in the limb, 90 mg of lidocaine were added to the same volume of saline in six subjects during a separate visit. To examine whether interstitial perfusion of normal saline alone induced the responses, the same volume of albumin solution (5% concentration) was infused in 11 subjects in separate studies. Lidocaine abolished the MSNA and blood pressure responses seen with saline infusion. Moreover, compared with the saline infusion, an albumin infusion induced a larger (MSNA: Δ14.3 ± 2.7 vs. Δ8.5 ± 1.3 bursts/min, P blood pressure responses. These data suggest that venous distension activates afferent nerves and evokes a powerful systemic sympathoexcitatory reflex. We posit that the venous distension plays an important role in evoking the autonomic adjustments seen with postural stress in human subjects. PMID:22707559

  1. Giant renin secretory granules in beige mouse renal afferent arterioles

    Jensen, B L; Rasch, Ruth; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    1997-01-01

    The mutant beige mouse (C57BL/6 bg) has a disease characterised by abnormally enlarged cytoplasmic granules in a variety of cells. With the purpose of establishing a suitable cellular model for studying renin secretion, the present study was undertaken to compare renin granule morphology in beige...... (average granular volume 0.681 microm3), whereas 1-2 large granules were present per cell in beige mice. The volume of afferent arteriole that contained secretory granules was lower in the beige mice. We conclude that the beige mouse synthesizes, stores and releases active renin. Renin secretory granules...... in beige mice are grossly enlarged with 1-2 granules per juxtaglomerular cell. Compared with control mice, a similar amount of total renin granule volume per afferent arteriole is contained in a smaller part of beige mouse afferent arteriole. Granular cells from beige mice could therefore be a valuable...

  2. Polymorphism of myofibrillar proteins of rabbit skeletal-muscle fibres. An electrophoretic study of single fibres.

    Salviati, G; Betto, R; Danieli Betto, D

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit predominantly fast-twitch-fibre and predominantly slow-twitch-fibre skeletal muscles of the hind limbs, the psoas, the diaphragm and the masseter muscles were fibre-typed by one-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the myofibrillar proteins of chemically skinned single fibres. Investigation of the distribution of fast-twitch-fibre and slow-twitch-fibre isoforms of myosin light chains and the type of myosin heavy chains, based on peptide 'maps' published in Cleveland. Fisch...

  3. Influence of changing occlusal support on jaw-closing muscle electromyographic activity in healthy men and women.

    Wang, Mei-Qing; He, Jian-Jun; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To test whether changes in occlusal support differentially modulate masseter and anterior temporalis muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during controlled maximal voluntary clenching. Forty-seven healthy subjects (32 M and 15 F, 22.9+/-1.3 years) were recruited. Cotton-rolls were used to modify the occlusal contact relations and were positioned on the right, left, or both sides, and either in the molar or premolar regions, i.e. six different occlusal combinations. Surface EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the masseter and anterior temporalis area and normalized with respect to maximal voluntary clenching in the intercuspal position. Analysis of variance and the paired t-test were used to test the data. Normalized EMG activity was influenced by changes in cotton-roll modified occlusal support, and there were differences between muscles (pocclusal support was moved from the molar to the premolar region. When occlusal support was moved from bilateral to unilateral contacts, EMG activity in the balancing-side anterior temporalis muscle and in bilateral masseter muscles decreased. Unilateral clenching on the molars, but not on the premolars, was associated with lower EMG activity in the balancing-side masseter and always associated with lower EMG activity in the balancing-side anterior temporalis compared to the working side (pocclusal support, which may have implications for stability of the mandible during intense clenching.

  4. Characteristics of masticatory muscles in children with unilateral posterior crossbite

    Annicele da Silva Andrade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect possible differences in the EMG (electromiography activity, chewing rate (CR, cycle duration (CD and preferred chewing side (PCS between children with and without unilateral posterior crossbite. Thirty-seven children aged from 7 to 10 years were selected from the clinic of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, Brazil, and divided into two groups: unilateral posterior crossbite (UPCB group, n = 17, and normal occlusion (NOccl group, n = 20. The PCS was determined using a visual spot-checking method. The EMG activity was recorded during mastication, and two chewing sequences of 20 s were evaluated to establish each subject's CR (cycles/sec and CD. UPCB and NOccl groups did not have a PCS. The EMG activity and the cycle characteristics did not differ between the groups. The correlations between CD, CR and EMG activity were statistically significant for the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles only in the NOccl group, in which there was also a significant correlation between the EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that although children with and without UPCB presented a bilateral masticatory pattern with similar CR and CD, balanced EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles was observed only in the NOccl group. These results indicate that in children, UPCB can alter the coordination of masticatory muscles during mastication.

  5. The alterations in adenosine nucleotides and lactic acid in striated muscles of rats during Rigor mortis following death with drowning or cervical dislocation.

    Pençe, Halime Hanim; Pençe, Sadrettin; Kurtul, Naciye; Yilmaz, Necat; Kocoglu, Hasan; Bakan, Ebubekir

    2003-01-01

    In this study, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and lactic acid in the muscles of masseter, triceps, and quadriceps obtained from right and left sides of Spraque-Dawley rats following death were investigated. The samples were taken immediately and 120 minutes after death occurred. The rats were killed either by cervical dislocation or drowning. ATP concentrations in the muscles of masseter, triceps, and quadriceps were lower in samples obtained 120 minutes after death than in those obtained immediately after death. ADP, AMP, and lactic acid concentrations in these muscles were higher in samples obtained 120 minutes after death than those obtained immediately after death. A positive linear correlation was determined between ATP and ADP concentrations in quadriceps muscles of the rats killed with cervical dislocation and in triceps muscles of the rats killed with drowning. When rats killed with cervical dislocation and with drowning were compared, ADP, AMP, and lactic acid concentrations were lower in the former than in the latter for both times (immediately and 120 minutes after death occurred). In the case of drowning, ATP is consumed faster because of hard exercise or severe physical activity, resulting in a faster rigor mortis. Higher lactic acid levels were determined in muscles of the rats killed with drowning than the other group. In the control and electric shock rats, ATP decreased in different levels in the three different muscle types mentioned above in control group, being much decline in masseter and then in quadriceps. This may be caused by lower mass and less glycogen storage of masseter. No different ATP levels were measured in drowning group with respect to the muscle type possibly because of the severe activity of triceps and quadriceps and because of smaller mass of masseter. One can conclude that the occurrence of rigor mortis is closely related to the mode of death.

  6. Effects of therapy on masseter activity and chewing kinematics in patients with unilateral posterior crossbite.

    Piancino, Maria Grazia; Falla, Deborah; Merlo, Andrea; Vallelonga, Teresa; de Biase, Corrado; Dalessandri, Domenico; Debernardi, Cesare

    2016-07-01

    To describe the effects of therapy on masseter activity and chewing kinematic in patients with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPC). Fifty children (age: mean ± SD: 9.1 ± 2.3 years) with UPC (34 on the right side, 16 on the left side) and twenty children (age: 9.5 ± 2.6 years) with normal occlusion were selected for the study. The mandibular motion and the muscular activity during chewing soft and hard boli were simultaneously recorded, before and after correction with function generating bite, after a mean treatment time of 7.3 ± 2.4 months plus the retention time of 5-6 months. The percentage of reverse cycles and the percent difference between ipsilateral and contralateral peaks of the masseter electromyography envelopes were computed. Before therapy, the percentage of reverse cycles during chewing on the crossbite side was greater in patients than in controls (Preverse chewing patterns. The previous altered muscular activation corresponded to the altered kinematics of reverse chewing cycles that might be considered a useful indicator of the severity of the masticatory function involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proton spectroscopy study of the masseter in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Marcucci, Marcelo; Abdala, Nitamar

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate metabolite concentration in the masseter of patients with systemic sclerosis, by analyzing creatine, choline, lipid and lactate levels, and correlating them with the presence of mandibular osteolysis. Materials and methods: The sample included 25 individuals, 15 of them with diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, divided into two groups according to the presence (group I) or absence (group II) of osteolysis, and 10 healthy individuals (group III, control). All of them were submitted to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy with PRESS sequence and 3D acquisition. Results: Metabolite analysis showed that the creatine and lipid levels were the same for the three groups. Patients in group I presented higher levels of choline when compared with group III. On the other hand, lower lactate levels were observed in groups I and II when compared with the healthy individuals. Creatine/lipid and choline/lactate ratios were the same in the three groups. Conclusion: Lower lactate levels were observed in the patients with systemic sclerosis (groups I and II). Choline levels were increased in the patients with mandibular osteolysis (group I). Creatine/choline, lipid/lactate and choline/lipid ratios were different among the three groups. Further studies are necessary to understand the role played by the masseter in the development of mandibular osteolysis. (author)

  8. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  9. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  10. Cellular mechanisms for presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents

    Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie; delgado-lezama, rodolfo; Christensen, Rasmus Kordt

    It is well established that presynaptic inhibition of primary afferents involves the activation of GABAA receptors located on presynaptic terminals. However, the source of GABA remains unknown. In an integrated preparation of the spinal cord of the adult turtle, we evoked dorsal root potentials...

  11. Afferent projections to the pontine micturition center in the cat

    Kuipers, R; Mouton, LJ; Holstege, G; Kuiper, Rutger

    2006-01-01

    The pontine micturition center (PMC) or Barrington's nucleus controls micturition by way of its descending projections to the sacral spinal cord. However, little is known about the afferents to the PMC that control its function and may be responsible for dysfunction in patients with

  12. Measurement of the relative afferent pupillary defect in retinal detachment.

    Bovino, J A; Burton, T C

    1980-07-01

    A swinging flashlight test and calibrated neutral density filters were used to quantitate the depth of relative afferent pupillary defects in ten patients with retinal detachment. Postoperatively, the pupillary responses returned to normal in seven of nine patients with anatomically successful surgery.

  13. Gut vagal afferents differentially modulate innate anxiety and learned fear.

    Klarer, Melanie; Arnold, Myrtha; Günther, Lydia; Winter, Christine; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2014-05-21

    Vagal afferents are an important neuronal component of the gut-brain axis allowing bottom-up information flow from the viscera to the CNS. In addition to its role in ingestive behavior, vagal afferent signaling has been implicated modulating mood and affect, including distinct forms of anxiety and fear. Here, we used a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective vagal deafferentation method existing to date, to study the consequences of complete disconnection of abdominal vagal afferents on innate anxiety, conditioned fear, and neurochemical parameters in the limbic system. We found that compared with Sham controls, SDA rats consistently displayed reduced innate anxiety-like behavior in three procedures commonly used in preclinical rodent models of anxiety, namely the elevated plus maze test, open field test, and food neophobia test. On the other hand, SDA rats exhibited increased expression of auditory-cued fear conditioning, which specifically emerged as attenuated extinction of conditioned fear during the tone re-exposure test. The behavioral manifestations in SDA rats were associated with region-dependent changes in noradrenaline and GABA levels in key areas of the limbic system, but not with functional alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal grand stress. Our study demonstrates that innate anxiety and learned fear are both subjected to visceral modulation through abdominal vagal afferents, possibly via changing limbic neurotransmitter systems. These data add further weight to theories emphasizing an important role of afferent visceral signals in the regulation of emotional behavior. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347067-10$15.00/0.

  14. Swelling of the temporal region: a case of benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy

    Gniadecka, M; Weismann, K; Herning, Gudrun Margrethe

    1997-01-01

    A 35-year-old Caucasian woman had bilateral indolent swelling of the temporal regions. Imaging studies with nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography and histopathological investigation revealed enlargement of the temporal and masseter muscles, with no pathology in the skin or subcutaneous tiss....... A small prolactinoma of the pituitary gland was incidentally found. The condition, designated benign masticatory muscle hypertrophy, should be distinguished from similar diseases affecting the skin and the subcutaneous tissue of the scalp. The cause remains unknown......A 35-year-old Caucasian woman had bilateral indolent swelling of the temporal regions. Imaging studies with nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasonography and histopathological investigation revealed enlargement of the temporal and masseter muscles, with no pathology in the skin or subcutaneous tissue...

  15. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans.

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit; Komiyama, Osamu; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Kawara, Misao; Sessle, Barry; Svensson, Peter

    2015-11-19

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41 min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two pressure levels (5 kPa and 10 kPa). All participants underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in four sessions: (1) before TLT on Day 1 (baseline), (2) after TLT on Day 1, (3) before TLT on Day 5, and (4) after TLT on Day 5. EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5 kPa, 10 kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during maximum voluntary contractions. The amplitudes and thresholds of tongue and masseter MEPs after TLT on Day 5 were respectively higher and lower than before TLT on Day 1 (P<0.005), and there was also a significant increase in tongue and masseter MEP areas; no significant changes occurred in MEP onset latencies. FDI MEP parameters (amplitude, threshold, area, latency) were not significantly different between the four sessions. Our findings suggest that repeated TLT can trigger neuroplasticity reflected in increased excitability of the corticomotor representation of not only the tongue muscles but also the masseter muscles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Histomorphometrical analysis of the influence of soft diet on masticatory muscle development in the muscular dystrophic mouse

    Vilmann, H; Kirkeby, S; Kronborg, D

    1990-01-01

    The known difference in the severity of dystrophy between the masseter and the digastric muscle of the mouse (dy/dy C57BL/J6) may be attributed to the differences in muscle work load. This possibility was tested by subjecting 3-week-old mice (normal and dystrophic) to a soft diet for 4 weeks....... Microscopic examination of haematoxylin-eosin stained sections of these muscles showed that the fibre size dispersion (a measure of disease severity) decreased slightly but significantly in the masseters of mice on a soft diet. It was thus possible to improve the condition of dystrophic masticatory muscles...... by changing their function. Body weight curves measured during the experimental period suggest that the dystrophic mice may have been under weight because of malnutrition due to lack of sufficient masticatory power....

  17. Increased sternocleidomastoid, but not trapezius, muscle activity in response to increased chewing load.

    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Nordh, Erik; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2013-10-01

    Previous findings, during chewing, that boluses of larger size and harder texture result in larger amplitudes of both mandibular and head-neck movements suggest a relationship between increased chewing load and incremental recruitment of jaw and neck muscles. The present report evaluated jaw (masseter and digastric) and neck [sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and trapezius] muscle activity during the chewing of test foods of different sizes and textures by 10 healthy subjects. Muscle activity was recorded by surface electromyography and simultaneous mandibular and head movements were recorded using an optoelectronic technique. Each subject performed continuous jaw-opening/jaw-closing movements whilst chewing small and large boluses of chewing gum and rubber silicone (Optosil). For jaw opening/jaw closing without a bolus, SCM activity was recorded for jaw opening concomitantly with digastric activity. During chewing, SCM activity was recorded for jaw closing concomitantly with masseter activity. Trapezius activity was present in some, but not all, cycles. For the masseter and SCM muscles, higher activity was seen with larger test foods, suggesting increased demand and recruitment of these muscles in response to an increased chewing load. This result reinforces the previous notion of a close functional connection between the jaw and the neck motor systems in jaw actions and has scientific and clinical significance for studying jaw function and dysfunction. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  18. C-tactile afferent stimulating touch carries a positive affective value.

    Pawling, Ralph; Cannon, Peter R; McGlone, Francis P; Walker, Susannah C

    2017-01-01

    The rewarding sensation of touch in affiliative interactions is hypothesized to be underpinned by a specialized system of nerve fibers called C-Tactile afferents (CTs), which respond optimally to slowly moving, gentle touch, typical of a caress. However, empirical evidence to support the theory that CTs encode socially relevant, rewarding tactile information in humans is currently limited. While in healthy participants, touch applied at CT optimal velocities (1-10cm/sec) is reliably rated as subjectively pleasant, neuronopathy patients lacking large myelinated afferents, but with intact C-fibres, report that the conscious sensation elicited by stimulation of CTs is rather vague. Given this weak perceptual impact the value of self-report measures for assessing the specific affective value of CT activating touch appears limited. Therefore, we combined subjective ratings of touch pleasantness with implicit measures of affective state (facial electromyography) and autonomic arousal (heart rate) to determine whether CT activation carries a positive affective value. We recorded the activity of two key emotion-relevant facial muscle sites (zygomaticus major-smile muscle, positive affect & corrugator supercilii-frown muscle, negative affect) while participants evaluated the pleasantness of experimenter administered stroking touch, delivered using a soft brush, at two velocities (CT optimal 3cm/sec & CT non-optimal 30cm/sec), on two skin sites (CT innervated forearm & non-CT innervated palm). On both sites, 3cm/sec stroking touch was rated as more pleasant and produced greater heart rate deceleration than 30cm/sec stimulation. However, neither self-report ratings nor heart rate responses discriminated stimulation on the CT innervated arm from stroking of the non-CT innervated palm. In contrast, significantly greater activation of the zygomaticus major (smiling muscle) was seen specifically to CT optimal, 3cm/sec, stroking on the forearm in comparison to all other stimuli

  19. C-tactile afferent stimulating touch carries a positive affective value.

    Ralph Pawling

    Full Text Available The rewarding sensation of touch in affiliative interactions is hypothesized to be underpinned by a specialized system of nerve fibers called C-Tactile afferents (CTs, which respond optimally to slowly moving, gentle touch, typical of a caress. However, empirical evidence to support the theory that CTs encode socially relevant, rewarding tactile information in humans is currently limited. While in healthy participants, touch applied at CT optimal velocities (1-10cm/sec is reliably rated as subjectively pleasant, neuronopathy patients lacking large myelinated afferents, but with intact C-fibres, report that the conscious sensation elicited by stimulation of CTs is rather vague. Given this weak perceptual impact the value of self-report measures for assessing the specific affective value of CT activating touch appears limited. Therefore, we combined subjective ratings of touch pleasantness with implicit measures of affective state (facial electromyography and autonomic arousal (heart rate to determine whether CT activation carries a positive affective value. We recorded the activity of two key emotion-relevant facial muscle sites (zygomaticus major-smile muscle, positive affect & corrugator supercilii-frown muscle, negative affect while participants evaluated the pleasantness of experimenter administered stroking touch, delivered using a soft brush, at two velocities (CT optimal 3cm/sec & CT non-optimal 30cm/sec, on two skin sites (CT innervated forearm & non-CT innervated palm. On both sites, 3cm/sec stroking touch was rated as more pleasant and produced greater heart rate deceleration than 30cm/sec stimulation. However, neither self-report ratings nor heart rate responses discriminated stimulation on the CT innervated arm from stroking of the non-CT innervated palm. In contrast, significantly greater activation of the zygomaticus major (smiling muscle was seen specifically to CT optimal, 3cm/sec, stroking on the forearm in comparison to all

  20. Induction and modulation of referred muscle pain in humans

    Laursen, René Johannes

    correlated to pain intensity, and LP and RP thresholds were reproducible within and between sessions. Experimentally (electrical stimulation and infusion of hypertonic saline) induced muscle pain seems to be mediated by myelinated and unmyelinated afferents and the peripheral component of RP by myelinated...... afferents. Furthermore, cutaneous anesthesia of the RP area resulted in a reduction of RP intensity of 22%, while a complete nerve block of afferents from the RP area resulted in a 40% reduction. In summary, observations from the presented experiments suggest that elicitation of referred muscle pain...... is depending on and correlated to local muscle pain. Peripheral input from the RP area is involved, but is not a necessary condition for RP to appear. The present studies as well as others suggest that central hyperexcitability is involved in the generation of RP, but further investigations on mechanisms of RP...

  1. Persistent orofacial muscle pain: Its synonymous terminology and presentation.

    Spierings, Egilius L H; Mulder, Maxim J H L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe the presentation of persistent orofacial muscle pain, also commonly referred to as myofascial temporomandibular disorder. In this practice survey, the authors reviewed the demographic and clinical features of 34 patients who were evaluated and diagnosed personally. The majority of the 34 patients were women (82.4%), and their age at consultation averaged 44.6 ± 12.6 (SD) years. The median pain duration was 4.0 years (range: 0.2-34 years). In 97.1% of patients, the pain occurred daily and continuously, and in 51.9% it was unilateral. Chewing or eating made the pain worse in 50% of the patients, and talking in 29.4%. On examination, tightness of the masseter muscle(s) was present in 58.8%, and tenderness in 58.8%. Persistent orofacial muscle pain mostly affects women, generally occurs daily and continuously, and is equally often unilateral and bilateral. Chewing, eating, and talking are the most common aggravating factors, and tightness or tenderness of the masseter muscle(s) is often found on examination.

  2. [Myofibroblasts and afferent signalling in the urinary bladder. A concept].

    Neuhaus, J; Scholler, U; Freick, K; Schwalenberg, T; Heinrich, M; Horn, L C; Stolzenburg, J U

    2008-09-01

    Afferent signal transduction in the urinary bladder is still not clearly understood. An increasing body of evidence supports the view of complex interactions between urothelium, suburothelial myofibroblasts, and sensory nerves. Bladder tissue from tumour patients was used in this study. Methods included confocal immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction, calcium imaging, and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP).Myofibroblasts express muscarinic and purinergic receptors. They show constitutive spontaneous activity in calcium imaging, which completely depends on extracellular calcium. Stimulation with carbachol and ATP-evoked intracellular calcium transients also depend on extracellular calcium. The intensive coupling between the cells is significantly diminished by incubation with TGF-beta 1. Myofibroblasts form an important cellular element within the afferent signalling of the urinary bladder. They possess all features required to take part in the complex interactions with urothelial cells and sensory nerves. Modulation of their function by cytokines may provide a pathomechanism for bladder dysfunction.

  3. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  4. Densities and sizes of the main masticatory muscles in computed tomography compared with clinical findings related to temporo mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction

    Raustia, A.M.; Pyhtinen, J.; Virtanen, K.K.

    1986-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has a good resolution capacity and is an excellent method for measuring tissue densities. The aim here was to compare the densities and sizes of the main masticatory muscles, the masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles, as obtained with CT, with clinical findings in patients with TMJ dysfunction (25) and controls (29). The densities of the masseter muscles and the medial pterygoid muscles showed no statistical difference between the patients and controls, while the lateral pterygoid muscles of the patients had densities that were only almost significantly higher than those of the controls. The masseter muscles on the patients who more often had signs of bruxism in their dentition were statistically significantly thicker than in the controls, but the widths of the medial pterygoid muscles gave no statistical difference between the groups. The results seem to indicate that in addition to the bone density changes associated with functional disorders of the masticatory system, there may be also density and size changes in the masticatory muscles which are detectable by CT.

  5. Densities and sizes of the main masticatory muscles in computed tomography compared with clinical findings related to temporo mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction

    Raustia, A.M.; Pyhtinen, J.; Virtanen, K.K.; Oulu Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has a good resolution capacity and is an excellent method for measuring tissue densities. The aim here was to compare the densities and sizes of the main masticatory muscles, the masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles, as obtained with CT, with clinical findings in patients with TMJ dysfunction (25) and controls (29). The densities of the masseter muscles and the medial pterygoid muscles showed no statistical difference between the patients and controls, while the lateral pterygoid muscles of the patients had densities that were only almost significantly higher than those of the controls. The masseter muscles on the patients who more often had signs of bruxism in their dentition were statistically significantly thicker than in the controls, but the widths of the medial pterygoid muscles gave no statistical difference between the groups. The results seem to indicate that in addition to the bone density changes associated with functional disorders of the masticatory system, there may be also density and size changes in the masticatory muscles which are detectable by CT. (orig.) [de

  6. Afferent activity to necklace glomeruli is dependent on external stimuli

    Munger Steven D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main olfactory epithelium (MOE is a complex organ containing several functionally distinct subpopulations of sensory neurons. One such subpopulation is distinguished by its expression of the guanylyl cyclase GC-D. The axons of GC-D-expressing (GC-D+ neurons innervate 9–15 "necklace" glomeruli encircling the caudal main olfactory bulb (MOB. Chemosensory stimuli for GC-D+ neurons include two natriuretic peptides, uroguanylin and guanylin, and CO2. However, the biologically-relevant source of these chemostimuli is unclear: uroguanylin is both excreted in urine, a rich source of olfactory stimuli for rodents, and expressed in human nasal epithelium; CO2 is present in both inspired and expired air. Findings To determine whether the principal source of chemostimuli for GC-D+ neurons is external or internal to the nose, we assessed the consequences of removing external chemostimuli for afferent activity to the necklace glomeruli. To do so, we performed unilateral naris occlusions in Gucy2d-Mapt-lacZ +/- mice [which express a β-galactosidase (β-gal reporter specifically in GC-D+ neurons] followed by immunohistochemistry for β-gal and a glomerular marker of afferent activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. We observed a dramatic decrease in TH immunostaining, consistent with reduced or absent afferent activity, in both necklace and non-necklace glomeruli ipsilateral to the occluded naris. Conclusion Like other MOB glomeruli, necklace glomeruli exhibit a large decrease in afferent activity upon removal of external stimuli. Thus, we conclude that activity in GC-D+ neurons, which specifically innervate necklace glomeruli, is not dependent on internal stimuli. Instead, GC-D+ neurons, like other OSNs in the MOE, primarily sense the external world.

  7. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist

  8. The visceromotor and somatic afferent nerves of the penis.

    Diallo, Djibril; Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Quillard, Jeanine; Ba, Nathalie; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Benoit, Gérard; Bedretdinova, Dina; Bessede, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Innervation of the penis supports erectile and sensory functions. This article aims to study the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and afferent somatic (sensory) nervous systems of the penis and to investigate how these systems relate to vascular pathways. Penises obtained from five adult cadavers were studied via computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). The number of autonomic and somatic nerve fibers was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Proximally, penile innervation was mainly somatic in the extra-albugineal sector and mainly autonomic in the intracavernosal sector. Distally, both sectors were almost exclusively supplied by somatic nerve fibers, except the intrapenile vascular anastomoses that accompanied both somatic and autonomic (nitrergic) fibers. From this point, the neural immunolabeling within perivascular nerve fibers was mixed (somatic labeling and autonomic labeling). Accessory afferent, extra-albugineal pathways supplied the outer layers of the penis. There is a major change in the functional type of innervation between the proximal and distal parts of the intracavernosal sector of the penis. In addition to the pelvis and the hilum of the penis, the intrapenile neurovascular routes are the third level where the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and the afferent somatic (sensory) penile nerve fibers are close. Intrapenile neurovascular pathways define a proximal penile segment, which guarantees erectile rigidity, and a sensory distal segment. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Heat pulse excitability of vestibular hair cells and afferent neurons

    Brichta, Alan M.; Tabatabaee, Hessam; Boutros, Peter J.; Ahn, JoongHo; Della Santina, Charles C.; Poppi, Lauren A.; Lim, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we combined electrophysiology with optical heat pulse stimuli to examine thermodynamics of membrane electrical excitability in mammalian vestibular hair cells and afferent neurons. We recorded whole cell currents in mammalian type II vestibular hair cells using an excised preparation (mouse) and action potentials (APs) in afferent neurons in vivo (chinchilla) in response to optical heat pulses applied to the crista (ΔT ≈ 0.25°C per pulse). Afferent spike trains evoked by heat pulse stimuli were diverse and included asynchronous inhibition, asynchronous excitation, and/or phase-locked APs synchronized to each infrared heat pulse. Thermal responses of membrane currents responsible for APs in ganglion neurons were strictly excitatory, with Q10 ≈ 2. In contrast, hair cells responded with a mix of excitatory and inhibitory currents. Excitatory hair cell membrane currents included a thermoelectric capacitive current proportional to the rate of temperature rise (dT/dt) and an inward conduction current driven by ΔT. An iberiotoxin-sensitive inhibitory conduction current was also evoked by ΔT, rising in heat pulse excitability in vestibular sensory organs and provide quantitative methods for rational application of optical heat pulses to examine protein biophysics and manipulate cellular excitability. PMID:27226448

  10. Heat pulse excitability of vestibular hair cells and afferent neurons.

    Rabbitt, Richard D; Brichta, Alan M; Tabatabaee, Hessam; Boutros, Peter J; Ahn, JoongHo; Della Santina, Charles C; Poppi, Lauren A; Lim, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    In the present study we combined electrophysiology with optical heat pulse stimuli to examine thermodynamics of membrane electrical excitability in mammalian vestibular hair cells and afferent neurons. We recorded whole cell currents in mammalian type II vestibular hair cells using an excised preparation (mouse) and action potentials (APs) in afferent neurons in vivo (chinchilla) in response to optical heat pulses applied to the crista (ΔT ≈ 0.25°C per pulse). Afferent spike trains evoked by heat pulse stimuli were diverse and included asynchronous inhibition, asynchronous excitation, and/or phase-locked APs synchronized to each infrared heat pulse. Thermal responses of membrane currents responsible for APs in ganglion neurons were strictly excitatory, with Q10 ≈ 2. In contrast, hair cells responded with a mix of excitatory and inhibitory currents. Excitatory hair cell membrane currents included a thermoelectric capacitive current proportional to the rate of temperature rise (dT/dt) and an inward conduction current driven by ΔT An iberiotoxin-sensitive inhibitory conduction current was also evoked by ΔT, rising in protein biophysics and manipulate cellular excitability. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. On the nature of the afferent fibers of oculomotor nerve.

    Manni, E; Draicchio, F; Pettorossi, V E; Carobi, C; Grassi, S; Bortolami, R; Lucchi, M L

    1989-03-01

    The oculogyric nerves contain afferent fibers originating from the ophthalmic territory, the somata of which are located in the ipsilateral semilunar ganglion. These primary sensory neurons project to the Subnucleus Gelatinosus of the Nucleus Caudalis Trigemini, where they make presynaptic contact with the central endings of the primary trigeminal afferents running in the fifth cranial nerve. After complete section of the trigeminal root, the antidromic volleys elicited in the trunk of the third cranial nerve by stimulating SG of NCT consisted of two waves belonging to the A delta and C groups. The area of both components of the antidromic volleys decreased both after bradykinin and hystamine injection into the corresponding cutaneous region and after thermic stimulation of the ipsilateral trigeminal ophthalmic territory. The reduction of such potentials can be explained in terms of collision between the antidromic volleys and those elicited orthodromically by chemical and thermic stimulation. Also, capsaicin applied on the nerve induced an immediate increase, followed by a long lasting decrease, of orthodromic evoked response area. These findings bring further support to the nociceptive nature of the afferent fibers running into the oculomotor nerve.

  12. GABA in Paraventricular Nucleus Regulates Adipose Afferent Reflex in Rats.

    Lei Ding

    Full Text Available Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT induces adipose afferent reflex (AAR, and thereby causes a general sympathetic activation. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN is important in control of sympathetic outflow. This study was designed to investigate the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in PVN in regulating the AAR.Experiments were carried out in anesthetized rats. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP were continuously recorded. AAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to electrical stimulation of the right epididymal WAT (eWAT afferent nerve. Electrical stimulation of eWAT afferent nerve increase RSNA. Bilateral microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist isoguvacine or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen attenuated the AAR. The effect of isoguvacine on the AAR was greater than that of baclofen. The GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine enhanced the AAR, while the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP-35348 had no significant effect on the AAR. Bilateral PVN microinjection of vigabatrin, a selective GABA-transaminase inhibitor, to increase endogenous GABA levels in the PVN abolished the AAR. The inhibitory effect of vigabatrin on the AAR was attenuated by the pretreatment with gabazine or CGP-35348. Pretreatment with combined gabazine and CGP-35348 abolished the effects of vigabatrin.Activation of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the PVN inhibits the AAR. Blockade of GABAA receptors in the PVN enhances the AAR. Endogenous GABA in the PVN plays an important role in regulating the AAR.

  13. A new function for ATP: activating cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischemia.

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    2010-12-01

    Myocardial ischemia activates cardiac sympathetic afferents leading to chest pain and reflex cardiovascular responses. Brief myocardial ischemia leads to ATP release in the interstitial space. Furthermore, exogenous ATP and α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP), a P2X receptor agonist, stimulate cutaneous group III and IV sensory nerve fibers. The present study tested the hypothesis that endogenous ATP excites cardiac afferents during ischemia through activation of P2 receptors. Nerve activity of single unit cardiac sympathetic afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain or rami communicates (T(2)-T(5)) in anesthetized cats. Single fields of 45 afferents (conduction velocities = 0.25-4.92 m/s) were identified in the left ventricle with a stimulating electrode. Five minutes of myocardial ischemia stimulated 39 of 45 cardiac afferents (8 Aδ, 37 C fibers). Epicardial application of ATP (1-4 μmol) stimulated six ischemically sensitive cardiac afferents in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, epicardial ATP (2 μmol), ADP (2 μmol), a P2Y agonist, and α,β-meATP (0.5 μmol) significantly activated eight other ischemically sensitive afferents. Third, pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, a P2 receptor antagonist, abolished the responses of six afferents to epicardial ATP (2 μmol) and attenuated the ischemia-related increase in activity of seven other afferents by 37%. In the absence of P2 receptor blockade, cardiac afferents responded consistently to repeated application of ATP (n = 6) and to recurrent myocardial ischemia (n = 6). Finally, six ischemia-insensitive cardiac spinal afferents did not respond to epicardial ATP (2-4 μmol), although these afferents did respond to epicardial bradykinin. Taken together, these data indicate that, during ischemia, endogenously released ATP activates ischemia-sensitive, but not ischemia-insensitive, cardiac spinal afferents through stimulation of P2 receptors likely located on the cardiac sensory

  14. Heart failure induces changes in acid-sensing ion channels in sensory neurons innervating skeletal muscle.

    Gibbons, David D; Kutschke, William J; Weiss, Robert M; Benson, Christopher J

    2015-10-15

    Heart failure is associated with diminished exercise capacity, which is driven, in part, by alterations in exercise-induced autonomic reflexes triggered by skeletal muscle sensory neurons (afferents). These overactive reflexes may also contribute to the chronic state of sympathetic excitation, which is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of heart failure. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are highly expressed in muscle afferents where they sense metabolic changes associated with ischaemia and exercise, and contribute to the metabolic component of these reflexes. Therefore, we tested if ASICs within muscle afferents are altered in heart failure. We used whole-cell patch clamp to study the electrophysiological properties of acid-evoked currents in isolated, labelled muscle afferent neurons from control and heart failure (induced by myocardial infarction) mice. We found that the percentage of muscle afferents that displayed ASIC-like currents, the current amplitudes, and the pH dose-response relationships were not altered in mice with heart failure. On the other hand, the biophysical properties of ASIC-like currents were significantly different in a subpopulation of cells (40%) from heart failure mice. This population displayed diminished pH sensitivity, altered desensitization kinetics, and very fast recovery from desensitization. These unique properties define these channels within this subpopulation of muscle afferents as being heteromeric channels composed of ASIC2a and -3 subunits. Heart failure induced a shift in the subunit composition of ASICs within muscle afferents, which significantly altered their pH sensing characteristics. These results might, in part, contribute to the changes in exercise-mediated reflexes that are associated with heart failure. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  15. Electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles in elderly women – a pilot study

    Gaszynska E

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Gaszynska,1 Karolina Kopacz,2 Magdalena Fronczek-Wojciechowska,2 Gianluca Padula,2 Franciszek Szatko1 1Department of Hygiene and Health Promotion, 2Academic Laboratory of Movement and Human Physical Performance “DynamoLab”, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, PolandObjectives: To evaluate the effect of age and chosen factors related to aging such as dentition, muscle strength, and nutrition on masticatory muscles electromyographic activity during chewing in healthy elderly women.Background: With longer lifespan there is a need for maintaining optimal quality of life and health in older age. Skeletal muscle strength deteriorates in older age. This deterioration is also observed within masticatory muscles.Methods: A total of 30 women, aged 68–92 years, were included in the study: 10 indivi­duals had natural functional dentition, 10 were missing posterior teeth in the upper and lower jaw reconstructed with removable partial dentures, and 10 were edontoulous, using complete removable dentures. Surface electromyography was performed to evaluate masticatory muscles activity. Afterwards, measurement of masseter thickness with ultrasound imaging was performed, body mass index and body cell mass index were calculated, and isometric handgrip strength was measured.Results: Isometric maximal voluntary contraction decreased in active masseters with increasing age and in active and passive temporalis muscles with increasing age and increasing body mass index. In active masseter, mean electromyographic activity during the sequence (time from the start of chewing till the end when the test food became ready to swallow decreased with increasing age and during the cycle (single bite time decreased with increasing age and increasing body mass index. In active and passive temporalis muscles, mean electromyographic activity during the sequence and the cycle decreased with increasing age, increasing body mass index, and loss of natural dentition

  16. Co-contraction behaviour of masticatory and neck muscles during tooth grinding.

    Giannakopoulos, N N; Schindler, H J; Hellmann, D

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the co-contraction behaviour of jaw and neck muscles during force-controlled experimental grinding in the supine position. Twelve symptom-free subjects were enrolled in the experimental study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis and levator scapulae muscles was recorded bilaterally with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes, whereas that of sternocleidomastoideus, infrahyoidal, suprahyoidal, masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were registered with surface electrodes. EMG and force measurements were performed during tasks simulating tooth grinding on custom-made intraoral metal splints. The mean EMG activity normalised by maximum voluntary contraction (% MVC) of each of the neck muscles studied during grinding was analysed and compared with previous data from jaw clenching at identical force (100 N) and (supine) position. The occurrence of low-level, long-lasting tonic activation (LLTA) of motor units was also documented. The mean three-dimensional force vector of the grinding forces was 106 ± 74 N. In the frontal plane, the incline to the midsagittal plane ranged between 10° and 15°. In the midsagittal plane, the incline to the frontal plane was negligibly small. Posterior neck muscle activity during grinding ranged between 4.5% and 12% MVC and during clenching with 100 N between 1.8% and 9.9% MVC. Masticatory muscle activity during grinding ranged between 17% and 21% MVC for contralateral masseter and ipsilateral temporalis and between 4% and 6.5% for ipsilateral masseter and contralateral temporalis. LLTA had an average duration of 195 ± 10 seconds. The findings from this study do not support pathophysiological muscle chain theories postulating simple biomechanical coupling of neck and jaw muscles. Co-contractions of neck and masticatory muscles may instead occur as a result of complex neurophysiological interactions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence of Botulinumtoxin A on the Expression of Adult MyHC Isoforms in the Masticatory Muscles in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice (Mdx-Mice

    Ute Ulrike Botzenhart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widespread animal model to investigate Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the mdx-mouse. In contrast to humans, phases of muscle degeneration are replaced by regeneration processes; hence there is only a restricted time slot for research. The aim of the study was to investigate if an intramuscular injection of BTX-A is able to break down muscle regeneration and has direct implications on the gene expression of myosin heavy chains in the corresponding treated and untreated muscles. Therefore, paralysis of the right masseter muscle was induced in adult healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A. After 21 days the mRNA expression and protein content of MyHC isoforms of the right and left masseter, temporal, and the tongue muscle were determined using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot technique. MyHC-IIa and MyHC-I-mRNA expression significantly increased in the paralyzed masseter muscle of control-mice, whereas MyHC-IIb and MyHC-IIx/d-mRNA were decreased. In dystrophic muscles no effect of BTX-A could be detected at the level of MyHC. This study suggests that BTX-A injection is a suitable method to simulate DMD-pathogenesis in healthy mice but further investigations are necessary to fully analyse the BTX-A effect and to generate sustained muscular atrophy in mdx-mice.

  18. Jaw-motor effects of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress in patients with deep bite and matched control subjects

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    clenching, during evoked pain and stress between deep bite patients and controls was investigated. DESIGN: In 30 deep bite patients and in 30 sex-/age-matched controls with neutral occlusion EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter and anterior temporalis muscles before and during evoked pain......OBJECTIVE: The effect of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress on masticatory muscle activity in TMD-patients has been discussed. Furthermore, associations between TMD and deep bite patients have been studied. Accordingly in the present study, comparison of EMG responses at rest, maximal...... and before and during a stress task. Evoked pain was induced by injections of glutamate into the masseter (local pain) and brachioradialis (remote pain) muscles and resting EMG activity was recorded before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10min. A precision task was used to simulate a stressful condition and EMG...

  19. Can short-term oral fine motor training affect precision of task performance and induce cortical plasticity of the jaw muscles?

    Hong, Zhang; Kumar, Abhishek; Kothari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that short-term oral sensorimotor training of the jaw muscles would increase the precision of task performance and induce neuroplastic changes in the corticomotor pathways, related to the masseter muscle. Fifteen healthy volunteers performed six series with ten...... trials of an oral sensorimotor task. The task was to manipulate and position a spherical chocolate candy in between the anterior teeth and split it into two equal halves. The precision of the task performance was evaluated by comparing the ratio between the two split halves. A series of "hold......-and-split" tasks was also performed before and after the training. The hold force and split force along with the electromyographic (EMG) activity of jaw muscles were recorded. Motor-evoked potentials and cortical motor maps of the right masseter muscle were evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  20. Long-term sensitization of mechanosensitive and -insensitive afferents in mice with persistent colorectal hypersensitivity

    Feng, Bin; La, Jun-ho; Schwartz, Erica S.; Tanaka, Takahiro; McMurray, Timothy P.; Gebhart, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Afferent input contributes significantly to the pain and colorectal hypersensitivity that characterize irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the contributions of mechanically sensitive and mechanically insensitive afferents (MIAs; or silent afferents) to colorectal hypersensitivity. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension (CRD; 15–60 mmHg) was recorded in mice before and for weeks after intracolonic treatment with zymosan or saline. After CRD tests, the di...

  1. TRPV1 marks synaptic segregation of multiple convergent afferents at the rat medial solitary tract nucleus.

    James H Peters

    Full Text Available TRPV1 receptors are expressed on most but not all central terminals of cranial visceral afferents in the caudal solitary tract nucleus (NTS. TRPV1 is associated with unmyelinated C-fiber afferents. Both TRPV1+ and TRPV1- afferents enter NTS but their precise organization remains poorly understood. In horizontal brainstem slices, we activated solitary tract (ST afferents and recorded ST-evoked glutamatergic excitatory synaptic currents (ST-EPSCs under whole cell voltage clamp conditions from neurons of the medial subnucleus. Electrical shocks to the ST produced fixed latency EPSCs (jitter<200 µs that identified direct ST afferent innervation. Graded increases in shock intensity often recruited more than one ST afferent and ST-EPSCs had consistent threshold intensity, latency to onset, and unique EPSC waveforms that characterized each unitary ST afferent contact. The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (100 nM blocked the evoked TRPV1+ ST-EPSCs and defined them as either TRPV1+ or TRPV1- inputs. No partial responses to capsaicin were observed so that in NTS neurons that received one or multiple (2-5 direct ST afferent inputs--all were either blocked by capsaicin or were unaltered. Since TRPV1 mediates asynchronous release following TRPV1+ ST-evoked EPSCs, we likewise found that recruiting more than one ST afferent further augmented the asynchronous response and was eliminated by capsaicin. Thus, TRPV1+ and TRPV1- afferents are completely segregated to separate NTS neurons. As a result, the TRPV1 receptor augments glutamate release only within unmyelinated afferent pathways in caudal medial NTS and our work indicates a complete separation of C-type from A-type afferent information at these first central neurons.

  2. Afferent nerves regulating the cough reflex: Mechanisms and Mediators of Cough in Disease

    Canning, Brendan J.

    2010-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and acid-sensitive, capsaicin-insensitive mechanoreceptors innervating the larynx, trachea and large bronchi regulate the cough reflex. These vagal afferent nerves may interact centrally with sensory input arising from afferent nerves innervating the intrapulmonary airways or even extrapulmonary afferents such as those innervating the nasal mucosa and esophagus to produce chronic cough or enhanced cough responsiveness. The mechanisms of cough initiation in health and in disease are briefly described. PMID:20172253

  3. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents

    Frances L Meredith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K+ channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K+ channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space.

  4. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents.

    Meredith, Frances L; Kirk, Matthew E; Rennie, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K(+) channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K(+) channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space.

  5. The modulation of visceral functions by somatic afferent activity.

    Sato, A; Schmidt, R F

    1987-01-01

    We began by briefly reviewing the historical background of neurophysiological studies of the somato-autonomic reflexes and then discussed recent studies on somatic-visceral reflexes in combination with autonomic efferent nerve activity and effector organ responses. Most of the studies that have advanced our knowledge in this area have been carried out on anesthetized animals, thus eliminating emotional factors. We would like to emphasize again that the functions of many, or perhaps all visceral organs can be modulated by somato-sympathetic or somato-parasympathetic reflex activity induced by a appropriate somatic afferent stimulation in anesthetized animals. As mentioned previously, some autonomic nervous outflow, e.g. the adrenal sympathetic nerve activity, is involved in the control of hormonal secretion. John F. Fulton wrote in his famous textbook "Physiology of the Nervous System" (1949) that the posterior pituitary neurosecretion system (i.e. for oxytocin and vasopressin) could be considered a part of the parasympathetic nervous system. In the study of body homeostasis and environmental adaptation it would seem very important to further analyze the contribution of somatic afferent input to the autonomic nervous and hormonal regulation of visceral organ activity. Also, some immunological functions have been found to be influenced by autonomic nerves or hormones (e.g. adrenal cortical hormone and catecholamines). Finally, we must take into account, as we have briefly discussed, that visceral functions can be modulated by somatic afferent input via various degrees of integration of autonomic nerves, hormones, and immunological processes. We trust that such research will be expanded to higher species of mammals, and that ultimately this knowledge of somato-visceral reflexes obtained in the physiological laboratory will become clinically useful in influencing visceral functions.

  6. Role of capsaicin- and heat-sensitive afferents in stimulation of acupoint-induced pain and analgesia in humans.

    Lei, Jing; Ye, Gang; Wu, Jiang-Tao; Pertovaara, Antti; You, Hao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We investigated role of capsaicin-sensitive afferents within and without the areas of Zusanli (ST36)/Shangjuxu (ST37) acupoints along the stomach (ST) meridian in the perception and modulation of pain assessed by visual analog scale of pain and its distribution rated by subjects, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and heat pain threshold (HPT) in humans. Compared with the treatment of non-acupoint area, capsaicin (100µg/50µl) administered into either ST36 or ST37 acupoint caused the strongest pain intensity and the most extensive pain distribution, followed by rapid onset, bilateral, long-lasting secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and slower onset secondary heat hypoalgesia (1day after the capsaicin treatment). Between treatments of different acupoints, capsaicin administrated into the ST36 acupoint exhibited the stronger pain intensity and more widespread pain distribution compared with the treatment of ST37 acupoint. A period of 30- to 45-min, but not 15-min, 43°C heating-needle stimulation applied to the ST36 acupoint significantly enhanced the HPT, and had no effect on PPT. Upon trapezius muscle pain elicited by the i.m. injection of 5.8% saline, pre-emptive treatment of the contralateral ST36 acupoint with 43°C heating-needle stimulation alleviated the ongoing muscle pain, reduced painful area, and reversed the decrease in HPT. It is suggested that (1) pain elicited from the acupoint and non-acupoint areas differs significantly, which are supposed to be dependent on the different distributions and contributions of capsaicin-sensitive afferents. (2) Non-painful heat stimulation is a valid approach in prevention of ongoing muscle pain with associated post-effects of peripheral and central sensitization. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of periodontal afferent inputs on corticomotor excitability in humans

    Zhang, Y; Boudreau, S; Wang, M

    2010-01-01

    for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) as an internal control. Burning pain intensity and mechanical sensitivity ratings to a von Frey filament applied to the application site were recorded on an electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). All subjects reported a decreased mechanical sensitivity (anova: P = 0......-injection for the LA (anovas: P > 0.22) or capsaicin (anovas: P > 0.16) sessions. These findings suggest that a transient loss or perturbation in periodontal afferent input to the brain from a single incisor is insufficient to cause changes in corticomotor excitability of the face MI, as measured by TMS in humans....

  8. MR features of a case of afferent loop syndrome presenting as obstructive jaundice

    Chevallier, P.; Souci, J.; Oddo, F.; Diaine, B.; Padovani, B.; Gueyffier, C.

    2001-01-01

    The afferent loop syndrome corresponds to an acute or chronic obstruction of the afferent loop following a partial gastrectomy with Billroth II gastro-jejunal anastomosis. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man with history of partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease performed 31 years ago and currently admitted for jaundice and poor general status. MR imaging showed dilatation of biliary and pancreatic ducts and showed a soft tissue mass between the afferent loop and the residual stomach. Endoscopy showed complete obstruction of the afferent loop by a biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma. The patient died of sepsis shortly after endoscopy of septicemia. (authors)

  9. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape

    Taylor, Andrea B.; Vinyard, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Cebus apella is renowned for its dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between the tufted capuchin (C. apella; n = 12 ) and two “untufted” capuchins (C. capuchinus, n = 3; C. albifrons, n = 5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces, including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P0). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter, whole masseter, and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P0. As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in C. apella primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear

  10. FUSIMOTOR EFFECTS OF MIDBRAIN STIMULATION ON JAW MUSCLE-SPINDLES OF THE ANESTHETIZED CAT

    TAYLOR, A; JUCH, PJW

    The effects of electrical stimulation within the midbrain on fusimotor output to the jaw elevator muscles were studied in anaesthetized cats. Muscle spindle afferents recorded in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were categorised as primary or secondary by their responses to succinylcholine

  11. Interactions between visceral afferent signaling and stimulus processing

    Hugo D Critchley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body, to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviours, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain’s representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed.

  12. Anatomy and physiology of the afferent visual system.

    Prasad, Sashank; Galetta, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    The efficient organization of the human afferent visual system meets enormous computational challenges. Once visual information is received by the eye, the signal is relayed by the retina, optic nerve, chiasm, tracts, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic radiations to the striate cortex and extrastriate association cortices for final visual processing. At each stage, the functional organization of these circuits is derived from their anatomical and structural relationships. In the retina, photoreceptors convert photons of light to an electrochemical signal that is relayed to retinal ganglion cells. Ganglion cell axons course through the optic nerve, and their partial decussation in the chiasm brings together corresponding inputs from each eye. Some inputs follow pathways to mediate pupil light reflexes and circadian rhythms. However, the majority of inputs arrive at the lateral geniculate nucleus, which relays visual information via second-order neurons that course through the optic radiations to arrive in striate cortex. Feedback mechanisms from higher cortical areas shape the neuronal responses in early visual areas, supporting coherent visual perception. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the afferent visual system, in combination with skilled examination, allows precise localization of neuropathological processes and guides effective diagnosis and management of neuro-ophthalmic disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely

  14. Masseter muscle fatigue during sustained clenching in subjects with complete dentures, implant-supported prostheses, and natural teeth.

    Jacobs, R; van Steenberghe, D

    1993-03-01

    A sustained submaximal (50%) clenching effort was performed in four patient groups to establish whether implant-supported prosthetic reconstructions influence myoelectrical signal parameters. The first group consisted of patients with natural teeth in both jaws. The other three groups consisted of patients who were edentulous in both jaws: one group had complete dentures; one had an overdenture in the mandible on two implants connected by a bar; and the third had an implant-supported fixed prosthesis in either the maxilla or the mandible. Surface electromyography indicated an increased myoelectrical output level that paralleled a higher bite force level for implant-supported reconstructions compared with complete dentures. Power spectrum analysis revealed a downward shift of the mean power frequency during sustained clenching in all groups except the implant-supported fixed prosthesis. The absence of a spectral shift in the latter group probably reflected a fear of biting too hard and fracturing the prosthesis.

  15. Isolated asymptomatic masseter muscle metastasis as first sign of metastatic disease in a patient with known melanoma

    Gjorup, Caroline Asirvatham; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Svane, Inge Marie

    2016-01-01

    , intramuscular and bone metastases developed and the patient was treated with surgery and immunotherapy. The patient is in complete-remission with no evident metastases seen on PET/CT 2.5 years after treatment with adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL therapy). Asymptomatic skeletal...

  16. Muscles of mastication model-based MR image segmentation

    Ng, H.P. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore (Singapore). Biomedical Imaging Lab.; Ong, S.H. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Div. of Bioengineering; Hu, Q.; Nowinski, W.L. [Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore (Singapore). Biomedical Imaging Lab.; Foong, K.W.C. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Preventive Dentistry; Goh, P.S. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2006-11-15

    Objective: The muscles of mastication play a major role in the orodigestive system as the principal motive force for the mandible. An algorithm for segmenting these muscles from magnetic resonance (MR) images was developed and tested. Materials and methods: Anatomical information about the muscles of mastication in MR images is used to obtain the spatial relationships relating the muscle region of interest (ROI) and head ROI. A model-based technique that involves the spatial relationships between head and muscle ROIs as well as muscle templates is developed. In the segmentation stage, the muscle ROI is derived from the model. Within the muscle ROI, anisotropic diffusion is applied to smooth the texture, followed by thresholding to exclude bone and fat. The muscle template and morphological operators are employed to obtain an initial estimate of the muscle boundary, which then serves as the input contour to the gradient vector flow snake that iterates to the final segmentation. Results: The method was applied to segmentation of the masseter, lateral pterygoid and medial pterygoid in 75 images. The overlap indices (K) achieved are 91.4, 92.1 and 91.2%, respectively. Conclusion: A model-based method for segmenting the muscles of mastication from MR images was developed and tested. The results show good agreement between manual and automatic segmentations. (orig.)

  17. Muscles of mastication model-based MR image segmentation

    Ng, H.P.; Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore; Ong, S.H.; National Univ. of Singapore; Hu, Q.; Nowinski, W.L.; Foong, K.W.C.; National Univ. of Singapore; Goh, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The muscles of mastication play a major role in the orodigestive system as the principal motive force for the mandible. An algorithm for segmenting these muscles from magnetic resonance (MR) images was developed and tested. Materials and methods: Anatomical information about the muscles of mastication in MR images is used to obtain the spatial relationships relating the muscle region of interest (ROI) and head ROI. A model-based technique that involves the spatial relationships between head and muscle ROIs as well as muscle templates is developed. In the segmentation stage, the muscle ROI is derived from the model. Within the muscle ROI, anisotropic diffusion is applied to smooth the texture, followed by thresholding to exclude bone and fat. The muscle template and morphological operators are employed to obtain an initial estimate of the muscle boundary, which then serves as the input contour to the gradient vector flow snake that iterates to the final segmentation. Results: The method was applied to segmentation of the masseter, lateral pterygoid and medial pterygoid in 75 images. The overlap indices (K) achieved are 91.4, 92.1 and 91.2%, respectively. Conclusion: A model-based method for segmenting the muscles of mastication from MR images was developed and tested. The results show good agreement between manual and automatic segmentations. (orig.)

  18. Local myogenic pulp-derived cell injection enhances craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo.

    Jung, J E; Song, M J; Shin, S; Choi, Y J; Kim, K H; Chung, C J

    2017-02-01

    To enhance myogenic differentiation in pulp cells isolated from extracted premolars by epigenetic modification using a DNA demethylation agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), and to evaluate the potent stimulatory effect of 5-Aza-treated pulp cell injection for craniofacial muscle regeneration in vivo. Pulp cells were isolated from premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes from four adults (age range, 18-22.1 years). Levels of myogenic differentiation and functional contraction response in vitro were compared between pulp cells with or without pre-treatment of 5-Aza. Changes in muscle regeneration in response to green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled myogenic pulp cell injection in vivo were evaluated using a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced muscle injury model of the gastrocnemius as well as the masseter muscle in mice. Pre-treatment of 5-Aza in pulp cells stimulated myotube formation, myogenic differentiation in terms of desmin and myogenin expression, and the level of collagen gel contraction. The local injection of 5-Aza pre-treated myogenic pulp cells was engrafted into the host tissue and indicated signs of enhanced muscle regeneration in both the gastrocnemius and the masseter muscles. The epigenetic modification of pulp cells from extracted premolars and the local injection of myogenic pulp cells may stimulate craniofacial muscles regeneration in vivo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...

  20. Repeated Muscle Injury as a Presumptive Trigger for Chronic Masticatory Muscle Pain

    Dean Dessem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available skeletal muscles sustain a significant loss of maximal contractile force after injury, but terminally damaged fibers can eventually be replaced by the growth of new muscle (regeneration, with full restoration of contractile force over time. After a second injury, limb muscles exhibit a smaller reduction in maximal force and reduced inflammation compared with that after the initial injury (i.e., repeated bout effect. In contrast, masticatory muscles exhibit diminished regeneration and persistent fibrosis, after a single injury; following a second injury, plasma extravasation is greater than after a single injury and maximal force is decreased more than after the initial injury. Thus, masticatory muscles do not exhibit a repeated bout effect and are instead increasingly damaged by repeated injury. We propose that the impaired ability of masticatory muscles to regenerate contributes to chronic muscle pain by leading to an accumulation of tissue damage, fibrosis, and a persistent elevation and prolonged membrane translocation of nociceptive channels such as P2X3 as well as enhanced expression of neuropeptides including CGRP within primary afferent neurons. These transformations prime primary afferent neurons for enhanced responsiveness upon subsequent injury thus triggering and/or exacerbating chronic muscle pain.

  1. Tuning of spinal networks to frequency components of spike trains in individual afferents.

    Koerber, H R; Seymour, A W; Mendell, L M

    1991-10-01

    Cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) evoked by primary afferent fiber stimulation reflect the response of postsynaptic dorsal horn neurons. The properties of these CDPs have been shown to vary in accordance with the type of primary afferent fiber stimulated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationships between frequency modulation of the afferent input trains, the amplitude modulation of the evoked CDPs, and the type of primary afferent stimulated. The somata of individual primary afferent fibers were impaled in the L7 dorsal root ganglion of alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. Action potentials (APs) were evoked in single identified afferents via the intracellular microelectrode while simultaneously recording the response of dorsal horn neurons as CDPs, or activity of individual target interneurons recorded extracellularly or intracellularly. APs were evoked in afferents using temporal patterns identical to the responses of selected afferents to natural stimulation of their receptive fields. Two such physiologically realistic trains, one recorded from a hair follicle and the other from a slowly adapting type 1 receptor, were chosen as standard test trains. Modulation of CDP amplitude in response to this frequency-modulated afferent activity varied according to the type of peripheral mechanoreceptor innervated. Dorsal horn networks driven by A beta afferents innervating hair follicles, rapidly adapting pad (Krause end bulb), and field receptors seemed "tuned" to amplify the onset of activity in single afferents. Networks driven by afferents innervating down hair follicles and pacinian corpuscles required more high-frequency activity to elicit their peak response. Dorsal horn networks driven by afferents innervating slowly adapting receptors including high-threshold mechanoreceptors exhibited some sensitivity to the instantaneous frequency, but in general they reproduced the activity in the afferent fiber much more faithfully. Responses of

  2. Reconsideration of the sequence of rigor mortis through postmortem changes in adenosine nucleotides and lactic acid in different rat muscles.

    Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Iwadate, K; Nakajima, M

    1996-10-25

    We examined the changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lactic acid, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in five different rat muscles after death. Rigor mortis has been thought to occur simultaneously in dead muscles and hence to start in small muscles sooner than in large muscles. In this study we found that the rate of decrease in ATP was significantly different in each muscle. The greatest drop in ATP was observed in the masseter muscle. These findings contradict the conventional theory of rigor mortis. Similarly, the rates of change in ADP and lactic acid, which are thought to be related to the consumption or production of ATP, were different in each muscle. However, the rate of change of AMP was the same in each muscle.

  3. Afferent control of central pattern generators: experimental analysis of scratching in the decerebrate cat.

    Baev, K V; Esipenko, V B; Shimansky, Y P

    1991-01-01

    Systematic quantitative analysis of changes in the spinal scratching generator motor activity evoked by tonic and phasic peripheral afferent signals during "fictitious" scratching was carried out in the cat. Correlations between the kinematics of hindlimb scratching movement, sensory inflow, and primary afferent depolarization were investigated. Reliable correlations between the parameters of generator motor activity during fictitious scratching were revealed: they depended on tonic peripheral afferent inflow. The functional role of these dependencies consists of providing stability for aiming the hindlimb to the itch site. It was shown that scratching generator reaction to a phasic sensory signal depended significantly on afferent input, signal intensity, and its arrival phase in the cycle of motor activity. Phase correction of "scratching" rhythm was performed by inhibition of the current stage of "scratching" cycle, the inhibition magnitude depending on the intensity of a sensory signal run along high threshold afferent fibers. The moments in the scratching cycle, in which the afferent signal caused no rearrangement in scratching generator activity, were discovered for all investigated afferent inputs. These moments corresponded to the transitions from one scratching cycle phase to another. Integral afferent activity was distributed unevenly in the cycle during real scratching. The main part of it was observed just in that scratching cycle part which included the above mentioned no rearrangement phase points. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that the scratching generator should be considered as a working program for the motor optimal control system containing the intrinsic model of the controlled object dynamics (e.g. hindlimb scratching movement dynamics), which produces an inner analog of peripheral flow. This inner flow interacts with peripheral afferent inflow just as one of the latter components. Centrally originated modulation of primary afferent

  4. Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds

    Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

    2002-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and

  5. The use of a custom-made mouthguard stabilizes the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles among Karate-Dō athletes.

    Raquel, Gilsane; Namba, Eli Luis; Bonotto, Daniel; Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo Antônio; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Naval Machado, Maria Ângela; Vianna-Lara, Michelle Santos; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2017-01-01

    To analyze and compare the electromyographic activity of the temporal (anterior portion) and masseter muscles among Karate-Dō athletes before and after training, with and without the use of a mouthguard. Twenty athletes (14 males and 6 females) with a mean age of 23.7 ± 7.5 years participated. They had surface electromyography recordings taken of their bilateral temporal and masseter muscles before and after training under the following conditions: no mouthguard, with a ready-made mouthguard, and with a custom-made mouthguard. Activity was examined at mandibular rest, while clenching, and at maximum voluntary contraction. The data were normalized using the mean maximum voluntary contraction. The right (p = 0.005) and left (p = 0.015) temporal muscles showed significantly lower electromyographic activity with a custom-made mouthguard compared with no mouthguard after training while clenching. The electromyographic activity of the temporal and masseter muscles did not show significant differences when tested at mandibular rest and while clenching before or after training with a custom-made mouthguard (p > 0.05). The use of a custom-made mouthguard preserved participants' electromyographic profiles before and after training; thus, they allow for stable muscle activity during the training of Karate-Dō athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of experimental occlusal discrepancy on masticatory muscle activity during clenching.

    Baba, K; Ai, M; Mizutani, H; Enosawa, S

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the experimental occlusal discrepancy on masticatory muscle activity was investigated on 12 subjects. Specially designed occlusal interferences were fabricated and various occlusal states were simulated with their aid. Subjects were asked to carry out eccentric clenching efforts and electromyographic activity of the masseter plus the anterior and posterior temporal muscles was measured. When compared with clenching on the unaltered natural dentition, clenching on the experimental interferences resulted in distinct patterns in the jaw elevator muscles, and the most characteristic change was observed when clenching effort was exerted on the experimental non-working side interference. Electromyographic activity in the anterior and posterior temporal muscles was decreased on the working side and increased on the non-working side and originally unilateral activity pattern with clear dominance on the working side was altered to a bilateral pattern, while that of the masseter muscles remained uninfluenced. Resultant bilateral activity in the anterior and posterior temporal muscles is thought to cause a superior movement of the working side condyle and an inferior movement of the non-working side condyle.

  7. Myoelectric manifestations of jaw elevator muscle fatigue and recovery in healthy and TMD subjects.

    Castroflorio, T; Falla, D; Tartaglia, G M; Sforza, C; Deregibus, A

    2012-09-01

    The effects of muscle pain and fatigue on the control of jaw elevator muscles are not well known. Furthermore, the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery from fatigue in the masticatory muscles are not reported in literature. The main aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the possible use of surface electromyography (sEMG) as an objective measure of fatigue of the jaw elevator muscles, (ii) to compare the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the temporalis anterior and masseter muscles bilaterally, (iii) to assess recovery of the investigated muscles after an endurance test and (iv) to compare fatigue and recovery of the jaw elevator muscles in healthy subjects and patients with muscle-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The study was performed on twenty healthy volunteers and eighteen patients with muscle-related TMD. An intra-oral compressive-force sensor was used to measure the voluntary contraction forces close to the intercuspal position and to provide visual feedback of submaximal forces to the subject. Surface EMG signals were recorded with linear electrode arrays during isometric contractions at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction force, during an endurance test and during the recovery phase. The results showed that (i) the slope of the mean power spectral frequency (MNF) and the initial average rectified value (ARV) could be used to monitor fatigue of the jaw elevators, (ii) the temporalis anterior and masseter muscle show the same myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery and (iii) the initial values of MNF and ARV were lower in patients with muscle-related TMD. The assessment of myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the masticatory muscles may assist in the clinical assessment of TMDs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS IN A GRAY WOLF (CANIS LUPUS).

    Kent, Marc; Glass, Eric N; Castro, Fernando A; Miller, Andrew D; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    A 10-yr-old male, neutered gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) was presented for atrophy of the temporalis and masseter muscles. Clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a myopathy. Positive serology for antibody titers directed against Type 2M myofibers, and the observation of a mixed mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate along with eosinophils and neutrophils within the temporalis muscle, were diagnostic for masticatory muscle myositis. Importantly, protozoal myositis was excluded based on other clinicopathologic data. The case highlights the potential for immune-mediated polymyositis in canids other than the domesticated dog ( Canis lupus familaris). Additionally, awareness of a diet in which raw meat is used should prompt a thorough investigation for an underlying infectious myositis in the gray wolf.

  9. The oculomotor system of decapod cephalopods: eye muscles, eye muscle nerves, and the oculomotor neurons in the central nervous system.

    Budelmann, B U; Young, J Z

    1993-04-29

    Fourteen extraocular eye muscles are described in the decapods Loligo and Sepioteuthis, and thirteen in Sepia; they are supplied by four eye muscle nerves. The main action of most of the muscles is a linear movement of the eyeball, only three muscles produce strong rotations. The arrangement, innervation and action of the decapod eye muscles are compared with those of the seven eye muscles and seven eye muscle nerves in Octopus. The extra muscles in decapods are attached to the anterior and superior faces of the eyes. At least, the anterior muscles, and presumably also the superior muscles, are concerned with convergent eye movements for binocular vision during fixation and capture of prey by the tentacles. The remaining muscles are rather similar in the two cephalopod groups. In decapods, the anterior muscles include conjunctive muscles; these cross the midline and each presumably moves both eyes at the same time during fixation. In the squids Loligo and Sepioteuthis there is an additional superior conjunctive muscle of perhaps similar function. Some of the anterior muscles are associated with a narrow moveable plate, the trochlear cartilage; it is attached to the eyeball by trochlear membranes. Centripetal cobalt fillings showed that all four eye muscle nerves have fibres that originate from somata in the ipsilateral anterior lateral pedal lobe, which is the oculomotor centre. The somata of the individual nerves show different but overlapping distributions. Bundles of small presumably afferent fibres were seen in two of the four nerves. They do not enter the anterior lateral pedal lobe but run to the ventral magnocellular lobe; some afferent fibres enter the brachio-palliovisceral connective and run perhaps as far as the palliovisceral lobe.

  10. Within-step modulation of leg muscles activity by afferent feedback in human walking

    Klint, Richard af; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Cole, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    To maintain smooth and efficient gait the motor system must adjust for changes in the ground on a step-to-step basis. In the present study we investigated the role of sensory feedback as 19 able-bodied human subjects walked over a platform that mimicked an uneven supporting surface. Triceps surae.......153+/-0.051; 3 degrees : 0.156+/-0.053) and significantly decreased when the platform was declined (-3 degrees : 0.133+/-0.048; -2 degrees : 0.132+/-0.049) compared with level walking (0.141+/-0.048) for the able-bodied subjects. A similar experiment was performed with a subject who lacked proprioception...

  11. Autonomic control of heart rate by metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents in humans

    Fisher, James P; Seifert, Thomas; Hartwich, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    moderate (PEI-M) and high (PEI-H) intensity isometric handgrip performed at 25% and 40% maximum voluntary contraction, under control (no drug), parasympathetic blockade (glycopyrrolate) and beta-adrenergic blockade (metoprolol or propranalol) conditions, while beat-to-beat HR and BP were continuously...

  12. Longitudinal evaluation of jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics in young patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Teuscher activator.

    Cuevas, Maria-José; Cacho, Alberto; Alarcón, Jose-Antonio; Martín, Conchita

    2013-05-01

    A longitudinal study was performed to evaluate the jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics after Teuscher activator treatment and at 2 years after orthodontic treatment completion. Twenty-seven children with Class II division 1 malocclusion were evaluated before treatment (T0; mean: 11.6 years), after functional treatment (T1; mean: 12.8 years), and 2 years after orthodontic treatment (T2; mean: 18 years). Bilateral surface electromyographic activities of the anterior temporalis, posterior temporalis, masseter, and suprahyoid muscle areas were analyzed at rest and during clenching, swallowing, and mastication. Kinematic recordings of the mandibular maximum opening, lateral shift, right and left lateral excursions, and protrusion were evaluated. Compared to T0, the left masseter activity during clenching was decreased at T1 but increased at T2, similar to the other evaluated muscles. The suprahyoid activity during swallowing was increased at T1 but decreased at T2. The masseter activity during mastication was increased at T1 and further increased at T2. The left and right lateral excursions and protrusion did not show significant changes throughout the experiment. Teuscher activator and subsequent fixed orthodontic treatment improved jaw muscle function; however, a long period was needed to attain complete neuromuscular adaptation.

  13. Transient receptor potential A1 channel contributes to activation of the muscle reflex.

    Koba, Satoshi; Hayes, Shawn G; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the role played by transient receptor potential A1 channels (TRPA1) in activating the muscle reflex, a sympathoexcitatory drive originating in contracting muscle. First, we tested the hypothesis that stimulation of the TRPA1 located on muscle afferents reflexly increases sympathetic nerve activity. In decerebrate rats, allyl isothiocyanate, a TRPA1 agonist, was injected intra-arterially into the hindlimb muscle circulation. This led to a 33% increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The effect of allyl isothiocyanate was a reflex because the response was prevented by sectioning the sciatic nerve. Second, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of TRPA1 reduces RSNA response to contraction. Thirty-second continuous static contraction of the hindlimb muscles, induced by electrical stimulation of the peripheral cut ends of L(4) and L(5) ventral roots, increased RSNA and blood pressure. The integrated RSNA during contraction was reduced by HC-030031, a TRPA1 antagonist, injected intra-arterially (163 ± 24 vs. 95 ± 21 arbitrary units, before vs. after HC-030031, P reflex. Increases in RSNA in response to injection into the muscle circulation of arachidonic acid, bradykinin, and diprotonated phosphate, which are metabolic by-products of contraction and stimulants of muscle afferents during contraction, were reduced by HC-030031. These observations suggest that the TRPA1 located on muscle afferents is part of the muscle reflex and further support the notion that arachidonic acid metabolites, bradykinin, and diprotonated phosphate are candidates for endogenous agonists of TRPA1.

  14. Comparative morphology of the muscles of mastication in the giant panda and the Asiatic black bear.

    Endo, Hideki; Taru, Hajime; Yamamoto, Masako; Arishima, Kazuyoshi; Sasaki, Motoki

    2003-06-01

    The morphological differences in the muscles of mastication between the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) were sought to confirm the adaptational strategy of these muscles in the giant panda. We measured some skull characteristics and weighed the muscles of mastication, and macroscopically observed the muscles of mastication in the two species. The noticeable differences between the two species are classified as follows: (1) The size ratio of the zygomatic width was much larger in the giant panda than in the Asiatic black bear. (2) The weight ratio of the two pterygoid muscles was also much larger in the giant panda than in the Asiatic black bear. (3) The lateral slips of the temporal muscles are thicker and stronger in the Asiatic black bear than in the giant panda. (4) The deep layer of the masseter muscle was rostrocaudally divided, and a complicated running of tendons is observed in the giant panda. (5) The two pterygoid muscles were much larger and well-developed in the giant panda than in the Asiatic black bear. The points (1) and (4) may be related to the generation of the force necessary to chew the bamboo in the giant panda. We thought that the large mass of the masseter and temporal muscles are needed in this species. In the points of (2) and (5), the two pterygoid muscles were obviously different in form and weight ratio between the two species. We suggest that the two pterygoid muscles may act as an additional force generator to dorsoventrally press and crush bamboo stems.

  15. Influence of intramuscular granisetron on experimentally induced muscle pain by acidic saline.

    Louca, S; Ernberg, M; Christidis, N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intramuscular administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron reduces experimental muscle pain induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline into the masseter muscles. Twenty-eight healthy and pain-free volunteers, fourteen women and fourteen men participated in this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. After a screening examination and registration of the baseline pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the first simultaneous bilateral injections of 0·5 mL acidic saline (9 mg mL(-1) , pH 3·3) into the masseter muscles were performed. Two days later, PPT and pain (VAS) were re-assessed. The masseter muscle was then pre-treated with 0·5 mL granisetron (Kytril(®) 1 mg mL(-1) pH 5·3) on one side and control substance (isotonic saline, 9 mg mL(-1) pH 6) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter a bilateral simultaneous injection of 0·5 mL acidic saline followed. The evoked pain intensity, pain duration, pain area and PPT were assessed. The volunteers returned 1 week later to re-assess VAS and PPT. On the side pre-treated with granisetron, the induced pain had significantly lower intensity and shorter duration (P granisetron on pain duration was significant only in women (P granisetron has a pain-reducing effect on experimentally induced muscle pain by repeated acidic saline injection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cortical Silent Period Reveals Differences Between Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia and Muscle Tension Dysphonia.

    Samargia, Sharyl; Schmidt, Rebekah; Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson

    2016-03-01

    The pathophysiology of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD), like other focal dystonias, is largely unknown. The purposes of this study were to determine (a) cortical excitability differences between AdSD, muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), and healthy controls; (b) distribution of potential differences in cranial or skeletal muscle; and (c) if cortical excitability measures assist in the differential diagnosis of AdSD and MTD. Ten participants with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, 8 with muscle tension dysphonia, and 10 healthy controls received single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the primary motor cortex contralateral to tested muscles, first dorsal interosseus (FDI), and masseter. We tested the hypothesis that cortical excitability measures in AdSD would be significantly different from those in MTD and healthy controls. In addition, we hypothesized that there would be a correlation between cortical excitability measures and clinical voice severity in AdSD. Cortical silent period duration in masseter and FDI was significantly shorter in AdSD than MTD and healthy controls. Other measures failed to demonstrate differences. There are differences in cortical excitability between AdSD, MTD, and healthy controls. These differences in the cortical measure of both the FDI and masseter muscles in AdSD suggest widespread dysfunction of the GABAB mechanism may be a pathophysiologic feature of AdSD, similar to other forms of focal dystonia. Further exploration of the use of TMS to assist in the differential diagnosis of AdSD and MTD is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The correlation between surface electromyography and bite force of mastication muscles in Asian young adults.

    Yen, Cheng-I; Mao, Shih-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Mastication function is related to mandible movement, muscle strength, and bite force. No standard device for measuring bite force has been developed. A linear relationship between electromyographic activity and bite force has been reported by several investigators, but data on the reliability of this relationship remain limited in Asian young adults. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically applicable, reliable, quantitative, and noninvasive system to measure the kinetic mastication function and observe the correlation between surface electromyography (sEMG) and bite force. The study group consisted of 41 young healthy adults (24 men and 17 women). Surface electromyography was used to evaluate bilateral temporalis and masseter muscle activities, and an occlusal bite force system was used concurrently to measure the bite force during maximal voluntary biting. Bilateral symmetry was compared, and the correlation between EMG and bite force was calculated. The sEMG signals were 107.7±55.0 μV and 106.0±56.0 μV (P=0.699) on right and left temporalis muscles and 183.7±86.2 μV and 194.8±94.3 μV (P=0.121) on right and left masseter muscles, respectively. The bite force was 5.0±3.2 kg on the right side and 5.7±4.0 kg on the left side (P=0.974). A positive correlation between sEMG and bite force was observed. The correlation coefficient between the temporalis muscle and bite force was 0.512, and that between the masseter muscle and bite force was 0.360. No significant difference between the bilateral electromyographic activities of the temporalis and masseter muscles and bilateral bite force was observed in young healthy adults in Taiwan. A positive correlation between sEMG signals and bite force was noted. By combining sEMG and bite force, we developed a clinically applicable, quantitative, reliable, and noninvasive system for evaluating mastication function by using characteristics of biofeedback.

  18. Evaluation of afferent pain pathways in adrenomyeloneuropathic patients.

    Yagüe, Sara; Veciana, Misericordia; Casasnovas, Carlos; Ruiz, Montserrat; Pedro, Jordi; Valls-Solé, Josep; Pujol, Aurora

    2018-03-01

    Patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy may have dysfunctions of visual, auditory, motor and somatosensory pathways. We thought on examining the nociceptive pathways by means of laser evoked potentials (LEPs), to obtain additional information on the pathophysiology of this condition. In 13 adrenomyeloneuropathic patients we examined LEPs to leg, arm and face stimulation. Normative data were obtained from 10 healthy subjects examined in the same experimental conditions. We also examined brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), pattern reversal full-field visual evoked potentials (VEPs), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Upper and lower limb MEPs and SEPs, as well as BAEPs, were abnormal in all patients, while VEPs were abnormal in 3 of them (23.1%). LEPs revealed abnormalities to stimulation of the face in 4 patients (30.7%), the forearm in 4 patients (30.7%) and the leg in 10 patients (76.9%). The pathologic process of adrenomyeloneuropathy is characterized by a preferential involvement of auditory, motor and somatosensory tracts and less severely of the visual and nociceptive pathways. This non-inflammatory distal axonopathy preferably damages large myelinated spinal tracts but there is also partial involvement of small myelinated fibres. LEPs studies can provide relevant information about afferent pain pathways involvement in adrenomyeloneuropathic patients. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Computed tomographic features of afferent loop syndrome: pictorial essay

    Zissin, R. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hertz, M. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Paran, H. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Surgery ' A' , Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Osadchy, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gayer, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Zrifin, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2005-04-15

    This pictorial essay reviews the computed tomography (CT) findings of afferent loop syndrome (ALS) in various pathological conditions to demonstrate the contribution of a common imaging modality-that is, abdominal CT, used nowadays for various abdominal complaints-to the diagnosis of ALS. ALS is caused by obstruction of the duodenum and jejunum proximal to a gastrojejunostomy anastomosis. It is a rare complication after Billroth II subtotal gastrectomy and even more rare after total or subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Although currently advanced medical treatment and endoscopic interventions have dramatically decreased the necessity of surgery for peptic ulcer disease, ALS may appear years after previously common operations. Alternatively, the use of surgical resection for early gastric cancer nowadays leads to an increasing rate of malignancy-related ALS. Clinically, ALS may be difficult to diagnose as its presentation may be vague and nonspecific, but it has a characteristic appearance on CT. Clinicians and radiologists should therefore be familiar with this rare complication. Prompt recognition and correct diagnosis of this syndrome and its probable etiology are important as a guide for treatment. This review illustrates the CT features of ALS in various conditions. (author)

  20. Spinal cord stimulation paresthesia and activity of primary afferents.

    North, Richard B; Streelman, Karen; Rowland, Lance; Foreman, P Jay

    2012-10-01

    A patient with failed back surgery syndrome reported paresthesia in his hands and arms during a spinal cord stimulation (SCS) screening trial with a low thoracic electrode. The patient's severe thoracic stenosis necessitated general anesthesia for simultaneous decompressive laminectomy and SCS implantation for chronic use. Use of general anesthesia gave the authors the opportunity to characterize the patient's unusual distribution of paresthesia. During SCS implantation, they recorded SCS-evoked antidromic potentials at physiologically relevant amplitudes in the legs to guide electrode placement and in the arms as controls. Stimulation of the dorsal columns at T-8 evoked potentials in the legs (common peroneal nerves) and at similar thresholds, consistent with the sensation of paresthesia in the arms, in the right ulnar nerve. The authors' electrophysiological observations support observations by neuroanatomical specialists that primary afferents can descend several (in this case, at least 8) vertebral segments in the spinal cord before synapsing or ascending. This report thus confirms a physiological basis for unusual paresthesia distribution associated with thoracic SCS.

  1. Neuronal thresholds and choice-related activity of otolith afferent fibers during heading perception.

    Yu, Xiong-jie; Dickman, J David; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2015-05-19

    How activity of sensory neurons leads to perceptual decisions remains a challenge to understand. Correlations between choices and single neuron firing rates have been found early in vestibular processing, in the brainstem and cerebellum. To investigate the origins of choice-related activity, we have recorded from otolith afferent fibers while animals performed a fine heading discrimination task. We find that afferent fibers have similar discrimination thresholds as central cells, and the most sensitive fibers have thresholds that are only twofold or threefold greater than perceptual thresholds. Unlike brainstem and cerebellar nuclei neurons, spike counts from afferent fibers do not exhibit trial-by-trial correlations with perceptual decisions. This finding may reflect the fact that otolith afferent responses are poorly suited for driving heading perception because they fail to discriminate self-motion from changes in orientation relative to gravity. Alternatively, if choice probabilities reflect top-down inference signals, they are not relayed to the vestibular periphery.

  2. Organization of diencephalic and brainstem afferent projections to the lateral septum in the rat

    Luiten, Paul G.M.; Kuipers, Folkert; Schuitmaker, Hans

    1982-01-01

    Ascending diencephalic and brainstem afferents to the lateral septal column were studied by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase following microiontophoretic injections in the various subdivisions of the lateral septal area. Predominantly ispilateral cells, of which several coincide with

  3. Ia Afferent input alters the recruitment thresholds and firing rates of single human motor units.

    Grande, G; Cafarelli, E

    2003-06-01

    Vibration of the patellar tendon recruits motor units in the knee extensors via excitation of muscle spindles and subsequent Ia afferent input to the alpha-motoneuron pool. Our first purpose was to determine if the recruitment threshold and firing rate of the same motor unit differed when recruited involuntarily via reflex or voluntarily via descending spinal pathways. Although Ia input is excitatory to the alpha-motoneuron pool, it has also been shown paradoxically to inhibit itself. Our second purpose was to determine if vibration of the patellar tendon during a voluntary knee extension causes a change in the firing rate of already recruited motor units. In the first protocol, 10 subjects voluntarily reproduced the same isometric force profile of the knee extensors that was elicited by vibration of the patellar tendon. Single motor unit recordings from the vastus lateralis (VL) were obtained with tungsten microelectrodes and unitary behaviour was examined during both reflex and voluntary knee extensions. Recordings from 135 single motor units showed that both recruitment thresholds and firing rates were lower during reflex contractions. In the second protocol, 7 subjects maintained a voluntary knee extension at 30 N for approximately 40-45 s. Three bursts of patellar tendon vibration were superimposed at regular intervals throughout the contraction and changes in the firing rate of already recruited motor units were examined. A total of 35 motor units were recorded and each burst of superimposed vibration caused a momentary reduction in the firing rates and recruitment of additional units. Our data provide evidence that Ia input modulates the recruitment thresholds and firing rates of motor units providing more flexibility within the neuromuscular system to grade force at low levels of force production.

  4. Neuromuscular coordination of masticatory muscles in subjects with two types of implant-supported prostheses.

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Maglione, Michele; Simion, Massimo; Sforza, Chiarella

    2004-04-01

    To compare the electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of masticatory muscles in patients with fixed implant-supported prostheses and implant overdentures. Nineteen subjects aged 45-79 years were examined. Fourteen were edentulous and had been successfully rehabilitated with (a) maxillary and mandibular implant-supported fixed prostheses (seven patients); (b) mandibular implant overdentures and maxillary complete dentures (seven patients). Five control subjects had natural dentition or single/partial (no more than two teeth) tooth or implant fixed dentures. Surface EMG of the masseter and temporal muscles was performed during unilateral gum chewing and during maximum teeth clenching. To reduce biological and instrumental noise, all values were standardized as percentage of a maximum clenching on cotton rolls. During clenching, temporal muscle symmetry was larger in control subjects and fixed implant-supported prosthesis patients than in overdenture patients (analysis of variance, P=0.005). No differences were found in masseter muscle symmetry or in muscular torque. Muscle activities (integrated areas of the EMG potentials over time) were significantly larger in control subjects than in implant-supported prosthesis patients (P=0.014). In both patient groups, a poor neuromuscular coordination during chewing, with altered muscular patterns, and a smaller left-right symmetry than in control subjects were found (P=0.05). No differences in masticatory frequency were found. Surface EMG analysis of clenching and chewing showed that fixed implant-supported prostheses and implant overdentures were functionally equivalent. Neuromuscular coordination during chewing was inferior to that found in subjects with natural dentition.

  5. Análise do masseter, por espectroscopia de próton, em pacientes com esclerose sistêmica Proton spectroscopy study of the masseter in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Marcelo Marcucci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração de metabólitos no masseter em portadores de esclerose sistêmica, analisando os índices de creatina, colina, lipídio e lactato, e relacionar com a presença de osteólise mandibular. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 25 pacientes, sendo 15 com diagnóstico de esclerose sistêmica e agrupados de acordo com a presença (grupo I ou ausência (grupo II de osteólise, e 10 indivíduos normais (grupo III, controle. Todos foram submetidos a exame de espectroscopia de próton por ressonância magnética, com técnica PRESS e aquisição tridimensional. RESULTADOS: O estudo dos metabólitos dos três grupos apresentou os mesmos valores absolutos de creatina e lipídio. Os pacientes do grupo I apresentaram maior quantidade de colina em relação aos do grupo III. Já os indivíduos dos grupos I e II apresentaram menor quantidade de lactato em relação aos indivíduos normais. Os índices creatina/lipídio e colina/lactato foram os mesmos em todos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos menor quantidade de lactato nos pacientes com esclerose sistêmica (grupos I e II. A colina está aumentada nos pacientes com osteólise mandibular (grupo I. Os índices creatina/colina, creatina/lactato, lipídio/lactato e colina/lipídio foram diferentes entre os grupos estudados. Mais estudos são necessários para a compreensão da participação do masseter no desenvolvimento da osteólise mandibular.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate metabolite concentration in the masseter of patients with systemic sclerosis, by analyzing creatine, choline, lipid and lactate levels, and correlating them with the presence of mandibular osteolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 25 individuals, 15 of them with diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, divided into two groups according to the presence (group I or absence (group II of osteolysis, and 10 healthy individuals (group III, control. All of them were submitted to proton magnetic resonance

  6. Differential roles of stretch-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents innervating mouse distal colon and rectum

    Feng, Bin; Brumovsky, Pablo R.; Gebhart, Gerald F.

    2010-01-01

    Information about colorectal distension (i.e., colorectal dilation by increased intraluminal pressure) is primarily encoded by stretch-sensitive colorectal afferents in the pelvic nerve (PN). Despite anatomic differences between rectum and distal colon, little is known about the functional roles of colonic vs. rectal afferents in the PN pathway or the quantitative nature of mechanosensory encoding. We utilized an in vitro mouse colorectum-PN preparation to investigate pressure-encoding charac...

  7. Afferent control of central pattern generators: experimental analysis of locomotion in the decerebrate cat.

    Baev, K V; Esipenko, V B; Shimansky YuP

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the motor activity of the spinal locomotor generator evoked by tonic and phasic peripheral afferent signals during fictitious locomotion of both slow and fast rhythms were analysed in the cat. The tonic afferent inflow was conditioned by the position of the hindlimb. The phasic afferent signals were imitated by electrical stimulation of hindlimb nerves. The correlation between the kinematics of hindlimb locomotor movement and sensory inflow was investigated during actual locomotion. Reliable correlations between motor activity parameters during fictitious locomotion were revealed in cases of both slow and fast "locomotor" rhythms. The main difference between these cases was that correlations "duration-intensity" were positive in the first and negative in the second case. The functional role of "locomotor" pattern dependence on tonic sensory inflow consisted of providing stability for planting the hindlimb on the ground. For any investigated afferent input the phase moments in the "locomotor" cycle were found, in which an afferent signal caused no rearrangement in locomotor generator activity. These moments corresponded to the transitions between "flexion" and "extension" phases and to the bursts of integral afferent activity observed during real locomotion. The data obtained are compared with the results previously described for the scratching generator. The character of changes in "locomotor" activity in response to tonic and phasic sensory signals was similar to that of such changes in "scratching" rhythm in the case of fast "locomotion". Intensification of the "flexion" phase caused by phasic high-intensity stimulation of cutaneous afferents during low "locomotor" rhythm was changed to inhibition (such as observed during "scratching") when this rhythm was fast. It is concluded that the main regularities of peripheral afferent control for both the locomotor and scratching generators are the same. Moreover, these central pattern generators are just

  8. Age-related changes of neurochemically different subpopulations of cardiac spinal afferent neurons in rats.

    Guić, Maja Marinović; Runtić, Branka; Košta, Vana; Aljinović, Jure; Grković, Ivica

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging on cardiac spinal afferent neurons in the rat. A patch loaded with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to all chambers of the rat heart. Morphological and neurochemical characteristics of labeled cardiac spinal afferent neurons were assessed in young (2 months) and old (2 years) rats using markers for likely unmyelinated (isolectin B4; IB4) and myelinated (neurofilament 200; N52) neurons. The number of cardiac spinal afferent neurons decreased in senescence to 15% of that found in young rats (1604 vs. 248). The size of neuronal soma as well as proportion of IB4+ neurons increased significantly, whereas the proportion of N52+ neurons decreased significantly in senescence. Unlike somatic spinal afferents, neurochemically different populations of cardiac spinal afferent neurons experience morphological and neurochemical changes related to aging. A major decrease in total number of cardiac spinal afferent neurons occurs in senescence. The proportion of N52+ neurons decreased in senescence, but it seems that nociceptive innervation is preserved due to increased proportion and size of IB4+ unmyelinated neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of the renal afferent and efferent nerve fibres in heart failure

    Lindsea C Booth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibres. In heart failure (HF there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity, which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibres, afferent renal nerve fibres, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF.

  10. The role of the renal afferent and efferent nerve fibers in heart failure

    Booth, Lindsea C.; May, Clive N.; Yao, Song T.

    2015-01-01

    Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF. PMID:26483699

  11. Adaptation of rat jaw muscle fibers in postnatal development with a different food consistency: an immunohistochemical and electromyographic study.

    Kawai, Nobuhiko; Sano, Ryota; Korfage, Joannes A M; Nakamura, Saika; Kinouchi, Nao; Kawakami, Emi; Tanne, Kazuo; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-06-01

    The development of the craniofacial system occurs, among other reasons, as a response to functional needs. In particular, the deficiency of the proper masticatory stimulus affects the growth. The purpose of this study was to relate alterations of muscle activity during postnatal development to adaptational changes in the muscle fibers. Fourteen 21-day-old Wistar strain male rats were randomly divided into two groups and fed on either a solid (hard-diet group) or a powder (soft-diet group) diet for 63 days. A radio-telemetric device was implanted to record muscle activity continuously from the superficial masseter, anterior belly of digastric and anterior temporalis muscles. The degree of daily muscle use was quantified by the total duration of muscle activity per day (duty time), the total burst number and their average length exceeding specified levels of the peak activity (5, 20 and 50%). The fiber type composition of the muscles was examined by the myosin heavy chain content of fibers by means of immunohistochemical staining and their cross-sectional area was measured. All muscle fibers were identified as slow type I and fast type IIA, IIX or IIB (respectively, with increasing twitch contraction speed and fatigability). At lower activity levels (exceeding 5% of the peak activity), the duty time of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle was significantly higher in the soft-diet group than in the hard-diet group (P fast transition of muscle fiber was shown in only the superficial masseter muscle. Therefore, the reduction in the amount of powerful muscle contractions could be important for the slow-to-fast transition of the myosin heavy chain isoform in muscle fibers.

  12. Monosynaptic Ia projections from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm motoneurones in humans.

    Marchand-Pauvert, V; Nicolas, G; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E

    2000-05-15

    Heteronymous Ia excitatory projections from intrinsic hand muscles to human forearm motoneurones (MNs) were investigated. Changes in firing probability of single motor units (MUs) in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) were studied after electrical stimuli were applied to the median and ulnar nerve at wrist level and to the corresponding homonymous nerve at elbow level. Homonymous facilitation, occurring at the same latency as the H reflex, and therefore attributed to monosynaptic Ia EPSPs, was found in all the sampled units. In many MUs an early facilitation was also evoked by heteronymous low-threshold afferents from intrinsic hand muscles. The low threshold (between 0.5 and 0.6 times motor threshold (MT)) and the inability of a pure cutaneous stimulation to reproduce this effect indicate that it is due to stimulation of group I muscle afferents. Evidence for a similar central delay (monosynaptic) in heteronymous as in homonymous pathways was accepted when the difference in latencies of the homonymous and heteronymous peaks did not differ from the estimated supplementary afferent conduction time from wrist to elbow level by more than 0.5 ms (conduction velocity in the fastest Ia afferents between wrist and elbow levels being equal to 69 m s-1). A statistically significant heteronymous monosynaptic Ia excitation from intrinsic hand muscles supplied by both median and ulnar nerves was found in MUs belonging to all forearm motor nuclei tested (although not in ECU MUs after ulnar stimulation). It was, however, more often found in flexors than in extensors, in wrist than in finger muscles and in muscles operating in the radial than in the ulnar side. It is argued that the connections of Ia afferents from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm MNs, which are stronger and more widely distributed than in the cat

  13. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia

    Philip G. Cox

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors.

  14. Hemispheric asymmetry and somatotopy of afferent inhibition in healthy humans.

    Helmich, R.C.G.; Baumer, T.; Siebner, H.R.; Bloem, B.R.; Munchau, A.

    2005-01-01

    A conditioning electrical stimulus to a digital nerve can inhibit the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in adjacent hand muscles elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) when given 25-50 ms before the TMS pulse. This is referred to as

  15. Acute cholangitis due to afferent loop syndrome after a Whipple procedure: a case report.

    Spiliotis, John; Karnabatidis, Demetrios; Vaxevanidou, Archodoula; Datsis, Anastasios C; Rogdakis, Athanasios; Zacharis, Georgios; Siamblis, Demetrios

    2009-08-25

    Patients with resection of stomach and especially with Billroth II reconstruction (gastro jejunal anastomosis), are more likely to develop afferent loop syndrome which is a rare complication. When the afferent part is obstructed, biliary and pancreatic secretions accumulate and cause the distention of this part. In the case of a complete obstruction (rare), there is a high risk developing necrosis and perforation. This complication has been reported once in the literature. A 54-year-old Greek male had undergone a pancreato-duodenectomy (Whipple procedure) one year earlier due to a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Approximately 10 months after the initial operation, the patient started having episodes of cholangitis (fever, jaundice) and abdominal pain. This condition progressively worsened and the suspicion of local recurrence or stenosis of the biliary-jejunal anastomosis was discussed. A few days before his admission the patient developed signs of septic cholangitis. Our case demonstrates a rare complication with serious clinical manifestation of the afferent loop syndrome. This advanced form of afferent loop syndrome led to the development of huge enterobiliary reflux, which had a serious clinical manifestation as cholangitis and systemic sepsis, due to bacterial overgrowth, which usually present in the afferent loop. The diagnosis is difficult and the interventional radiology gives all the details to support the therapeutic decision making. A variety of factors can contribute to its development including adhesions, kinking and angulation of the loop, stenosis of gastro-jejunal anastomosis and internal herniation. In order to decompress the afferent loop dilatation due to adhesions, a lateral-lateral jejunal anastomosis was performed between the afferent loop and a small bowel loop.

  16. Withdrawal and restoration of central vagal afferents within the dorsal vagal complex following subdiaphragmatic vagotomy.

    Peters, James H; Gallaher, Zachary R; Ryu, Vitaly; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2013-10-15

    Vagotomy, a severing of the peripheral axons of the vagus nerve, has been extensively utilized to determine the role of vagal afferents in viscerosensory signaling. Vagotomy is also an unavoidable component of some bariatric surgeries. Although it is known that peripheral axons of the vagus nerve degenerate and then regenerate to a limited extent following vagotomy, very little is known about the response of central vagal afferents in the dorsal vagal complex to this type of damage. We tested the hypothesis that vagotomy results in the transient withdrawal of central vagal afferent terminals from their primary central target, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and were sacrificed 10, 30, or 60 days later. Plastic changes in vagal afferent fibers and synapses were investigated at the morphological and functional levels by using a combination of an anterograde tracer, synapse-specific markers, and patch-clamp electrophysiology in horizontal brain sections. Morphological data revealed that numbers of vagal afferent fibers and synapses in the NTS were significantly reduced 10 days following vagotomy and were restored to control levels by 30 days and 60 days, respectively. Electrophysiology revealed transient decreases in spontaneous glutamate release, glutamate release probability, and the number of primary afferent inputs. Our results demonstrate that subdiaphragmatic vagotomy triggers transient withdrawal and remodeling of central vagal afferent terminals in the NTS. The observed vagotomy-induced plasticity within this key feeding center of the brain may be partially responsible for the response of bariatric patients following gastric bypass surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Functional role of peripheral opioid receptors in the regulation of cardiac spinal afferent nerve activity during myocardial ischemia

    Longhurst, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Thinly myelinated Aδ-fiber and unmyelinated C-fiber cardiac sympathetic (spinal) sensory nerve fibers are activated during myocardial ischemia to transmit the sensation of angina pectoris. Although recent observations showed that myocardial ischemia increases the concentrations of opioid peptides and that the stimulation of peripheral opioid receptors inhibits chemically induced visceral and somatic nociception, the role of opioids in cardiac spinal afferent signaling during myocardial ischemia has not been studied. The present study tested the hypothesis that peripheral opioid receptors modulate cardiac spinal afferent nerve activity during myocardial ischemia by suppressing the responses of cardiac afferent nerve to ischemic mediators like bradykinin and extracellular ATP. The nerve activity of single unit cardiac afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain (T2–T5) in anesthetized cats. Forty-three ischemically sensitive afferent nerves (conduction velocity: 0.32–3.90 m/s) with receptive fields in the left and right ventricles were identified. The responses of these afferent nerves to repeat ischemia or ischemic mediators were further studied in the following protocols. First, epicardial administration of naloxone (8 μmol), a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, enhanced the responses of eight cardiac afferent nerves to recurrent myocardial ischemia by 62%, whereas epicardial application of vehicle (PBS) did not alter the responses of seven other cardiac afferent nerves to ischemia. Second, naloxone applied to the epicardial surface facilitated the responses of seven cardiac afferent nerves to epicardial ATP by 76%. Third, administration of naloxone enhanced the responses of seven other afferent nerves to bradykinin by 85%. In contrast, in the absence of naloxone, cardiac afferent nerves consistently responded to repeated application of ATP (n = 7) or bradykinin (n = 7). These data suggest that peripheral opioid peptides suppress the

  18. Artificial control of muscle by endoneural multi electrode stimulation and sensing

    Rutten, Wim; Bouwman, R.L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial electrical stimulation of motor nerves for muscle control can be made selective by using intrafascicular micro electrode arrays which contact many individual or small groups of nerve fibres. If at the same time te electrode arrays could record afferent information from the stimulated

  19. Inhibition of micturition reflex by activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.

    Tai, Changfeng; Shen, Bing; Mally, Abhijith D; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Shouguo; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

    2012-10-01

    This study determined if activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) could modulate the micturition reflex recorded under isovolumetric conditions in α-chloralose anaesthetized cats. PFCN stimulation inhibited reflex bladder activity and significantly (P acid (AA). The optimal frequency for PFCN stimulation-induced bladder inhibition was between 3 and 10 Hz, and a minimal stimulation intensity of half of the threshold for inducing anal twitching was required. Bilateral pudendal nerve transection eliminated PFCN stimulation-induced anal twitching but did not change the stimulation-induced bladder inhibition, excluding the involvement of pudendal afferent or efferent axons in PFCN afferent inhibition.Mechanical or electrical stimulation on the skin surface in the PFCN dermatome also inhibited bladder activity. Prolonged (2 × 30 min) PFCN stimulation induced a post-stimulation inhibition that persists for at least 2 h. This study revealed a new cutaneous-bladder reflex activated by PFCN afferents. Although the mechanisms and physiological functions of this cutaneous-bladder reflex need to be further studied, our data raise the possibility that stimulation of PFCN afferents might be useful clinically for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms.

  20. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  1. The influence of altered working-side occlusal guidance on masticatory muscles and related jaw movement.

    Belser, U C; Hannam, A G

    1985-03-01

    The effect of four different occlusal situations (group function, canine guidance, working side occlusal interference, and hyperbalancing occlusal interference) on EMG activity in jaw elevator muscles and related mandibular movement was investigated on 12 subjects. With a computer-based system, EMG and displacement signals were collected simultaneously during specific functional (unilateral chewing) and parafunctional tasks (mandibular gliding movements and various tooth clenching efforts) and analyzed quantitatively. When a naturally acquired group function was temporarily and artificially changed into a dominant canine guidance, a significant general reduction of elevator muscle activity was observed when subjects exerted full isometric tooth-clenching efforts in a lateral mandibular position. The original muscular coordination pattern (relative contraction from muscle to muscle) remained unaltered during this test. With respect to unilateral chewing, no significant alterations in the activity or coordination of the muscles occurred when an artificial canine guidance was introduced. Introduction of a hyperbalancing occlusal contact caused significant alterations in muscle activity and coordination during maximal tooth clenching in a lateral mandibular position. A marked shift of temporal muscle EMG activity toward the side of the interference and unchanged bilateral activity of the two masseter muscles were observed. The results suggest that canine-protected occlusions do not significantly alter muscle activity during mastication but significantly reduce muscle activity during parafunctional clenching. They also suggest that non-working side contacts dramatically alter the distribution of muscle activity during parafunctional clenching, and that this redistribution may affect the nature of reaction forces at the temporomandibular joints.

  2. Muscle Cramps

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  3. Can palpation-induced muscle pain pattern contribute to the differential diagnosis among temporomandibular disorders, primary headaches phenotypes and possible bruxism?

    Porporatti, André-Luís; Calderon, Patrícia-dos-Santos; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2016-01-01

    Background The evaluation of possible differences in the distribution or characteristics of palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles could be valuable in terms of diagnostic assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different combinations of anterior temporalis (AT) and masseter palpation-induced pain in the diagnostic of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), primary headaches and bruxism. Material and Methods A total of 1200 dental records of orofacial pain adult patients were analyzed. The outcomes were dichotomously classified (presence/absence) as following: a) AT and/or masseter palpation-induced pain; b) myogenous TMD; c) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia (arthrogenous TMD); d) migraine; e) tension-type headache (TTH); f) self-reported bruxism. Binomial logistic regression model (α = 5%) was applied to the data considering the palpation-induced muscle pain as the dependent variable. Results Mean age (SD) were 35.7 years (13.4) for 635 included dental records (83% females). Myogenous and arthrogenous TMD, migraine, TTH and bruxism were mainly associated with, respectively, masseter palpation-induced pain (ppain (ppain (ppain (p=0.009 - OR=1.62, 95%CI 1.12-2.33) and bilateral masseter palpation-induced pain (p=0.01 - OR=1.74, 95%CI 1.13-2.69). Conclusions Palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles may play a role in the differential diagnosis among painful TMD, primary headaches and bruxism. Key words:Diagnosis, temporomandibular joint disorders, migraine, tension-type headache, bruxism. PMID:26615507

  4. [Features of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy in oral and maxillofacial region and MRI analysis of facial muscles].

    Liu, Y H; Ma, Y X; Hu, J; Gao, G D; Wu, Y K; Zhang, Z Y

    2016-12-09

    Objective: To investigate the manifestation of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in oral and maxillofacial region. Methods: A total of 12 patients diagnosed as FSHD and 20 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Their medical history was collected from these patients. The decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT), calculus index-simplified (CI-S), occlusal relationship, maximal opening of mouth and maximum bite force were recorded. The impressions were taken to measure the maximal hight of palate and the width of palate. The lateral cephalometric radiographs were also taken to measure the mandibular plane-frankfurt horizontal plane angle (MP-FH). They finally received oral and maxillofacial region MRI examination to observe the masseter muscle, medial pterygoid muscle and lateral pterygoid muscle. The data were analyzed by t -test or Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: There was no significant gender difference in FSHD group. The average age of treatment was (27.5 ± 8.1) years and the average age of onset was (15.7±7.5) years. Nine patients liked to eat soft foods, 4 patients had difficulties of closing eyes, 8 patients had difficulties of cheek-bulging, 10 patients showed pouty lips and 9 patients had mesio-malocclusion. DMFT (4.0±2.3), CI-S (5.8±2.1), male maximal hight of palate (20.5±2.1) mm , female maximal hight of palate (17.9±1.6) mm, MP-FH (31.8°±2.2°) of FSHD group were greater than those of the control group. Male width of palate (34.8±1.4) mm, female width of palate (33.7±1.5) mm, male maximum bite force (451.7 ± 39.0) N, female maximum bite force (326.7 ± 21.6) N, maximal opening of mouth (3.5 ± 0.4) cm of FSHD group were less than those of the control group ( P muscle asymmetr in 11 cases of masseter and 6 cases of medial pterygoid muscle, 5 cases of lateral pterygoid, and these muscle showed mild fatty infiltration mainly concentrating in the grade 0, grade 1 and grade 2. Conclusions: The FSHD patients have poor oral

  5. Structure of the afferent terminals in terminal ganglion of a cricket and persistent homology.

    Jacob Brown

    Full Text Available We use topological data analysis to investigate the three dimensional spatial structure of the locus of afferent neuron terminals in crickets Acheta domesticus. Each afferent neuron innervates a filiform hair positioned on a cercus: a protruding appendage at the rear of the animal. The hairs transduce air motion to the neuron signal that is used by a cricket to respond to the environment. We stratify the hairs (and the corresponding afferent terminals into classes depending on hair length, along with position. Our analysis uncovers significant structure in the relative position of these terminal classes and suggests the functional relevance of this structure. Our method is very robust to the presence of significant experimental and developmental noise. It can be used to analyze a wide range of other point cloud data sets.

  6. Peptide and lipid modulation of glutamatergic afferent synaptic transmission in the solitary tract nucleus

    Michael C. Andresen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS holds the first central neurons in major homeostatic reflex pathways. These homeostatic reflexes regulate and coordinate multiple organ systems from gastrointestinal to cardiopulmonary functions. The core of many of these pathways arise from cranial visceral afferent neurons that enter the brain as the solitary tract (ST with more than two-thirds arising from the gastrointestinal system. About one quarter of ST afferents have myelinated axons but the majority are classed as unmyelinated C-fibers. All ST afferents release the fast neurotransmitter glutamate with remarkably similar, high-probability release characteristics. Second order NTS neurons receive surprisingly limited primary afferent information with one or two individual inputs converging on single second order NTS neurons. A- and C-fiber afferents never mix at NTS second order neurons. Many transmitters modify the basic glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC often by reducing glutamate release or interrupting terminal depolarization. Thus, a distinguishing feature of ST transmission is presynaptic expression of G-protein coupled receptors for peptides common to peripheral or forebrain (e.g. hypothalamus neuron sources. Presynaptic receptors for angiotensin (AT1, vasopressin (V1a, oxytocin (OT, opioid (MOR, ghrelin (GHSR1 and cholecystokinin (CCK differentially control glutamate release on particular subsets of neurons with most other ST afferents unaffected. Lastly, lipid-like signals are transduced by two key ST presynaptic receptors, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 and the cannabinoid receptor (CB1 that oppositely control glutamate release. Increasing evidence suggests that peripheral nervous signaling mechanisms are repurposed at central terminals to control excitation and are major sites of signal integration of peripheral and central inputs particularly from the hypothalamus.

  7. Information analysis of posterior canal afferents in the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Rowe, Michael H; Neiman, Alexander B

    2012-01-24

    We have used sinusoidal and band-limited Gaussian noise stimuli along with information measures to characterize the linear and non-linear responses of morpho-physiologically identified posterior canal (PC) afferents and to examine the relationship between mutual information rate and other physiological parameters. Our major findings are: 1) spike generation in most PC afferents is effectively a stochastic renewal process, and spontaneous discharges are fully characterized by their first order statistics; 2) a regular discharge, as measured by normalized coefficient of variation (cv*), reduces intrinsic noise in afferent discharges at frequencies below the mean firing rate; 3) coherence and mutual information rates, calculated from responses to band-limited Gaussian noise, are jointly determined by gain and intrinsic noise (discharge regularity), the two major determinants of signal to noise ratio in the afferent response; 4) measures of optimal non-linear encoding were only moderately greater than optimal linear encoding, indicating that linear stimulus encoding is limited primarily by internal noise rather than by non-linearities; and 5) a leaky integrate and fire model reproduces these results and supports the suggestion that the combination of high discharge regularity and high discharge rates serves to extend the linear encoding range of afferents to higher frequencies. These results provide a framework for future assessments of afferent encoding of signals generated during natural head movements and for comparison with coding strategies used by other sensory systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neural Coding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of oculomotor nerve afferents on central endings of primary trigeminal fibers.

    Manni, E; Bortolami, R; Pettorossi, V E; Lucchi, M L; Callegari, E; Draicchio, F

    1987-12-01

    Painful fibers running in the third nerve and originating from the ophthalmic trigeminal area send their central projections at level of substantia gelatinosa of nucleus caudalis trigemini. The central endings of these fibers form axoaxonic synapses with trigeminal fibers entering the brain stem through the trigeminal root. The effect of electrical stimulation of the third nerve central stump on the central endings of trigeminal afferent fibers consists in an increased excitability, possibly resulting in a presynaptic inhibition. This inhibitory influence is due to both direct and indirect connections of the third nerve afferent fibers with the trigeminal ones.

  9. Can palpation-induced muscle pain pattern contribute to the differential diagnosis among temporomandibular disorders, primary headaches phenotypes and possible bruxism?

    Costa, Yuri-Martins; Porporatti, André-Luís; Calderon, Patrícia-dos-Santos; Conti, Paulo-César-Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo-Rigoldi

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of possible differences in the distribution or characteristics of palpation-induced pain in the masticatory muscles could be valuable in terms of diagnostic assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different combinations of anterior temporalis (AT) and masseter palpation-induced pain in the diagnostic of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), primary headaches and bruxism. A total of 1200 dental records of orofacial pain adult patients were analyzed. The outcomes were dichotomously classified (presence/absence) as following: a) AT and/or masseter palpation-induced pain; b) myogenous TMD; c) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia (arthrogenous TMD); d) migraine; e) tension-type headache (TTH); f) self-reported bruxism. Binomial logistic regression model (α = 5%) was applied to the data considering the palpation-induced muscle pain as the dependent variable. Mean age (SD) were 35.7 years (13.4) for 635 included dental records (83% females). Myogenous and arthrogenous TMD, migraine, TTH and bruxism were mainly associated with, respectively, masseter palpation-induced pain (pbruxism.

  10. Dystrophic changes in masticatory muscles related chewing problems and malocclusions in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    van den Engel-Hoek, L; de Groot, I J M; Sie, L T; van Bruggen, H W; de Groot, S A F; Erasmus, C E; van Alfen, N

    2016-06-01

    Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) worsens with age, with increasingly effortful mastication. The aims of this study were to describe mastication problems in consecutive stages in a group of patients with DMD and to determine related pathophysiological aspects of masticatory muscle structure, tongue thickness, bite force and dental characteristics. Data from 72 patients with DMD (4.3 to 28.0 years), divided into four clinical stages, were collected in a cross sectional study. Problems with mastication and the need for food adaptations, in combination with increased echogenicity of the masseter muscle, were already found in the early stages of the disease. A high percentage of open bites and cross bites were found, especially in the later stages. Tongue hypertrophy also increased over time. Increased dysfunction, reflected by increasingly abnormal echogenicity, of the masseter muscle and reduced occlusal contacts (anterior and posterior open bites) were mainly responsible for the hampered chewing. In all, this study shows the increasing involvement of various elements of the masticatory system in progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To prevent choking and also nutritional deficiency, early detection of chewing problems by asking about feeding and mastication problems, as well as asking about food adaptations made, is essential and can lead to timely intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of afferent feedback and descending drive to human hopping

    Zuur, Abraham T.; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    During hopping an early burst can be observed in the EMG from the soleus muscle starting about 45 ms after touch-down. It may be speculated that this early EMG burst is a stretch reflex response superimposed on activity from a supra-spinal origin. We hypothesised that if a stretch reflex indeed...... contributes to the early EMG burst, then advancing or delaying the touch-down without the subject's knowledge should similarly advance or delay the burst. This was indeed the case when touch-down was advanced or delayed by shifting the height of a programmable platform up or down between two hops...... and this resulted in a correspondent shift of the early EMG burst. Our second hypothesis was that the motor cortex contributes to the first EMG burst during hopping. If so, inhibition of the motor cortex would reduce the magnitude of the burst. By applying a low-intensity magnetic stimulus it was possible...

  12. Profiling of G protein-coupled receptors in vagal afferents reveals novel gut-to-brain sensing mechanisms.

    Egerod, Kristoffer L; Petersen, Natalia; Timshel, Pascal N; Rekling, Jens C; Wang, Yibing; Liu, Qinghua; Schwartz, Thue W; Gautron, Laurent

    2018-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) act as transmembrane molecular sensors of neurotransmitters, hormones, nutrients, and metabolites. Because unmyelinated vagal afferents richly innervate the gastrointestinal mucosa, gut-derived molecules may directly modulate the activity of vagal afferents through GPCRs. However, the types of GPCRs expressed in vagal afferents are largely unknown. Here, we determined the expression profile of all GPCRs expressed in vagal afferents of the mouse, with a special emphasis on those innervating the gastrointestinal tract. Using a combination of high-throughput quantitative PCR, RNA sequencing, and in situ hybridization, we systematically quantified GPCRs expressed in vagal unmyelinated Na v 1.8-expressing afferents. GPCRs for gut hormones that were the most enriched in Na v 1.8-expressing vagal unmyelinated afferents included NTSR1, NPY2R, CCK1R, and to a lesser extent, GLP1R, but not GHSR and GIPR. Interestingly, both GLP1R and NPY2R were coexpressed with CCK1R. In contrast, NTSR1 was coexpressed with GPR65, a marker preferentially enriched in intestinal mucosal afferents. Only few microbiome-derived metabolite sensors such as GPR35 and, to a lesser extent, GPR119 and CaSR were identified in the Na v 1.8-expressing vagal afferents. GPCRs involved in lipid sensing and inflammation (e.g. CB1R, CYSLTR2, PTGER4), and neurotransmitters signaling (CHRM4, DRD2, CRHR2) were also highly enriched in Na v 1.8-expressing neurons. Finally, we identified 21 orphan GPCRs with unknown functions in vagal afferents. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive description of GPCR-dependent sensing mechanisms in vagal afferents, including novel coexpression patterns, and conceivably coaction of key receptors for gut-derived molecules involved in gut-brain communication. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationships between myonuclear domain size and fibre properties in the muscles of Thoroughbred horses.

    Kawai, M; Kuwano, A; Hiraga, A; Miyata, H

    2010-11-01

    The myonuclear domain (MND) is the region of cytoplasm governed by a single myonucleus. Myonuclear domain size is an important factor for muscle fibre plasticity because each myonucleus has limitations in the capacity of protein synthesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that differences in MND size exist in different fibre types in several species, including horses. To understand the basic mechanism of muscle plasticity, the relationships between MND size, muscle fibre type population and metabolic properties of skeletal muscles throughout the whole body in Thoroughbred horses were examined. Post mortem samples were taken from 20 muscles in 3 Thoroughbred horses aged 3-5 years of age. Fibre type population was determined on serial cross sections of each muscle sample, stained for monoclonal antibodies to each myosin heavy chain isoform. Oxidative (succinic dehydrogenase; SDH) and glycolytic (phosphofructokinase; PFK) enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically in each muscle sample. Furthermore, 30 single fibres were isolated from each muscle under stereomicroscopy and then fibre volume and myonuclear number for a given length analysed under confocal microscopy. The MND size of each single fibre was measured after normalisation of sarcomere length to 2.8 µm by staining with membrane-specific dye. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that soleus, vastus lateralis and gluteus medius muscles had the highest percentage of type I, IIa and IIx muscle fibre, respectively. Biochemical analysis indicated highest activities of SDH and PFK in diaphragm and longissimus lumborum muscles, respectively. MNDs were largest in the splenius muscle and smallest in the soleus and masseter muscles. Myonuclear domain size is significantly related to type I muscle fibre population, but not to SDH activities of the muscles. The MND size of muscle fibre depends on fibre type population rather than mitochondrial enzyme activities. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Afferent loop syndrome - a case report; Sindrome da alca aferente - relato de um caso

    Borges, Ana Karina Nascimento; Pinheiro, Marco Antonio Lopes; Galvao, Cristine Norwig [Fundacao Pio XII - Hospital do Cancer de Barretos, SP (Brazil)

    2000-02-01

    The afferent loop syndrome occurs in patients with previous gastric surgery for tumor, when there is anastomotic edema, use of inappropriate reconstruction technique for gastro jejunostomy or recurrent gastric cancer. Complaints such jaundice, intermittent abdominal distension associated with pain, and vomiting should be investigated in order to rule out this syndrome. (author)

  15. Na+-independent, nifedipine-resistant rat afferent arteriolar Ca2+ responses to noradrenaline

    Salomonsson, Max; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: In rat afferent arterioles we investigated the role of Na(+) entry in noradrenaline (NA)-induced depolarization and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry together with the importance of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) subfamily for non-voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry. Methods...

  16. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Optic Tectum in the Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the tectum opticum in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied with the HRP method. Following iontophoretic peroxidase injections in several parts of the rectum anterograde transport of the enzyme revealed tectal projections to the lateral geniculate

  17. Vasodilatation of afferent arterioles and paradoxical increase of renal vascular resistance by furosemide in mice

    Oppermann, Mona; Hansen, Pernille B; Castrop, Hayo

    2007-01-01

    Loop diuretics like furosemide have been shown to cause renal vasodilatation in dogs and humans, an effect thought to result from both a direct vascular dilator effect and from inhibition of tubuloglomerular feedback. In isolated perfused afferent arterioles preconstricted with angiotensin II or ...

  18. Mechanoreceptor afferent activity compared with receptor field dimensions and pressure changes in feline urinary bladder.

    Downie, J W; Armour, J A

    1992-11-01

    The relationship between vesical mechanoreceptor field dimensions and afferent nerve activity recorded in pelvic plexus nerve filaments was examined in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Orthogonal receptor field dimensions were monitored with piezoelectric ultrasonic crystals. Reflexly generated bladder contractile activity made measurements difficult, therefore data were collected from cats subjected to actual sacral rhizotomy. Afferent activity was episodic and was initiated at different pressure and receptor field dimension thresholds. Maximum afferent activity did not correlate with maximum volume or pressure. Furthermore, activity was not linearly related to intravesical pressure, receptor field dimensions, or calculated wall tension. Pressure-length hysteresis of the receptor fields occurred. The responses of identified afferent units and their associated receptor field dimensions to brief contractions elicited by the ganglion stimulant 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (2.5-20 micrograms i.a.), studied under constant volume or constant pressure conditions, are compatible with bladder mechanoreceptors behaving as tension receptors. Because activity generated by bladder mechanoreceptors did not correlate in a simple fashion with intravesical pressure or receptor field dimensions, it is concluded that such receptors are influenced by the viscoelastic properties of the bladder wall. Furthermore, as a result of the heterogeneity of the bladder wall, receptor field tension appears to offer a more precise relationship with the activity of bladder wall mechanoreceptors than does intravesical pressure.

  19. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of masticatory muscles spasticity in children with cerebral palsy

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Gouw-Soares, Sheila Cynthia; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão; Frigo, Lucio; Baeder, Fernando Martins

    2016-02-01

    Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently present in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the spasticity of the masseter and anterior temporal muscle fibers in children with CP over three weeks of intermittent laser exposures. The bite force (BF) of the masticatory muscles and the amplitude of mouth opening were evaluated before and after laser irradiation in 30 children with CP. Both sides of the masseter and temporalis muscles were irradiated with low-intensity diode laser pulses of 808-nm wavelength six times over three consecutive weeks. During the subsequent three weeks of postlaser exposures, although no laser treatment was applied, the evaluation parameters were measured and recorded. A significant improvement in the amplitude of mouth opening and a decrease in the BF were observed in the weeks following LLLT (Peffective short-term therapeutic tool. This method increased the amplitude of mouth opening and decreased the muscle tonus of children with spastic CP over a time course of three weeks of intermittent laser applications.

  20. Cortical Presynaptic Control of Dorsal Horn C–Afferents in the Rat

    Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Condés-Lara, Miguel; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Lamina 5 sensorimotor cortex pyramidal neurons project to the spinal cord, participating in the modulation of several modalities of information transmission. A well-studied mechanism by which the corticospinal projection modulates sensory information is primary afferent depolarization, which has been characterized in fast muscular and cutaneous, but not in slow-conducting nociceptive skin afferents. Here we investigated whether the inhibition of nociceptive sensory information, produced by activation of the sensorimotor cortex, involves a direct presynaptic modulation of C primary afferents. In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, we analyzed the effects of sensorimotor cortex activation on post tetanic potentiation (PTP) and the paired pulse ratio (PPR) of dorsal horn field potentials evoked by C–fiber stimulation in the sural (SU) and sciatic (SC) nerves. We also explored the time course of the excitability changes in nociceptive afferents produced by cortical stimulation. We observed that the development of PTP was completely blocked when C-fiber tetanic stimulation was paired with cortex stimulation. In addition, sensorimotor cortex activation by topical administration of bicuculline (BIC) produced a reduction in the amplitude of C–fiber responses, as well as an increase in the PPR. Furthermore, increases in the intraspinal excitability of slow-conducting fiber terminals, produced by sensorimotor cortex stimulation, were indicative of primary afferent depolarization. Topical administration of BIC in the spinal cord blocked the inhibition of C–fiber neuronal responses produced by cortical stimulation. Dorsal horn neurons responding to sensorimotor cortex stimulation also exhibited a peripheral receptive field and responded to stimulation of fast cutaneous myelinated fibers. Our results suggest that corticospinal inhibition of nociceptive responses is due in part to a modulation of the excitability of primary C–fibers by means of GABAergic inhibitory

  1. Spinal afferent neurons projecting to the rat lung and pleura express acid sensitive channels

    Kummer Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid sensitive ion channels TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 and ASIC3 (acid sensing ion channel-3 respond to tissue acidification in the range that occurs during painful conditions such as inflammation and ischemia. Here, we investigated to which extent they are expressed by rat dorsal root ganglion neurons projecting to lung and pleura, respectively. Methods The tracer DiI was either injected into the left lung or applied to the costal pleura. Retrogradely labelled dorsal root ganglion neurons were subjected to triple-labelling immunohistochemistry using antisera against TRPV1, ASIC3 and neurofilament 68 (marker for myelinated neurons, and their soma diameter was measured. Results Whereas 22% of pulmonary spinal afferents contained neither channel-immunoreactivity, at least one is expressed by 97% of pleural afferents. TRPV1+/ASIC3- neurons with probably slow conduction velocity (small soma, neurofilament 68-negative were significantly more frequent among pleural (35% than pulmonary afferents (20%. TRPV1+/ASIC3+ neurons amounted to 14 and 10% respectively. TRPV1-/ASIC3+ neurons made up between 44% (lung and 48% (pleura of neurons, and half of them presumably conducted in the A-fibre range (larger soma, neurofilament 68-positive. Conclusion Rat pleural and pulmonary spinal afferents express at least two different acid-sensitive channels that make them suitable to monitor tissue acidification. Patterns of co-expression and structural markers define neuronal subgroups that can be inferred to subserve different functions and may initiate specific reflex responses. The higher prevalence of TRPV1+/ASIC3- neurons among pleural afferents probably reflects the high sensitivity of the parietal pleura to painful stimuli.

  2. Congenital muscle dystrophy and diet consistency affect mouse skull shape differently.

    Spassov, Alexander; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Krautwald, Mirjam; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Kupczik, Kornelius

    2017-11-01

    The bones of the mammalian skull respond plastically to changes in masticatory function. However, the extent to which muscle function affects the growth and development of the skull, whose regions have different maturity patterns, remains unclear. Using muscle dissection and 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics we investigated the effect of changes in muscle function established either before or after weaning, on skull shape and muscle mass in adult mice. We compared temporalis and masseter mass and skull shape in mice with a congenital muscle dystrophy (mdx) and wild type (wt) mice fed on either a hard or a soft diet. We found that dystrophy and diet have distinct effects on the morphology of the skull and the masticatory muscles. Mdx mice show a flattened neurocranium with a more dorsally displaced foramen magnum and an anteriorly placed mandibular condyle compared with wt mice. Compared with hard diet mice, soft diet mice had lower masseter mass and a face with more gracile features as well as labially inclined incisors, suggesting reduced bite strength. Thus, while the early-maturing neurocranium and the posterior portion of the mandible are affected by the congenital dystrophy, the late-maturing face including the anterior part of the mandible responds to dietary differences irrespective of the mdx mutation. Our study confirms a hierarchical, tripartite organisation of the skull (comprising neurocranium, face and mandible) with a modular division based on development and function. Moreover, we provide further experimental evidence that masticatory loading is one of the main environmental stimuli that generate craniofacial variation. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  3. TRPV1 Channels and Gastric Vagal Afferent Signalling in Lean and High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

    Stephen J Kentish

    Full Text Available Within the gastrointestinal tract vagal afferents play a role in control of food intake and satiety signalling. Activation of mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents induces satiety. However, gastric vagal afferent responses to mechanical stretch are reduced in high fat diet mice. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1 are expressed in vagal afferents and knockout of TRPV1 reduces gastro-oesophageal vagal afferent responses to stretch. We aimed to determine the role of TRPV1 on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity and food intake in lean and HFD-induced obese mice.TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet or high fat diet for 20wks. Gastric emptying of a solid meal and gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity was determined.Gastric emptying was delayed in high fat diet mice but there was no difference between TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice on either diet. TRPV1 mRNA expression in whole nodose ganglia of TRPV1+/+ mice was similar in both dietary groups. The TRPV1 agonist N-oleoyldopamine potentiated the response of tension receptors in standard laboratory diet but not high fat diet mice. Food intake was greater in the standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- compared to TRPV1+/+ mice. This was associated with reduced response of tension receptors to stretch in standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- mice. Tension receptor responses to stretch were decreased in high fat diet compared to standard laboratory diet TRPV1+/+ mice; an effect not observed in TRPV1-/- mice. Disruption of TRPV1 had no effect on the response of mucosal receptors to mucosal stroking in mice on either diet.TRPV1 channels selectively modulate gastric vagal afferent tension receptor mechanosensitivity and may mediate the reduction in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in high fat diet-induced obesity.

  4. Vibration sensitivity of human muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs.

    Fallon, James B; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2007-07-01

    The responses of the various muscle receptors to vibration are more complicated than a naïve categorization into stretch (muscle spindle primary ending), length (muscle spindle secondary endings), and tension (Golgi tendon organs) receptors. To emphasize the similarity of responses to small length changes, we recorded from 58 individual muscle afferents subserving receptors in the ankle or toe dorsiflexors of awake human subjects (32 primary endings, 20 secondary endings, and six Golgi tendon organs). Transverse sinusoidal vibration was applied to the distal tendon of the receptor-bearing muscle, while subjects either remained completely relaxed or maintained a weak isometric contraction of the appropriate muscle. In relaxed muscle, few units responded in a 1:1 manner to vibration, and there was no evidence of a preferred frequency of activation. In active muscle the response profiles of all three receptor types overlapped, with no significant difference in threshold between receptor types. These results emphasize that when intramuscular tension increases during a voluntary contraction, Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindle secondary endings, not just muscle spindle primary endings, can effectively encode small imposed length changes.

  5. Amino acids augment muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs during acute endotoxemia by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation.

    Orellana, Renán A; Jeyapalan, Asumthia; Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Nguyen, Hanh V; Suryawan, Agus; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-11-01

    In skeletal muscle of adults, sepsis reduces protein synthesis by depressing translation initiation and induces resistance to branched-chain amino acid stimulation. Normal neonates maintain a high basal muscle protein synthesis rate that is sensitive to amino acid stimulation. In the present study, we determined the effect of amino acids on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues in septic neonates. Overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with endotoxin (LPS, 0 and 10 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)), whereas glucose and insulin were maintained at fasting levels; amino acids were clamped at fasting or fed levels. In the presence of fasting insulin and amino acids, LPS reduced protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi (LD) and gastrocnemius muscles and increased protein synthesis in the diaphragm, but had no effect in masseter and heart muscles. Increasing amino acids to fed levels accelerated muscle protein synthesis in LD, gastrocnemius, masseter, and diaphragm. LPS stimulated protein synthesis in liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, and kidney in fasted animals. Raising amino acids to fed levels increased protein synthesis in liver of controls, but not LPS-treated animals. The increase in muscle protein synthesis in response to amino acids was associated with increased mTOR, 4E-BP1, and S6K1 phosphorylation and eIF4G-eIF4E association in control and LPS-infused animals. These findings suggest that amino acids stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis during acute endotoxemia via mTOR-dependent ribosomal assembly despite reduced basal protein synthesis rates in neonatal pigs. However, provision of amino acids does not further enhance the LPS-induced increase in liver protein synthesis.

  6. Effects of mouthguards on vertical dimension, muscle activation, and athlete preference: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    Gage, C Colby; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C; Bay, R Curtis; Sturgill, Jeremiah S; Park, Jae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular repositioning and subsequent neuromuscular signaling are proposed mechanisms of action for commercial mouthguards marketed for performance enhancement. A prospective cross-sectional study of 24 healthy adult weightlifters with normal occlusal relationships was designed to determine whether 2 self-fit performance mouthguards; a custom-fabricated, bilaterally balanced, dual-laminated mouthguard; and no mouthguard (control) differed in their effects on vertical dimension, muscle activation, and user preference during a 75% maximum power clean lift. Each subject was tested for each of the mouthguard categories: Power Balance POWERUP, Under Armour ArmourBite, custom, and no mouthguard. Interocclusal distance was measured at baseline and with each mouthguard. Mean and peak activity of the anterior temporalis, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, and cervical paraspinal muscles was measured during sitting and during a 75% maximum power clean lift. A mouthguard preference questionnaire was completed. Analyses were conducted to determine whether interocclusal distance differed among mouthguard type and to examine the effect of mouthguard type on mean and peak muscle activation during the clean lift. Interocclusal distance was affected by mouthguard type (P = 0.01). Mean and peak activity of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles and mean activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle differed among mouthguards (P < 0.05). Mouthguard type did not influence muscle activation of the cervical paraspinal muscle group. Overall, the Power Balance mouthguard produced more muscle activity. Participants preferred custom mouthguards nearly 2:1 over self-fit performance mouthguards (P = 0.05). Participants perceived that they were stronger and were less encumbered when using a custom mouthguard during submaximum power clean lifts.

  7. Evaluation of jaw and neck muscle activities while chewing using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in healthy subjects.

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Narita, Noriyuki; Endo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantitatively clarify the physiological features in rhythmically coordinated jaw and neck muscle EMG activities while chewing gum using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in 20 healthy subjects. The chewing side masseter muscle EMG signal was used as the reference signal, while the other jaw (non-chewing side masseter muscle, bilateral anterior temporal muscles, and bilateral anterior digastric muscles) and neck muscle (bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles) EMG signals were used as the examined signals in EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses. Chewing-related jaw and neck muscle activities were aggregated in the first peak of the power spectrum in rhythmic chewing. The gain in the peak frequency represented the power relationships between jaw and neck muscle activities during rhythmic chewing. The phase in the peak frequency represented the temporal relationships between the jaw and neck muscle activities, while the non-chewing side neck muscle presented a broad range of distributions across jaw closing and opening phases. Coherence in the peak frequency represented the synergistic features in bilateral jaw closing muscles and chewing side neck muscle activities. The coherence and phase in non-chewing side neck muscle activities exhibited a significant negative correlation. From above, the bilateral coordination between the jaw and neck muscle activities is estimated while chewing when the non-chewing side neck muscle is synchronously activated with the jaw closing muscles, while the unilateral coordination is estimated when the non-chewing side neck muscle is irregularly activated in the jaw opening phase. Thus, the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral coordinated features in the jaw and neck muscle activities may correspond to the phase characteristics in the non-chewing side neck muscle activities during rhythmical chewing. Considering these novel findings in healthy subjects, EMG

  8. Percutaneous Transhepatic Duodenal Drainage as an Alternative Approach in Afferent Loop Obstruction with Secondary Obstructive Jaundice in Recurrent Gastric Cancer

    Yao, N.-S.; Wu, C.-W.; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Liu, Jacqueline M.; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Chen, L.-T.

    1998-01-01

    Two cases are reported of chronic, partial afferent loop obstruction with resultant obstructive jaundice in recurrent gastric cancer. The diagnosis was made by characteristic clinical presentations, abdominal computed tomography, and cholescintigraphy. Percutaneous transhepatic duodenal drainage (PTDD) provided effective palliation for both afferent loop obstruction and biliary stasis. We conclude that cholescintigraphy is of value in making the diagnosis of partial afferent loop obstruction and in differentiating the cause of obstructive jaundice in such patients, and PTDD provides palliation for those patients in whom surgical intervention is not feasible

  9. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats

    Cao Bing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Progress has been made and suggested that activation of vagal afferents plays a role in the behavioral control nociception and memory storage processes. In human patients, electrical vagus nerve stimulation enhanced retention of verbal learning performance. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK, which is a gastrointestinal hormone released during feeding, has been shown to enhance memory retention. Mice access to food immediately after training session enhanced memory retention. It has been well demonstrated that CCK acting on vagal afferent fibers mediates various physiological functions. We hypothesize that CCK activation of vagal afferent enhances visceral pain-related affective memory. Results In the presented study, infusion of CCK-8 at physiological concentration combining with conditional training significantly increased the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, CCK had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593. The physiological implications were further strengthened by the similar effects observed in the rats with duodenal infusion of 5% peptone, which has been shown to induce increases in plasma CCK levels. CCK-8 receptor antagonist CR-1409 or perivagal application of capsaicin abolished the effect of CCK on aversive visceral pain memory, which was consistent with the notion that vagal afferent modulates affective aspects of visceral pain. CCK does not change

  10. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats.

    Cao, Bing; Zhang, Xu; Yan, Ni; Chen, Shengliang; Li, Ying

    2012-06-09

    Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Progress has been made and suggested that activation of vagal afferents plays a role in the behavioral control nociception and memory storage processes.In human patients, electrical vagus nerve stimulation enhanced retention of verbal learning performance. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK), which is a gastrointestinal hormone released during feeding, has been shown to enhance memory retention. Mice access to food immediately after training session enhanced memory retention. It has been well demonstrated that CCK acting on vagal afferent fibers mediates various physiological functions. We hypothesize that CCK activation of vagal afferent enhances visceral pain-related affective memory. In the presented study, infusion of CCK-8 at physiological concentration combining with conditional training significantly increased the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, CCK had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593). The physiological implications were further strengthened by the similar effects observed in the rats with duodenal infusion of 5% peptone, which has been shown to induce increases in plasma CCK levels. CCK-8 receptor antagonist CR-1409 or perivagal application of capsaicin abolished the effect of CCK on aversive visceral pain memory, which was consistent with the notion that vagal afferent modulates affective aspects of visceral pain. CCK does not change the nociceptive response (visceral pain

  11. Capsaicin-sensitive intestinal mucosal afferent mechanism and body fat distribution.

    Leung, Felix W

    2008-07-04

    This report summarizes clinical and experimental data in support of the hypothesis that capsaicin-sensitive intestinal mucosal afferent mechanism plays a role in regulating body fat distribution. Epidemiological data have revealed that the consumption of foods containing capsaicin is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity. Rural Thai people consume diets containing 0.014% capsaicin. Rodents fed a diet containing 0.014% capsaicin showed no change in caloric intake but a significant 24% and 29% reduction in the visceral (peri-renal) fat weight. Increase in intestinal blood flow facilitates nutrient energy absorption and decrease in adipose tissue blood flow facilitates storage of nutrient energy in adipose tissue. Stimulation of intestinal mucosal afferent nerves increases intestinal blood flow, but decreases visceral (mesenteric) adipost tissue blood flow. In in vitro cell studies capsaicin has a direct effect on adipocytes. Intravenous capsaicin produces measurable plasma level and subcutaneous capsaicin retards accumulation of adipose tissue. The data on a direct effect of oral capsaicin on adipose tissue at remote sites, however, are conflicting. Capsaicin absorbed from the gut lumen is almost completely metabolized before reaching the general circulation. Oral capsaicin significantly increases transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel expression as well as TRPV1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in visceral adipose tissue. In TRPV1 knockout mice on a high fat diet the body weight was not significantly different in the absence or presence of oral capsaicin. In rodent experiments, daily intragastric administration of capsaicin for two weeks led to defunctionalization of intestinal mucosal afferent nerves, manifested by loss of acute mucosal capsaicin-induced effects; but not the corneal afferent nerves, with preservation of the paw wiping reflex of the eye exposed briefly to dilute capsaicin. The latter indicated the absence of an oral

  12. Isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy in a child: a case report with literature review.

    Ranasinghe, Jagath C; Wickramasinghe, Chandani; Rodrigo, Ganganath

    2018-02-19

    Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is a rare entity of masticatory muscle hypertrophy. All types of masticatory muscle hypertrophies have been documented of which temporalis muscle hypertrophy is one. Temporalis muscle hypertrophy is most commonly bilateral and usually associated with other types of masticatory muscles hypertrophy such as masseter or pterygoid hypertrophy. However, isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is extremely rare and only 9 cases have been reported to date in English literature since 1990 with only two patients less than 18 years. There is no exact etiology identified and the diagnosis is made by muscle biopsy combined with imaging study to exclude other possibilities. Age at presentation is ranges from 15 to 65 years with involvement of both sexes. We report the youngest child who is a seven year old girl with right side isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy. In this patient, we discuss the youngest child with isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy and literature review to date. The patient is a seven year old female presenting with painless swelling of the right temporalis muscle. There had no features of inflammation, trauma, neoplasm or history of parafunctions such as bruxism. The child was not complaining significantly headache or visual disturbances as well. She had undergone radiological assessment with ultrasound scan and contrast MRI. The diagnosis was confirmed by muscle biopsy which shows normal muscle architecture. She was managed conservatively with regular follow up. Isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is extremely rare in children. However this case raises the importance of considering alternative diagnoses despite the condition being rare in the pediatric population.

  13. Histological study of the human temporo-mandibular joint and its surrounding muscles.

    Bravetti, P; Membre, H; El Haddioui, A; Gérard, H; Fyard, J P; Mahler, P; Gaudy, J F

    2004-10-01

    This is a histological study of the human temporo-mandibular joint and its surrounding muscles. Using a microscopic study of serial sections from anatomical specimens from six subjects, the detailed anatomy of the joint is presented with particular regard to the histology. This study has allowed, in particular, the description of the ligaments and capsule as well as the insertions of the masticatory muscles (temporalis, masseter, lateral pterygoid) on this joint. These observations are then compared with the anatomical and histological data already reported on this subject. This study shows that the bulk of the muscular fibres of the lateral pterygoid passes under the foot of the disc is attached over the whole height of the condylar, unite and extend as far as the medial pole of the joint under the insertion of the articular disc. An insertion of the temporo-masseter musculo-tendinous complex on the anterior and lateral capsulo-discal structures was observed. The lateral pterygoid is composed of a succession of tendinous and fleshy fibres. This study confirms the thickening of the lateral capsule that corresponds to a lateral collateral ligament, and the absence of a medial collateral ligament. Medial stability is conferred by the lateral ligament of the contralateral joint.

  14. Masticatory Muscle Sleep Background EMG Activity is Elevated in Myofascial TMD Patients

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (pcases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356

  15. Masticatory muscle sleep background electromyographic activity is elevated in myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Wigren, P E; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J

    2013-12-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artefacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non-SB event periods was significantly higher (P cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0-10 numerical scale) on post-sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Facial dimensions, bite force and masticatory muscle thickness in preschool children with functional posterior crossbite

    Paula Midori Castelo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Posterior crossbite may affect craniofacial growth and development. Thus, this study aimed to associate facial dimensions (by standardized frontal photographs to masseter and anterior portion of the temporal muscle thickness (by ultrasonography and maximal bilateral bite force in 49 children with deciduous and early mixed dentitions. They were distributed in four groups: deciduous-normal occlusion (DNO, n = 15, deciduous-crossbite (DCB, n = 10, mixed-normal occlusion (MNO, n = 13 and mixed-crossbite (MCB, n = 11. Anterior facial height (AFH, bizygomatic width (FWB, and intergonial width (FWI were determined and associated with muscle thickness and bite force, applying Pearson’s coefficients and multiple logistic regression, with age, gender, body weight and height as the covariates. FWB and FWI were correlated positively with the masseter thickness, whereas AFH/FWB and AFH/FWI ratios had negative correlation, except in the DNO group. The correlation between AFH/FWB and bite force in the MCB group was significantly negative. A higher AFH/FWB in MNO and MCB led to a significantly higher probability for functional crossbite development. In the studied sample, it was observed that children in the early mixed dentition with a long-face trend showed lower bite force and higher probability to present functional posterior crossbite, without significant influence of the covariates.

  17. Muscle Contraction.

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. A comparative analysis of the encapsulated end-organs of mammalian skeletal muscles and of their sensory nerve endings.

    Banks, R W; Hulliger, M; Saed, H H; Stacey, M J

    2009-06-01

    The encapsulated sensory endings of mammalian skeletal muscles are all mechanoreceptors. At the most basic functional level they serve as length sensors (muscle spindle primary and secondary endings), tension sensors (tendon organs), and pressure or vibration sensors (lamellated corpuscles). At a higher functional level, the differing roles of individual muscles in, for example, postural adjustment and locomotion might be expected to be reflected in characteristic complements of the various end-organs, their sensory endings and afferent nerve fibres. This has previously been demonstrated with regard to the number of muscle-spindle capsules; however, information on the other types of end-organ, as well as the complements of primary and secondary endings of the spindles themselves, is sporadic and inconclusive regarding their comparative provision in different muscles. Our general conclusion that muscle-specific variability in the provision of encapsulated sensory endings does exist demonstrates the necessity for the acquisition of more data of this type if we are to understand the underlying adaptive relationships between motor control and the structure and function of skeletal muscle. The present quantitative and comparative analysis of encapsulated muscle afferents is based on teased, silver-impregnated preparations. We begin with a statistical analysis of the number and distribution of muscle-spindle afferents in hind-limb muscles of the cat, particularly tenuissimus. We show that: (i) taking account of the necessity for at least one primary ending to be present, muscles differ significantly in the mean number of additional afferents per spindle capsule; (ii) the frequency of occurrence of spindles with different sensory complements is consistent with a stochastic, rather than deterministic, developmental process; and (iii) notwithstanding the previous finding, there is a differential distribution of spindles intramuscularly such that the more complex ones tend

  19. Rimonabant induced anorexia in rodents is not mediated by vagal or sympathetic gut afferents

    Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Jelsing, Jacob; van de Wall, Esther H E M

    2009-01-01

    The selective CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is a novel weight control agent. Although CB1 receptors and binding sites are present in both the rodent central and peripheral nervous systems, including the afferent vagus nerve, the role of gut afferents in mediating anorexia following CB1R...... blockade is still debated. In the present study we examined rimonabant-induced anorexia in male C57BL/6J mice with subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) as well as in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to either subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) alone or in combination with a complete celiac...... system, are required for rimonabant to inhibit food intake leading to the hypothesis that centrally located CB1 receptors are the prime mediators of rimonabant-induced anorexia....

  20. Immobilization induces changes in presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in healthy humans

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    immobilized the left foot and ankle joint for 2 weeks in 12 able-bodied subjects. Disynaptic reciprocal inhibition of soleus (SOL) motoneurones and presynaptic control of SOL group Ia afferents was measured before and after the immobilization as well as following 2 weeks of recovery. Following immobilization...... maximal voluntary plantar- and dorsiflexion torque (MVC) was significantly reduced and the maximal SOL H-reflex amplitude increased with no changes in Mmax. Decreased presynaptic inhibition of the Ia afferents likely contributed to the increase of the H-reflex size, since we observed a significant...... decrease in the long-latency depression of the SOL H-reflex evoked by peroneal nerve stimulation (D2 inhibition) and an increase in the size of the monosynaptic Ia facilitation of the SOL H-reflex evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. These two measures provide independent evidence of changes in presynaptic...

  1. Persistent pain after spinal cord injury is maintained by primary afferent activity.

    Yang, Qing; Wu, Zizhen; Hadden, Julia K; Odem, Max A; Zuo, Yan; Crook, Robyn J; Frost, Jeffrey A; Walters, Edgar T

    2014-08-06

    Chronic pain caused by insults to the CNS (central neuropathic pain) is widely assumed to be maintained exclusively by central mechanisms. However, chronic hyperexcitablility occurs in primary nociceptors after spinal cord injury (SCI), suggesting that SCI pain also depends upon continuing activity of peripheral sensory neurons. The present study in rats (Rattus norvegicus) found persistent upregulation after SCI of protein, but not mRNA, for a voltage-gated Na(+) channel, Nav1.8, that is expressed almost exclusively in primary afferent neurons. Selectively knocking down Nav1.8 after SCI suppressed spontaneous activity in dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons, reversed hypersensitivity of hindlimb withdrawal reflexes, and reduced ongoing pain assessed by a conditioned place preference test. These results show that activity in primary afferent neurons contributes to ongoing SCI pain. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410765-05$15.00/0.

  2. Primary afferent terminal sprouting after a cervical dorsal rootlet section in the macaque monkey.

    Darian-Smith, Corinna

    2004-03-01

    We examined the role of primary afferent neurons in the somatosensory cortical "reactivation" that occurs after a localized cervical dorsal root lesion (Darian-Smith and Brown [2000] Nat. Neurosci. 3:476-481). After section of the dorsal rootlets that enervate the macaque's thumb and index finger (segments C6-C8), the cortical representation of these digits was initially silenced but then re-emerged for these same digits over 2-4 postlesion months. Cortical reactivation was accompanied by the emergence of physiologically detectable input from these same digits within dorsal rootlets bordering the lesion site. We investigated whether central axonal sprouting of primary afferents spared by the rhizotomy could mediate this cortical reactivation. The cortical representation of the hand was mapped electrophysiologically 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section to define this reactivation. Cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was then injected into the thumb and index finger pads bilaterally to label the central terminals of any neurons that innervated these digits. Primary afferent terminal proliferation was assessed in the spinal dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 7 days and 15-25 postlesion weeks. Labeled terminal bouton distributions were reconstructed and the "lesion" and control sides compared within each monkey. Distributions were significantly larger on the side of the lesion in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section, than those mapped only 7 days postlesion. Our results provide direct evidence for localized sprouting of spared (uninjured) primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus after a restricted dorsal root injury. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Cortex-Amygdala Transition Zone in Mice.

    Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Abellán-Álvaro, María; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The transitional zone between the ventral part of the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical nucleus of the amygdala, named the cortex-amygdala transition zone (CxA), shows two differential features that allow its identification as a particular structure. First, it receives dense cholinergic and dopaminergic innervations as compared to the adjacent piriform cortex and amygdala, and second, it receives projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. In this work we have studied the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the CxA, which are mainly unknown, by using the retrograde tracer Fluorogold and the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextranamine. The results show that the CxA receives a relatively restricted set of intratelencephalic connections, originated mainly by the olfactory system and basal forebrain, with minor afferents from the amygdala. The only relevant extratelencephalic afference originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The efferent projections of the CxA reciprocate the inputs from the piriform cortex and olfactory amygdala. In addition, the CxA projects densely to the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and the olfactory tubercle. The extratelencephalic projections of the CxA are very scarce, and target mainly hypothalamic structures. The pattern of connections of the CxA suggests that it is indeed a transitional area between the piriform cortex and the cortical amygdala. Double labeling with choline acetyltransferase indicates that the afferent projection from the basal forebrain is the origin of its distinctive cholinergic innervation, and double labeling with dopamine transporter shows that the projection from the VTA is the source of dopaminergic innervation. These connectivity and neurochemical features, together with the fact that it receives vomeronasal in addition to olfactory information, suggest that the CxA may be involved in processing olfactory information endowed with relevant biological meaning, such as odors

  4. Afferent projections to the different medial amygdala subdivisions: a retrograde tracing study in the mouse.

    Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Otero-García, Marcos; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) is a key node in the socio-sexual brain, composed of anterior (MeA), posteroventral (MePV) and posterodorsal (MePD) subdivisions. These subdivisions have been suggested to play a different role in reproductive and defensive behaviours. In the present work we analyse the afferents of the three Me subdivisions using restricted injections of fluorogold in female outbred CD1 mice. The results reveal that the MeA, MePV and MePD share a common pattern of afferents, with some differences in the density of retrograde labelling in several nuclei. Common afferents to Me subdivisions include: the accessory olfactory bulbs, piriform cortex and endopiriform nucleus, chemosensory amygdala (receiving direct inputs from the olfactory bulbs), posterior part of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM), CA1 in the ventral hippocampus and posterior intralaminar thalamus. Minor projections originate from the basolateral amygdala and amygdalo-hippocampal area, septum, ventral striatum, several allocortical and periallocortical areas, claustrum, several hypothalamic structures, raphe and parabrachial complex. MeA and MePV share minor inputs from the frontal cortex (medial orbital, prelimbic, infralimbic and dorsal peduncular cortices), but differ in the lack of main olfactory projections to the MePV. By contrast, the MePD receives preferential projections from the rostral accessory olfactory bulb, the posteromedial BSTM and the ventral premammillary nucleus. In summary, the common pattern of afferents to the Me subdivisions and their interconnections suggest that they play cooperative instead of differential roles in the various behaviours (e.g., sociosexual, defensive) in which the Me has been shown to be involved.

  5. Somatic modulation of spinal reflex bladder activity mediated by nociceptive bladder afferent nerve fibers in cats.

    Xiao, Zhiying; Rogers, Marc J; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-09-15

    The goal of the present study was to determine if supraspinal pathways are necessary for inhibition of bladder reflex activity induced by activation of somatic afferents in the pudendal or tibial nerve. Cats anesthetized with α-chloralose were studied after acute spinal cord transection at the thoracic T9/T10 level. Dilute (0.25%) acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder, activate nociceptive afferent C-fibers, and trigger spinal reflex bladder contractions (amplitude: 19.3 ± 2.9 cmH2O). Hexamethonium (a ganglionic blocker, intravenously) significantly (P reflex bladder contractions to 8.5 ± 1.9 cmH2O. Injection of lidocaine (2%, 1-2 ml) into the sacral spinal cord or transection of the sacral spinal roots and spinal cord further reduced the contraction amplitude to 4.2 ± 1.3 cmH2O. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) at frequencies of 0.5-5 Hz and 40 Hz but not at 10-20 Hz inhibited reflex bladder contractions, whereas tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) failed to inhibit bladder contractions at all tested frequencies (0.5-40 Hz). These results indicate that PNS inhibition of nociceptive afferent C-fiber-mediated spinal reflex bladder contractions can occur at the spinal level in the absence of supraspinal pathways, but TNS inhibition requires supraspinal pathways. In addition, this study shows, for the first time, that after acute spinal cord transection reflex bladder contractions can be triggered by activating nociceptive bladder afferent C-fibers using acetic acid irritation. Understanding the sites of action for PNS or TNS inhibition is important for the clinical application of pudendal or tibial neuromodulation to treat bladder dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Glucose-dependent trafficking of 5-HT3 receptors in rat gastrointestinal vagal afferent neurons

    Babic, Tanja; Troy, Amanda E; Fortna, Samuel R; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal glucose induces gastric relaxation via vagally mediated sensory-motor reflexes. Glucose can alter the activity of gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferent (sensory) neurons directly, via closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, as well as indirectly, via the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from mucosal enteroendocrine cells. We hypothesized that glucose may also be able to modulate the ability of GI vagal afferent neurons to respond to the released 5-HT, via regulation of neuronal 5-HT3 receptors. Methods Whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from acutely dissociated GI-projecting vagal afferent neurons exposed to equiosmolar Krebs’ solution containing different concentrations of D-glucose (1.25–20mM) and the response to picospritz application of 5-HT assessed. The distribution of 5-HT3 receptors in neurons exposed to different glucose concentrations was also assessed immunohistochemically. Key Results Increasing or decreasing extracellular D-glucose concentration increased or decreased, respectively, the 5-HT-induced inward current as well as the proportion of 5-HT3 receptors associated with the neuronal membrane. These responses were blocked by the Golgi-disrupting agent Brefeldin-A (5µM) suggesting involvement of a protein trafficking pathway. Furthermore, L-glucose did not mimic the response of D-glucose implying that metabolic events downstream of neuronal glucose uptake are required in order to observe the modulation of 5-HT3 receptor mediated responses. Conclusions & Inferences These results suggest that, in addition to inducing the release of 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells, glucose may also increase the ability of GI vagal sensory neurons to respond to the released 5-HT, providing a means by which the vagal afferent signal can be amplified or prolonged. PMID:22845622

  7. The Renal Nerves in Chronic Heart Failure: Afferent and Efferent Mechanisms

    Alicia Marie Schiller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF. Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent

  8. Characterization of spinal afferent neurons projecting to different chambers of the rat heart.

    Guić, Maja Marinović; Kosta, Vana; Aljinović, Jure; Sapunar, Damir; Grković, Ivica

    2010-01-29

    The pattern of distribution of spinal afferent neurons (among dorsal root ganglia-DRGs) that project to anatomically and functionally different chambers of the rat heart, as well as their morphological and neurochemical characteristics were investigated. Retrograde tracing using a patch loaded with Fast blue (FB) was applied to all four chambers of the rat heart and labeled cardiac spinal afferents were characterized by using three neurochemical markers. The majority of cardiac projecting neurons were found from T1 to T4 DRGs, whereas the peak was at T2 DRG. There was no difference in the total number of FB-labeled neurons located in ipsilateral and contralateral DRGs regardless of the chambers marked with the patch. However, significantly more FB-labeled neurons projected to the ventricles compared to the atria (859 vs. 715). The proportion of isolectin B(4) binding in FB-labeled neurons was equal among all neurons projecting to different heart chambers (2.4%). Neurofilament 200 positivity was found in greater proportions in DRG neurons projecting to the left side of the heart, whereas calretinin-immunoreactivity was mostly represented in neurons projecting to the left atrium. Spinal afferent neurons projecting to different chambers of the rat heart exhibit a variety of neurochemical phenotypes depending on binding capacity for isolectin B(4) and immunoreactivity for neurofilament 200 and calretinin, and thus represent important baseline data for future studies. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Afferent and efferent projections of the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus in the mouse.

    Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Abellán-Álvaro, María; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    The anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) is a chemosensory area of the cortical amygdala that receives afferent projections from both the main and accessory olfactory bulbs. The role of this structure is unknown, partially due to a lack of knowledge of its connectivity. In this work, we describe the pattern of afferent and efferent projections of the ACo by using fluorogold and biotinylated dextranamines as retrograde and anterograde tracers, respectively. The results show that the ACo is reciprocally connected with the olfactory system and basal forebrain, as well as with the chemosensory and basomedial amygdala. In addition, it receives dense projections from the midline and posterior intralaminar thalamus, and moderate projections from the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, mesocortical structures and the hippocampal formation. Remarkably, the ACo projects moderately to the central nuclei of the amygdala and anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and densely to the lateral hypothalamus. Finally, minor connections are present with some midbrain and brainstem structures. The afferent projections of the ACo indicate that this nucleus might play a role in emotional learning involving chemosensory stimuli, such as olfactory fear conditioning. The efferent projections confirm this view and, given its direct output to the medial part of the central amygdala and the hypothalamic 'aggression area', suggest that the ACo can initiate defensive and aggressive responses elicited by olfactory or, to a lesser extent, vomeronasal stimuli. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves impairs defence but not rapid repair of rat gastric mucosa.

    Pabst, M A; Schöninkle, E; Holzer, P

    1993-07-01

    Capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones have previously been reported to play a part in gastric mucosal protection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these nociceptive neurones strengthen mucosal defence against injury or promote rapid repair of the damaged mucosa, or both. This hypothesis was examined in anaesthetised rats whose stomachs were perfused with ethanol (25 or 50% in saline, wt/wt) for 30 minutes. The gastric mucosa was inspected 0 and 180 minutes after ethanol had been given at the macroscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopic level. Rapid repair of the ethanol injured gastric mucosa (reduction of deep injury, partial re-epithelialisation of the denuded surface) took place in rats anaesthetised with phenobarbital, but not in those anaesthetised with urethane. Afferent nerve ablation as a result of treating rats with a neurotoxic dose of capsaicin before the experiment significantly aggravated ethanol induced damage as shown by an increase in the area and depth of mucosal erosions. Rapid repair of the injured mucosa, however, as seen in rats anesthetised with phenobarbital 180 minutes after ethanol was given, was similar in capsaicin and vehicle pretreated animals. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones was verified by a depletion of calcitonin gene related peptide from the gastric corpus wall. These findings indicate that nociceptive neurones control mechanisms of defence against acute injury but are not required for rapid repair of injured mucosa.

  11. Merkel cells transduce and encode tactile stimuli to drive Aβ-afferent impulses

    Ikeda, Ryo; Cha, Myeounghoon; Ling, Jennifer; Jia, Zhanfeng; Coyle, Dennis; Gu, Jianguo G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensory systems for detecting tactile stimuli have evolved from touch-sensing nerves in invertebrates to complicated tactile end-organs in mammals. Merkel discs are tactile end-organs consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent nerve endings, and are localized in fingertips, whisker hair follicles and other touch-sensitive spots. Merkel discs transduce touch into slowly adapting impulses to enable tactile discrimination, but their transduction and encoding mechanisms remain unknown. Using rat whisker hair follicles, we show that Merkel cells rather than Aβ-afferent nerve endings are primary sites of tactile transduction, and identify the Piezo2 ion channel as the Merkel cell mechanical transducer. Piezo2 transduces tactile stimuli into Ca2+-action potentials in Merkel cells, which drive Aβ-afferent nerve endings to fire slowly adapting impulses. We further demonstrate that Piezo2 and Ca2+-action potentials in Merkel cells are required for behavioral tactile responses. Our findings provide insights into how tactile end-organs function and have clinical implications for tactile dysfunctions. PMID:24746027

  12. The renal nerves in chronic heart failure: efferent and afferent mechanisms

    Schiller, Alicia M.; Pellegrino, Peter R.; Zucker, Irving H.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent mechanisms. Additional investigation is warranted to fully understand the role of these nerves and their role as a therapeutic target in CHF. PMID:26300788

  13. Psychoactive bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) elicits rapid frequency facilitation in vagal afferents.

    Perez-Burgos, Azucena; Wang, Bingxian; Mao, Yu-Kang; Mistry, Bhavik; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang

    2013-01-15

    Mounting evidence supports the influence of the gut microbiome on the local enteric nervous system and its effects on brain chemistry and relevant behavior. Vagal afferents are involved in some of these effects. We previously showed that ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) caused extensive neurochemical changes in the brain and behavior that were abrogated by prior vagotomy. Because information can be transmitted to the brain via primary afferents encoded as neuronal spike trains, our goal was to record those induced by JB-1 in vagal afferents in the mesenteric nerve bundle and thus determine the nature of the signals sent to the brain. Male Swiss Webster mice jejunal segments were cannulated ex vivo, and serosal and luminal compartments were perfused separately. Bacteria were added intraluminally. We found no evidence for translocation of labeled bacteria across the epithelium during the experiment. We recorded extracellular multi- and single-unit neuronal activity with glass suction pipettes. Within minutes of application, JB-1 increased the constitutive single- and multiunit firing rate of the mesenteric nerve bundle, but Lactobacillus salivarius (a negative control) or media alone were ineffective. JB-1 significantly augmented multiunit discharge responses to an intraluminal distension pressure of 31 hPa. Prior subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished all of the JB-1-evoked effects. This detailed exploration of the neuronal spike firing that encodes behavioral signaling to the brain may be useful to identify effective psychoactive bacteria and thereby offer an alternative new perspective in the field of psychiatry and comorbid conditions.

  14. Physiological properties of afferents to the rat cerebellum during normal development and after postnatal x irradiation

    Puro, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The consequences of an altered cerebellar cortical development on afferent transmission and terminal organization were analyzed in adult rats which had received x irradiation to the cerebellum postnatally. Rats, anesthetized with 0.5 percent halothane, were studied in various ages from day 3 to adult. The ascending mossy and climbing fiber systems were activated by electrical stimulation of the limbs with needle electrodes. Stimulation of the motor cortex activated the descending climbing fiber pathways. Extracellular responses from cerebellar Purkinje cells were observed on an oscilloscope as poststimulus time histograms were constructed ''on-line''. Conclusions and assertions include: (1) Synaptogenesis between incoming afferent fibers and target neurons takes place early in cerebellar cortical development. (2) Mossy fiber transmission is mature before the bulk of cerebellar synaptogenesis occurs. (3) The ascending and descending components of the climbing fiber system mature, with respect to latency, in synchrony. (4) The terminal synaptic organization has little effect on the development of transmission characteristics in these afferent systems. (5) One possible mechanism by which an adult neural structure can have an abnormal synaptic organization is to maintain immature synaptic relationships due to the neonatal loss of interneurons

  15. Anorexia-cachexia syndrome in hepatoma tumour-bearing rats requires the area postrema but not vagal afferents and is paralleled by increased MIC-1/GDF15.

    Borner, Tito; Arnold, Myrtha; Ruud, Johan; Breit, Samuel N; Langhans, Wolfgang; Lutz, Thomas A; Blomqvist, Anders; Riediger, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The cancer-anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour-derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions. Recently, the tumour-derived macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) emerged as a possible mediator of cancer anorexia because lesions of these brainstem areas attenuated the anorectic effect of exogenous MIC-1 in mice. Using a rat hepatoma tumour model, we examined the roles of the AP and of vagal afferents in the mediation of CACS. Specifically, we investigated whether a lesion of the AP (APX) or subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) attenuate anorexia, body weight, muscle, and fat loss. Moreover, we analysed MIC-1 levels in this tumour model and their correlation with tumour size and the severity of the anorectic response. In tumour-bearing sham-operated animals mean daily food intake significantly decreased. The anorectic response was paralleled by a significant loss of body weight and muscle mass. APX rats were protected against anorexia, body weight loss, and muscle atrophy after tumour induction. In contrast, subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation did not attenuate cancer-induced anorexia or body weight loss. Tumour-bearing rats had substantially increased MIC-1 levels, which positively correlated with tumour size and cancer progression and negatively correlated with food intake. These findings demonstrate the importance of the AP in the mediation of cancer-dependent anorexia and body weight loss and support a pathological role of MIC-1 as a tumour-derived factor mediating CACS, possibly via an AP-dependent action. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

  16. Combined genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 and P2X3 attenuates colorectal hypersensitivity and afferent sensitization

    Kiyatkin, Michael E.; Feng, Bin; Schwartz, Erica S.; Gebhart, G. F.

    2013-01-01

    The ligand-gated channels transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and P2X3 have been reported to facilitate colorectal afferent neuron sensitization, thus contributing to organ hypersensitivity and pain. In the present study, we hypothesized that TRPV1 and P2X3 cooperate to modulate colorectal nociception and afferent sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we employed TRPV1-P2X3 double knockout (TPDKO) mice and channel-selective pharmacological antagonists and evaluated combined chann...

  17. Combined genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 and P2X3 attenuates colorectal hypersensitivity and afferent sensitization

    Kiyatkin, Michael E.; Feng, Bin; Schwartz, Erica S.

    2013-01-01

    The ligand-gated channels transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and P2X3 have been reported to facilitate colorectal afferent neuron sensitization, thus contributing to organ hypersensitivity and pain. In the present study, we hypothesized that TRPV1 and P2X3 cooperate to modulate colorectal nociception and afferent sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we employed TRPV1-P2X3 double knockout (TPDKO) mice and channel-selective pharmacological antagonists and evaluated combined channel contributions to behavioral responses to colorectal distension (CRD) and afferent fiber responses to colorectal stretch. Baseline responses to CRD were unexpectedly greater in TPDKO compared with control mice, but zymosan-produced CRD hypersensitivity was absent in TPDKO mice. Relative to control mice, proportions of mechanosensitive and -insensitive pelvic nerve afferent classes were not different in TPDKO mice. Responses of mucosal and serosal class afferents to mechanical probing were unaffected, whereas responses of muscular (but not muscular/mucosal) afferents to stretch were significantly attenuated in TPDKO mice; sensitization of both muscular and muscular/mucosal afferents by inflammatory soup was also significantly attenuated. In pharmacological studies, the TRPV1 antagonist A889425 and P2X3 antagonist TNP-ATP, alone and in combination, applied onto stretch-sensitive afferent endings attenuated responses to stretch; combined antagonism produced greater attenuation. In the aggregate, these observations suggest that 1) genetic manipulation of TRPV1 and P2X3 leads to reduction in colorectal mechanosensation peripherally and compensatory changes and/or disinhibition of other channels centrally, 2) combined pharmacological antagonism produces more robust attenuation of mechanosensation peripherally than does antagonism of either channel alone, and 3) the relative importance of these channels appears to be enhanced in colorectal hypersensitivity. PMID:23989007

  18. Presence and Absence of Muscle Contraction Elicited by Peripheral Nerve Electrical Stimulation Differentially Modulate Primary Motor Cortex Excitability

    Sasaki, Ryoki; Kotan, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Masaki; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kojima, Sho; Saito, Kei; Inukai, Yasuto; Onishi, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of cortical excitability by sensory inputs is a critical component of sensorimotor integration. Sensory afferents, including muscle and joint afferents, to somatosensory cortex (S1) modulate primary motor cortex (M1) excitability, but the effects of muscle and joint afferents specifically activated by muscle contraction are unknown. We compared motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following median nerve stimulation (MNS) above and below the contraction threshold based on the persistence of M-waves. Peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (PES) conditions, including right MNS at the wrist at 110% motor threshold (MT; 110% MNS condition), right MNS at the index finger (sensory digit nerve stimulation [DNS]) with stimulus intensity approximately 110% MNS (DNS condition), and right MNS at the wrist at 90% MT (90% MNS condition) were applied. PES was administered in a 4 s ON and 6 s OFF cycle for 20 min at 30 Hz. In Experiment 1 (n = 15), MEPs were recorded from the right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) before (baseline) and after PES. In Experiment 2 (n = 15), M- and F-waves were recorded from the right APB. Stimulation at 110% MNS at the wrist evoking muscle contraction increased MEP amplitudes after PES compared with those at baseline, whereas DNS at the index finger and 90% MNS at the wrist not evoking muscle contraction decreased MEP amplitudes after PES. M- and F-waves, which reflect spinal cord or muscular and neuromuscular junctions, did not change following PES. These results suggest that muscle contraction and concomitant muscle/joint afferent inputs specifically enhance M1 excitability. PMID:28392766

  19. Experimental occlusal interference induces long-term masticatory muscle hyperalgesia in rats.

    Cao, Ye; Xie, Qiu-Fei; Li, Kai; Light, Alan R; Fu, Kai-Yuan

    2009-08-01

    Temporomandibular joint or related masticatory muscle pain represents the most common chronic orofacial pain condition. Patients frequently report this kind of pain after dental alterations in occlusion. However, lack of understanding of the mechanisms of occlusion-related temporomandibular joint and muscle pain prevents treating this problem successfully. To explore the relationship between improper occlusion (occlusal interference) and masticatory muscle pain, we created an occlusal interference animal model by directly bonding a crown to a maxillary molar to raise the masticating surface of the tooth in rats. We raised the occlusal surface to three different heights (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6mm), and for one month we quantitatively measured mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the temporal and masseter muscles on both sides. Results showed a stimulus-response relationship between the height of occlusal interference and muscle hyperalgesia. Removal of the crown 6 days after occlusal interference showed that the removal at this time could not terminate the 1 month duration of mechanical hyperalgesia in the masticatory muscles. Lastly, we systemically administered NMDA antagonist MK801 (0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/kg) to the treated rats and found that MK801 dose dependently attenuated the occlusal interference-induced hyperalgesia. These findings suggest that occlusal interference is directly related to masticatory muscle pain, and that central sensitization mechanisms are involved in the maintenance of the occlusal interference-induced mechanical hyperalgesia.

  20. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy

    Volk, Gerd F.; Karamyan, Inna; Klingner, Carsten M.; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been established systematically to detect structural muscular changes after facial nerve lesion. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate quantitative assessment of MRI muscle volume data for facial muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with facial palsy were recruited. Using manual or semiautomatic segmentation of 3T MRI, volume measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control. Results: All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex or age effects were not seen (all P > 0.05). There was no facial asymmetry with exception of the zygomaticus major (larger on the left side; P = 0.012). The exploratory examination of 5 patients revealed considerably smaller muscle volumes on the palsy side 2 months after facial injury. One patient with chronic palsy showed substantial muscle volume decrease, which also occurred in another patient with incomplete chronic palsy restricted to the involved facial area. Facial nerve reconstruction led to mixed results of decreased but also increased muscle volumes on the palsy side compared with the healthy side. Conclusions: First systematic quantitative MRI volume measures of 5 different clinical presentations of facial paralysis are provided. PMID:25289366

  1. Effects of orthognathic surgery for class III malocclusion on signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and on pressure pain thresholds of the jaw muscles.

    Farella, M; Michelotti, A; Bocchino, T; Cimino, R; Laino, A; Steenks, M H

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine the effects of orthognathic surgery on signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the jaw muscles. Fourteen consecutive class III patients undergoing pre-surgical orthodontic treatment were treated by combined Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal ramus osteotomy. The clinical examination included the assessment of signs and symptoms of TMD and the assessment of PPTs of the masseter and temporalis muscles. Anamnestic, clinical and algometric data were collected during five sessions over a 1-year period. Seven out of 14 patients presented with disc displacement with reduction at baseline, whereas four patients (two of them were new cases) did so at the end of follow up (p>0.05). None of the patients were diagnosed with myofascial pain of the jaw muscles at the beginning or end of follow up. PPTs of the masseter and temporalis muscles did not change significantly from baseline values throughout the whole study period. The occurrence of signs and symptoms of TMD fluctuates with an unpredictable pattern after orthognathic surgery for class III malocclusions.

  2. Immediate effect of occlusal contact pattern in lateral jaw position on the EMG activity in jaw-elevator muscles in humans.

    Baba, K; Yugami, K; Akishige, S; Ai, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental alterations of nonworking-side occlusal contacts on jaw-elevator muscle activity. Individual devices were fabricated to simulate various lateral occlusal relationships. Twelve human subjects were asked to carry out submaximal lateral clenching, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and anterior and posterior temporalis muscles was measured. Clenching in a lateral mandibular position under natural conditions induced an activity pattern with a clear dominance of the anterior and posterior temporalis muscles on the working side. Working-side dominance in the anterior temporalis was reduced moderately when an experimental nonworking-side occlusal contact was added. Dominance decreased dramatically when an experimental nonworking-side interference was added. The working-side activity in the posterior temporalis was also reduced dramatically by an experimental nonworking-side interference, but not by a nonworking-side occlusal contact. None of the experimental contact patterns had a significant effect on the masseter activity. These results suggest that the nonworking-side occlusal contacts have a significant effect on clenching-induced temporalis muscle activity.

  3. Surface electromyographic patterns of masticatory, neck, and trunk muscles in temporomandibular joint dysfunction patients undergoing anterior repositioning splint therapy.

    Tecco, Simona; Tetè, Stefano; D'Attilio, Michele; Perillo, Letizia; Festa, Felice

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of neck, trunk, and masticatory muscles in subjects with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement treated with anterior mandibular repositioning splints. sEMG activities of the muscles in 34 adult subjects (22 females and 12 males; mean age 30.4 years) with TMJ internal derangement were compared with a control group of 34 untreated adults (20 females and 14 males; mean age 31.8 years). sEMG activities of seven muscles (anterior and posterior temporalis, masseter, posterior cervicals, sternocleidomastoid, and upper and lower trapezius) were studied bilaterally, with the mandible in the rest position and during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC), at the beginning of therapy (T0) and after 10 weeks of treatment (T1). Paired and Student's t-tests were undertaken to determine differences between the T0 and T1 data and in sEMG activity between the study and control groups. At T0, paired masseter, sternocleidomastoid, and cervical muscles, in addition to the left anterior temporal and right lower trapezius, showed significantly greater sEMG activity (P = 0.0001; P = 0.0001; for left cervical, P = 0.03; for right cervical, P = 0.0001; P = 0.006 and P = 0.007 muscles, respectively) compared with the control group. This decreased over the remaining study period, such that after treatment, sEMG activity revealed no statistically significant difference when compared with the control group. During MVC at T0, paired masseter and anterior and posterior temporalis muscles showed significantly lower sEMG activity (P = 0.03; P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively) compared with the control group. In contrast, at T1 sEMG activity significantly increased (P = 0.02; P = 0.004 and P = 0.04, respectively), but no difference was observed in relation to the control group. Splint therapy in subjects with internal disk derangement seems to affect sEMG activity of the masticatory, neck, and trunk

  4. An electromyographic study of aspects of 'deprogramming' of human jaw muscles.

    Donegan, S J; Carr, A B; Christensen, L V; Ziebert, G J

    1990-11-01

    Surface electromyograms from the right and left masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were used to detect peripheral correlates of deprogramming, also known as programming and reprogramming, of jaw elevator muscles. Putative deprogramming was attempted through the clinically recommended use of a leaf gauge, placed for 15 min between the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth and disoccluding the posterior teeth by about 2 mm. Studied contractile activities were those of postural activity (subconscious, semi-isometric, minimal activity) and intercuspal teeth clenching (conscious, isometric, maximal activity). Use of the leaf gauge did not affect normalized postural activity (about 4%), the duration (about 900 ms) and static work efforts of clenching (about 1200 microV.s), the time to peak mean voltage of clenching (about 400 ms), and the peak mean voltage of clenching (about 300 microV). Activity and asymmetry indices showed that the studied motor innervation patterns were not changed by the leaf gauge.

  5. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  6. Expression of the transient receptor potential channels TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 in mouse trigeminal primary afferent neurons innervating the dura

    2012-01-01

    Background Migraine and other headache disorders affect a large percentage of the population and cause debilitating pain. Activation and sensitization of the trigeminal primary afferent neurons innervating the dura and cerebral vessels is a crucial step in the “headache circuit”. Many dural afferent neurons respond to algesic and inflammatory agents. Given the clear role of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of channels in both sensing chemical stimulants and mediating inflammatory pain, we investigated the expression of TRP channels in dural afferent neurons. Methods We used two fluorescent tracers to retrogradely label dural afferent neurons in adult mice and quantified the abundance of peptidergic and non-peptidergic neuron populations using calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity (CGRP-ir) and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding as markers, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels in dural afferent neurons with the expression in total trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. To examine the distribution of TRPM8 channels, we labeled dural afferent neurons in mice expressing farnesylated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFPf) from a TRPM8 locus. We used nearest-neighbor measurement to predict the spatial association between dural afferent neurons and neurons expressing TRPA1 or TRPM8 channels in the TG. Results and conclusions We report that the size of dural afferent neurons is significantly larger than that of total TG neurons and facial skin afferents. Approximately 40% of dural afferent neurons exhibit IB4 binding. Surprisingly, the percentage of dural afferent neurons containing CGRP-ir is significantly lower than those of total TG neurons and facial skin afferents. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are expressed in dural afferent neurons. Furthermore, nearest-neighbor measurement indicates that TRPA1-expressing neurons are clustered around a subset of dural afferent neurons. Interestingly, TRPM

  7. Your Muscles

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  8. Isolation of TRPV1 independent mechanisms of spontaneous and asynchronous glutamate release at primary afferent to NTS synapses.

    Axel J. Fenwick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial visceral afferents contained within the solitary tract (ST contact second-order neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and release the excitatory amino acid glutamate via three distinct exocytosis pathways; synchronous, asynchronous, and spontaneous release. The presence of TRPV1 in the central terminals of a majority of ST afferents conveys activity-dependent asynchronous glutamate release and provides a temperature sensitive calcium conductance which largely determines the rate of spontaneous vesicle fusion. TRPV1 is present in unmyelinated C-fiber afferents and these facilitated forms of glutamate release may underlie the relative strength of C-fibers in activating autonomic reflex pathways. However, pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 signaling eliminates only ~50% of the asynchronous profile and attenuates the temperature sensitivity of spontaneous release indicating additional thermosensitive calcium influx pathways may exist which mediate these forms of vesicle release. In the present study we isolate the contribution of TRPV1 independent forms of glutamate release at ST-NTS synapses. We found ST afferent innervation at NTS neurons and synchronous vesicle release from TRPV1 KO mice was not different to control animals; however, only half of TRPV1 KO ST afferents completely lacked asynchronous glutamate release. Further, temperature driven spontaneous rates of vesicle release were not different from 33˚ - 37˚C between control and TRPV1 KO afferents. These findings suggest additional temperature dependent mechanisms controlling asynchronous and thermosensitive spontaneous release at physiological temperatures, possibly mediated by additional thermosensitive TRP channels in primary afferent terminals.

  9. Anorexia‐cachexia syndrome in hepatoma tumour‐bearing rats requires the area postrema but not vagal afferents and is paralleled by increased MIC‐1/GDF15

    Borner, Tito; Arnold, Myrtha; Ruud, Johan; Breit, Samuel N.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Lutz, Thomas A.; Blomqvist, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The cancer‐anorexia‐cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour‐derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions. Recently, the tumour‐derived macrophage inhibitory cytokine‐1 (MIC‐1) emerged as a possible mediator of cancer anorexia because lesions of these brainstem areas attenuated the anorectic effect of exogenous MIC‐1 in mice. Methods Using a rat hepatoma tumour model, we examined the roles of the AP and of vagal afferents in the mediation of CACS. Specifically, we investigated whether a lesion of the AP (APX) or subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) attenuate anorexia, body weight, muscle, and fat loss. Moreover, we analysed MIC‐1 levels in this tumour model and their correlation with tumour size and the severity of the anorectic response. Results In tumour‐bearing sham‐operated animals mean daily food intake significantly decreased. The anorectic response was paralleled by a significant loss of body weight and muscle mass. APX rats were protected against anorexia, body weight loss, and muscle atrophy after tumour induction. In contrast, subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation did not attenuate cancer‐induced anorexia or body weight loss. Tumour‐bearing rats had substantially increased MIC‐1 levels, which positively correlated with tumour size and cancer progression and negatively correlated with food intake. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the importance of the AP in the mediation of cancer‐dependent anorexia and body weight loss and support a pathological role of MIC‐1 as a tumour‐derived factor mediating CACS, possibly via an AP

  10. Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are important for afferent synapse formation and function in the inner ear.

    Mendus, Diana; Sundaresan, Srividya; Grillet, Nicolas; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Leu, Rose; Müller, Ulrich; Jones, Sherri M; Mustapha, Mirna

    2014-04-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) constitute a family of secreted extracellular matrix proteins that have been shown to be involved in the formation of synapses in the central nervous system. In this study, we show that TSP1 and TSP2 are expressed in the cochlea, and offer the first description of their putative roles in afferent synapse development and function in the inner ear. We examined mice with deletions of TSP1, TSP2 and both (TSP1/TSP2) for inner ear development and function. Immunostaining for synaptic markers indicated a significant decrease in the number of formed afferent synapses in the cochleae of TSP2 and TSP1/TSP2 knockout (KO) mice at postnatal day (P)29. In functional studies, TSP2 and TSP1/TSP2 KO mice showed elevated auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds as compared with wild-type littermates, starting at P15, with the most severe phenotype being seen for TSP1/TSP2 KO mice. TSP1/TSP2 KO mice also showed reduced wave I amplitudes of ABRs and vestibular evoked potentials, suggesting synaptic dysfunction in both the auditory and vestibular systems. Whereas ABR thresholds in TSP1 KO mice were relatively unaffected at early ages, TSP1/TSP2 KO mice showed the most severe phenotype among all of the genotypes tested, suggesting functional redundancy between the two genes. On the basis of the above results, we propose that TSPs play an important role in afferent synapse development and function of the inner ear. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Transmission between type II hair cells and bouton afferents in the turtle posterior crista.

    Holt, Joseph C; Xue, Jin-Tang; Brichta, Alan M; Goldberg, Jay M

    2006-01-01

    Synaptic activity was recorded with sharp microelectrodes during rest and during 0.3-Hz sinusoidal stimulation from bouton afferents identified by their efferent-mediated inhibitory responses. A glutamate antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) decreased quantal size (qsize) while lowering external Ca(2+) decreased quantal rate (qrate). Miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs) had effective durations (qdur) of 3.5-5 ms. Their timing was consistent with Poisson statistics. Mean qsizes ranged in different units from 0.25 to 0.73 mV and mean qrates from 200 to 1,500/s; there was an inverse relation across the afferent population between qrate and qsize. qsize distributions were consistent with the independent release of variable-sized quanta. Channel noise, measured during AMPA-induced depolarizations, was small compared with quantal noise. Excitatory responses were larger than inhibitory responses. Peak qrates, which could approach 3,000/s, led peak excitatory mechanical stimulation by 40 degrees . Quantal parameters varied with stimulation phase with qdur and qsize being maximal during inhibitory stimulation. Voltage modulation (vmod) was in phase with qrate and had a peak depolarization of 1.5-3 mV. On average, 80% of vmod was accounted for by quantal activity; the remaining 20% was a nonquantal component that persisted in the absence of quantal activity. The extracellular accumulation of glutamate and K(+) are potential sources of nonquantal transmission and may provide a basis for the inverse relation between qrate and qsize. Comparison of the phases of synaptic and spike activity suggests that both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms contribute to variations across afferents in the timing of spikes during sinusoidal stimulation.

  12. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young-Ho, E-mail: jinyh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) effect was tested on visceral afferent neurons. • PGE{sub 2} did not evoke response but potentiated serotonin (5-HT) currents up to 167%. • PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation was blocked by E-prostanoid type 4 receptors antagonist. • PGE{sub 2} effect on 5-HT response was also blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720. • Thus, PGE{sub 2} modulate visceral afferent neurons via synergistic signaling with 5-HT. - Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE{sub 2} induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE{sub 2} effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE{sub 2} itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type4 (EP{sub 4}) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE{sub 2} effects. PGE{sub 2} induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE{sub 2} potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin

  13. Blockade of chloride channels by DIDS stimulates renin release and inhibits contraction of afferent arterioles

    Jensen, B L; Skøtt, O

    1996-01-01

    or without ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] and DIDS were not additive. In the absence of chloride, basal renin release was suppressed and the stimulatory effect of DIDS was abolished. The DIDS-induced enhancement of renin release was not dependent on bicarbonate....... Norepinephrine (5 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-6) M) and angiotensin II (1 x 10(-8)-10(-6) M) evoked reversible and dose-dependent contractions of microperfused rabbit afferent arterioles. DIDS (0.5 mM) did not affect the basal diameter of the arterioles but strongly inhibited the response to angiotensin II and attenuated...

  14. Intracellular signalling pathways in the vasoconstrictor response of mouse afferent arterioles to adenosine

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Friis, Ulla Glenert; Uhrenholt, Torben Rene

    2007-01-01

    of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), stimulated presumably by IP(3), is involved in the adenosine contraction mechanism of the afferent arteriole. In agreement with this notion is the observation that 2 aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 microM) blocked the adenosine-induced constriction whereas...... was abolished by IAA-94. Furthermore, the vasoconstriction caused by adenosine was significantly inhibited by 5 microM nifedipine (control 8.3 +/- 0.2 microM, ado 3.6 +/- 0.6 microM, ado + nifedipine 6.8 +/- 0.2 microM) suggesting involvement of voltage-dependent calcium channels. CONCLUSION: We conclude...

  15. Contributions of central command and muscle feedback to sympathetic nerve activity in contracting human skeletal muscle

    Daniel eBoulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During voluntary contractions, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA to contracting muscles increases in proportion to force but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To shed light on these mechanisms, particularly the influences of central command and muscle afferent feedback, the present study tested the hypothesis that MSNA is greater during voluntary compared with electrically-evoked contractions. Seven male subjects performed a series of 1-minute isometric dorsiflexion contractions (left leg separated by 2-minute rest periods, alternating between voluntary and electrically-evoked contractions at similar forces (5-10 % of maximum. MSNA was recorded continuously (microneurography from the left peroneal nerve and quantified from cardiac-synchronised, negative-going spikes in the neurogram. Compared with pre-contraction values, MSNA increased by 51 ± 34 % (P 0.05. MSNA analysed at 15-s intervals revealed that this effect of voluntary contraction appeared 15-30 s after contraction onset (P < 0.01, remained elevated until the end of contraction, and disappeared within 15 s after contraction. These findings suggest that central command, and not feedback from contracting muscle, is the primary mechanism responsible for the increase in MSNA to contracting muscle. The time-course of MSNA suggests that there is a longer delay in the onset of this effect compared with its cessation after contraction.

  16. Convergence of ipsi- and contralateral muscle afferents on common interneurons mediating reciprocal inhibition of ankle plantarflexors in humans

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Geertsen, Svend S.; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    reciprocal Ia inhibition of the opposite limb. This study was designed to investigate whether this pathway is similar in humans to that described in animals. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in one of two experiments. In experiment 1, the effects of ipsilateral posterior tibial nerve (i......PTN) stimulation were assessed on the reciprocal Ia inhibition of the contralateral soleus (cSOL) motoneuronal pool (n = 8). Across all participants, iPTN stimulation intensity was 1.69 ± 0.3 × Motor Threshold (MT) and contralateral common peroneal (cCPN) stimulation intensity was 0.86 ± 0.16 × MT. iPTN and c...... used during the H-reflex conditioning experiment were 1.79 ± 0.4 × MT for the iPTN stimulation and 0.88 ± 0.16 × MT for cCPN stimulation. Across all participants, the onset of the cSOL EMG suppression was 42 ± 4, 44 ± 3 and 44 ± 3 ms for iPTN, cCPN and iPTN + cCPN conditions, respectively...

  17. Acylcarnitines as markers of exercise-associated fuel partitioning, xenometabolism, and potential signals to muscle afferent neurons

    With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomple...

  18. Patterns of variation across primates in jaw-muscle electromyography during mastication.

    Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Williams, Susan H; Hylander, William L

    2008-08-01

    Biologists that study mammals continue to discuss the evolution of and functional variation in jaw-muscle activity during chewing. A major barrier to addressing these issues is collecting sufficient in vivo data to adequately capture neuromuscular variation in a clade. We combine data on jaw-muscle electromyography (EMG) collected during mastication from 14 species of primates and one of treeshrews to assess patterns of neuromuscular variation in primates. All data were collected and analyzed using the same methods. We examine the variance components for EMG parameters using a nested ANOVA design across successive hierarchical factors from chewing cycle through species for eight locations in the masseter and temporalis muscles. Variation in jaw-muscle EMGs was not distributed equally across hierarchical levels. The timing of peak EMG activity showed the largest variance components among chewing cycles. Relative levels of recruitment of jaw muscles showed the largest variance components among chewing sequences and cycles. We attribute variation among chewing cycles to (1) changes in food properties throughout the chewing sequence, (2) variation in bite location, and (3) the multiple ways jaw muscles can produce submaximal bite forces. We hypothesize that variation among chewing sequences is primarily related to variation in properties of food. The significant proportion of variation in EMGs potentially linked to food properties suggests that experimental biologists must pay close attention to foods given to research subjects in laboratory-based studies of feeding. The jaw muscles exhibit markedly different variance components among species suggesting that primate jaw muscles have evolved as distinct functional units. The balancing-side deep masseter (BDM) exhibits the most variation among species. This observation supports previous hypotheses linking variation in the timing and activation of the BDM to symphyseal fusion in anthropoid primates and in strepsirrhines

  19. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses.

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1(dw)) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1(dw) mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1(dw) IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1(dw) IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1(dw) IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Masticatory muscle architecture in the Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus (Mammalia, Rodentia): new insights into the evolution of hystricognathy.

    Hautier, Lionel; Saksiri, Soonchan

    2009-10-01

    We present the first descriptive comparison of the skull, mandible and jaw muscles of the recently recovered Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus. The gross anatomy of five specimens captured in Laos and internal architecture of the jaw musculature were studied using dissections. The following muscles are described: temporal, masseter, pterygoids, digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid and transverse mandibular. The description of the masticatory apparatus of L. aenigmamus offers a rare opportunity to assess the order of establishment of the morphological characters during the evolution of Ctenohystrica. Striking convergences have occurred during the evolution of Diatomyidae and L. aenigmamus presents a unique combination of myological features that corresponds to a mixture of sciurognathous and hystricognathous characters. If L. aenigmamus is a sciurognathous rodent, we have to assume that it independently acquired a pars reflexa of the superficial masseter. We show for the first time that the development of this pars reflexa has occurred several times during the evolution of Ctenohystrica and can no longer be considered a synapomorphic feature of 'Hystricognathi'. These results bring new insights into the evolution of hystricognathy and have profound implications for the interpretation of the fossil record of early hystricognath rodents.

  1. Muscle cramps

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  2. Muscle atrophy

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  3. SEMG activity of jaw-closing muscles during biting with different unilateral occlusal supports.

    Wang, M-Q; He, J-J; Zhang, J-H; Wang, K; Svensson, P; Widmalm, S E

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that experimental and reversible changes of occlusion affect the levels of surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity in the anterior temporalis and masseter areas during unilateral maximal voluntary biting (MVB) in centric and eccentric position. Changes were achieved by letting 21 healthy subjects bite with and without a cotton roll between the teeth. The placement alternated between sides and between premolar and molar areas. The SEMG activity level was lower when biting in eccentric position without than with a cotton roll between teeth (P 0.05). In the anterior temporalis area, the balancing side SEMG activity was lower in eccentric than in centric but only in molar-supported biting (P = 0.026). These results support that the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles have different roles in keeping the mandible in balance during unilateral supported MVB. Changes in occlusal stability achieved by biting with versus without a cotton roll were found to affect the SEMG activity levels.

  4. On the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint and the muscles that act upon it: observations on the gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus.

    El Adli, Joseph J; Deméré, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The temporomandibular joint and its associated musculature are described in a neonate gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and serve as the basis for direct anatomical comparisons with the temporomandibular region in other clades of baleen whales (Mysticeti). Members of the right whale/bowhead whale clade (Balaenidae) are known to possess a synovial lower jaw joint, while members of the rorqual clade (Balaenopteridae) have a nonsynovial temporomandibular joint characterized by a highly flexible fibrocartilaginous pad and no joint capsule. In contrast, the gray whale possesses a modified temporomandibular joint (intermediate condition), with a vestigial joint cavity lacking a fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, and articular disk. In addition, the presence of a rudimentary fibrocartilaginous pad appears to be homologous to that seen in balaenopterid mysticetes. The intrinsic temporomandibular musculature in the gray whale was found to include a multibellied superficial masseter and a single-bellied deep masseter. The digastric and internal pterygoid muscles in E. robustus are enlarged relative to the condition documented in species of Balaenoptera. A relatively complex insertion of the temporalis muscle on the dentary is documented in the gray whale and the low, knob-like process on the gray whale dentary is determined to be homologous with the prominent coronoid process of rorquals. Comparison with the anatomy of the temporomandibular musculature in rorquals reveals an increased importance of alpha rotation of the dentary in the gray whale. This difference in muscular morphology and lines of muscle action is interpreted as representing adaptations for suction feeding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Peripheral afferent mechanisms underlying acupuncture inhibition of cocaine behavioral effects in rats.

    Seol Ah Kim

    Full Text Available Administration of cocaine increases locomotor activity by enhancing dopamine transmission. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment for drug addiction, we developed a novel mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI for objective mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether acupuncture inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated through specific peripheral nerves, the afferents from superficial or deep tissues, or specific groups of nerve fibers. Mechanical stimulation of acupuncture point HT7 with MAI suppressed cocaine-induced locomotor activity in a stimulus time-dependent manner, which was blocked by severing the ulnar nerve or by local anesthesia. Suppression of cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elicited after HT7 stimulation at frequencies of either 50 (for Meissner corpuscles or 200 (for Pacinian corpuscles Hz and was not affected by block of C/Aδ-fibers in the ulnar nerve with resiniferatoxin, nor generated by direct stimulation of C/Aδ-fiber afferents with capsaicin. These findings suggest that HT7 inhibition of cocaine-induced locomotor activity is mediated by A-fiber activation of ulnar nerve that originates in superficial and deep tissue.

  6. Effects of drugs of abuse on putative rostromedial tegmental neurons, inhibitory afferents to midbrain dopamine cells.

    Lecca, Salvatore; Melis, Miriam; Luchicchi, Antonio; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Castelli, Maria Paola; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Pistis, Marco

    2011-02-01

    Recent findings have underlined the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a structure located caudally to the ventral tegmental area, as an important site involved in the mechanisms of aversion. RMTg contains γ-aminobutyric acid neurons responding to noxious stimuli, densely innervated by the lateral habenula and providing a major inhibitory projection to reward-encoding midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. One of the key features of drug addiction is the perseverance of drug seeking in spite of negative and unpleasant consequences, likely mediated by response suppression within neural pathways mediating aversion. To investigate whether the RMTg has a function in the mechanisms of addicting drugs, we studied acute effects of morphine, cocaine, the cannabinoid agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN), and nicotine on putative RMTg neurons. We utilized single unit extracellular recordings in anesthetized rats and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to identify and characterize putative RMTg neurons and their responses to drugs of abuse. Morphine and WIN inhibited both firing rate in vivo and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked by stimulation of rostral afferents in vitro, whereas cocaine inhibited discharge activity without affecting EPSC amplitude. Conversely, nicotine robustly excited putative RMTg neurons and enhanced EPSCs, an effect mediated by α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our results suggest that activity of RMTg neurons is profoundly influenced by drugs of abuse and, as important inhibitory afferents to midbrain DA neurons, they might take place in the complex interplay between the neural circuits mediating aversion and reward.

  7. Liver afferents contribute to water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects: a clinical trial.

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (p<0.05 between groups after 30-40 minutes of water drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431.

  8. Stability of Kinesthetic Perception in Efferent-Afferent Spaces: The Concept of Iso-perceptual Manifold.

    Latash, Mark L

    2018-02-21

    The main goal of this paper is to introduce the concept of iso-perceptual manifold for perception of body configuration and related variables (kinesthetic perception) and to discuss its relation to the equilibrium-point hypothesis and the concepts of reference coordinate and uncontrolled manifold. Hierarchical control of action is postulated with abundant transformations between sets of spatial reference coordinates for salient effectors at different levels. Iso-perceptual manifold is defined in the combined space of afferent and efferent variables as the subspace corresponding to a stable percept. Examples of motion along an iso-perceptual manifold (perceptually equivalent motion) are considered during various natural actions. Some combinations of afferent and efferent signals, in particular those implying a violation of body's integrity, give rise to variable percepts by artificial projection onto iso-perceptual manifolds. This framework is used to interpret unusual features of vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions and to predict new illusions not yet reported in the literature. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meningeal norepinephrine produces headache behaviors in rats via actions both on dural afferents and fibroblasts.

    Wei, Xiaomei; Yan, Jin; Tillu, Dipti; Asiedu, Marina; Weinstein, Nicole; Melemedjian, Ohannes; Price, Theodore; Dussor, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Stress is commonly reported to contribute to migraine although mechanisms by which this may occur are not fully known. The purpose of these studies was to examine whether norepinephrine (NE), the primary sympathetic efferent transmitter, acts on processes in the meninges that may contribute to the pain of migraine. NE was applied to rat dura using a behavioral model of headache. Primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglia retrogradely labeled from the dura mater and of rat dural fibroblasts were prepared. Patch-clamp electrophysiology, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to examine the effects of NE. Conditioned media from NE-treated fibroblast cultures was applied to the dura using the behavioral headache model. Dural injection both of NE and media from NE-stimulated fibroblasts caused cutaneous facial and hindpaw allodynia in awake rats. NE application to cultured dural afferents increased action potential firing in response to current injections. Application of NE to dural fibroblasts increased phosphorylation of ERK and caused the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6). These data demonstrate that NE can contribute to pro-nociceptive signaling from the meninges via actions on dural afferents and dural fibroblasts. Together, these actions of NE may contribute to the headache phase of migraine. © International Headache Society 2015.

  10. Liver Afferents Contribute to Water Drinking-Induced Sympathetic Activation in Human Subjects: A Clinical Trial

    May, Marcus; Gueler, Faikah; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Heiringhoff, Karl-Heinz; Engeli, Stefan; Heusser, Karsten; Diedrich, André; Brandt, André; Strassburg, Christian P.; Tank, Jens; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Jordan, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant) as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant) as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (pwater drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431 PMID:22016786

  11. Afferent Loop Syndrome after Roux-en-Y Total Gastrectomy Caused by Volvulus of the Roux-Limb

    Hideki Katagiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Afferent loop syndrome is a rare complication of gastric surgery. An obstruction of the afferent limb can present in various ways. A 73-year-old man presented with one day of persistent abdominal pain, gradually radiating to the back. He had a history of total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed dilation of the duodenum and small intestine in the left upper quadrant. Exploratory laparotomy showed volvulus of the biliopancreatic limb that caused afferent loop syndrome. In this patient, the 50 cm long limb was the cause of volvulus. It is important to fashion a Roux-limb of appropriate length to prevent this complication.

  12. The urodelean Mauthner cell. Morphology of the afferent synapses to the M-cell of larval Salamandra salamandra

    Cioni, C; De Palma, F; De Vito, L; Stefanelli, A [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell` Uomo

    1998-12-31

    In the present work the fine morphology and the distribution of the afferent synapses to the Mauthner cell of larval Salamandra salamandra are described. The aim of the study is to characterize the synaptic bed in the larvae of this terrestrial salamander in order to compare it with that of larval axolotl and larval anurans. Four main types of afferent endings have been identified: myelinated club endings, round-vesicle end bulbs, flattened-vesicle end bulbs and spiral fibers endings. The M-cell afferent synaptology of larval stages of terrestrial amphibians is quite similar to that previously observed in larval stages of aquatic species. This fact can be related to the fundamental similarities between the larval lifestyles.

  13. The urodelean Mauthner cell. Morphology of the afferent synapses to the M-cell of larval Salamandra salamandra

    Cioni, C.; De Palma, F.; De Vito, L.; Stefanelli, A. [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell`Uomo

    1997-12-31

    In the present work the fine morphology and the distribution of the afferent synapses to the Mauthner cell of larval Salamandra salamandra are described. The aim of the study is to characterize the synaptic bed in the larvae of this terrestrial salamander in order to compare it with that of larval axolotl and larval anurans. Four main types of afferent endings have been identified: myelinated club endings, round-vesicle end bulbs, flattened-vesicle end bulbs and spiral fibers endings. The M-cell afferent synaptology of larval stages of terrestrial amphibians is quite similar to that previously observed in larval stages of aquatic species. This fact can be related to the fundamental similarities between the larval lifestyles.

  14. [Influence of the occlusal interference time on masticatory muscle mechanical hyperalgesia in rats].

    Liu, Cun-rui; Xu, Xiao-xiang; Cao, Ye; Xie, Qiu-fei

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the relationship between the removal time of 0.2 mm occlusal interference and the recovery of masticatory muscle mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-220 g) were randomly assigned to eight groups, with five rats in each group: (1) naive group: these rats were anesthetized and their mouths were forced open for about 5 min (the same duration as the other groups), but restorations were not applied; (2) sham-occlusal interference control group: bands were bonded to the right maxillary first molars which did not interfere with occlusion; (3)occlusal interference group: 0.2 mm thick crowns were bonded to the right maxillary first molars; (4) 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 d removal of occlusal interference groups: 0.2 mm thick crowns were bonded to the right maxillary first molars and removed on days 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The naive group and sham-occlusal interference control group were control groups. The other groups were experimental groups. Bilateral masticatory muscle mechanical withdrawal thresholds were tested on pre-application days 1, 2, and 3, and on post-application days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28. The rats were weighed on pre-application day 1 and on post-application days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Between the naive group and the sham-occlusal interference control group, there was no significant difference in the masticatory muscle mechanical withdrawal threshold of bilateral temporalis and masseters at each time point. No significant difference was detected between the contralateral side and ipsilateral side in experimental groups (P>0.05). In the 2, 3, 4, and 5 d removal of occlusal interference groups, the masticatory muscle mechanical withdrawal thresholds decreased after occlusal interference and increased after removal of the crowns and recovered to the baseline on days 7, 10, 14, and 14, respectively [the masticatory muscle mechanical withdrawal thresholds of right masseter muscle were (137.46 ± 2.08) g, (139.02 ± 2

  15. Masticatory muscle architecture in a water-rat from Australasia (Murinae, Hydromys) and its implication for the evolution of carnivory in rodents.

    Fabre, P-H; Herrel, A; Fitriana, Y; Meslin, L; Hautier, L

    2017-09-01

    Murines are well known for their generalist diet, but several of them display specializations towards a carnivorous diet such as the amphibious Indo-Pacific water-rats. Despite the fact that carnivory evolved repeatedly in this group, few studies have investigated associated changes in jaw muscle anatomy and biomechanics. Here, we describe the jaw muscles and cranial anatomy of a carnivorous water-rat, Hydromys chrysogaster. The architecture of the jaw musculature of six specimens captured both on Obi and Papua were studied and described using dissections. We identified the origin and insertions of the jaw muscles, and quantified muscle mass, fiber length, physiological cross-sectional area, and muscle vectors for each muscle. Using a biomechanical model, we estimated maximum incisor and molar bite force at different gape angles. Finally, we conducted a 2D geometric morphometric analyses to compare jaw shape, mechanical potential, and diversity in lever-arm ratios for a set of 238 specimens, representative of Australo-Papuan carnivorous and omnivorous murids. Our study reveals major changes in the muscle proportions among Hydromys and its omnivorous close relative, Melomys. Hydromys was found to have large superficial masseter and temporalis muscles as well as a reduced deep masseter and zygomatico-mandibularis, highlighting major functional divergence among omnivorous and carnivorous murines. Changes in these muscles are also accompanied by changes in jaw shape and the lines of action of the muscles. A more vertically oriented masseter, reduced masseteric muscles, as well as an elongated jaw with proodont lower incisors are key features indicative of a reduced propalinality in carnivorous Hydromys. Differences in the fiber length of the masseteric muscles were also detected between Hydromys and Melomys, which highlight potential adaptations to a wide gape in Hydromys, allowing it to prey on larger animals. Using a biomechanical model, we inferred a greater bite

  16. Chewing-induced hypertension in afferent baroreflex failure: a sympathetic response?

    Fuente Mora, Cristina; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Our goal was to understand the autonomic responses to eating in patients with congenital afferent baroreflex failure, by documenting changes in blood pressure and heart rate with chewing, swallowing and stomach distension. What is the main finding and its importance? Patients born with lesions in the afferent baroreceptor pathways have an exaggerated pressor response to food intake. This appears to be a sympathetically mediated response, triggered by chewing, that occurs independently of swallowing or distension of the stomach. The chewing-induced pressor response may be useful as a counter-manoeuvre to prevent orthostatic hypotension in these patients. Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease with extremely labile blood pressure resulting from baroreflex deafferentation. Patients have marked surges in sympathetic activity, frequently surrounding meals. We conducted an observational study to document the autonomic responses to eating in patients with FD and to determine whether sympathetic activation was caused by chewing, swallowing or stomach distension. Blood pressure and R-R intervals were measured continuously while chewing gum (n = 15), eating (n = 20) and distending the stomach by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding (n = 9). Responses were compared with those of normal control subjects (n = 10) and of patients with efferent autonomic failure (n = 10) who have chronically impaired sympathetic outflow. In patients with FD, eating was associated with a marked but transient pressor response (P Chewing gum evoked a similar increase in blood pressure that was higher in patients with FD than in control subjects (P = 0.0001), but was absent in patients with autonomic failure. In patients with FD, distending the stomach by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding failed to elicit a pressor response. The results provide indirect evidence that chewing triggers sympathetic

  17. Muscle activity and masticatory efficiency with bilateral extension base removable partial dentures with different cusp angles.

    Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K

    2018-03-01

    Whether masticatory efficiency and electromyographic activity are influenced by type of artificial teeth and food is unclear. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of extension base removable partial dentures (RPDs) with different cusp angles: anatomic (33 degrees), semianatomic (20 degrees), and nonanatomic (0 degrees) teeth on masticatory efficiency and muscle activity during the mastication of test foods with different textures. Twelve participants with RPDs were selected to perform masticatory efficiency and electromyographic tests. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were used to record the activities of the masseter and temporalis muscles during the mastication of different types of test foods. The maximal voltage and duration were measured on the integrated EMG signal in each muscle during food mastication, and the mean reading of both sides was then recorded. Analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used to perform statistical analyses (α=.05). The masticatory efficiency of RPDs with nonanatomic teeth was significantly inferior to that of RPDs with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P.05). Also, muscle activity (according to EMG) with RPDs with NA teeth was significantly higher than that with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P<.05). RPDs with NA teeth were associated with higher EMG muscle activity and reduced masticatory efficiency than anatomic or semianatomic teeth. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of a single intercuspal interference on electromyographic characteristics of human masticatory muscles during maximal voluntary teeth clenching.

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G; Colombo, A; Schmitz, J H

    1999-07-01

    In 13 healthy subjects (eight men and five women, mean age, 22 years), an aluminum intercuspal interference (height, 0.25 mm) was placed on the maxillary right first premolar to study its effect on the contractile symmetry of the right and left masseter and anterior temporalis muscles when measured through a Percentage Overlapping Coefficient (POC), derived from surface electromyographic recordings of maximum voluntary teeth clenching. Additionally, and to estimate the potential of the experimental intercuspal interference to induce lateral displacement of the mandible, a Torque Coefficient (TC) was derived from surface electromyographic recordings. The conclusion was that the experimental occlusal interference gave rise to asymmetric contractile activity in the studied mandibular elevator muscles as well as a potential to displace the mandible in a lateral direction.

  19. Fine structure of primary afferent axon terminals projecting from rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors of the toe and foot pads of the cat.

    Maxwell, D J; Bannatyne, B A; Fyffe, R E; Brown, A G

    1984-04-01

    Two Pacinian corpuscle afferents and two rapidly adapting afferents from Krause corpuscles were intra-axonally labelled with horseradish peroxidase in the lumbosacral enlargement of the cat's spinal cord. Tissue was prepared for combined light and electron microscopical analysis. Boutons from both classes of afferent had similar ultrastructural appearances. They both formed from one to three synaptic junctions with dendritic shafts and spines and received axo-axonic synapses. In addition, both categories of bouton were seen to be presynaptic to structures interpreted as vesicle-containing dendrites. It is concluded that both types of afferent fibre are subject to presynaptic control and that they synapse with dorsal horn neurones which are possibly interneurones involved in primary afferent depolarization and post-synaptic dorsal column neurones.

  20. Gastroesophageal Variceal Filling and Drainage Pathways: An Angiographic Description of Afferent and Efferent Venous Anatomic Patterns

    Ron C Gaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varices commonly occur in liver cirrhosis patients and are classified as esophageal (EV, gastroesophageal (GEV, or isolated gastric (IGV varices. These vessels may be supplied and drained by several different afferent and efferent pathways. A working knowledge of variceal anatomy is imperative for Interventional Radiologists performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and embolization/obliteration procedures. This pictorial essay characterizes the angiographic anatomy of varices in terms of type and frequency of venous filling and drainage, showing that different varices have distinct vascular anatomy. EVs typically show left gastric vein filling and “uphill” drainage, and GEVs and IGVs exhibit additional posterior/short gastric vein contribution and “downhill” outflow. An understanding of these variceal filling and drainage pathways can facilitate successful portal decompression and embolization/obliteration procedures.

  1. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  2. Effect of tyrosine kinase blockade on norepinephrine-induced cytosolic calcium response in rat afferent arterioles

    Salomonsson, Max; Arendshorst, William J

    2004-01-01

    We used genistein (Gen) and tyrphostin 23 (Tyr-23) to evaluate the importance of tyrosine phosphorylation in norepinephrine (NE)-induced changes in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in rat afferent arterioles. [Ca(2+)](i) was measured in microdissected arterioles using...... ratiometric photometry of fura 2 fluorescence. The control [Ca(2+)](i) response to NE (1 microM) consisted of a rapid initial peak followed by a plateau phase sustained above baseline. Pretreatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Tyr-23 (50 microM, 10 min) caused a slow 40% increase in baseline [Ca(2+)](i...... of nifedipine and Tyr-23 were not additive. Nifedipine had no inhibitory effect after Tyr-23 pretreatment, indicating Tyr-23 inhibition of Ca(2+) entry. Another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gen (5 and 50 microM), did not affect baseline [Ca(2+)](i). High-dose Gen inhibited the peak and plateau response to NE...

  3. Thyroid hormone is required for the pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the mouse cochlea

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Balasubbu, Suganthalakshmi; Mustapha, Mirna

    2015-01-01

    Afferent connections to the sensory inner and outer hair cells in the cochlea refine and functionally mature during the thyroid hormone (TH)- critical period of inner ear development that occurs perinatally in rodents. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on afferent type II innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) using the Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw). Using a transgenic approach to specifically label type II spiral ganglion neurons, we found that a lack of TH causes persistence of excess type II SGN connections to the OHCs, as well as continued expression of the hair cell functional marker, otoferlin, in the OHCs beyond the maturation period. We also observed a concurrent delay in efferent attachment to the OHCs. Supplementing with TH during the early postnatal period from postnatal day (P) 3 to P4 reversed the defect in type II SGN pruning but did not alter otoferlin expression. Our results show that hypothyroidism causes a defect in the large-scale pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea, and a delay in efferent attachment and the maturation of otoferlin expression. Our data suggest that the state of maturation of hair cells, as determined by otoferlin expression, may not regulate the pruning of their afferent innervation. PMID:26592716

  4. Adenosine induces vasoconstriction through Gi-dependent activation of phospholipase C in isolated perfused afferent arterioles of mice

    Hansen, Pernille B; Castrop, Hayo; Briggs, Josie

    2003-01-01

    -induced vasoconstriction was stable for up to 30 min and was most pronounced in the most distal part of the afferent arterioles. Adenosine did not cause vasoconstriction in arterioles from A1AR-/- mice. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) (400 ng/ml) for 2 h blocked the vasoconstricting action of adenosine or N(6...

  5. Activation of afferent renal nerves modulates RVLM-projecting PVN neurons.

    Xu, Bo; Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P

    2015-05-01

    Renal denervation for the treatment of hypertension has proven to be successful; however, the underlying mechanism/s are not entirely clear. To determine if preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) respond to afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation, extracellular single-unit recording was used to investigate the contribution of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN (PVN-RVLM) neurons to the response elicited during stimulation of ARN. In 109 spontaneously active neurons recorded in the PVN of anesthetized rats, 25 units were antidromically activated from the RVLM. Among these PVN-RVLM neurons, 84% (21/25) were activated by ARN stimulation. The baseline discharge rate was significantly higher in these neurons than those PVN-RVLM neurons not activated by ARN stimulation (16%, 4/25). The responsiveness of these neurons to baroreflex activation induced by phenylephrine and activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) was also examined. Almost all of the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were sensitive to baroreflex (95%) and CSAR (100%). The discharge characteristics for nonevoked neurons (not activated by RVLM antidromic stimulation) showed that 23% of these PVN neurons responded to ARN stimulation. All the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were activated by N-methyl-D-aspartate, and these responses were attenuated by the glutamate receptor blocker AP5. These experiments demonstrated that sensory information originating in the kidney is integrated at the level of preautonomic neurons within the PVN, providing a novel mechanistic insight for use of renal denervation in the modulation of sympathetic outflow in disease states such as hypertension and heart failure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Partial Aminoglycoside Lesions in Vestibular Epithelia Reveal Broad Sensory Dysfunction Associated with Modest Hair Cell Loss and Afferent Calyx Retraction.

    Sultemeier, David R; Hoffman, Larry F

    2017-01-01

    Although the effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics on hair cells have been investigated for decades, their influences on the dendrites of primary afferent neurons have not been widely studied. This is undoubtedly due to the difficulty in disassociating pathology to dendritic processes from that resulting from loss of the presynaptic hair cell. This was overcome in the present investigation through development of a preparation using Chinchilla laniger that enabled direct perilymphatic infusion. Through this strategy we unmasked gentamicin's potential effects on afferent calyces. The pathophysiology of the vestibular neuroepithelia after post-administration durations of 0.5 through 6 months was assessed using single-neuron electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Hair cell densities within cristae central zones (0.5-, 1-, 2-, and 6-months) and utricle peri- and extrastriola (6-months) regions were determined, and damage to calretinin-immunoreactive calyces was quantified. Gentamicin-induced hair cell loss exhibited a profile that reflected elimination of a most-sensitive group by 0.5-months post-administration (18.2%), followed by loss of a second group (20.6%) over the subsequent 5.5 months. The total hair cell loss with this gentamicin dose (approximately 38.8%) was less than the estimated fraction of type I hair cells in the chinchilla's crista central zone (approximately 60%), indicating that viable type I hair cells remained. Extensive lesions to afferent calyces were observed at 0.5-months, though stimulus-evoked modulation was intact at this post-administration time. Widespread compromise to calyx morphology and severe attenuation of stimulus-evoked afferent discharge modulation was found at 1 month post-administration, a condition that persisted in preparations examined through the 6-month post-administration interval. Spontaneous discharge was robust at all post-administration intervals. All calretinin-positive calyces had retracted

  7. Force sensor in simulated skin and neural model mimic tactile SAI afferent spiking response to ramp and hold stimuli.

    Kim, Elmer K; Wellnitz, Scott A; Bourdon, Sarah M; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Gerling, Gregory J

    2012-07-23

    The next generation of prosthetic limbs will restore sensory feedback to the nervous system by mimicking how skin mechanoreceptors, innervated by afferents, produce trains of action potentials in response to compressive stimuli. Prior work has addressed building sensors within skin substitutes for robotics, modeling skin mechanics and neural dynamics of mechanotransduction, and predicting response timing of action potentials for vibration. The effort here is unique because it accounts for skin elasticity by measuring force within simulated skin, utilizes few free model parameters for parsimony, and separates parameter fitting and model validation. Additionally, the ramp-and-hold, sustained stimuli used in this work capture the essential features of the everyday task of contacting and holding an object. This systems integration effort computationally replicates the neural firing behavior for a slowly adapting type I (SAI) afferent in its temporally varying response to both intensity and rate of indentation force by combining a physical force sensor, housed in a skin-like substrate, with a mathematical model of neuronal spiking, the leaky integrate-and-fire. Comparison experiments were then conducted using ramp-and-hold stimuli on both the spiking-sensor model and mouse SAI afferents. The model parameters were iteratively fit against recorded SAI interspike intervals (ISI) before validating the model to assess its performance. Model-predicted spike firing compares favorably with that observed for single SAI afferents. As indentation magnitude increases (1.2, 1.3, to 1.4 mm), mean ISI decreases from 98.81 ± 24.73, 54.52 ± 6.94, to 41.11 ± 6.11 ms. Moreover, as rate of ramp-up increases, ISI during ramp-up decreases from 21.85 ± 5.33, 19.98 ± 3.10, to 15.42 ± 2.41 ms. Considering first spikes, the predicted latencies exhibited a decreasing trend as stimulus rate increased, as is observed in afferent recordings. Finally, the SAI afferent's characteristic response

  8. Decoding tactile afferent activity to obtain an estimate of instantaneous force and torque applied to the fingerpad

    Birznieks, Ingvars; Redmond, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation is not possible without sensory information about object properties and manipulative forces. Fundamental neuroscience has been unable to demonstrate how information about multiple stimulus parameters may be continuously extracted, concurrently, from a population of tactile afferents. This is the first study to demonstrate this, using spike trains recorded from tactile afferents innervating the monkey fingerpad. A multiple-regression model, requiring no a priori knowledge of stimulus-onset times or stimulus combination, was developed to obtain continuous estimates of instantaneous force and torque. The stimuli consisted of a normal-force ramp (to a plateau of 1.8, 2.2, or 2.5 N), on top of which −3.5, −2.0, 0, +2.0, or +3.5 mNm torque was applied about the normal to the skin surface. The model inputs were sliding windows of binned spike counts recorded from each afferent. Models were trained and tested by 15-fold cross-validation to estimate instantaneous normal force and torque over the entire stimulation period. With the use of the spike trains from 58 slow-adapting type I and 25 fast-adapting type I afferents, the instantaneous normal force and torque could be estimated with small error. This study demonstrated that instantaneous force and torque parameters could be reliably extracted from a small number of tactile afferent responses in a real-time fashion with stimulus combinations that the model had not been exposed to during training. Analysis of the model weights may reveal how interactions between stimulus parameters could be disentangled for complex population responses and could be used to test neurophysiologically relevant hypotheses about encoding mechanisms. PMID:25948866

  9. Dural afferents express acid-sensing ion channels: a role for decreased meningeal pH in migraine headache.

    Yan, Jin; Edelmayer, Rebecca M; Wei, Xiaomei; De Felice, Milena; Porreca, Frank; Dussor, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Migraine headache is one of the most common neurological disorders. The pathological conditions that directly initiate afferent pain signaling are poorly understood. In trigeminal neurons retrogradely labeled from the cranial meninges, we have recorded pH-evoked currents using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Approximately 80% of dural-afferent neurons responded to a pH 6.0 application with a rapidly activating and rapidly desensitizing ASIC-like current that often exceeded 20nA in amplitude. Inward currents were observed in response to a wide range of pH values and 30% of the neurons exhibited inward currents at pH 7.1. These currents led to action potentials in 53%, 30% and 7% of the dural afferents at pH 6.8, 6.9 and 7.0, respectively. Small decreases in extracellular pH were also able to generate sustained window currents and sustained membrane depolarizations. Amiloride, a non-specific blocker of ASIC channels, inhibited the peak currents evoked upon application of decreased pH while no inhibition was observed upon application of TRPV1 antagonists. The desensitization time constant of pH 6.0-evoked currents in the majority of dural afferents was less than 500ms which is consistent with that reported for ASIC3 homomeric or heteromeric channels. Finally, application of pH 5.0 synthetic-interstitial fluid to the dura produced significant decreases in facial and hind-paw withdrawal threshold, an effect blocked by amiloride but not TRPV1 antagonists, suggesting that ASIC activation produces migraine-related behavior in vivo. These data provide a cellular mechanism by which decreased pH in the meninges following ischemic or inflammatory events directly excites afferent pain-sensing neurons potentially contributing to migraine headache. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intercellular calcium signaling and nitric oxide feedback during constriction of rabbit renal afferent arterioles

    Uhrenholt, Torben Rene; Schjerning, J; Vanhoutte, Paul M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Vasoconstriction and increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) of vascular smooth muscle cells may cause an increase of endothelial cell [Ca(2+)](i), which, in turn, augments nitric oxide (NO) production and inhibits smooth muscle cell contraction. This hypothesis was test...

  11. Jaw muscle pain and its effect on gothic arch tracings.

    Obrez, A; Stohler, C S

    1996-04-01

    Perceived changes in occlusion and decreased range of motion are often expressed by patients with masticatory muscle pain. The adverse loading of craniomandibular tissues that results from an inadequate maxillomandibular relationship in combination with the coexisting dysfunction is widely regarded as the cause of pain. This study was designed to test whether pain can cause significant changes in position of the mandible and therefore form the basis for any perceived changes in the maxillomandibular relationship. A second objective was to determine whether pain can cause changes in the mandibular range of motion. Five subjects who rated pain intensity on a visual analog scale were used in a single-blind, randomized, repeated-measures study design. Tonic muscle pain was induced by infusion of 5% hypertonic saline solution into the central portion of the superficial masseter muscle. Isotonic saline solution was used as a control, with subjects blinded to the type of substance given. The effect of pain on the position of the apex of the gothic arch tracing, the direction of the lateral mandibular border movements, and the mandibular range of motion was studied in a horizontal plane with minimal occlusal separation. Pain significantly affected the position of the apex of the gothic arch tracing in anterior (F = 11.46, p = 0.03) and transverse (F = 35.0, p = 0.004) directions. Similarly, pain affected the orientation of the mandibular lateral border movements (F = 12.44, p = 0.02) and their magnitude (F = 14.97, p = 0.01). All pain-induced effects proved to be reversible. The observed effect of pain can explain the perceived change of bite that is frequently noted by patients with orofacial pain. This study provided evidence of an alternative causal relationship between pain and changes in occlusal relationship and questions occlusal therapy as treatment, directed toward the elimination of the underlying cause in patients with masticatory muscle pain.

  12. Cervico-mandibular muscle activity in females with chronic cervical pain

    T. Lang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological mechanisms behind pain in chroniccervical musculoskeletal conditions (MSC in office workers remainunclear. Chronic cervical pain has established links with temporomandibular(TM disorders. Yet there is no current published evidence to reportwhether individuals with cervical dysfunction exhibit altered masseterand cervical extensor (CE muscle activity. Objective: To explore CE andmasseter surface electromyographic (sEMG activity and teeth clenchinghabits in females with chronic cervical dysfunction and no TM disorder.Design: Descriptive cross-sectional correlational study with singleblinding.Participants: University students and staff with or without chroniccervical pain and no TM involvement. Methods: Descriptive and paindata captured from Research Diagnostic Criteria for TM disorders, NeckDisability Index, Computer Usage, Brief Pain Inventory, and EuroQoL-5Dquestionnaires. Female participants allocated to a chronic cervical (n = 20 and a control group (n = 22. Investigator blindedto the study groups recorded sEMG of bilateral masseter and CE muscles (C4/5 level at rest and during light teeth clenching.Results: No differences in socio-demographic profile; or in masseter or CE sEMG activity at rest or during light clench betweengroups. The pain group had higher scores for pain, reported a daytime teeth clenching habit, and had worse scores for the healthrelatedquality of life (HRQoL sub-sections for pain, anxiety/depression, and lower scores for perceived health status. Conclusion:No relationship established between cervico-mandibular sEMG activity and reported disability in females with chronic cervicaldysfunction and no TM disorder. Association between biopsychosocial factors of teeth clenching and anxiety/depression highlightscomplex pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic recurrent cervical pain.

  13. Relação da espessura e da atividade elétrica do músculo masseter com a força de mordida: um estudo morfológico e eletrofisiológico

    Jabson Herber Profiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: estudar a relação da espessura e da atividade elétrica do músculo masseter com a força de mordida. Métodos: participaram do estudo 17 adultos jovens (21,3 ( 1,4 anos, sendo 7 do gênero feminino e 10 do gênero masculino, saudáveis e clinicamente assintomáticos, quanto a disfunções temporomandibulares. Foi efetuada a medida da espessura do músculo masseter unilateralmente, durante o repouso e contração voluntária máxima. Também foi quantificada a força de mordida para cada lado com um transdutor de força posicionado na região do primeiro molar e simultaneamente avaliou-se atividade elétrica do masseter durante a mordida unilateral. A análise foi baseada na comparação das amostras, sendo utilizados o test t, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney e regressão linear multivariada. Resultado: a espessura do músculo masseter foi maior nos homens, tanto no repouso quanto em contração. Observou-se uma simetria entre os lados com os músculos em repouso e em contração. A frequência mediana do sinal eletromiográfico, para o músculo masseter em contração voluntária máxima, não apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante intra-indivíduos e na comparação entre os gêneros. Foi encontrada maior força de mordida nos indivíduos do gênero masculino. Não foi encontrado um modelo de regressão linear multivariada entre as variáveis estudadas. Conclusão: neste estudo, não foi possível encontrar um modelo linear com as variáveis estudadas.

  14. Mechano- and metabosensitive alterations after injection of botulinum toxin into gastrocnemius muscle.

    Caron, Guillaume; Rouzi, Talifujiang; Grelot, Laurent; Magalon, Guy; Marqueste, Tanguy; Decherchi, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of motor denervation by Clostridium botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A) on the afferent activity of fibers originating from the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Animals were randomized in two groups, 1) untreated animals acting as control and 2) treated animals in which the toxin was injected in the left muscle. Locomotor activity was evaluated once per day during 12 days with a test based on footprint measurements of walking rats (sciatic functional index). At the end of the functional assessment period, electrophysiological tests were used to measure muscle properties, metabosensitive afferent fiber responses to chemical (KCl and lactic acid) injections, electrically induced fatigue (EIF), and mechanosensitive responses to tendon vibrations. Additionally, ventilatory response was recorded during repetitive muscle contractions. Then, rats were sacrificed, and the BoNT/A-injected muscles were weighed. Twelve days postinjection we observed a complete motor denervation associated with a significant muscle atrophy and loss of force to direct muscle stimulation. In the BoNT/A group, the metabosensitive responses to KCl injections were unaltered. However, we observed alterations in responses to EIF and to 1 mM of lactic acid (which induces the greatest activation). The ventilatory adjustments during repetitive muscle activation were abolished, and the mechanosensitive fiber responses to tendon vibrations were reduced. These results indicate that BoNT/A alters the sensorimotor loop and may induce insufficient motor and physiological adjustments in patients in whom a motor denervation with BoNT/A was performed. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labels a subset of primary afferent fibers which project selectively to the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

    Mori, K

    1986-02-19

    To examine differential carbohydrate expression among different subsets of primary afferent fibers, several fluorescein-isothiocyanate conjugated lectins were used in a histochemical study of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of the rabbit. The lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labeled a subset of DRG cells and primary afferent fibers which projected to the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. These results suggest that specific carbohydrates containing L-fucosyl residue is expressed selectively in small diameter primary afferent fibers which subserve nociception or thermoception.

  16. Afferent Neural Feedback Overrides the Modulating Effects of Arousal, Hypercapnia and Hypoxemia on Neonatal Cardio-respiratory Control.

    Lumb, Kathleen J; Schneider, Jennifer M; Ibrahim, Thowfique; Rigaux, Anita; Hasan, Shabih U

    2018-04-20

    Evidence at whole animal, organ-system, and cellular and molecular levels suggests that afferent volume feedback is critical for establishment of adequate ventilation at birth. Due to the irreversible nature of vagal ablation studies to date, it was difficult to quantify the roles of afferent volume input, arousal and changes in blood gas tensions on neonatal respiratory control. During reversible perineural vagal block, profound apneas, and hypoxemia and hypercarbia were observed necessitating termination of perineural blockade. Respiratory depression and apneas were independent of the sleep states. We demonstrate that profound apneas and life-threatening respiratory failure in vagally denervated animals do not result from lack of arousal or hypoxemia. Change in sleep state and concomitant respiratory depression result from lack of afferent volume feedback, which appears to be critical for the maintenance of normal breathing patterns and adequate gas exchange during the early postnatal period. Afferent volume feedback plays a vital role in neonatal respiratory control. Mechanisms for the profound respiratory depression and life-threatening apneas observed in vagally denervated neonatal animals remain unclear. We investigated the roles of sleep states, hypoxic-hypercapnia and afferent volume feedback on respiratory depression using reversible perineural vagal block during early postnatal period. Seven lambs were instrumented during the first 48h of life to record/analyze sleep states, diaphragmatic electromyograph, arterial blood gas tensions, systemic arterial blood pressure and rectal temperature. Perineural cuffs were placed around the vagi to attain reversible blockade. Post-operatively, during the awake state, both vagi were blocked using 2% xylocaine for up to 30 minutes. Compared with baseline values, pHa, PaO 2 and SaO 2 decreased and PaCO 2 increased during perineural blockade (P Respiratory depression and apneas were independent of sleep states. This

  17. [Effect of 2 methods of occlusion adjustment on occlusal balance and muscles of mastication in patient with implant restoration].

    Wang, Rong; Xu, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To compare the effect of 2 methods of occlusion adjustment on occlusal balance and muscles of mastication in patients with dental implant restoration. Twenty patients, each with a single edentulous posterior dentition with no distal dentition were selected, and divided into 2 groups. Patients in group A underwent original occlusion adjustment method and patients in group B underwent occlusal plane reduction technique. Ankylos implants were implanted in the edentulous space in each patient and restored with fixed prosthodontics single unit crown. Occlusion was adjusted in each restoration accordingly. Electromyograms were conducted to determine the effect of adjustment methods on occlusion and muscles of mastication 3 months and 6 months after initial restoration and adjustment. Data was collected and measurements for balanced occlusal measuring standards were obtained, including central occlusion force (COF), asymmetry index of molar occlusal force(AMOF). Balanced muscles of mastication measuring standards were also obtained including measurements from electromyogram for the muscles of mastication and the anterior bundle of the temporalis muscle at the mandibular rest position, average electromyogram measurements of the anterior bundle of the temporalis muscle at the intercuspal position(ICP), Astot, masseter muscle asymmetry index, and anterior temporalis asymmetry index (ASTA). Statistical analysis was performed using Student 's t test with SPSS 18.0 software package. Three months after occlusion adjustment, parameters of the original occlusion adjustment method were significantly different between group A and group B in balanced occlusal measuring standards and balanced muscles of mastication measuring standards. Six months after occlusion adjustment, parameters of the original occlusion adjustment methods were significantly different between group A and group B in balanced muscles of mastication measuring standards, but was no significant difference in balanced

  18. Flexible adaptation to an artificial recurrent connection from muscle to peripheral nerve in man.

    Kato, Kenji; Sasada, Syusaku; Nishimura, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Controlling a neuroprosthesis requires learning a novel input-output transformation; however, how subjects incorporate this into limb control remains obscure. To elucidate the underling mechanisms, we investigated the motor adaptation process to a novel artificial recurrent connection (ARC) from a muscle to a peripheral nerve in healthy humans. In this paradigm, the ulnar nerve was electrically stimulated in proportion to the activation of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), which is ulnar-innervated and monosynaptically innervated from Ia afferents of the FCU, defined as the "homonymous muscle," or the palmaris longus (PL), which is not innervated by the ulnar nerve and produces similar movement to the FCU, defined as the "synergist muscle." The ARC boosted the activity of the homonymous muscle and wrist joint movement during a visually guided reaching task. Participants could control muscle activity to utilize the ARC for the volitional control of wrist joint movement and then readapt to the absence of the ARC to either input muscle. Participants reduced homonymous muscle recruitment with practice, regardless of the input muscle. However, the adaptation process in the synergist muscle was dependent on the input muscle. The activity of the synergist muscle decreased when the input was the homonymous muscle, whereas it increased when it was the synergist muscle. This reorganization of the neuromotor map, which was maintained as an aftereffect of the ARC, was observed only when the input was the synergist muscle. These findings demonstrate that the ARC induced reorganization of neuromotor map in a targeted and sustainable manner. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    , external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles compared with naturally infected crocodiles. Results from this study show that, in Nile crocodiles, larvae of T. zimbabwensis appear first to invade predilection muscles closest to their release site in the small intestine before occupying those muscles situated further away. The recommendation for the use of masseter, pterygoid and intercostal muscles as sampling sites for the detection of T. zimbabwensis in crocodiles is in contrast to the results from this study, where the fore- and hind limb muscles had the highest number of larvae. This study also supports the use of biopsy sampling from the dorso-lateral regions of the tail for surveillance purposes in both wild and commercial crocodile populations.

  20. Afferent connections of nervus facialis and nervus glossopharyngeus in the pigeon (Columba livia) and their role in feeding behavior.

    Dubbeldam, J L

    1984-01-01

    The afferent connections of the facial nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve in the pigeon have been studied with the Fink-Heimer I method after ganglion lesions. The nucleus ventrolateralis anterior of the solitary complex and an indistinct cell group S VII medial to the nucleus interpolaris of the descending trigeminal tract are the terminal fields for facial afferents. The n. ventrolateralis anterior also receives an important projection from the distal glossopharyngeal ganglion. Other projection areas of this ganglion are the n. presulcalis , n. centralis anterior, n. intermedius anterior and the parasolitary nucleus. Both ganglia have only ipsilateral projections. A lesion in the jugular ganglion complex causes degeneration throughout the ipsilateral solitary complex, in the contralateral n. commissuralis and n. centralis posterior and in the n. cuneatus externus. The lack of a substantial contribution to the trigeminal system is ascribed to the absence of mechanoreceptors in the tongue. The implications for the organization of neuronal pathways related to the feeding behavior are discussed.

  1. Influence of oilseed supplement ranging in n-6/n-3 ratio on fatty acid composition and Δ5-, Δ6-desaturase protein expression in steer muscles.

    Turner, T D; Mitchell, A; Duynisveld, J; Pickova, J; Doran, O; McNiven, M A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated effects of roasted or extruded oilseed supplementation ranging in n-6/n-3 ratios from 0.3 to 5.0 on the fatty acid composition and expression of delta-5 desaturase (Δ5d) and Δ6-desaturase (Δ6d) protein in commercial steer cheek (m. masseter) and diaphragm (pars costalis diaphragmatis) muscles. In general, the n-6/n-3 ratio of the diet had a subsequent effect on the muscle n-6/n-3 ratio (P muscle 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content relating to proportion of dietary soya bean and linseed (P muscle the Δ5d protein expression had a stronger association with the desaturase products rather than the precursors. The relationship between Δ5d protein expression and the muscle LC n-6/n-3 ratio was negative in both muscles (P muscle 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 deposition, whereas the Δ5d and Δ6d protein expression had some influence on the polar lipid LC-PUFA profile. Results reaffirm that processed oilseeds can be used to increase the proportion of fatty acids potentially beneficial for human health, by influencing the formation of LC-PUFA and reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio.

  2. The role of trigeminal nasal TRPM8-expressing afferent neurons in the antitussive effects of menthol.

    Plevkova, J; Kollarik, M; Poliacek, I; Brozmanova, M; Surdenikova, L; Tatar, M; Mori, N; Canning, B J

    2013-07-15

    The cold-sensitive cation channel TRPM8 is a target for menthol, which is used routinely as a cough suppressant and as an additive to tobacco and food products. Given that cold temperatures and menthol activate neurons through gating of TRPM8, it is unclear how menthol actively suppresses cough. In this study we describe the antitussive effects of (-)-menthol in conscious and anesthetized guinea pigs. In anesthetized guinea pigs, cough evoked by citric acid applied topically to the tracheal mucosa was suppressed by menthol only when it was selectively administered as vapors to the upper airways. Menthol applied topically to the tracheal mucosa prior to and during citric acid application or administered continuously as vapors or as an aerosol to the lower airways was without effect on cough. These actions of upper airway menthol treatment were mimicked by cold air delivered to the upper airways but not by (+)-menthol, the inactive isomer of menthol, or by the TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist icilin administered directly to the trachea. Subsequent molecular analyses confirmed the expression of TRPM8 in a subset of nasal trigeminal afferent neurons that do not coincidently express TRPA1 or TRPV1. We conclude that menthol suppresses cough evoked in the lower airways primarily through a reflex initiated from the nose.

  3. Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Afferent Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System

    Rongfeng Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum (LS, central amygdala (CeA, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVH, dorsal raphe (DRN and parabrachial nucleus (PBN. Interestingly, we found that the BFCS receives inputs from the olfactory areas and the entorhinal-hippocampal system. These results greatly expand our knowledge about the connectivity of the mouse BFCS and provided important preliminary indications for future exploration of circuit function.

  4. MuSC is involved in regulating axonal fasciculation of mouse primary vestibular afferents.

    Kawauchi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Sekine-Aizawa, Yoko; Fujita, Shinobu C; Murakami, Fujio

    2003-10-01

    Regulation of axonal fasciculation plays an important role in the precise patterning of neural circuits. Selective fasciculation contributes to the sorting of different types of axons and prevents the misrouting of axons. However, axons must defasciculate once they reach the target area. To study the regulation of fasciculation, we focused on the primary vestibulo-cerebellar afferents (PVAs), which show a dramatic change from fasciculated axon bundles to defasciculated individual axons at their target region, the cerebellar primordium. To understand how fasciculation and defasciculation are regulated in this system, we investigated the roles of murine SC1-related protein (MuSC), a molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. We show: (i) by comparing 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) labelling and anti-MuSC immunohistochemistry, that downregulation of MuSC in PVAs during development is concomitant with the defasciculation of PVA axons; (ii) in a binding assay with cells expressing MuSC, that MuSC has cell-adhesive activity via a homophilic binding mechanism, and this activity is increased by multimerization; and (iii) that MuSC also displays neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in vestibular ganglion cultures. These findings suggest that MuSC is involved in axonal fasciculation and its downregulation may help to initiate the defasciculation of PVAs.

  5. Asymmetric Macular Structural Damage Is Associated With Relative Afferent Pupillary Defects in Patients With Glaucoma

    Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Tatham, Andrew J.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Abe, Ricardo Y.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Paranhos, Augusto; Baig, Saif; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We examined the relationship between relative afferent pupillary defects (RAPDs) and macular structural damage measured by macular thickness and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) thickness in patients with glaucoma. Methods A cross-sectional study was done of 106 glaucoma patients and 85 healthy individuals from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. All subjects underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) and optic nerve and macular imaging using Cirrus Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT). Glaucoma was defined as repeatable abnormal SAP or progressive glaucomatous changes on stereo photographs. Pupil responses were assessed using an automated pupillometer, which records the magnitude of RAPD (RAPD score), with additional RAPD scores recorded for each of a series of colored stimuli (blue, red, green, and yellow). The relationship between RAPD score and intereye differences (right minus left eye) in circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness, mGCIPL, macular thickness, and SAP mean deviation (MD), was examined using linear regression. Results There was fair correlation between RAPD score and asymmetric macular structural damage measured by intereye difference in mGCIPL thickness (R2 = 0.285, P glaucoma. PMID:27064394

  6. Characterization of dendritic cells subpopulations in skin and afferent lymph in the swine model.

    Florian Marquet

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous delivery of vaccines to specific skin dendritic cells (DC subsets is foreseen as a promising strategy to induce strong and specific types of immune responses such as tolerance, cytotoxicity or humoral immunity. Because of striking histological similarities between human and pig skin, pig is recognized as the most suitable model to study the cutaneous delivery of medicine. Therefore improving the knowledge on swine skin DC subsets would be highly valuable to the skin vaccine field. In this study, we showed that pig skin DC comprise the classical epidermal langerhans cells (LC and dermal DC (DDC that could be divided in 3 subsets according to their phenotypes: (1 the CD163(neg/CD172a(neg, (2 the CD163(highCD172a(pos and (3 the CD163(lowCD172a(pos DDC. These subtypes have the capacity to migrate from skin to lymph node since we detected them in pseudo-afferent lymph. Extensive phenotyping with a set of markers suggested that the CD163(high DDC resemble the antibody response-inducing human skin DC/macrophages whereas the CD163(negCD172(low DDC share properties with the CD8(+ T cell response-inducing murine skin CD103(pos DC. This work, by showing similarities between human, mouse and swine skin DC, establishes pig as a model of choice for the development of transcutaneous immunisation strategies targeting DC.

  7. Lung vagal afferent activity in rats with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

    Schelegle, E S; Walby, W F; Mansoor, J K; Chen, A T

    2001-05-01

    Bleomycin treatment in rats results in pulmonary fibrosis that is characterized by a rapid shallow breathing pattern, a decrease in quasi-static lung compliance and a blunting of the Hering-Breuer Inflation Reflex. We examined the impulse activity of pulmonary vagal afferents in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis during the ventilator cycle and static lung inflations/deflations and following the injection of capsaicin into the right atrium. Bleomycin enhanced volume sensitivity of slowly adapting stretch receptors (SARs), while it blunted the sensitivity of these receptors to increasing transpulmonary pressure. Bleomycin treatment increased the inspiratory activity, while it decreased the expiratory activity of rapidly adapting stretch receptors (RARs). Pulmonary C-fiber impulse activity did not appear to be affected by bleomycin treatment. We conclude that the fibrosis-related shift in discharge profile and enhanced volume sensitivity of SARs combined with the increased inspiratory activity of RARs contributes to the observed rapid shallow breathing of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

  8. Afferent Pathway-Mediated Effect of α1 Adrenergic Antagonist, Tamsulosin, on the Neurogenic Bladder After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Jayoung; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2017-09-01

    The functions of the lower urinary tract (LUT), such as voiding and storing urine, are dependent on complex central neural networks located in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. Thus, the functions of the LUT are susceptible to various neurologic disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI at the cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary control of voiding and the normal reflex pathways coordinating bladder and sphincter functions. In this context, it is noteworthy that α1-adrenoceptor blockers have been reported to relieve voiding symptoms and storage symptoms in elderly men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor blocker, is also considered the most effective regimen for patients with LUT symptoms such as BPH and overactive bladder (OAB). In the present study, the effects of tamsulosin on the expression of c-Fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the afferent micturition areas, including the pontine micturition center (PMC), the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG), and the spinal cord (L5), of rats with an SCI were investigated. SCI was found to remarkably upregulate the expression of c-Fos, NGF, and NADPH-d in the afferent pathway of micturition, the dorsal horn of L5, the vlPAG, and the PMC, resulting in the symptoms of OAB. In contrast, tamsulosin treatment significantly suppressed these neural activities and the production of nitric oxide in the afferent pathways of micturition, and consequently, attenuated the symptoms of OAB. Based on these results, tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, could be used to attenuate bladder dysfunction following SCI. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism and effects of tamsulosin on the afferent pathways of micturition.

  9. Intercellular K⁺ accumulation depolarizes Type I vestibular hair cells and their associated afferent nerve calyx.

    Contini, D; Zampini, V; Tavazzani, E; Magistretti, J; Russo, G; Prigioni, I; Masetto, S

    2012-12-27

    Mammalian vestibular organs contain two types of sensory receptors, named Type I and Type II hair cells. While Type II hair cells are contacted by several small afferent nerve terminals, the basolateral surface of Type I hair cells is almost entirely enveloped by a single large afferent nerve terminal, called calyx. Moreover Type I, but not Type II hair cells, express a low-voltage-activated outward K(+) current, I(K,L), which is responsible for their much lower input resistance (Rm) at rest as compared to Type II hair cells. The functional meaning of I(K,L) and associated calyx is still enigmatic. By combining the patch-clamp whole-cell technique with the mouse whole crista preparation, we have recorded the current- and voltage responses of in situ hair cells. Outward K(+) current activation resulted in K(+) accumulation around Type I hair cells, since it induced a rightward shift of the K(+) reversal potential the magnitude of which depended on the amplitude and duration of K(+) current flow. Since this phenomenon was never observed for Type II hair cells, we ascribed it to the presence of a residual calyx limiting K(+) efflux from the synaptic cleft. Intercellular K(+) accumulation added a slow (τ>100ms) depolarizing component to the cell voltage response. In a few cases we were able to record from the calyx and found evidence for intercellular K(+) accumulation as well. The resulting depolarization could trigger a discharge of action potentials in the afferent nerve fiber. Present results support a model where pre- and postsynaptic depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation cooperates with neurotransmitter exocytosis in sustaining afferent transmission arising from Type I hair cells. While vesicular transmission together with the low Rm of Type I hair cells appears best suited for signaling fast head movements, depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation could enhance signal transmission during slow head movements. Copyright

  10. Concurrent gradients of ribbon volume and AMPA-receptor patch volume in cochlear afferent synapses on gerbil inner hair cells.

    Zhang, Lichun; Engler, Sina; Koepcke, Lena; Steenken, Friederike; Köppl, Christine

    2018-07-01

    The Mongolian gerbil is a classic animal model for age-related hearing loss. As a prerequisite for studying age-related changes, we characterized cochlear afferent synaptic morphology in young adult gerbils, using immunolabeling and quantitative analysis of confocal microscopic images. Cochlear wholemounts were triple-labeled with a hair-cell marker, a marker of presynaptic ribbons, and a marker of postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Seven cochlear positions covering an equivalent frequency range from 0.5 - 32 kHz were evaluated. The spatial positions of synapses were determined in a coordinate system with reference to their individual inner hair cell. Synapse numbers confirmed previous reports for gerbils (on average, 20-22 afferents per inner hair cell). The volumes of presynaptic ribbons and postsynaptic glutamate receptor patches were positively correlated: larger ribbons associated with larger receptor patches and smaller ribbons with smaller patches. Furthermore, the volumes of both presynaptic ribbons and postsynaptic receptor patches co-varied along the modiolar-pillar and the longitudinal axes of their hair cell. The gradients in ribbon volume are consistent with previous findings in cat, guinea pig, mouse and rat and further support a role in differentiating the physiological properties of type I afferents. However, the positive correlation between the volumes of pre- and postsynaptic elements in the gerbil is different to the opposing gradients found in the mouse, suggesting species-specific differences in the postsynaptic AMPA receptors that are unrelated to the fundamental classes of type I afferents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve in rats is well tolerated and does not compromise afferent or efferent fibre functionality

    Crook, J. J.; Brouillard, C. B. J.; Irazoqui, P. P.; Lovick, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting. Since nociceptor afferents are intermingled with similar-sized visceral autonomic fibres, stimulation may induce pain. In anaesthetised rats high frequency stimulation of the pelvic nerve can suppress urinary voiding but it is not known how conscious animals would react to this procedure. Our objective therefore was to determine how rats tolerated chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve, whether nerve stimulation would be aversive and whether nerve-bladder functionality would be compromised. Approach. We carried out a preliminary de-risking study to investigate how conscious rats tolerated chronic implantation of electrodes on the pelvic nerve, their responsiveness to intermittent high frequency stimulation and whether functionality of the nerve-bladder connection became compromised. Main results. Implantation of cuff electrodes was well-tolerated. The normal diurnal pattern of urinary voiding was not disrupted. Pelvic nerve stimulation (up to 4 mA, 3 kHz) for 30 min periods evoked mild alerting at stimulus onset but no signs of pain. Stimulation evoked a modest (nerve temperature but the functional integrity of the nerve-bladder connection, reflected by contraction of the detrusor muscle in response to 10 Hz nerve stimulation, was not compromised. Significance. Chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve was found to be a well-tolerated procedure in rats and high frequency

  12. Effects of adding Braun jejunojejunostomy to standard Whipple procedure on reduction of afferent loop syndrome - a randomized clinical trial.

    Kakaei, Farzad; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Nejatollahi, Seyed Moahammad Reza; Rashidi, Iqbal; Asvadi, Touraj; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Oliaei-Motlagh, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Whipple surgery (pancreaticodeudenectomy) has a high complication rate. We aimed to evaluate whether adding Braun jejunojejunostomy (side-to-side anastomosis of afferent and efferent loops distal to the gastrojejunostomy site) to a standard Whipple procedure would reduce postoperative complications. We conducted a randomized clinical trial comparing patients who underwent standard Whipple surgery (standard group) and patients who underwent standard Whipple surgery with Braun jejunojejunostomy (Braun group). Patients were followed for 1 month after the procedure and postoperative complications were recorded. Our study included 30 patients: 15 in the Braun and 15 in the standard group. In the Braun group, 4 (26.7%) patients experienced 6 complications, whereas in the standard group, 7 (46.7%) patients experienced 11 complications (p = 0.14). Complications in the Braun group were gastrointestinal bleeding and wound infection (n = 1 each) and delayed gastric emptying and pulmonary infection (n = 2 each). Complications in the standard group were death, pancreatic anastomosis leak and biliary anastomosis leak (n = 1 each); gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 2); and afferent loop syndrome and delayed gastric emptying (n = 3 each). There was no significant difference between groups in the subtypes of complications. Our results showed that adding Braun jejunojejunostomy to standard Whipple procedure was associated with lower rates of afferent loop syndrome and delayed gastric emptying. However, more studies are needed to define the role of Braun jejunojejunostomy in this regard. IRCT2014020316473N1 (www.irct.ir).

  13. Extraocular muscle function testing

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  14. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on the Masticatory Muscles and Physiologic Sleep Variables in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Novel Therapeutic Approach.

    Lilian Chrystiane Giannasi

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a term employed to define a group of non-progressive neuromotor disorders caused by damage to the immature or developing brain, with consequent limitations regarding movement and posture. CP may impair orapharygeal muscle tone, leading to a compromised chewing function and to sleep disorders (such as obstructive sleep apnea. Thirteen adults with CP underwent bilateral masseter and temporalis neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES therapy. The effects on the masticatory muscles and sleep variables were evaluated using electromyography (EMG and polysomnography (PSG, respectively, prior and after 2 months of NMES. EMG consisted of 3 tests in different positions: rest, mouth opening and maximum clenching effort (MCE. EMG values in the rest position were 100% higher than values recorded prior to therapy for all muscles analyzed (p < 0.05; mean mouth opening increased from 38.0 ± 8.0 to 44.0 ± 10.0 cm (p = 0.03. A significant difference in MCE was found only for the right masseter. PSG revealed an improved in the AHI from 7.2±7.0/h to 2.3±1.5/h (p < 0.05; total sleep time improved from 185 min to 250 min (p = 0.04 and minimun SaO2 improved from 83.6 ± 3.0 to 86.4 ± 4.0 (p = 0.04. NMES performed over a two-month period led to improvements in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles at rest, mouth opening, isometric contraction and sleep variables, including the elimination of obstructive sleep apnea events in patients with CP. Trial registration: ReBEC RBR994XFS http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br.

  15. Effect of experimental chewing on masticatory muscle pain onset

    Paulo César Rodrigues Conti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a chewing exercise on pain intensity and pressure-pain threshold in patients with myofascial pain. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive women diagnosed with myofascial pain (MFP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria comprised the experimental group and 15 healthy age-matched female were used as controls. Subjects were asked to chew a gum stick for 9 min and to stay at rest for another 9 min afterwards. Pain intensity was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS every 3 min. At 0, 9 and 18 min, the pressure-pain threshold (PPT was measured bilaterally on the masseter and the anterior, medium, and posterior temporalis muscles. RESULTS: Patients with myofascial pain reported increase (76% and no change (24% on the pain intensity measured with the VAS. A reduction of the PPT at all muscular sites after the exercise and a non-significant recovery after rest were also observed. CONCLUSION: The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. there are at least two subtypes of patients with myofascial pain that respond differently to experimental chewing; 2. the chewing protocol had an adequate discriminative ability in distinguishing patients with myofascial pain from healthy controls.

  16. Osmoregulatory processes and skeletal muscle metabolism

    Boschmann, Michael; Gottschalk, Simone; Adams, Frauke; Luft, Friedrich C.; Jordan, Jens

    Prolonged microgravity during space flight is associated with a decrease in blood and extracellular volume. These changes in water and electrolyte balance might activate catabolic processes which contribute finally to the loss of muscle and bone mass and strength. Recently, we found a prompt increase that energy expenditure by about 30% in both normal and overweight men and women after drinking 500 ml water. This effect is mediated by an increased sympathetic nervous system activity, obviously secondary to stimulation of osmosensitive afferent neurons in the liver, and skeletal muscle is possibly one effector organ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this thermogenic response to water is accompanied by a stimulation of aerobic glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. To this end, 16 young healthy volunteers (8 men) were studied. After an overnight fast (12h), a microdialysis probe was implanted into the right M. quadriceps femoris vastus lateralis and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution (+50 mM ethanol). After 1h, volunteers were asked to drink 500 ml water (22° C) followed by continuing microdialysis for another 90 min. Dialysates (15 min fractions) were analyzed for [ethanol], [glucose], [lactate], [pyruvate], and [glycerol] in order to assess changes in muscle tissue perfusion (ethanol dilution technique), glycolysis and lipolysis. Blood samples were taken and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Neither HR and systolic and diastolic BP, nor plasma [glucose], [lactate], [insulin], and [C peptide] changed significantly after water drinking. Also, tissue perfusion and dialysate [glucose] did not change significantly. However, dialysate [lactate] increased by about 10 and 20% and dialysate [pyruvate] by about 100 and 200% in men and women, respectively. In contrast, dialysate [glycerol] decreased by about 30 and 20% in men and women, respectively. Therefore, drinking of 500 ml water stimulates aerobic glucose metabolism and inhibits

  17. Meal parameters and vagal gastrointestinal afferents in mice that experienced early postnatal overnutrition.

    Biddinger, Jessica E; Fox, Edward A

    2010-08-04

    Early postnatal overnutrition results in a predisposition to develop obesity due in part to hypothalamic and sympathetic dysfunction. Potential involvement of another major regulatory system component--the vagus nerve--has not been examined. Moreover, feeding disturbances have rarely been investigated prior to development of obesity when confounds due to obesity are minimized. To examine these issues, litters were culled on the day of birth to create small litters (SL; overnutrition), or normal size litters (NL; normal nutrition). Body weight, fat pad weight, meal patterns, and vagal sensory duodenal innervation were compared between SL and NL adult mice prior to development of obesity. Meal patterns were studied 18 h/day for 3 weeks using a balanced diet. Then vagal mechanoreceptors were labeled using anterograde transport of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injected into the nodose ganglion and their density and morphology were examined. Between postnatal day 1 and weaning, body weight of SL mice was greater than for NL mice. By young adulthood it was similar in both groups, whereas SL fat pad weight was greater in males, suggesting postnatal overnutrition produced a predisposition to obesity. SL mice exhibited increased food intake, decreased satiety ratio, and increased first meal rate (following mild food deprivation) compared to NL mice, suggesting postnatal overnutrition disrupted satiety. The density and structure of intestinal IGLEs appeared similar in SL and NL mice. Thus, although a vagal role cannot be excluded, our meal parameter and anatomical findings provided no evidence for significant postnatal overnutrition effects on vagal gastrointestinal afferents. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microstimulation of the lumbar DRG recruits primary afferent neurons in localized regions of lower limb.

    Ayers, Christopher A; Fisher, Lee E; Gaunt, Robert A; Weber, Douglas J

    2016-07-01

    Patterned microstimulation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) has been proposed as a method for delivering tactile and proprioceptive feedback to amputees. Previous studies demonstrated that large- and medium-diameter afferent neurons could be recruited separately, even several months after implantation. However, those studies did not examine the anatomical localization of sensory fibers recruited by microstimulation in the DRG. Achieving precise recruitment with respect to both modality and receptive field locations will likely be crucial to create a viable sensory neuroprosthesis. In this study, penetrating microelectrode arrays were implanted in the L5, L6, and L7 DRG of four isoflurane-anesthetized cats instrumented with nerve cuff electrodes around the proximal and distal branches of the sciatic and femoral nerves. A binary search was used to find the recruitment threshold for evoking a response in each nerve cuff. The selectivity of DRG stimulation was characterized by the ability to recruit individual distal branches to the exclusion of all others at threshold; 84.7% (n = 201) of the stimulation electrodes recruited a single nerve branch, with 9 of the 15 instrumented nerves recruited selectively. The median stimulation threshold was 0.68 nC/phase, and the median dynamic range (increase in charge while stimulation remained selective) was 0.36 nC/phase. These results demonstrate the ability of DRG microstimulation to achieve selective recruitment of the major nerve branches of the hindlimb, suggesting that this approach could be used to drive sensory input from localized regions of the limb. This sensory input might be useful for restoring tactile and proprioceptive feedback to a lower-limb amputee. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Dynamic exophthalmos and lateral strabismus in a dog caused by masticatory muscle myositis.

    Czerwinski, Sarah L; Plummer, Caryn E; Greenberg, Shari M; Craft, William F; Conway, Julia A; Perez, Mayrim L; Cooke, Kirsten L; Winter, Matthew D

    2015-11-01

    A 5.5-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of a 5-month history of deviation of the right globe upon opening the mouth and a 1-month history of conjunctivitis in the same eye. Clinical findings, diagnostic imaging results, treatment and follow-up are described. When the mouth was opened, the right globe deviated rostrally and laterally. There was no pain or resistance to opening the mouth, or resistance to retropulsion of the globe. No other abnormalities were observed. Computed tomography was performed, revealing a contrast-enhancing region associated with the right masseter muscle impinging into the right orbit; this was more pronounced with the mouth open. Cytology revealed a small number of mildly to moderately atypical mesenchymal cells. Histopathology was consistent with polyphasic myositis, with a predominance of lymphocytes and plasma cells. No infectious agents were identified. Serum antibody titers for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were negative. Serum titers for 2 M antibody were positive at 1:500, consistent with a diagnosis of masticatory muscle myositis. Therapy with prednisone was initiated. During a follow-up period of 5 months, there was no recurrence of clinical signs, and the dose of prednisone was reduced by 25%. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of masticatory muscle myositis causing dynamic exophthalmos and strabismus in a dog. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Selective expression of the type 3 isoform of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel (RyR3) in a subset of slow fibers in diaphragm and cephalic muscles of adult rabbits

    Conti, Antonio; Reggiani, Carlo; Sorrentino, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The expression pattern of the RyR3 isoform of Ca 2+ release channels was analysed by Western blot in neonatal and adult rabbit skeletal muscles. The results obtained show that the expression of the RyR3 isoform is developmentally regulated. In fact, RyR3 expression was detected in all muscles analysed at 2 and 15 days after birth while, in adult animals, it was restricted to a subset of muscles that includes diaphragm, masseter, pterygoideus, digastricus, and tongue. Interestingly, all of these muscles share a common embryonic origin being derived from the somitomeres or from the cephalic region of the embryo. Immunofluorescence analysis of rabbit skeletal muscle cross-sections showed that RyR3 staining was detected in all fibers of neonatal muscles. In contrast, in those adult muscles expressing RyR3 only a fraction of fibers was labelled. Staining of these muscles with antibodies against fast and slow myosins revealed a close correlation between expression of RyR3 and fibers expressing slow myosin isoform

  1. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  2. Stimulation of renal afferent fibers leads to activation of catecholaminergic and non-catecholaminergic neurons in the medulla oblongata.

    Nishi, Erika E; Martins, Beatriz S; Milanez, Maycon I O; Lopes, Nathalia R; de Melo, Jose F; Pontes, Roberto B; Girardi, Adriana C; Campos, Ruy R; Bergamaschi, Cássia T

    2017-05-01

    Presympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) including the adrenergic cell groups play a major role in the modulation of several reflexes required for the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone and blood pressure (BP). Moreover, sympathetic vasomotor drive to the kidneys influence natriuresis and diuresis by inhibiting the cAMP/PKA pathway and redistributing the Na + /H + exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) to the body of the microvilli in the proximal tubules. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of renal afferents stimulation on (1) the neurochemical phenotype of Fos expressing neurons in the medulla oblongata and (2) the level of abundance and phosphorylation of NHE3 in the renal cortex. We found that electrical stimulation of renal afferents increased heart rate and BP transiently and caused activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in the RVLM and non-TH neurons in the NTS. Additionally, activation of the inhibitory renorenal reflex over a 30-min period resulted in increased natriuresis and diuresis associated with increased phosphorylation of NHE3 at serine 552, a surrogate for reduced activity of this exchanger, in the contralateral kidney. This effect was not dependent of BP changes considering that no effects on natriuresis or diuresis were found in the ipsilateral-stimulated kidney. Therefore, our data show that renal afferents leads to activation of catecholaminergic and non-catecholaminergic neurons in the medulla oblongata. When renorenal reflex is induced, NHE3 exchanger activity appears to be decreased, resulting in decreased sodium and water reabsorption in the contralateral kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooling reduces the cutaneous afferent firing response to vibratory stimuli in glabrous skin of the human foot sole.

    Lowrey, Catherine R; Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Bent, Leah R

    2013-02-01

    Skin on the foot sole plays an important role in postural control. Cooling the skin of the foot is often used to induce anesthesia to determine the role of skin in motor and balance control. The effect of cooling on the four classes of mechanoreceptor in the skin is largely unknown, and thus the aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of cooling on individual skin receptors in the foot sole. Such insight will better isolate individual receptor contributions to balance control. Using microneurography, we recorded 39 single nerve afferents innervating mechanoreceptors in the skin of the foot sole in humans. Afferents were identified as fast-adapting (FA) or slowly adapting (SA) type I or II (FA I n = 16, FA II n = 7, SA I n = 6, SA II n = 11). Receptor response to vibration was compared before and after cooling of the receptive field (2-20 min). Overall, firing response was abolished in 30% of all receptors, and this was equally distributed across receptor type (P = 0.69). Longer cooling times were more likely to reduce firing response below 50% of baseline; however, some afferent responses were abolished with shorter cooling times (2-5 min). Skin temperature was not a reliable indicator of the level of receptor activation and often became uncoupled from receptor response levels, suggesting caution in the use of this parameter as an indicator of anesthesia. When cooled, receptors preferentially coded lower frequencies in response to vibration. In response to a sustained indentation, SA receptors responded more like FA receptors, primarily coding "on-off" events.

  4. Fine structural survey of the intermediate subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii and its glossopharyngeal afferent terminals.

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Seki, Makoto

    2005-10-01

    The intermediate subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii (imNTS) receives somatosensory inputs from the soft palate and pharynx, and projects onto the nucleus ambiguus, thus serving as a relay nucleus for swallowing. The ultrastructure and synaptology of the rat imNTS, and its glossopharyngeal afferent terminals, have been examined with cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP) as an anterograde tracer. The imNTS contained oval or ellipsoid-shaped, small to medium-sized neurons (18.2 x 11.4 microm) with little cytoplasm, few cell organelles and an irregularly shaped nucleus. The cytoplasm often contained one or two nucleolus-like stigmoid bodies. The average number of axosomatic terminals was 1.8 per profile. About 83% of them contained round vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts (Gray's type I), while about 17% contained pleomorphic vesicles and formed symmetric synaptic contacts (Gray's type II). The neuropil contained small or large axodendritic terminals, and about 92% of them were Gray's type I. When CT-HRP was injected into the nodose ganglion, many labeled terminals were found in the imNTS. All anterogradely labeled terminals contacted dendrites but not somata. The labeled terminals were usually large (2.69+/-0.09 mum) and exclusively of Gray's type I. They often contacted more than two dendrites, were covered with glial processes, and formed synaptic glomeruli. A small unlabeled terminal occasionally made an asymmetric synaptic contact with a large labeled terminal. The large glossopharyngeal afferent terminals and the neurons containing stigmoid bodies characterized the imNTS neurons that received pharyngeal afferents.

  5. Ultrastructure of the central subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii and the esophageal afferent terminals in the rat.

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Takanaga, Akinori; Tanaka, Koichi; Maeda, Seishi; Seki, Makoto

    2003-03-01

    The central subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii (ceNTS) receives afferent projections from the esophageal wall and projects to the nucleus ambiguus, thus serving as a relay nucleus for peristalsis of the esophagus. Here we examine the synaptic organization of the ceNTS, and its esophageal afferents by using transganglionic anterograde transport of cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP). When CT-HRP was injected into the subdiaphragmatic esophagus, many anterogradely labeled terminals were found only in the ceNTS. The ceNTS was composed of round or oval-shaped, small neurons (14.7x8.7 micro m) containing sparse organelles and an irregularly shaped nucleus. The average number of axosomatic terminals was only 1.3 per section cut through the nucleolus. Most of them (92%) contained round vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts (Gray's type I), and a few (8%) contained pleomorphic vesicles and formed symmetric synaptic contacts (Gray's type II). All anterogradely labeled terminals contacted dendrites but not the neuronal somata. The labeled terminals were large (2.55+/-0.07 micro m) and exclusively Gray's type I. More than half of them (60%) contacted small dendrites (less than 1 micro m in diameter), and contained dense-cored vesicles. More than 40% of the labeled terminals contacted two to four dendrites, thus forming a synaptic glomerulus. Sometimes a labeled terminal that contacted an unlabeled terminal by an adherent junction was found within the glomerulus. The large terminals and these complex synaptic relations appeared to characterize the esophageal afferent projections in the ceNTS.

  6. Duodenal activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase induces vagal afferent firing and lowers glucose production in rats.

    Rasmussen, Brittany A; Breen, Danna M; Luo, Ping; Cheung, Grace W C; Yang, Clair S; Sun, Biying; Kokorovic, Andrea; Rong, Weifang; Lam, Tony K T

    2012-04-01

    The duodenum senses nutrients to maintain energy and glucose homeostasis, but little is known about the signaling and neuronal mechanisms involved. We tested whether duodenal activation of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is sufficient and necessary for cholecystokinin (CCK) signaling to trigger vagal afferent firing and regulate glucose production. In rats, we selectively activated duodenal PKA and evaluated changes in glucose kinetics during the pancreatic (basal insulin) pancreatic clamps and vagal afferent firing. The requirement of duodenal PKA signaling in glucose regulation was evaluated by inhibiting duodenal activation of PKA in the presence of infusion of the intraduodenal PKA agonist (Sp-cAMPS) or CCK1 receptor agonist (CCK-8). We also assessed the involvement of a neuronal network and the metabolic impact of duodenal PKA activation in rats placed on high-fat diets. Intraduodenal infusion of Sp-cAMPS activated duodenal PKA and lowered glucose production, in association with increased vagal afferent firing in control rats. The metabolic and neuronal effects of duodenal Sp-cAMPS were negated by coinfusion with either the PKA inhibitor H89 or Rp-CAMPS. The metabolic effect was also negated by coinfusion with tetracaine, molecular and pharmacologic inhibition of NR1-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors within the dorsal vagal complex, or hepatic vagotomy in rats. Inhibition of duodenal PKA blocked the ability of duodenal CCK-8 to reduce glucose production in control rats, whereas duodenal Sp-cAMPS bypassed duodenal CCK resistance and activated duodenal PKA and lowered glucose production in rats on high-fat diets. We identified a neural glucoregulatory function of duodenal PKA signaling. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ventromedial hypothalamic expression of Bdnf is required to establish normal patterns of afferent GABAergic connectivity and responses to hypoglycemia

    Anna Kamitakahara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH controls energy and glucose homeostasis through direct connections to a distributed network of nuclei in the hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. Structural changes in VMH circuit morphology have the potential to alter VMH function throughout life, however, molecular signals responsible for specifying its neural connections are not fully defined. The VMH contains a high density of neurons that express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a potent neurodevelopmental effector known to regulate neuronal survival, growth, differentiation, and connectivity in a number of neural systems. In the current study, we examined whether BDNF impacts the afferent and efferent connections of the VMH, as well as energy homeostatic function. Methods: To determine if BDNF is required for VMH circuit formation, a transgenic mouse model was used to conditionally delete Bdnf from steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 expressing neurons of the VMH prior to the onset of establishing neural connections with other regions. Projections of SF1 expressing neurons were visualized with a genetically targeted fluorescent label and immunofluorescence was used to measure the density of afferents to SF1 neurons in the absence of BDNF. Physiological changes in body weight and circulating blood glucose were also evaluated in the mutant mice. Results: Our findings suggest that BDNF is required to establish normal densities of GABAergic afferents onto SF1 neurons located in the ventrolateral part of the VMH. Furthermore, loss of BDNF from VMH SF1 neurons results in impaired physiological responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that BDNF is required for formation and/or maintenance of inhibitory inputs to SF1 neurons, with enduring effects on glycemic control. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

  8. Differential roles of galanin on mechanical and cooling responses at the primary afferent nociceptor

    Hulse Richard P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galanin is expressed in a small percentage of intact small diameter sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and in the afferent terminals of the superficial lamina of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The neuropeptide modulates nociception demonstrating dose-dependent pro- and anti-nociceptive actions in the naïve animal. Galanin also plays an important role in chronic pain, with the anti-nociceptive actions enhanced in rodent neuropathic pain models. In this study we compared the role played by galanin and its receptors in mechanical and cold allodynia by identifying individual rat C-fibre nociceptors and characterising their responses to mechanical or acetone stimulation. Results Mechanically evoked responses in C-fibre nociceptors from naive rats were sensitised after close intra-arterial infusion of galanin or Gal2-11 (a galanin receptor-2/3 agonist confirming previous data that galanin modulates nociception via activation of GalR2. In contrast, the same dose and route of administration of galanin, but not Gal2-11, inhibited acetone and menthol cooling evoked responses, demonstrating that this inhibitory mechanism is not mediated by activation of GalR2. We then used the partial saphenous nerve ligation injury model of neuropathic pain (PSNI and the complete Freund’s adjuvant model of inflammation in the rat and demonstrated that close intra-arterial infusion of galanin, but not Gal2-11, reduced cooling evoked nociceptor activity and cooling allodynia in both paradigms, whilst galanin and Gal2-11 both decreased mechanical activation thresholds. A previously described transgenic mouse line which inducibly over-expresses galanin (Gal-OE after nerve injury was then used to investigate whether manipulating the levels of endogenous galanin also modulates cooling evoked nociceptive behaviours after PSNI. Acetone withdrawal behaviours in naive mice showed no differences between Gal-OE and wildtype (WT mice. 7-days after

  9. Selective activation of primary afferent fibers evaluated by sine-wave electrical stimulation

    Katafuchi Toshihiko

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transcutaneous sine-wave stimuli at frequencies of 2000, 250 and 5 Hz (Neurometer are thought to selectively activate Aβ, Aδ and C afferent fibers, respectively. However, there are few reports to test the selectivity of these stimuli at the cellular level. In the present study, we analyzed action potentials (APs generated by sine-wave stimuli applied to the dorsal root in acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG preparations using intracellular recordings. We also measured excitatory synaptic responses evoked by transcutaneous stimuli in substantia gelatinosa (SG neurons of the spinal dorsal horn, which receive inputs predominantly from C and Aδ fibers, using in vivo patch-clamp recordings. In behavioral studies, escape or vocalization behavior of rats was observed with both 250 and 5 Hz stimuli at intensity of ~0.8 mA (T5/ T250, whereas with 2000 Hz stimulation, much higher intensity (2.14 mA, T2000 was required. In DRG neurons, APs were generated at T5/T250 by 2000 Hz stimulation in Aβ, by 250 Hz stimulation both in Aβ and Aδ, and by 5 Hz stimulation in all three classes of DRG neurons. However, the AP frequencies elicited in Aβ and Aδ by 5 Hz stimulation were much less than those reported previously in physiological condition. With in vivo experiments large amplitude of EPSCs in SG neurons were elicited by 250 and 5 Hz stimuli at T5/ T250. These results suggest that 2000 Hz stimulation excites selectively Aβ fibers and 5 Hz stimulation activates noxious transmission mediated mainly through C fibers. Although 250 Hz stimulation activates both Aδ and Aβ fibers, tactile sensation would not be perceived when painful sensation is produced at the same time. Therefore, 250 Hz was effective stimulus frequency for activation of Aδ fibers initiating noxious sensation. Thus, the transcutaneous sine-wave stimulation can be applied to evaluate functional changes of sensory transmission by comparing thresholds with the three

  10. W