WorldWideScience

Sample records for mass transit volume

  1. QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.

    1999-03-20

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  2. Mass and Thermodynamic Volume in Lifshitz Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Wilson G; Park, Miok

    2015-01-01

    We examine the concept of black hole thermodynamic volume and its consistency with thermodynamic mass in spacetimes that are not asymptotically flat but instead have anisotropic Lifshitz scaling symmetry. We find that the generalized Smarr relation in anti de Sitter space -- extended to include a pressure-volume term -- holds here as well, and that there exists a definition of thermodynamic mass and thermodynamic volume that satisfy both this relation and the $1^{st}$ law of thermodynamics. We compare the thermodynamic mass with other known quantities such as ADM, Brown-York and Hollands-Ishibashi-Marolf masses. We also conjecture methods for obtaining a thermodynamic mass where there is ambiguity due to the cosmological constant lengthscale depending on the horizon radius lengthscale.

  3. Deconfinement phase transition in a finite volume in the presence of massive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules et Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure - Kouba, B.P. 92, 16050, Vieux Kouba, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-06-27

    We study the QCD deconfinement phase transition from a hadronic gas to a Quark-Gluon Plasma, in the presence of massive particles. Especially, the influence of some parameters as the finite volume, finite mass, flavors number N{sub f} on the transition point and on the order of the transition is investigated.

  4. Large N Phase Transitions, Finite Volume, and Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2014-01-01

    Holographic studies of the entanglement entropy of field theories dual to charged and neutral black holes in asymptotically global AdS4 spacetimes are presented. The goal is to elucidate various properties of the quantity that are peculiar to working in finite volume, and to gain access to the behaviour of the entanglement entropy in the rich thermodynamic phase structure that is present at finite volume and large N. The entropy is followed through various first order phase transitions, and also a novel second order phase transition. Behaviour is found that contrasts interestingly with an earlier holographic study of a second order phase transition dual to an holographic superconductor.

  5. Study of the deconfinement phase transition in a finite volume with massive particles: Hydrodynamics of the system near the transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenam, L.; Djoudi, A. Ait El [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules et Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure - Kouba, B.P. 92, 16050, Vieux Kouba, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-06-27

    We study the finite size and finite mass effects for the thermal deconfinement phase transition in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), using a simple model of coexistence of hadronic (H) gas and quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phases in a finite volume. We consider the equations of state of the two phases with the QGP containing two massless u and d quarks and massive s quarks, and a hadronic gas of massive pions, and we probe the system near the transition. For this, we examine the behavior of the most important hydrodynamical quantities describing the system, at a vanishing chemical potential ({mu}= 0), with temperature and energy density.

  6. QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-08-22

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV.

  7. The QCD phase transition with physical-mass, chiral quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H -T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions at physical values of the quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm$)^3$ and (11 fm$)^3$ and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV . Each temperature was calculated using a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of $N_t=8$. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, $\\chi_{\\rm disc}$ shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability in the region of the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD ``phase transition'' is not first order but a continuous cross-over for $m_\\pi=135$ MeV. The peak location determines a pseudo-critical temperature $T_c = 155(1)(8)$ MeV. Chiral $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous $U(1)_A$ symmetry breaking is non-zero above $T...

  8. TRANSITIONAL DISKS AROUND YOUNG LOW MASS STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D'Alessio

    2009-01-01

    have been interpreted as produced by disks with inner holes, which have been classi ed as \\Transitional Disks". These disks are considered the evolutionary link between the full disks typically found around the young T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars, and the debris disks, found around some main sequence stars. In this contribution we summarize the observed/inferred characteristics of these transitional disks and also some of the models proposed to explain their peculiar geometry.

  9. Volume variation of Gruneisen parameters of fcc transition metals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C V Pandya; P R Vyas; T C Pandya; V B Gohel

    2002-02-01

    The volume variation of the Gruneisen parameters of ten fcc transition metals, up to 40% compression, has been studied on the basis of a model approach proposed by Antonov et al. The results are reasonably good for six metals except for Rh, Ag, Au and Ni when compared with available experimental and other theoretical values. The model requires an appropriate modification for Rh, Ag, Au and Ni.

  10. Estimation of liquid volume fraction using ultrasound transit time spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Saeed M.; Langton, Christian M.

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been proposed that the propagation of an ultrasound wave through complex structures, consisting of two-materials of differing ultrasound velocity, may be considered as an array of parallel ‘sonic rays’, the transit time of each determined by their relative proportion; being a minimum (t min) in entire higher velocity material, and a maximum (t max) in entire lower velocity material. An ultrasound transit time spectrum (UTTS) describes the proportion of sonic rays at an individual transit time. It has previously been demonstrated that the solid volume fraction of a solid:liquid composite, specifically acrylic step-wedges immersed in water, may be reliably estimated from the UTTS. The aim of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that the volume fraction of a two-component liquid mixture, of unequal ultrasound velocity, may also be estimated by UTTS. A through-transmission technique incorporating two 1 MHz ultrasound transducers within a horizontally-aligned cylindrical tube-housing was utilised, the proportion of silicone oil to water being varied from 0% to 100%. The liquid volume fraction was estimated from the UTTS at each composition, the coefficient of determination (R 2%) being 98.9  ±  0.7%. The analysis incorporated a novel signal amplitude normalisation technique to compensate for absorption within the silicone oil. It is therefore envisaged that the parallel sonic ray concept and the derived UTTS may be further applied to the quantification of liquid mixture composition assessment.

  11. Finding the Density of Objects without Measuring Mass and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Frackson; Tsige, Mesfin

    2007-01-01

    A simple method based on the moment of forces and Archimedes' principle is described for finding density without measuring the mass and volume of an object. The method involves balancing two unknown objects of masses M[subscript 1] and M[subscript 2] on each side of a pivot on a metre rule and measuring their corresponding moment arms. The object…

  12. GO RIO: Achieving Universal Access to Mass Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ted, Jr.; Castaneda-Calleros, Russell

    2009-01-01

    GO RIO is a universal access, mass-transit program that has been offered to all students who are registered full-time at Rio Hondo College. Through an agreement with five local transit agencies, full-time students can obtain a pass that provides full access seven days a week throughout the entire semester.

  13. Understanding Mass Atrocity Prevention during Periods of Democratic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McLoughlin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of why some countries experience mass atrocities during periods of democratic transition, while others do not. Scholars have long regarded democracy as an important source of stability and protection from mass atrocities such as genocide, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing. But democratic transition itself is fraught with the heightened risk of violent conflict and even mass atrocities. Indeed, a number of studies have identified regimes in transition as containing the highest risk of political instability and mass atrocities. What is overlooked is the question of how and why some regimes undergo such transitions without experiencing mass atrocities, despite the presence of a number of salient risk factors, including state-based discrimination, inter-group tension and horizontal inequality. Utilizing a new analytical framework, this article investigates this lacuna by conducting a comparative analysis of two countries—one that experienced atrocities (Burundi during transition, and one that did not (Guyana. How countries avoid such violence during transition has the potential to yield insights for the mitigation of risk associated with mass atrocity crimes.

  14. Mass and volume of a body of young footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajić Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the structure of some anthropological abilities and characteristics of sportsmen as well as their development represent the basic condition for successful management of the process of sports training. The aim of this research is to determine mass and volume of a body of young footballers. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different age categories from 'Vojvodina' football club, namely: junior pioneers (aged 11-12 - 30 examinees, senior pioneers (aged 13-14 - 30 examinees, cadets (aged 15-16 - 30 examinees and youth (aged 17-18 - 30 examinees. For transversal skeleton dimension, young footballers were measured for shoulder width and pelvic width. For the assessment of mass and volume of a body are measured body mass, the volume of upper leg, the volume of lower leg, the volume of chest, the volume of stomach, skin fold of tomach and skin fold of upper arm. The testing of significant differences between footballers of different age categories as well as deviation from expected values were calculated by 't-test' and univariate variance analysis (ANOVA. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be concluded that average results show a general tendency of increase of results of weight and volume of the body from younger to older age categories. Variable measures show that youth examinees are the most homogenous while senior pioneers are the most heterogenous.

  15. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko, E-mail: matuyama@bio.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kawazu 680-4, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.

  16. RNA Denaturation: Excluded Volume, Pseudoknots, and Transition Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiesi, M.; Orlandini, E.; Stella, A. L.

    2003-11-01

    A lattice model of RNA denaturation which fully accounts for the excluded volume effects among nucleotides is proposed. A numerical study shows that interactions forming pseudoknots must be included in order to get a sharp continuous transition. Otherwise a smooth crossover occurs from the swollen linear polymer behavior to highly ramified, almost compact conformations with secondary structures. In the latter scenario, which is appropriate when these structures are much more stable than pseudoknot links, probability distributions for the lengths of both loops and main branches obey scaling with nonclassical exponents.

  17. Mass and Volume Optimization of Space Flight Medical Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, A. B.; Foy, Millennia Hope; Myers, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Resource allocation is a critical aspect of space mission planning. All resources, including medical resources, are subject to a number of mission constraints such a maximum mass and volume. However, unlike many resources, there is often limited understanding in how to optimize medical resources for a mission. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulates outcomes and describes the impact of medical events in terms of lost crew time, medical resource usage, and the potential for medically required evacuation. Previously published work describes an approach that uses the IMM to generate optimized medical kits that maximize benefit to the crew subject to mass and volume constraints. We improve upon the results obtained previously and extend our approach to minimize mass and volume while meeting some benefit threshold. METHODS We frame the medical kit optimization problem as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing dynamic programming. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the medical kit mass and volume for a specified likelihood of evacuation or Crew Health Index (CHI) threshold. The algorithm was expanded to generate medical kits that maximize likelihood of evacuation or CHI subject to mass and volume constraints. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS In maximizing benefit to crew health subject to certain constraints, our algorithm generates medical kits that more closely resemble the unlimited-resource scenario than previous approaches which leverage medical risk information generated by the IMM. Our work here demonstrates that this algorithm provides an efficient and effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions and provides an effective means of addressing tradeoffs in medical resource allocations and crew mission success

  18. Mass transit security issue: the Standex program approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrue, P.; Ruiter, C.J. de; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorshkov, I.; Ter-Martirosyan, A.; Palucci, A.; Simonet, F.; Planchet, J.L.; Carvalho-Rodrigues, F.; Becker, W.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2005 NATO, the Explosive Detection Working Group has been dedicated its work about the issue of suicide bombers detection mainly in order to protect the mass transit infrastructures (railways and subways stations). After an analysis of the potential requirements and problems to face in such co

  19. Volume modulus inflation and the gravitino mass problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, J P [Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Kallosh, R; Linde, A [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Quevedo, F, E-mail: jpc41@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: kallosh@stanford.edu, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu, E-mail: f.quevedo@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    The Hubble constant during the last stages of inflation in a broad class of models based on the Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Trivedi mechanism should be smaller than the gravitino mass, H{approx}volume of compactification the corresponding constraint typically is even stronger, H{approx}volume of compactification where inflation may occur exponentially far away from the present vacuum state. In these models, the Hubble constant during inflation can be many orders of magnitude greater than the gravitino mass. We introduce a toy model describing this scenario, and discuss its strengths and weaknesses.

  20. Mass transit: devising a research-based marketing plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, D.J.; Wotruba, T.R.

    1977-08-01

    This study presents a marketing planning procedural model that can be operationally used by marketing managers. The model enables the user to assess his company's performance on the various attributes of the marketing mix and to design a marketing program that caters to the needs of his marketplace. The model is applied here specifically to mass transit and is tested empirically. Within this context, it permits transit marketing to aim at increasing the probabilities of (i) greater usage on the part of existing riders and (ii) attracting prospects and converting them into actual customers.

  1. Multichannel 1 → 2 transition amplitudes in a finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Hansen, Maxwell T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Walker-Loud, Andre [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    We perform a model-independent, non-perturbative investigation of two-point and three-point finite-volume correlation functions in the energy regime where two-particle states can go on-shell. We study three-point functions involving a single incoming particle and an outgoing two-particle state, relevant, for example, for studies of meson decays (e.g., B⁰ → K*l⁺l⁻) or meson photo production (e.g., πγ* → ππ). We observe that, while the spectrum solely depends upon the on-shell scattering amplitude, the correlation functions also depend upon off-shell amplitudes. The main result of this work is a non-perturbative generalization of the Lellouch-Luscher formula relating matrix elements of currents in finite and infinite spatial volumes. We extend that work by considering a theory with multiple, strongly-coupled channels and by accommodating external currents which inject arbitrary four-momentum as well as arbitrary angular-momentum. The result is exact up to exponentially suppressed corrections governed by the pion mass times the box size. We also apply our master equation to various examples, including two processes mentioned above as well as examples where the final state is an admixture of two open channels.

  2. Bayesian mass and age estimates for transiting exoplanet host stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maxted, P F L; Southworth, J

    2014-01-01

    The mean density of a star transited by a planet, brown dwarf or low mass star can be accurately measured from its light curve. This measurement can be combined with other observations to estimate its mass and age by comparison with stellar models. Our aim is to calculate the posterior probability distributions for the mass and age of a star given its density, effective temperature, metallicity and luminosity. We computed a large grid of stellar models that densely sample the appropriate mass and metallicity range. The posterior probability distributions are calculated using a Markov-chain Monte-Carlo method. The method has been validated by comparison to the results of other stellar models and by applying the method to stars in eclipsing binary systems with accurately measured masses and radii. We have explored the sensitivity of our results to the assumed values of the mixing-length parameter, $\\alpha_{\\rm MLT}$, and initial helium mass fraction, Y. For a star with a mass of 0.9 solar masses and an age of 4...

  3. Ethernet-based Mass Volume Train Security Detection Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. He

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As the existing train communication network transmission rate is low, large capacity status and fault diagnosis data, the event log data, passenger information which are stored in different vehicles equipments, it is difficult to realize fault diagnosis and intelligent maintenance efficiently and timely. Based on the train level and vehicle level Ethernet network, this paper will focus on network construction technology and real-time performance of mass volume onboard security detection network. The research results will improve control and network function of train.

  4. A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star

    CERN Document Server

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R; Dittmann, Jason A; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Stark, Antony A; Stalder, Brian; Bouchy, Francois; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Neves, Vasco; Pepe, Francesco; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Wünsche, Anaël

    2015-01-01

    M-dwarf stars -- hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun -- are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent results have shown that M dwarfs host Earth-sized planets in great numbers: the average number of M-dwarf planets that are between 0.5 to 1.5 times the size of Earth is at least 1.4 per star. The nearest such planets known to transit their star are 39 parsecs away, too distant for detailed follow-up observations to measure the planetary masses or to study their atmospheres. Here we report observations of GJ 1132b, a planet with a size of 1.2 Earth radii that is transiting a small star 12 parsecs away. Our Doppler mass measurement of GJ 1132b yields a density consistent with an Earth-like bulk composition, similar to the compositions of the six known exoplanets with masses less than six times that of the Earth and precisely measured densities. Receiving 19 times more stellar radiation than the Earth, the plane...

  5. Permeability tensor and representative elementary volume of fractured rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guan; Peng, Jun; Wang, Xiaojiang; Liu, Guang; Hou, Di

    2013-11-01

    Based on a simulation of three-dimensional fracture networks and a superposition principle of liquid dissipation energy for fractured rock masses, a model of the fracture permeability tensor is proposed. An elastic constitutive model of rock fractures, considering fracture closure and dilation during shearing, is also proposed, based on the dilation angle of the fracture. Algorithms of flow-path searching and calculation of the effective flow coefficients for fracture networks are presented, together with a discussion on the influence of geometric parameters of the fractures (trace length, spacing, aperture, orientation and the number of fracture sets) on magnitude, anisotropy of hydraulic permeability and the size of a representative elementary volume (REV). The anisotropy of hydraulic permeability of fractured rock masses is mainly affected by orientation and the number of fracture sets, and the REV size is mainly influenced by trace length, spacing and the number of fracture sets. The results of studies on REV size and the influence of in-situ stress on hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass on the slope of Jinping-I hydropower station, China, are presented using the developed models and methods. The simulation results agreed well with the results obtained from field water-pressure measurements, with an error of less than 10 %.

  6. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C

    1990-03-01

    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed.

  7. Solving very large vehicle scheduling problems in public mass transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebel, A.; Groetschel, M.

    1994-12-31

    In public mass transit the problem of scheduling vehicles belonging to different depots such that a set of given timetabled trips is operated by exactly one vehicle arises. This Multiple-Depot-Vehicle-Scheduling-Problem (MDVSP) is a special case of a multi-commodity-flow-problem and is NP-hard. We discuss the polyhedron associated with the MDVSP, determine its dimension and give various classes of facet defining inequalities. These polyhedral results can be used in a branch and cut algorithm and have proven to be successful on very large scale real-world problems from Hamburger Hochbahn AG with up to 27 million variables.

  8. Mass-transit management: a handbook for small cities. Third edition, revised, February 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of the revised handbook is to provide information for the management of mass transit in cities operating 101 buses or fewer. A modern, systematic approach to the management of transit firms was worked into the material to improve conventional practices of the transit industry. The small-cities handbook consists of 4 separate volumes/parts. Part 1: Goals, Support and Finance--includes chapters on establishing goals and objectives, understanding the consumer, gaining public support and action, institutionalizing transit as an integral part of the community, and financing transit. Part 2: Management and Control--focuses on management and the control and information devices needed for effective management. Part 3: Operations--covers important areas of day-to-day operations coordinated as the product element in the marketing mix. Part 4: Marketing--addresses promotional activities and the marketing program. The handbook promotes concepts such as results-oriented management, marketing, management-by-objectives. It provides recommendations for policy-making bodies as well as management.

  9. Coherent Network Optimizing of Rail-Based Urban Mass Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient public transport is more than ever a crucial factor when it comes to the quality of life and competitiveness of many cities and regions in Asia. In recent years, the rail-based urban mass transit has been regarded as one of the key means to overcoming the great challenges in Chinese megacities. The purpose of this study is going to develop a coherent network optimizing for rail-based urban mass transit to find the best alternatives for the user and to demonstrate how to meet sustainable development needs and to match the enormous capacity requirements simultaneously. This paper presents an introduction to the current situation of the important lines, and transfer points in the metro system Shanghai. The insufficient aspects are analyzed and evaluated; while the optimizing ideas and measurements are developed and concreted. A group of examples are used to illustrate the approach. The whole study could be used for the latest reference for other megacities which have to be confronted with the similar situations and processes with enormous dynamic travel and transport demands.

  10. A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Dittmann, Jason; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel; Stark, Antony; Stalder, Brian; Bouchy, Francois; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christoph; Mayor, Michel; Neves, Vasco; Pepe, Francesco; Santos, Nuno; Udry, Stéphane; Wunsche, Anael

    2015-12-01

    Results from Kepler indicate that M dwarfs host, on average, at least 1.4 planets between 0.5 and 1.5 Earth radii per star. Yet, the closest small planets known to transit M dwarfs have been too distant to allow Doppler measurements of their masses or spectroscopic studies of their atmospheres. Here, we announce a new planet discovered by the MEarth-South observatory, an Earth-size planet transiting an M dwarf that is only 12 pc away. The density of the planet, determined from radial velocity observations with HARPS, is consistent with an Earth-like rock/iron composition. With an equilibrium temperature of 530K (assuming a Bond albedo of 0.3), this planet is cooler than most other rocky planets with measured densities. Although too hot to be habitable, it is cool enough that it may have retained a substantial atmosphere over its lifetime. Thanks to the star's proximity and its diminutive size of only 1/5th the radius of the Sun, this new world likely provides the first opportunity for our community to spectroscopically examine the atmosphere of a terrestrial exoplanet. We estimate that JWST could secure high signal-to-noise spectra of the planet's atmosphere, both in transmission during transit and in emission at secondary eclipse.

  11. Signatures of shape phase transitions in odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum phase transitions between competing ground-state shapes of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons or neutrons are investigated in a microscopic framework based on nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-plus-boson-core coupling scheme. The boson-core Hamiltonian, as well as the single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the unpaired nucleon, are completely determined by constrained self-consistent mean-field calculations for a specific choice of the energy density functional and paring interaction, and only the strength parameters of the particle-core coupling are adjusted to reproduce selected spectroscopic properties of the odd-mass system. We apply this method to odd-A Eu and Sm isotopes with neutron number N ≈90 , and explore the influence of the single unpaired fermion on the occurrence of a shape phase transition. Collective wave functions of low-energy states are used to compute quantities that can be related to quantum order parameters: deformations, excitation energies, E 2 transition rates, and separation energies, and their evolution with the control parameter (neutron number) is analyzed.

  12. A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R; Dittmann, Jason A; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Stark, Antony A; Stalder, Brian; Bouchy, Francois; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Neves, Vasco; Pepe, Francesco; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Wünsche, Anaël

    2015-11-12

    M-dwarf stars--hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun--are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent results have shown that M dwarfs host Earth-sized planets in great numbers: the average number of M-dwarf planets that are between 0.5 to 1.5 times the size of Earth is at least 1.4 per star. The nearest such planets known to transit their star are 39 parsecs away, too distant for detailed follow-up observations to measure the planetary masses or to study their atmospheres. Here we report observations of GJ 1132b, a planet with a size of 1.2 Earth radii that is transiting a small star 12 parsecs away. Our Doppler mass measurement of GJ 1132b yields a density consistent with an Earth-like bulk composition, similar to the compositions of the six known exoplanets with masses less than six times that of the Earth and precisely measured densities. Receiving 19 times more stellar radiation than the Earth, the planet is too hot to be habitable but is cool enough to support a substantial atmosphere, one that has probably been considerably depleted of hydrogen. Because the host star is nearby and only 21 per cent the radius of the Sun, existing and upcoming telescopes will be able to observe the composition and dynamics of the planetary atmosphere.

  13. The Effects of Reducing the Structural Mass of the Transit Habitat on the Cryogenic Propellant Required for a Human Phobos Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipay, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A technique for rapidly determining the relationship between the pressurized volume, structural mass and the cryogenic propellant required to be delivered to Earth orbit for a Mars Transit Habitat is provided. This technique is based on assumptions for the required delta-V's, the Exploration Upper Stage performance and the historical structural masses for human spacecraft from Mercury Program through the International Space Station. If the Mars Transit Habitat is constructed from aluminum, structural mass estimates based on the habitat pressurized volume are accurate to within 15 percent. Other structural material options for the Mars Transit Habitat are also evaluated. The results show that small, achievable reductions in the structural mass of the Transit Habitat can save tens of thousands of pounds of cryogenic propellant that need to be delivered to Earth orbit for a human Phobos Mission.

  14. Signatures of shape phase transitions in odd-mass nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, K; Vretenar, D

    2016-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions between competing ground-state shapes of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons or neutrons are investigated in a microscopic framework based on nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-plus-boson-core coupling scheme. The boson-core Hamiltonian, as well as the single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the unpaired nucleon, are completely determined by constrained self-consistent mean-field calculations for a specific choice of the energy density functional and paring interaction, and only the strength parameters of the particle-core coupling are adjusted to reproduce selected spectroscopic properties of the odd-mass system. We apply this method to odd-A Eu and Sm isotopes with neutron number $N \\approx 90$, and explore the influence of the single unpaired fermion on the occurrence of a shape phase transition. Collective wave functions of low-energy states are used to compute quantities that can be related to quantum order parameters: deformations...

  15. Transitioning from Targeted to Comprehensive Mass Spectrometry Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Jacob D.; Feeney, Caitlin M.; Patel, Jinal; Lu, Xiaodong; Mani, D. R.

    2016-11-01

    Targeted proteomic assays are becoming increasingly popular because of their robust quantitative applications enabled by internal standardization, and they can be routinely executed on high performance mass spectrometry instrumentation. However, these assays are typically limited to 100s of analytes per experiment. Considerable time and effort are often expended in obtaining and preparing samples prior to targeted analyses. It would be highly desirable to detect and quantify 1000s of analytes in such samples using comprehensive mass spectrometry techniques (e.g., SWATH and DIA) while retaining a high degree of quantitative rigor for analytes with matched internal standards. Experimentally, it is facile to port a targeted assay to a comprehensive data acquisition technique. However, data analysis challenges arise from this strategy concerning agreement of results from the targeted and comprehensive approaches. Here, we present the use of genetic algorithms to overcome these challenges in order to configure hybrid targeted/comprehensive MS assays. The genetic algorithms are used to select precursor-to-fragment transitions that maximize the agreement in quantification between the targeted and the comprehensive methods. We find that the algorithm we used provided across-the-board improvement in the quantitative agreement between the targeted assay data and the hybrid comprehensive/targeted assay that we developed, as measured by parameters of linear models fitted to the results. We also found that the algorithm could perform at least as well as an independently-trained mass spectrometrist in accomplishing this task. We hope that this approach will be a useful tool in the development of quantitative approaches for comprehensive proteomics techniques.

  16. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  17. Coil–globule transition of a polymer involved in excluded-volume interactions with macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odagiri, Kenta [School of Network and Information, Senshu University, Kawasaki 214-8580 (Japan); Seki, Kazuhiko, E-mail: k-seki@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2015-10-07

    Polymers adopt extended coil and compact globule states according to the balance between entropy and interaction energies. The transition of a polymer between an extended coil state and compact globule state can be induced by changing thermodynamic force such as temperature to alter the energy/entropy balance. Previously, this transition was theoretically studied by taking into account the excluded-volume interaction between monomers of a polymer chain using the partition function. For binary mixtures of a long polymer and short polymers, the coil-globule transition can be induced by changing the concentration of the shorter polymers. Here, we investigate the transition caused by short polymers by generalizing the partition function of the long polymer to include the excluded-volume effect of short polymers. The coil-globule transition is studied as a function of the concentration of mixed polymers by systematically varying Flory’s χ-parameters. We show that the transition is caused by the interplay between the excluded-volume interaction and the dispersion state of short polymers in the solvent. We also reveal that the same results can be obtained by combining the mixing entropy and elastic energy if the volume of a long polymer is properly defined.

  18. Shape-phase transitions in odd-mass γ -soft nuclei with mass A ≈130

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum phase transitions between competing equilibrium shapes of nuclei with an odd number of nucleons are explored using a microscopic framework of nuclear energy density functionals and a fermion-boson coupling model. The boson Hamiltonian for the even-even core nucleus, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of unpaired nucleons, are completely determined by a constrained self-consistent mean-field calculation for a specific choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. Only the strength parameters of the particle-core coupling have to be adjusted to reproduce a few empirical low-energy spectroscopic properties of the corresponding odd-mass system. The model is applied to the odd-A Ba, Xe, La, and Cs isotopes with mass A ≈130 , for which the corresponding even-even Ba and Xe nuclei present a typical case of γ -soft nuclear potential. The theoretical results reproduce the experimental low-energy excitation spectra and electromagnetic properties, and confirm that a phase transition between nearly spherical and γ -soft nuclear shapes occurs also in the odd-A systems.

  19. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, Matthew George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adamic, Mary Louise [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Olson, John Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Baeck, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, R. V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hahn, P. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jenson, D. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lister, T. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the project, New Paradigms for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Raising the Scientific Profile and Improved Performance for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), is to ensure that the ongoing isotope ratio determination capability within the U.S. Department of Energy complex is the world’s best for application to nonproliferation. This report spells out the progress of Task 4, Transition of TIMS to AMS for Iodine Analysis, of the larger project. The subtasks under Task 4 and the accomplishments throughout the three year project life cycle are presented in this report. Progress was made in optimization of chemical extraction, determination of a detection limit for 127Iodine, production of standard materials for AMS analysis quality assurance, facilitation of knowledge exchange with respect to analyzing iodine on an AMS, cross comparison with a world-leading AMS laboratory, supercritical fluid extraction of iodine for AMS analysis and electrodeposition of seawater as a direct method of preparation for iodine analysis by AMS--all with the goal of minimizing the time required to stand up an AMS capability for iodine analysis of exposed air filters at INL. An effective extraction method has been developed and demonstrated for iodine analysis of exposed air filters. Innovative techniques to accomplish the cathode preparation for AMS analysis were developed and demonstrated and published. The known gap of a lack of available materials for reference standards in the analysis of iodine by AMS was filled by the preparation of homogenous materials that were calibrated against NIST materials. A minimum limit on the amount of abundant isotope in a sample was determined for AMS analysis. The knowledge exchange occurred with fantastic success. Scientists engaged the international AMS community at conferences, as well as in their laboratories for collaborative work. The supercritical fluid extraction work has positive

  20. Temperature-dependent phase transitions in zeptoliter volumes of a complex biological membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, Maxim P; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Hohlbauch, Sophia; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); King, William P [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Voitchovsky, Kislon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Contera, Sonia Antoranz [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-04

    Phase transitions in purple membrane have been a topic of debate for the past two decades. In this work we present studies of a reversible transition of purple membrane in the 50-60 deg. C range in zeptoliter volumes under different heating regimes (global heating and local heating). The temperature of the reversible phase transition is 52 {+-} 5 deg. C for both local and global heating, supporting the hypothesis that this transition is mainly due to a structural rearrangement of bR molecules and trimers. To achieve high resolution measurements of temperature-dependent phase transitions, a new scanning probe microscopy-based method was developed. We believe that our new technique can be extended to other biological systems and can contribute to the understanding of inhomogeneous phase transitions in complex systems.

  1. Temperature-dependent phase transitions of a complex biological membrane in zeptoliter volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Hohlbauch, Sophia [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; King, William P [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Voitchovsky, K [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Contera, S Antoranz [University of Oxford; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions in purple membrane have been a topic of debate for the past two decades. In this work we present studies of a reversible transition of purple membrane in the 50 60 C range in zeptoliter volumes under different heating regimes (global heating and local heating). The temperature of the reversible phase transition is 52 5 C for both local and global heating, supporting the hypothesis that this transition is mainly due to a structural rearrangement of bR molecules and trimers. To achieve high resolution measurements of temperature-dependent phase transitions, a new scanning probe microscopy-based method was developed. We believe that our new technique can be extended to other biological systems and can contribute to the understanding of inhomogeneous phase transitions in complex systems.

  2. The role of the cytoskeleton in volume regulation and beading transitions in PC12 neurites

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We present investigations on volume regulation and beading shape transitions in PC12 neurites conducted using a flow-chamber technique. By disrupting the cell cytoskeleton with specific drugs we investigate the role of its individual components in the volume regulation response. We find that microtubule disruption increases both swelling rate and maximum volume attained, but does not affect the ability of the neurite to recover its initial volume. In addition, investigation of axonal beading --also known as pearling instability-- provides additional clues on the mechanical state of the neurite. We conclude that the initial swelling phase is mechanically slowed down by microtubules, while the volume recovery is driven by passive diffusion of osmolites. Our experiments provide a framework to investigate the role of cytoskeletal mechanics in volume homeostasis.

  3. Acute blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Oliveira G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of blood volume expansion on the gastrointestinal transit of a charchoal meal (2.5 ml of an aqueous suspension consisting of 5% charcoal and 5% gum arabic in awake male Wistar rats (200-270 g. On the day before the experiments, the rats were anesthetized with ether, submitted to left jugular vein cannulation and fasted with water ad libitum until 2 h before the gastrointestinal transit measurement. Blood volume expansion by iv infusion of 1 ml/min Ringer bicarbonate in volumes of 3, 4 or 5% body weight delayed gastrointestinal transit at 10 min after test meal administration by 21.3-26.7% (P<0.05, but no effect was observed after 1 or 2% body weight expansion. The effect of blood volume expansion (up to 5% body weight on gastrointestinal transit lasted for at least 60 min (P<0.05. Mean arterial pressure increased transiently and central venous pressure increased and hematocrit decreased (P<0.05. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and yohimbine (3 mg/kg prevented the delay caused by expansion on gastrointestinal transit, while atropine (0.5 mg/kg, L-NAME (2 mg/kg, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, prazosin (1 mg/kg or propranolol (2 mg/kg were ineffective. These data show that blood volume expansion delays the gastrointestinal transit of a charcoal meal and that vagal and yohimbine-sensitive pathways appear to be involved in this phenomenon. The delay in gastrointestinal transit observed here, taken together with the modifications of gastrointestinal permeability to salt and water reported by others, may be part of the mechanisms involved in liquid excess management.

  4. Estimation of volume and mass and of changes in volume and mass of selected chat piles in the Picher mining district, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod

    2013-01-01

    From the 1890s through the 1970s the Picher mining district in northeastern Ottawa County, Oklahoma, was the site of mining and processing of lead and zinc ore. When mining ceased in about 1979, as much as 165–300 million tons of mine tailings, locally referred to as “chat,” remained in the Picher mining district. Since 1979, some chat piles have been mined for aggregate materials and have decreased in volume and mass. Currently (2013), the land surface in the Picher mining district is covered by thousands of acres of chat, much of which remains on Indian trust land owned by allottees. The Bureau of Indian Affairs manages these allotted lands and oversees the sale and removal of chat from these properties. To help the Bureau of Indian Affairs better manage the sale and removal of chat, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, estimated the 2005 and 2010 volumes and masses of selected chat piles remaining on allotted lands in the Picher mining district. The U.S. Geological Survey also estimated the changes in volume and mass of these chat piles for the period 2005 through 2010. The 2005 and 2010 chat-pile volume and mass estimates were computed for 34 selected chat piles on 16 properties in the study area. All computations of volume and mass were performed on individual chat piles and on groups of chat piles in the same property. The Sooner property had the greatest estimated volume (4.644 million cubic yards) and mass (5.253 ± 0.473 million tons) of chat in 2010. Five of the selected properties (Sooner, Western, Lawyers, Skelton, and St. Joe) contained estimated chat volumes exceeding 1 million cubic yards and estimated chat masses exceeding 1 million tons in 2010. Four of the selected properties (Lucky Bill Humbah, Ta Mee Heh, Bird Dog, and St. Louis No. 6) contained estimated chat volumes of less than 0.1 million cubic yards and estimated chat masses of less than 0.1 million tons in 2010. The total volume of all

  5. Study on the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume by RI-cardiogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushio, N.

    1987-03-01

    The pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume in cases of cardio-pulmonary disease were measured using Giuntini's method which is considered the most appropriate among radiocardiographic methods. The errors in this method were confirmed to be almost negligible. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The pulmonary mean transit time was related to the systemic mean transit time and markedly prolonged in left heart failure. On the other hand, it was markedly shortened in some cases of chronic pulmonary disease, particularly pulmonary emphysema. 2) The pulmonary blood volume tended to increase in left heart disorders and mitral valve disease and tended to decrease in the chronic pulmonary disease. The decrease was conspicuous particularly in some cases of pulmonary emphysema. 3) A structural change of the pulmonary vascular system in the chronic pulmonary disease appeared to bring about shortening of the pulmonary mean transit time and a decrease in the pulmonary blood volume. The pathophysiology of cardio-pulmonary disease can be more clarified by the RI-cardiogram used in this study, in which the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume are used as the indicator.

  6. The use of transit timing to detect terrestrial-mass extrasolar planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Matthew J; Murray, Norman W

    2005-02-25

    Future surveys for transiting extrasolar planets are expected to detect hundreds of jovian-mass planets and tens of terrestrial-mass planets. For many of these newly discovered planets, the intervals between successive transits will be measured with an accuracy of 0.1 to 100 minutes. We show that these timing measurements will allow for the detection of additional planets in the system (not necessarily transiting) by their gravitational interaction with the transiting planet. The transit-time variations depend on the mass of the additional planet, and in some cases terrestrial-mass planets will produce a measurable effect. In systems where two planets are seen to transit, the density of both planets can be determined without radial-velocity observations.

  7. Quantum Phase Transitions in Odd-Mass Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A; Iachello, F

    2011-01-01

    Quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-even nuclei are investigated in the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. Classical and quantum analysis show that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially near the critical point. Experimental evidence for the occurrence of spherical to axially-deformed transitions in odd-proton nuclei Pm, Eu and Tb (Z=61, 63, 65) is presented.

  8. Solid volume fraction estimation of bone:marrow replica models using ultrasound transit time spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Marie-Luise; Langton, Christian M

    2016-02-01

    The acceptance of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) for the assessment of osteoporosis suffers from a limited understanding of both ultrasound wave propagation through cancellous bone and its exact dependence upon the material and structural properties. It has recently been proposed that ultrasound wave propagation in cancellous bone may be described by a concept of parallel sonic rays; the transit time of each ray defined by the proportion of bone and marrow propagated. A Transit Time Spectrum (TTS) describes the proportion of sonic rays having a particular transit time, effectively describing the lateral inhomogeneity of transit times over the surface aperture of the receive ultrasound transducer. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the solid volume fraction (SVF) of simplified bone:marrow replica models may be reliably estimated from the corresponding ultrasound transit time spectrum. Transit time spectra were derived via digital deconvolution of the experimentally measured input and output ultrasonic signals, and compared to predicted TTS based on the parallel sonic ray concept, demonstrating agreement in both position and amplitude of spectral peaks. Solid volume fraction was calculated from the TTS; agreement between true (geometric calculation) with predicted (computer simulation) and experimentally-derived values were R(2)=99.9% and R(2)=97.3% respectively. It is therefore envisaged that ultrasound transit time spectroscopy (UTTS) offers the potential to reliably estimate bone mineral density and hence the established T-score parameter for clinical osteoporosis assessment.

  9. Development of Parametric Mass and Volume Models for an Aerospace SOFC/Gas Turbine Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Robert; Wang, Xiao-yen; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2005-01-01

    In aerospace power systems, mass and volume are key considerations to produce a viable design. The utilization of fuel cells is being studied for a commercial aircraft electrical power unit. Based on preliminary analyses, a SOFC/gas turbine system may be a potential solution. This paper describes the parametric mass and volume models that are used to assess an aerospace hybrid system design. The design tool utilizes input from the thermodynamic system model and produces component sizing, performance, and mass estimates. The software is designed such that the thermodynamic model is linked to the mass and volume model to provide immediate feedback during the design process. It allows for automating an optimization process that accounts for mass and volume in its figure of merit. Each component in the system is modeled with a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches. A description of the assumptions and design analyses is presented.

  10. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume...... significantly; intravenous noradrenaline at 0.5 microgram/min had no effect on packed cell volume, whereas packed cell volume increased significantly at 3 micrograms of noradrenaline/min. No significant change in packed cell volume was found during saline infusion. 3. During adrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms...... in packed cell volume, plasma volume, intravascular mass of albumin and transcapillary escape rate of albumin during hypoglycaemia may be explained by the combined actions of adrenaline and insulin....

  11. Multichannel 0-to-2 and 1-to-2 transition amplitudes for arbitrary spin particles in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A

    2015-01-01

    We present a model-independent, non-perturbative relation between finite-volume matrix elements and infinite-volume $\\textbf{0}\\rightarrow\\textbf{2}$ and $\\textbf{1}\\rightarrow\\textbf{2}$ transition amplitudes. Our result accommodates theories in which the final two-particle state is coupled to any number of other two-body channels, with all angular momentum states included. The derivation uses generic, fully relativistic field theory, and is exact up to exponentially suppressed corrections in the lightest particle mass times the box size. This work distinguishes itself from previous studies by accommodating particles with any intrinsic spin. To illustrate the utility of our general result, we discuss how it can be implemented for studies of $N+\\mathcal{J}~\\rightarrow~(N\\pi,N\\eta,N\\eta',\\Sigma K,\\Lambda K)$ transitions, where $\\mathcal{J}$ is a generic external current. The reduction of rotational symmetry, due to the cubic finite volume, manifests in this example through the mixing of S- and P-waves when the...

  12. Estimating changes in Stroke Volume by non-invasive pulse-oximetry Pulse Transit Time Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Bokkel-Andela, J.; Poterman, Marieke; Scheeren, Thomas; Kalmar, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Goal of Study:  Pulse wave transit time (PTT), the interval between the R-wave peak on an electrocardiogram (ECG) and arrival of the pulse waves in the periphery (e.g. the finger), is reported to be a reliable estimate for stroke volume[1,2]. In this study, the PTT based on ECG and th

  13. Vanishing linear term in chemical potential difference in volume term of work of critical nucleus formation for phase transition without volume change

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A question is given on the form n({\\mu}_{\\beta}-{\\mu}_{\\alpha}) for the volume term of work of formation of critical nucleus. Here, n is the number of molecule undergone the phase transition, {\\mu} denotes the chemical potential, {\\alpha} and {\\beta} represent the parent and nucleating phases, respectively. In this paper we concentrate phase transition without volume change. We have calculated the volume term in terms of the chemical potential difference {\\mu}_{re}-{\\mu}_{eq}$ for this case. Here, {\\mu}_{re} is the chemical potential of the reservoir and {\\mu}_{eq} that at the phase transition. We have W_{vol} = -[({\\kappa}_{\\beta}-{\\kappa}_{\\alpha})/(2v_{eq}^2)] ({\\mu}_{re}-{\\mu}_{eq})^2 V_{\\beta} with {\\kappa} denoting the isothermal compressibility, v_{eq} being the molecular volume at the phase transition, V_{\\beta} the volume of the nucleus.

  14. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG;

    2006-01-01

    not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis......BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  15. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  16. Estimating the rates of mass change, ice volume change and snow volume change in Greenland from ICESat and GRACE data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, D.C.; Ditmar, P.G.; Lindenbergh, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the quantification of ongoing mass and volume changes over the Greenland ice sheet. For that purpose, we used elevation changes derived from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry mission and monthly variations of the Earth’s gravity field

  17. The low-energy effective theory of QCD at small quark masses in a finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Christoph

    2010-01-15

    At low energies the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) can be described effectively in terms of the lightest particles of the theory, the pions. This approximation is valid for temperatures well below the mass difference of the pions to the next heavier particles. We study the low-energy effective theory at very small quark masses in a finite volume V. The corresponding perturbative expansion in 1/{radical}(V) is called {epsilon} expansion. At each order of this expansion a finite number of low-energy constants completely determine the effective theory. These low-energy constants are of great phenomenological importance. In the leading order of the {epsilon} expansion, called {epsilon} regime, the theory becomes zero-dimensional and is therefore described by random matrix theory (RMT). The dimensionless quantities of RMT are mapped to dimensionful quantities of the low-energy effective theory using the leading-order lowenergy constants {sigma} and F. In this way {sigma} and F can be obtained from lattice QCD simulations in the '' regime by a fit to RMT predictions. For typical volumes of state-of-the-art lattice QCD simulations, finite-volume corrections to the RMT prediction cannot be neglected. These corrections can be calculated in higher orders of the {epsilon} expansion. We calculate the finite-volume corrections to {sigma} and F at next-to-next-to-leading order in the {epsilon} expansion. We also discuss non-universal modifications of the theory due to the finite volume. These results are then applied to lattice QCD simulations, and we extract {sigma} and F from eigenvalue correlation functions of the Dirac operator. As a side result, we provide a proof of equivalence between the parametrization of the partially quenched low-energy effective theory without singlet particle and that of the super-Riemannian manifold used earlier in the literature. Furthermore, we calculate a special version of the massless sunset diagram at finite volume without

  18. The mass of the Mars-sized exoplanet Kepler-138 b from transit timing

    CERN Document Server

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, Jack J; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Extrasolar planets that pass in front of their host star (transit) cause a temporary decrease in the apparent brightness of the star once per orbit, providing a direct measure of the planet's size and orbital period. In some systems with multiple transiting planets, the times of the transits are measurably affected by the gravitational interactions between neighbouring planets. In favorable cases, the departures from Keplerian orbits implied by the observed transit times permit planetary masses to be measured, which is key to determining bulk densities. Characterizing rocky planets is particularly difficult, since they are generally smaller and less massive than gaseous planets. Thus, few exoplanets near Earth's size have had their masses measured. Here we report the sizes and masses of three planets orbiting Kepler-138, a star much fainter and cooler than the Sun. We measure the mass of the Mars-sized inner planet based on on the transit times of its neighbour and thereby provide the first density measuremen...

  19. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (IV) The Volume Dependence of the Light Hadron Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A

    2011-07-01

    The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is volume dependence of the masses, the Gell-Mann Okubo mass-relation, and of other mass combinations. A comparison with the predictions of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is performed in both the SU(2)L ? SU(2)R and SU(3)L ? SU(3)R expansions. Predictions of the three-flavor expansion for the hadron masses are found to describe the observed volume dependences reasonably well. Further, the ?N? axial coupling constant is extracted from the volume dependence of the nucleon mass in the two-flavor expansion, with only small modifications in the three-flavor expansion from the inclusion of kaons and eta's. At a given value of m?L, the finite-volume contributions to the nucleon mass are predicted to be significantly smaller at m_\\pi ? 140 MeV than at m_\\pi ? 390 MeV due to a coefficient that scales as ? m_\\pi^3. This is relevant for the design of future ensembles of lattice gauge-field configurations. Finally, the volume dependence of the pion and kaon masses are analyzed with two-flavor and three-flavor chiral perturbation theory.

  20. TRANSITION TEMPERATURE IN QCD WITH PHYSICAL LIGHT AND STRANGE QUARK MASSES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KARSCH, F.

    2006-11-14

    We present results from a calculation of the transition temperature in QCD with two light (up, down) and one heavier (strange) quark mass as well as for QCD with three degenerate quark masses. Furthermore, we discuss first results from an ongoing calculation of the QCD equation of state with almost realistic light and strange quark masses.

  1. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  2. Density assumptions for converting geodetic glacier volume change to mass change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The geodetic method is widely used for assessing changes in the mass balance of mountain glaciers. However, comparison of repeated digital elevation models only provides a glacier volume change that must be converted to a change in mass using a density assumption or model. This study investigates the use of a constant factor for the volume-to-mass conversion based on a firn compaction model applied to simplified glacier geometries with idealized climate forcing, and two glaciers with long-term mass balance series. It is shown that the "density" of geodetic volume change is not a constant factor and is systematically smaller than ice density in most cases. This is explained by the accretion/removal of low-density firn layers, and changes in the firn density profile with positive/negative mass balance. Assuming a value of 850 ± 60 kg m−3 to convert volume change to mass change is appropriate for a wide range of conditions. For short time intervals (≤3 yr, periods with limited volume change, and/or changing mass balance gradients, the conversion factor can however vary from 0–2000 kg m−3 and beyond, which requires caution when interpreting glacier mass changes based on geodetic surveys.

  3. Stability, Tunneling and Flux Changing de Sitter Transitions in the Large Volume String Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    de Alwis, S; Hatefi, E; Quevedo, F

    2013-01-01

    We study the non-perturbative stability of the Large Volume Scenario (LVS) of IIB string compactifications, by analysing transitions mediated by the Brown-Teitelboim (BT) brane nucleations and by Coleman De Luccia tunneling (CDL). We find that, as long as the effective field theory description holds, the LVS AdS minima are stable despite being non-supersymmetric. This opens the possibility of having a CFT dual. Metastable de Sitter vacua behave differently depending on the uplifting mechanism. We find explicit expressions for the different decay rates in terms of exponentials of the volume. Among the transitions of dS to dS those with increasing volume and decreasing vacuum energy are preferred, though dS decays to AdS (big-crunch sinks) have higher probability. Transitions via the CDL mechanism to decompactification are exponentially suppressed compared to these. The BT decays correspond to flux/D3 brane transitions mediated by the nucleation of D5/NS5 branes. We compare our results with previous analysis fo...

  4. Study of Key Factors Determinant Choice of Rail-Based Mass Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ircham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to regulations of the Ministry of Transportation in 2002 about the type of transport based on the city size, the metropolis with a population of more than 1 million inhabitants are required to have the urban mass transit. Nevertheless, until now not all city-scale population of more than 1 million have mass public transport, either bus or rail-based. Especially for rail-based mass transit, indicated the existing regulations have not been able to challenge the development of rail-based urban mass transit. Learning from the literature study and the experience of countries that already have rail-based urban mass transit it has acquired nine main factors to be taken into account in developing a rail-based urban public transportation. This study was conducted by using Analytical Hierarchy Process method which was further validated through the implementation of the On Focus Group Discussion in the Jakarta City Transportation Council (DTKJ as well as in the City Development Planning Board (Bappeko Surabaya. Finally, the initial result shown five sequences determining factor for the determinant choice of rail-based mass transit, namely: fiscal or economic capacity of the region and society, transport policy, integrated public transport, land use, fare and travel time. Furthermore, the acquisition results of this study can be applied to the selected cities to address the challenges to urban mass transit development.

  5. Temperature-driven volume transition in hydrogels: Phase-coexistence and interface localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, E. N. M.; Nardinocchi, P.; Sciarra, G.

    2016-05-01

    We study volume transition phenomenon in hydrogels within the framework of Flory-Rehner thermodynamic modelling; we show that starting from different models for the Flory parameter different conclusions can be achieved, in terms of admissible coexisting equilibria of the system. In particular, with explicit reference to a one-dimensional problem we establish the ranges of both temperature and traction which allow for the coexistence of a swollen and a shrunk phase. Through consideration of an augmented Flory-Rehner free-energy, which also accounts for the gradient of volume changes, we determine the position of the interface between the coexisting phases, and capture the connection profile between them.

  6. Influence of boson mass on chiral phase transition in QED3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong-tao; Wang, Xiu-Zhen; Yu, Xin-hua; Zong, Hong-shi

    2016-08-01

    Based on the truncated Dyson-Schwinger equations for the fermion propagator with N fermion flavors at zero temperature, the chiral phase transition of quantum electrodynamics in 2 +1 dimensions (QED3 ) with boson mass—which is obtained via the Anderson-Higgs mechanism—is investigated. In the chiral limit, we find that the critical behavior of QED3 with a massless boson is different from that with a massive boson: the chiral phase transition in the presence of a nonzero boson mass reveals the typical second-order phase transition, at either the critical boson mass or a critical number of fermion flavors, while for a vanishing boson mass it exhibits a higher than second-order phase transition at the critical number of fermion flavors. Furthermore, it is shown that the system undergoes a crossover behavior from a small number of fermion flavors or boson mass to its larger one beyond the chiral limit.

  7. A Closely-Packed System of Low-Mass, Low-Density Planets Transiting Kepler-11

    CERN Document Server

    Lissauer, Jack J; Ford, Eric B; Borucki, William J; Fressin, Francois; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Orosz, Jerome A; Rowe, Jason F; Torres, Guillermo; Welsh, William F; Batalha, Natalie M; Bryson, Stephen T; Buchhave, Lars A; Caldwell, Douglas A; Carter, Joshua A; Charbonneau, David; Christiansen, Jessie L; Cochran, William D; Desert, Jean-Michel; Dunham, Edward W; Fanelli, Michael N; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald L; Haas, Michael R; Hall, Jennifer R; Holman, Matthew J; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lopez, Eric; McCauliff, Sean; Miller, Neil; Morehead, Robert C; Quintana, Elisa V; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Short, Donald R; Steffen, Jason H

    2011-01-01

    When an extrasolar planet passes in front of its star (transits), its radius can be measured from the decrease in starlight and its orbital period from the time between transits. Multiple planets transiting the same star reveal more: period ratios determine stability and dynamics, mutual gravitational interactions reflect planet masses and orbital shapes, and the fraction of transiting planets observed as multiples has implications for the planarity of planetary systems. But few stars have more than one known transiting planet, and none has more than three. Here we report Kepler spacecraft observations of a single Sun-like star that reveal six transiting planets, five with orbital periods between 10 and 47 days plus a sixth one with a longer period. The five inner planets are among the smallest whose masses and sizes have both been measured, and these measurements imply substantial envelopes of light gases. The degree of coplanarity and proximity of the planetary orbits imply energy dissipation near the end o...

  8. Kinetics analysis of volume phase transition of intelligent neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this work,utilizing the first law of thermodynamics and the Flory mean-field theory,the kinetic deformation studies concerning the volume phase transition of the neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels were performed analytically.The hydrogel was assumed as a biphasic mixture medium in the framework of the continuum mixture theory.From the energy conservation of the thermodynamics system of the hydrogel,the governing equations for the kinetics of the nonlinear large deforma-tion were derived.The explicit analytical expressions of the effective stress tensor and the chemical potential of the fluid of the thermo-sensitive hydrogel PNIPA were also obtained from the Helmholtz free energy,which can model the steady-static volume phase transition quantitatively.

  9. Kinetics analysis of volume phase transition of intelligent neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoGui; LI YiQuan

    2008-01-01

    In this work, utilizing the first law of thermodynamics and the FIory mean-field theory, the kinetic deformation studies concerning the volume phase transition of the neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels were performed analytically. The hydrogel was assumed as a biphasic mixture medium in the framework of the continuum mixture theory. From the energy conservation of the thermodynamics system of the hydrogel, the governing equations for the kinetics of the nonlinear large deforma-tion were derived. The explicit analytical expressions of the effective stress tensor and the chemical potential of the fluid of the thermo-sensitive hydrogel PNIPA were also obtained from the Helmholtz free energy, which can model the steady-static volume phase transition quantitatively.

  10. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias Mountains, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Sean P S; Jaeger, John M; Mix, Alan C; Asahi, Hirofumi; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Belanger, Christina L; Berbel, Glaucia B B; Childress, Laurel; Cowan, Ellen; Drab, Laureen; Forwick, Matthias; Fukumura, Akemi; Ge, Shulan; Gupta, Shyam; Kioka, Arata; Konno, Susumu; LeVay, Leah J; März, Christian; Matsuzaki, Kenji M; McClymont, Erin L; Moy, Chris; Müller, Juliane; Nakamura, Atsunori; Ojima, Takanori; Ribeiro, Fabiana R; Ridgway, Kenneth D; Romero, Oscar E; Slagle, Angela L; Stoner, Joseph S; St-Onge, Guillaume; Suto, Itsuki; Walczak, Maureen D; Worthington, Lindsay L; Bailey, Ian; Enkelmann, Eva; Reece, Robert; Swartz, John M

    2015-12-01

    Erosion, sediment production, and routing on a tectonically active continental margin reflect both tectonic and climatic processes; partitioning the relative importance of these processes remains controversial. Gulf of Alaska contains a preserved sedimentary record of the Yakutat Terrane collision with North America. Because tectonic convergence in the coastal St. Elias orogen has been roughly constant for 6 My, variations in its eroded sediments preserved in the offshore Surveyor Fan constrain a budget of tectonic material influx, erosion, and sediment output. Seismically imaged sediment volumes calibrated with chronologies derived from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program boreholes show that erosion accelerated in response to Northern Hemisphere glacial intensification (∼ 2.7 Ma) and that the 900-km-long Surveyor Channel inception appears to correlate with this event. However, tectonic influx exceeded integrated sediment efflux over the interval 2.8-1.2 Ma. Volumetric erosion accelerated following the onset of quasi-periodic (∼ 100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2-0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50-80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent increases in exhumation rates inferred onshore from exposure dates and mapped out-of-sequence fault patterns. The 1.2-My mass budget imbalance must relax back toward equilibrium in balance with tectonic influx over the timescale of orogenic wedge response (millions of years). The St. Elias Range provides a key example of how active orogenic systems respond to transient mass fluxes, and of the possible influence of climate-driven erosive processes that diverge from equilibrium on the million-year scale.

  11. Density assumptions for converting geodetic glacier volume change to mass change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The geodetic method is widely used for assessing changes in the mass balance of mountain glaciers. However, comparison of repeated digital elevation models only provides a glacier volume change that must be converted to a change in mass using a density assumption. This study investigates this conversion factor based on a firn compaction model applied to simplified glacier geometries with idealized climate forcing, and two glaciers with long-term mass balance series. It is shown that the "density" of geodetic volume change is not a constant factor and is systematically smaller than ice density in most cases. This is explained by the accretion/removal of low-density firn layers, and changes in the firn density profile with positive/negative mass balance. Assuming a value of 850 ± 60 kg m−3 to convert volume change to mass change is appropriate for a wide range of conditions. For short time intervals (≤3 yr, periods with limited volume change, and/or changing mass balance gradients, the conversion factor can however vary from 0–2000 kg m−3 and beyond which requires caution when interpreting glacier mass changes based on geodetic surveys.

  12. Mass-transit management: a handbook for small cities. Third edition, revised, February 1988. Part 4. Marketing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smerk, G.M.; Henriksson, L.; McDaniel, K.; Perreault, P.; Stark, S.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of the revised handbook is to provide information for the management of mass transit in cities operating 101 buses or fewer. A modern, systematic approach to the management of transit firms was worked into the material to improve conventional practices of the transit industry. The small-cities handbook consists of 4 separate volumes/parts. Part 1: Goals, Support and Finance--includes chapters on establishing goals and objectives, understanding the consumer, gaining public support and action, institutionalizing transit as an integral part of the community, and financing transit. Part 2: Management and Control--focuses on management and the control and information devices needed for effective management. Part 3: Operations--covers important areas of day-to-day operations coordinated as the product element in the marketing mix. Part 4: Marketing--addresses promotional activities and the marketing program. The handbook promotes concepts such as results-oriented management, marketing, management-by-objectives. It provides recommendations for policy-making bodies as well as management.

  13. Mass-transit management: a handbook for small cities. Third edition, revised, February 1988. Part 3. Operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smerk, G.M.; Henriksson, L.; McDaniel, K.; Perreault, P.; Stark, S.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of the revised handbook is to provide information for the management of mass transit in cities operating 101 buses or fewer. A modern, systematic approach to the management of transit firms was worked into the material to improve conventional practices of the transit industry. The small-cities handbook consists of 4 separate volumes/parts. Part 1: Goals, Support and Finance--includes chapters on establishing goals and objectives, understanding the consumer, gaining public support and action, institutionalizing transit as an integral part of the community, and financing transit. Part 2: Management and Control--focuses on management and the control and information devices needed for effective management. Part 3: Operations--covers important areas of day-to-day operations coordinated as the product element in the marketing mix. Part 4: Marketing--addresses promotional activities and the marketing program. The handbook promotes concepts such as results-oriented management, marketing, management-by-objectives. It provides recommendations for policy-making bodies as well as management.

  14. [Parameters with possible influence in PSA adjusted for transition zone volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara Rascón, J; Subirá Ríos, D; Lledó Garcia, E; Martínez Salamanca, J I; Moncada Iribarren, I; Cabello Benavente, R; Hernández Fernández, C

    2005-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of age, digital rectal examination results and prostatic volume on PSA value adjusted to transition zone (PSA-TZ) in the detection of prostatic cancer. Data of 243 patients with serum PSA of 4 to 20 ng/ml who underwent biopsy because of prostatic cancer suspicion are analyzed. In this population, cancer was detected in 62 cases (24.8%). Total prostatic volume and transition zone volume were calculated by transrectal echography applying the ellipsoid formula. Applying lineal regresion analysis, it was found no correlation between age and PSA-TZ (Pearson coefficient 0.00). By dividing these patients among those with normal rectal examination (84%) and those with suspicious digital rectal examination (16%), cutoff values of PSA-TZ were found to be not different by ROC curves analysis for 95% sensitivity varying specificity only among 24 and 26% between these two groups of patients. Prostatic size (40 cc) showed that, for obtaining the same 95% sensitivity in the detection of cancer, PSA-TZ value would require to be modified, being 0.17 in large prostates (> 40 cc) and 0.25 in small prostates (< or =40 cc). The utility of PSA-TZ as a potential predictor parameter of prostatic cancer did not need to be modified with respect to age or to data of digital rectal examination. However, for supporting sensivity of its best cutoff value, PSA-TZ would need to be modified with respect to total prostatic volume.

  15. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  16. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  17. The Diversity of Low-mass Exoplanets Characterized via Transit Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack. J.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2016-10-01

    Transit timing variations (TTV) in multi-transiting systems enables precise characterizations of low-mass planets and their orbits. The range of orbital periods and incident fluxes with detailed TTV constraints complements the radial velocity sample for low-mass planets, pushing exoplanet characterization to the regime sub-Earth size planets and out to Mercury-like distances. This has revealed an astonishing diversity in the density of super-Earth mass planets. We summarize these and other contributions to exoplanet science from TTVs.

  18. 3-D lattice simulation of the electroweak phase transition at small Higgs mass

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgenfritz, E M; Perlt, H; Schiller, A

    1995-01-01

    We study the electroweak phase transition by lattice simulations of an effective 3-dimensional theory, for a Higgs mass of about 35 GeV. In the broken symmetry phase our results on masses and the Higgs condensate are consistent with 2-loop perturbative results. However we find a non-perturbative lowering of the transition temperature, similar to the one previously found at m_H = 80 GeV. For the symmetric phase, bound state masses and the static force are determined and compared with results for pure SU(2) theory.

  19. Measurement of planet masses with transit timing variations due to synodic "chopping" effects

    CERN Document Server

    Deck, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational interactions between planets in transiting exoplanetary systems lead to variations in the times of transit that are diagnostic of the planetary masses and the dynamical state of the system. Here we show that synodic "chopping" contributions to these transit timing variations (TTVs) can be used to uniquely measure the masses of planets without full dynamical analyses involving direct integration of the equations of motion. We present simple analytic formulae for the chopping signal, which are valid (generally <10% error) for modest eccentricities e <~ 0.1. Importantly, these formulae primarily depend on the mass of the perturbing planet, and therefore the chopping signal can be used to break the mass/free-eccentricity degeneracy which can appear for systems near first order mean motion resonances. Using a harmonic analysis, we apply these TTV formulae to a number of Kepler systems which had been previously analyzed with full dynamical analyses. We show that when chopping is measured, the ma...

  20. Feasibility of using a miniature NIR spectrometer to measure volumic mass during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Novales, Juan; López, María-Isabel; González-Caballero, Virginia; Ramírez, Pilar; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2011-06-01

    Volumic mass-a key component of must quality control tests during alcoholic fermentation-is of great interest to the winemaking industry. Transmitance near-infrared (NIR) spectra of 124 must samples over the range of 200-1,100-nm were obtained using a miniature spectrometer. The performance of this instrument to predict volumic mass was evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression and multiple linear regression (MLR). The validation statistics coefficient of determination (r(2)) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) were r(2) = 0.98, n = 31 and r(2) = 0.96, n = 31, and SEP = 5.85 and 7.49 g/dm(3) for PLS and MLR equations developed to fit reference data for volumic mass and spectral data. Comparison of results from MLR and PLS demonstrates that a MLR model with six significant wavelengths (P alcoholic fermentation, and that a low-cost NIR instrument can be used for this purpose.

  1. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Zorba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (X age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; pnee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Pressure-volume-Temperature Mass Gauging Method Under Microgravity Condition by Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mansu; Park, Hana; Yoo, DonGyu; Jung, Youngsuk; Jeong, Sangkwon

    Gauging the volume or mass of liquid propellant of a rocket vehicle in space is an important issue for its economic feasibility and optimized design of loading mass. Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging method is one of the most suitable measuring techniques in space due to its simplicity and reliability. This paper presents unique experimental results and analyses of PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen under microgravity condition by parabolic flight. A vacuum-insulated and cylindrical-shaped liquid nitrogen storage tank with 9.2 L volume is manufactured by observing regulation of parabolic flight. PVT gauging experiments are conducted under low liquid fraction condition from 26% to 32%. Pressure, temperature, and the injected helium mass into the storage tank are measured to obtain the ullage volume by gas state equation. Liquid volume is finally derived by the measured ullage volume and the known total tank volume. Two sets of parabolic flights are conducted and each set is composed of approximately 10 parabolic flights. In the first set of flights, the short initial waiting time (3 ∼ 5 seconds) cannot achieve sufficient thermal equilibrium condition at the beginning. It causes inaccurate gauging results due to insufficient information of the initial helium partial pressure in the tank. The helium injection after 12 second waiting time at microgravity condition with high mass flow rate in the second set of flights achieves successful initial thermal equilibrium states and accurate measurement results of initial helium partial pressure. Liquid volume measurement errors in the second set are within 11%.

  3. Spirits and social reconstruction after mass violence: rethinking transitional justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Erin

    2010-01-01

    A vibrant debate in the field of transitional justice concerns the relative ability of global, national, and local mechanisms to promote justice after violent conflict. Discussion largely focuses on more formal mechanisms of justice (courts, tribunals, or truth commissions), implying that state institutions and the law are solely responsible for shaping the process of social healing. This article suggests that scholars should take seriously more informal, socio-cultural processes outside the purview of the state, particularly for how they promote social reconstruction at the micro level. Examining the phenomena of spirit possession and ritual cleansing in northern Uganda, I illustrate how such efforts are expressions of injustice and reflect ordinary people’s attempts to seek moral renewal and social repair. This approach is particularly illustrative in cases where ‘intimate enemies’ exist - that is, settings where ordinary people who engaged in violence against one another must live together again.

  4. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  5. The mass of the {delta} resonance in a finite volume: fourth-order calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoja, Dominik; Rusetsky, Akaki [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bernard, Veronique [Universite Louis Pasteur, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik und Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The self-energy of the {delta} resonance in a finite volume is calculated by using chiral effective field theory with explicit spin-3/2 fields. The calculations are performed up-to-and-including fourth order in the small scale expansion and yield an explicit parameterization of the energy spectrum of the interacting {pi}N pair in a finite box in terms of both the quark mass and the box size L. We show that finite-volume corrections are sizable at small quark masses. The values of certain low-energy constants are extracted from fitting to the available data in lattice QCD.

  6. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal ZORBA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; p<0.01, peak power (r=.523; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.585; p<0.01. Similarly leg mass was significantly correlated with peak power (r=.654; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.704; p<0.01. In addition, peak power was found to be significantly correlated with leg strength (r=.430; p<0.05 and mean power (r=.613; p<0.01. As a conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that leg volume and leg mass plays important role in anaerobic performance in wrestlers and isometric knee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  7. Detection of Earth-mass and Super-Earth Trojan Planets Using Transit Timing Variation Method

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader; Hinse, Tobias C

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out an extensive study of the possibility of the detection of Earth-mass and super-Earth Trojan planets using transit timing variation method with the Kepler space telescope. We have considered a system consisting of a transiting Jovian-type planet in a short period orbit, and determined the induced variations in its transit timing due to an Earth-mass/super-Earth Trojan planet. We mapped a large section of the phase space around the 1:1 mean-motion resonance and identified regions corresponding to several other mean-motion resonances where the orbit of the planet would be stable. We calculated TTVs for different values of the mass and orbital elements of the transiting and perturbing bodies as well as the mass of central star, and identified orbital configurations of these objects (ranges of their orbital elements and masses) for which the resulted TTVs would be within the range of the variations of the transit timing of Kepler's planetary candidates. Results of our study indicate that in gen...

  8. Transition temperature in QCD with physical light and strange quark masses

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, F

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a calculation of the transition temperature in QCD with two light and one heavier (strange) quark mass on lattices with temporal extent N_t =4 and 6. Calculations with improved staggered fermions have been performed with a strange quark mass fixed close to its physical value and for various light to strange quark mass ratios that correspond to light pseudo-scalar masses in the range (150-500) MeV. From a combined extrapolation to the chiral (m_l -> 0) and continuum (aT -> 0) limits we obtain for the transition temperature at the physical point T_c = 192(7)(4) MeV. We also present first results from an ongoing calculation of the QCD equation of state with almost realistic light and strange quark masses.

  9. The mass effect of the quark phase transition in supernova core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Xiang-Jun; Liu Men-Quan; Liu Jing-Jing; Luo Zhi-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Constituent quark mass model is adopted as a tentative one to study the phase transition between two-flavour quark matter and more stable thres-flavour quark matter in the core of supernovae.The result shows that the transition has a significant influence on the increasing of the core temperature,the neutrino abundance and the neutrino energies,which contributes to the enhancement of the successful probability of supernova explosion.However,the equilibrium values of these parameters (except the temperature) from the constituent quark mass model in this work are slightly bigger than those obtained from the other model.And we find that the constituent quark mass model is also applicable to describing the transition in the supernova core.

  10. Relationship between body mass index and pancreas volume in Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Kinsei; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-11-28

    The volume of the pancreas increases with obesity. This study was aimed to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and pancreas volume in Japanese. The pancreas volume was examined in a total of 103 (60 men and 43 women) Japanese adults who had undergone abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. The pancreas was outlined by hand in each CT image and the pancreas volume was computed by summing the product of pancreas area of each image and the CT section thickness. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI and pancreas volume (r = 0.41, P <0.001). This relationship was expressed by the following equation: y = 23.8 + 2.48x, where y is pancreas volume (cm3) and x is BMI. There is a positive correlation between BMI and pancreas volume in Japanese and this relationship is similar to that in Caucasians. This information will be useful to estimate the impact of obesity on pancreas volume in Japanese and for comparison among different ethnicities.

  11. Effects of mass addition on blunt-body boundary-layer transition and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaattari, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    The model bodies tested at Mach number 7.32 were hemispheres, blunt cones, and spherical segments. The mass addition consisted of air ejected through porous forward surfaces of the models. The experimental data consisted of heat transfer measurements from which boundary layer transitions were deduced. The data verified various applicable boundary layer codes in the laminar and transitional flow regimes. Empirical heating rate data correlations were developed for the laminar and turbulent flow regimes.

  12. Quantitative absorption cytometry for measuring red blood cell hemoglobin mass and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Malka, Roy; Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Schaak, Diane; Higgins, John M

    2014-04-01

    We present an optical system, called the quantitative absorption cytometer (QAC), to measure the volume and hemoglobin mass of red blood cells flowing through a microfluidic channel. In contrast to clinical hematology analyzers, where cells are sphered in order for both volume and hemoglobin to be measured accurately, the QAC measures cells in their normal physiological shape. Human red blood cells are suspended in a refractive index-matching absorbing buffer, driven through a microfluidic channel, and imaged using a transmission light microscope onto a color camera. A red and a blue LED illuminate cells and images at each color are used to independently retrieve cell volume and hemoglobin mass. This system shows good agreement with red blood cell indices retrieved by a clinical hematology analyzer and in fact measures a smaller coefficient of variation of hemoglobin concentration. In addition to cell indices, the QAC returns height and mass maps of each measured cell. These quantitative images are valuable for analyzing the detailed morphology of individual cells as well as statistical outliers found in the data. We also measured red blood cells in hypertonic and hypotonic buffers to quantify the correlation between volume and hemoglobin mass under osmotic stress. Because this method is invariant to cell shape, even extremely nonspherical cells in hypertonic buffers can be measured accurately.

  13. Empirical Assessment of the Mean Block Volume of Rock Masses Intersected by Four Joint Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Gian Luca

    2016-05-01

    The estimation of a representative value for the rock block volume ( V b) is of huge interest in rock engineering in regards to rock mass characterization purposes. However, while mathematical relationships to precisely estimate this parameter from the spacing of joints can be found in literature for rock masses intersected by three dominant joint sets, corresponding relationships do not actually exist when more than three sets occur. In these cases, a consistent assessment of V b can only be achieved by directly measuring the dimensions of several representative natural rock blocks in the field or by means of more sophisticated 3D numerical modeling approaches. However, Palmström's empirical relationship based on the volumetric joint count J v and on a block shape factor β is commonly used in the practice, although strictly valid only for rock masses intersected by three joint sets. Starting from these considerations, the present paper is primarily intended to investigate the reliability of a set of empirical relationships linking the block volume with the indexes most commonly used to characterize the degree of jointing in a rock mass (i.e. the J v and the mean value of the joint set spacings) specifically applicable to rock masses intersected by four sets of persistent discontinuities. Based on the analysis of artificial 3D block assemblies generated using the software AutoCAD, the most accurate best-fit regression has been found between the mean block volume (V_{{{{b}}_{{m}} }}) of tested rock mass samples and the geometric mean value of the spacings of the joint sets delimiting blocks; thus, indicating this mean value as a promising parameter for the preliminary characterization of the block size. Tests on field outcrops have demonstrated that the proposed empirical methodology has the potential of predicting the mean block volume of multiple-set jointed rock masses with an acceptable accuracy for common uses in most practical rock engineering applications.

  14. Effects of mechanical stress on the volume phase transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) based polymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, T.; Araki, H.; Takahashi, K.; Masuda, T.

    2000-11-01

    The effects of mechanical stress on the volume phase transition of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) gel as well as a copolymer gel composed of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) and sodium acrylate (SA) were investigated in the relatively low stress region. The PNIPA gel without elongational stress showed the behavior close to the second order phase transition. The character of the first order transition became clear under tension, and the transition temperature increased with increasing applied stress. Similar behavior was observed for the NIPA-SA copolymer gel, but the copolymer gel showed the first order transition in the whole stress range investigated. The thermodynamical linear region, where the transition temperature varies linearly with applied stress, was narrower than the mechanical linear region determined by the stress-strain relation of the gels. The change in the transition behavior by the application of the mechanical stress originated chiefly from the volume change in the gels by the applied mechanical stress. It was found that the curve of the transition temperature against applied stress corresponds to the phase boundary between the swollen and collapsed phases for the gels. On the basis of the experimental data, a phenomenological model describing the volume phase transition of the polymer gels is proposed in the frame of the Landau-type free energy expression.

  15. Mott-Hubbard transition in the mass-imbalanced Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Marie-Therese; Wallerberger, Markus; Gunacker, Patrik; Held, Karsten

    2017-06-01

    The mass-imbalanced Hubbard model represents a continuous evolution from the Hubbard to the Falicov-Kimball model. We employ dynamical mean field theory and study the paramagnetic metal-insulator transition, which has a very different nature for the two limiting models. Our results indicate that the metal-insulator transition rather resembles that of the Hubbard model as soon as a tiny hopping between the more localized fermions is switched on. At low temperatures we observe a first-order metal-insulator transition and a three peak structure. The width of the central peak is the same for the more and less mobile fermions when approaching the phase transition, which agrees with our expectation of a common Kondo temperature and phase transition for the two species.

  16. The mass of the Mars-sized exoplanet Kepler-138 b from transit timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Rowe, Jason F; Lissauer, Jack J; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B

    2015-06-18

    Extrasolar planets that pass in front of their host star (transit) cause a temporary decrease in the apparent brightness of the star, providing a direct measure of the planet's size and orbital period. In some systems with multiple transiting planets, the times of the transits are measurably affected by the gravitational interactions between neighbouring planets. In favourable cases, the departures from Keplerian orbits (that is, unaffected by gravitational effects) implied by the observed transit times permit the planetary masses to be measured, which is key to determining their bulk densities. Characterizing rocky planets is particularly difficult, because they are generally smaller and less massive than gaseous planets. Therefore, few exoplanets near the size of Earth have had their masses measured. Here we report the sizes and masses of three planets orbiting Kepler-138, a star much fainter and cooler than the Sun. We determine that the mass of the Mars-sized inner planet, Kepler-138 b, is 0.066(+0.059)(-0.037) Earth masses. Its density is 2.6(+2.4)(-1.5) grams per cubic centimetre. The middle and outer planets are both slightly larger than Earth. The middle planet's density (6.2(+5.8)(-3.4) grams per cubic centimetre) is similar to that of Earth, and the outer planet is less than half as dense at 2.1(+2.2)(-1.2) grams per cubic centimetre, implying that it contains a greater portion of low-density components such as water and hydrogen.

  17. A transition in circumbinary accretion discs at a binary mass ratio of 1:25

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Haiman, Zoltán; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew; Farris, Brian

    2016-07-01

    We study circumbinary accretion discs in the framework of the restricted three-body problem (R3Bp) and via numerically solving the height-integrated equations of viscous hydrodynamics. Varying the mass ratio of the binary, we find a pronounced change in the behaviour of the disc near mass ratio q ≡ Ms/Mp ˜ 0.04. For mass ratios above q = 0.04, solutions for the hydrodynamic flow transition from steady, to strongly fluctuating; a narrow annular gap in the surface density around the secondary's orbit changes to a hollow central cavity; and a spatial symmetry is lost, resulting in a lopsided disc. This phase transition is coincident with the mass ratio above which stable orbits do not exist around the L4 and L5 equilibrium points of the R3Bp. Using the DISCO code, we find that for thin discs, for which a gap or cavity can remain open, the mass ratio of the transition is relatively insensitive to disc viscosity and pressure. The q = 0.04 transition has relevance for the evolution of massive black hole binary+disc systems at the centres of galactic nuclei, as well as for young stellar binaries and possibly planets around brown dwarfs.

  18. A transition in circumbinary accretion discs at a binary mass ratio of 1:25

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazio, Daniel J; Duffell, Paul; MacFadyen, Andrew I; Farris, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    We study circumbinary accretion discs in the framework of the restricted three-body problem (R3Bp) and via numerically solving the height-integrated equations of viscous hydrodynamics. Varying the mass ratio of the binary, we find a pronounced change in the behaviour of the disc near mass ratio $q \\equiv M_s/M_p \\sim 0.04$. For mass ratios above $q=0.04$, solutions for the hydrodynamic flow transition from steady, to strongly-fluctuating; a narrow annular gap in the surface density around the secondary's orbit changes to a hollow central cavity; and a spatial symmetry is lost, resulting in a lopsided disc. This phase transition is coincident with the mass ratio above which stable orbits do not exist around the L4 and L5 equilibrium points of the R3B problem. Using the DISCO code, we find that for thin discs, for which a gap or cavity can remain open, the mass ratio of the transition is relatively insensitive to disc viscosity and pressure. The $q=0.04$ transition has relevance for the evolution of massive bla...

  19. Automated mass detection in contrast-enhanced CT colonography: an approach based on contrast and volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, W. [University Hospital Essen, Clinic and Policlinic of Angiology, Essen (Germany); Multiorgan Screening Foundation (Germany); Tryon, C. [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Kroll, M.; Vogl, T.J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Toussaint, T.L. [Multiorgan Screening Foundation (Germany); Holzer, K. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Hoepffner, N. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Gastroenterology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to design and test an algorithm for automating mass detection in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC). Five patients with known colorectal masses underwent a pre-surgical contrast-enhanced (120 ml volume 1.6 g iodine/s injection rate, 60 s scan delay) CTC in high spatial resolution (16-slice CT: collimation: 16 x 0.75 mm, tablefeed: 24 mm/0.5 s, reconstruction increment: 0.5 mm). A CT-density- and volume-based algorithm searched for masses in the colonic wall, which was extracted before by segmenting and dilating the colonic air lumen and subtracting the inner air. A radiologist analyzed the detections and causes of false positives. All masses were detected, and false positives were easy to identify. Combining CT density with volume as a cut-off is a promising approach for automating mass detection that should be further refined and also tested in contrast-enhanced MR colonography. (orig.)

  20. Optical volume and mass measurements show that mammalian cells swell during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Monnier, Sylvain; Cappello, Giovanni; Le Berre, Mael; Piel, Matthieu

    2015-11-23

    The extent, mechanism, and function of cell volume changes during specific cellular events, such as cell migration and cell division, have been poorly studied, mostly because of a lack of adequate techniques. Here we unambiguously report that a large range of mammalian cell types display a significant increase in volume during mitosis (up to 30%). We further show that this increase in volume is tightly linked to the mitotic state of the cell and not to its spread or rounded shape and is independent of the presence of an intact actomyosin cortex. Importantly, this volume increase is not accompanied by an increase in dry mass and thus corresponds to a decrease in cell density. This mitotic swelling might have important consequences for mitotic progression: it might contribute to produce strong pushing forces, allowing mitotic cells to round up; it might also, by lowering cytoplasmic density, contribute to the large change of physicochemical properties observed in mitotic cells.

  1. Nonequilibrium transition induced by mass media in a model for social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Avella, J C; Cosenza, M G; Tucci, K

    2005-12-01

    We study the effect of mass media, modeled as an applied external field, on a social system based on Axelrod's model for the dissemination of culture. The numerical simulations show that the system undergoes a nonequilibrium phase transition between an ordered phase (homogeneous culture) specified by the mass media and a disordered (culturally fragmented) one. The critical boundary separating these phases is calculated on the parameter space of the system, given by the intensity of the mass media influence and the number of options per cultural attribute. Counterintuitively, mass media can induce cultural diversity when its intensity is above some threshold value. The nature of the phase transition changes from continuous to discontinuous at some critical value of the number of options.

  2. Thermodynamics of Rotating Black Holes and Black Rings: Phase Transitions and Thermodynamic Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Altamirano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review we summarize, expand, and set in context recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. We specifically consider the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional rotating asymptotically flat and AdS black holes and black rings in a canonical (fixed angular momentum ensemble. We plot the associated thermodynamic potential—the Gibbs free energy—and study its behavior to uncover possible thermodynamic phase transitions in these black hole spacetimes. We show that the multiply-rotating Kerr-AdS black holes exhibit a rich set of interesting thermodynamic phenomena analogous to the “every day thermodynamics” of simple substances, such as reentrant phase transitions of multicomponent liquids, multiple first-order solid/liquid/gas phase transitions, and liquid/gas phase transitions of the van derWaals type. Furthermore, the reentrant phase transitions also occur for multiply-spinning asymptotically flat Myers–Perry black holes. These phenomena do not require a variable cosmological constant, though they are more naturally understood in the context of the extended phase space. The thermodynamic volume, a quantity conjugate to the thermodynamic pressure, is studied for AdS black rings and demonstrated to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality; this provides a first example of calculation confirming the validity of isoperimetric inequality conjecture for a black hole with non-spherical horizon topology. The equation of state P = P(V,T is studied for various black holes both numerically and analytically—in the ultraspinning and slow rotation regimes.

  3. Sensitivity bias in the mass-radius distribution from Transit Timing Variations and Radial Velocity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent discussions, both in private and in the literature, we use a Monte Carlo simulation of planetary systems to investigate sources of bias in determining the mass-radius distribution of exoplanets for the two primary techniques used to measure planetary masses---Radial Velocities (RVs) and Transit Timing Variations (TTVs). We assert that mass measurements derived from these two methods are comparably reliable---as the physics underlying their respective signals is well understood. Nevertheless, their sensitivity to planet mass varies with the properties of the planets themselves. We find that for a given planet size, the RV method tends to find planets with higher mass while the sensitivity of TTVs is more uniform. This ``sensitivity bias'' implies that a complete census of TTV systems is likely to yield a more robust estimate of the mass-radius distribution provided there are not important physical differences between planets near and far from mean-motion resonance. We discuss differences in...

  4. Search for light curve modulations among Kepler candidates. Three very low-mass transiting companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Ribas, A.; Barrado, D.; Merín, B.; Bouy, H.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Light curve modulations in the sample of Kepler planet candidates allows the disentangling of the nature of the transiting object by photometrically measuring its mass. This is possible by detecting the effects of the gravitational pull of the companion (ellipsoidal modulations) and in some cases, the photometric imprints of the Doppler effect when observing in a broad band (Doppler beaming). Aims: We aim to photometrically unveil the nature of some transiting objects showing clear light curve modulations in the phase-folded Kepler light curve. Methods: We selected a subsample among the large crop of Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) based on their chances to show detectable light curve modulations, i.e., close (a< 12 R⋆) and large (in terms of radius, according to their transit signal) candidates. We modeled their phase-folded light curves with consistent equations for the three effects, namely, reflection, ellipsoidal and beaming (known as REB modulations). Results: We provide detailed general equations for the fit of the REB modulations for the case of eccentric orbits. These equations are accurate to the photometric precisions achievable by current and forthcoming instruments and space missions. By using this mathematical apparatus, we find three close-in very low-mass companions (two of them in the brown dwarf mass domain) orbiting main-sequence stars (KOI-554, KOI-1074, and KOI-3728), and reject the planetary nature of the transiting objects (thus classifying them as false positives). In contrast, the detection of the REB modulations and transit/eclipse signal allows the measurement of their mass and radius that can provide important constraints for modeling their interiors since just a few cases of low-mass eclipsing binaries are known. Additionally, these new systems can help to constrain the similarities in the formation process of the more massive and close-in planets (hot Jupiters), brown dwarfs, and very low-mass companions.

  5. GIS-based Approaches to Catchment Area Analyses of Mass Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Catchment area analyses of stops or stations are used to investigate potential number of travelers to public transportation. These analyses are considered a strong decision tool in the planning process of mass transit especially railroads. Catchment area analyses are GIS-based buffer and overlay...

  6. 23 CFR 810.308 - Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrator will execute a grant contract covering implementation of the project. ... projects. 810.308 Section 810.308 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Federal-Aid Urban System Nonhighway...

  7. Masses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: The Transition from Gaseous to Rocky Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcy, G.W.; et al., [Unknown; Hekker, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements of the host stars. Based on an analysis of the Kepler brightness measurements,

  8. Photometric Follow-up Observations of the Transiting Neptune-Mass Planet GJ 436b

    CERN Document Server

    Shporer, Avi; Winn, Joshua N; Holman, Matthew J; Latham, David W; Pont, Frederic; Esquerdo, Gilbert A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents multi-band photometric follow-up observations of the Neptune-mass transiting planet GJ 436b, consisting of 5 new ground-based transit light curves obtained in May 2007. Together with one already published light curve we have at hand a total of 6 light curves, spanning 29 days. The analysis of the data yields an orbital period P = 2.64386+-0.00003 days, mid-transit time T_c [HJD] =2454235.8355+-0.0001, planet mass M_p = 23.1+-0.9 M_{\\earth} = 0.073+-0.003 M_{Jup}, planet radius R_p = 4.2+-0.2 R_{\\earth} = 0.37+-0.01 R_{Jup} and stellar radius R_s = 0.45+-0.02 R_{\\sun}. Our typical precision for the mid transit timing for each transit is about 30 seconds. We searched the data for a possible signature of a second planet in the system through transit timing variations (TTV) and variation of the impact parameter. The analysis could not rule out a small, of the order of a minute, TTV and a long-term modulation of the impact parameter, of the order of +0.2 year^{-1}.

  9. Masses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: The Transition from Gaseous to Rocky Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Rowe, Jason F; Jenkins, Jon M; Bryson, Stephen T; Latham, David W; Howell, Steve B; Gautier, Thomas N; Batalha, Natalie M; Rogers, Leslie A; Ciardi, David; Fischer, Debra A; Gilliland, Ronald L; Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Huber, Daniel; Chaplin, William J; Basu, Sarbani; Buchhave, Lars A; Quinn, Samuel N; Borucki, William J; Koch, David G; Hunter, Roger; Caldwell, Douglas A; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Kolbl, Rea; Weiss, Lauren M; Petigura, Erik; Seager, Sara; Morton, Timothy; Johnson, John Asher; Ballard, Sarah; Burke, Chris; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip; Everett, Mark E; Lissauer, Jack J; Ford, Eric B; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Brown, Timothy M; Steffen, Jason H; Charbonneau, David; Basri, Gibor S; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Winn, Joshua; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Christiansen, Jessie; Adams, Elisabeth; Henze, Christopher; Dupree, Andrea; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Fortney, Jonathan J; Tarter, Jill; Holman, Matthew J; Tenenbaum, Peter; Shporer, Avi; Lucas, Philip W; Welsh, William F; Orosz, Jerome A; Bedding, T R; Campante, T L; Davies, G R; Elsworth, Y; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Karoff, C; Kawaler, S D; Lund, M N; Lundkvist, M; Metcalfe, T S; Miglio, A; Aguirre, V Silva; Stello, D; White, T R; Boss, Alan; Devore, Edna; Gould, Alan; Prsa, Andrej; Agol, Eric; Barclay, Thomas; Coughlin, Jeff; Brugamyer, Erik; Mullally, Fergal; Quintana, Elisa V; Still, Martin; hompson, Susan E; Morrison, David; Twicken, Joseph D; Désert, Jean-Michel; Carter, Josh; Crepp, Justin R; Hébrard, Guillaume; Santerne, Alexandre; Moutou, Claire; Sobeck, Charlie; Hudgins, Douglas; Haas, Michael R; Robertson, Paul; Lillo-Box, Jorge; Barrado, David

    2014-01-01

    We report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements of the host stars. Based on an analysis of the Kepler brightness measurements, along with high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, and (for 11 stars) asteroseismology, we establish low false-positive probabilities for all of the transiting planets (41 of 42 have a false-positive probability under 1%), and we constrain their sizes and masses. Most of the transiting planets are smaller than 3X the size of Earth. For 16 planets, the Doppler signal was securely detected, providing a direct measurement of the planet's mass. For the other 26 planets we provide either marginal mass measurements or upper limits to their masses and densities; in many cases we can rule out a rocky composition. We identify 6 planets with densities above 5 g/cc, suggesting a mostly rocky interior f...

  10. Model-Independent Stellar and Planetary Masses from Multi-Transiting Exoplanetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Montet, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Precise exoplanet characterization requires precise classification of exoplanet host stars. The masses of host stars are commonly estimated by comparing their spectra to those predicted by stellar evolution models. However, spectroscopically determined properties are difficult to measure accurately for stars that are substantially different from the Sun, such as M-dwarfs and evolved stars. Here, we propose a new method to dynamically measure the masses of transiting planets near mean-motion resonances and their host stars by combining observations of transit timing variations with radial velocity measurements. We derive expressions to analytically determine the mass of each member of the system and demonstrate the technique on the Kepler-18 system. We compare these analytic results to numerical simulations and find the two are consistent. We identify eight systems for which our technique could be applied if follow-up radial velocity measurements are collected. We conclude this analysis would be optimal for sy...

  11. Measurement of Single Cell Refractive Index, Dry Mass, Volume, and Density Using a Transillumination Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Jacques, Steven L.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2012-09-01

    Phase contrast microscopy has become ubiquitous in the field of biology, particularly in qualitative investigations of cellular morphology. However, the use of quantitative phase retrieval methods and their connection to cellular refractive index and dry mass density remain under utilized. This is due in part to the restriction of phase and cellular mass determination to custom built instruments, involved mathematical analysis, and prohibitive sample perturbations. We introduce tomographic bright field imaging, an accessible optical imaging technique enabling the three dimensional measurement of cellular refractive index and dry mass density using a standard transillumination optical microscope. The validity of the technique is demonstrated on polystyrene spheres. The technique is then applied to the measurement of the refractive index, dry mass, volume, and density of red blood cells. This optical technique enables a simple and robust means to perform quantitative investigations of engineered and biological specimens in three dimensions using standard optical microscopes.

  12. The Association between Marital Transitions, Body Mass Index, and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Dinour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between different marital transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI and body weight. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. Longitudinal studies were included if they compared dependent variables, such as BMI or weight, before and after a change in marital status. Results. Twenty articles were included: 4 articles described only transitions into marriage and/or cohabitation, 2 articles described only transitions out of marriage and/or cohabitation, and 14 articles described both. Overall, transitions into marriage were associated with weight gain, whereas transitions out of marriage were associated with weight loss. No major differences were observed between genders or across specific marital transition states. Conclusions. Additional research is warranted to better understand this phenomenon and the impact of marital transitions on obesity and obesity-related behaviors. This paper highlights potential opportunities to incorporate programs, practices, and policies that aim to promote and support healthy weights and lifestyles upon entering or leaving a marriage or cohabiting relationship.

  13. Diurnal and seasonal variations of NO, NO2 and PM2.5 mass as a function of traffic volumes alongside an urban arterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Christine M.; Koonce, Peter; George, Linda A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban arterial corridors are landscapes that give rise to short and long-term exposures to transportation-related pollution. With high traffic volumes and a wide mix of road users, urban arterial environments are important targets for improved exposure assessment to traffic-related pollution. A common method to estimate exposure is to use traffic volumes as a proxy. The study presented here analyzes a unique yearlong dataset of simultaneous roadside air quality and traffic observations for a U.S. arterial to assess the reliability of using traffic volumes as a proxy for traffic-related exposure. Results show how the relationships of traffic volumes with NO and NO2 vary not only by time of day and season but also by time aggregation. At short-term aggregations (15 min) nitrogen oxides were found to have a significant linear relationship with traffic volumes during morning hours for all seasons although variability was still high (r2 = 0.1-0.45 NO, r2 = 0.14-0.27 NO2), and little to no relationship during evening periods (r2 traffic volumes to estimate annual exposure concentrations for morning periods (r2 = 0.89 NO, r2 = 0.87 NO2) and evening NO2 (r2 = 0.46). Traffic volumes are a weak or poor predictor for annual evening NO (r2 = -0.09) and short-term 15 min aggregations. Seasonal and diurnal characterizations show that roadside PM2.5 (mass) measurements do not have a relationship with local traffic volumes, leading us to conclude that PM2.5 mass is more tied to regional sources and meteorological conditions. As epidemiology and personal exposure assessment research aims to study health impacts and pollutant levels encountered by pedestrians, bicyclists, those waiting for transit, and other road users, these results show when traffic volumes alone can be a reliable proxy for exposure and when this approach is not warranted.

  14. Influence of flotation cell volume and solids mass on kinetics of sulfide ore flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Plawski Michal; Bakalarz Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents studies on the influence of flotation cell capacity and mass of solids in the suspension on the flotation kinetics of sulfide copper ore. A sample of copper ore that was collected from the Polkowice Mine of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. in Poland was used in the experiments. It was determined that neither the volume of flotation cell nor the mass of solids had influence on the type of kinetics equation of flotation. Copper-bearing minerals floated according to the second-order equ...

  15. Correlation of transrectal and transabodominal ultrasound measurement of transition zone volume with post-operative enucleated adenoma volume in benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Idowu; Aremu, Ademola; Olajide, Abimbola; Bello, Tope; Olajide, Folake; Adetiloye, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease of ageing men worldwide. Though transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is the standard in most parts of the world in evaluation of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), it is rarely done in some less developed countries because of non availability of appropriate probes and or specialists. Transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) remains the mainstay in these areas. Some controversies still exist in literature about the accuracy of TAUS evaluation of prostatic volume in patients with BPH. This study aimed at comparing the transition zone volume estimation of the prostate on transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound with post-operative enucleated adenoma volume in Nigeria patients with BPH and to suggest better predictor of prostate volume in evaluation of BPH. Forty-six (46) patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to BPH attending the urologic clinic were evaluated ultrasonographically and eventually managed with open surgery (prostatectomy) after due counselling. The post operative samples were weighted using a sensitive top loading weighing balance and converted to volume. Since the specific gravity of the prostate is equivalent to that of water,the weight is the same as volume. Patients' ages ranged between 59 and 90 years with a peak age incidence at seventh decade. Transition Zone (TZ) volume estimation on both transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound showed positive correlation with the post operative enucleated adenoma(r = 0.594, p < 0.001) but the transrectal method was more accurate. There was no significant relationship between the TZ volume and patients' symptoms(r = 0.491, p = 0.007). Both TRUS and TAUS are comparable at TZ volume estimation and therefore TAUS can be utilized in regions where intracavitary probes and or the expertise is/are not available.

  16. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  17. Ion- and pH-dependent volume transitions in biopolymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ference

    2008-03-01

    Swelling and collapse of polyelectrolyte gels are the result of a balance of different interactions that control the osmotic pressure and network elasticity. In biopolymer systems ions often play a central role in determining the phase behavior. For example, DNA condensation induced by multivalent cations is crucial for its packaging. It is known that biological processes, such as nerve excitation and muscle contraction, are mediated by divalent cations. In general, relatively little is known about the interaction between multivalent ions and charged biopolymers due to the lack of an appropriate theory and the absence of a sufficiently broad base of experimental data. Recent experimental observations made by anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering indicate that the spatial extent of the counterion cloud is significantly reduced in the case of divalent ions relative to the monovalent ions. An understanding of ion induced swelling/collapse transition in polyelectrolyte gels may shed light on the mechanism of important physiological processes. We compare the effects of pH, ionic strength and counterion valence on the structure and osmotic properties of biopolymer gels. Systematic studies made on DNA gels indicate that monovalent salts gradually reduce gel swelling but do not cause discontinuous volume transition. Introducing calcium ions into the gels produces a reversible volume change. Similarly, decreasing the pH in the surrounding environment leads to shrinkage of the swollen networks. Scattering observations reveal that cations mediate the equilibrium properties by modifying the local environment and the organization of the polymer chains. Osmotic pressure measurements detect significant differences between the effects of pH and ion valence.

  18. Managing the Accessibility on Mass Public Transit: the Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siman Tang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Public transit services (PTS improve mobility and accessibility, and reduce car dependence. It is ideal if PTS are financially sustainable, with affordable fares and expedient quality. The success of PTS on accessibility improvement can be reflected by their level of patronage: do travelers choose to use them in lieu of their private cars? PTS in Hong Kong are renowned for their quality and profitability, superbly addressing the accessibility need for the city; they carry over 90% of the 11 million daily trips. A comparison of the per capita train-car and bus-vehicle kilometer run of PTS in Hong Kong with those in London and Singapore, however, suggests that it is not purely the supply that affects the use or accessibility of PTS in Hong Kong. By tracing and analyzing the development of PTS in Hong Kong over the past two decades, we found evidence that the high level of accessibility on mass public transit in the territory can be attributed to the land use policy of developing compact, high-density township, accompanying transport policies of granting high priority to the development of mass transit facilities and providing ways to ensure the financial viability of privately operated PTS, especially the innovative approach of integrating the development of public transport facility and property so as to exploit their synergy. In this paper, we study and highlight elements that contribute to the development of high accessibility on mass public transit in Hong Kong.

  19. Effects of gauge boson mass on chiral and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Pei-Lin; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experimental observation that there is a coexisting region between the antiferromagnetic (AF) and $\\textit{d}$-wave superconducting ($\\textit{d}$SC) phases, the influences of gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ on chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$ are investigated simultaneously within a unified framework, i.e., Dyson-Schwinger equations. The results show that the chiral symmetry restoration phase transition in the presence of the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ is a typical second-order phase transition; the chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions are coincident; the critical number of fermion flavors $N^{c}_{f}$ decreases as the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ increases and there exists a boundary that separates the $N^{c}_{f}$-$m_{a}$ plane into chiral symmetry breaking/confinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) below the boundary and chiral symmetry restoration/deconfinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) above it.

  20. 2MASS J03105986+1648155AB - A new binary at the L/T transition

    CERN Document Server

    Stumpf, M B; Bouy, H; Henning, Th; Hippler, S

    2010-01-01

    The transition from the L to the T spectral type of brown dwarfs is marked by a very rapid transition phase, remarkable brightening in the J-band and a higher binary frequency. Despite being an active area of inquiry, this transition regime still remains one of the most poorly understood phases of brown dwarf evolution. We resolved the L dwarf 2MASS J03105986+1648155 for the first time into two almost equally bright components straddling the L/T transition. Since such a co-eval system with common age and composition provides crucial information of this special transition phase, we monitored the system over 3 years to derive first orbital parameters and dynamical mass estimates, as well as a spectral type determination. We obtained resolved high angular resolution, near-IR images with HST and the adaptive optics instrument NACO at the VLT including the laser guide star system PARSEC. Based on two epochs of astrometric data we derive a minimum semi-major axis of 5.2 +- 0.8 AU. The assumption of a face-on circul...

  1. Lupus-TR-3b: A Low-Mass Transiting Hot Jupiter in the Galactic Plane?

    CERN Document Server

    Weldrake, David T F; Sackett, Penny D; Tingley, Brandon W; Gillon, Michael; Setiawan, Johny

    2007-01-01

    We present a prime case for a transiting Hot Jupiter planet identified during a single-field transit survey towards the Lupus region of the Galactic plane. The object, Lupus-TR-3b, transits a V=17.4 K1V host star every 3.91405d. Spectroscopy and stellar colors indicate a host star with effective temperature 5000+/-150 K, with a stellar mass and radius of 0.87+/-0.04 Msun and 0.82+/-0.05 Rsun, respectively. Limb-darkened transit fitting yields a companion radius of 0.89+/-0.07 Rjup and an orbital inclination of 88.3{+1.3}{-0.8} deg. Magellan 6.5m MIKE radial velocity measurements reveal a 2.4 sigma K=114+/-25 m/s sinusoidal variation in phase with the transit ephemeris. The resulting mass is 0.81+/-0.18 Mjup and density 1.4+/-0.4 g/cm^3. Y-band PANIC image deconvolution reveal a V>=21 red neighbor 0.4'' away which, although highly unlikely, we cannot conclusively rule out as a blended binary with current data. However, no in-phase bisector variations are observed and blend simulations show that only the most u...

  2. Accurate mass replacement method for the sediment concentration measurement with a constant volume container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yunyun; Chen, Tianqin; Yan, Jun; Lei, Tingwu

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of sediment concentration in water is of great importance in soil erosion research and soil and water loss monitoring systems. The traditional weighing method has long been the foundation of all the other measuring methods and instrument calibration. The development of a new method to replace the traditional oven-drying method is of interest in research and practice for the quick and efficient measurement of sediment concentration, especially field measurements. A new method is advanced in this study for accurately measuring the sediment concentration based on the accurate measurement of the mass of the sediment-water mixture in the confined constant volume container (CVC). A sediment-laden water sample is put into the CVC to determine its mass before the CVC is filled with water and weighed again for the total mass of the water and sediments in the container. The known volume of the CVC, the mass of sediment-laden water, and sediment particle density are used to calculate the mass of water, which is replaced by sediments, therefore sediment concentration of the sample is calculated. The influence of water temperature was corrected by measuring water density to determine the temperature of water before measurements were conducted. The CVC was used to eliminate the surface tension effect so as to obtain the accurate volume of water and sediment mixture. Experimental results showed that the method was capable of measuring the sediment concentration from 0.5 up to 1200 kg m‑3. A good liner relationship existed between the designed and measured sediment concentrations with all the coefficients of determination greater than 0.999 and the averaged relative error less than 0.2%. All of these seem to indicate that the new method is capable of measuring a full range of sediment concentration above 0.5 kg m‑3 to replace the traditional oven-drying method as a standard method for evaluating and calibrating other methods.

  3. Mott-Hubbard transition in the mass-imbalanced Hubbard model

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp, Marie-Therese; Wallerberger, Markus; Gunacker, Patrik; Held, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The mass-imbalanced Hubbard model represents a continuous evolution from the Hubbard to the Falicov-Kimball model. We employ dynamical mean field theory and study the paramagnetic metal-insulator transition, which has a very different nature for the two limiting models. Our results indicate that the metal-insulator transition rather resembles that of the Hubbard model as soon as a tiny hopping between the more localized fermions is switched on. At low temperatures we observe a first-order met...

  4. Masses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: The Transition from Gaseous to Rocky Planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    a rocky composition. We identify six planets with densities above 5 g cm–3, suggesting a mostly rocky interior for them. Indeed, the only planets that are compatible with a purely rocky composition are smaller than ~2 R ⊕. Larger planets evidently contain a larger fraction of low-density material (H, He......, along with high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, and (for 11 stars) asteroseismology, we establish low false-positive probabilities (FPPs) for all of the transiting planets (41 of 42 have an FPP under 1%), and we constrain their sizes and masses. Most of the transiting planets...

  5. he relationship of body mass index to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Adriansyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence suggests that obesity may be related to early onset of puberty in girls. However, few studies have found a link between body mass index (BMI and puberty onset in boys. More study is needed to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume. Objective To investigate the relationship of BMI to penile length and testicular volume in adolescent boys. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on adolescent boys aged 9 to 14 years in Secanggang District, Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Province in August 2009. Subject's BMIs were calculated by dividing body weight (BW in kilograms by body height (BH in meters squared. Penile length (cm was measured with a spatula. We took the average of three measurements from the symphysis pubis to the tip of the glans penis. Testicular volume (mL was estimated by palpation using an orchidometer. Pearson's correlation test (r was used to assess the relationship of BMI to penile length and BMI to testicular volume. Results There were 108 participants, consisting of 64 primary school students and 44 junior high school students. Subjects' mean age was 11.7 (SD 1.62 years,; mean BW was 35.2 (SD 8.84 kg; mean testicular volume was 3.6 (SD 1.20 mL. We found no significant association between BMI and penile length (r=-0.25, P= 0.006, nor between BMI and testicular volume (r=-021; P=0.09. Conclusion There was no significant relationship of BMI to penile length nor BMI to testicular volume in adolescent boys. [

  6. Measurement of four chambers' volumes and ventricular masses by cardiac CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Motomasa; Naito, Hiroaki; Ohta, Mitsushige; Kozuka, Takahiro; Kito, Yoshitsugu (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1983-09-01

    Using cardiac computed tomography (CT), the ''mean'' volume of each cardiac chamber and both ventricular masses were calculated from summation of a sliced volume by ungated scans obtained using rapid sequential scanning covering the whole heart. 1. Estimation of a normal value of each chamber's volume was attempted in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease and with normal heart function. The ''mean'' volume of the right atrium (RAMV), right ventricle (RVMV), and left atrium (LAMV) was 22.3 +- 6.5, 40.3 +- 6.5 and 28.7 +- 8.2ml/m/sup 2/, respectively. 2. In 54 patients with valvular heart diseases, each chamber's volume obrained by CT was compared with the grade of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) estimated by ultrasonic Doppler technique or the grade of mitral regurgitation (MR) by left ventriculography (LVG). The RAMV (234 +- 119 ml/m/sup 2/) and the RVMV (101 +- 39 ml/m/sup 2/) were markedly increased in patients with severe TR (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). The LAMV (487 +- 231 ml/m/sup 2/) was also increased in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). 3. In 46 patients with valvular heart diseases, the LVMV by CT was well correlated with end-diastolic volume (EDV) obtained by LVG (r=0.92), and the LVEDVs by ECG gated CT and by LVG showed a fairly good correlation (r=0.95). 4. CT examination was performed before and after surgery in 17 patients with MR or TR for evaluation of the change of chamber volumes. The mean reduction ratio (MRR) of the RAMV after tricuspid annuloplasty, the LVMV after mitral valve plasty, and the LAMV after left atrial plication was 44%, 41%, and 60%, respectively.

  7. Sensitivity bias in the mass-radius distribution from transit timing variations and radial velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by recent discussions, both in private and in the literature, we use a Monte Carlo simulation of planetary systems to investigate sources of bias in determining the mass-radius distribution of exoplanets for the two primary techniques used to measure planetary masses - radial velocities (RVs) and transit timing variations (TTVs). We assert that mass measurements derived from these two methods are comparably reliable - as the physics underlying their respective signals is well understood. Nevertheless, their sensitivity to planet mass varies with the properties of the planets themselves. We find that for a given planet size, the RV method tends to find planets with higher mass while the sensitivity of TTVs is more uniform. This `sensitivity bias' implies that a complete census of TTV systems is likely to yield a more robust estimate of the mass-radius distribution provided there are not important physical differences between planets near and far from mean-motion resonance. We discuss differences in the sensitivity of the two methods with orbital period and system architecture, which may compound the discrepancies between them (e.g. short-period planets detectable by RVs may be more dense due to atmospheric loss). We advocate for continued mass measurements using both approaches as a means both to measure the masses of more planets and to identify potential differences in planet structure that may result from their dynamical and environmental histories.

  8. Effect of current quark masses on quark phase transitions in supernovae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xiang-Jun; LUO Zhi-Quan; LIU Hong-Lin

    2008-01-01

    The current quark mass model is adopted to study the phase transition of two-flavor quark matter to more stable three-flavor quark matter in the whole core of a supernova. It shows that the timescale of the process is shorter than 10-8 seconds, thatthe u- and d-quark masses can be neglected completely in this model, and that the temperature and the total neutrino energies in the core after the conversion increase nearly by 40% and 20% on the average compared with former results, respectively. The last result can further enhance the probability of success for a supernova explosion significantly.

  9. E2 and M1 Transition Probabilities in Odd Mass Hg Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, V.; Baecklin, A.; Fogelberg, B.; Malmskog, S.G.

    1969-10-15

    L- and M-subshell ratios have been measured for the 39.5 keV transition in {sup 193}Hg and the 37.1 and 16.2 keV transitions in {sup 195}Hg yielding 0.38 {+-} 0.12 , <0.02 and 0.08 {+-} 0.03 per cent E2, respectively. The half-lives of the 39.5 keV level in {sup 193}Hg and the 53.3 and 37.1 keV levels in {sup 195}Hg have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, yielding values of 0.63 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.03 and <0.05 nsec respectively. A systematic compilation of reduced E2 and M1 transition probabilities in odd mass Pt, Hg and Pb nuclei is given and compared to theoretical predictions.

  10. First order thermal phase transition with 126 GeV Higgs mass

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M; Rummukainen, K

    2013-01-01

    We study the strength of the electroweak phase transition in models with two light Higgs doublets and a light SU(3)_c triplet by means of lattice simulations in a dimensionally reduced effective theory. In the parameter region considered the transition on the lattice is significantly stronger than indicated by a 2-loop perturbative analysis. Within some ultraviolet uncertainties, the finding applies to MSSM with a Higgs mass m_h approximately 126 GeV and shows that the parameter region useful for electroweak baryogenesis is enlarged. In particular (even though only dedicated analyses can quantify the issue), the tension between LHC constraints after the 7 TeV and 8 TeV runs and frameworks where the electroweak phase transition is driven by light stops, seems to be relaxed.

  11. Improving polio vaccination during supplementary campaigns at areas of mass transit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Sunil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, children who are traveling during mass immunization campaigns for polio represent a substantial component of the total target population. These children are not easily accessible to health workers and may thus not receive vaccine. Vaccination activities at mass transit sites (such as major intersections, bus depots and train stations, can increase the proportion of children vaccinated but the effectiveness of these activities, and factors associated with their success, have not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in Jyotiba Phule Nagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India, conducted in June 2006. We used trends in the vaccination results from the June activities to plan the timing, locations, and human resource requirements for transit vaccination activities in two out of the seven blocks in the district for the July 2006 supplementary immunization activity (SIA. In July, similar data was collected and for the first time vaccination teams also recorded the proportion of children encountered each day who were vaccinated (a new monitoring system. Results In June, out of the 360,937 total children vaccinated, 34,643 (9.6% received vaccinations at mass transit sites. In the July SIA, after implementation of a number of changes based on the June monitoring data, 36,475 children were vaccinated at transit sites (a 5.3% increase. Transit site vaccinations in July increased in the two intervention blocks from 18,194 to 21,588 (18.7% and decreased from 16,449 to 14,887 (9.5% in the five other blocks. The new monitoring system showed the proportion of unvaccinated children at street intersection transit sites in the July campaign decreased from 24% (1,784/7,405 at the start of the campaign to 3% (143/5,057 by the end of the SIA, consistent with findings from the more labor-intensive post-vaccination coverage surveys routinely performed by the program. Conclusions Analysis of

  12. Description of electromagnetic and favored α transitions in heavy odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, A.; Delion, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    We describe electromagnetic and favored α transitions to rotational bands in odd-mass nuclei built upon a single particle state with angular momentum projection Ω ≠1/2 in the region 88 ≤Z ≤98 . We use the particle coupled to an even-even core approach described by the coherent state model and the coupled channels method to estimate partial α -decay widths. We reproduce the energy levels of the rotational band where favored α transitions occur for 26 nuclei and predict B (" close=")E 2 )">E 2 values for electromagnetic transitions to the band head using a deformation parameter and a Hamiltonian strength parameter for each nucleus, together with an effective collective charge depending linearly on the deformation parameter. Where experimental data are available, the contribution of the single particle effective charge to the total B value is calculated. The Hamiltonian describing the α -nucleus interaction contains two terms, a spherically symmetric potential given by the double-folding of the M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction plus a repulsive core simulating the Pauli principle and a quadrupole-quadrupole (QQ) interaction. The α -decaying state is identified as a narrow outgoing resonance in this potential. The intensity of the transition to the first excited state is reproduced by the QQ coupling strength. It depends linearly both on the nuclear deformation and the square of the reduced width for the decay to the band head, respectively. Predicted intensities for transitions to higher excited states are in a reasonable agreement with experimental data. This formalism offers a unified description of energy levels, electromagnetic and favored α transitions for known heavy odd-mass α emitters.

  13. A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J; Nutzman, Philip; Buchhave, Lars A; Lovis, Christophe; Bonfils, Xavier; Latham, David W; Udry, Stephane; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Holman, Matthew J; Falco, Emilio E; Winn, Joshua N; Queloz, Didier; Pepe, Francesco; Mayor, Michel; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    A decade ago, the detection of the first transiting extrasolar planet provided a direct constraint on its composition and opened the door to spectroscopic investigations of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. As such characterization studies are feasible only for transiting systems that are both nearby and for which the planet-to-star radius ratio is relatively large, nearby small stars have been surveyed intensively. Doppler studies and microlensing have uncovered a population of planets with minimum masses of 1.9-10 times the Earth's mass (M_Earth), called super-Earths. The first constraint on the bulk composition of this novel class of planets was afforded by CoRoT-7b, but the distance and size of its star preclude atmospheric studies in the foreseeable future. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55 M_Earth and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R_Earth), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. We fi...

  14. Transitional Disks Associated with Intermediate-Mass Stars: Results of the SEEDS YSO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.; Fukagawa, M.; Maruta, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Wisniewski, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Currie, T.; McElwain, M.; Muto, T.; Kotani, T.; Kusakabe, N. B.; Follette, K.; Bonnefoy, M.; Feldt, M.; Sitko, M.; Takami, M.; Karr, J.; Tamura, M.

    2014-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are where planets form, grow, and migrate to produce the diversity of exoplanet systems we observe in mature systems. Disks where this process has advanced to the stage of gap opening, and in some cases central cavity formation, have been termed pre-transitional and transitional disks in the hope that they represent intermediate steps toward planetary system formation. Recent reviews have focussed on disks where the star is of solar or sub-solar mass. In contrast to the sub-millimeter where cleared central cavities predominate, at H-band some T Tauri star transitional disks resemble primordial disks in having no indication of clearing, some show a break in the radial surface brightness profile at the inner edge of the outer disk, while others have partially to fully cleared gaps or central cavities. Recently, the Meeus Group I Herbig stars, intermediate-mass PMS stars with IR spectral energy distributions often interpreted as flared disks, have been proposed to have transitional and pre-transitional disks similar to those associated with solar-mass PMS stars, based on thermal-IR imaging, and sub-millimeter interferometry. We have investigated their appearance in scattered light as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS), obtaining H-band polarimetric imagery of 10 intermediate-mass stars with Meeus Group I disks. Augmented by other disks with imagery in the literature, the sample is now sufficiently large to explore how these disks are similar to and differ from T Tauri star disks. The disk morphologies seen in the Tauri disks are also found for the intermediate-mass star disks, but additional phenomena are found; a hallmark of these disks is remarkable individuality and diversity which does not simply correlate with disk mass or stellar properties, including age, including spiral arms in remnant envelopes, arms in the disk, asymmetrically and potentially variably shadowed outer disks, gaps, and one disk

  15. Influence of flotation cell volume and solids mass on kinetics of sulfide ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plawski Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on the influence of flotation cell capacity and mass of solids in the suspension on the flotation kinetics of sulfide copper ore. A sample of copper ore that was collected from the Polkowice Mine of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. in Poland was used in the experiments. It was determined that neither the volume of flotation cell nor the mass of solids had influence on the type of kinetics equation of flotation. Copper-bearing minerals floated according to the second-order equation, while the remaining components according to the first-order equation. The kinetic rate constants and maximum recovery of the studied components decreased with increasing solids mass in the flotation cell, regardless of the capacity of the cell. The best results were obtained for tests using a 1.0 dm3 cell, while the less favorable kinetics results were observed in the test with the smallest cell of 0.75 dm3 volume. The obtained results can be helpful in choosing the most appropriate methodology of upgrading the sulfide copper ore from Poland in order to obtain the best kinetics results.

  16. On M3-transition rates in selected odd-mass nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, R.J. E-mail: lombard@ipno.in2p3.fr; Vdovin, A.I.; Shirikova, N.Yu.; Sushkov, A.V

    2003-06-02

    The reduced probabilities of M3 transitions are studied in five deformed and three spherical or near-spherical odd-mass nuclei. In deformed nuclei, the states linked by M3 transitions are predominantly of single-quasiparticle nature and the calculations are performed taking into account the single-quasiparticle as well as core-polarization terms in the M3-operator. Whereas in {sup 159}Ho, {sup 175}Yb, and {sup 179}Hf the ratio between theoretical and experimental B(M3) values range from 0.5 to 1.4, the situation is much worse in neutron deficient nuclides {sup 179}W and {sup 183}Pt where the theory used can not explain a very sharp drop of the B(M3) values. In the soft nuclei {sup 121}Cs and {sup 207}Po the states connected by M3 transitions are treated as 'quasiparticle x phonon' states. In {sup 113}Sn, the small 'quasiparticle x phonon' components are not sufficient to compensate vanishing contribution of the dominant quasiparticle component, which shares {delta}l forbidden transitions. Thus, on the whole theoretical description of B(M3) with the present simple models seems to be unsatisfactory. It constitutes a challenging problem both at the level of the nuclear structure and the transition operator.

  17. Development of a finite element firn densification model for converting volume changes to mass changes

    CERN Document Server

    Cummings, Evan; Brinkerhoff, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In regions where ice sheets are increasing in mass, there is a 50-200 m layer of old snow called firn which does not melt in the summer months. The density of firn tracks the transformation of snow into glacial ice at approximately 917 kg m^-3. The process of firn densification is important in at least two ways: 1) it can be a dominant component in the observed rate of change of the surface elevation, and 2) storage of liquid water in the lower density firn layer is now considered a critical component in the mass balance of ice sheets. If the rate of change of surface elevation can be equated with the rate of change in the mass of the ice sheet, we would have an excellent means of monitoring ice sheet mass balance. However, knowledge of firn densification rates is needed to make the inference of mass rate of change from volume rate of change. Several firn models have been created for areas without melt. We have reformulated these models with the finite-element software package FEniCS and integrated them with ...

  18. On Finite Volume Corrections to the Electromagnetic Mass of Composite Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong-Wan

    2015-01-01

    In standard lattice QCD + QED studies, the long-range nature of the electromagnetic interaction introduces power-law finite volume effects that must be quantitatively understood to extract the desired physics. Non-relativistic effective field theories have shown to be an efficient tool for the characterization of such effects, especially in the case of composite particles. Recently it was argued that contributions from antiparticles are required so that QED results for a point-like fermion can be reproduced in the effective field theory description. We further solidify this argument by considering the analogous case of a point-like scalar in QED. In this case, we find that contributions from antiparticles are also required, and these contributions, moreover, are independent of the treatment of photon zero modes. We extend these considerations to composite scalar and spinor particles, and determine the leading antiparticle contributions to their finite-volume electromagnetic masses. Such contributions are show...

  19. Structural mass irregularities and fiber volume influence on morphology and mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester resin in matrix composi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative results of a current study on unsaturated polyester resin (UPR matrix composites processed by filament winding method, with cotton spun yarn of different mass irregularities and two different volume fractions. Physical and mechanical properties were measured, namely ultimate stress, stiffness, elongation%. The mechanical properties of the composites increased significantly with the increase in the fiber volume fraction in agreement with the Counto model. Mass irregularities in the yarn structure were quantitatively measured and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Mass irregularities cause marked decrease in relative strength about 25% and 33% which increases with fiber volume fraction. Ultimate stress and stiffness increases with fiber volume fraction and is always higher for yarn with less mass irregularities.

  20. Overlapping decline in orbitofrontal gray matter volume related to cocaine use and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana G; Jones, P Simon; Williams, Guy B; Bullmore, Edward T; Robbins, Trevor W; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-01-01

    Loss of control over hedonically motivated actions is a defining component of impulse control disorders, such as drug dependence and the proposed 'food addiction' model of obesity. Devolution from goal-directed to compulsively maintained behaviors is partially attributed to abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex, an area critical in reward valuation. In the current study, overlapping reductions in orbitofrontal gray matter volume relating to body mass index were seen in healthy control and cocaine-dependent individuals, as well as in relation to duration of cocaine abuse, providing support for a shared neuropathology between the two conditions potentially related to dysfunctional reward-seeking behavior.

  1. Mass anomalous dimension of Adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider the $SU(N)$ gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large $N$. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of $N$ up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  2. Search for $\\beta$-transitions with the lowest decay energy for a determination of the neutrino mass

    CERN Multimedia

    From a variety of $\\beta$-transitions only those with decay energies of a few keV and smaller are considered suitable for a determination of the neutrino mass on a sub-eV level. The decay energy of a transition can be very small, if, e.g., in an allowed $\\beta$-decay or electron-capture transition, a nuclear excited state of the daughter nuclide is populated whose energy is very close to the mass difference of the transition nuclides. Investigation of these transitions can also be useful for the assessment of a validity of the current $\\beta$-decay theory in the region of vanishingly small decay energies. The authors of this proposal have found several such $\\beta$-transitions whose decay energies are expected to be extremely small. In order to assess the suitability of these $\\beta$-transitions for the determination of the neutrino mass, measurements of the mass differences of the transition nuclides must be carried out with a sub-keV uncertainty. Presently, only high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry...

  3. Effect of mass-addition distribution and injectant on heat transfer and transition criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, J. J.; Mccloskey, M. H.; Stalmach, C. J., Jr.; Wright, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Surface pressures, heat-transfer rates, and transition locations for a sharp cone (whose semivertex angle is 12 deg) were obtained in a hypervelocity wind tunnel at a free-stream Mach number of 12 and a free-stream Re/ft range of 3,000,000 to 6,000,000. The effects of injecting either methane, nitrogen, or Freon-22 (at rates up to 2.1% of free-stream rate) were studied for a uniform injection-distribution and for a variable injection-distribution. Gaseous injection had little effect on the surface pressure measurements. For a given mass injection distribution, the laminar region heat-transfer decreases as the injection rate increases or as the molecular weight of the injectant decreases. For a given mass-injection rate (integrated over the surface of the entire cone), the transition location and heat-transfer rates were sensitive to the injection distribution. The transition Reynolds numbers were significantly greater when the local injection rate was constant over the surface of the cone.

  4. On finite volume effects in the chiral extrapolation of baryon masses

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, M F M; Kobdaj, C; Schwarz, K

    2014-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the QCD lattice data on the baryon octet and decuplet masses based on the relativistic chiral Lagrangian. The baryon self energies are computed in a finite volume at next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N^3LO), where the dependence on the physical meson and baryon masses is kept. The number of free parameters is reduced significantly down to 12 by relying on large-N_c sum rules. Altogether we describe accurately more than 220 data points from six different lattice groups, BMW, PACS-CS, HSC, LHPC, QCDSF-UKQCD and NPLQCD. Precise values for all counter terms relevant at N^3LO are predicted. In particular we extract a pion-nucleon sigma term of (39 +- 1) MeV and a strangeness sigma term of the nucleon of sigma_{sN} simeq (4 +- 1) MeV. The flavour SU(3) chiral limit of the baryon octet and decuplet masses is determined with ( 802 +- 4 ) MeV and (1103 +- 6) MeV. Detailed predictions for the baryon masses as currently evaluated by the ETM lattice QCD group are made.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  6. Predicting Coronal Mass Ejections transit times to Earth with neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Sudar, D; Dumbović, M

    2015-01-01

    Predicting transit times of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) from their initial parameters is a very important subject, not only from the scientific perspective, but also because CMEs represent a hazard for human technology. We used a neural network to analyse transit times for 153 events with only two input parameters: initial velocity of the CME, $v$, and Central Meridian Distance, CMD, of its associated flare. We found that transit time dependence on $v$ is showing a typical drag-like pattern in the solar wind. The results show that the speed at which acceleration by drag changes to deceleration is $v\\approx$500 km s$^{-1}$. Transit times are also found to be shorter for CMEs associated with flares on the western hemisphere than those originating on the eastern side of the Sun. We attribute this difference to the eastward deflection of CMEs on their path to 1 AU. The average error of the NN prediction in comparison to observations is $\\approx$12 hours which is comparable to other studies on the same subject.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope search for the transit of the Earth-mass exoplanet Alpha Centauri Bb

    CERN Document Server

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Queloz, Didier; Seager, Sara; Gilliland, Ronald; Chaplin, William J; Proffitt, Charles; Gillon, Michael; Guenther, Maximilian N; Benneke, Bjoern; Dumusque, Xavier; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Segransan, Damien; Triaud, Amaury; Udry, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Results from exoplanet surveys indicate that small planets (super-Earth size and below) are abundant in our Galaxy. However, little is known about their interiors and atmospheres. There is therefore a need to find small planets transiting bright stars, which would enable a detailed characterisation of this population of objects. We present the results of a search for the transit of the Earth-mass exoplanet Alpha Centauri Bb with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We observed Alpha Centauri B twice in 2013 and 2014 for a total of 40 hours. We achieve a precision of 115 ppm per 6-s exposure time in a highly-saturated regime, which is found to be consistent across HST orbits. We rule out the transiting nature of Alpha Centauri Bb with the orbital parameters published in the literature at 96.6% confidence. We find in our data a single transit-like event that could be associated to another Earth-size planet in the system, on a longer period orbit. Our program demonstrates the ability of HST to obtain consistent, hi...

  8. Body Mass Transitions Through Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Multistate Life Table Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Melanie K; Krueger, Patrick M; McCormick, Emily; Davidson, Arthur; Main, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is well documented, but prevalence estimates offer little insight into rates of transition to higher or lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) categories. We estimated the expected numbers of years children would live as normal weight, overweight, and obese by race/ethnicity and sex, given rates of transition across BMI status levels. We used multistate life table methods and transition rates estimated from prospective cohort data (2007-2013) for Denver, Colorado, public schoolchildren aged 3-15 years. At age 3 years, normal-weight children could expect to live 11.1 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, and obese children could expect to live 9.8 years with obese status. At age 3 years, overweight children could expect to live 4.5 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, 5.1 years with overweight status, and 3.4 years with obese status. Whites and Asians lived more years at lower BMI status levels than did blacks or Hispanics; sex differences varied by race/ethnicity. Children who were normal weight or obese at age 3 years were relatively unlikely to move into a different BMI category by age 15 years. Overweight children are relatively likely to transition to normal weight or obese status.

  9. Quantification of volume, mass, and density of thrombus formation using brightfield and differential interference contrast microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Groberg, Sandra M.; Phillips, Kevin G.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Flow chamber assays, in which blood is perfused over surfaces of immobilized extracellular matrix proteins, are used to investigate the formation of platelet thrombi and aggregates under shear flow conditions. Elucidating the dynamic response of thrombi/aggregate formation to different coagulation pathway perturbations in vitro has been used to develop an understanding of normal and pathological cardiovascular states. Current microscopy techniques, such as differential interference contrast (DIC) or fluorescent confocal imaging, respectively, do not provide a simple, quantitative understanding of the basic physical features (volume, mass, and density) of platelet thrombi/aggregate structures. The use of two label-free imaging techniques applied, for the first time, to platelet aggregate and thrombus formation are introduced: noninterferometric quantitative phase microscopy, to determine mass, and Hilbert transform DIC microscopy, to perform volume measurements. Together these techniques enable a quantitative biophysical characterization of platelet aggregates and thrombi formed on three surfaces: fibrillar collagen, fibrillar collagen +0.1 nM tissue factor (TF), and fibrillar collagen +1 nM TF. It is demonstrated that label-free imaging techniques provide quantitative insight into the mechanisms by which thrombi and aggregates are formed in response to exposure to different combinations of procoagulant agonists under shear flow.

  10. Finite-volume corrections to electromagnetic masses for larger-than-physical electric charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzelle, Matthew E.; Tiburzi, Brian C.

    2017-05-01

    The numerical value of the fine-structure constant generally leads to small isospin-breaking effects due to electromagnetism in QCD. This smallness complicates determining isospin breaking from lattice QCD computations that include electromagnetism. One solution to this problem consists of performing computations using larger-than-physical values of the electric charge, and subsequently extrapolating (or interpolating) to the physical value of the fine-structure constant. Motivated by recent lattice QCD +QED computations of electromagnetic masses employing this setup, we consider finite-volume effects arising from the use of larger-than-physical electric charges. A modified power-counting scheme, which is based on treating the fine-structure constant as larger than its physical value, is explored. Results for perturbative QED corrections, however, are surprising. Within the framework of nonrelativistic QED, multiloop diagrams exhibit a momentum factorization property that produces exact cancellations. We determine that power-law finite-volume effects vanish at the leading two- and three-loop order, as well as the next-to-leading two-loop order. For larger-than-physical charges, we consequently expect no appreciable volume corrections beyond leading-order QED.

  11. Revisiting rho 1 Cancri e: A New Mass Determination Of The Transiting super-Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D; MacQueen, Phillip J; Brugamyer, Erik J; Caldwell, Caroline; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Barnes, Stuart I; Gullikson, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We present a mass determination for the transiting super-Earth rho 1 Cancri e based on nearly 700 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. This extensive RV data set consists of data collected by the McDonald Observatory planet search and published data from Lick and Keck observatories (Fischer et al. 2008). We obtained 212 RV measurements with the Tull Coude Spectrograph at the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m Telescope and combined them with a new Doppler reduction of the 131 spectra that we have taken in 2003-2004 with the High-Resolution-Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) for the original discovery of rho 1 Cancri e. Using this large data set we obtain a 5-planet Keplerian orbital solution for the system and measure an RV semi-amplitude of K = 6.29 +/- 0.21 m/s for rho 1 Cnc e and determine a mass of 8.37 +/- 0.38 M_Earth. The uncertainty in mass is thus less than 5%. This planet was previously found to transit its parent star (Winn et al. 2011, Demory et al. 2011), which allowed them to estima...

  12. Effect of transitions in the Planck mass during inflation on primordial power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Millington, Peter; Vu, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of sudden transitions in the effective Planck mass during inflation on primordial power spectra. Specifically, we consider models in which this variation results from the non-minimal coupling of a Brans-Dicke type scalar field. We find that the scalar power spectra develop features at the scales corresponding to those leaving the horizon during the transition. In addition, we observe that the tensor perturbations are largely unaffected, so long as the variation of the Planck mass is below the percent level. Otherwise, the tensor power spectra exhibit damped oscillations over the same scales. Due to significant features in the scalar power spectra, the tensor-to-scalar ratio r shows variation over the corresponding scales. Thus, by studying the spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations, one can constrain sudden but small variations of the Planck mass during inflation. We illustrate these effects with a number of benchmark single- and two-field models. In addition, we comment on their ...

  13. MODEL-INDEPENDENT STELLAR AND PLANETARY MASSES FROM MULTI-TRANSITING EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montet, Benjamin T. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: btm@astro.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 170-25, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Precise exoplanet characterization requires precise classification of exoplanet host stars. The masses of host stars are commonly estimated by comparing their spectra to those predicted by stellar evolution models. However, spectroscopically determined properties are difficult to measure accurately for stars that are substantially different from the Sun, such as M-dwarfs and evolved stars. Here, we propose a new method to dynamically measure the masses of transiting planets near mean-motion resonances and their host stars by combining observations of transit timing variations with radial velocity (RV) measurements. We derive expressions to analytically determine the mass of each member of the system and demonstrate the technique on the Kepler-18 system. We compare these analytic results to numerical simulations and find that the two are consistent. We identify eight systems for which our technique could be applied if follow-up RV measurements are collected. We conclude that this analysis would be optimal for systems discovered by next-generation missions similar to TESS or PLATO, which will target bright stars that are amenable to efficient RV follow-up.

  14. Regime transition in electromechanical fluid atomization and implications to analyte ionization for mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2010-11-01

    The physical processes governing the transition from purely mechanical ejection to electromechanical ejection to electrospraying are investigated through complementary scaling analysis and optical visualization. Experimental characterization and visualization are performed with the ultrasonically-driven array of micromachined ultrasonic electrospray (AMUSE) ion source to decouple the electrical and mechanical fields. A new dimensionless parameter, the Fenn number, is introduced to define a transition between the spray regimes, in terms of its dependence on the characteristic Strouhal number for the ejection process. A fundamental relationship between the Fenn and Strouhal numbers is theoretically derived and confirmed experimentally in spraying liquid electrolytes of different ionic strength subjected to a varying magnitude electric field. This relationship and the basic understanding of the charged droplet generation physics have direct implications on the optimal ionization efficiency and mass spectrometric response for different types of analytes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  16. A Tale of Two Timescales: Mixing, Mass Generation, and Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R; Thomas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically --- such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions --- the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the tot...

  17. Planetary Radii across Five Orders of Magnitude in Mass and Stellar Insolation: Application to Transits

    CERN Document Server

    Fortney, J J; Barnes, J W; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Barnes, Jason W.

    2006-01-01

    To aid in the physical interpretation of planetary radii constrained through observations of transiting planets, or eventually direct detections, we compute model radii of pure hydrogen-helium, water, rock, and iron planets, along with various mixtures. Masses ranging from 0.01 Earth masses to 10 Jupiter masses at orbital distances of 0.02 to 10 AU are considered. For hydrogen-helium rich planets, our models are the first to couple planetary evolution to stellar irradiation over a wide range of orbital separations (0.02 to 10 AU) through a non-gray radiative-convective equilibrium atmosphere model. Stellar irradiation retards the contraction of giant planets, but its effect is not a simple function of the irradiation level: a planet at 1 AU contracts as slowly as a planet at 0.1 AU. For hydrogen-helium planets, we consider cores up to 90% of the total planet mass, comparable to those of Uranus and Neptune. If "hot Neptunes" have maintained their original masses and are not remnants of more massive planets, ra...

  18. Radiative transitions in charm-strange meson from Nf = 2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Ya-Jie

    2016-07-01

    We present an exploratory study on the radiative transition for the charm-strange meson: Ds∗→ D sγ using Nf = 2 twisted mass lattice quantum chromodynamics gauge configurations. The form factor for Ds meson is also determined. The simulation is performed on lattices with lattice spacings a = 0.067 fm and lattice size 323 × 64, and a = 0.085 fm and lattice size 243 × 48, respectively. Our numerical results for radiative decay width and the experimental data overlap within the margin of error.

  19. Fractionated Mercury Isotopes in Fish: The Effects of Nuclear Mass, Spin, and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R.; Odom, A. L.

    2007-12-01

    .3, and thus more than one mass-independent isotope effect is inferred. MIF of mercury can be caused by the nuclear volume effect. Schauble, 2007 has calculated nuclear volume fractionation scaling factors for a number of common mercury chemical species in equilibrium with Hg° vapor. From his calculations the nuclear field shift effect is larger in Δ199Hg than in Δ201Hg by approximately a factor of two. The predominant mercury chemical species in fish is methylmercury cysteine. From the experimental studies of Buchachenko and others (2004) on the reaction of methylmercury chloride with creatine kinase it seems reasonable to predicted that the thiol functional groups of cysteine gets enriched in 199Hg and 201Hg. Here the magnetic isotope effect (MIE) produces a kinetic partial separation of isotopes with non-zero nuclear spin quantum numbers from the even-N isotopes. The ratio of enrichment of Δ201Hg /Δ199Hg is predicted from theory to be 1.11, which is the ratio of the magnetic moments of 199Hg and 201Hg. Because mercury possesses two odd-N isotopes, it is possible to detect and evaluate the effects of two distinct, mass-independent isotope fractionating processes. From the data obtained on fish samples, we can deconvolute the contributions of the isotope effects of nuclear mass, spin and volume. For these samples the role of spin or the magnetic isotope effect is the most dominant.

  20. Mass-transit management: a handbook for small cities. Third edition, revised, February 1988. Part 2. Management and control. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smerk, G.M.; Henriksson, L.; McDaniel, K.; Perreault, R.; Stark, S.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of the revised handbook is to provide information for the management of mass transit in cities operating 101 buses or fewer. A modern, systematic approach to the management of transit firms was worked into the material to improve conventional practices of the transit industry. The small-cities handbook consists of 4 separate volumes/parts. Part 1: Goals, Support and Finance--includes chapters on establishing goals and objectives, understanding the consumer, gaining public support and action, institutionalizing transit as an integral part of the community, and financing transit. Part 2: Management and Control--focuses on management and the control and information devices needed for effective management. Part 3: Operations--covers important areas of day-to-day operations coordinated as the product element in the marketing mix. Part 4: Marketing--addresses promotional activities and the marketing program. The handbook promotes concepts such as results-oriented management, marketing, management-by-objectives. It provides recommendations for policy-making bodies as well as management.

  1. Mass-transit management: a handbook for small cities. Third edition, revised, February 1988. Part 1. Goals, support, and finance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smerk, G.M.; Henriksson, L.; McDaniel, K.; Perreault, P.; Stark, S.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of the revised handbook is to provide information for the management of mass transit in cities operating 101 buses or fewer. A modern, systematic approach to the management of transit firms was worked into the material to improve conventional practices of the transit industry. The small-cities handbook consists of 4 separate volumes/parts. Part 1: Goals, Support and Finance--includes chapters on establishing goals and objectives, understanding the consumer, gaining public support and action, institutionalizing transit as an integral part of the community, and financing transit. Part 2: Management and Control--focuses on management and the control and information devices needed for effective management. Part 3: Operations covers important areas of day-to-day operations coordinated as the product element in the marketing mix. Part 4: Marketing--addresses promotional activities and the marketing program. The handbook promotes concepts such as results-oriented management, marketing, management-by-objectives. It provides recommendations for policy-making bodies as well as management.

  2. Unexpected mass acquisition of Dirac fermions at the quantum phase transition of a topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Segawa, Kouji; Kosaka, K.; Souma, S.; Nakayama, K.; Eto, K.; Minami, T.; Ando, Yoichi; Takahashi, T.

    2011-11-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator is a novel quantum state of matter where an insulating bulk hosts a linearly dispersing surface state, which can be viewed as a sea of massless Dirac fermions protected by the time-reversal symmetry (TRS). Breaking the TRS by a magnetic order leads to the opening of a gap in the surface state, and consequently the Dirac fermions become massive. It has been proposed theoretically that such a mass acquisition is necessary to realize novel topological phenomena, but achieving a sufficiently large mass is an experimental challenge. Here we report an unexpected discovery that the surface Dirac fermions in a solid-solution system TlBi(S1-xSex)2 acquire a mass without explicitly breaking the TRS. We found that this system goes through a quantum phase transition from the topological to the non-topological phase, and, by tracing the evolution of the electronic states using the angle-resolved photoemission, we observed that the massless Dirac state in TlBiSe2 switches to a massive state before it disappears in the non-topological phase. This result suggests the existence of a condensed-matter version of the `Higgs mechanism' where particles acquire a mass through spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  3. Estimating subsurface water volumes and transit times in Hokkaido river catchments, Japan, using high-accuracy tritium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, Maksym; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate subsurface water transit times and volumes in headwater catchments of Hokkaido, Japan, using the New Zealand high-accuracy tritium analysis technique. Transit time provides insights into the subsurface water storage and therefore provides a robust and quick approach to quantifying the subsurface groundwater volume. Our method is based on tritium measurements in river water. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface after the water enters the groundwater system. Therefore, tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses and can provide information on mean water transit times up to 200 years. Only in recent years has it become possible to use tritium for dating of stream and river water, due to the fading impact of the bomb-tritium from thermo-nuclear weapons testing, and due to improved measurement accuracy for the extremely low natural tritium concentrations. Transit time of the water discharge is one of the most crucial parameters for understanding the response of catchments and estimating subsurface water volume. While many tritium transit time studies have been conducted in New Zealand, only a limited number of tritium studies have been conducted in Japan. In addition, the meteorological, orographic and geological conditions of Hokkaido Island are similar to those in parts of New Zealand, allowing for comparison between these regions. In 2014, three field trips were conducted in Hokkaido in June, July and October to sample river water at river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations have altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL and drainage areas between 45 and 377 km2. Each sampled point is located upstream of MLIT dams, with hourly measurements of precipitation and river water levels enabling us to distinguish between the snow melt and baseflow contributions

  4. Precise Masses in the WASP-47 Multi-Transiting Hot Jupiter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette; Buchhave, Lars A.; Mortier, Annelies; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; HARPS-N Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    We present precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47, a star known to host a hot Jupiter, a distant Jovian companion, and, uniquely, two additional transiting planets in short-period orbits: a super-Earth in a 19 hour orbit, and a Neptune in a 9 day orbit. We combine our observations, collected with the HARPS-N spectrograph, with previously published data to measure the most precise planet masses yet for this system. When combined with new stellar parameters (from analysis of the HARPS-N spectra) and a reanalysis of the transit photometry, our mass measurements yield strong constraints on the small planets’ compositions. Finally, we probabilistically constrain the orbital inclination of the outer Jovian planet through a dynamical analysis that requires the system reproduce its observed parameters.This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program. HARPS-N was funded by the Swiss Space Office, the Harvard Origin of Life Initiative, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the University of Geneva, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Italian National Astrophysical Institute, the University of St. Andrews, Queens University Belfast, and the University of Edinburgh.

  5. Transitional Disks Associated With Intermediate-Mass Stars in the SEEDS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Consortium, SEEDS

    2014-01-01

    The Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) survey has included observations of a number of disks associated with intermediate mass stars. Protoplanetary disks in the survey have polarized intensity images showing the expected depolarization along the disk major axis, if observed when the NIR excess is low, and can be non-detections if the excess is in a high state, resulting in shadowing of the disk. A focus of our survey is Meeus group I Herbig star disks, which have been proposed to be transitional and pre-transitional disks associated with intermediate-mass stars, rather than flared, protoplanetary disks. We find disks with evidence for partially cleared gaps, as well as disks with polarization divots, cleared annuli and/or shadows, partial shadowing of the outer disk, and spiral arms. Some disks have several of these features. We discuss our survey results in terms of spiral arm theory, dust trapping vortices, and the extent to which spiral arm detections are linked to large relative disk scale heights. Grady is supported under NSF AST 1008440 and through the NASA Origins of Solar Systems program on NNG13PB64P.

  6. Mobility Innovation Through a Combined System of Rapid Mass Transit and Bike Rental in Shanghai Suburbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Residents of the Shanghai suburbs find it hard to access transportation. This paper begins by introducing the context and features of the bike-rental rental system, and then describes the innovative mobility project combining Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and a public bike rental system jointly established and run by the Forever Group and local government through a PPP model. The project, which has many technical patents, is headed by Forever Group and run in cooperation with local government, providing bottom-up popularization and development of bike-rental services in the areas surrounding the main rail transit stations. On the basis of a case study on Minhang District and a questionnaire, the paper further demonstrates that the bike rental system improves travel conditions for residents of the suburbs, expands the effective service radius around the rail transit stations and provides possibilities for more wide-ranging restructuring of land-use, which will help to balance the unidirectional tidal flow of transportation.

  7. Identification of new transitions and mass assignments of levels in $^{143-153}$Pr

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, E H; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V; Hwang, J K; Eldridge, J M; Navin, A; Rejmund, M; Bhattacharyya, S; Liu, S H; Brewer, N T; Luo, Y X; Rasmussen, J O; Liu, H L; Zhou, H; Liu, Y X; Li, H J; Sun, Y; Xu, F R; Zhu, S J; Ter-Akopian, G M; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Caamaño, M; Clément, E; Delaune, O; Farget, F; de France, G; Jacquot, B

    2015-01-01

    The previously reported levels assigned to 151,152,153Pr have recently been called into question regarding their mass assignment. The above questioned level assignments are clarified by measuring g-transitions tagged with A and Z in an in-beam experiment in addition to the measurements from 252Cf spontaneous fission (SF) and establish new spectroscopic information from $N=84$ to $N=94$ in the Pr isotopic chain. The isotopic chain 143-153Pr has been studied from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf by using Gammasphere and also from the measurement of the prompt g-rays in coincidence with isotopically-identified fission fragments using VAMOS++ and EXOGAM at GANIL. The latter were produced using 238U beams on a 9Be target at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The g-g-g-g data from 252Cf (SF) and those from the GANIL in-beam A- and Z-gated spectra were combined to unambiguously assign the various transitions and levels in 151,152,153Pr and other isotopes. New transitions and bands in 145,147,148,149,150Pr were ide...

  8. Transiting Planets with LSST II. Period Detection of Planets Orbiting 1 Solar Mass Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Jacklin, Savannah R; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will photometrically monitor ~1 billion stars for ten years. The resulting light curves can be used to detect transiting exoplanets. In particular, as demonstrated by Lund et al. (2015), LSST will probe stellar populations currently undersampled in most exoplanet transit surveys, including out to extragalactic distances. In this paper we test the efficiency of the box-fitting least-squares (BLS) algorithm for accurately recovering the periods of transiting exoplanets using simulated LSST data. We model planets with a range of radii orbiting a solar-mass star at a distance of 7 kpc, with orbital periods ranging from 0.5 to 20 d. We find that typical LSST observations will be able to reliably detect Hot Jupiters with periods shorter than ~3 d. At the same time, we find that the LSST deep drilling cadence is extremely powerful: the BLS algorithm successfully recovers at least 30% of sub-Saturn-size exoplanets with orbital periods as long as 20 d.

  9. Automatic extraction of myocardial mass and volumes using parametric images from dynamic non-gated PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Hansson, Nils Henrik Stubkjær; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen;

    2016-01-01

    -gated dynamic cardiac PET. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with aortic-valve stenosis and 10 healthy controls (HC) underwent a 27-min 11C-acetate PET/CT scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). HC were scanned twice to assess repeatability. Parametric images of uptake rate K1 and the blood pool were......LV and WT only and an overestimation for LVEF at lower values. Intra- and inter-observer correlations were >0.95 for all PET measurements. PET repeatability accuracy in HC was comparable to CMR. CONCLUSION: LV mass and volumes are accurately and automatically generated from dynamic 11C-acetate PET without...... ECG-gating. This method can be incorporated in a standard routine without any additional workload and can, in theory, be extended to other PET tracers....

  10. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of different volumes and masses of ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Bruno Salome; Cruvinel, Marcos Guilherme Cunha; Carneiro, Fabiano Soares; Lago, Flavio; Silva, Yerkes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of posterior brachial plexus block for shoulder surgeries is demonstrated by different authors. However, there is no consensus on the ideal mass and volume of local anesthetic to be employed. The objetive of this study was to compare different volumes and masses of ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block in arthroscopic surgeries of the shoulder. Sixty patients > 18 years, physical status ASA I and II, scheduled for unilateral arthroscopic surgeries of the shoulder were randomly placed in three groups: A (10 mL to 0.5%), B (20 mL to 0.5%), C (5 mL to 1%). The block was performed with a 22G needle of 100 mm connected to neurostimulator, in a point 3 cm lateral to the midpoint of C6 and C7 interspace, being injected the solution corresponding to each group. The postoperative pain was evaluated at the recovery room and within the first 24 hours of the postoperative period. The groups were compared on length of time until the first complaint of pain, visual numeric scale (VNS) score and morphine consumption within the first 24 hours. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups related to age, weight and height. There was no difference in length of time until the first complaint of pain, VNS scores over three and morphine consumption in the postoperative period between the groups. This study concluded that 5 mL of 1% ropivacaine promoted analgesic efficacy similar to 10 mL or 20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine in the posterior brachial plexus block using neurostimulator. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste assay and mass balance for the decontamination and volume reduction system at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Garner, Scott E.; Romero, Mike J.; Christensen, Davis V.; Bustos, Roland M.

    2003-07-01

    The Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) operated by the Solid Waste Operations (SWO) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) processes large volume, legacy radioactive waste items. Waste boxes, in sizes varying from 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft to 10 ft x 12 ft x 40 ft, are assayed prior to entry into the processing building. Inside the building, the waste items are removed from their container, decontaminated and/or size reduced if necessary, and repackaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or on-site low-level waste disposal. The repackaged items and any secondary waste produced (e.g., personal protective equipment) are assayed again at the end of the process and a mass balance is done to determine whether there is any significant hold-up material left in the DVRS building. The DVRS building is currently classed as a radiological facility, with a building limit of 0.52 Ci of Pu239 and Am241, and 0.62 Ci of Pu238, the most common radionuclides processed. This requires tight controls on the flow of nuclear material. The large volume of the initial waste packages, the (relatively) small amounts of radioactive material in them, and the tight ceiling on the building inventory require accurate field measurements of the nuclear material. This paper describes the radioactive waste measurement techniques, the computer modeling used to determine the amount of nuclear material present in a waste package, the building inventory database, and the DVRS process itself. Future plans include raising the limit on the nuclear material inventory allowed in the building to accommodate higher activity waste packages. All DOE sites performing decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive process equipment face challenges related to waste assay and inventory issues. This paper describes an ongoing operation, incorporating lessons learned over the life of the project to date.

  12. Detection of Labile Low-Molecular-Mass Transition Metal Complexes in Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sean P.; Moore, Michael J.; Lindahl, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography was used with an on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to detect low-molecular-mass (LMM) transition metal complexes in mitochondria isolated from fermenting yeast cells, human Jurkat cells, and mouse brain and liver. These complexes constituted 20 – 40% of total mitochondrial Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu ions. The major LMM Mn complex in yeast mitochondria had a mass of ca. 1100 Da and a concentration of ~ 2 μM. Mammalian mitochondria contained a second Mn species with a mass of ca. 2000 Da at a comparable concentration. The major Fe complex in mitochondria isolated from exponentially growing yeast cells had a mass of ca. 580 Da; the concentration of Fe580 in mitochondria was ca. 100 μM. When mitochondria were isolated from fermenting cells in post-exponential phase, the mass of the dominant LMM Fe complex was ca. 1100 Da. Upon incubation, the intensity of Fe1100 declined and Fe580 increased, suggesting that the two are interrelated. Mammalian mitochondria contained Fe580 and 2 other Fe species (Fe2000 and Fe1100) at concentrations of ca. 50 μM each. The dominant LMM Zn species in mitochondria had a mass of ca. 1200 Da and a concentration of ca. 110 μM. Mammalian mitochondria contained a second major LMM Zn species at 1500 Da. The dominant LMM Cu species in yeast mitochondria had a mass of ca. 5000 Da and a concentration in yeast mitochondria of ca. 16 μM; Cu5000 was not observed in mammalian mitochondria. The dominant Co species in mitochondria, Co1200, had a concentration of 20 nM and was probably a cobalamin. Mammalian but not yeast mitochondria contained a LMM Mo species, Mo730, at ca. 1 μM concentration. Increasing Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations 10 fold in the medium increased the concentration of the same element in the corresponding isolated mitochondria. Treatment with metal chelators confirmed that these LMM species were labile. The dominant S species at 1100 Da was not free GSH or GSSG. PMID:26018429

  13. SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BOMASS PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2004-05-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2004 to December 31, 2004 which covers the first six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, supply requests were processed and supplies including biomass test particles (hardwood sawdust AI14546) in the size range of 100-200 microns were obtained from a cofiring pilot plant research facility owned by Southern Company, Birmingham, AL. Morehouse has completed setting up of the gravimetric technique measurement system in the heat transfer laboratory, department of physics and dual degree engineering, Morehouse College. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has completed setting up of the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system to characterize shape and mass for individual biomass particles. Testing of the gravimetric system, and calibration of the cameras and imaging systems using known sizes of polystyrene particles are in progress.

  14. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    CERN Document Server

    Chonis, Taylor S; Hill, Gary J; Clemens, J Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E; Adams, Joshua J; Marshall, J L; DePoy, D L; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350-550 nm. Including witness samples, a suite of 170 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wav...

  15. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

  16. Calcium isolation from large-volume human urine samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-08-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for (41)Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after (41)Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide (41)Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background.

  17. Calcium Isolation from Large-Volume Human Urine Samples for 41Ca Analysis by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after 41Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide 41Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background. PMID:23672965

  18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of rufinamide in low volume plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáll, Zsolt; Vancea, Szende; Dogaru, Maria T; Szilágyi, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of rufinamide in plasma was achieved using a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase column (Zorbax SB-C18 100mm×3mm, 3.5μm) under isocratic conditions. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of water containing 0.1% formic acid and methanol (50:50, v/v). The mass spectrometric detection of the analyte was in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) using an electrospray positive ionization (ESI positive). The monitored ions were 127m/z derived from 239m/z rufinamide and 108m/z derived from 251m/z the internal standard (lacosamide). Protein precipitation with methanol was applied for sample preparation using only 50μl aliquots. The concentration range was 40-2000ng/ml for rufinamide in plasma. The limit of detection was 1.25ng/ml and the lower limit of quantification was established at 5ng/ml rufinamide concentration. Selectivity and matrix effect was verified using individual human, rat and rabbit plasma samples. Short-term, post-preparative and freeze-thaw stability was also investigated. The proposed method provides accuracy, precision and high-throughput (short runtime 4.5min) for quantitative determination of rufinamide in plasma. This is the first reported liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for analysis of rufinamide from low volume plasma samples. The LC-MS/MS method was validated according to the current official guidelines and can be applied to accurately measure rufinamide level of large number of plasma samples from clinical studies or therapeutic drug monitoring.

  19. Finite-volume effects in the evaluation of the K_L - K_S mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, N H; Sachrajda, C T

    2014-01-01

    The RBC and UKQCD collaborations have recently proposed a procedure for computing the K_L-K_S mass difference. A necessary ingredient of this procedure is the calculation of the (non-exponential) finite-volume corrections relating the results obtained on a finite lattice to the physical values. This requires a significant extension of the techniques which were used to obtain the Lellouch-Luscher factor, which contains the finite-volume corrections in the evaluation of non-leptonic kaon decay amplitudes. We review the status of our study of this issue and, although a complete proof is still being developed, suggest the form of these corrections for general volumes and a strategy for taking the infinite-volume limit. The general result reduces to the known corrections in the special case when the volume is tuned so that there is a two-pion state degenerate with the kaon.

  20. Mechanism-based model of a mass rapid transit system: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Khoon, Lee Kee; Guang, Hung Gih; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our findings on the spatiotemporal dynamics within the mass rapid transit (MRT) system of Singapore. We show that the trip distribution of Origin-Destination (OD) station pairs follows a power-law, implying the existence of critical OD pairs. We then present and discuss the empirically validated agent-based model (ABM) we have developed. The model allows recreation of the observed statistics and the setting up of various scenarios and their effects on the system, such as increasing the commuter population and the propagation of travel delays within the transportation network. The proposed model further enables identification of bottlenecks that can cause the MRT to break down, and consequently provide foresight on how such disruptions can possibly be managed. This can potentially provide a versatile approach for transport planners and government regulators to make quantifiable policies that optimally balance cost and convenience as a function of the number of the commuting public.

  1. Dark Matter and Strong Electroweak Phase Transition in a Radiative Neutrino Mass Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ahriche, Amine

    2013-01-01

    We consider an extension of the standard model (SM) with charged singlet scalars and right handed (RH) neutrinos all at the electroweak scale. In this model, the neutrino masses are generated at three loops, which provide an explanation for their smallness, and the lightest RH neutrino, $N_{1}$, is a dark matter candidate. We find that for three generations of RH neutrinos, the model can be consistent with the neutrino oscillation data, lepton flavor violating processes, $N_{1}$ can have a relic density in agreement with the recent Planck data, and the electroweak phase transition can be strongly first order. We also show that the charged scalars may enhance the branching ratio $h-->YY$, where as $h-->YZ$ get can get few percent suppression. We also discuss the phenomenological implications of the RH neutrinos at the collider.

  2. Search for light curve modulations among Kepler candidates. Three very low-mass transiting companions

    CERN Document Server

    Lillo-Box, J; Barrado, D; Merín, B; Bouy, H

    2016-01-01

    Light curve modulations in the sample of Kepler planet candidates allows the disentangling of the nature of the transiting object by photometrically measuring its mass. This is possible by detecting the effects of the gravitational pull of the companion (ellipsoidal modulations) and in some cases, the photometric imprints of the Doppler effect when observing in a broad band (Doppler beaming). We aim to photometrically unveil the nature of some transiting objects showing clear modulations in the phase-folded Kepler light curve. We selected a subsample among the large crop of Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) based on their chances to show detectable light curve modulations, i.e., close ($a<12~R_{\\star}$) and large (in terms of radius) candidates. We modeled their phase-folded light curves with consistent equations for the three effects, namely, reflection, ellipsoidal and beaming (known as REB modulations). We provide detailed general equations for the fit of the REB modulations for the case of eccentric or...

  3. Transition of the Stellar Initial Mass Function Explored with Binary Population Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Suda, Takuma; Yamada, Shimako; Katsuta, Yutaka; Aoki, Wako; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Doherty, Carolyn L; Campbell, Simon W; Wood, Peter R; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2013-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) plays a crucial role in determining the number of surviving stars in galaxies, the chemical composition of the interstellar medium, and the distribution of light in galaxies. A key unsolved question is whether the IMF is universal in time and space. Here we use state-of-the-art results of stellar evolution to show that the IMF of our Galaxy made a transition from an IMF dominated by massive stars to the present-day IMF at an early phase of the Galaxy formation. Updated results from stellar evolution in a wide range of metallicities have been implemented in a binary population synthesis code, and compared with the observations of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in our Galaxy. We find that applying the present-day IMF to Galactic halo stars causes serious contradictions with four observable quantities connected with the evolution of AGB stars. Furthermore, a comparison between our calculations and the observations of CEMP stars may help us to constrain the transit...

  4. Glass Transition Temperature- and Specific Volume- Composition Models for Tellurite Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report provides models for predicting composition-properties for tellurite glasses, namely specific gravity and glass transition temperature. Included are the partial specific coefficients for each model, the component validity ranges, and model fit parameters.

  5. Thermodynamics of rotating black holes and black rings: phase transitions and thermodynamic volume

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B; Sherkatghanad, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    In this review we summarize, expand, and set in context recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. We specifically consider the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional rotating asymptotically flat and AdS black holes and black rings in a canonical (fixed angular momentum) ensemble. We plot the associated thermodynamic potential-the Gibbs free energy-and study its behaviour to uncover possible thermodynamic phase transitions in these black hole spacetimes. We show that the multiply-rotating Kerr-AdS black holes exhibit a rich set of interesting thermodynamic phenomena analogous to the "every day thermodynamics" of simple substances, such as reentrant phase transitions of multicomponent liquids, multiple first-order solid/liquid/gas phase transitions, and liquid/gas phase transitions of the Van der Waals type. Furthermore, the reentrant phase tran...

  6. A parallax distance and mass estimate for the transitional millisecond pulsar system J1023+0038

    CERN Document Server

    Deller, A T; Brisken, W F; Chatterjee, S; Janssen, G H; Kaspi, V M; Lorimer, D; Lyne, A G; McLaughlin, M A; Ransom, S; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B

    2012-01-01

    The recently discovered transitional millisecond pulsar system J1023+0038 exposes a crucial evolutionary phase of recycled neutron stars for multiwavelength study. The system, comprising the neutron star itself, its stellar companion, and the surrounding medium, is visible across the electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to X-ray/gamma-ray regimes and offers insight into the recycling phase of millisecond pulsar evolution. Here, we report on multiple-epoch astrometric observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) which give a system parallax of 0.731 +/- 0.022 milliarcseconds (mas) and a proper motion of 17.98 +/- 0.05 mas/yr. By combining our results with previous optical observations, we are able to use the parallax distance of 1368+42-39 pc to estimate the mass of the pulsar as 1.71 +/- 0.16 solar masses, and we are also able to measure the 3D space velocity of the system as 126 +/- 5 km/s. Despite the precise nature of the VLBA measurements, the remaining ~3% distance uncertainty dominates the 0...

  7. Building generalized tree mass/volume component models for improved estimation of forest stocks and utilization potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. MacFarlane

    2015-01-01

    Accurately assessing forest biomass potential is contingent upon having accurate tree biomass models to translate data from forest inventories. Building generality into these models is especially important when they are to be applied over large spatial domains, such as regional, national and international scales. Here, new, generalized whole-tree mass / volume...

  8. Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, ash-free dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project from 1978-07-25 to 1978-09-12 by France (NODC Accession 0070783)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, and ashfree dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project in Jul - Sep 1978 by...

  9. Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT/Weapon of Mass Destruction Incident. Volumes 1 and 2 (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    consistent with wind patterns or ventilation. Blisters / rashes Numerous individuals experiencing unex- plained blisters, bee sting like weals, and/ or...Radiological Incident 5 Volume II of II V1.1 2013 Indicators Description Unusual number of sick or dying people ani- mals Delayed symptoms dependent on

  10. A formula to compute the microcanonical volume of reactive initial conditions in transition state theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens, H.; Burbanks, A.; Wiggins, S.

    2005-01-01

    We present the formal proof of a procedure to compute the phase-space volume of initial conditions for trajectories that, for a constant energy, escape or ‘react’ from a multi-dimensional potential well with one or several exit/entrance channels. The procedure relies on a phase-space formulation of

  11. A formula to compute the microcanonical volume of reactive initial conditions in transition state theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens, H.; Burbanks, A.; Wiggins, S.

    2005-01-01

    We present the formal proof of a procedure to compute the phase-space volume of initial conditions for trajectories that, for a constant energy, escape or ‘react’ from a multi-dimensional potential well with one or several exit/entrance channels. The procedure relies on a phase-space formulation of

  12. Investigation of spin-reorientation phase transitions at surface and in volume of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 monocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kamzin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic structure of the surface layer and volume and the processes, observed by the spin-reorientation phase transition (SRPT), are studied in the direct comparison of the properties of the thin surface layer and the volume of the hematite (alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3) macroscopic crystals. The method of simultaneous gamma, X-ray and electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was used in the studies. The direct data on the existence of the transition layer on the hematite crystals surface are obtained. It is established, that the Morin-type SRPT in the sample volume occurs by a jump (the first-order phase transition). The SRPT in the surface layer as well as in the crystal volume is accompanied by formation of the intermediate state, wherein the low- and high-temperature phases coexist. The obtained experimental data on the SRPT mechanism in the surface layer agree well with the conclusions of the phenomenological theory

  13. Experience of ENEA in measuring volume and/or mass of input solutions needs for further R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionisi, M.

    1992-05-01

    Solution volume and mass measurements are an essential component of any system to control and account for nuclear materials that are processed or stored in a liquid medium, both from the operators and the safeguards authorities points of view. ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) engaged a comprehensive R&D programme and, in cooperation with national and international organizations, undertook theoretical and experimental studies on tank volume calibration and measurements in order to fill the recognized technological gap. The ENEA activities included: theoretical and experimental studies; development of an improved time domain reflectometer system for solution level measurement in an accountability tank; in-field testing of tracer techniques for volume and mass determination in accountability tanks. This report presents the experience of ENEA in the field of R&D on solution volume and mass determination; gives impressions and judgements over the state-of-the-art and of practice of these measurements; and provides suggestions on what could and/or must be improved, indicating further R&D activities.

  14. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  15. WASP-34b: a near-grazing transiting sub-Jupiter-mass exoplanet in a hierarchical triple system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hellier, C.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; West, R. G.; Bentley, S. J.; Enoch, B.; Gillon, M.; Lister, T. A.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Udry, S.; Wheatley, P. J.; Wood, P. L.; Bento, J.

    2011-02-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-34b, a sub-Jupiter-mass exoplanet transiting its 10.4-magnitude solar-type host star (1SWASP J110135.89-235138.4; TYC 6636-540-1) every 4.3177 days in a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.038±0.012). We find a planetary mass of 0.59±0.01 MJup and radius of 1.22-0.08+0.11 RJup. There is a linear trend in the radial velocities of 55±4 m s-1 y-1 indicating the presence of a long-period third body in the system with a mass ⪆0.45 MJup at a distance of ⪆1.2 AU from the host star. This third-body is either a low-mass star, a white dwarf, or another planet. The transit depth ((RP/Rstar)2 = 0.0126) and high impact parameter (b = 0.90) suggest that this could be the first known transiting exoplanet expected to undergo grazing transits, but with a confidence of only 80%. Radial velocity and photometric data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/526/A130

  16. WASP-34b: a near-grazing transiting sub-Jupiter-mass exoplanet in a hierarchical triple system

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Cameron, A Collier; Hellier, C; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Gillon, M; Lister, T A; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Segransan, D; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J; Wood, P L; Bento, J

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-34b, a sub-Jupiter-mass exoplanet transiting its 10.4-magnitude solar-type host star (1SWASP J110135.89-235138.4; TYC 6636-540-1) every 4.3177 days in a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.038 +/- 0.012). We find a planetary mass of 0.59 +/- 0.01 M_Jup and radius of 1.22 ^{+0.11}_{-0.08} R_Jup. There is a linear trend in the radial velocities of 55+/-4 m/s/y indicating the presence of a long-period third body in the system with a mass > 0.45 M_Jup at a distance of >1.2 AU from the host star. This third-body is either a low-mass star, white dwarf, or another planet. The transit depth ((R_P/R_*)^2 = 0.0126) and high impact parameter (b = 0.90) suggest that this could be the first known transiting exoplanet expected to undergo grazing transits, but with a confidence of only ~80%.

  17. Species, diaspore volume and body mass matter in gastropod seed feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Türke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seed dispersal of ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores is a well studied ecosystem function. Recently, slugs have been found to act as seed dispersers of myrmecochores. The aim of our study was to (1 further generalize the finding that gastropods feed on seeds of myrmecochores and hence may act as seed dispersers, (2 to test whether gastropod body mass and the volume of diaspores have an influence on the seed dispersal potential. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the seed dispersal potential of four slug and snail species with a set of seven myrmecochorous plant species from seven different plant families common to Central European beech forests. Diaspores differed in shape and size. Gastropods differed in their readiness to feed on diaspores and in the proportion of seeds that were swallowed as a whole, and this readiness generally decreased with increasing diaspore size. Smaller Arionid slugs (58 mm body length; mean mostly fed on the elaiosome but also swallowed small diaspores and therefore not only act as elaiosome consumers, a nutrient rich appendage on myrmecochorous diaspores, but may also disperse seeds. Large Arionid slugs (>100 mm body length swallowed diaspores of all sizes. Diaspores swallowed by gastropods were defecated without damage. Within-species variability in body size also affect seed dispersal potential, as larger individuals of the red slug (Arion rufus swallowed more diaspores of wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa than smaller ones. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results help to generalize the finding that gastropods consume and potentially disperse seeds of myrmecochores. The dispersal potential of gastropods is strongly influenced by diaspore size in relation to gastropod size.

  18. A volume-amending method to improve mass conservation of level set approach for incompressible two-phase flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XiangYang; WANG YueFa; YU GengZhi; YANG Chao; MAO ZaiSha

    2008-01-01

    A volume-amending method is developed both to keep the level set function as an algebraic distance function and to preserve the bubble mass in a level set approach for incompressible two-phase flows with the significantly deformed free interface. After the traditional reinitialization procedure, a vol-ume-amending method is added for correcting the position of the interface according to mass loss/gain error until the mass error falls in the allowable range designated in advance. The level set approach with this volume-amending method incorporated has been validated by three test cases: the motion of a single axisymmetrical bubble or drop in liquid, the motion of a two-dimensional water drop falling through the air into a water pool, and the interactional motion of two buoyancy-driven three-dimensional deformable bubbles. The computational results with this volume-amending method in-corporated are in good agreement with the reported experimental data and the mass is well preserved in all cases.

  19. A volume-amending method to improve mass conservation of level set approach for incompressible two-phase flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A volume-amending method is developed both to keep the level set function as an algebraic distance function and to preserve the bubble mass in a level set approach for incompressible two-phase flows with the significantly deformed free interface. After the traditional reinitialization procedure, a vol-ume-amending method is added for correcting the position of the interface according to mass loss/gain error until the mass error falls in the allowable range designated in advance. The level set approach with this volume-amending method incorporated has been validated by three test cases: the motion of a single axisymmetrical bubble or drop in liquid, the motion of a two-dimensional water drop falling through the air into a water pool, and the interactional motion of two buoyancy-driven three- dimensional deformable bubbles. The computational results with this volume-amending method in-corporated are in good agreement with the reported experimental data and the mass is well preserved in all cases.

  20. Improving the Traffic Model to Be Used in the Optimisation of Mass Transit System Electrical Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro J. López-López

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the different approaches for minimising the energy consumption of mass transit systems (MTSs, a common concern for MTS operators is the improvement of the electrical infrastructure. The traffic on the lines under analysis is one of the most important inputs to the studies devoted to improving MTS infrastructure, since it represents where and how frequently it is possible to save energy. However, on the one hand, MTS electrical studies usually simplify the traffic model, which may lead to a misrepresentation of the energy interactions between trains. On the other hand, if the stochastic traffic is rigorously modelled, the size of the simulation problem could grow excessively, which in turn could make the time to obtain results unmanageable. To cope with this issue, this paper presents a method to obtain a reduced-size set of representative scenarios. Firstly, a traffic model including the most representative stochastic traffic variables is developed. Secondly, a function highly correlated with energy savings is proposed to make it possible to properly characterise the traffic scenarios. Finally, this function is used to select the most representative scenarios. The representative scenario set obtained by the application of this method is shown to be sufficiently accurate with a limited number of scenarios. The traffic approach in this paper improves the accuracy with respect to the usual traffic approach used in the literature.

  1. $W$ mass measurement and simulation of the transition radiation tracker at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2008-01-01

    At the time of writing, the final preparation toward LHC startup is ongoing. All the magnets of the machine have been installed and are currently being cooled. Most sub-detectors of the four experiments situated at the LHC ring are installed in their final positions and are being integrated into their respective data acquisition systems. This thesis concerns itself with the ATLAS experiment, focusing on a sub-detector called the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). Some attention is given to the hardware testing of the detector modules, but the main focus lies on the simulation of the detector and the comparison of the simulation with test-beam data, as well as with data collected during the commissioning phase using cosmic muons. There is little doubt that LHC will bring insight with respect to the understanding of the universe on the fundamental level. In particular, it is anticipated that light will be shed on the origin of mass which according to our current understanding proceeds via the Higgs mechanism. ...

  2. Urban Air Pollution in Taiwan before and after the Installation of a Mass Rapid Transit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pei-Hsiou; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Bing-Yu; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated. Air pollutant concentrations and meteorology data were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) air monitoring stations and Central Weather Bureau stations in the surveyed areas, respectively. Analyses indicate that levels of air pollution in metropolitan areas were greater than in the rural area. Kaohsiung City had the highest levels of O, SO, and particulate matter 2.5 or 10 µm in diameter (PM and PM). Clear downward trends for CO, NO, PM, PM, and especially SO concentrations were found in the surveyed areas, whereas O showed no decrease. Both O and PM concentrations showed similar bimodal seasonal distributions. Taiwan's air quality has improved significantly since 1993, indicating the effectiveness of promoting air pollution strategies and policies by the TEPA. Air pollution had an obvious improvement in Taipei area after the MRT system began operations in 1996. Because global climate may potentially affect urban air pollution in Taiwan, further study to clarify the mechanisms by which air pollution may affect human health and other biological effects is warranted.

  3. Longitudinal Study of Body Mass Index in Young Males and the Transition to Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F.; Duncan, Greg; Gutina, Anna; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W.; Adam, Emma K.; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing understanding that the social determinants of health have an impact on body mass index (BMI), the role of fatherhood on young men’s BMI is understudied. This longitudinal study examines BMI in young men over time as they transition from adolescence into fatherhood in a nationally representative sample. Data from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health supported a 20-year longitudinal analysis of 10,253 men beginning in 1994. A “fatherhood-year” data set was created and changes in BMI were examined based on fatherhood status (nonfather, nonresident father, resident father), fatherhood years, and covariates. Though age is positively associated with BMI over all years for all men, comparing nonresident and resident fathers with nonfathers reveals different trajectories based on fatherhood status. Entrance into fatherhood is associated with an increase in BMI trajectory for both nonresident and resident fathers, while nonfathers exhibit a decrease over the same period. In this longitudinal, population-based study, fatherhood and residence status play a role in men’s BMI. Designing obesity prevention interventions for young men that begin in adolescence and carry through young adulthood should target the distinctive needs of these populations, potentially improving their health outcomes. PMID:26198724

  4. HAT-P-26b: A Low-density Neptune-mass Planet Transiting a K Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Kovács, G.; Noyes, R. W.; Latham, D. W.; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Isaacson, H.; Quinn, S. N.; Buchhave, L. A.; Béky, B.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Everett, M.; Perumpilly, G.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2011-02-01

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-26b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V = 11.744 K1 dwarf star GSC 0320-01027, with a period P = 4.234516 ± 0.000015 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455304.65122 ± 0.00035 (BJD; Barycentric Julian dates throughout the paper are calculated from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and transit duration 0.1023 ± 0.0010 days. The host star has a mass of 0.82 ± 0.03 M sun, radius of 0.79+0.10 -0.04 R sun, effective temperature 5079 ± 88 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.04 ± 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.059 ± 0.007 M J, and radius of 0.565+0.072 -0.032 R J yielding a mean density of 0.40 ± 0.10 g cm-3. HAT-P-26b is the fourth Neptune-mass transiting planet discovered to date. It has a mass that is comparable to those of Neptune and Uranus, and slightly smaller than those of the other transiting Super-Neptunes, but a radius that is ~65% larger than those of Neptune and Uranus, and also larger than those of the other transiting Super-Neptunes. HAT-P-26b is consistent with theoretical models of an irradiated Neptune-mass planet with a 10 M ⊕ heavy element core that comprises gsim50% of its mass with the remainder contained in a significant hydrogen-helium envelope, though the exact composition is uncertain as there are significant differences between various theoretical models at the Neptune-mass regime. The equatorial declination of the star makes it easily accessible to both Northern and Southern ground-based facilities for follow-up observations. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NASA (N018Hr and N167Hr).

  5. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  6. Correlation functions between specific volume and stoichiometry for transition metal nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, G. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Ap. Postal 2681, 22800 Ensenada B. C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gerardo@ccmc.unam.mx; Aparicio, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Ap. Postal 2681, 22800 Ensenada B. C. (Mexico); Avalos-Borja, M. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Ap. Postal 2681, 22800 Ensenada B. C. (Mexico)

    2005-03-08

    A methodology is proposed to correlate the structural aspects of transition metal nitrides (TMN) to the stoichiometric ratio: x = [N]/[M]. The method is based on a numeric figure, {upsilon}, given by the difference between the atomic concentrations of nitride and parent metal normalized to the atomic concentration of parent metal. Numerical regression is used to construct interpolating functions for {upsilon}(x) using as input the available data for TMN in two well-recognized databases (ICDD and ICSD). In summary we obtain functions of x that describe the deformation caused in the parent metal lattice by the nitrogen assimilation. The results are attractive, since TMN show remarkable trends.

  7. Transition report, United States Department of Energy: A report to the President-Elect. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This report is a description of the Department of Energy transition issues. The topics of the report include: Congressional, Intergovernmental and Public Affairs; Conservation and Renewable Energy; Defense Programs; New Production Reactors; Economic Regulatory Administration; Energy Information Administration; energy research; environment, safety and health; fossil energy; General Counsel; hearings and appeals, Inspector General, international affairs and energy emergencies; management and administration, minority economic impact; nuclear energy; policy, planning and analysis, radioactive waste management; and power marketing administrations: Bonneville Power Administration, Western Area Power Administration, Alaska Power Administration, Southeastern Power Administration, and Southwestern Power Administration.

  8. Biostratigraphic correlation and mass extinction during the Permian-Triassic transition in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Daoliang; Yu, Jianxin; Tong, Jinnan; Benton, Michael J.; Song, Haijun; Huang, Yunfei; Song, Ting; Tian, Li

    2016-11-01

    The Permian-Triassic boundary marks the greatest mass extinction during the Phanerozoic, which was coupled with major global environmental changes, and is known especially from well-preserved marine fossil records and continuous carbonate deposits. However, the placement of the Permian-Triassic boundary in terrestrial sections and accurate correlation with the marine strata are difficult due to the absence of the key marine index fossils in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings. Here, we present detailed fossil data from four terrestrial sections, two paralic sections and one shallow marine section in South China. Our data show that the rapid mass disappearance of the Gigantopteris flora in various sections represents the end-Permian mass extinction and the base of the Permian-Triassic transitional beds in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings of South China. In particular, we find a mixed marine and terrestrial biota from the coastal transitional sections of the Permian-Triassic transitional Kayitou Formation, which provides a unique intermediate link for biostratigraphic correlation between terrestrial and marine sequences. Accordingly, the Euestheria gutta-bearing conchostracan fauna and the Pteria ussurica variabilis-Towapteria scythica-Eumorphotis venetiana bivalve assemblage are proposed as markers of the Permian-Triassic transitional beds in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings of South China.

  9. Multi-channel 1-to-2 transition amplitudes in a finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceno, Raul [JLAB; Hansen, Maxwell [Helmholtz Institute Mainz; Walker-Loud, Andre P [W& M. JLAB

    2015-04-01

    We derive a model-independent expression for finite-volume matrix elements. Specifically, we present a relativistic, non-perturbative analysis of the matrix element of an external current between a one-scalar in-state and a two-scalar out-state. Our result, which is valid for energies below higher-particle inelastic thresholds, generalizes the Lellouch-Luscher formula in two ways: we allow the external current to inject arbitrary momentum into the system and we allow for the final state to be composed an arbitrary number of strongly coupled two-particle states with arbitrary partial waves (including partial-wave mixing induced by the volume). We also illustrate how our general result can be applied to some key examples, such as heavy meson decays and meson photo production. Finally, we point out complications that arise involving unstable resonance states, such as B to K*+l+l when staggered or mixed-action/partially-quenched calculations are performed.

  10. Multichannel one-to-two transition amplitudes in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A; Walker-Loud, André

    2015-01-01

    We derive a model-independent expression for finite-volume matrix elements. Specifically, we present a relativistic, non-perturbative analysis of the matrix element of an external current between a one-scalar in-state and a two-scalar out-state. Our result, which is valid for energies below higher-particle inelastic thresholds, generalizes the Lellouch-Luscher formula in two ways: we allow the external current to inject arbitrary momentum into the system and we allow for the final state to be composed an arbitrary number of strongly coupled two-particle states with arbitrary partial waves (including partial-wave mixing induced by the volume). We also illustrate how our general result can be applied to some key examples, such as heavy meson decays and meson photo production. Finally, we point out complications that arise involving unstable resonance states, such as $B\\rightarrow K^*\\ell^+\\ell^-$ when staggered or mixed-action/partially-quenched calculations are performed.

  11. Multichannel one-to-two transition form factors in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A; Walker-Loud, André

    2014-01-01

    We perform a model-independent, non-perturbative investigation of two-point and three-point finite-volume correlation functions in the energy regime where two-particle states can go on-shell. We study three-point functions involving a single incoming particle and an outgoing two-particle state, relevant, for example, for studies of meson decays (e.g., B-to-pi Kll) or meson photo production (e.g., pi gamma-to-pi pi). We observe that, while the spectrum solely depends upon the on-shell scattering amplitude, the correlation functions also depend upon off-shell amplitudes. The main result of this work is a non-perturbative generalization of the Lellouch-Luscher formula relating matrix elements of currents in finite and infinite spatial volumes. We extend that work by considering a theory with multiple, strongly-coupled channels and by accommodating external currents which inject arbitrary four-momentum as well as arbitrary angular-momentum. The result is exact up to exponential corrections governed by mpi L. We p...

  12. The Lightcraft project: Flight technology for a hypersonic mass transit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik; Bouchard, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been developing transatmospheric 'Lightcraft' technology aimed at creating an efficient, economically affordable, hypersonic mass transportation system. The system utilizes laser-energized airbreathing engines to accelerate minimum-volume passenger capsules. The system gains a high level of reliability by using remote 'centralized' space power sources, e.g., satellite solar power stations. The most critical portion of the Lightcraft's acceleration trajectory involves flight propulsion at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere, using a 'Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) Fanjet' mode. Of all the propulsion modes proposed for the Lightcraft's combined-cycle engine, the MHD-Fanjet mode has received the least critical inquiry, largely because of its complexity. During the 1991-1992 academic year, Rensselaer's ADP teams produced a detailed conceptual design for the MHD-Fanjet engine, including the specific details of its integration with the other three propulsive modes. To facilitate this process, students built a full-scale mockup of a 1/12th section of this annular engine, complete with a working model of the shroud translation system. The class also made preliminary design calculations for the double-dipole, 'cuspfield' superconducting magnets that provide the external magnetic field needed by the MHD air accelerator, as well as for an onboard microwave power system to enhance the electrical conductivity of the air plasma working fluid. In addition, a large hypersonic model of the MHD accelerator was designed for future tests in RPI's Hypersonic Shock Tunnel in order to validate present analytical performance models. Another group continued design work on a full-sized prototype of a one-person 'Mercury Lightcraft' (a transatmospheric flight simulator), with major emphasis on the detailed design of the major structure, robotic landing gear, and exterior aeroshell.

  13. The Transportation Security Administration’s Four Major Security Programs for Mass Transit--How They Can Be Improved to Address the Needs of Tier II Mass Transit Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AFSD Assistant Federal Security Director APTA American Public...Presentations should be made to executive management the way APTA peer review briefings are provided. Executive management of mass transit agencies...with DOT and other relevant associations like APTA on the development of standards (OIG, 2008, pp. 10, 11, 18) The IG noted that the 9/11 Commission

  14. The effect of body mass index on global brain volume in middle-aged adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivedi Mehul A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity causes or exacerbates a host of medical conditions, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and endocrine diseases. Recently obesity in elderly women was associated with greater risk of dementia, white matter ischemic changes, and greater brain atrophy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether body type affects global brain volume, a marker of atrophy, in middle-aged men and women. Methods T1-weighted 3D volumetric magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess global brain volume for 114 individuals 40 to 66 years of age (average = 54.2 years; standard deviation = 6.6 years; 43 men and 71 women. Total cerebrospinal fluid and brain volumes were obtained with an automated tissue segmentation algorithm. A regression model was used to determine the effect of age, body mass index (BMI, and other cardiovascular risk factors on brain volume and cognition. Results Age and BMI were each associated with decreased brain volume. BMI did not predict cognition in this sample; however elevated diastolic blood pressure was associated with poorer episodic learning performance. Conclusion These findings suggest that middle-aged obese adults may already be experiencing differentially greater brain atrophy, and may potentially be at greater risk for future cognitive decline.

  15. Direct mass measurements of cadmium and palladium isotopes and their double-beta transition $Q$-values

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Blaum, K; Block, M; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Eibach, M; Eliseev, S; Nagy, Sz; Nörtershäuser, W; Renisch, D

    2012-01-01

    The $Q$-value of the double-electron capture in $^{108}$Cd has been determined to be (272.04 $\\pm$ 0.55) keV in a direct measurement with the double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. Based on this result a resonant enhancement of the decay rate of $^{108}$Cd is excluded. We have confirmed the double-beta transition $Q$-values of $^{106}$Cd and $^{110}$Pd recently measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometers SHIPTRAP and ISOLTRAP, respectively. Furthermore, the atomic masses of the involved nuclides ($^{106, 108, 110}$Cd, $^{106, 108, 110}$Pd) have been directly linked to the atomic mass standard.

  16. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  17. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H⁻ production at the BATMAN test facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C; Schiesko, L; Fantz, U

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 18 scale H(-) source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H(-) production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H(-) density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H(-) density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (j(H(-)), j(e)) exists with the Cs emission.

  18. Effects of the volume changes and elastic-strain energies on the phase transition in the Li-Sn battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jianchuan; Liu, Shuhong; Du, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Sn and Sn-based compounds have been attracting a great interest as promising alternative materials for commercial anodes in lithium ion batteries. In this study, the phase evolution of the Li-Sn system during the lithiated processes and the effect of the elastic-strain energies caused by volume change on the phase transition are investigated by means of first-principles calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that the distorted Li7Sn3 crystal tends to be formed in order to decrease the elastic-strain energy. In addition, our work indicates that the whole lithiated processes under the elastically constrained condition could be classified into two steps. The first step is the two-phase equilibrium process, in which the thermodynamic driving force is large enough to facilitate the phase transition and the plateau voltage could be established. The second step is considered to be the selective equilibrium, in which the thermodynamic driving force is not enough to facilitate the nucleation of the new equilibrium phase due to the elastically constrained conditions and the plateau voltage unformed. Besides, we find that in the Li0.4Sn matrix the nucleation of the αSn is more preferential than the βSn due to the effects of the elastic-strain energies.

  19. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production at the BATMAN test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 1/8 scale H- source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H- density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H- density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (jH-, je) exists with the Cs emission.

  20. Parametric investigation of a thermally driven QCD Deconfining Phase Transition in a finite volume at zero chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem, S.; Ait El Djoudi, A.

    2016-10-01

    This work deals with a statistical description of a thermally driven deconfining phase transition (DPT) from a hadronic gas consisting of massless pions to a color-singlet Quark- Gluon Plasma (QGP), in a finite volume. The thermodynamical approach, within a coexistence model is used to investigate the Quantum Chromo-Dynamics DPT occurring between the two phases, at vanishing chemical potential. Considering the color singletness condition for the QGP phase, with massless up and down quarks, the exact total partition function of the studied system is obtained and then employed to calculate mean values of physical quantities, well characterizing the system near the transition. The finite-size effects on the DPT have been investigated through the study of the thermal behavior of the order parameter, the susceptibility and the second cumulant of the probability density. The similarity between the susceptibility and the second cumulant representing the variance is probed for the studied DPT and a parameterization of the variance is proposed for the first time.

  1. Sensitivity of Transitions in Internal Rotor Molecules to a Possible Variation of the Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Paul; Xu, Li-Hong; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L

    2011-01-01

    Recently, methanol was identified as a sensitive target system to probe variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio $\\mu$ [Jansen \\emph{et al.} Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{106}, 100801 (2011)]. The high sensitivity of methanol originates from the interplay between overall rotation and hindered internal rotation of the molecule -- i.e. transitions that convert internal rotation energy into overall rotation energy, or vice versa, give rise to an enhancement of the sensitivity coefficient, $K_{\\mu}$. As internal rotation is a common phenomenon in polyatomic molecules, it is likely that other molecules display similar or even larger effects. In this paper we generalize the concepts that form the foundation of the high sensitivity in methanol and use this to construct an approximate model which allows to estimate the sensitivities of transitions in internal rotor molecules with $C_{3v}$ symmetry, without performing a full calculation of energy levels. We find that a reliable estimate of transition sensitivities c...

  2. Detection of an en masse and reversible B- to A-DNA conformational transition in prokaryotes in response to desiccation

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Donna R.; Hiscox, Thomas J.; Rood, Julian I.; Bambery, Keith R.; McNaughton, Don; Wood, Bayden R.

    2014-01-01

    The role that DNA conformation plays in the biochemistry of cells has been the subject of intensive research since DNA polymorphism was discovered. B-DNA has long been considered the native form of DNA in cells although alternative conformations of DNA are thought to occur transiently and along short tracts. Here, we report the first direct observation of a fully reversible en masse conformational transition between B- and A-DNA within live bacterial cells using Fourier transform infrared (FT...

  3. Health co-benefits in mortality avoidance from implementation of the mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Soo Chen; Tainio, Marko Kalevi; Woodcock, James David; Jamal Hisham HASHIM

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mass rapid transit (MRT) is the largest transport infrastructure project under the national key economic area (NKEA) in Malaysia. As urban rail is anticipated to be the future spine of public transport network in the Greater Kuala Lumpur city, it is important to mainstream climate change mitigation and public health benefits in the local transport development. This study quantifies the health co-benefits in terms of mortality among the urbanites when the first line of the 15...

  4. Correlation between transition percentage of minute volume (TMV%) and outcome of patients with acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chung-Kan; Wu, Shu-Fen; Yang, Shih-Hsing; Hsieh, Chuan-Fa; Huang, Chung-Chih; Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2017-06-01

    We have previously shown in patients receiving adaptive support ventilation (ASV) that there existed a Transition %MinVol (TMV%) where the patient's work of breathing began to reduce. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that higher TMV% would be associated with poorer outcome in patients with acute respiratory failure. In this prospective observational study, we recruited patients with acute respiratory failure on ASV between December 2012 and September 2013 in a mixed ICU. The TMV% was determined by adjusting % MinVol until mandatory respiratory frequency was between 0 and 1breath/min. TMV% was measured on the first two days of mechanical ventilation. A total of 337 patients (age: 70±16years) were recruited. In patients whose TMV% increased between Day 1 and Day 2, aOR for mortality was 7.0 (95%CI=2.7-18.3, pTMV% decreased. In patients whose TMV% was unchanged between Day 1 and Day2, aOR for mortality was 3.91 (95%CI=1.80-8.22, pTMV% from Day 1 to Day 2 was associated with higher risk of in-hospital death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the “big” divisor ΣB (as opposed to the “small” divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  6. Optical quantification of cellular mass, volume and density of circulating tumor cells identified in an ovarian cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gregory Phillips

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies have demonstrated that circulating tumor cells (CTCs are present in the blood of cancer patients with known metastatic disease across the major types of epithelial malignancies. Recent studies have shown that the concentration of CTCs in the blood is prognostic of overall survival in breast, prostate, colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer. This study characterizes CTCs identified using the high-definition (HD-CTC assay in an ovarian cancer patient with stage IIIC disease. We characterized the physical properties of 31 HD-CTCs and 50 normal leukocytes from a single blood draw taken just prior to the initial debulking surgery. We utilized a non-interferometric quantitative phase microscopy technique using brightfield imagery to measure cellular dry mass. Next we used a quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy technique to measure cellular volume. These techniques were combined to determine cellular dry mass density. We found that HD-CTCs were more massive than leukocytes: 33.6 ± 3.2 pg (HD-CTC compared to 18.7 ± 0.6 pg (leukocytes, p < 0.001; had greater volumes: 518.3 ± 24.5 fL (HD-CTC compared to 230.9 ± 78.5 fL (leukocyte, p<0.001; and possessed a decreased dry mass density with respect to leukocytes: 0.065 ± 0.006 pg/fL (HD-CTC compared to 0.085 ± 0.004 pg/fL (leukocyte, p < 0.006. Quantification of HD-CTC dry mass content and volume provide key insights into the fluid dynamics of cancer, and may provide the rationale for strategies to isolate, monitor or target CTCs based on their physical properties. The parameters reported here can also be incorporated into blood cell flow models to better understand metastasis.

  7. On the efficiency of stochastic volume sources for the determination of light meson masses

    CERN Document Server

    Endress, E; Wittig, H

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the efficiency of single timeslice stochastic sources for the calculation of light meson masses on the lattice as one varies the quark mass. Simulations are carried out with Nf = 2 flavours of non-perturbatively O(a) improved Wilson fermions for pion masses in the range of 450 - 760 MeV. Results for pseudoscalar and vector meson two-point correlation functions computed using stochastic as well as point sources are presented and compared. At fixed computational cost the stochastic approach reduces the variance considerably in the pseudoscalar channel for all simulated quark masses. The vector channel is more affected by the intrinsic stochastic noise. In order to obtain stable estimates of the statistical errors and a more pronounced plateau for the effective vector meson mass, a relatively large number of stochastic sources must be used.

  8. Characterization of the intragranular water regime within subsurface sediments: Pore volume, surface area, and mass transfer limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael B.; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Davis, James A.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-10-01

    Although "intragranular" pore space within grain aggregates, grain fractures, and mineral surface coatings may contain a relatively small fraction of the total porosity within a porous medium, it often contains a significant fraction of the reactive surface area, and can thus strongly affect the transport of sorbing solutes. In this work, we demonstrate a batch experiment procedure using tritiated water as a high-resolution diffusive tracer to characterize the intragranular pore space. The method was tested using uranium-contaminated sediments from the vadose and capillary fringe zones beneath the former 300A process ponds at the Hanford site (Washington). Sediments were contacted with tracers in artificial groundwater, followed by a replacement of bulk solution with tracer-free groundwater and the monitoring of tracer release. From these data, intragranular pore volumes were calculated and mass transfer rates were quantified using a multirate first-order mass transfer model. Tritium-hydrogen exchange on surface hydroxyls was accounted for by conducting additional tracer experiments on sediment that was vacuum dried after reaction. The complementary ("wet" and "dry") techniques allowed for the simultaneous determination of intragranular porosity and surface area using tritium. The Hanford 300A samples exhibited intragranular pore volumes of ˜1% of the solid volume and intragranular surface areas of ˜20%-35% of the total surface area. Analogous experiments using bromide ion as a tracer yielded very different results, suggesting very little penetration of bromide into the intragranular porosity.

  9. Characterization of the intragranular water regime within subsurface sediments: pore volume, surface area, and mass transfer limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael B.; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Davis, James A.; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Although "intragranular" pore space within grain aggregates, grain fractures, and mineral surface coatings may contain a relatively small fraction of the total porosity within a porous medium, it often contains a significant fraction of the reactive surface area, and can thus strongly affect the transport of sorbing solutes. In this work, we demonstrate a batch experiment procedure using tritiated water as a high-resolution diffusive tracer to characterize the intragranular pore space. The method was tested using uranium-contaminated sediments from the vadose and capillary fringe zones beneath the former 300A process ponds at the Hanford site (Washington). Sediments were contacted with tracers in artificial groundwater, followed by a replacement of bulk solution with tracer-free groundwater and the monitoring of tracer release. From these data, intragranular pore volumes were calculated and mass transfer rates were quantified using a multirate first-order mass transfer model. Tritium-hydrogen exchange on surface hydroxyls was accounted for by conducting additional tracer experiments on sediment that was vacuum dried after reaction. The complementary ("wet" and "dry") techniques allowed for the simultaneous determination of intragranular porosity and surface area using tritium. The Hanford 300A samples exhibited intragranular pore volumes of ~1% of the solid volume and intragranular surface areas of ~20%–35% of the total surface area. Analogous experiments using bromide ion as a tracer yielded very different results, suggesting very little penetration of bromide into the intragranular porosity.

  10. Variation with mass of $\\boldmath{B(E3; 0_1^+ \\to 3_1^-)}$ transition rates in $A=124-134$ even-mass xenon nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, W F; Church, J A; Dinca, D C; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Henderson, D T; Hu, Z; Janssens, R V F; Lisetskiy, A F; Lister, C J; Moore, E F; Pennington, T O; Perry, B C; Wiedenhöver, I; Yurkewicz, K L; Zelevinsky, V G; Zwahlen, H

    2006-01-01

    $B(E3; 0_1^+ \\to 3_1^-)$ transition matrix elements have been measured for even-mass $^{124-134}$Xe nuclei using sub-barrier Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics. The trends in energy $E(3^-)$ and $B(E3; 0_1^+ \\to 3_1^-)$ excitation strengths are well reproduced using phenomenological models based on a strong coupling picture with a soft quadrupole mode and an increasing occupation of the intruder $h_{11/2}$ orbital.

  11. Modeling mass balance and volume of Xiao Dongkemadi glacier in the Central Tibetan Plateau from 1989 to 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) holds ten thousands of alpine glaciers in mid-latitude, which have shrunk with an accelerating retreat rate recently. Here, we applied a temperature-index distributed mass-balance model coupled with a volume-area scaling method to Xiao Dongkemadi Glacier (XDG) in the central TP, to assess its response to climate change. The result shows the simulated mass balance is in a good agreement with observations (R2=0.75, p<0.001) during the period of 1989-2012. The simulated mean annual mass balance (-213 mm w.e.) is close to the observation (-233 mm w.e.), indicating the model can be used to estimate the glacier variation in the future. Then the model was forced by the output of RegCM4 under the climate scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 from 2013 to 2050. The simulated terminus elevation of the glacier will rise from 5454m a.s.l. in 2013 to 5533m a.s.l. (RCP4.5) and 5543m a.s.l (RCP8.5) in 2050. XDG will lose its volume with an increasing rate of 600-700m3 a-1 during the period of 1989-2050, indicating the melting water will enhance the river runoff. But for the long term, the contribution to the river runoff will decrease for shrinkage of glacier scale.

  12. Follow-up Observations of the Neptune Mass Transiting Extrasolar Planet Hat-P-11b

    CERN Document Server

    Dittman, Jason A; Green, Elizabeth M; Scuderi, Louis J; Males, Jared R

    2009-01-01

    We have confirmed the existence of the transiting super Neptune extrasolar planet HAT-P-11b. On May 1, 2009 UT the transit of Hat-P-11b was detected at the University of Arizona's 1.55m Kuiper Telescope with 1.7 millimag rms accuracy. We find a central transit time of Tc = 2454952.92534+/-0.00060 BJD; this transit occurred 80+/-73 seconds sooner than previous measurements (71 orbits in the past) would have predicted. Hence, our transit timing rules out large deviations from the ephemeris of Bakos et al. (2009). We measure a slightly larger planetary radius of Rp=0.452+/-0.020 R_Jup (5.07+/-0.22 R_earth) compared to Bakos and co-workers' value of 0.422+/-0.014 R_Jup (4.73+/-0.16 R_earth). Our values confirm that Hat-P-11b is very similar to GJ 436b (the only other known transiting super Neptune) in radius and other bulk properties.

  13. LHS 6343: Precise Constraints on the Mass and Radius of a Transiting Brown Dwarf Discovered by Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, J. A.; Muirhead, P. S.; Shporer, A.; Howard, A.; Baranec, C.; Albert, L.; Robo-AO Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Despite the discovery of more than 1200 brown dwarfs, only a dozen have both a measured mass and radius. Such systems are fundamental for our understanding of brown dwarf evolution. To this end, we report an updated analysis of the mass and radius of LHS 6343C, a brown dwarf orbiting one member of an M+M binary system in the Kepler field. With visible light adaptive optics data from Robo-AO, we are able to determine the third light contribution in the Kepler bandpass from the B component directly from observations in visible wavelengths. We combine 16 quarters of transit photometry from Kepler with 33 Keck HIRES radial velocity observations to measure the brown dwarf’s mass and radius with 2 percent precision. Tight constraints such as these will be critical for future brown dwarf atmospheric studies as the next generation of theoretical evolutionary models are developed.

  14. Fat-Free Body Mass but not Fat Mass is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume of Cortical Brain Regions Implicated in Autonomic and Homeostatic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations of both functional and structural aspects of the human central nervous system. In obese individuals both fat mass (FM; primarily consisting of adipose tissue) and fat-free mass (FFM; all non-adipose tissues) are increased and it remains unknown whether these compartments have separate effects on human brain morphology. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationships between measures of body composition and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in 76 healthy adults with a wide range of adiposity (24F/52M; age 32.1±8.8y; percentage of body fat [PFAT%] 25.5±10.9%; BMI 29.8±8.9). Faf-free mass index (FFMI kg*m-2) showed negative associations in bilateral temporal regions, the bilateral medial and caudolateral OFC, and the left insula. Fat mass index (FMI kg*m-2) showed similar, but less extensive negative associations within temporal cortical regions and the left caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, negative associations were seen for FMI with GMV of the cerebellum. Associations of FFMI with temporal and medial orbitofrontal GMV appeared to be independent of adiposity. No associations were seen between measures of adiposity (i.e. FM and PFAT) and GMV when adjusted for FFM. The majority of regions that we find associated with FFM have been implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and show extensive projections to central autonomic and homeostatic core structures. These data indicate that not adipose tissue or relative adiposity itself, but obesity related increases in absolute tissue mass and particularly FFM may have a more predominant effect on the human brain. This might be explained by the high metabolic demand of FFM and related increases in total energy needs. PMID:22974975

  15. High Sensitivity Analysis of Nanoliter Volumes of Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds using Matrix Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Khoa; Pophristic, Milan; Horan, Andrew J.; Johnston, Murray V.; McEwen, Charles N.

    2016-10-01

    First results are reported using a simple, fast, and reproducible matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) sample introduction method that provides substantial improvements relative to previously published MAI methods. The sensitivity of the new MAI methods, which requires no laser, high voltage, or nebulizing gas, is comparable to those reported for MALDI-TOF and n-ESI. High resolution full acquisition mass spectra having low chemical background are acquired from low nanoliters of solution using only a few femtomoles of analyte. The limit-of-detection for angiotensin II is less than 50 amol on an Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. Analysis of peptides, including a bovine serum albumin digest, and drugs, including drugs in urine without a purification step, are reported using a 1 μL zero dead volume syringe in which only the analyte solution wetting the walls of the syringe needle is used in the analysis.

  16. Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 3; Empirical Developments and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Gary E.; McDonald, P. Vernon

    1998-01-01

    Key attributes of skilled mass handling were identified through an examination of lessons learned by the extravehicular activity operational community. These qualities were translated into measurable quantities. The operational validity of the ground-based investigation was improved by building a device that increased the degrees of freedom of extravehicular mobility unit motion on the Precision Air-Bearing Floor. The results revealed subtle patterns of interaction between motions of an orbital replacement unit mockup and mass handler that should be important for effective performance on orbit. The investigation also demonstrated that such patterns can be measured with a variety of common instruments and under imperfect conditions of observation.

  17. Radio detections during two state transitions of the intermediate-mass black hole HLX-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-08-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (~3 to 20 solar masses, M(⊙)) as well as supermassive black holes (~10(6) to 10(9) M(⊙)) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (~10(2) to 10(5) M(⊙)), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between ~9 × 10(3) M(⊙) and ~9 × 10(4) M(⊙).

  18. Automated detection of masses on whole breast volume ultrasound scanner: false positive reduction using deep convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yuya; Muramatsu, Chisako; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer screening with mammography and ultrasonography is expected to improve sensitivity compared with mammography alone, especially for women with dense breast. An automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) provides the operator-independent whole breast data which facilitate double reading and comparison with past exams, contralateral breast, and multimodality images. However, large volumetric data in screening practice increase radiologists' workload. Therefore, our goal is to develop a computer-aided detection scheme of breast masses in ABVS data for assisting radiologists' diagnosis and comparison with mammographic findings. In this study, false positive (FP) reduction scheme using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) was investigated. For training DCNN, true positive and FP samples were obtained from the result of our initial mass detection scheme using the vector convergence filter. Regions of interest including the detected regions were extracted from the multiplanar reconstraction slices. We investigated methods to select effective FP samples for training the DCNN. Based on the free response receiver operating characteristic analysis, simple random sampling from the entire candidates was most effective in this study. Using DCNN, the number of FPs could be reduced by 60%, while retaining 90% of true masses. The result indicates the potential usefulness of DCNN for FP reduction in automated mass detection on ABVS images.

  19. First cosmological constraints on the proton-to-electron mass ratio from observations of rotational transitions of methanol

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Breen, S L; Lovell, J E J

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to measure the absorption from the 2(0) - 3(-1}E 12.2 GHz transition of methanol towards the z=0.89 lensing galaxy in the PKS B 1830-211 gravitational lens system. Comparison of the velocity of the main absorption feature with the published absorption spectrum from the 1(0) - 2(-1)E transition of methanol shows that they differ by -0.6 +/- 1.6 km/s . We can use these observations to constrain the changes in the proton-to-electron mass ratio from z=0.89 to the present to 0.8 +/- 2.1 x 10^-7. This result is consistent, and of similar precision to recent observations at z = 0.68 achieved through comparison of a variety of rotational and inversion transitions, and approximately a factor of 2 better than previous constraints obtained in this source. Future more sensitive observations which incorporate additional rotational methanol transitions offer the prospect of improving current results by a factor of 5-10.

  20. VAMP: A computer program for calculating volume, area, and mass properties of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, P. J.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized procedure developed for analyzing aerospace vehicles evaluates the properties of elemental surface areas with specified thickness by accumulating and combining them with arbitrarily specified mass elements to form a complete evaluation. Picture-like images of the geometric description are capable of being generated.

  1. Reliability and validity of non-invasive determined haemoglobin mass and blood volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoni, Nazzareno; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Oberholzer, Laura

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method used for the determination of haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) is associated with blood sample analysis (in this study: Radiometer ABL800). As an alternative hereto the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a portable and non-invas...

  2. The role of mass balance equations in growth mechanics illustrated in surface and volume dissolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A

    2011-01-01

    Growth mechanics problems require the solution of mass balance equations that include supply terms and account for mass exchanges among constituents of a mixture. Though growth may often be accompanied by a variety of concomitant phenomena that increase modeling complexity, such as solid matrix deformation, evolving traction-free configurations, cell division, and active cell contraction, it is important to distinguish these accompanying phenomena from the fundamental growth process that consists of deposition or removal of mass from the solid matrix. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present a canonical problem of growth, namely, dissolution of a rigid solid matrix in a solvent. This problem illustrates a case of negative growth (loss of mass) of the solid in a mixture framework that includes three species, a solid, a solvent, and a solute, where the solute is the product of the solid dissolution. By analyzing both volumetric and surface dissolutions, the two fundamental modes of growth are investigated within the unified framework of mixture theory.

  3. SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. I. Detection of the low-mass white dwarf KOI 74b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, D.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Bouchy, F.; Perrier, C.; Hébrard, G.; Boisse, I.; Bonfils, X.; Arnold, L.; Delfosse, X.; Desort, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Eggenberger, A.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Pepe, F.; Pont, F.; Santos, N. C.; Santerne, A.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected transits and occultations of a hot compact object around an early-type star, the Kepler Object of Interest KOI 74. The mass of this transiting object was photometrically assessed in a previous study using the presence of the relativistic beaming effect (so-called “Doppler boosting”) in the light curve. Our aim was to provide a spectroscopic validation of this pioneering approach. We measured the radial velocity variations of the A1V star KOI 74 with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the 1.93-m telescope of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France). Radial velocity measurements of this star are challenging because of the high level of stellar pulsations and the few available spectral lines. Using a technique dedicated to early-type main-sequence stars, we measured radial velocity variations compatible with a companion of mass 0.252 ± 0.025 {M_⊙}, in good agreement with the value derived from the Kepler light curve. This work strengthens the scenario suggesting that KOI 74 is a blue straggler orbited by a stellar core despoiled of its envelope, the low-mass white dwarf KOI 74b. Based on observations collected with the SOPHIE spectrograph on the 1.93-m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France, by the SOPHIE consortium (program 10A.PNP.CONS).

  4. Mass and Moment of Inertia Govern the Transition in the Dynamics and Wakes of Freely Rising and Falling Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Varghese; Zhu, Xiaojue; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-08-01

    In this Letter, we study the motion and wake patterns of freely rising and falling cylinders in quiescent fluid. We show that the amplitude of oscillation and the overall system dynamics are intricately linked to two parameters: the particle's mass density relative to the fluid m*≡ρp/ρf and its relative moment of inertia I*≡Ip/If. This supersedes the current understanding that a critical mass density (m*≈0.54 ) alone triggers the sudden onset of vigorous vibrations. Using over 144 combinations of m* and I*, we comprehensively map out the parameter space covering very heavy (m*>10 ) to very buoyant (m*data collapse into two scaling regimes demarcated by a transitional Strouhal number Stt≈0.17 . Stt separates a mass-dominated regime from a regime dominated by the particle's moment of inertia. A shift from one regime to the other also marks a gradual transition in the wake-shedding pattern: from the classical two-single (2 S ) vortex mode to a two-pair (2 P ) vortex mode. Thus, autorotation can have a significant influence on the trajectories and wakes of freely rising isotropic bodies.

  5. Sensitivity of Tunneling-Rotational Transitions in Ethylene Glycol to Variation of Electron-to-Proton Mass Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Viatkina, A V

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene glycol in its ground conformation has tunneling transition with the frequency about 7 GHz. This leads to a rather complicated tunneling-rotational spectrum. Because tunneling and rotational energies have different dependence on the electron-to-proton mass ratio $\\mu$, this spectrum is highly sensitive to the possible $\\mu$ variation. We used simple 14 parameter effective Hamiltonian to calculate dimensionless sensitivity coefficients $Q_\\mu$ of the tunneling-rotational transitions and found that they lie in the range from $-17$ to $+18$. Ethylene glycol has been detected in the interstellar medium. All this makes it one of the most sensitive probes of $\\mu$ variation at the large space and time scales.

  6. Finite-volume effects and the electromagnetic contributions to kaon and pion masses

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, S; Bernard, C; DeTar, C; Freeland, E; Foley, J; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Komijani, J; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Osborn, J; Sugar, R L; Torok, A; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2014-01-01

    We report on the MILC Collaboration calculation of electromagnetic effects on light pseudoscalar mesons. The simulations employ asqtad staggered dynamical quarks in QCD plus quenched photons, with lattice spacings varying from 0.12 to 0.06 fm. Finite volume corrections for the MILC realization of lattice electrodynamics have been calculated in chiral perturbation theory and applied to the lattice data. These corrections differ from those calculated by Hayakawa and Uno because our treatment of zero modes differs from theirs. Updated results for the corrections to "Dashen's theorem" are presented.

  7. Finite-volume effects and the electromagnetic contributions to kaon and pion masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Subhasish [Bhubaneswar, NISER; Bazavov, Alexei [Iowa U.; Bernard, Claude [Washington U., St. Louis; Detar, Carleton [Utah U.; Freeland, Elizabeth [Art Inst. of Chicago; Foley, Justin [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana U.; Heller, Urs M. [APS, New York; Komijani, Javad [Washington U., St. Louis; Laiho, Jack [Syracuse U.; Levkova, Ludmila [Utah U.; Osborn, James [Argonne; Sugar, Robert [UC, Santa Barbara; Torok, Aaron [Indiana U.; Toussaint, Doug [Arizona U.; Van de Water, Ruth S. [Fermilab; Zhou, Ran [Fermilab

    2014-09-25

    We report on the MILC Collaboration calculation of electromagnetic effects on light pseudoscalar mesons. The simulations employ asqtad staggered dynamical quarks in QCD plus quenched photons, with lattice spacings varying from 0.12 to 0.06 fm. Finite volume corrections for the MILC realization of lattice electrodynamics have been calculated in chiral perturbation theory and applied to the lattice data. These corrections differ from those calculated by Hayakawa and Uno because our treatment of zero modes differs from theirs. Updated results for the corrections to "Dashen's theorem" are presented.

  8. Finite-volume effects and the electromagnetic contributions to kaon and pion masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Subhasish [Bhubaneswar, NISER; Bazavov, Alexei [Iowa U.; Bernard, Claude [Washington U., St. Louis; Detar, Carleton [Utah U.; Freeland, Elizabeth [Art Inst. of Chicago; Foley, Justin [Utah U.; Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana U.; Heller, Urs M. [APS, New York; Komijani, Javad [Washington U., St. Louis; Laiho, Jack [Syracuse U.; Levkova, Ludmila [Utah U.; Osborn, James [Argonne; Sugar, Robert [UC, Santa Barbara; Torok, Aaron [Indiana U.; Toussaint, Doug [Arizona U.; Van de Water, Ruth S. [Fermilab; Zhou, Ran [Fermilab

    2014-09-25

    We report on the MILC Collaboration calculation of electromagnetic effects on light pseudoscalar mesons. The simulations employ asqtad staggered dynamical quarks in QCD plus quenched photons, with lattice spacings varying from 0.12 to 0.06 fm. Finite volume corrections for the MILC realization of lattice electrodynamics have been calculated in chiral perturbation theory and applied to the lattice data. These corrections differ from those calculated by Hayakawa and Uno because our treatment of zero modes differs from theirs. Updated results for the corrections to "Dashen's theorem" are presented.

  9. Fully-automated left ventricular mass and volume MRI analysis in the UK Biobank population cohort: evaluation of initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Sanghvi, Mihir M; Aung, Nay; Paiva, Jose Miguel; Zemrak, Filip; Fung, Kenneth; Lukaschuk, Elena; Lee, Aaron M; Carapella, Valentina; Kim, Young Jin; Francis, Jane; Piechnik, Stefan K; Neubauer, Stefan; Greiser, Andreas; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Hayes, Carmel; Young, Alistair A; Petersen, Steffen E

    2017-08-23

    UK Biobank, a large cohort study, plans to acquire 100,000 cardiac MRI studies by 2020. Although fully-automated left ventricular (LV) analysis was performed in the original acquisition, this was not designed for unsupervised incorporation into epidemiological studies. We sought to evaluate automated LV mass and volume (Siemens syngo InlineVF versions D13A and E11C), against manual analysis in a substantial sub-cohort of UK Biobank participants. Eight readers from two centers, trained to give consistent results, manually analyzed 4874 UK Biobank cases for LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and LV mass (LVM). Agreement between manual and InlineVF automated analyses were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Tenfold cross-validation was used to establish a linear regression calibration between manual and InlineVF results. InlineVF D13A returned results in 4423 cases, whereas InlineVF E11C returned results in 4775 cases and also reported LVM. Rapid visual assessment of the E11C results found 178 cases (3.7%) with grossly misplaced contours or landmarks. In the remaining 4597 cases, LV function showed good agreement: ESV -6.4 ± 9.0 ml, 0.853 (mean ± SD of the differences, ICC) EDV -3.0 ± 11.6 ml, 0.937; SV 3.4 ± 9.8 ml, 0.855; and EF 3.5 ± 5.1%, 0.586. Although LV mass was consistently overestimated (29.9 ± 17.0 g, 0.534) due to larger epicardial contours on all slices, linear regression could be used to correct the bias and improve accuracy. Automated InlineVF results can be used for case-control studies in UK Biobank, provided visual quality control and linear bias correction are performed. Improvements between InlineVF D13A and InlineVF E11C show the field is rapidly advancing, with further improvements expected in the near future.

  10. Resonant microchannel volume and mass measurements show that suspended cells swell during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sungmin; Kang, Joon Ho; Oh, Seungeun; Kirschner, Marc W; Mitchison, T J; Manalis, Scott

    2015-11-23

    Osmotic regulation of intracellular water during mitosis is poorly understood because methods for monitoring relevant cellular physical properties with sufficient precision have been limited. Here we use a suspended microchannel resonator to monitor the volume and density of single cells in suspension with a precision of 1% and 0.03%, respectively. We find that for transformed murine lymphocytic leukemia and mouse pro-B cell lymphoid cell lines, mitotic cells reversibly increase their volume by more than 10% and decrease their density by 0.4% over a 20-min period. This response is correlated with the mitotic cell cycle but is not coupled to nuclear osmolytes released by nuclear envelope breakdown, chromatin condensation, or cytokinesis and does not result from endocytosis of the surrounding fluid. Inhibiting Na-H exchange eliminates the response. Although mitotic rounding of adherent cells is necessary for proper cell division, our observations that suspended cells undergo reversible swelling during mitosis suggest that regulation of intracellular water may be a more general component of mitosis than previously appreciated.

  11. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing...

  12. NMT as Green Mobility Solution for First/Last Mile Connectivity to Mass Transit Stations for Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambara Chidambara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the role of non-motorized transport (NMT as green mobility solutions in improving the last mile connectivity (LMC to mass transit systems. There are evidences of its growing significance, which is established through various international experiences, and case studies. The paper discusses transport policies for Indian cities with respect to LMC, NMT and transit systems and their interface. The paper also presents the empirical findings of a study on NMT usage as first/last mile options for a few metro stations in Delhi, India. It analyses metro user characteristics and choices for the selected stations with a lens on NMT usage for covering the last mile. It is observed that NMT comes out as the most preferred option for covering the first/last mile to transit systems, despite the challenging situations under which NMTs operate. The study further points out that the type of NMT mode availed by commuters varies with varying situational context and depends on locational and user attributes. It is interesting to note that while introduction of “bicycles on hire” worked very well at a particular station, the same had no takers at another. The paper contends that resorting to standard solutions for LMC may not be the right approach; rather it must be based on user and other contextual analysis. The paper concludes with outlining a holistic policy approach that treats NMT planning as a non-negotiable component of transit planning to achieve higher ridership (for the transit operator, better journey experience (for the commuter and larger sustainability goals.

  13. Scaling of convex hull volume to body mass in modern primates, non-primate mammals and birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Brassey

    Full Text Available The volumetric method of 'convex hulling' has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (vol(CH from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within vol(CH has remained unclear. Specifically, when vol(CH scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r(2 = 0.97-0.99 and low mean percentage prediction error (11-20%. Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85-1.00, p = 0.08. Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.91, p = 0.011 and apparent density (volCH/Mb therefore decreases with mass (r(2 = 0.36, p<0.05. In contrast, primates scale body mass to vol(CH with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01-1.12, p = 0.05 and apparent density therefore increases with size (r(2 = 0.46, p = 0.025. We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the 'missing mass' of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat.

  14. Scaling of convex hull volume to body mass in modern primates, non-primate mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Sellers, William I

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of 'convex hulling' has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (vol(CH)) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within vol(CH) has remained unclear. Specifically, when vol(CH) scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r(2) = 0.97-0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11-20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85-1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r(2) = 0.36, pprimates scale body mass to vol(CH) with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01-1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r(2) = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the 'missing mass' of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat.

  15. Investigation of Regularities of Heat and Mass Transfer and Phase Transitions during Water Droplets Motion through High-Temperature Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman S. Volkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic regularities of heat and mass transfer and phase transitions during water droplets motion through high-temperature (more than 1000 K gases have been investigated numerically and experimentally. Water droplet evaporation rates have been established. Gas and water vapors concentrations and also temperature values of gas-vapor mixture in small neighborhood and water droplet trace have been singled out. Possible mechanisms of droplet coagulation in high-temperature gas area have been determined. Experiments have been carried out with the optical methods of two-phase gas-vapor-droplet mixtures diagnostics (“Particle Image Velocimetry” and “Interferometric Particle Imaging” usage to assess the adequateness of developed heat and mass transfer models and the results of numerical investigations. The good agreement of numerical and experimental investigation results due to integral characteristics of water droplet evaporation has been received.

  16. REVISITING {rho}{sup 1} CANCRI e: A NEW MASS DETERMINATION OF THE TRANSITING SUPER-EARTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Barnes, Stuart I. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Robertson, Paul; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Caldwell, Caroline; Gullikson, Kevin [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wittenmyer, Robert A., E-mail: mike@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astrophysics and Optics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    We present a mass determination for the transiting super-Earth {rho}{sup 1} Cancri e based on nearly 700 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. This extensive RV data set consists of data collected by the McDonald Observatory planet search and published data from Lick and Keck observatories. We obtained 212 RV measurements with the Tull Coude Spectrograph at the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m Telescope and combined them with a new Doppler reduction of the 131 spectra that we have taken in 2003-2004 with the High-Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for the original discovery of {rho}{sup 1} Cancri e. Using this large data set we obtain a five-planet Keplerian orbital solution for the system and measure an RV semi-amplitude of K = 6.29 {+-} 0.21 m s{sup -1} for {rho}{sup 1} Cnc e and determine a mass of 8.37 {+-} 0.38 M {sub Circled-Plus }. The uncertainty in mass is thus less than 5%. This planet was previously found to transit its parent star, which allowed them to estimate its radius. Combined with the latest radius estimate from Gillon et al., we obtain a mean density of {rho} = 4.50 {+-} 0.20 g cm{sup -3}. The location of {rho}{sup 1} Cnc e in the mass-radius diagram suggests that the planet contains a significant amount of volatiles, possibly a water-rich envelope surrounding a rocky core.

  17. Variability in a Young, L/T Transition Planetary-Mass Object

    CERN Document Server

    Biller, Beth A; Bonavita, Mariangela; Buenzli, Esther; Baxter, Claire; Crossfield, Ian J M; Allers, Katelyn; Liu, Michael C; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Deacon, Niall; Brandner, Wolfgang; Schlieder, Joshua E; Dupuy, Trent; Kopytova, Taisiya; Manjavacas, Elena; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Henning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As part of our ongoing NTT SoFI survey for variability in young free-floating planets and low mass brown dwarfs, we detect significant variability in the young, free-floating planetary mass object PSO J318.5-22, likely due to rotational modulation of inhomogeneous cloud cover. A member of the 23$\\pm$3 Myr $\\beta$ Pic moving group, PSO J318.5-22 has T$_\\mathrm{eff}$ = 1160$^{+30}_{-40}$ K and a mass estimate of 8.3$\\pm$0.5 M$_{Jup}$ for a 23$\\pm$3 Myr age. PSO J318.5-22 is intermediate in mass between 51 Eri b and $\\beta$ Pic b, the two known exoplanet companions in the $\\beta$ Pic moving group. With variability amplitudes from 7-10$\\%$ in J$_{S}$ at two separate epochs over 3-5 hour observations, we constrain the rotational period of this object to $>$5 hours. In K$_{S}$, we marginally detect a variability trend of up to 3$\\%$ over a 3 hour observation. This is the first detection of weather on an extrasolar planetary mass object. Among L dwarfs surveyed at high-photometric precision ($<$3$\\%$) this is the...

  18. Improved workflow for quantification of left ventricular volumes and mass using free-breathing motion corrected cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell; Olivieri, Laura; O'Brien, Kendall; Kellman, Peter; Xue, Hui; Hansen, Michael

    2016-02-25

    Traditional cine imaging for cardiac functional assessment requires breath-holding, which can be problematic in some situations. Free-breathing techniques have relied on multiple averages or real-time imaging, producing images that can be spatially and/or temporally blurred. To overcome this, methods have been developed to acquire real-time images over multiple cardiac cycles, which are subsequently motion corrected and reformatted to yield a single image series displaying one cardiac cycle with high temporal and spatial resolution. Application of these algorithms has required significant additional reconstruction time. The use of distributed computing was recently proposed as a way to improve clinical workflow with such algorithms. In this study, we have deployed a distributed computing version of motion corrected re-binning reconstruction for free-breathing evaluation of cardiac function. Twenty five patients and 25 volunteers underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for evaluation of left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic mass. Measurements using motion corrected re-binning were compared to those using breath-held SSFP and to free-breathing SSFP with multiple averages, and were performed by two independent observers. Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots tested agreement across techniques. Concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis tested inter-observer variability. Total scan plus reconstruction times were tested for significant differences using paired t-test. Measured volumes and mass obtained by motion corrected re-binning and by averaged free-breathing SSFP compared favorably to those obtained by breath-held SSFP (r = 0.9863/0.9813 for EDV, 0.9550/0.9685 for ESV, 0.9952/0.9771 for mass). Inter-observer variability was good with concordance correlation coefficients between observers across all acquisition types suggesting substantial agreement. Both motion

  19. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Drumond Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006, were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL, instrumental activity of daily living (IADL, and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages.

  20. Sensitivity of transitions in internal rotor molecules to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L. [Institute for Lasers, Life and Biophotonics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kleiner, Isabelle [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), CNRS UMR 7583 et Universites Paris 7 et Paris Est, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, FR-94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Xu, Li-Hong [Department of Physics and Centre for Laser, Atomic, and Molecular Sciences, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada E2L 4L5 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Recently, methanol was identified as a sensitive target system to probe variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu}[Jansen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 100801 (2011)]. The high sensitivity of methanol originates from the interplay between overall rotation and hindered internal rotation of the molecule; that is, transitions that convert internal rotation energy into overall rotation energy, or vice versa, have an enhanced sensitivity coefficient, K{sub {mu}}. As internal rotation is a common phenomenon in polyatomic molecules, it is likely that other molecules display similar or even larger effects. In this paper we generalize the concepts that form the foundation of the high sensitivity in methanol and use this to construct an approximate model which makes it possible to estimate the sensitivities of transitions in internal rotor molecules with C{sub 3v} symmetry, without performing a full calculation of energy levels. We find that a reliable estimate of transition sensitivities can be obtained from the three rotational constants (A, B, and C) and three torsional constants (F, V{sub 3}, and {rho}). This model is verified by comparing obtained sensitivities for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetamide, methyl formate, and acetic acid with a full analysis of the molecular Hamiltonian. Of the molecules considered, methanol is by far the most suitable candidate for laboratory and cosmological tests searching for a possible variation of {mu}.

  1. Detection of an en masse and reversible B- to A-DNA conformational transition in prokaryotes in response to desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Donna R; Hiscox, Thomas J; Rood, Julian I; Bambery, Keith R; McNaughton, Don; Wood, Bayden R

    2014-08-06

    The role that DNA conformation plays in the biochemistry of cells has been the subject of intensive research since DNA polymorphism was discovered. B-DNA has long been considered the native form of DNA in cells although alternative conformations of DNA are thought to occur transiently and along short tracts. Here, we report the first direct observation of a fully reversible en masse conformational transition between B- and A-DNA within live bacterial cells using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. This biospectroscopic technique allows for non-invasive and reagent-free examination of the holistic biochemistry of samples. For this reason, we have been able to observe the previously unknown conformational transition in all four species of bacteria investigated. Detection of this transition is evidence of a previously unexplored biological significance for A-DNA and highlights the need for new research into the role that A-DNA plays as a cellular defence mechanism and in stabilizing the DNA conformation. Such studies are pivotal in understanding the role of A-DNA in the evolutionary pathway of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this discovery demonstrates the exquisite capabilities of FTIR spectroscopy and opens the door for further investigations of cell biochemistry with this under-used technique.

  2. The Masses of Transition Circumstellar Disks: Observational Support for Photoevaporation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cieza, Lucas A; Mathews, Geoffrey S; Williams, Jonathan P

    2008-01-01

    We report deep Sub-Millimeter Array observations of 26 pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars with evolved inner disks. These observations measure the mass of the outer disk (r ~20-100 AU) across every stage of the dissipation of the inner disk (r < 10 AU) as determined by the IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We find that only targets with high mid-IR excesses are detected and have disk masses in the 1-5 M_Jup range, while most of our objects remain undetected to sensitivity levels of M_DISK ~0.2-1.5 M_Jup. To put these results in a more general context, we collected publicly available data to construct the optical to millimeter wavelength SEDs of over 120 additional PMS stars. We find that the near-IR and mid-IR emission remain optically thick in objects whose disk masses span 2 orders of magnitude (~0.5-50 M_Jup). Taken together, these results imply that, in general, inner disks start to dissipate only after the outer disk has been significantly depleted of mass. This provides strong support for photoevap...

  3. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV and ejection fraction (EF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Methods Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male. Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA. Results Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006 and ESV (p Conclusion LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.

  4. Relation of left ventricular function, mass, and volume to NT-proBNP in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A.S.; Kim, W.Y.; Tarnow, L.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volumes, and left ventricular function (LVF) in a cohort of type 1 diabetic patients and to correlate measures of imaging to NH(2)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a cross......-sectional study, all patients with type 1 diabetes underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. We included 63 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 73 patients with normoalbuminuria. RESULTS: All patients had normal global LVF. LVM was increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared...... is identified in asymptomatic type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy compared with normoalbuminuric patients. Elevated levels of NT-proBNP were associated with increased LVM, which are both markers of increased cardiovascular risk Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  5. Maps and Masses of Transiting Exoplanets: Towards New Insights into Atmospheric and Interior Properties of Planets

    CERN Document Server

    de Wit, Julien

    2015-01-01

    With over 1800 planets discovered outside of the Solar System in the past two decades, the field of exoplanetology has broadened our perspective on planetary systems. Research priorities are now moving from planet detection to planet characterization. In this context, transiting exoplanets are of special interest due to the wealth of data made available by their orbital configuration. Here, I introduce two methods to gain new insights into the atmospheric and interior properties of exoplanets. The first method aims to map an exoplanet's atmosphere based on the scanning obtained while it is occulted by its host star. I introduce the basics of eclipse mapping, its caveats, and a framework to mitigate their effects via global analyses including transits, phase curves, and radial velocity measurements. I use this method to create the first 2D map and the first cloud map of an exoplanet for the hot-Jupiters HD189733b and Kepler-7b, respectively. Ultimately temperature, composition, and circulation patterns could b...

  6. Significance and clinical value of the transitional zone volume (TZV or index (TZI in assessing the degree of lower urinary tract obstruction: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Ghoneimy

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Estimating the transition zone volume during TRUS is a reasonable way to obtain the required information about the TZI. Calculating the TZI could not be directly correlated with any of the different parameters, making the clinical value of such an index questionable. The observation that the obstructed and the retention groups both had a TZI above 0.5 deserves further research that can help in the classification of patients into obstructed and non-obstructed.

  7. Chain length distributions in linear polyaddition proceeding in nano-scale small volumes without mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, R.; Sosnowski, S.

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulations (Monte Carlo and numerical integration of differential equations) and theoretical analysis show that the statistical nature of polyaddition, both irreversible and reversible one, affects the way the macromolecules of different lengths are distributed among the small volume nano-reactors (droplets in this study) at any reaction time. The corresponding droplet distributions in respect to the number of reacting chains as well as the chain length distributions depend, for the given reaction time, on rate constants of polyaddition kp and depolymerization kd (reversible process), and the initial conditions: monomer concentration and the number of its molecules in a droplet. As a model reaction, a simple polyaddition process (M)1+(M)1 ⟶ ⟵ (M)2 , (M)i+(M)j ⟶ ⟵ (M)i+j was chosen, enabling to observe both kinetic and thermodynamic (apparent equilibrium constant) effects of a small number of reactant molecules in a droplet. The average rate constant of polymerization is lower than in a macroscopic system, depending on the average number of reactant molecules in a droplet. The apparent equilibrium constants of polymerization Ki j=[(M)i +j] ¯ /([(M)i] ¯ [(M)j] ¯ ) appear to depend on oligomer/polymer sizes as well as on the initial number of monomer molecules in a droplet. The corresponding equations, enabling prediction of the equilibrium conditions, were derived. All the analyzed effects are observed not only for ideally dispersed systems, i.e. with all droplets containing initially the same number of monomer (M)1 molecules, but also when initially the numbers of monomer molecules conform the Poisson distribution, expected for dispersions of reaction mixtures.

  8. Assessment of the nature of residual masses at end of treatment in lymphoma patients using volume perfusion computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syha, R.; Gruenwald, L.; Spira, D.; Ketelsen, D.; Claussen, C.D.; Horger, M. [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Horger, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, M2 - Lehrstuhl fuer Numerische, Garching (Germany); Vogel, W. [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Medical Oncology and Haematology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the diagnostic benefit of volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT) at end of treatment for response assessment in lymphoma patients. Seventy-five patients with different lymphoma subtypes were included: 50/75 patients had residual masses at end of treatment, 26/50 patients underwent VPCT at baseline and at end of treatment, and 24/50 patients only had end-of-treatment VPCTs. We evaluated the size of the main lymphoma mass, its blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and k-trans, calculated ratios (baseline and end of treatment) as well as sensitivity/specificity/negative (NPV)/positive predictive values (PPV). For VPCT at end of treatment, a cutoff threshold between responders and non-responders was calculated. For patients undergoing VPCT at baseline and end of treatment, reduction in size, BF, BV and k-trans was significant (P < 0.001). Identification of non-response was reached at: <53 % reduction in size (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy/PPV/NPV of 88.89 %/62.5 %/80.77 %/84.21 %/71.43 %), <15 % reduction of BF (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy/PPV/NPV of 100 %/37.5 %/80.77 %/0.26 %/100 %), or <45 % reduction of k-trans (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy/PPV/NPV of 88.89 %/75 %/84.62 %/88.89 %/75 %). In the subgroup undergoing VPCT at end of treatment, BF >18.51 ml/100 ml indicated non-responsiveness (sensitivity 92.86 %, specificity 72.73 %, accuracy 84 %, PPV 81.25 %, NPV 88.89 %). VPCT seems adequate for assessment of lymphoma response at end of treatment. The degree of residual lymphoma perfusion at end of treatment helps to identify patients likely to remain in remission 1 year after completion of therapy. (orig.)

  9. Flavonoids as matrices for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of transition metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Marijana; Petrovic, Biljana; Savic, Jasmina; Bugarcic, Zivadin D.; Dimitric-Markovic, Jasmina; Momic, Tatjana; Vasic, Vesna

    2010-02-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a suitable method for the analysis of inorganic and organic compounds and biomolecules. This makes MALDI-TOF MS convenient for monitoring the interaction of metallo-drugs with biomolecules. Results presented in this manuscript demonstrate that flavonoids such as apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin are suitable for MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Pt(II), Pd(II), Pt(IV) and Ru(III) complexes, giving different signal-to-noise ratios of the analyte peak. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra of inorganic complexes acquired with these flavonoid matrices are easy to interpret and have some advantages over the application of other commonly used matrices: a low number of matrix peaks are detectable and the coordinative metal-ligand bond is, in most cases, preserved. On the other hand, flavonoids do not act as typical matrices, as their excess is not required for the acquisition of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of inorganic complexes.

  10. Quark pseudoscalar vertex and quark mass function with clover fermions : spontaneous symmetry breaking, OPE, symmetry restoration at small volume

    CERN Document Server

    Boucaud, Ph; Yaouanc, A Le; Micheli, J; Pene, O; Rodriguez-Quintero, J

    2009-01-01

    We consider the quark mass function which, in spite of the very large Wilson term artefact, can be studied efficiently with clover fermions, by using the quark pseudoscalar vertex and Ward identities. We then study a series of questions about the chiral limit at N_F=0, through the standard chiral extrapolation method. We confirm that the corresponding OPE of the quark mass function, does not work by far at the available momenta ; this seems to be explainable by a recent high order perturbative calculation of the Wilson coefficient which implies very large high order corrections, much larger than in usual QCD perturbative expansions; the gap with the recognized estimate of the condensate remains large, around a factor 2 at the largest momenta available to us (p ~ 6 GeV), showing the need for very high momenta to test OPE in elementary Green functions. We also observe a remarkable property in function of the physical volume: there is a striking discontinuity in the properties of chiral extrapolation around some...

  11. A FRAMEWORK FOR CHARACTERIZING THE ATMOSPHERES OF LOW-MASS LOW-DENSITY TRANSITING PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nettelmann, Nadine [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mordasini, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA (United States); Greene, Thomas P.; Zahnle, Kevin, E-mail: jfortney@ucolick.org [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We perform modeling investigations to aid in understanding the atmospheres and composition of small planets of ∼2-4 Earth radii, which are now known to be common in our Galaxy. GJ 1214b is a well-studied example whose atmospheric transmission spectrum has been observed by many investigators. Here we take a step back from GJ 1214b to investigate the role that planetary mass, composition, and temperature play in impacting the transmission spectra of these low-mass low-density (LMLD) planets. Under the assumption that these planets accrete modest hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and planetesimals, we use population synthesis models to show that predicted metal enrichments of the H/He envelope are high, with metal mass fraction Z{sub env} values commonly 0.6-0.9, or ∼100-400+ times solar. The high mean molecular weight of such atmospheres (μ ≈ 5-12) would naturally help to flatten the transmission spectrum of most LMLD planets. The high metal abundance would also provide significant condensible material for cloud formation. It is known that the H/He abundance in Uranus and Neptune decreases with depth, and we show that atmospheric evaporation of LMLD planets could expose atmospheric layers with gradually higher Z{sub env}. However, values of Z{sub env} close to solar composition can also arise, so diversity should be expected. Photochemically produced hazes, potentially due to methane photolysis, are another possibility for obscuring transmission spectra. Such hazes may not form above T{sub eq} of ∼800-1100 K, which is testable if such warm, otherwise low mean molecular weight atmospheres are stable against atmospheric evaporation. We find that available transmission data are consistent with relatively high mean molecular weight atmospheres for GJ 1214b and 'warm Neptune' GJ 436b. We examine future prospects for characterizing GJ 1214b with Hubble and the James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. Transition probabilities in intruder bands of even-mass Sn isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Efimov, A D; Lobach, Yu N; Tryshyn, V V

    2002-01-01

    Intraband B(E2) values in the intruder bands of sup 1 sup 1 sup 2 sup , sup 1 sup 1 sup 4 sup , sup 1 sup 1 sup 6 sup , sup 1 sup 1 sup 8 Sn are analyzed within the framework of the interacting boson model (IBM1).A detailed comparison of these bands with ground state bands in the even-mass Xe isotopes allows us to find a similarity not only for the energy spaces,but for the B(E2) values as well.

  13. Stellar wind in state transitions of high-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Čechura, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We have developed a new code for the three-dimensional time-dependent raditation hydrodynamic simulation of the stellar wind in interacting binaries to improve models of accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries and to quantitatively clarify the observed variability of these objects. We used the code to test the influence of various parameters on the structure and properties of circumstellar matter. Methods: Our code takes into account acceleration of the wind due to the Roche effective potential, Coriolis force, gas pressure, and (CAK-) radiative pressure in the lines and continuum of the supergiant radiation field that is modulated by its gravity darkening and by the photo-ionization caused by X-ray radiation from the compact companion. The parameters of Cygnus X-1 were used to test the properties of our model. Results: Both two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations show that the Coriolis force substantially influences the mass loss and consequently the accretion rate onto the compact companion. Th...

  14. Mass and period limits on the ringed companion transiting the young star J1407

    CERN Document Server

    Kenworthy, M A; Kraus, A; Triaud, A H M J; Mamajek, E E; Scott, E L; Ségransan, D; Ireland, M; Hambsch, F -J; Reichart, D E; Haislip, J B; LaCluyze, A P; Moore, J P; Frank, N R

    2014-01-01

    The young (~16 Myr) pre-main-sequence star in Sco-Cen 1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6, hereafter referred to as J1407, underwent a deep eclipse in 2007 April, bracketed by several shallower eclipses in the surrounding 54 d. This has been interpreted as the first detection of an eclipsing ring system circling a substellar object (dubbed J1407b). We report on a search for this companion with Sparse Aperture Mask imaging and direct imaging with both the UT4 VLT and Keck telescopes. Radial velocity measurements of J1407 provide additional constraints on J1407b and on short period companions to the central star. Follow-up photometric monitoring using the PROMPT-4 and ROAD observatories during 2012-2014 has not yielded any additional eclipses. Large regions of mass-period space are ruled out for the companion. For circular orbits the companion period is constrained to the range 3.5-13.8 yr (a ~ 2.2-5.6 au), and masses greater than 80 M_Jup are ruled out at 3 sigma significance over these periods. The complex ring system...

  15. Analysis of Time of Day Fare Discounts on Urban Mass Transit Travel Behavior, Crowding, and Waiting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Every morning, commuters select the regularly dispatched urban mass transit for traveling from a residential area to a workplace. This paper aims to find an optimal discount fare and time intervals on morning peak hour. As a direct and flexible traffic economic instrument, fares can influence commuters’ behavior. Therefore, fare discount has been proposed to regulate traffic flow in different time. Two models have been analyzed to describe it with schedule delay because of the travel demand size. The first objective function is constructed on pressure equalization when the travel demand is small. The other objective function is to minimize total waiting time when the travel demand is large. In the end, numerical examples based on an artificial network are performed to characterize fare discount models.

  16. Magic wavelength for the hydrogen 1S-2S transition: Contribution of the continuum and the reduced-mass correction

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, C M; Jentschura, U D

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we studied the magic wavelength for the atomic hydrogen 1S-2S transition [A.K., Phys. Rev. A 92, 042507 (2015)]. An explicit summation over virtual atomic states of the discrete part of the hydrogen spectrum was performed to evaluate the atomic polarizability. In this paper, we supplement the contribution of the continuum part of the spectrum and add the reduced-mass correction. The magic wavelength, at which the lowest-order ac Stark shifts of the 1S and 2S states are equal, is found to be equal to 514.6 nm. The ac Stark shift at the magic wavelength is -221.6 Hz / (kW/cm^2), and the slope of the ac Stark shift at the magic wavelength under a change of the driving laser frequency is -0.2157 Hz/ (GHz kW/cm^2).

  17. On the transition to self-gravity in low mass AGN and YSO accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Huré, J M

    2000-01-01

    The equations governing the vertical structure of a stationary keplerian accretion disc are presented. The model is based on the alpha-viscosity, includes self-gravity, convective transport and turbulent pressure. A few properties of the model are discussed for circumstellar and AGN discs. We show the strong sensitivity of the disc structure to the viscous energy deposition towards the vertical axis, specially when entering inside the self-gravitating part of the disc. The local version of the alpha-prescription leads to a "singular" behavior which is also predicted by the vertically averaged model. With respect, a much softer transition is observed with the "alpha-P" formalism. Turbulent pressure is important only for alpha > 0.1. It lowers vertical density gradients, significantly thickens the disc, tends to wash out density inversions and pushes the self-gravitating region to slightly larger radii. Curves localizing the inner edge of the self-gravitating disc as functions of the viscosity parameter and acc...

  18. Evaluation of right ventricular volume and mass using retrospective ECG-gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: comparison with first-pass radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yongdong Severance Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Ryu, Young Hoon; Hur, Jin; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Byoung Wook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Young; Kim, Hyung Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pulmonology, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the right ventricular (RV) volume and mass using cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and to compare the cardiac MDCT results with those from first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRA). Twenty patients were evaluated for the RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), the RV end-systolic volume (RVESV), the RV ejection fraction (RVEF), and RV mass using cardiac MDCT with a two-phase reconstruction method based on ECG. The end-diastolic phase was reconstructed at the starting point of the QRS complex on ECG, and the end-systolic phase was reconstructed at the halfway point of the ascending T-wave on ECG. The RV mass was measured for the end-systole. The RVEF was also obtained by FPRA. The mean RVEF (47{+-}7%) measured by cardiac MDCT was well correlated with that (44{+-}6%) measured by FPRA (r=0.854). A significant difference in the mean RVEF was found between cardiac MDCT and FPRA (p=0.001), with an overestimation of 2.9{+-}5.3% by cardiac MDCT versus FPRA. The interobserver variability was 4.4% for the RVEDV, 6.8% for the RVESV, and 7.9% for the RV mass, respectively. Cardiac MDCT is relatively simple and allows the RV volume and mass to be assessed, and the RVEF obtained by cardiac MDCT correlates well with that measured by FPRA. (orig.)

  19. KOI-183b: a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting a very old solar-like star

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, D; Deeg, H J; Lanza, A F; Fridlund, M; Moroni, P G Prada; Alonso, R; Augusteijn, T; Cabrera, J; Evans, T; Geier, S; Hatzes, A P; Holczer, T; Hoyer, S; Kangas, T; Mazeh, T; Pagano, I; Tal-Or, L; Tingley, B

    2014-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic confirmation of the Kepler object of interest KOI-183b (also known as KOI-183.01), a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting an old solar-like star every 2.7 days. Our analysis is the first to combine the full Kepler photometry (quarters 1-17) with high-precision radial velocity measurements taken with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We simultaneously modelled the photometric and spectroscopic data-sets using Bayesian approach coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We found that the Kepler pre-search data conditioned (PDC) light curve of KOI-183 exhibits quarter-to-quarter systematic variations of the transit depth, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of about 4.3 % and seasonal trends reoccurring every four quarters. We attributed these systematics to an incorrect assessment of the quarterly variation of the crowding metric. The host star KOI-183 is a G4 dwarf with $M_\\star=0.85\\pm0.04$ M$_\\rm{Sun}$, $R_\\star=0.95\\pm0.04$ R$_\\rm{Sun}$, $T_\\mathrm{eff}=5560\\pm...

  20. Intervalley splitting and intersubband transitions in n -type Si/SiGe quantum wells: Pseudopotential vs. effective mass calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanis, A.; Ikonić, Z.; Kelsall, R. W.

    2007-05-01

    Intervalley mixing between conduction-band states in low-dimensional Si/SiGe heterostructures induces splitting between nominally degenerate energy levels. The symmetric double-valley effective mass approximation and the empirical pseudopotential method are used to find the electronic states in different types of quantum wells. A reasonably good agreement between the two methods is found, with the former being much faster computationally. Aside from being an oscillatory function of well width, the splitting is found to be almost independent of in-plane wave vector, and an increasing function of the magnitude of interface gradient. While the model is defined for symmetric envelope potentials, it is shown to remain reasonably accurate for slightly asymmetric structures such as a double quantum well, making it acceptable for simulation of multilayer intersubband optical devices. Intersubband optical transitions are investigated under both approximations and it is shown that in most cases valley splitting causes linewidth broadening, although under extreme conditions, transition line doublets may result.

  1. Determination of bond energies by mass spectrometry. Some transition metal carbonyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of transition metal carbonyls have been studied, M(CO)/sub 6/ and M(CO)/sub 5/CS complexes of the Group VIB metals and M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/ complexes of the Group VIIB metals. Results for the hexacarbonyl complexes indicate that the measured fragmentation energies are in error by 0.25 +- 0.02 eV per CO produced. This is attributed to excitation of CO to the first vibrational state. Least-squares dissociation energies calculated from corrected data for M(CO)/sub 5/CS complexes indicate that the M--CS bond is 3 to 4 times stronger than the M--CO bonds. Substitution of CS for CO in going from M(CO)/sub 6/ to M(CO)/sub 5/CS weakens the remaining M--CO bonds by an average of 0.2 eV. Previously unreported MnTc(CO)/sub 10/ and TcRe(CO)/sub 10/ are prepared by halide substitution of Tc(CO)/sub 5/Br and Re(CO)/sub 5/Br with Mn(CO)/sub 5//sup -/ and Tc(CO)/sub 5//sup -/, respectively. In the positive ion, metal and mixed-metal decacarbonyls are considered as (CO)/sub 5/M/sup +/--M(CO)/sub 5/ complexes possessing five strong and five weak M--CO bonds. For Mn/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/ and Re/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/, M/sup +/--M dissociation energies are 3.0 +- 0.1 and 4.0 +- 0.3 eV, respectively. These energies are 2.5 times greater than those reported for homolytic cleavage to M(CO)/sub 5//sup +/ and M(CO)/sub 5/.

  2. Prostate specific antigen in a community-based sample of men without prostate cancer: Correlations with prostate volume, age, body mass index, and symptoms of prostatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); C.H. Bangma (Chris); W.J. Kirkels (Wim); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe correlation between both prostate specific antigen levels (PSA) and prostate specific antigen density (PSAD) and age, prostate volume parameters, body mass index, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were studied in a community‐based population. A sample of 502 men age

  3. Volume, Mass, And Nutrients Of Down Woody Debris Following Initial Shortleaf Pine-Bluestem Grass Restoration Activities In The Ouachita Mountains Of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica C. Seifert; Hal O. Liechty; Martin A. Spetich; Daniel A. Marion

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The Ouachita National Forest is restoring pine-mixed hardwood forests to a shortleaf pine-bluestem grass ecosystem through harvesting, midstory control, and the application of prescribed fire. Mean mass and volume of downed woody debris (DWD) in plots following initial harvesting and midstory-control were respectively 335 percent and 253...

  4. Forest volume-to-biomass models and estimates of mass for live and standing dead trees of U.S. forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2003-01-01

    Includes methods and equations for nationally consistent estimates of tree-mass density at the stand level (Mg/ha) as predicted by growing-stock volumes reported by the USDA Forest Service for forests of the conterminous United States. Developed for use in FORCARB, a carbon budget model for U.S. forests, the equations also are useful for converting plot-, stand- and...

  5. Prediction by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN of the diffusivity, mass, moisture, volume and solids on osmotically dehydrated yacon (Smallantus sonchifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rojas Naccha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The predictive ability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN on the effect of the concentration (30, 40, 50 y 60 % w/w and temperature (30, 40 y 50°C of fructooligosaccharides solution, in the mass, moisture, volume and solids of osmodehydrated yacon cubes, and in the coefficients of the water means effective diffusivity with and without shrinkage was evaluated. The Feedforward type ANN with the Backpropagation training algorithms and the Levenberg-Marquardt weight adjustment was applied, using the following topology: 10-5 goal error, 0.01 learning rate, 0.5 moment coefficient, 2 input neurons, 6 output neurons, one hidden layer with 18 neurons, 15 training stages and logsig-pureline transfer functions. The overall average error achieved by the ANN was 3.44% and correlation coefficients were bigger than 0.9. No significant differences were found between the experimental values and the predicted values achieved by the ANN and with the predicted values achieved by a statistical model of second-order polynomial regression (p > 0.95.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Finite Deformation of Overbroken Rock Mass in Gob Area Based on Euler Model of Control Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-qun; MIAO Xie-xing

    2006-01-01

    The overbroken rock mass of gob areas is made up of broken and accumulated rock blocks compressed to some extent by the overlying strata. The bearing pressure of the gob can directly affect the safety of mining fields, formation of road retained along the next goaf and seepage of water and methane through the gob. In this paper, the software RFPA'2000 is used to construct numerical models. Especially the Euler method of control volume is proposed to solve the simulation difficulty arising from plastically finite deformations. The results show that three characteristic regions occurred in the gob area: (1) a naturally accumulated region, 0-10 m away from unbroken surrounding rock walls, where the bearing pressure is nearly zero; (2) an overcompacted region, 10-20 m away from unbroken walls, where the bearing pressure results in the maximum value of the gob area; (3) a stable compaction region, more than 20 m away from unbroken walls and occupying absolutely most of the gob area, where the bearing pressures show basically no differences. Such a characteristic can explain the easy-seepaged "O"-ring phenomena around mining fields very well.

  7. Geomorphology of Late Quaternary Mass Movement Deposits using a Decimetre-Resolution 3D Seismic Volume: Case Studies from Windermere, UK, and Trondheimsfjorden, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, M. E.; Dix, J. K.; Henstock, T.; Bull, J. M.; Pinson, L.; L'Heureux, J.; Longva, O.; Hansen, L.; Chand, S.; Gutowski, M.

    2009-12-01

    We present results from decimetre resolution 3D seismic volumes acquired over Late Quaternary mass movement deposits in both Lake Windermere, UK, and the Trondheim Harbour area, central Norway. Both deposits were imaged using the 3D Chirp sub-bottom profiler, which combines the known, highly repeatable source waveform of Chirp profilers with the coherent processing and interpretation afforded by true 3D seismic volumes. Reflector morphology from these two volumes are used to identify and map structure on scales of 10s cm to 100s metres. This shows the applicability of the method for the interpretation of failure mechanism, flow morphology and depositional style in these two environments. In Windermere, Younger Dryas deposits have been substantially reworked by the episodic redistribution of sediment from the steep lakesides into the basin. Within the 100 x 400 m 3D seismic volume we identify two small debris flow deposits (1500 m3 and 60,000 m3) and one large (500,000 m3) erosive mass flow deposit. These two depositional mechanisms are distinct. The debris flows have high amplitude, chaotic internal reflections, with a high amplitude reflector representing a lower erosional boundary, discontinuous low amplitude top reflector, and thin out rapidly with distance from the lake margin. The thicker mass flow unit lacks internal structure, and has high amplitude top and base reflectors,. In the Trondheim Harbour we image the down-slope extent of three large slide blocks (which have a net volume > 1 x 106 m3), mobilised by a landslide in 1990, in the 100 x 450 m 3D seismic volume. The morphology of these mass movement deposits is distinct again; demonstrating translational failure along a clear slip plane, leaving well defined slide scars, and forming prominent compressional/extensional structures.

  8. Emissions of Water and Carbon Dioxide from Fossil-Fuel Combustion Contribute Directly to Ocean Mass and Volume Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The direct, non-climate, contribution of carbon dioxide and water emissions from fossil-fuel (FF) combustion to the volume and mass of the oceans has been omitted from estimates of sea-level rise (SLR) in IPCC reports. Following the method of Gornitz et al. (1997), H2O emissions are estimated using carbon emissions from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, along with typical carbon and hydrogen contents of FF. Historic H2O emissions from 1750 to 2010 amount to 430 ±50 PgH2O, equivalent to 1.2 ±0.2 mmSLR. Sometime in this decade the volume of H2O from historic FF combustion will exceed the volume of Lake Erie (480 km3). CO2 dissolved in the ocean increases the seawater volume by 31-33 mL mol-1 CO2. From 1750 to 2010, 370 ±70 PgCO2 from FF combustion has dissolved in the oceans, causing 0.7 ±0.2 mmSLR. Combined H2O+CO2emissions from FF have therefore added 1.9 ±0.4 mm to sea levels in the Industrial Era. Combustion of FF in 2010 resulted in emissions of 32 PgCO2 and 12 ±1 PgH2O. SLR contributions for that year from FF emissions were 0.033 ±0.005 mm from H2O and 0.011±0.003 mm from dissolved CO2, a total rate of 0.044 ±0.008 mm yr-1. Emissions incorporated in socio-economic models underlying the RCP 8.5 and 2.6 scenarios are used along with concentration-driven CMIP5 Earth System Models results to estimate future sea-level rise from FF combustion. From 2010 to 2100, RCP8.5 and 2.6 models respectively produce 9 ±2 mmSLR and 5 ±1 mmSLR from FF H2O+CO2. For perspective, these amounts are larger than the modelled contributions from loss of glaciers in the Andes. The direct contribution of FF emissions to SLR is small (1-2%) relative to current rates and projected estimates under RCP scenarios up to 2100. The magnitude is similar to SLR estimates from other minor sources such as the melting of floating ice, land-use emissions and produced water from oil operations, none of which are currently included in SLR assessments. As uncertainties in

  9. ScienceToGo.org: The Strengths and Weaknesses of Communicating Climate Change through Mass Transit Advertising Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Wilson, R.; Rabkin, D.; Thompson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Engaging urban populations with climate change science is a difficult challenge since cities can seem so removed from the `natural environment.' However, mass transit provides an inherent means of communicating environmental messages with a cross section of the urban population. The Out of Home Media (OHM) spaces found on platforms and inside train cars provide a potentially effective means of bringing informal science learning opportunities directly to an underserved STEM audience. Our team felt that any messaging curriculum for a coastal urban subway system must complement the scary reality of the impacts of a changing climate (i.e. rising sea levels) with current examples of how the city is preparing for a more sustainable future. Urban areas such as Boston must develop adaptation and mitigation strategies that will help them not only survive, but thrive in a changing environment. In 2013-14, ScienceToGo.org ran a series of 12 engaging posters and placards staring `Ozzie the Ostrich' on the Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority's Red and Orange subway lines targeting an audience of more than 400,000 riders per day. The 12 month curriculum was divided into three phases: reality, relevance, and hope. During the presentation, we will present the results of our quasi-experimental research which identifies, quantifies, and explains the observed impacts of the campaign on adult riders. The strengths and weaknesses of the communication strategy will be discussed. Finally, we will conclude with some recommendations for how this work could improve and inform other urban informal science learning initiatives.

  10. Relative Importance of Aortic Stiffness and Volume as Predictors of Treatment-Induced Improvement in Left Ventricular Mass Index in Dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis I Georgianos

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the relative contribution of aortic stiffness and volume in treatment-induced change of left ventricular mass in dialysis. Hypertension in Hemodialysis Patients Treated with Atenolol or Lisinopril trial compared the effect of lisinopril versus atenolol in reducing left ventricular mass index; 179 patients with echo measurements of aortic pulse wave velocity and left ventricular mass at baseline were included. In unadjusted analysis, overall reductions of 26.24 g/m2 (95% CI: -49.20, -3.29 and 35.67 g/m2 (95% CI: -63.70, -7.64 in left ventricular mass index were noted from baseline to 6 and 12 months respectively. Volume control emerged as an important determinant of regression of left ventricular mass index due to the following reasons: (i additional control for change in ambulatory systolic blood pressure mitigated the reduction in left ventricular mass index in the statistical model above [6-month visit: -18.6 g/m2 (95% CI: -43.7, 6.5; 12-month visit: -22.1 g/m2 (95% CI: -52.2, 8.0] (ii regression of left ventricular hypertrophy was primarily due to reduction in left ventricular chamber and not wall thickness and (iii adjustment for inferior vena cava diameter (as a proxy for volume removed the effect of time on left ventricular mass index reduction [6-month visit: -6.6 g/m2 (95% CI: (-41.6, 28.4; 12-month visit: 0.6 g/m2 (95% CI: -39.5, 40.7]. In contrast, aortic pulse wave velocity was neither a determinant of baseline left ventricular mass index nor predictor of its reduction. Among dialysis patients, ambulatory systolic pressure, a proxy for volume expansion, but not aortic stiffness is more important predictor of reduction in left ventricular mass index. Improving blood pressure control via adequate volume management appears as an effective strategy to improve left ventricular hypertrophy in dialysis.

  11. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S; Petersen, C L; Mehlsen, J; Holmquist, N; Larsson, B; Kjaer, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing) three times 30 min/week for 8 weeks at a relative intensity of 72+/-8% of their maximal heart rate response (mean+/-SD). Before and after 8 weeks of endurance training, the left and the right end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV) and ventricular mass (VM) were measured by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Submaximal heart rate decreased from 126+/-5 to 113+/-3 b.p.m. (10%; Pright side of the heart showed significant changes in SV, EDV and VM with increase of 4%, 4% and 12%, respectively (Pright ventricular SV, due to an increase in left ventricular EDV and right ventricular EDV. Furthermore, left VM and right VM increased. We conclude that using MRI and a longitudinal design it was possible to demonstrate similar and balanced changes in the right and left ventricle in response to training.

  12. Examination of forensic entomology evidence using computed tomography scanning: case studies and refinement of techniques for estimating maggot mass volumes in bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James

    2012-09-01

    A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.

  13. Performance optimization in mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol HX photopolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-05-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in smart glasses and augmented reality (SG and AR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept, discuss the opto-mechanical construction and outline the downstream process of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we focus on aspects like performance optimization of the copy vHOE, the bleaching process and the suitable choice of protective cover film in the re-lamination step, preparing the integration of the vHOE into the final device.

  14. Phase transition studies of the odd-mass 123-135Xe isotopes based on SU(1,1) algebra in IBFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Fouladi, N.; Ghapanvari, M.; Fathi, H.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the positive-parity states in the odd-mass transitional 123-135Xe isotopes within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. Two solvable extended transitional Hamiltonians which are based on SU(1,1) algebra are employed to provide an investigation of quantum phase transition (QPT) between the spherical and deformed gamma — unstable shapes along the chain of Xe isotopes. The low-states energy spectra and B(E2) values for these nuclei have been calculated and compared with the experimental data. The predicted excitation energies and B(E2) transition rates of the odd isotopes are found to agree well with the experimental data. We have also analyzed the critical behavior of even-odd Xe isotopes via Catastrophe Theory in combination with a coherent state formalism to generate energy surfaces and special isotopes which are the best candidates for the critical point are identified.

  15. Volume of larvae Is the most important single predictor of mass temperatures in the forensically important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S. V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.; Turco, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (∼50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ∼50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to the data; the models were then scored and ranked with Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. The results indicate that although instar, age, treatment temperature, elapsed time, and number of larvae in a mass were significant, larval volume was the best predictor of larval mass temperatures. The volume of a larval mass may need to be taken into consideration for determination of a postmortem interval.

  16. Volume of Larvae Is the Most Important Single Predictor of Mass Temperatures in the Forensically Important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S V; Slone, D H; Capinera, J L; Turco, M P

    2017-01-01

    Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (∼50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ∼50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to the data; the models were then scored and ranked with Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. The results indicate that although instar, age, treatment temperature, elapsed time, and number of larvae in a mass were significant, larval volume was the best predictor of larval mass temperatures. The volume of a larval mass may need to be taken into consideration for determination of a postmortem interval.

  17. Mass determination of K2-19b and K2-19c from radial velocities and transit timing variations

    CERN Document Server

    Nespral, D; Deeg, H J; Borsato, L; Fridlund, M C V; Barragan, O; Grziwa, S; Korth, J; Cabrera, J; Csizmadia, Sz; Nowak, G; Kuutma, T; Saario, J; Eigmuller, P; Erikson, A; Guenther, E W; Hatzes, A P; Rodriguez, P Montanes; Palle, E; Patzold, M; Prieto-Arranz, J; Rauer, H; Sebastian, D

    2016-01-01

    We present FIES@NOT and HARPS-N@TNG radial velocity follow-up observations of K2-19, a compact planetary system hosting three planets, of which the two larger ones, namely K2-19b and K2-19c, are close to the 3:2 mean motion resonance. The masses of these larger planets have previously been derived from transit timing only. An analysis considering only the radial velocity measurements is able to detect only K2-19b, the largest and more massive planet in the system, with a mass of $71.7\\pm6.3$ M${_\\oplus}$. We also used the TRADES code to simultaneously model both our RV measurements and the existing transit-timing measurements. We derived a mass of K2-19b of $59.5^{+7.2}_{-11.4}$ M${_\\oplus}$ and of K2-19c of $9.7^{+3.9}_{-2.0}$ M${_\\oplus}$. A prior K2-19b mass estimated by Barros 2015, based exclusively on transit timing measurements, is only consistent with our combined TTV and RV analysis, but not with our analysis based purely on RV measurements. K2-19b supports the suspicion that planet masses and densit...

  18. ATAQS: A computational software tool for high throughput transition optimization and validation for selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Hector

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its inception, proteomics has essentially operated in a discovery mode with the goal of identifying and quantifying the maximal number of proteins in a sample. Increasingly, proteomic measurements are also supporting hypothesis-driven studies, in which a predetermined set of proteins is consistently detected and quantified in multiple samples. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM is a targeted mass spectrometric technique that supports the detection and quantification of specific proteins in complex samples at high sensitivity and reproducibility. Here, we describe ATAQS, an integrated software platform that supports all stages of targeted, SRM-based proteomics experiments including target selection, transition optimization and post acquisition data analysis. This software will significantly facilitate the use of targeted proteomic techniques and contribute to the generation of highly sensitive, reproducible and complete datasets that are particularly critical for the discovery and validation of targets in hypothesis-driven studies in systems biology. Result We introduce a new open source software pipeline, ATAQS (Automated and Targeted Analysis with Quantitative SRM, which consists of a number of modules that collectively support the SRM assay development workflow for targeted proteomic experiments (project management and generation of protein, peptide and transitions and the validation of peptide detection by SRM. ATAQS provides a flexible pipeline for end-users by allowing the workflow to start or end at any point of the pipeline, and for computational biologists, by enabling the easy extension of java algorithm classes for their own algorithm plug-in or connection via an external web site. This integrated system supports all steps in a SRM-based experiment and provides a user-friendly GUI that can be run by any operating system that allows the installation of the Mozilla Firefox web browser. Conclusions Targeted

  19. Cool Science: Year 2 of Using Children's Artwork about Climate Change to Engage Riders on Mass Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    A team of educators and scientists from the University of Massachusetts Lowell and the University of Massachusetts Boston will report on the second year of an informal science learning research project using mass transit spaces in Lowell, MA. Cool Science (CS) conducts a statewide art competition for K-12 students in the fall challenging them to express climate science understanding through the visual arts. An inter-disciplinary panel of judges evaluates entries and identifies the top 24 works of art. The best six student works of art are then put on public display throughout the spring on the Lowell Regional Transit Authority (LRTA). Displaying student artwork in Out of Home Multi-Media (OHMM) such as bus placards and posters is intended to engage riders with opportunities to learn informally. CS aims to promote and evaluate learning about climate change science among the general public and k-12 students/teachers. The goals of CS are: 1) Engage teachers, students, and parents in a climate change science communication competition. 2) Display the winning 6 artworks from K-12 students throughout the LRTA. 3) Assess the impact of Cool Science on the teaching and learning of climate science in K-12 formal education. 4) Assess the impact of Cool Science artwork on attitudes, awareness, and understanding of climate change among adult bus riders. A naturalistic inquiry employing a mixed methodology approach best describes our research design. The evaluation focuses on providing feedback regarding the potential learning outcomes for the K-12 students who create the media for the project and the general riding public who engage with the student artwork. To identify possible outcomes, data was collected in the several forms: survey, interviews, and online analytics. We see an urgent need to improve both the public's engagement with climate change science and to the profile of climate change science in formal education settings. The Cool Science (CS) project is an opportunity

  20. Sensitivity to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio of torsion-wagging-rotation transitions in methylamine CH3NH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyushin, Vadim V.; Jansen, Paul; Kozlov, Mikhail G.; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L.

    2012-03-01

    We determine the sensitivity to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio μ for torsion-wagging-rotation transitions in the ground state of methylamine (CH3NH2). Our calculation uses an effective Hamiltonian based on a high-barrier tunneling formalism combined with extended-group ideas. The μ dependence of the molecular parameters that are used in this model are derived, and the most important ones of these are validated using the spectroscopic data of different isotopologues of methylamine. We find a significant enhancement of the sensitivity coefficients due to energy cancellations between internal rotational, overall rotational, and inversion energy splittings. The sensitivity coefficients of the different transitions range from -19 to +24. The sensitivity coefficients of the 78.135, 79.008, and 89.956 GHz transitions that were recently observed in the disk of a z=0.89 spiral galaxy located in front of the quasar PKS 1830-211 [S. Muller , Astron. Astrophys.AAEJAF0004-636110.1051/0004-6361/201117096 535, A103 (2011)] were calculated to be -0.87 for the first two and -1.4 for the third transition. From these transitions a preliminary upper limit for a variation of the proton to electron mass ratio of Δμ/μ<9×10-6 is deduced.

  1. Zooplankton biomass data (displacement volume, wet mass, and dry mass) collected by the Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SFRI) in the active upwelling zone on the west coast of South Africa 1969-12-02 to 1969-12-16 (NODC Accession 0071850)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data (displacement volume, wet mass, and dry mass) collected by South African the Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SFRI) during SFRI upwelling...

  2. Accuracy and variability of right ventricular volumes and mass assessed by dual-source computed tomography: influence of slice orientation in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Christoph J. [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Duke University Medical Center, Duke Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center, Durham, NC (United States); Wolf, Alexander; Eberle, Holger C.; Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Nassenstein, Kai; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate the accuracy and variability of right ventricular (RV) volumes and mass using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of slice orientation in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). In 33 patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR, RV parameters were calculated using the short-axis (DSCT, CMR) and axial orientation (DSCT). Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Short-axis orientation: RV parameters of the two techniques were not statistically different. Axial orientation: RV volumes and mass were significantly overestimated compared with short-axis parameters whereas EF was similar. The short-axis approach resulted in low variability, although the axial orientation had the least amount of intra- and interobserver variability. RV parameters can be more accurately assessed by DSCT compared with CMR using short-axis slice orientation. RV volumes and mass are significantly higher using axial compared with short-axis slices, whereas EF is unaffected. RV parameters derived from both approaches yield high reproducibility. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative assessment of irradiated lung volume and lung mass in breast cancer patients treated with tangential fields in combination with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, Karin Sigrid [Univ. Clinic of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria); Zurl, Brigitte; Stranzl, Heidi; Winkler, Peter

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Comparison of the amount of irradiated lung tissue volume and mass in patients with breast cancer treated with an optimized tangential-field technique with and without a deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique and its impact on the normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP). Material and Methods: Computed tomography datasets of 60 patients in normal breathing (NB) and subsequently in DIBH were compared. With a Real-Time Position Management Respiratory Gating System (RPM), anteroposterior movement of the chest wall was monitored and a lower and upper threshold were defined. Ipsilateral lung and a restricted tangential region of the lung were delineated and the mean and maximum doses calculated. Irradiated lung tissue mass was computed based on density values. NTCP for lung was calculated using a modified Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Results: Mean dose to the ipsilateral lung in DIBH versus NB was significantly reduced by 15%. Mean lung mass calculation in the restricted area receiving {<=} 20 Gy (M{sub 20}) was reduced by 17% in DIBH but associated with an increase in volume. NTCP showed an improvement in DIBH of 20%. The correlation of individual breathing amplitude with NTCP proved to be independent. Conclusion: The delineation of a restricted area provides the lung mass calculation in patients treated with tangential fields. DIBH reduces ipsilateral lung dose by inflation so that less tissue remains in the irradiated region and its efficiency is supported by a decrease of NTCP. (orig.)

  4. Heat and Mass Transfer of the Droplet Vacuum Freezing Process Based on the Diffusion-controlled Evaporation and Phase Transition Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Gao, Jingxin; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-10-01

    A frozen phase transition model is developed to investigate the heat and mass transfer of a single water droplet during the vacuum freezing process. The model is based on the diffusion-controlled evaporation mechanism and phase transition characteristics. The droplet vacuum freezing process can be divided into three stages according to the droplet states and the time order. It includes the evaporation freezing stage, the isothermal freezing stage and the sublimation freezing stage. A numerical calculation is performed, and the result is analysed. The effects of the vacuum chamber pressure, initial droplet diameter and initial droplet temperature on the heat and mass transfer characteristics at each stage are studied. The droplet experiences supercooling breakdown at the end of the evaporation freezing stage before the isothermal freezing stage begins. The temperature is transiently raised as a result of the supercooling breakdown phenomenon, whose effects on the freezing process and freezing parameters are considered.

  5. Les annees de transition: une epoque de changement. Reveu et analyse des projets pilotes sur les questions relatives aux annees de Transition. Volume 1: Resume (Year of Transition: Times for Change. A Review and Analysis of Pilot Projects Investigating Issues in the Transition Years. Volume 1: Summary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; And Others

    In 1990, the Ontario (Canada) Ministry of Education implemented the Transition Years project, an initiative for restructuring middle-grades education. This French-language document presents findings of a study that identified effective policies and practices used by the pilot schools. Data were derived from: (1) surveys completed by staffs in…

  6. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X......-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scanning, respectively. The lithogenic index was measured in aspirated bile. The gallbladder volume was determined by ultrasound and the gallbladder ejection fraction% by dynamic cholescintigraphy. Plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations during a meal were measured...

  7. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...

  8. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Kennedy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  9. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Mauno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. Aims To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. Methods School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. Results The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD: 30.6 (SD 12.2 vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5; p  Conclusions Body mass, self-esteem and eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  10. SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. XIV. KOI-189 B and KOI-686 B: two very low-mass stars in long-period orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, R F; Bonomo, A S; Deleuil, M; Almenara, J M; Barros, S C C; Bouchy, F; Bruno, G; Damiani, C; Hébrard, G; Moutou, C; Santerne, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the radial-velocity follow-up of two Kepler planetary transiting candidates (KOI-189 and KOI-686) carried out with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. These data promptly discard these objects as viable planet candidates and show that the transiting objects are in the regime of very low-mass stars, where a strong discrepancy between observations and models persists for the mass and radius parameters. By combining the SOPHIE spectra with the Kepler light curve and photometric measurements found in the literature, we obtain a full characterization of the transiting companions, their orbits, and their host stars. The two companions are in significantly eccentric orbits with relatively long periods (30 days and 52.5 days), which makes them suitable objects for a comparison with theoretical models, since the effects invoked to understand the discrepancy with observations are weaker for these orbital distances. KOI-189 B has a mass M = 0.0745 +/- 0.0033 Msun and a radius R = 0....

  11. Health co-benefits in mortality avoidance from implementation of the mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Soo Chen; Tainio, Marko; Woodcock, James; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    The mass rapid transit (MRT) is the largest transport infrastructure project under the national key economic area (NKEA) in Malaysia. As urban rail is anticipated to be the future spine of public transport network in the Greater Kuala Lumpur city, it is important to mainstream climate change mitigation and public health benefits in the local transport development. This study quantifies the health co-benefits in terms of mortality among the urbanites when the first line of the 150 km MRT system in Kuala Lumpur commences by 2017. Using comparative health risk assessment, we estimated the potential health co-benefits from the establishment of the MRT system. We estimated the reduced CO2 emissions and air pollution (PM2.5) exposure reduction among the general population from the reduced use of motorized vehicles. Mortality avoided from traffic incidents involving motorcycles and passenger cars, and from increased physical activity from walking while using the MRT system was also estimated. A total of 363,130 tonnes of CO2 emissions could be reduced annually from the modal shift from cars and motorcycles to the MRT system. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentration could be reduced 0.61 μg/m3 annually (2%). This could avoid a total of 12 deaths, mostly from cardio-respiratory diseases among the city residents. For traffic injuries, 37 deaths could be avoided annually from motorcycle and passenger cars accidents especially among the younger age categories (aged 15-30). One additional death was attributed to pedestrian walking. The additional daily physical activity to access the MRT system could avoid 21 deaths among its riders. Most of the mortality avoided comes from cardiovascular diseases. Overall, a total of 70 deaths could be avoided annually among both the general population and the MRT users in the city. The implementation of the MRT system in Greater Kuala Lumpur could bring substantial health co-benefits to both the general population and the MRT users mainly from the

  12. It’s what’s inside that counts: Egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm3) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6–13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  13. The origin and crust/mantle mass balance of Central Andean ignimbrite magmatism constrained by oxygen and strontium isotopes and erupted volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymuth, Heye; Brandmeier, Melanie; Wörner, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Volcanism during the Neogene in the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the Andes produced (1) stratovolcanoes, (2) rhyodacitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites which reach volumes of generally less than 300 km3 and (3) large-volume monotonous dacitic ignimbrites of up to several thousand cubic kilometres. We present models for the origin of these magma types using O and Sr isotopes to constrain crust/mantle proportions for the large-volume ignimbrites and explore the relationship to the evolution of the Andean crust. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured on phenocrysts in order to avoid the effects of secondary alteration. Our results show a complete overlap in the Sr-O isotope compositions of lavas from stratovolcanoes and low-volume rhyolitic ignimbrites as well as older (>9 Ma) large-volume dacitic ignimbrites. This suggests that the mass balance of crustal and mantle components are largely similar. By contrast, younger (70 km3 Ma-1 km-1 (assuming plutonic/volcanic ratios of 1:5) which are additional to, but within the order of, the arc background magmatic flux. Comparing our results to average shortening rates observed in the Andes, we observe a "lag-time" with large-volume eruptions occurring after accelerated shortening. A similar delay exists between the ignimbrite pulses and the subduction of the Juan Fernandez ridge. This is consistent with the idea that large-volume ignimbrite eruptions occurred in the wake of the N-S passage of the ridge after slab steepening has allowed hot asthenospheric mantle to ascend into and cause the melting of the mantle wedge. In our model, the older large-volume dacitic ignimbrites in the northern part of the CVZ have lower (15-37 %) crustal contributions because they were produced at times when the Central Andean crust was thinner and colder, and large-scale melting in the middle crust could not be achieved. Younger ignimbrite flare-ups further south (22°S) formed with a significantly higher crustal contribution (22-68 %) because at that

  14. Terrestrial and unmanned aerial system imagery for deriving photogrammetric three-dimensional point clouds and volume models of mass wasting sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, Martin; Schütt, Fabian; Höfle, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) geodata of mass wasting sites are important to model surfaces, volumes, and their changes over time. With a photogrammetric approach commonly known as structure from motion, 3-D point clouds can be derived from image collections in a straightforward way. The quality of point clouds covering a quarry dump derived from terrestrial and aerial imagery is compared and assessed. A comprehensive set of quality indicators is calculated and compared to surveyed reference data and to a terrestrial LiDAR point cloud. The examined indicators are completeness of coverage, point density, vertical accuracy, multiscale point cloud distance, scaling accuracy, and dump volume. It is found that the photogrammetric datasets generally represent the examined dump well with, for example, an area coverage of up to 90% and 100% in case of terrestrial and aerial imagery, respectively, a maximum scaling difference of 0.62%, and volume estimations reaching up to 100% of the LiDAR reference. Combining the advantages of 3-D geodata derived from terrestrial (high detail, accurate volume calculation even with a small number of input images) and aerial images (high coverage) can be a promising method to further improve the quality of 3-D geodata derived with low-cost approaches.

  15. Nanoliter-volume protein enrichment, tryptic digestion, and partial separation based on isoelectric points by CE for MALDI mass spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Chandra A; Jurcic, Kristina; Yeung, Ken K-C

    2008-01-01

    Sequence-specific proteolysis is an important part of protein identification by MS. Digestion of protein is commonly performed in-solution, in sample vials with volumes ranging from milli- to microliters. When digestion is performed with a sample volume below 1 microL, handling of solution and potential sample loss via adsorption become significant issues. In this report, a proof of concept for the digestion of a small volume protein solution inside a capillary was demonstrated using a discontinuous buffer system previously studied (Nesbitt, C. A., et al. J. Chromatogr. A 2005, 1073, 175-180). Upon voltage application, a pH junction was created by the discontinuous buffer. Using myoglobin as an example, the protein molecules were enriched at the junction with an estimated volume of a few nanoliters. A protease, trypsin, was then introduced to myoglobin at the junction by coenrichment to induce in-capillary digestion. The voltage application was then suspended to provide the necessary time (2 h) for the proteolysis to proceed. When completed, voltage application was resumed, and the discontinuous buffer reconcentrated the peptides formed from digestion. Importantly, the refocused peptides appeared to roughly elute according to their pIs, resulting in a partial separation. Direct sample deposition from capillary was performed to facilitate mass spectral analysis by MALDI. The partial separation, according to pI, offered the potential benefits of MALDI MS signal enhancement and provided supplementary pI information for peptide identity assignment.

  16. Nuclear shape phase transition within a conjonction of {\\gamma}-rigid and {\\gamma}-stable collective behaviours in deformation dependent mass formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Chabab, M; Lahbas, A; Oulne, M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study of a conjonction of $\\gamma$-rigid and $\\gamma$-stable collective motions in critical point symmetries of the phase transitions from spherical to deformed shapes of nuclei using exactly separable version of the Bohr Hamiltonian with deformation-dependent mass term. The deformation-dependent mass is applied simultaneously to $\\gamma$-rigid and $\\gamma$-stable parts of this famous collective Hamiltonian. Moreover, the $\\beta$ part of the problem is described by means of Davidson potential, while the $\\gamma$-angular part corresponding to axially symmetric shapes is treated by a Harmonic Osillator potential. The energy eigenvalues and normalized eigenfunctions of the problem are obtained in compact forms by making use of the asymptotic iteration method. The combined effect of the deformation-dependent mass and rigidity as well as harmonic oscillator stiffness parameters on the energy spectrum and wave functions is duly investigated. Also, the electric quadrupole tran...

  17. Nanoparticle volume fraction with heat and mass transfer on MHD mixed convection flow in a nanofluid in the presence of thermo-diffusion under convective boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, R.; Jeyabalan, C.; Sivagnana Prabhu, K. K.

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the influence of thermophoresis, Brownian motion of the nanoparticles with variable stream conditions in the presence of magnetic field on mixed convection heat and mass transfer in the boundary layer region of a semi-infinite porous vertical plate in a nanofluid under the convective boundary conditions. The transformed boundary layer ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using Maple 18 software with fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Numerical results are presented both in tabular and graphical forms illustrating the effects of these parameters with magnetic field on momentum, thermal, nanoparticle volume fraction and solutal concentration boundary layers. The numerical results obtained for the velocity, temperature, volume fraction, and concentration profiles reveal interesting phenomenon, some of these qualitative results are presented through plots. It is interesting to note that the magnetic field plays a dominant role on nanofluid flow under the convective boundary conditions.

  18. An approach for determining quantitative measures for bone volume and bone mass in the pediatric spina bifida population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horenstein, Rachel E; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Mueske, Nicole M; Fisher, Carissa L; Wren, Tishya A L

    2015-08-01

    The pediatric spina bifida population suffers from decreased mobility and recurrent fractures. This study aimed to develop a method for quantifying bone mass along the entire tibia in youth with spina bifida. This will provide information about all potential sites of bone deficiencies. Computed tomography images of the tibia for 257 children (n=80 ambulatory spina bifida, n=10 non-ambulatory spina bifida, n=167 typically developing) were analyzed. Bone area was calculated at regular intervals along the entire tibia length and then weighted by calibrated pixel intensity for density weighted bone area. Integrals of density weighted bone area were used to quantify bone mass in the proximal and distal epiphyses and diaphysis. Group differences were evaluated using analysis of variance. Non-ambulatory children suffer from decreased bone mass in the diaphysis and proximal and distal epiphyses compared to ambulatory and control children (P≤0.001). Ambulatory children with spina bifida showed statistically insignificant differences in bone mass in comparison to typically developing children at these sites (P>0.5). This method provides insight into tibial bone mass distribution in the pediatric spina bifida population by incorporating information along the whole length of the bone, thereby providing more information than dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. This method can be applied to any population to assess bone mass distribution across the length of any long bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Three sub-Jupiter-mass planets: WASP-69b & WASP-84b transit active K dwarfs and WASP-70Ab transits the evolved primary of a G4+K3 binary

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D R; Delrez, L; Doyle, A P; Faedi, F; Fumel, A; Gillon, M; Chew, Y Gómez Maqueo; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Ségransan, D; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Southworth, J; Triaud, A H M J; Turner, O D; Udry, S; West, R G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b, each of which orbits a bright star (V~10). WASP-69b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.26 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, 1.06 R$_{\\rm Jup}$) in a 3.868-d period around an active mid-K dwarf. We estimate a stellar age of 1 Gyr from both gyrochronological and age-activity relations, though an alternative gyrochronological relation suggests an age of 3 Gyr. ROSAT detected X-rays at a distance of 60$\\pm$27 arcsec from WASP-69. If the star is the source then the planet could be undergoing mass-loss at a rate of ~10$^{12}$ g s$^{-1}$. This is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the evaporation rate estimated for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which have exhibited anomalously-large Lyman-{\\alpha} absorption during transit. WASP-70Ab is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.59 M$_{\\rm Jup}$, 1.16R$_{\\rm Jup}$) in a 3.713-d orbit around the primary of a spatially-resolved G4+K3 binary, with a separation of 3.3 arcsec ($\\geq$800 AU). We exploit the binar...

  20. HAT-P-18b and HAT-P-19b: Two Low-density Saturn-mass Planets Transiting Metal-rich K Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Sato, B.; Torres, G.; Noyes, R. W.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, G.; Fischer, D. A.; Howard, A. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Füresz, G.; Perumpilly, G.; Béky, B.; Stefanik, R. P.; Sasselov, D. D.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Everett, M.; Csubry, Z.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new transiting extrasolar planets. HAT-P-18b orbits the V = 12.759 K2 dwarf star GSC 2594-00646, with a period P = 5.508023 ± 0.000006 days, transit epoch Tc = 2454715.02174 ± 0.00020 (BJD), and transit duration 0.1131 ± 0.0009 days. The host star has a mass of 0.77 ± 0.03 M sun, radius of 0.75 ± 0.04 R sun, effective temperature 4803 ± 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = +0.10 ± 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.197 ± 0.013 M J and radius of 0.995 ± 0.052 R J, yielding a mean density of 0.25 ± 0.04 g cm-3. HAT-P-19b orbits the V = 12.901 K1 dwarf star GSC 2283-00589, with a period P = 4.008778 ± 0.000006 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455091.53417 ± 0.00034 (BJD), and transit duration 0.1182 ± 0.0014 days. The host star has a mass of 0.84 ± 0.04 M sun, radius of 0.82 ± 0.05 R sun, effective temperature 4990 ± 130 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = +0.23 ± 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.292 ± 0.018 M J and radius of 1.132 ± 0.072 R J, yielding a mean density of 0.25 ± 0.04 g cm-3. The radial velocity residuals for HAT-P-19 exhibit a linear trend in time, which indicates the presence of a third body in the system. Comparing these observations with theoretical models, we find that HAT-P-18b and HAT-P-19b are each consistent with a hydrogen-helium-dominated gas giant planet with negligible core mass. HAT-P-18b and HAT-P-19b join HAT-P-12b and WASP-21b in an emerging group of low-density Saturn-mass planets, with negligible inferred core masses. However, unlike HAT-P-12b and WASP-21b, both HAT-P-18b and HAT-P-19b orbit stars with super-solar metallicity. This calls into question the heretofore suggestive correlation between the inferred core mass and host star metallicity for Saturn-mass planets. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NOAO (A146Hr, A201Hr

  1. Buried Volume Analysis for Propene Polymerization Catalysis Promoted by Group 4 Metals: a Tool for Molecular Mass Prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2015-10-02

    A comparison of the steric properties of homogeneous single site catalysts for propene polymerization using the percentage of buried volume (%VBur) as molecular descriptor is reported. The %VBur calculated on the neutral precursors of the active species seems to be a reliable tool to explain several experimental data related to the propene insertion and to the monomer chain transfer. Interestingly, a linear correlation between the buried volume calculated for a large set of neutral precursors and the energetic difference between propagation and termination steps calculated by DFT methods is found for Group 4 metal catalysts. The “master curves” derived for Ti, Zr and Hf confirm not only that the %VBur is an appropriate molecular descriptor for the systems considered but also that it could be used as tool for a large computational screening of new ligands.

  2. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James T; Collins, Paul F; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5.16-99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r = -0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r = -0.316), and uncus (partial r = -0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  3. Effect of feeding colostrum at different volumes and subsequent number of transition milk feeds on the serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health status of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conneely, M; Berry, D P; Murphy, J P; Lorenz, I; Doherty, M L; Kennedy, E

    2014-11-01

    Transfer of sufficient IgG to the newborn calf via colostrum is vital to provide it with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. The objectives of the present study were to compare serum IgG concentration and health parameters of calves (1) fed different volumes of colostrum [7, 8.5, or 10% of body weight (BW)] within 2h of birth and (2) given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk (i.e., milkings 2 to 6 postcalving). Ninety-nine dairy calves were fed 7, 8.5, or 10% of BW in colostrum within 2h of birth and given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk. The concentration of IgG in the serum of calves was measured at 24, 48, 72, and 642 h of age by an ELISA. The apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice per week and all episodes of disease were recorded. The effect of experimental treatment on calf serum IgG concentration differed by the age of the calf. Calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum had a greater mean serum IgG concentration than calves fed 7 or 10% of BW at 24, 48, and 72 h of age. At 642 h of age, serum IgG concentrations of calves fed 8.5% of BW (24.2g/L) and calves fed 10% of BW (21.6g/L) did not differ, although the serum IgG concentration of calves fed 8.5% of BW was still greater than that of calves fed 7% of BW (20.7 g/L). No difference in serum IgG concentration existed between calves fed 7% of BW and those fed 10% of BW at any age. No significant effect of number of subsequent feedings of transition milk on calf serum IgG concentration was detected. The apparent efficiency of absorption of calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum (38%) was greater than calves fed 7% of BW in colostrum (26%) and tended to be greater than in calves fed 10% of BW (29%). Calves fed further feedings of transition milk after the initial feeding of colostrum had a lower odds (0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.93) of being assigned a worse eye/ear score (i.e., a more

  4. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment.

  5. Estimation of regional myocardial mass at risk based on distal arterial lumen volume and length using 3D micro-CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy; Wong, Jerry T; Molloi, Sabee

    2008-09-01

    The determination of regional myocardial mass at risk distal to a coronary occlusion provides valuable prognostic information for a patient with coronary artery disease. The coronary arterial system follows a design rule which allows for the use of arterial branch length and lumen volume to estimate regional myocardial mass at risk. Image processing techniques, such as segmentation, skeletonization and arterial network tracking, are presented for extracting anatomical details of the coronary arterial system using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Moreover, a method of assigning tissue voxels to their corresponding arterial branches is presented to determine the dependent myocardial region. The proposed micro-CT technique was utilized to investigate the relationship between the sum of the distal coronary arterial branch lengths and volumes to the dependent regional myocardial mass using a polymer cast of a porcine heart. The correlations of the logarithm of the total distal arterial lengths (L) to the logarithm of the regional myocardial mass (M) for the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX) and right coronary (RCA) arteries were log(L)=0.73log(M)+0.09 (R=0.78), log(L)=0.82log(M)+0.05 (R=0.77) and log(L)=0.85log(M)+0.05 (R=0.87), respectively. The correlation of the logarithm of the total distal arterial lumen volumes (V) to the logarithm of the regional myocardial mass for the LAD, LCX and RCA were log(V)=0.93log(M)-1.65 (R=0.81), log(V)=1.02log(M)-1.79 (R=0.78) and log(V)=1.17log(M)-2.10 (R=0.82), respectively. These morphological relations did not change appreciably for diameter truncations of 600-1400microm. The results indicate that the image processing procedures successfully extracted information from a large 3D dataset of the coronary arterial tree to provide prognostic indications in the form of arterial tree parameters and anatomical area at risk.

  6. Influence of imidazolium based green solvents on volume phase transition temperature of crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Jung; Reddy, P Madhusudhana; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Huang, Hsin-Chun

    2015-01-28

    The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPAM-co-AA) hydrogel in water in the presence of five imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) was studied. The VPTT of PNIPAM-co-AA hydrogel can be modulated to different extents by the addition of different amounts of ILs. The modulations in VPTT values can be attributed to the IL-induced alterations in hydrophobic, hydrophilic and hydrogen bonding interactions of PNIPAM-co-AA hydrogel with the neighboring solvent and molecular chains. The influence of ILs having a common cation, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([Bmim]) and different anions, such as iodide (I-), tetrafluoroborate (BF4-), chloride (Cl-), acetate (CH3COO-) and hydrogen sulfate (HSO4-), on the phase transition of PNIPAM-co-AA hydrogel was monitored by the aid of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, the interfacial properties between aqueous IL and polymer surface were scrutinized with the help of contact angle (CA) measurements. The overall specific ranking of ILs in preserving the hydration layer around the PNIPAM-co-AA hydrogel in water was [Bmim][I]>[Bmim][BF4]>[Bmim][Cl]>[Bmim][Ac]>[Bmim][HSO4]. The trend of these ILs followed the well-known Hofmeister series. Interestingly, the PNIPAM-co-AA hydrogel in water shows abnormal salting-out property in the presence of [Bmim][BF4] at higher concentration and this abnormal behavior can be explained based on the lack of sufficient binding sites on the macromolecule for higher number of [Bmim][BF4] at a higher concentration.

  7. Superfluid phase transition and effects of mass imbalance in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas: A self-consistent T-matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji

    2014-03-01

    We investigate a two-component Fermi gas with mass imbalance (m↑ ≠m↓ , where mσ is an atomic mass in the σ-component) in the BCS-BEC crossover region. Including pairing fluctuations within a self-consistent T-matrix theory, we examine how the superfluid instability is affected by the presence of mass imbalance. We determine the superfluid region in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas in terms of the temperature, the strength of a pairing interaction, and the ratio of mass imbalance. The superfluid phase transition is shown to always occur even when m↑ ≠m↓ .[2] This behavior of Tc is quite different from the previous result in an extended T-matrix theory,[3] where Tc vanishes at a certain value of m↑ /m↓ > 0 in the BCS regime. Since Fermi condensates with mass imbalance have been discussed in various systems, such as a cold Fermi gas, an exciton(polariton) condensate, as well as color superconductivity, our results would be useful for further understandings of these novel Fermi superfluids. R.H. was supported by Graduate School Doctoral Student Aid Program, Keio University.

  8. Thallium-201 uptake ratio correlated with myocardial mass ratio in chronically hypertrophied rat hearts induced by preferential pressure or volume overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Masashi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-10-01

    Hemodynamic measurements, left to right myocardial ventricular mass ratio and myocardial thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) uptake ratio were measured in 6 normal and the following 30 experimental rats (each group, n=6). Right ventricular (RV) pressure overload (PO) was induced by administration of monocrotaline. RV volume overload (VO) was induced by suturing a pulmonary valve to the pulmonary artery. Biventricular (BV) VO was induced by creation of an aortocaval fistula. Left ventricular (LV) PO was induced by constriction of the ascending aorta and LVVO was induced by destruction of the aortic valves. RV mass to body weight (BW) was significantly increased in RPVO, RVVO and BVVO models compared with the control. LV mass to BW was significantly increased in LVPO, LVVO models. RV peak systolic pressure (PSP) was significantly increased in RVPO, BVVO and LVVO models, and LVPSP was significantly increased in LVPO, BVVO and LVVO models. LV/RV mass ratio was significantly decreased in RVPO, RVVO and BVVO models, and was significantly increased in LVPO and LVVO models. LV/RV myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake ratio was significantly decreased in RVPO and RVVO models, and was significantly increased in LVPO and LVVO models. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation between LV/RV myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake ratio and LV/RV mass ratio. Although the presence of significant correlation between LV/RV pressure ratio and LV/RV myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake ratio was confirmed in PO models, rather poor correlation was observed in VO models. Our results suggest that LV/RV myocardial mass ratio as well as LV/RV pressure ratio can be evaluated by LV/RV myocardial {sup 201}Tl uptake ratio in chronic overload models. (S.Y.).

  9. The Mass-Luminosity Relation in the L/T Transition: Individual Dynamical Masses for the New J-Band Flux Reversal Binary SDSSJ105213.51+442255.7AB

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuy, Trent J; Leggett, S K; Ireland, Michael J; Chiu, Kuenley; Golimowski, David A

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered that SDSSJ105213.51+442255.7 (T0.5$\\pm$1.0) is a binary in Keck laser guide star adaptive optics imaging, displaying a large J-to-K-band flux reversal ($\\Delta$J = -0.45$\\pm$0.09 mag, $\\Delta$K = 0.52$\\pm$0.05 mag). We determine a total dynamical mass from Keck orbital monitoring (88$\\pm$5 $M_{\\rm Jup}$) and a mass ratio by measuring the photocenter orbit from CFHT/WIRCam absolute astrometry ($M_B/M_A$ = 0.78$\\pm$0.07). Combining these provides the first individual dynamical masses for any field L or T dwarfs, 49$\\pm$3 $M_{\\rm Jup}$ for the L6.5$\\pm$1.5 primary and 39$\\pm$3 $M_{\\rm Jup}$ for the T1.5$\\pm$1.0 secondary. Such a low mass ratio for a nearly equal luminosity binary implies a shallow mass$-$luminosity relation over the L/T transition ($\\Delta$log$L_{\\rm bol}$/$\\Delta$log$M = 0.6^{+0.6}_{-0.8}$). This provides the first observational support that cloud dispersal plays a significant role in the luminosity evolution of substellar objects. Fully cloudy models fail our coevality test ...

  10. Shifts in mass-scaling of respiration, feeding, and growth rates across life-form transitions in marine pelagic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Hirst, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation to the environ......The metabolic rate of organisms may be viewed as a basic property from which other vital rates and many ecological patterns emerge and that follows a universal allometric mass scaling law, or it may be considered a property of the organism that emerges as a result of the adaptation...... life-form-dependent allometries that have similar scaling but different intercepts, such that the mass-specific rates converge on a rather narrow size-independent range. In contrast, ingestion and growth rates follow a near-universal taxa-independent ~3/4 mass scaling power law.We argue...

  11. The effects of body mass index on changes in prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate volume over 15 years of follow-up: implications for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Lauren P; Morgenstern, Hal; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Jacobsen, Steven J; Sarma, Aruna V

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) and BMI change with change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and to assess the possible roles of PSA hemodilution and prostate volume in explaining the obesity and PSA association. In 1990, a randomly selected cohort of Caucasian men, aged 40 to 79 years, from Olmsted County, Minnesota, completed questionnaires ascertaining demographic characteristics, current medical conditions, and medications biennially, with a subset undergoing blood draws and clinical examinations. Linear mixed models were used to predict annual changes and intercepts of individual changes in BMI, PSA, prostate volume, plasma volume, and PSA mass, adjusting for age in 545 men with at least 2 serial PSA, BMI, and prostate volume measurements. Baseline BMI was inversely associated with the annual percent change in PSA, adjusting for age, baseline PSA, and prostate volume and for the rates of change in BMI and prostate volume (β=-0.003, 95% CI: -0.006 to -0.0003). Baseline obesity was positively associated with mean baseline levels and the rate of change in prostate volume (P=0.002) and plasma volume (both Pobesity was associated with baseline PSA and prostate volume and with the rate of change in PSA over 15 years of follow-up. The inverse association of obesity with prostate cancer diagnosis may be at least partly due to detection bias, which is due to larger prostate volumes and PSA hemodilution in obese men. ©2011 AACR.

  12. Direct measurement of transition frequencies in isolated pHe+ atoms, and new CPT-violation limits on the antiproton charge and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, M; Eades, J; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Pirkl, W; Widmann, E; Yamaguchi, H; Torii, H A; Juhász, B; Horváth, D; Yamazaki, T

    2003-09-19

    A radio frequency quadrupole decelerator and achromatic momentum analyzer were used to decelerate antiprotons and produce p4He+ and p3He+ atoms in ultra-low-density targets, where collision-induced shifts of the atomic transition frequencies were negligible. The frequencies at near-vacuo conditions were measured by laser spectroscopy to fractional precisions of (6-19) x 10(-8). By comparing these with QED calculations and the antiproton cyclotron frequency, we set a new limit of 1 x 10(-8) on possible differences between the antiproton and proton charges and masses.

  13. Dose reduction in dynamic perfusion CT of the brain: effects of the scan frequency on measurements of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, Martin [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Grosshadern, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Berg, Scott; Stoeckelhuber, B.M. [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiology, Luebeck (Germany); Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neuroradiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Schoepf, V.; Yousry, I.; Linn, J. [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Missler, U. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Duisburg-Nord, Department of Neuroradiology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The influence of the frequency of computed tomography (CT) image acquistion on the diagnostic quality of dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) studies of the brain was investigated. Eight patients with clinically suspected acute ischemia of one hemisphere underwent PCT, performed on average 3.4 h after the onset of symptoms. Sixty consecutive images per slice were obtained with individual CT images obtained at a temporal resolution of two images per second. Eight additional data sets were reconstructed with temporal resolutions ranging from one image per second to one image per 5 s. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) measurements were performed in identical regions of interest. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the PCT images visually to identify areas of abnormal perfusion. Perfusion images created up to a temporal resolution of one image per 3 s were rated to be diagnostically equal to the original data. Even at one image per 4 s, all areas of infarction were identified. Quantitative differences of CBF, CBV and MTT measurements were {<=}10% up to one image per 3 s. For PCT of the brain, temporal resolution can be reduced to one image per 3 s without significant compromise in image quality. This significantly reduces the radiation dose of the patient. (orig.)

  14. Finite-volume effects on phase transition in the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a chiral chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zan; Chang, Chao-Hsi; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate finite-volume effects on the chiral symmetry restoration and the deconfinement transition and some impacts of possible global topological background for a quantum chromodynamics (QCD) system with $N_f=2$ (two quark flavors), we apply the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model by introducing a chiral chemical potential $\\mu_5$ artificially. The final numerical results indicate that the introduced chiral chemical potential does not change the critical exponents but shifts the location of critical end point (CEP) significantly; the ratios for the chiral chemical potentials and temperatures at CEP, $\\mu_c/\\mu_{5c}$ and $T_c/T_{5c}$, are significantly affected by the system size $R$. The behavior is that $T_c$ increases slowly with $\\mu_5$ when $R$ is large and $T_c$ decreases first and then increases with $\\mu_5$ when $R$ is small. It is also found that for a fixed $\\mu_5$, there is a $R_{\\text{min}}$, where the critical end point vanishes, and the whole phase diagram becomes a crossover w...

  15. Distribution of dead wood volume and mass in mediterranean Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Northern Iberian Peninsula. Implications for field sampling inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Herrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to 1 estimate the amount of dead wood in managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands in northern Iberian Peninsula and 2 evaluate the most appropriate volume equation and the optimal transect length for sampling downed wood. Area of study: The study area is the Aralar Forest in Navarra (Northern Iberian Peninsula. Material and methods: The amount of dead wood by component (downed logs, snags, stumps and fine woody debris was inventoried in 51 plots across a chronosequence of stand ages (0-120 years old. Main results: The average volume and biomass of dead wood was 24.43 m3 ha-1 and 7.65 Mg ha-1, respectively. This amount changed with stand development stage [17.14 m3 ha-1 in seedling stage; 34.09 m3 ha-1 inpole stage; 22.54 m3 ha-1 in mature stage and 24.27 m3 ha-1 in regular stand in regeneration stage], although the differences were not statistically significant for coarse woody debris. However, forest management influenced the amount of dead wood, because the proportion of mass in the different components and the decay stage depended on time since last thinning. The formula based on intersection diameter resulted on the smallest coefficient of variation out of seven log-volume formulae. Thus, the intersection diameter is the preferred method because it gives unbiased estimates, has the greatest precision and is the easiest to implement in the field. Research highlights: The amount of dead wood, and in particular snags, was significantly lower than that in reserved forests. Results of this study showed that sampling effort should be directed towards increasing the number of transects, instead of increasing transect length or collecting additional piece diameters that do not increase the accuracy or precision of DWM volume estimation. Keywords: snags; downed logs; stumps; fine woody debris; beech; line intersect sampling.

  16. Mass transport of low density lipoprotein in reconstructed hemodynamic environments of human carotid arteries: the role of volume and solute flux through the endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Giddens, Don P

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the arterial intima is a critical step in the initiation and progression of atheromatous lesions. In this study we examine subject-specific LDL transport into the intima of carotid bifurcations in three human subjects using a three-pore model for LDL mass transfer. Subject-specific carotid artery computational models were derived using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain the geometry and phase-contract MRI (PC-MRI) to acquire pulsatile inflow and outflow boundary conditions for each subject. The subjects were selected to represent a wide range of anatomical configurations and different stages of atherosclerotic development from mild to moderate intimal thickening. A fluid-solid interaction (FSI) model was implemented in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach in order to consider the effects of a compliant vessel on wall shear stress (WSS). The WSS-dependent response of the endothelium to LDL mass transfer was modeled by multiple pathways to include the contributions of leaky junctions, normal junctions, and transcytosis to LDL solute and plasma volume flux from the lumen into the intima. Time averaged WSS (TAWSS) over the cardiac cycle was computed to represent the spatial WSS distribution, and wall thickness (WTH) was determined from black blood MRI (BBMRI) so as to visualize intimal thickening patterns in the bifurcations. The regions which are exposed to low TAWSS correspond to elevated WTH and higher mass and volume flux via the leaky junctions. In all subjects, the maximum LDL solute flux was observed to be immediately downstream of the stenosis, supporting observations that existing atherosclerotic lesions tend to progress in the downstream direction of the stenosis.

  17. Prostate-specific Antigen Mass Density--A Measure Predicting Prostate Cancer Volume and Accounting for Overweight and Obesity-related Prostate-specific Antigen Hemodilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Diaz, Mireya; Matoso, Andres; Kates, Max; Cohen, Jason; Swanson, Gregory P; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-04-01

    To test prostate-specific antigen mass density (PSAMD) as a predictor of total tumor volume (TTV) at radical prostatectomy (RP). We conducted a detailed pathologic analysis of 469 RP from men with NCCN low-risk prostate cancer who had Gleason score of 3 + 3 = 6 (grade group 1) at RP. We then compared the ability of PSA, PSA density (PSAD), PSA mass (PSAM-absolute amount of PSA in patient's circulation), and PSAM density (PSAM divided by prostate weight without seminal vesicles) to predict TTV at RP. PSAM was calculated by multiplying plasma volume (estimated body surface [weight, kg(0.425) × height, m(0.72) × 0.007184] × 1.67) by PSA. Performance of the above measures in different BMI categories was assessed. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the means and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to assess the correlations. The 469 men were normal weight (n = 129), overweight (n = 253), and obese (n = 87). Mean age of the patients' was 57.4 years and PSA of 4.53 ng/ml. Increase of prostate weight with body mass index (BMI) was reflected in PSAM (both P Prostate weight had stronger (negative) association with PSAMD (r = -0.394; <.001) than TTV. PSAMD is the biochemical measure with the best correlation with TTV at RP. Unlike other measures, it is not affected by BMI-related hemodilution. Thresholds should be established to use this more objective measure clinically in surveillance algorithms and in planning radical prostatectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. HAT-P-47b AND HAT-P-48b: Two Low Density Sub-Saturn-Mass Transiting Planets on the Edge of the Period--Mass Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Bakos, G Á; Torres, G; Latham, D W; Sato, B; Bieryla, A; Shporer, A; Howard, A W; Fulton, B J; Buchhave, L A; Penev, K; Kovács, G; Kovács, T; Csubry, Z; Esquerdo, G A; Everett, M; Szklenár, T; Quinn, S N; Béky, B; Marcy, G W; Noyes, R W; Lázár, J; Papp, I; Sári, P

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new transiting extrasolar planets orbiting moderately bright (V = 10.7 and 12.2 mag) F stars (masses of 1.39 Msun and 1.10 Msun, respectively). The planets have periods of P = 4.7322 d and 4.4087 d, and masses of 0.21 MJ and 0.17 MJ which are almost half-way between those of Neptune and Saturn. With radii of 1.31 RJ and 1.13 RJ, these very low density planets are the two lowest mass planets with radii in excess that of Jupiter. Comparing with other recent planet discoveries, we find that sub-Saturns (0.18MJ < Mp < 0.3MJ) and super-Neptunes (0.05MJ < Mp < 0.18MJ) exhibit a wide range of radii, and their radii exhibit a weaker correlation with irradiation than higher mass planets. The two planets are both suitable for measuring the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and for atmospheric characterization. Measuring the former effect would allow an interesting test of the theory that star-planet tidal interactions are responsible for the tendency of close-in giant planets around ...

  19. Sensitivity to a possible variation of the Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio of Torsion-Wagging-Rotation Transitions in Methylamine (CH3NH2)

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyushin, Vadim V; Kozlov, Mikhail G; Levshakov, Sergei A; Kleiner, Isabelle; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L

    2012-01-01

    We determine the sensitivity to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio \\mu for torsion-wagging-rotation transitions in the ground state of methylamine (CH3NH2). Our calculation uses an effective Hamiltonian based on a high-barrier tunneling formalism combined with extended-group ideas. The \\mu-dependence of the molecular parameters that are used in this model are derived and the most important ones of these are validated using the spectroscopic data of different isotopologues of methylamine. We find a significant enhancement of the sensitivity coefficients due to energy cancellations between internal rotational, overall rotational and inversion energy splittings. The sensitivity coefficients of the different transitions range from -19 to +24. The sensitivity coefficients of the 78.135, 79.008, and 89.956 GHz transitions that were recently observed in the disk of a z = 0.89 spiral galaxy located in front of the quasar PKS 1830-211 [S. Muller et al. Astron. Astrophys. 535, A103 (2011)] were c...

  20. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs.

  1. Cost of fuel cell systems on a mass basis as a function of production volume; Kosten von Brennstoffzellensystemen auf Massenbasis in Abhaengigkeit von der Absatzmenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werhahn, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    The currently high cost of fuel cells is determined by expensive materials and low production volume. A detailed understanding of the cost structures reveals unexploited potential that can reduce costs in future. However, this requires a method of predicting costs that can be applied with little effort and which offers both a sufficient degree of detail and also good accuracy. Existing forecasting methods do not, however, fulfil these requirements. The major objective of the present work was to apply mass-specific cost forecasting to fuel cell systems for the first time and to modify the approach for this application. In this method, the cost of an object is estimated solely by means of the object mass with the aid of empirical values (Euro/kg). The advantages of the method are its simple application and the accuracy of the forecast. Due to the considerable complexity of the fuel cell and the heterogeneity of the materials used, the application of mass-specific cost forecasting does not provide the desired benefits on the level of the aggregated system. The mass-specific cost forecast approach was therefore expanded and optimized. Instead of determining costs on the level of the aggregated system, the cost forecast was applied directly to the individual components. Cost parameters were also embedded in the method in order to include component-internal cost-relevant differences. Due to the great influence of the production rate on the manufacturing costs, an additional dependence on number of units was also integrated. Expanding the empirical values from discrete values to distribution functions enabled a detailed error analysis to be performed and also a statistical localization of the predicted production costs. Empirical values are necessary in order to implement the modified method and therefore an extensive data search was performed. To this end, a methodology was developed which comprehensively described the data acquisition and the required data evaluation on

  2. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. Aims To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. Methods School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. Results The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD): 30.6 (SD 12.2) vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5); p self-esteem than did the girls (mean (SD): 31.3 (4.8) vs. 28.0 (5.9); p self-reporting abnormal eating habits were less satisfied with their bodies than those describing normal eating habits (mean (SD): 33.0 (12.9) vs. 21.2 (10.2); p self-esteem and eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found. PMID:22540528

  3. Origin of the High-speed Jets Fom Magnetic Flux Emergence in the Solar Transition Region as well as Their Mass and Energy Contribuctions to the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liping, Y.; He, J.; Peter, H.; Tu, C. Y.; Feng, X. S.

    2015-12-01

    In the solar atmosphere, the jets are ubiquitous and found to be at various spatia-temporal scales. They are significant to understand energy and mass transport in the solar atmosphere. Recently, the high-speed transition region jets are reported from the observation. Here we conduct a numerical simulation to investigate the mechanism in their formation, as well as their mass and energy contributions to the solar wind. Driven by the supergranular convection motion, the magnetic reconnection between the magnetic loop and the background open flux occurring in the transition region is simulated with a two-dimensional MHD model. The simulation results show that not only a fast hot jet, much resemble the found transition region jets, but also a adjacent slow cool jet, mostly like classical spicules, is launched. The force analysis shows that the fast hot jet is continually driven by the Lorentz force around the reconnection region, while the slow cool jet is induced by an initial kick through the Lorentz force associated with the emerging magnetic flux. Also, the features of the driven jets change with the amount of the emerging magnetic flux, giving the varieties of both jets.With the developed one-dimensional hydrodynamic solar wind model, the time-dependent pulses are imposed at the bottom to simulate the jet behaviors. The simulation results show that without other energy source, the injected plasmas are accelerated effectively to be a transonic wind with a substantial mass flux. The rapid acceleration occurs close to the Sun, and the resulting asymptotic speeds, number density at 0.3 AU, as well as mass flux normalized to 1 AU are compatible with in site observations. As a result of the high speed, the imposed pulses lead to a train of shocks traveling upward. By tracing the motions of the injected plasma, it is found that these shocks heat and accelerate the injected plasma to make part of them propagate upward and eventually escape. The parametric study shows

  4. Exercise Preserves Lean Mass and Performance during Severe Energy Deficit: The Role of Exercise Volume and Dietary Protein Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. L. Calbet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of fat-free mass (FFM caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day. Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE, followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD. During CRE, the participants ingested a VLCD and performed 45 min of one-arm cranking followed by 8 h walking each day. The VLCD consisted of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day of either whey protein (PRO, n = 8 or sucrose (SU, n = 7. FFM was reduced after CRE (P < 0.001, with the legs and the exercised arm losing proportionally less FFM than the control arm [57% (P < 0.05 and 29% (P = 0.05, respectively]. Performance during leg pedaling, as reflected by the peak oxygen uptake and power output (Wpeak, was reduced after CRE by 15 and 12%, respectively (P < 0.05, and recovered only partially after CD. The deterioration of cycling performance was more pronounced in the whey protein than sucrose group (P < 0.05. Wpeak during arm cranking was unchanged in the control arm, but improved in the contralateral arm by arm cranking. There was a linear relationship between the reduction in whole-body FFM between PRE and CRE and the changes in the cortisol/free testosterone ratio (C/FT, serum isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, valine, BCAA, and EAA (r = −0.54 to −0.71, respectively, P < 0.05. C/FT tended to be higher in the PRO than the SU group following CRE (P = 0.06. In conclusion, concomitant low-intensity exercise such as walking or arm cranking even during an extreme energy deficit results in remarkable preservation of lean mass. The intake of proteins alone may be associated with greater

  5. Determination of hadron-quark phase transition line from lattice QCD and two-solar-mass neutron star observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, Junpei; Yahiro, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    We aim at drawing the hadron-quark phase transition line in the QCD phase diagram by using the two phase model (TPM) in which the entanglement Polyakov-loop extended Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (EPNJL) model with vector-type four-quark interaction is used for the quark phase and the relativistic mean field (RMF) model is for the hadron phase. Reasonable TPM is constructed by using lattice QCD data and neutron star observations as reliable constraints. For the EPNJL model, we determine the strength of vector-type four-quark interaction at zero quark chemical potential from lattice QCD data on quark number density normalized by its Stefan-Boltzmann limit. For the hadron phase, we consider three RMF models, NL3, TM1 and model proposed by Maruyama, Tatsumi, Endo and Chiba (MTEC). We find that MTEC is most consistent with the neutron star observations and TM1 is the second best. Assuming that the hadron-quark phase transition occurs in the core of neutron star, we explore the density-dependence of vector-type four-quark i...

  6. Coupled mass transfer through a fluid phase and volume preservation during the hydration of granulite: An example from the Bergen Arcs, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Stephen; Austrheim, Håkon; Putnis, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The Precambrian granulite facies rocks of Lindås Nappe, Bergen Arcs, Caledonides of W. Norway are partially hydrated at amphibolite and eclogite facies conditions. The Lindås Nappe outcrops over an area of ca. 1000 km2 where relict granulite facies lenses make up only ca. 10%. At Hillandsvatnet, garnetite displays sharp hydration fronts across which the granulite facies assemblage composed of garnet (55%) and clinopyroxene (45%) is replaced by an amphibolite facies mineralogy defined by chlorite, epidote and amphibole. The major element bulk composition does not change significantly across the hydration front, apart from the volatile components (loss on ignition, LOI) that increases from 0.17 wt.% in the granulite to 2.43 wt.% in the amphibolite. However the replacements of garnet and of clinopyroxene are pseudomorphic so that the grain shapes of the garnet and clinopyroxene are preserved even when they are completely replaced. The textural evolution during the replacement of garnet by pargasite, epidote and chlorite and of pyroxene by hornblende and quartz in our rock sample conforms to that expected by a coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. SEM and electron microprobe analysis coupled with the software XMapTools V 1.06.1 were used to quantify the local mass transfer required during the replacement processes. The element losses and gains in replacing the garnet are approximately balanced by the opposite gains and losses associated with the replacement of clinopyroxene. The coupling between dissolution and precipitation on both the grain and whole rock spatial scale preserves the volume of the rock throughout the hydration process. However, the hydration involves reduction of rock density and mass balance calculations, together with volume preservation (isovolumetric reaction) require a significant loss of the mass of the rock to the fluid phase. This suggests a mechanism for coupling between the local stress generated by hydration reactions and mass

  7. Determination of selected polycyclic aromatic compounds in particulate matter: a validation study of an agitation extraction method for samples with low mass loadings using reduced volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, S.; Pérez-Pastor, R. M.; Archilla-Prat, V.; Rodríguez-Maroto, J.; Izquierdo-Díaz, M.; Rojas, E.; Sanz, D.

    2015-12-01

    A simple analytical method using low volumes of solvent for determining selected PAHs and NPAHs in PM samples is presented. The proposed extraction method was compared with pressurized fluid (PFE) and microwave (MC) extraction techniques and intermediate precision associated to analytical measurements were estimated. Extraction by agitation with 8 mL of dichloromethane yielded recoveries above 80% compared to those obtained from PFE extraction. Regarding intermediate precision results, values between 10-20% were reached showing increases of dispersion for compounds with high volatility and low levels of concentration. Within the framework of the INTA/CIEMAT research agreement for the PM characterization in gas turbine exhaust, the method was applied for analysis of aluminum foil substrates and quartz filters with mass loading ranged from 0.02 to 2 mg per sample.

  8. Common envelope events with low-mass giants: understanding the transition to the slow spiral-in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N.; Nandez, J. L. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) study of common envelope events (CEEs) to provide a foundation for future one-dimensional (1D) methods to model the self-regulated phase of a CEE. The considered CEEs with a low-mass red giant end with one of three different outcomes - merger, slow spiral-in, or prompt formation of a binary. To understand which physical processes determine different outcomes, and to evaluate how well 1D simulations model the self-regulated phase of a CEE, we introduce tools that map our 3D models to 1D profiles. We discuss the differences in the angular momentum and energy redistribution in 1D and 3D codes. We identified four types of ejection processes: the pre-plunge-in ejection, the outflow during the plunge-in, the outflow driven by recombination, and the ejection triggered by a contraction of the circum-binary envelope. Significant mass is lost in all cases, including the mergers. Therefore, a self-regulated spiral-in can start only with a strongly reduced envelope mass. We derive the condition to start a recombination outflow, which can proceed either as a runaway or a stationary outflow. We show that the way the energy of the inspiralling companion is added to the envelope in 1D studies intensifies the envelope's entropy increase, alters the start of the recombination outflow, and leads to different outcomes in 1D and 3D studies. The steady recombination outflow may dispel most of the envelope in all slow spiral-in cases, making the existence of a long-term self-regulated phase debatable, at least for low-mass giant donors.

  9. MRMPath and MRMutation, Facilitating Discovery of Mass Transitions for Proteotypic Peptides in Biological Pathways Using a Bioinformatics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiquito Crasto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative proteomics applications in mass spectrometry depend on the knowledge of the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z values of proteotypic peptides for the proteins under study and their product ions. MRMPath and MRMutation, web-based bioinformatics software that are platform independent, facilitate the recovery of this information by biologists. MRMPath utilizes publicly available information related to biological pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database. All the proteins involved in pathways of interest are recovered and processed in silico to extract information relevant to quantitative mass spectrometry analysis. Peptides may also be subjected to automated BLAST analysis to determine whether they are proteotypic. MRMutation catalogs and makes available, following processing, known (mutant variants of proteins from the current UniProtKB database. All these results, available via the web from well-maintained, public databases, are written to an Excel spreadsheet, which the user can download and save. MRMPath and MRMutation can be freely accessed. As a system that seeks to allow two or more resources to interoperate, MRMPath represents an advance in bioinformatics tool development. As a practical matter, the MRMPath automated approach represents significant time savings to researchers.

  10. First in situ measurement of the vertical distribution of ice volume in a mesospheric ice cloud during the ECOMA/MASS rocket-campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We present in situ observations of mesospheric ice particles with a new particle detector which combines a classical Faraday cup with the active photoionization of particles and subsequent detection of photoelectrons. Our observations of charged particles and free electrons within a decaying PMSE-layer reveal that the presence of charged particles is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the presence of PMSE. That is, additional requirements like a sufficiently large electron density – which we here estimate to be on the order of ~100 cm−3 – and the presence of small scale structures (commonly assumed to be caused by turbulence need to be satisfied. Our photoelectron measurements reveal a very strong horizontal structuring of the investigated ice layer, i.e., a very broad layer (82–88 km seen on the upleg is replaced by a narrow layer from 84.5–86 km only 50 km apart on the downleg of the rocket flight. Importantly, the qualitative structure of these photoelectron profiles is in remarkable qualitative agreement with photometer measurements on the same rocket thus demonstrating the reliability of this new technique. We then show that the photoelectron currents are a unique function of the ice particle volume density (and hence ice mass within an uncertainty of only 15% and we derive corresponding altitude profiles of ice volume densities. Derived values are in the range ~2–8×10−14 cm3/cm3 (corresponding to mass densities of ~20–80 ng/m3, and water vapor mixing ratios of 3–12 ppm and are the first such estimates with the unique spatial resolution of an in situ measurement.

  11. First in situ measurement of the vertical distribution of ice volume in a mesospheric ice cloud during the ECOMA/MASS rocket-campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, M.; Strelnikova, I.; Strelnikov, B. [Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Kuehlungsborn (DE)] (and others)

    2009-07-01

    We present in situ observations of mesospheric ice particles with a new particle detector which combines a classical Faraday cup with the active photoionization of particles and subsequent detection of photoelectrons. Our observations of charged particles and free electrons within a decaying PMSE-layer reveal that the presence of charged particles is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the presence of PMSE. That is, additional requirements like a sufficiently large electron density - which we here estimate to be on the order of {proportional_to}100 cm{sup -3} - and the presence of small scale structures (commonly assumed to be caused by turbulence) need to be satisfied. Our photoelectron measurements reveal a very strong horizontal structuring of the investigated ice layer, i.e., a very broad layer (82-88 km) seen on the upleg is replaced by a narrow layer from 84.5-86 km only 50 km apart on the downleg of the rocket flight. Importantly, the qualitative structure of these photoelectron profiles is in remarkable qualitative agreement with photometer measurements on the same rocket thus demonstrating the reliability of this new technique. We then show that the photoelectron currents are a unique function of the ice particle volume density (and hence ice mass) within an uncertainty of only 15% and we derive corresponding altitude profiles of ice volume densities. Derived values are in the range {proportional_to}2-8 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 3}/cm{sup 3} (corresponding to mass densities of {proportional_to}20-80 ng/m{sup 3}, and water vapor mixing ratios of 3-12 ppm) and are the first such estimates with the unique spatial resolution of an in situ measurement. (orig.)

  12. The effects of cinacalcet treatment on bone mineral metabolism, anemia parameters, left ventricular mass index and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Torun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinacalcet therapy on anemia parameters, bone mineral metabolism, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis (HD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-five HD patients (M/F: 11/14, mean age: 45.2 ± 17.9 years, mean HD duration: 96.4 ± 32.7 months were included in this prospective pilot study. The indication to start calcimimetic therapy was persistent serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH >1000 pg/mL, refractory to intravenous (i.v. vitamin D and phosphate-binding therapy. The initial and one-year results of adjusted serum calcium (Ca +2 , phosphate (P, Ca × P product, PTH, hemoglobin (Hb and ferritin levels, transferrin saturation index (TSAT, median weekly erythropoietin (EPO dose, LVMI, and parathyroid volume by parathyroid ultrasonography were determined. There were no differences between pre- and post-treatment levels of serum Ca +2 (P = 0.853, P (P = 0.447, Ca × P product (P = 0.587, PTH (P = 0.273, ferritin (P = 0.153 and TSAT (P = 0.104. After 1 year of calcimimetic therapy, the Hb levels were significantly higher than the initial levels (P = 0.048. The weekly dose of EPO decreased with no statistical significance. The dose of cinacalcet was increased from 32.4 ± 12.0 to 60.0 ± 24.4 mg/day (P = 0.01. There were no differences between the pre- and post-treatment results regarding weekly vitamin D dose, parenteral iron dose, LVMI and parathyroid volume. The results of our study suggest that cinacalcet therapy might have an additional benefit in the control anemia in HD patients.

  13. The effects of cinacalcet treatment on bone mineral metabolism, anemia parameters, left ventricular mass index and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Dilek; Yildiz, Ismail; Micozkadioglu, Hasan; Nursal, Gul Nihal; Yigit, Fatma; Ozelsancak, Ruya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinacalcet therapy on anemia parameters, bone mineral metabolism, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis (HD) patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-five HD patients (M/F: 11/14, mean age: 45.2±17.9 years, mean HD duration: 96.4±32.7 months) were included in this prospective pilot study. The indication to start calcimimetic therapy was persistent serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH)>1000 pg/mL, refractory to intravenous (i.v.) vitamin D and phosphate-binding therapy. The initial and one-year results of adjusted serum calcium (Ca+2), phosphate (P), Ca×P product, PTH, hemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin levels, transferrin saturation index (TSAT), median weekly erythropoietin (EPO) dose, LVMI, and parathyroid volume by parathyroid ultrasonography were determined. There were no differences between pre- and post-treatment levels of serum Ca+2 (P=0.853), P (P=0.447), Ca×P product (P=0.587), PTH (P=0.273), ferritin (P=0.153) and TSAT (P=0.104). After 1 year of calcimimetic therapy, the Hb levels were significantly higher than the initial levels (P=0.048). The weekly dose of EPO decreased with no statistical significance. The dose of cinacalcet was increased from 32.4±12.0 to 60.0±24.4 mg/day (P=0.01). There were no differences between the pre- and post-treatment results regarding weekly vitamin D dose, parenteral iron dose, LVMI and parathyroid volume. The results of our study suggest that cinacalcet therapy might have an additional benefit in the control anemia in HD patients.

  14. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  15. Large volume of water samples introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Chen, Fujiang; Song, Zhiyu; Sun, Caixia; Li, Zuguang; Liu, Wenhan; Lee, Mawrong

    2016-10-01

    A novel method of large volume of water samples directly introduced in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed, which is based on ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas (CO2) breaking down the emulsion for the determination of 15 triazole fungicides by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This technique makes low-density extraction solvent toluene (180 μL) dissolve in 200 mL of samples containing 0.05 mol L(-1) of HCl and 5 % of NaCl (w/v) to form a well emulsion by synergy of ultrasound and manual shaking, and injects NaHCO3 solution (1.0 mol L(-1)) to generate CO2 achieving phase separation with the assistance of ultrasound. The entire process is accomplished within 8 min. The injection of NaHCO3 to generate CO2 achieves phase separation that breaks through the centrifugation limited large volume aqueous samples. In addition, the device could be easily cleaned, and this kind of vessel could be reconfigured for any volume of samples. Under optimal conditions, the low limits of detection ranging from 0.7 to 51.7 ng L(-1), wide linearity, and enrichment factors obtained were in the range 924-3669 for different triazole fungicides. Southern end of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal water (Hangzhou, China) was used to verify the applicability of the developed method. Graphical Abstract Flow chart of ultrasound/manual shaking-synergy-assisted emulsification and self-generating carbon dioxide gas breaking down the emulsion.

  16. Highly selective solid-phase extraction and large volume injection for the robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of TCA and TBA in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insa, S; Anticó, E; Ferreira, V

    2005-09-30

    A reliable solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wines has been developed. In the proposed procedure 50 mL of wine are extracted in a 1 mL cartridge filled with 50 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Most wine volatiles are washed up with 12.5 mL of a water:methanol solution (70%, v/v) containing 1% of NaHCO3. Analytes are further eluted with 0.6 mL of dichloromethane. A 40 microL aliquot of this extract is directly injected into a PTV injector operated in the solvent split mode, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The solid-phase extraction, including sample volume and rinsing and elution solvents, and the large volume GC injection have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The resulting method is precise (RSD (%) extract is clean, simple and free from non-volatiles).

  17. Evaluation of selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry for the measurement of ethanol, methanol and isopropanol in physiological fluids: effect of osmolality and sample volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Lynn; Workman, Clive; Roberts, Norman B

    2009-09-01

    Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is particularly suited for the analysis of volatile low molecular weight compounds. We have evaluated this technique for the assay of different alcohols in aqueous solutions, including blood plasma, and in particular whether the osmolality or sample volume affected vapourisation. Solutions of three different alcohols (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol) ranging from 0.005 to 50 mmol/L were prepared in deionised water (0 milliosmol), phosphate-buffered saline (690 mOsm), isotonic saline (294 mOsm) and plasma (296 mOsm). The vapour above the sample (50 to 1000 microL) contained in air-tight tubes at 37 degrees C was aspirated into the instrument. The outputs for ethanol, methanol and isopropanol were linear over the concentration range and independent of the sample volume and relatively independent of the osmolar concentration. SIFT-MS can reliably and accurately measure common alcohols in the headspace above aqueous solutions, including serum/plasma. This novel application of SIFT-MS is easy to follow, requires no sample preparation and the wide dynamic range will facilitate measurement of alcohols present from normal metabolism as well as when taken in excess or in accidental poisoning.

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction and large-volume injection gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of multiresidue pesticides in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, D; Carro, A M; Cela, R; Lorenzo, R A

    2010-09-01

    A microwave-assisted extraction method followed by clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS/MS) for the analysis of 17 pesticides in wild and aquaculture edible seaweeds has been developed. An experimental central composite design was employed to evaluate the effects of the main variables potentially affecting the extraction (temperature, time, and solvent volume) and to optimize the process. The most effective microwave extraction conditions were achieved at 125 °C and 12 min with 24 mL of hexane/ethyl acetate (80:20). SPE clean-up of the extracts with graphitized carbon and Florisil, optimized by means of the experimental design, proved to be efficient in the removal of matrix interferences. The analytical recoveries were close to 100% for all the analytes, with relative standard deviations lower than 13%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.3 to 23.1 pg g(-1) and the limits of quantification were between 2.3 and 76.9 pg g(-1), far below the maximum residue levels established by the European Union for pesticides in seaweed. The results obtained prove the suitability of the microwave-assisted extraction for the routine analysis of pesticides in aquaculture and wild seaweed samples.

  19. Sparse aperture masking interferometry survey of transitional discs. Search for substellar-mass companions and asymmetries in their parent discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, M.; Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Monnier, J. D.; Ireland, M.; Aarnio, A.; Sitko, M. L.; Calvet, N.; Espaillat, C.; Wilner, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Transitional discs are a class of circumstellar discs around young stars with extensive clearing of dusty material within their inner regions on 10s of au scales. One of the primary candidates for this kind of clearing is the formation of planet(s) within the disc that then accrete or clear their immediate area as they migrate through the disc. Aims: The goal of this survey was to search for asymmetries in the brightness distribution around a selection of transitional disc targets. We then aimed to determine whether these asymmetries trace dynamically-induced structures in the disc or the gap-opening planets themselves. Methods: Our sample included eight transitional discs. Using the Keck/NIRC2 instrument we utilised the Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) interferometry technique to search for asymmetries indicative of ongoing planet formation. We searched for close-in companions using both model fitting and interferometric image reconstruction techniques. Using simulated data, we derived diagnostics that helped us to distinguish between point sources and extended asymmetric disc emission. In addition, we investigated the degeneracy between the contrast and separation that appear for marginally resolved companions. Results: We found FP Tau to contain a previously unseen disc wall, and DM Tau, LkHα330, and TW Hya to contain an asymmetric signal indicative of point source-like emission. We placed upper limits on the contrast of a companion in RXJ 1842.9-3532 and V2246 Oph. We ruled the asymmetry signal in RXJ 1615.3-3255 and V2062 Oph to be false positives. In the cases where our data indicated a potential companion we computed estimates for the value of McṀc and found values in the range of . Conclusions: We found significant asymmetries in four targets. Of these, three were consistent with companions. We resolved a previously unseen gap in the disc of FP Tau extending inwards from approximately 10 au. Based on observations made with the Keck observatory

  20. The Effects of Body Mass Index on Changes in Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels and Prostate Volume over 15-years of Follow-up: Implications for Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Lauren P.; Morgenstern, Hal; McGree, Michaela E.; Jacobson, Debra J.; Sauver, Jennifer L.; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Sarma, Aruna V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of BMI and BMI change with change in PSA level and to assess the possible roles of PSA hemodilution and prostate volume in explaining the obesity and PSA association. Methods In 1990, a randomly selected cohort of Caucasian men, ages 40-79, from Olmsted County, MN completed questionnaires ascertaining demographic characteristics, current medical conditions and medications biennially, with a subset undergoing blood draws and clinical exams. Linear mixed models were used to predict annual changes and intercepts of individual changes in BMI, PSA, prostate volume, plasma volume, and PSA mass, adjusting for age in 545 men with at least two serial PSA, BMI and prostate volume measurements. Results Baseline BMI was inversely associated with the annual percent change in PSA, adjusting for age, baseline PSA, and prostate volume and the rates of change in BMI and prostate volume (β=−0.003, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): −0.006, −0.0003). Baseline obesity was positively associated with mean baseline levels and the rate of change in prostate volume (p=0.002) and plasma volume (both p obesity was associated with baseline PSA and prostate volume and with the rate of change in PSA over 15 years of follow-up. Impact The inverse association of obesity with prostate–cancer diagnosis may be at least partly due to detection bias, which is due to larger prostate volumes and PSA hemodilution in obese men. PMID:21242331

  1. Measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio using a transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter for total decay energy spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Andrew S; Bond, Evelyn M; Croce, Mark P; Holesinger, Terry G; Kunde, Gerd J; Rabin, Michael W; Wolfsberg, Laura E; Bennett, Douglas A; Hays-Wehle, James P; Schmidt, Dan R; Swetz, Daniel; Ullom, Joel N

    2015-04-07

    We have developed a new category of sensor for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio from aqueous solution samples with advantages over existing methods. Aqueous solution plutonium samples were evaporated and encapsulated inside of a gold foil absorber, and a superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter detector was used to measure the total reaction energy (Q-value) of nuclear decays via heat generated when the energy is thermalized. Since all of the decay energy is contained in the absorber, we measure a single spectral peak for each isotope, resulting in a simple spectral analysis problem with minimal peak overlap. We found that mechanical kneading of the absorber dramatically improves spectral quality by reducing the size of radioactive inclusions within the absorber to scales below 50 nm such that decay products primarily interact with atoms of the host material. Due to the low noise performance of the microcalorimeter detector, energy resolution values of 1 keV fwhm (full width at half-maximum) at 5.5 MeV have been achieved, an order of magnitude improvement over α-spectroscopy with conventional silicon detectors. We measured the (240)Pu/(239)Pu mass ratio of two samples and confirmed the results by comparison to mass spectrometry values. These results have implications for future measurements of trace samples of nuclear material.

  2. KELT-1b: A Strongly Irradiated, Highly Inflated, Short Period, 27 Jupiter-mass Companion Transiting a mid-F Star

    CERN Document Server

    Siverd, Robert J; Pepper, Joshua; Eastman, Jason D; Collins, Karen; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W; Buchhave, Lars A; Jensen, Eric L N; Crepp, Justin R; Street, Rachel; Stassun, Keivan G; Gaudi, B Scott; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L; DePoy, D L; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Fulton, Benjamin J; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C; Gould, Andrew; Hebb, Leslie; Kielkopf, John F; Marshall, Jennifer L; Pogge, Richard; Stanek, K Z; Stefanik, Robert P; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia; Stutz, Amelia M; van Saders, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of KELT-1b, the first transiting low-mass companion from the wide-field Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope-North (KELT-North) survey. The V=10.7 primary is a mildly evolved, solar-metallicity, mid-F star. The companion is a low-mass brown dwarf or super-massive planet with mass of 27.23+/-0.50 MJ and radius of 1.110+0.037-0.024 RJ, on a very short period (P=1.21750007) circular orbit. KELT-1b receives a large amount of stellar insolation, with an equilibrium temperature assuming zero albedo and perfect redistribution of 2422 K. Upper limits on the secondary eclipse depth indicate that either the companion must have a non-zero albedo, or it must experience some energy redistribution. Comparison with standard evolutionary models for brown dwarfs suggests that the radius of KELT-1b is significantly inflated. Adaptive optics imaging reveals a candidate stellar companion to KELT-1, which is consistent with an M dwarf if bound. The projected spin-orbit alignment angle is consistent with ...

  3. Tunable transition metal-ligand complexation for enhanced elucidation of flavonoid diglycosides by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, Michael; Aguilar, Apolonio; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2007-03-01

    A tunable ESI-MS/MS strategy for differentiation of flavone and flavanone diglycoside isomers based on metal complexation with auxiliary ligands is reported. The addition of a metal salt and an auxiliary ligand to a flavonoid solution results in the formation of [M(II) (flavonoid-H) auxiliary ligand](+) complexes, where M(II) is a transition metal. A series of auxiliary ligands with electron-withdrawing substituents were synthesized to tailor the relative metal binding affinities of the ligands and thus directly influence the stabilities, and consequently the dissociation pathways, of the complexes. Upon collisionally activated dissociation, the complexes yield fragmentation patterns in which the abundances of key diagnostic ions are enhanced, thus facilitating isomer differentiation.

  4. Mass transit development for small urban areas; a case study: Tompkins County, N. Y. Second-year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyburg, A.H.

    1976-11-01

    This report presents the results of the second-year effort within a three-year research project to develop a transportation planning methodology for small urban areas concerned with the provision of public transportation service. This phase of the research concentrates on problems of access to health services, transportation service for the disadvantaged, potential coordination and integration of existing transportation systems, alternative systems designs and their evaluation, and suitable marketing and monitoring programs for public transportation service in small urban areas. This effort, together with elements of the first-year research will culminate in the preparation of a transit planning manual suitable for use by the transportation planner in small to medium-size urban areas.

  5. IT-support for failure management in railroad-based public mass transit; Informationstechnische Unterstuetzung des Stoerungsmanagements im schienengebundenen Personenfernverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhl, L.; Mellouli, T.; Goecke, J. [Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Decision Support and Operations Research Lab.

    2000-07-01

    The contribution discusses computer-supported operative real time management of railway passenger transport. There are many reasons why this problem has never been solved satisfactorily, e.g. high time pressure, poor formalizeability of the decision basis, large data volume, etc. The contribution discusses requirements, problems and solution strategies. A general architecture and a prototype implementation are presented, and the functions and solution strategies tested so far are gone into. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der DV-Unterstuetzung der operativen Echtzeitsteuerung des Personenfernverkehrs in Bahngesellschaften. Aus vielen Gruenden, wie extremer Zeitdruck, schlechte Formalisierbarkeit der Entscheidungsgrundlagen, Groesse der benoetigten Datenmengen etc. stellt diese Aufgabenstellung eine Herausforderung dar, die bisher nicht zufriedenstellend geloest ist. In dieser Arbeit werden Anforderungen, Probleme und Loesungsansaetze diskutiert. Eine Gesamtarchitektur fuer ein Disponentenunterstuetzungssystem wird zusammen mit einer prototypischen Implementierung praesentiert. Den Abschluss bildet eine Darstellung der bisher im Testsystem erprobten Funktionen und Loesungsansaetze. (orig.)

  6. SALT observations of the chromospheric activity of transiting planet hosts: mass-loss and star-planet interactions★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, D.; Haswell, C. A.; Smith, Gareth D.; Fossati, L.; Barnes, J. R.; Busuttil, R.; Jenkins, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    We measured the chromospheric activity of the four hot Jupiter hosts WASP-43, WASP-51/HAT-P-30, WASP-72 and WASP-103 to search for anomalous values caused by the close-in companions. The Mount Wilson Ca II H & K S-index was calculated for each star using observations taken with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph at the Southern African Large Telescope. The activity level of WASP-43 is anomalously high relative to its age and falls among the highest values of all known main-sequence stars. We found marginal evidence that the activity of WASP-103 is also higher than expected from the system age. We suggest that for WASP-43 and WASP-103 star-planet interactions (SPI) may enhance the Ca II H & K core emission. The activity levels of WASP-51/HAT-P-30 and WASP-72 are anomalously low, with the latter falling below the basal envelope for both main-sequence and evolved stars. This can be attributed to circumstellar absorption due to planetary mass-loss, though absorption in the interstellar medium may contribute. A quarter of known short-period planet hosts exhibit anomalously low activity levels, including systems with hot Jupiters and low-mass companions. Since SPI can elevate and absorption can suppress the observed chromospheric activity of stars with close-in planets, their Ca II H & K activity levels are an unreliable age indicator. Systems where the activity is depressed by absorption from planetary mass-loss are key targets for examining planet compositions through transmission spectroscopy.

  7. Direct gravimetric measurements of the mass of the antarctic aerosol collected by high volume sampler: PM10 summer seasonal variation at Terra Nova Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Cristina; Lambertucci, Luca; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldi, Anna; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    An on-site procedure was set up for direct gravimetric measurement of the mass of aerosol collected using high volume impactors (aerodynamic size cut point of 10 microm, PM10); this knowledge has hitherto been unavailable. Using a computerized microbalance in a clean chemistry laboratory, under controlled temperature (+/-0.5 degrees C) and relative humidity (+/-1%), continuous, long time filter mass measurements (hours) were carried out before and after exposure, after a 48 h minimun equilibration at the laboratory conditions. The effect of the electrostatic charge was exhausted in 30-60 min, after which stable measurements were obtained. Measurements of filters exposed for 7-11 days (1.13 m3 min(-1)) in a coastal site near Terra Nova Bay (December 2000 - February 2001), gave results for aerosol mass in the order of 10-20 mg (SD approximately 2 mg), corresponding to atmospheric concentrations of 0.52-1.27 microg m(-3). Data show a seasonal behaviour in the PM10 content with an increase during December - early January, followed by a net decrease. The above results compare well with estimates obtained from proxy data for the Antarctic Peninsula (0.30 microg m(-3)), the Ronne Ice Shelf (1.49 microg m(-3)), and the South Pole (0.18 microg m(-3), summer 1974-1975, and 0.37 microg m(-3), average summer seasons 1975-1976 and 1977-1978), and from direct gravimetric measurements recently obtained from medium volume samplers at McMurdo station (downwind 3.39 microg m(-3), upwind 4.15 microg m(-3)) and at King George Island (2.5 microg m(-3), summer, particle diameter <20 microm). This finding opens the way to the direct measurement of the chemical composition of the Antarctic aerosol and, in turn, to a better knowledge of the snow/air relationships as required for the reconstruction of the chemical composition of past atmospheres from deep ice core data.

  8. Low-volume, high-intensity, aerobic interval exercise for sedentary adults: VO₂max, cardiac mass, and heart rate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Saotome, Kousaku; Seino, Satoshi; Eto, Miki; Shimojo, Nobutake; Matsushita, Akira; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Mukai, Chiaki

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low-volume, high-intensity aerobic interval training (HAIT) on maximal oxygen consumption (VO₂max), left ventricular (LV) mass, and heart rate recovery (HRR) with high-volume, moderate-intensity continuous aerobic training (CAT) in sedentary adults. Twenty-four healthy but sedentary male adults (aged 29.2 ± 7.2 years) participated in an 8-week, 3-day a week, supervised exercise intervention. They were randomly assigned to either HAIT (18 min, 180 kcal per exercise session) or CAT (45 min, 360 kcal). VO₂max, LV mass (3T-MRI), and HRR at 1 min (HRR-1) and 2 min (HRR-2) after maximal exercise were measured pre- and post-intervention. Changes in VO₂max during the 8-week intervention were significant (P < 0.01) in both groups (HAIT, 8.7 ± 3.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1), 22.4 ± 8.9%; CAT, 5.5 ± 2.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), 14.7 ± 9.5%), while the VO₂max improvement in HAIT was greater (P = 0.02) than in CAT. LV mass in HAIT increased (5.1 ± 8.4 g, 5.7 ± 9.1%, P = 0.05), but not in CAT (0.9 ± 7.8 g, 1.1 ± 8.4%, P = 0.71). While changes in HRR-1 were not significant in either group, change in HRR-2 for HAIT (9.5 ± 6.4 bpm, 19.0 ± 16.0%, P < 0.01) was greater (P = 0.03) than for CAT (1.6 ± 10.9 bpm, 3.9 ± 16.2%, P = 0.42). This study suggests that HAIT has potential as a time-efficient training mode to improve cardiorespiratory capacity and autonomic nervous system function in sedentary adults.

  9. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  10. Design of Mass transit vehicles Tc car relay cabinet%城轨车辆Tc车继电器柜的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爽

    2016-01-01

    介绍了城轨车辆Tc车继电器柜的骨架、组装与布线及安装设计,旨在规范Tc车继电器柜的设计,降低设计时的不确定性和复杂性,压缩产品开发时间以及减少总体成本。%the article introduces the design of the skeleton、assemble、wiring and install of Mass transit vehicles Tc car relay cabi-net,Objective is to standardize the design,reduce uncertainty and complexity,compression product design time and reduce total cost.

  11. DISCOVERY OF PSR J1227−4853: A TRANSITION FROM A LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY TO A REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Jayanta; Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Stappers, Ben [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Ray, Paul S.; Wolff, Michael; Wood, Kent S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Deneva, Julia [NRC Research Associate, resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Camilo, Fernando [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Johnson, Tyrel J. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA, resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hessels, Jason W. T.; Bassa, Cees G. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Keane, Evan F. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H30, P.O. Box 218, VIC 3122 (Australia); Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Harding, Alice K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    XSS J12270−4859 is an X-ray binary associated with the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 1FGL J1227.9−4852. In 2012 December, this source underwent a transition where the X-ray and optical luminosity dropped and the spectral signatures of an accretion disk disappeared. We report the discovery of a 1.69 millisecond pulsar (MSP), PSR J1227−4853, at a dispersion measure of 43.4 pc cm{sup −3} associated with this source, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 607 MHz. This demonstrates that, post-transition, the system hosts an active radio MSP. This is the third system after PSR J1023+0038 and PSR J1824−2452I showing evidence of state switching between radio MSP and low-mass X-ray binary states. We report timing observations of PSR J1227−4853 with the GMRT and Parkes, which give a precise determination of the rotational and orbital parameters of the system. The companion mass measurement of 0.17–0.46 M{sub ⊙} suggests that this is a redback system. PSR J1227−4853 is eclipsed for about 40% of its orbit at 607 MHz with additional short-duration eclipses at all orbital phases. We also find that the pulsar is very energetic, with a spin-down luminosity of ∼10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1}. We report simultaneous imaging and timing observations with the GMRT, which suggests that eclipses are caused by absorption rather than dispersion smearing or scattering.

  12. Mass balance during gabbro-amphibolite transition, Bamble Sector, Norway: implications for petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the gabbros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezaei, Saeed; Cameron, Eion M.

    2002-01-01

    Mafic intrusions of mid-Proterozoic ages are widespread in the Bamble Sector, southern Norway, and elsewhere in the Baltic Shield. They vary from subordinate ultramafic rocks to troctolitic gabbros, olivine-ferrogabbro, olivine-free gabbros and norites. Ni-Cu sulfide ores locally occur in the marginal parts of the intrusions. Post-solidus retrograde reactions under prolonged high P- T conditions led to serial changes from corona development around ferromagnesian minerals, to replacement of olivine and pyroxenes by hornblende and to the formation of amphibolites. Variations of elements during the gabbro-amphibolite transformation are evaluated using a statistical approach that takes into consideration both initial magmatic differentiation effects, and metasomatic changes imprinted during metamorphism. This indicates that rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), and transition metals were immobile. Large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and halogens were significantly introduced into the amphibolites. Sulfur, Se, Cu, Au, and As remained constant, or locally remobilized and reprecipitated; Sb was enriched in the amphibolites. The Bamble gabbros are tholeiitic, enriched in Fe (Mg#=35-70); on MORB-normalized plots, they show features typical of destructive margins setting (i.e. enriched LILE and LREE, low Th abundance, and Nb trough). They are further characterized by low Ce/Yb ratios (Ce/Ybisotope data [Precambrian Research 64 (1993) 403; Chemical Geology 181/1-4 (2001) 23]. A model consistent with the geochemical data favors an early fractionation of olivine in a source area that had been metasomatized by LILE-LREE bearing fluids.

  13. Mass Wasting during the Cretaceous/Tertiary Transition in the North Atlantic: Relationship to the Chicxulub Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Paula; Keller, Gerta; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Deep-sea sections in the North Atlantic are claimed to contain the most complete sedimentary records and ultimate proof that the Chicxulub impact is Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) in age and caused the mass extinction. A multi-disciplinary study of North Atlantic DSDP Sites 384, 386 and 398, based on high-resolution planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, carbon and oxygen stable isotopes, clay and whole-rock mineralogy and granulometry, reveals the age, stratigraphic completeness and nature of sedimentary disturbances. Results show a major KTB hiatus at Site 384 with zones CF1, P0 and P1a missing, spanning at least ~540 ky, similar to other North Atlantic and Caribbean localities associated with tectonic activity and Gulf Stream erosion. At Sites 386 and 398, discrete intervals of disturbed sediments with mm-to-cm-thick spherule layers have previously been interpreted as KTB age impact-generated earthquakes destabilizing continental margins prior to settling of impact spherules. However, improved age control based on planktonic foraminifera indicates deposition in the early Danian zone P1a(2) (upper Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina zone) more than 100 ky after the KTB. At Site 386, two intervals of white chalk contain very small (Chicxulub impact.

  14. Discovery of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations and state transitions in the low-mass X-ray binary 1E~1724-3045 (Terzan 2)

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, D; Méndez, M; Wijnands, R; Markwardt, C; Swank, J

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the rapid X-ray time variability in 99 pointed observations with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)'s Proportional Counter Array of the low-mass X-ray binary 1E~1724--3045 which includes, for the first time, observations of this source in its island and banana states, confirming the atoll nature of this source. We report the discovery of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs). Although we have 5 detections of the lower kHz QPO and one detection of the upper kHz QPO, in none of the observations we detect both QPOs simultaneously. By comparing the dependence of the rms amplitude with energy of kHz QPOs in different atoll sources, we conclude that this information cannot be use to unambiguously identify the kilohertz QPOs as was previously thought. We find that Terzan~2 in its different states shows timing behavior similar to that seen in other neutron-star low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). We studied the flux transitions observed between February 2004 and October 2005 and conclude t...

  15. KOI-127b: a very low-albedo, Saturn-mass transiting planet around a metal rich solar-like star

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, D; Fridlund, M; Hatzes, A P; Deeg, H J; Frasca, A; Lanza, A F; Moroni, P G Prada; Tognelli, E; McQuillan, A; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Antoci, V; Cabrera, J; Carone, L; Csizmadia, Sz; Djupvik, A A; Günther, E W; Jessen-Hansen, J; Ofir, A; Telting, J

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of KOI-127b, a Saturn-mass transiting planet in a 3.6-day orbit around a metal-rich solar-like star. We combined the publicly available Kepler photometry (quarters 1-13) with high-resolution spectroscopy from the Sandiford@McDonald and FIES@NOT spectrographs. We derived the system parameters via a simultaneous joint fit to the photometric and radial velocity measurements. Our analysis is based on the Bayesian approach and is carried out by sampling the parameter posterior distributions using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. KOI-127b is a moderately inflated planet with a mass of Mp=0.430+/-0.032 Mjup, radius of Rp=0.960+/-0.016 Rjup, and bulk density of 0.603+/-0.055 g/cm^3. It orbits a slowly rotating (P=36+/-6 days) G5V star with M*=0.95+/-0.04 Msun, R*=0.99+/-0.02 Rsun, Teff=5520+/-60 K, [M/H]=0.20+/-0.05, and an age of 7.5+/-2.0 Gyr. The lack of detectable planetary occultation with a depth larger than about 10 ppm, implies a planet's geometric and Bond albedo of Ag<0.087+/-...

  16. The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets . I. A companion around HD 16760 with mass close to the planet/brown-dwarf transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchy, F.; Hébrard, G.; Udry, S.; Delfosse, X.; Boisse, I.; Desort, M.; Bonfils, X.; Eggenberger, A.; Ehrenreich, D.; Forveille, T.; Lagrange, A. M.; Le Coroller, H.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Pepe, F.; Perrier, C.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.; Ségransan, D.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2009-10-01

    We report on the discovery of a substellar companion or a massive Jupiter orbiting the G5V star HD 16760 using the spectrograph SOPHIE installed on the OHP 1.93-m telescope. Characteristics and performances of the spectrograph are presented, as well as the SOPHIE exoplanet consortium program. With a minimum mass of 14.3 {M}_Jup, an orbital period of 465 days and an eccentricity of 0.067, HD 16760b seems to be located just at the end of the mass distribution of giant planets, close to the planet/brown-dwarf transition. Its quite circular orbit supports a formation in a gaseous protoplanetary disk. Based on observations made with SOPHIE spectrograph on the 1.93-m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS/OAMP), France (program 07A.PNP.CONS). Table 2 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/505/853

  17. Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-09-12

    Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500μL injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water.

  18. Connecting Transitions in Galaxy Properties to Refueling

    CERN Document Server

    Kannappan, Sheila J; Eckert, Kathleen D; Moffett, Amanda J; Wei, Lisa H; Pisano, D J; Baker, Andrew J; Vogel, Stuart N; Fabricant, Daniel G; Laine, Seppo; Norris, Mark A; Jogee, Shardha; Lepore, Natasha; Hough, Loren E; Weinberg-Wolf, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    We relate transitions in galaxy structure and gas content to refueling, here defined to include both the external gas accretion and the internal gas processing needed to renew reservoirs for star formation. We analyze two z=0 data sets: a high-quality ~200-galaxy sample (the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, data release herein) and a volume-limited ~3000-galaxy sample with reprocessed archival data. Both reach down to baryonic masses ~10^9Msun and span void-to-cluster environments. Two mass-dependent transitions are evident: (i) below the "gas-richness threshold" scale (V~125km/s), gas-dominated quasi-bulgeless Sd--Im galaxies become numerically dominant, while (ii) above the "bimodality" scale (V~200km/s), gas-starved E/S0s become the norm. Notwithstanding these transitions, galaxy mass (or V as its proxy) is a poor predictor of gas-to-stellar mass ratio M_gas/M_*. Instead, M_gas/M_* correlates well with the ratio of a galaxy's stellar mass formed in the last Gyr to its preexisting stellar mass, such that the two...

  19. Mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol® HX photopolymer film in a roll-to-roll copy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-03-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in augmented and virtual reality (AR and VR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept and discuss the mechanical construction of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we treat aspects like master design, effects of vibration and suppression of noise gratings. Furthermore, digital vHOEs are introduced as master holograms. They enable new ways of optical design and paths to large scale vHOEs.

  20. Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

    2012-07-01

    A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively.

  1. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of nitrophenols in soils by microvial insert large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2016-07-22

    A rapid and sensitive procedure for the determination of six NPs in soils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is proposed. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is used for NP extraction from soil matrices to an organic solvent, while the environmentally friendly technique dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is used for the preconcentration of the resulting UAE extracts. NPs were derivatized by applying an "in-situ" acetylation procedure, before being injected into the GC-MS system using microvial insert large volume injection (LVI). Several parameters affecting UAE, DLLME, derivatization and injection steps were investigated. The optimized procedure provided recoveries of 86-111% from spiked samples. Precision values of the procedure (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD) lower than 12%, and limits of quantification ranging from 1.3 to 2.6ngg(-1), depending on the compound, were obtained. Twenty soil samples, obtained from military, industrial and agricultural areas, were analyzed by the proposed method. Two of the analytes were quantified in two of the samples obtained from industrial areas, at concentrations in the 4.8-9.6ngg(-1) range.

  2. Towards Large Volume Big Divisor D3-D7 "mu-Split Supersymmetry" and Ricci-Flat Swiss-Cheese Metrics, and Dimension-Six Neutrino Mass Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi

    2012-01-01

    We show that it is possible to realize a "mu-split SUSY" scenario [1] in the context of large volume limit of type IIB compactifications on Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau's in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane and a (stack of) D7-brane(s) wrapping the "big" divisor Sigma_B. For this, we investigate the possibility of getting one Higgs to be light while other to be heavy in addition to a heavy Higgsino mass parameter. Further, we examine the existence of long lived gluino that manifests one of the major consequences of mu-split SUSY scenario, by computing its decay width as well as lifetime corresponding to the 3-body decays of the gluino into a quark, a squark and a neutralino or Goldstino, as well as 2-body decays of the gluino into either a neutralino or a Goldstino and a gluon. Guided by the geometric Kaehler potential for Sigma_B obtained in [2] based on GLSM techniques, and the Donaldson's algorithm [3] for obtaining numerically a Ricci-flat metric, we give details of our calculation in [4] p...

  3. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  4. Quality of life, forced expiratory volume in one second and body mass index in patients with COPD, during therapy for controlling the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, J; Stevcevska, G

    2009-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by an impaired lung function and limited exercise tolerance. Medication and rehabilitation programmes are generally directed towards relief of symptoms and improvement of lung function and exercise tolerance. 130 patients were included in the examination with diagnosed chronic obstructtive pulmonary disease, stable form, 114 male and 16 female, of whom 121 were smokers and 9 were non-smokers. Inclusive criteria were FEV1 life in patients with BMI from 21 to 28 kg/m2. The SGRQ scores at the end of the study were also significantly lower in group I (p life in patients with COPD after18 months' regular use of therapy (Fig. 2). The values of Pearson's coefficient r = -0.49 (p life in COPD patients, which is not associated with improvement in lung function. Patients with malnutrition (BMI life. High levels of SGRQ scores are associated with lower values of FEV1. Key words: COPD, therapy, quality of life, forced expiratory volume in one second, body mass index.

  5. Heat and Mass Transfer during Solid-Liquid Phase Transition of n-Alkanes in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Rune

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this project has been to study heat and mass transfer during solid-liquid phase transition of n-alkanes in the in the C{sub 16} to C{sub 19} range. Phase transitions of both mixtures and pure components have been investigated. All experiments and simulations have been performed without any convection. Thermal conductivities have been determined at the melting point for solid and liquid unbranched alkanes ranging from C{sub 16} to C{sub 19}. An assessment of the error of the method has been performed. The measurements of solid conductivities are in accordance with measurements reported previously and confirm the applicability of the method. Liquid conductivities are higher than extrapolated values from the literature. The enhanced conductivity is believed to be caused by structural changes close to the melting point which is not taken into account when extrapolating values from the literature. Experiments have been performed for the purpose of investigating the freezing of mixtures of n-alkanes in the C{sub 16}-C{sub 19} range. The positions of the solid-liquid interfaces have been measured as freezing occurred. Calculations of the ratio of liquid and solid conductivities show that the solid structure of mixtures of the investigated n-alkanes is predominantly in a rotator structure at the temperatures investigated. There are indications of a transformation into an orthorhombic structure at lower temperatures. The temperatures on the solid-liquid interface have been measured, and compared with calculated values from chapter 4. The temperature of the interface is represented better by the measured interfacial temperatures than by the calculated interfacial temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the diffusion of heat is the limiting mechanism of phase transition. This result in a homogeneous liquid composition. A numerical model has been developed in order to simulate the experimental freezing of mixtures. The model represents the results

  6. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rajagopalan,1 Georgi Abraham,2 Yuvaram NV Reddy,2 Ravivarman Lakshmanasami,1 ML Prakash,1 Yogesh NV Reddy2 1Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 2Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI, birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. Keywords: eGFR, birth weight, renal volume

  7. 城市轨道交通企业集团管控模式研究%On Group Control Mode of Urban Mass Transit Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鲁宁

    2011-01-01

    为解决城市轨道交通企业集团管控模式选择问题,以城市轨道交通多元化业务板块为基础,对集团管控模式进行了三维度分类,即管理控制、组织结构和治理结构.结合城市轨道交通企业的特殊性,分别对三个管控维度进行了分析,并阐述了三者之间的相互影响或匹配关系.%To deal with the selection of urban mass transit group control mode, base on the diversity business segments of UMT, this paper categorizes the group control mode in three dimensions, they are management control, organization structure and governance structure. Combined with the unique features of UMT enterprises, the paper analyses the three control dimensions respectively,and discusses the mutual influence or the matches in between.

  8. The new interaction suggested by the anomalous {sup 8}Be transition sets a rigorous constraint on the mass range of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Lian-Bao [Southwest University of Science and Technology, School of Science, Mianyang (China); Li, Xue-Qian [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-15

    The WIMPs are considered to belong to the favorable dark matter (DM) candidates, but the upper bounds on the interactions between DM and standard model (SM) particles obtained by the upgraded facilities of DM direct detection get lower and lower. Researchers turn their attention to the search for less massive DM candidates, i.e. light dark matter of the MeV scale. The recently measured anomalous transition in {sup 8}Be suggests that there exists a vectorial boson which may mediate the interaction between DM and SM particles. Based on this scenario, we combine the relevant cosmological data to constrain the mass range of DM, and we have found that there exists a model parameter space where the requirements are satisfied, a range of 10.4

  9. The new interaction suggested by the anomalous $^8$Be transition sets a rigorous constraint on the mass range of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Lian-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The WIMPs are considered one of the most favorable dark matter (DM) candidates, but as the upper bound on the interaction between DM and standard model (SM) particles obtained by the upgraded facilities for direct detection of DM gets lower and lower. Researchers turn their attention to search for less massive DM candidates, i.e. light dark matter of MeV scale. The recently measured anomalous transition in $^8$Be suggests that there exists a vectorial boson which may mediate the interaction between DM and SM particles. Based on this scenario, we combine the relevant cosmological data to constrain the mass range of DM, and have found that there exists a model parameter space where the requirements are satisfied, a range of $10.4 \\lesssim m_{\\phi} \\lesssim 16.7 $ MeV for scalar DM, and $13.6 \\lesssim m_{V} \\lesssim 16.7$ MeV for vectorial DM is demanded. Then a possibility of directly detecting such light DM particles at the earth detector via the DM-electron scattering is briefly studied in this framework.

  10. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram Nv; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, M L; Reddy, Yogesh Nv

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft-Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m(2), 18.5-24.99 kg/m(2), 25-29.99 kg/m(2), and ≥30 kg/m(2) were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex.

  11. Body mass index correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity in a population with a relatively low prevalence of obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susumu Fukahori; Hiroto Matsuse; Noboru Takamura; Tomoko Tsuchida; Tetsuya Kawano; Chizu Fukushima; Senjyu Hideaki; Shigeru Kohno

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity is the most common metabolic disease in the world. However, the relationship between obesity and lung function is not fully understood. Although several longitudinal studies have shown that increases in body weight can lead to reductions in pulmonary function, whether this is the case with the Japanese population and whether high body mass index (BMI) status alone represents an appropriate predictor of obstructive lung dysfunction remains unclear.The purpose of present study was to estimate the effect of BMI on lung function measured by spirometry of Japanese patients in general clinics. We measured BMI and performed spirometry on screening patients who had consulted general clinics.Methods Subjects comprised 1231 patients ≥40 years of age (mean age (65.0±12.0) years, 525 men, 706 women) who had consulted clinics in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, for non-respiratory disease. BMI was calculated and lung function was measured by spirometry.Results BMI was found to be positively correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) in men and with maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMF) in all subjects. Following adjustment for relevant factors, a significant positive correlation between BMI and FEV1/FVC was identified for all subjects. Comparison between subjects with normal BMI (18.5-25.0) and higher BMI (25.1-30.0) also demonstrated that FEV1/FVC and percentage of predicted maximum mid-expiratory flow (%MMF) were significantly higher in the latter subjects.Conclusions In a population without marked respiratory disease, higher BMI subjects showed less obstructive pulmonary dysfunction compared to normal BMI subjects. High BMI status alone may be inappropriate as a predictor of obstructive lung dysfunction, particularly in populations with a low prevalence of obesity.

  12. 城市总体规划层面中小运量新交通系统的规划思路及策略研究——以南京市为例%Thoughts on the Planning of Medium-Small-Volume Transit System in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官卫华; 林小虎

    2012-01-01

    Innovative transit system, a kind of medium-small-volume rail transit system to complement urban mass rapid transit, first appeared in the 1970s in Western megacities. Such systems have advantages such as low cost, low negative externality, punctuality and safety. The authors systematically analyze types and conditions of urban transits in China and overseas, and summarize four developmental types of Innovative transit systems, namely optimization of primary subway network, substitution of secondary subway route, traffic organization within new city or residential district and special route of pubilc facilities. The authors then further analyze the conditions of developing innovative transit system in Nanjing and proposes thoughts on the planning and implementation of such systems.%新交通系统是1970年代西方发达国家在基本建成大运量、快速化轨道交通骨干线网的背景下兴起的一种中小运量轨道交通形式,具有低成本、低外部负效应、准时安全等特点.通过系统梳理了国内外新交通系统的发展特征和建设条件,归纳总结出骨干地铁线网优化、非骨干地铁线路替代、新城或居住片区内部交通组织、城市公共设施等其他专用线路等4种新交通应用模式.然后,结合南京既行规划和轨道交通发展现状,深入剖析发展新交通系统的现实条件,在此基础上,借鉴国内外发展经验,提出城市总体规划层面相应的规划思路和实施策略.

  13. The impacts of mantle phase transitions and the iron spin crossover in ferropericlase on convective mixing—is the evidence for compositional convection definitive? New results from a Yin-Yang overset grid-based control volume model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnas, M. H.; Peltier, W. R.

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution seismic tomographic images from several subduction zones provide evidence for the inhibition of the downwelling of subducting slabs at the level of the 660 km depth seismic discontinuity. Furthermore, the inference of old (~140 Myr) sinking slabs below fossil subduction zones in the lower mantle has yet to be explained. We employ a control volume methodology to develop a new anelastically compressible model of three-dimensional thermal convection in the "mantle" of a terrestrial planet that fully incorporates the influence of large variations in material properties. The model also incorporates the influence of (1) multiple solid-solid pressure-induced phase transitions, (2) transformational superplasticity at 660 km depth, and (3) the high spin-low spin iron spin transition in ferropericlase at midmantle pressures. The message passing interface-parallelized code is successfully tested against previously published benchmark results. The high-resolution control volume models exhibit the same degree of radial layering as previously shown to be characteristic of otherwise identical 2-D axisymmetric spherical models. The layering is enhanced by the presence of moderate transformational superplasticity, and in the presence of the spin crossover in ferropericlase, stagnation of cold downwellings occurs in the range of spin crossover depths (~1700 km). Although this electronic spin transition has been suggested to be invisible seismically, recent high-pressure ab initio calculations suggest it to have a clear signature in body wave velocities which could provide an isochemical explanation of a seismological signature involving the onset of decorrelation between Vp and Vs that has come to be interpreted as requiring compositional layering.

  14. The impact of body mass index and Western advertising and media on eating style, body image and nutrition transition among Jordanian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala N; Brown, Ralph B; Hawks, Steven R

    2007-10-01

    To identify the impact of body mass index (BMI) and Western advertising and media on the stage of the nutrition transition among Jordanian women, and to evaluate their impact on eating styles and body image. A randomised cross-sectional survey that included a variety of culturally measured Likert-type scales and body size images. In addition, BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight. In the homes of the participants. The data were collected by female interviewers who worked for the Jordan Department of Statistics. The sample was based on a random and representative selection of 800 mostly urban Jordanian women. A pre-test sample of 100 women was also used to validate the instruments. Women tended to agree that they ate based on emotional cues. They had high levels of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours and 42.1% were considered restrained eaters. However, these women also had higher than expected body esteem levels and desired a healthy body size. As expected, being obese was associated with a desire to lose weight, being a restrained and emotional eater, and having more disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Similarly, Western advertising and media were associated with restrained and emotional eating, desired weight loss, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. There is a need to develop health education materials that explain the influence of obesity on health and the negative psychological and physical consequences of restrained and emotional eating, building on the current cultural preferences of healthy body size. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. Finding consistency between different views of the absorption enhancement of black carbon: An observationally constrained hybrid model to support a transition in optical properties with mass fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Allan, J. D.; Whitehead, J.; Alfarra, M. R. R.; Villegas, E.; Kong, S.; Williams, P. I.; Ting, Y. C.; Haslett, S.; Taylor, J.; Morgan, W.; McFiggans, G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C.

    2015-12-01

    The mixing state of black carbon is uncertain yet has a significant influence on the efficiency with which a particle absorbs light. In turn, this may make a significant contribution to the uncertainty in global model predictions of the black carbon radiative budget. Previous modelling studies that have represented this mixing state using a core-shell approach have shown that aged black carbon particles may be considerably enhanced compared to freshly emitted black carbon due to the addition of co-emitted, weakly absorbing species. However, recent field results have demonstrated that any enhancement of absorption is minor in the ambient atmosphere. Resolving these differences in absorption efficiency is important as they will have a major impact on the extent to which black carbon heats the atmospheric column. We have made morphology-independent measurements of refractory black carbon mass and associated weakly absorbing material in single particles from laboratory-generated diesel soot and black carbon particles in ambient air influenced by traffic and wood burning sources and related these to the optical properties of the particles. We compared our calculated optical properties with optical models that use varying mixing state assumptions and by characterising the behaviour in terms of the relative amounts of weakly absorbing material and black carbon in a particle we show a sharp transition in mixing occurs. We show that the majority of black carbon particles from traffic-dominated sources can be treated as externally mixed and show no absorption enhancement, whereas models assuming internal mixing tend to give the best estimate of the absorption enhancement of thickly coated black carbon particles from biofuel or biomass burning. This approach reconciles the differences in absorption enhancement previously observed and offers a systematic way of treating the differences in behaviour observed.

  16. Transition projects, Fiscal Year 1996: Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for WBS 1.31, 7.1, and 6.13. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartmell, D.B.

    1995-09-01

    Based on US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) review, specific areas of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Transition Projects ``Draft`` Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) were revised in preparation for the RL approval ceremony on September 26, 1995. These changes were reviewed with the appropriate RL Project Manager. The changes have been incorporated to the MYPP electronic file, and hard copies replacing the ``Draft`` MYPP will be distributed after the formal signing. In addition to the comments received, a summary level schedule and outyear estimates for the K Basin deactivation beginning in FY 2001 have been included. The K Basin outyear waste data is nearing completion this week and will be incorporated. This exclusion was discussed with Mr. N.D. Moorer, RL, Facility Transition Program Support/Integration. The attached MYPP scope/schedule reflects the Integrated Target Case submitted in the April 1995 Activity Data Sheets (ADS) with the exception of B Plant and the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The 8 Plant assumption in FY 1997 reflects the planning case in the FY 1997 ADS with a shortfall of $5 million. PFP assumptions have been revised from the FY 1997 ADS based on the direction provided this past summer by DOE-Headquarters. This includes the acceleration of the polycube stabilization back to its originally planned completion date. Although the overall program repricing in FY 1996 allowed the scheduled acceleration to fall with the funding allocation, the FY 1997 total reflects a shortfall of $6 million.

  17. Modeling and optimization of Look-Locker spin labeling for measuring perfusion and transit time changes in activation studies taking into account arterial blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, S T; Bowtell, R; Gowland, P A

    2008-02-01

    This work describes a new compartmental model with step-wise temporal analysis for a Look-Locker (LL)-flow-sensitive alternating inversion-recovery (FAIR) sequence, which combines the FAIR arterial spin labeling (ASL) scheme with a LL echo planar imaging (EPI) measurement, using a multireadout EPI sequence for simultaneous perfusion and T*(2) measurements. The new model highlights the importance of accounting for the transit time of blood through the arteriolar compartment, delta, in the quantification of perfusion. The signal expected is calculated in a step-wise manner to avoid discontinuities between different compartments. The optimal LL-FAIR pulse sequence timings for the measurement of perfusion with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and high temporal resolution at 1.5, 3, and 7T are presented. LL-FAIR is shown to provide better SNR per unit time compared to standard FAIR. The sequence has been used experimentally for simultaneous monitoring of perfusion, transit time, and T*(2) changes in response to a visual stimulus in four subjects. It was found that perfusion increased by 83 +/- 4% on brain activation from a resting state value of 94 +/- 13 ml/100 g/min, while T*(2) increased by 3.5 +/- 0.5%. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG . XIV. Investigating giant planet migration history via improved eccentricity and mass determination for 231 transiting planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, A. S.; Desidera, S.; Benatti, S.; Borsa, F.; Crespi, S.; Damasso, M.; Lanza, A. F.; Sozzetti, A.; Lodato, G.; Marzari, F.; Boccato, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Gratton, R.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Smareglia, R.; Affer, L.; Biazzo, K.; Bignamini, A.; Esposito, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Hébrard, G.; Malavolta, L.; Maldonado, J.; Mancini, L.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A.; Masiero, S.; Nascimbeni, V.; Pedani, M.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.

    2017-06-01

    We carried out a Bayesian homogeneous determination of the orbital parameters of 231 transiting giant planets (TGPs) that are alone or have distant companions; we employed differential evolution Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to analyse radial-velocity (RV) data from the literature and 782 new high-accuracy RVs obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph for 45 systems over 3 years. Our work yields the largest sample of systems with a transiting giant exoplanet and coherently determined orbital, planetary, and stellar parameters. We found that the orbital parameters of TGPs in non-compact planetary systems are clearly shaped by tides raised by their host stars. Indeed, the most eccentric planets have relatively large orbital separations and/or high mass ratios, as expected from the equilibrium tide theory. This feature would be the outcome of planetary migration from highly eccentric orbits excited by planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov perturbations, or secular chaos. The distribution of α = a/aR, where a and aR are the semi-major axis and the Roche limit, for well-determined circular orbits peaks at 2.5; this agrees with expectations from the high-eccentricity migration (HEM), although it might not be limited to this migration scenario. The few planets of our sample with circular orbits and α> 5 values may have migrated through disc-planet interactions instead of HEM. By comparing circularisation times with stellar ages, we found that hot Jupiters with a< 0.05 au have modified tidal quality factors 105 ≲ Q'p ≲ 109, and that stellar Q's ≳ 106 - 107 are required to explain the presence of eccentric planets at the same orbital distance. As aby-product of our analysis, we detected a non-zero eccentricity e = 0.104-0.018+0.021 for HAT-P-29; we determined that five planets that were previously regarded to be eccentric or to have hints of non-zero eccentricity, namely CoRoT-2b, CoRoT-23b, TrES-3b, HAT-P-23b, and WASP-54b, have circular orbits or undetermined

  19. Characteristics of PM2.5, CO2 and particle-number concentration in mass transit railway carriages in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Long; Deng, Wen-Jing; Cheng, Yan; Guo, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and particle-number concentrations (PNC) were monitored in train carriages on seven routes of the mass transit railway in Hong Kong between March and May 2014, using real-time monitoring instruments. The 8-h average PM2.5 levels in carriages on the seven routes ranged from 24.1 to 49.8 µg/m(3), higher than levels in Finland and similar to those in New York, and in most cases exceeding the standard set by the World Health Organisation (25 µg/m(3)). The CO2 concentration ranged from 714 to 1801 ppm on four of the routes, generally exceeding indoor air quality guidelines (1000 ppm over 8 h) and reaching levels as high as those in Beijing. PNC ranged from 1506 to 11,570 particles/cm(3), lower than readings in Sydney and higher than readings in Taipei. Correlation analysis indicated that the number of passengers in a given carriage did not affect the PM2.5 concentration or PNC in the carriage. However, a significant positive correlation (p < 0.001, R (2) = 0.834) was observed between passenger numbers and CO2 levels, with each passenger contributing approximately 7.7-9.8 ppm of CO2. The real-time measurements of PM2.5 and PNC varied considerably, rising when carriage doors opened on arrival at a station and when passengers inside the carriage were more active. This suggests that air pollutants outside the train and passenger movements may contribute to PM2.5 levels and PNC. Assessment of the risk associated with PM2.5 exposure revealed that children are most severely affected by PM2.5 pollution, followed in order by juveniles, adults and the elderly. In addition, females were found to be more vulnerable to PM2.5 pollution than males (p < 0.001), and different subway lines were associated with different levels of risk.

  20. Perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik heat cured akibat kelembaban dan lama penyimpanan (Changes in glass transition temperature and heat cured acrylic resin mass due to moisture and storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Salim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylic resins, especially poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA was introduced in 1937. Acrylic resin has favorable properties, among others, aesthetic, color and texture similar to that of the gingival aesthetic in the mouth, relatively low water absorption and dimensional changes. However, some studies suggest that the duration of storage of acrylic resin will affect the changes in the glass transition temperature and the mass of acrylic resin. Purpose: The objective of this research was to study the effect of humidity and storage time led to changes in the glass transition temperature and the mass of the acrylic resin. Methods: The research method is experimental laboratory. Acrylic resin specimens are kept in conditions of humidity of 90%, 70%, 40% and 30% for 24 hours, one week, one month and two months. In this study used three methods of curing, namely conventional JIs, 24-hour curing at 70 °C and using the microwave. Results: Low humidity causes changes in the glass transition temperature and the mass of acrylic resin. Longer storage of acrylic resins in low humidity, can affect change greater than the glass transition temperature and the mass of acrylic resin. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the humidity and longer storage of acrylic resins can affect the glass transition temperature and a change in mass.Latar belakang: Resin akrilik terutama poli metil metakrilat (PMMA telah diperkenalkan pada tahun 1937. Resin akrilik memiliki sifat yang menguntungkan antara lain estetis, warna dan tekstur mirip dengan gingiva sehingga estetik di dalam mulut baik, daya serap air relatif rendah dan perubahan dimensi kecil. Akan tetapi, dari beberapa penelitian menyatakan bahwa lamanya waktu penyimpanan resin akrilik akan berpengaruh pada perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh kelembaban dan waktu penyimpanan yang menyebabkan perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan

  1. Evaluation of Internal Structure, Volume and Mass of Glacial Bodies by Integrated LiDAR and Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys: The Case Study of Canin Eastern Glacieret (Julian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, R. R.; Forte, E.; Boccali, C.; Dossi, M.; Lanza, L.; Pipan, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2015-03-01

    We propose an integrated methodology to image the internal structure, evaluate the volume and estimate the densities of different units within ice bodies, useful for more precise mass estimation of very small glaciers. The procedure encompasses light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) common offset data. The case study is the Canin Eastern Glacieret (CEG), a very small and maritime glacier in the Eastern Alps, and one of the lowermost glaciers of the European Alps. We calculate both volumetric and mass variations of the analysed ice body by integrating GPR measurements with LiDAR surveys acquired in different years (2006 and 2011). Between 2006 and 2011, the area of the glacieret increased from 8,510 to 17,530 m2 with a gain of 9,016 m2. The observed volume increase has been estimated in 96,350 m3 (+97 %), which corresponds to a positive mass balance of 3.89 m w.e.. This quite unusual finding in the present global warming behaviour is mainly due to the above-average winter accumulation (cw) in the considered period. Moreover, the winter season 2008-2009 represented an exceptional event with a cw equal to 13.38 m, the highest of the available record. Thanks to density estimation, we infer the total mass of the CEG at the time of the geophysical surveys, comparing such results with the ones obtained with available empirical equations, observing an important mass gain in the 5 years considered.

  2. Mass Independent Entropy Products in Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate the thermodynamic properties of conformal holography in four dimensions. We compute the \\emph{area(or entropy) functional} relation for this black hole. We consider both dS and AdS cases. Thermodynamic stability is studied by computing the specific heat. The phase transition occurs at a certain condition. Various types of phase structure has been given for various values of $a$ and $\\Lambda$. In the limit $a=0$, one finds the result of Schwarzschild-dS and Schwarzschild-AdS cases. In the limit $aM<<1$, one obtains the result of Grumiler space-time. Where $a$ is defined in the metric and $M$ is the mass parameter.The \\emph{thermodynamic volume functional} relation is derived in the extended phase space. The \\emph{mass-independent} entropy functional relation and thermodynamic volume functional relation that we have derived could turn out to be an \\emph{universal} quantity.

  3. Numerical tests of the electroweak phase transition and thermodynamics of the electroweak plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc; Hein, J; Jaster, A; Montvay, István

    1996-01-01

    The finite temperature phase transition in the SU(2) Higgs model at a Higgs boson mass M_H \\simeq 34 GeV is studied in numerical simulations on four-dimensional lattices with time-like extensions up to L_t=5. The effects of the finite volume and finite lattice spacing on masses and couplings are studied in detail. The errors due to uncertainties in the critical hopping parameter are estimated. The thermodynamics of the electroweak plasma near the phase transition is investigated by determining the relation between energy density and pressure.

  4. Narratives Lost in the Box: The Trichotomy of Latina Student Identity Transition Stages Due to Mass Media and On-Campus Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Vogt, Emily

    2017-01-01

    This theoretical paper is based on a larger study focused on understanding the experiences of Latina community college students. The purpose of this paper is to expand upon the Silence to Resilience Model, which involves four phases that Latinas encounter upon or throughout their transition to community college including: (1) Racism on campus, (2)…

  5. Toward an Educated Health Consumer: Mass Communication and Quality in Medical Care. Fogarty International Series on the Teaching of Preventive Medicine. Volume 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Carter L.

    Focus in this preventive medicine monograph for health professionals is on consumer health education and the current and potential effects of mass communication on the quality of medical care. Following an introduction, the content is presented in four chapters. Chapter 1 covers the state of the art in consumer health education and discusses three…

  6. Volume changes of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, due to surface mass balance, ice flow, and subglacial melting at geothermal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present observed changes in the geometry of western Vatnajökull over a period of about ten years which are caused by the surface mass balance, ice flow (both during surges and quiescent periods), and basal melting due to geothermal and volcanic activity. Comparison of two digital elevation...

  7. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  8. The effect of female volleyball players’ leg volume and mass on balance and reaction timeBayan voleybolcuların bacak hacim ve kütlesinin denge ve reaksiyon zamanına etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan İbiş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relationship between leg volume - mass and balance – reaction time of the third league female volleyball players. 20 volunteer third league volleyball players, who are still active, are participated in this study. The average age of participant female volleyball players is 23,20±3,42 years, average height 176,30±7,78 cm, average weight 65.11±8,22 kg. Participant female volleyball players’ leg volume by Frustum method, leg mass by Hanavan method, static and dynamic balance by Biodex Balance System and visual reaction time by MOART Lafayette Reaction Measuring Device were measured. In analyzing the relation among the measurements, Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was used. As a result of analysis of the obtained data; significant moderate correlation was found between the legs mass and dynamic balance (r=0.654, p<0,05. It was determined with a highly significant relationship between leg mass and foot volume (r=0.913, p<0,01 and foot mass (r=0.917, p<0,01. Also a significant relationship was found between leg volume and foot volume (r=0.800, p<0,01 and foot mass (r=0.644, p<0,05. Consequently; it can be said that there is a highly significant relationship between leg volume-mass and foot volume-mass, and there is a relationship between dynamic balance and leg mass of the third league female volleyball players.   Özet Bu çalışmada, üçüncü lig bayan voleybolcuların bacak hacimleri ile denge ve reaksiyon zamanları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmaya üçüncü ligde oynayan toplam 20 gönüllü bayan voleybolcu katılmıştır. Çalışmaya katılan bayan voleybolcuların yaş ortalamaları 23,20±3,42 yıl, boy ortalamaları 176,30±7,78 cm, ağırlık ortalamaları 65.11±8,22 kg’dır. Çalışmada katılan bayan voleybolcuların bacak hacmi Frustum yöntemi, bacak kütlesi Hanavan yöntemi, statik-dinamik denge ölçümü Biodex Denge

  9. Use of Hub Cutters and the Volume of Sharp Waste and Occurrence of Needle-Stick Injuries during 2011 Mass Immunization Campaigns against Yellow Fever in Ghana: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Agbenu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current WHO best infection control practices for injections do not address the use of hub cutters due to insufficient evidence on safety and efficacy. Objective: To assess the impact of the use of hub cutters on 1 the frequency of needle-stick injuries (NSIs and other blood exposures among workers and 2 the volume of sharps waste in a mass vaccination campaign setting. Methods: During yellow fever vaccination in Ghana, we conducted a cohort study on the use of hub cutters. We compared two groups—one group using hub cutters and a control group—for the occurrences of NSIs and the volume of sharp waste produced. Results: In the control arm, vaccinators used 284 482 syringes in 825 vaccination sessions. In the group using hub cutter, vaccinators used 397 079 syringes in 1599 sessions. Among vaccinators, the rate of NSI was not significantly (p=0.14 different between the hub cutter users (0.15/10 000 syringes and the control group (0.04/10 000. Factors such as workload, lack of organization and pressure seemed to have influence the occurrence of NSIs. With all the limitations of the work, the volume of sharp waste per 10 000 syringes was 0.24 m3 in the hub cutter users and 0.41 m3 in the control group—a reduction of 41.2%. Vaccinators found hub cutters easy to use and safe. Use of hub cutter was not associated with increased duration of work. Conclusion: The use of hub cutters did not increase the risk of NSIs. More training is needed to facilitate its implementation in mass campaign setting.

  10. Predicting glass transition temperatures of polyarylethersulphones using QSPR methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hamerton

    Full Text Available The technique of Quantitative Structure Property Relationships has been applied to the glass transition temperatures of polyarylethersulphones. A general equation is reported that calculates the glass transition temperatures with acceptable accuracy (correlation coefficients of between 90-67%, indicating an error of 10-30% with regard to experimentally determined values for a series of 42 reported polyarylethersulphones. This method is quite simple in assumption and relies on a relatively small number of parameters associated with the structural unit of the polymer: the number of rotatable bonds, the dipole moment, the heat of formation, the HOMO eigenvalue, the molar mass and molar volume. For smaller subsets of the main group (based on families of derivatives containing different substituents the model can be simplified further to an equation that uses the volume of the substituents as the principal variable.

  11. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, A.; Paranjape, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the probability for resonantly inducing transitions in quantum states due to time-dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultracold neutrons, which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of the Earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency ω . The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighborhood of the system of neutrons. The neutron lifetime is approximately 880 sec while the probability of transitions increases as t2. Hence, the optimal strategy is to drive the system for two lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of 1.06 ×10-5, and hence with a million ultracold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  12. Gravitationally induced quantum transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, A

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we calculate the probability for resonantly induced transitions in quantum states due to time dependent gravitational perturbations. Contrary to common wisdom, the probability of inducing transitions is not infinitesimally small. We consider a system of ultra cold neutrons (UCN), which are organized according to the energy levels of the Schr\\"odinger equation in the presence of the earth's gravitational field. Transitions between energy levels are induced by an oscillating driving force of frequency $\\omega$. The driving force is created by oscillating a macroscopic mass in the neighbourhood of the system of neutrons. The neutrons decay in 880 seconds while the probability of transitions increase as $t^2$. Hence the optimal strategy is to drive the system for 2 lifetimes. The transition amplitude then is of the order of $1.06\\times 10^{-5}$ hence with a million ultra cold neutrons, one should be able to observe transitions.

  13. Volume changes of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, due to surface mass balance, ice flow, and subglacial melting at geothermal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present observed changes in the geometry of western Vatnajökull over a period of about ten years which are caused by the surface mass balance, ice flow (both during surges and quiescent periods), and basal melting due to geothermal and volcanic activity. Comparison of two digital elevation...... models shows that from 1985 to 1998 the outlet glaciers have lost 14 ± 5 km3, on the average 1 m/yr...

  14. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 2, Duct spray drying: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozewicz, W. [Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Environmental Systems Div.; Rochelle, G.T. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}] slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  15. Administrative Theory in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    This monograph analyzes transition in educational administrative theory. A brief introductory section describes the theoretical movement, the substance and repercussions of Thomas Greenfield's critique of educational administrative theory in 1974, and emerging qualitative approaches. Seven readings, all written by the volume's author, view…

  16. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident.

  17. Social networks on both sides of the transition point A research commentary on "Critical mass and willingness to pay for social networks" by J. Christopher Westland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-David, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Westland's article provides an excellent foundational understanding of the percolation theory and how it can be applied to understand achieving "critical mass" in social networks. This commentary introduces extensions to the percolation theory that have been developed while studying sea ice, and des

  18. Final technical report: SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume D. Electrostatic precipitator mass train and operating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) is one of the viable replacement fuels for No. 6 fuel oil in industrial and utility boilers. The Department of Energy funded the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) to develop and to demonstrate the use of SRC as a practical fuel. Phase II of the project was to burn the SRC fuels in a 700 hp package boiler and to collect emission data from which air pollution control devices could be specified. Wheelabrator-Frye, Inc., APC Division was contracted by ICRC to supply and operate a pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Mass emission testing was performed by WFI Sciences. Particle size tests, particle resistivity, SO/sub x/ measurements, and particulate counting tests were conducted by Southern Research Institute (SoRI). This report is a source document covering the ESP operating data and mass emission data. The data obtained by SoRI is used by SoRI in their computer model to specify full scale design criteria. The testing was performed with four fuel types; No. 6 fuel oil, SRC fuel, SRC residual fuel oil, and SRC-water slurry. All fuels were precipitated quite easily resulting in emission rates below the NSPS standards.

  19. The phi-meson and Chiral-mass-meson production in heavy-ion collisions as potential probes of quark-gluon-plasma and Chiral symmetry transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Eby, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    Possibilities of observing abundances of phi mesons and narrow hadronic pairs, as results of QGP and Chiral transitions, are considered for nucleus-nucleus interactions. Kinematical requirements in forming close pairs are satisfied in K+K decays of S(975) and delta (980) mesons with small phi, and phi (91020) mesons with large PT, and in pi-pi decays of familiar resonance mesons only in a partially restored chiral symmetry. Gluon-gluon dominance in QGP can enhance phi meson production. High hadronization rates of primordial resonance mesons which form narrow hadronic pairs are not implausible. Past cosmic ray evidences of anomalous phi production and narrow pair abundances are considered.

  20. The Mass of Hot, Shocked CO in Orion: First Observations of the J = 17 Yields J = 16 Transition at 153 Microns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    O701-83-C-O08 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 1. P9 RAM ELRENT. PROJECT. TASKAREAS W ORK UNIT NUMBERS’ The...carbon monoxide at a flux level of 7 , . Our bestitimte for the total we* of hot, T V95O K, CO in t - sobUla Is I S, From this value we assess the t taI...10-17 W cm-2 at Earth . Storey et al. (1981) find that the emission in the J - 21 + 20 transition comes from a region whose diameter (FWtI) along a NW

  1. Electroweak Phase Transition in the MSSM 4-Dimensional Lattice Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc; Hegedüs, P; Jakovác, A; Katz, S D; Piróth, A

    2000-01-01

    Recent lattice results have shown that there is no Standard Model (SM) electroweak phase transition (EWPT) for Higgs boson masses above \\approx 72 GeV, which is below the present experimental limit. According to perturbation theory and 3-dimensional (3d) lattice simulations there could be an EWPT in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) that is strong enough for baryogenesis up to m_h \\approx 105 GeV. In this letter we present the results of our large scale 4-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations for the MSSM EWPT. We carried out infinite volume and continuum limit extrapolations, which show a somewhat weaker transition than suggested by 3d simulations. The upper bound of the lightest Higgs boson mass for a MSSM baryogenesis scenario is m_h = 97 +/- 4 GeV. We determined the properties of the bubble wall that are important for a successful baryogenesis.

  2. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  3. The WFCAM Transit Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to find low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.

  4. Study Influence of Mass Media to Public Policy-making in China transition%转型期大众传媒对公共政策制定的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜寒雪; 王胜本

    2014-01-01

    随着中国市场经济体制的建立,中国的社会结构也将得到根本性的改造,中国进入了社会转型期。在社会转型期,民主和公众参与的公共需求进入了快速增长的新阶段。网络媒介的产生与普及使大众传媒成为实现公共政策公共性回归的重要推动力和平台。本文着重分析大众传媒在公共政策制定过程中发挥的作用以及大众传媒在转型期所面临的新问题和相应的解决措施,力求使政策决策者能制定出更加科学、民主的公共政策。%With the establishment of Chinese economic system , Chinese social structure will also be fundamentally transformed.In the period of China social transition , a public demand of democracy and public participation has entered a new phase of rapid growth .Generation and popularity of the network media makes public mass media be-come an important driving force and platforms to ensure public policy-making keeping public nature .This thesis an-alyzes the mass media playing the role in the process of public policy-making; puts forward the mass media being faced new issues and corresponding solutions in the transition period .This thesis ’ s purpose is that helps policy makers to develop a more scientific and democratic public policy .

  5. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Grassi, G. [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ({sup 3}He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the {sup 239}Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the

  6. Transition radiation by neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannisian, A.N., E-mail: ara.ioannisyan@cern.ch [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. 2, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Ioannisian, D.A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. 2, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Physics Department, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian (Armenia); Kazarian, N.A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2011-08-19

    We calculate the transition radiation process {nu}{yields}{nu}{gamma} at an interface of two media. The neutrinos are taken to be with only standard-model couplings. The medium fulfills the dual purpose of inducing an effective neutrino-photon vertex and of modifying the photon dispersion relation. The transition radiation occurs when at least one of those quantities have different values in different media. The neutrino mass is ignored due to its negligible contribution. We present a result for the probability of the transition radiation which is both accurate and analytic. For E{sub {nu}=}1 MeV neutrino crossing polyethylene-vacuum interface the transition radiation probability is about 10{sup -39} and the energy intensity is about 10{sup -34} eV. At the surface of the neutron stars the transition radiation probability may be {approx}10{sup -20}. Our result is by the three orders of magnitude larger than those of previous calculations.

  7. Transition radiation by neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannisian, A. N.; Ioannisian, D. A.; Kazarian, N. A.

    2011-08-01

    We calculate the transition radiation process ν→νγ at an interface of two media. The neutrinos are taken to be with only standard-model couplings. The medium fulfills the dual purpose of inducing an effective neutrino-photon vertex and of modifying the photon dispersion relation. The transition radiation occurs when at least one of those quantities have different values in different media. The neutrino mass is ignored due to its negligible contribution. We present a result for the probability of the transition radiation which is both accurate and analytic. For Eν=1 MeV neutrino crossing polyethylene-vacuum interface the transition radiation probability is about 10 and the energy intensity is about 10 eV. At the surface of the neutron stars the transition radiation probability may be ˜10. Our result is by the three orders of magnitude larger than those of previous calculations.

  8. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Laura B; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J

    2007-07-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 microl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/microl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/microl for alpha, gamma, beta and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/microl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula.

  9. New limit on the mass of 9.4-keV solar axions emitted in an M1 transition in $^{83}$Kr nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Derbin, A V; Gavrilyuk, Yu M; Kazalov, V V; Kim, H J; Kim, Y D; Kobychev, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Ali, Luqman; Muratova, V N; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S; Semenov, D A; Tekueva, D A; Yakimenko, S P; Unzhakov, E V

    2015-01-01

    A search for resonant absorption of the solar axion by $^{83}\\rm{Kr}$ nuclei was performed using the proportional counter installed inside the low-background setup at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. The obtained model independent upper limit on the combination of isoscalar and isovector axion-nucleon couplings $|g_3-g_0|\\leq 1.69\\times 10^{-6}$ allowed us to set the new upper limit on the hadronic axion mass of $m_{A}\\leq 130$ eV (95\\% C.L.) with the generally accepted values $S$=0.5 and $z$=0.56.

  10. Chiral phase transition of $N_f$=2+1 QCD with the HISQ action

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, H -T; Karsch, F; Maezawa, Y; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P

    2013-01-01

    We present studies of universal properties of the chiral phase transition in $N_f$=2+1 QCD based on the simulations using Highly Improved Staggered fermions on lattices with temporal extent $N_\\tau$=6. We analyze the quark mass and volume dependence of the chiral condensates and chiral susceptibilities in QCD with two degenerate light quarks and a strange quark. The strange quark mass is chosen to be fixed to its physical value ($m^{phy}_s$) and five values of light quark masses ($m_l$) that are varied in the interval 1/20$\\gtrsim m_l/m^{phy}_s \\gtrsim$1/80. Here various quark masses correspond to pseudo Goldstone pion masses ranging from about 160 MeV to about 80 MeV. The O(N) scaling of chiral observables and the influence of universal scaling on physical observables in the region of physical quark mass values are also discussed.

  11. High Resolution Imaging of Very Low Mass Spectral Binaries: Three Resolved Systems and Detection of Orbital Motion in an L/T Transition Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Gagliuffi, Daniella C Bardalez; Burgasser, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    We present high resolution Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics imaging of 43 late-M, L and T dwarf systems with Keck/NIRC2. These include 17 spectral binary candidates, systems whose spectra suggest the presence of a T dwarf secondary. We resolve three systems: 2MASS J1341$-$3052, SDSS J1511+0607 and SDSS J2052$-$1609; the first two are resolved for the first time. All three have projected separations $<8$ AU and estimated periods of $14-80$ years. We also report a preliminary orbit determination for SDSS J2052$-$1609 based on six epochs of resolved astrometry between 2005$-$2010. Among the 14 unresolved spectral binaries, 5 systems were confirmed binaries but remained unresolved, implying a minimum binary fraction of $47^{+12}_{-11}\\%$ for this sample. Our inability to resolve most of the spectral binaries, including the confirmed binaries, supports the hypothesis that a large fraction of very low mass systems have relatively small separations and are missed with direct imaging.

  12. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern; Parametros antropmetricos: peso, talla, indice de masa corporal y volumen mamario, en relacion con el patron mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Maternoinfantil de Canarias. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml)). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat

  13. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) V. The physical conditions in low-mass protostellar outflows revealed by multi-transition water observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mottram, J C; van Dishoeck, E F; Bruderer, S; José-García, I San; Karska, A; Visser, R; Santangelo, G; Benz, A O; Bergin, E A; Caselli, P; Herpin, F; Hogerheijde, M R; Johnstone, D; van Kempen, T A; Liseau, R; Nisini, B; Tafalla, M; van der Tak, F F S; Wyrowski, F

    2014-01-01

    Context: Outflows are an important part of the star formation process as both the result of ongoing active accretion and one of the main sources of mechanical feedback on small scales. Water is the ideal tracer of these effects because it is present in high abundance in various parts of the protostar. Method: We present \\textit{Herschel} HIFI spectra of multiple water-transitions towards 29 nearby Class 0/I protostars as part of the WISH Survey. These are decomposed into different Gaussian components, with each related to one of three parts of the protostellar system; quiescent envelope, cavity shock and spot shocks in the jet and at the base of the outflow. We then constrain the excitation conditions present in the two outflow-related components. Results: Water emission is optically thick but effectively thin, with line ratios that do not vary with velocity, in contrast to CO. The physical conditions of the cavity and spot shocks are similar, with post-shock H$_{2}$ densities of order 10$^{5}-$10$^{8}$\\,cm$^...

  14. Multiwavelength Observations and State Transitions of an Ultra-luminous Supersoft X-ray Source: Evidence for an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, A K H; Sjouwerman, L O; Di Stefano, R

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of an ultra-luminous supersoft X-ray source in M101. M101 ULX-1 underwent 2 outbursts in 2004 during which the peak bolometric luminosities reached 1e41 erg/s. The outburst spectra were very soft and can generally be fitted with a blackbody model with temperatures of 50-160 eV. In two of the observations, absorption edges at 0.33 keV, 0.56 keV, 0.66 keV, and 0.88 keV were found. A cool accretion disk was also found in the 2004 December outburst. During the low luminosity state, a power-law tail was seen up to 7 keV. It is clear the source changed from a low/hard state to a high/soft state. In addition, it showed at least 5 outbursts between 1996 and 2004. This is the first ultra-luminous X-ray source for which recurrent outbursts with state transitions similar to Galactic X-ray binaries have been observed. From the Hubble Space Telescope data, we found an optical counterpart to the source. During the 2004 outbursts, we also performed radio and groun...

  15. 无线Mesh网在城市轨道交通车地通信系统中的研究%Research on wireless Mesh network in train-ground communication system of urban mass transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓娟; 姚文瑞

    2012-01-01

    The wireless Mesh network has a broad application prospects in urban mass transit with advantages that flexible networking, a large coverage area and good mobility. This paper applied the wireless Mesh network to the mobile communication environment of urban mass transit. And it proposed a triggered by location based handover scheme and simulated to solve the handoff caused when the train moving along the track. Then, simulated networking solutions and handover scheme of this paper with OPNET. Simulation results show that the performance of Mesh network is better than that of WLAN network and the handover scheme of this paper reduced the interruption time in the handover process effectively and prevented erroneous handover or ping-pong handover.%无线Mesh网因组网灵活、支持范围大和移动性强等特点,使其在城市轨道交通(城轨)中具有很好的应用前景.尝试将无线Mesh网技术应用于城轨车地通信系统中,针对车地通信存在的越区切换问题,提出了一种基于车载MMS(mobile Mesh station)位置触发的越区切换方案,利用OPNET对组网方案和切换方案进行了仿真.仿真结果表明,无线Mesh组网方案性能优于传统WLAN组网方案性能,切换方案能有效降低时延并避免了假切换和乒乓切换的发生.

  16. Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART): An approach to rapidly determine optimal multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry parameters for small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-02-11

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is a universal approach for quantitative analysis because of its high specificity and sensitivity. Nevertheless, optimization of MRM parameters remains as a time and labor-intensive task particularly in multiplexed quantitative analysis of small molecules in complex mixtures. In this study, we have developed an approach named Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART) to predict the optimal MRM parameters of small molecules. SMART requires firstly a rapid and high-throughput analysis of samples using a Stepped MS(All) technique (sMS(All)) on a Q-TOF, which consists of serial MS(All) events acquired from low CE to gradually stepped-up CE values in a cycle. The optimal CE values can then be determined by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms for the ion pairs of interest among serial scans. The SMART-predicted parameters were found to agree well with the parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from the same vendor using a mixture of standards. The parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from a different vendor was also employed for comparison, and found to be linearly correlated with the SMART-predicted parameters, suggesting the potential applications of the SMART approach among different instrumental platforms. This approach was further validated by applying to simultaneous quantification of 31 herbal components in the plasma of rats treated with a herbal prescription. Because the sMS(All) acquisition can be accomplished in a single run for multiple components independent of standards, the SMART approach are expected to find its wide application in the multiplexed quantitative analysis of complex mixtures.

  17. Performance of a 'Transitioned' Infiltration Basin Part 2: Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Poornima; Davis, Allen P

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration basins have been widely used for stormwater runoff management. However, their longevity could be compromised over time, up to the point of operational failure. This research study showed that a 'failed' infiltration basin can 'transition' into a wetpond/wetland-like practice and provide water quality benefits. Performance evaluation over three years showed that the transitioned infiltration basin reduced the discharge event mean concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved phosphorus (DP), particulate phosphorus (PP), NOx-N (nitrate+nitrite), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), organic-N (ON), and total nitrogen (TN) during most storm events. Exports of TP, DP, ON, and TKN masses were observed only during the coldest periods. The cumulative mass removals were 61% TP, 53% DP, 63% PP, 79% NOx-N, 51% TKN, 45% ON, and 64% TN. The dry-weather nutrient concentrations combined with the environmental conditions at the transitioned basin indicated that sedimentation, adsorption, denitrification, and volume reduction were the removal mechanisms.

  18. eta ' transition form factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amo Sanchez, del P.; Raven, H.G.; Snoek, H.; BaBar, Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    eta((')) transition form factors in the momentum-transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV(2). The analysis is based on 469 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  19. AI canis minoris, a pulsating low-mass supergiant at an early transition phase from the AGB to the post-AGB stage of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Esipov, V. F.; Komissarova, G. V.

    2017-06-01

    The U BV photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy for the semiregular variable AI CMi, a candidate for post-AGB objects, performed in 1996-2016 and 2000-2013, respectively, are presented. The star showed multiperiodic brightness variations with an amplitude up to 1\\underset{\\cdot}{m} 5 in the V band, a significant (up to 0\\underset{\\cdot}{m} 4) bluing of the B - V and U - B colors as the star faded, and a change of its spectrum from G5 I to K3-5 I, depending on its brightness. A possible long-term fading of AI CMi below 8\\underset{\\cdot}{m} 5 in the period from May 2013 to early 2015 is observed in the light curve. The colors in this episode did not change the pattern of their unusual behavior with brightness. The main feature of the spectrum for AI CMi is the appearance and strengthening of TiO absorption bands as its brightness declines, which are atypical in the spectra of ordinary G5-K3 supergiants. The bluing of the B - V and U - B colors is interpreted as the blanketing of stellar radiation predominantly in V (and to a lesser extent in B) by the TiO absorption bands whose intensity increases dramatically with decreasing brightness. Another cause of the bluing can be the scattering of stellar radiation by small dust particles in the gas-dust shell of AI CMi. The star's continuum-normalized spectra over the period from 2000 to 2013 in the wavelength range 4200 to 7700 or 9200 Å are presented. These were taken at different phases of the pulsation cycle and clearly demonstrate the behavior of the TiO absorption bands depending on the V magnitude and B - V color. The equivalent widths of individual TiO bands weremeasured, and their correlation with the photometric parameters of the star is shown. AI CMi belongs to the O-rich branch of AGB/post-AGB supergiants and has a luminosity of 4000 L ⊙ at a distance of 1500 ± 700 pc. The mass of AI CMi is most likely small and close to the lower mass limit for post-AGB stars. The connection of the star

  20. Selective determination of estrogenic compounds in water by microextraction by packed sorbents and a molecularly imprinted polymer coupled with large volume injection-in-port-derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A; Vallejo, A; Zuloaga, O; Paschke, A; Sellergen, B; Schillinger, E; Schrader, S; Möder, M

    2011-10-03

    A fully automated protocol consisting of microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) coupled with large volume injection-in-port-derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-derivatization-GC-MS) was developed to determine endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and natural and synthetic hormons in river and waste water samples. During method optimization, the extraction parameters as ion strength of the water sample, the MEPS extraction regime, the volume of organic solvent used for the elution/injection step, the type of elution solvents and the selectivity of the sorbents were studied. For optimum in-port-derivatization, 10 μL of the derivatization reagent N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)triufloroacetamide with 1% of trimethylchlorosilane (BSTFA+1% TMCS) was used. 17β-Estradiol-molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and silica gel (modified with C-18) sorbents were examined for the enrichment of the target analytes from water samples and the obtained results revealed the high selectivity of the MIP material for extraction of substances with estrogen-like structures. Recovery values for most of the analytes ranged from 75 to 109% for the C18 sorbent and from 81 to 103% for the MIP material except for equilin (on C18 with only 57-66% recovery). Precision (n=4) of the entire analysis protocol ranged between 4% and 22% with both sorbents. Limits of detection (LODs) were at the low ngL(-1) level (0.02-87, C18 and 1.3-22, MIP) for the target analytes.

  1. Socioeconomic gradients in body mass index (BMI) in US immigrants during the transition to adulthood: examining the roles of parental education and intergenerational educational mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Sandra S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-09-01

    Despite comparatively lower socioeconomic status (SES), immigrants tend to have lower body weight and weaker SES gradients relative to US-born individuals. Yet, it is unknown how changes in SES over the life-course relate to body weight in immigrants versus US-born individuals. We used longitudinal data from a nationally representative, diverse sample of 13 701 adolescents followed into adulthood to investigate whether associations between SES mobility categories (educational attainment reported by individuals as adults and by their parents during adolescence) and body mass index (BMI) measured in adulthood varied by immigrant generation. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity and immigrant generation. Among first-generation immigrants, although parental education was not associated with adult BMI, an immigrant's own education attainment was inversely associated with BMI (β=-2.6 kg/m(2); SE=0.9, peducational mobility was associated with lower adult mean BMI than remaining low SES (β=-2.5 kg/m(2); SE=1.2, peducation in adulthood did not attenuate the negative association between parental education and adult BMI. Although an SES gradient emerged in adulthood for immigrants, remaining low SES from adolescence to adulthood was not associated with loss of health advantage relative to US-born respondents of US-born parents of similar SES. Immigrants were able to translate higher SES in adulthood into a lower adult mean BMI regardless of childhood SES, whereas the consequences of lower childhood SES had a longer reach even among the upwardly mobile US born. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Transiting Exoplanets with JWST

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S; Valenti, J A

    2008-01-01

    The era of exoplanet characterization is upon us. For a subset of exoplanets -- the transiting planets -- physical properties can be measured, including mass, radius, and atmosphere characteristics. Indeed, measuring the atmospheres of a further subset of transiting planets, the hot Jupiters, is now routine with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will continue Spitzer's legacy with its large mirror size and precise thermal stability. JWST is poised for the significant achievement of identifying habitable planets around bright M through G stars--rocky planets lacking extensive gas envelopes, with water vapor and signs of chemical disequilibrium in their atmospheres. Favorable transiting planet systems, are, however, anticipated to be rare and their atmosphere observations will require tens to hundreds of hours of JWST time per planet. We review what is known about the physical characteristics of transiting planets, summarize lessons learned from Spitzer high-contrast exoplanet m...

  3. Erosional and depositional contourite features at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and southern South Atlantic Ocean: links with regional water-mass circulation since the Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Esteban, Federico D.; Tassone, Alejandro; Piola, Alberto R.; Maldonado, Andrés; Preu, Benedict; Violante, Roberto A.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise the morpho-sedimentary features and main stratigraphic stacking pattern off the Tierra del Fuego continental margin, the north-western sector of the Scotia Sea abyssal plain (Yaghan Basin) and the Malvinas/Falkland depression, based on single- and multi-channel seismic profiles. Distinct contourite features were identified within the sedimentary record from the Middle Miocene onwards. Each major drift developed in a water depth range coincident with a particular water mass, contourite terraces on top of some of these drifts being associated with interfaces between water masses. Two major palaeoceanographic changes were identified. One took place in the Middle Miocene with the onset of Antarctic Intermediate Water flow and the enhancement of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) flow, coevally with the onset of Weddell Sea Deep Water flow in the Scotia Sea. Another palaeoceanographic change occurred on the abyssal plain of the Yaghan Basin in the Late Miocene as a consequence of the onset of Southeast Pacific Deep Water flow and its complex interaction with the lower branch of the CDW. Interestingly, these two periods of change in bottom currents are coincident with regional tectonic episodes, as well as climate and Antarctic ice sheet oscillations. The results convincingly demonstrate that the identification of contourite features on the present-day seafloor and within the sedimentary record is the key for decoding the circulation of water masses in the past. Nevertheless, further detailed studies, especially the recovery of drill cores, are necessary to establish a more robust chronology of the evolutionary stages at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and the southern South Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Optimisation of a selective method for the determination of organophosphorous triesters in outdoor particulate samples by pressurised liquid extraction and large-volume injection gas chromatography-positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2007-07-01

    A selective analytical method for the determination of nine organophosphate triesters and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) in outdoor particulate matter is presented. It involves a fully automated pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) step, integrating an alumina clean-up process, and subsequent determination by large-volume injection gas chromatography-positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-PCI-MS/MS). The extraction variables (solvent, amount of adsorbent, temperature, time and number of cycles) were optimised using a multicriteria strategy which implements a desirability function that maximises both extraction and clean-up efficiencies while searching for the best-compromise PLE conditions. The final method affords quantification limits of between 0.01 and 0.3 microg g(-1) and recoveries of >80%, with the exceptions of the most polar analytes, TCEP and TPPO (~65%) for both urban dust and PM10 samples. Moreover, the method permitted the levels of these compounds in dust deposited outdoors (between LOD and 0.5 microg g(-1) for TEHP) and PM10 samples (between LOD and 2.4 microg m(-3) for TiBP) to be measured and reported for the first time.

  5. [Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolutimi gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Loimeng; Gao, Yuan; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yichi; Chen, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity (R2>0. 99) between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The limits of detection (S/N ≥3) and the limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 4. 2 and 12 µg, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL) for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m3 (n = 7). The recoveries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.

  6. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Dilling Kjaer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL. This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365. Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF was 49% (3–77 and 62% (17–98 after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360. A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25 was reported and three (14% patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90% patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  7. 城市轨道交通工程公私合作融资项目风险分析与管理%Risk Analysis and Management on PPP Project of Urban Mass Transit Financing Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛雪艳; 王建波

    2011-01-01

    公私合作(PPP)模式有效解决了政府部门在轨道交通建设方面资金不足的问题,但因其组织结构复杂、时间跨度长、牵扯面广而使潜在风险巨大.对PPP项目融资过程中的风险进行了分析,对其如何分担、管理进行了阐述.通过分析风险管理的概念、过程和框架,以及相应的风险防范与管理对策,为PPP模式在城市轨道交通中的应用提供有益的帮助.%PPP is a new project co-operation model, an effective solution to the government departments which ofter racer of insufficient funds in mass transit construction. However, because of the complexity, long time-span and wide range of the organizational structure, the potential risks are great. Therefore, the study on PPP model risks in project financing as well as their distribution and management is extremely important. This article analyzes the risks involved in project finance, then explaines how to share and manage the risks. By analyzing the concept of risk management, processe and framework, the corresponding prevention and management measures, this paper provides a useful reference for the application of PPP model in urban rail transit.

  8. A Semi-Analytical Model for Heat and Mass Transfer in Geothermal Reservoirs to Estimate Fracture Surface-Area-to-Volume Ratios and Thermal Breakthrough using Thermally-Decaying and Diffusing Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, P. W.

    2010-12-01

    A semi-analytical model was developed to conduct rapid scoping calculations of responses of thermally degrading and diffusing tracers in multi-well tracer tests in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The model is based on an existing Laplace transform inversion model for solute transport in dual-porosity media. The heat- and mass-transfer calculations are decoupled and conducted sequentially, taking advantage of the fact that heat transfer between fractures and the rock matrix is much more rapid than mass transfer and therefore mass transfer will effectively occur in a locally isothermal system (although the system will be nonisothermal along fracture flow pathways, which is accounted for by discretizing the flow pathways into multiple segments that have different temperature histories). The model takes advantage of the analogies between heat and mass transfer, solving the same governing equations with km/(ρCp)w being substituted for Dm in the equation for fracture transport and km/(ρCp)m being substituting for phi*Dm in the equation for matrix transport; where k = thermal conductivity (cal/cm-s-K), ρ = density (g/cm3), Cp = heat capacity (at constant pressure) (cal/g-K), phi = matrix porosity, and D = tracer diffusion coefficient (cm2/s), with the subscripts w and m referring to water and matrix, respectively. A significant advantage of the model is that it executes in a fraction of second on a single-CPU personal computer, making it very amenable for parameter estimation algorithms that involve repeated runs to find global minima. The combined thermal-mass transport model was used to evaluate the ability to estimate when thermal breakthrough would occur in a multi-well EGS configuration using thermally degrading tracers. Calculations were conducted to evaluate the range of values of Arrhenius parameters, A and Ea (pre-exponential factor, 1/s, and activation energy, cal/mol) required to obtain interpretable responses of thermally-degrading tracers that decay

  9. Modelagem e determinação do estado crítico de consolidação a partir da relação massa e volume em solos canavieiros Modeling and determination of critical state of consolidation from mass-volume ratio in farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo sugerir equações, as quais permitam estimar a densidade do solo (ρσp e o volume total de poros (nσp, ambos referentes à pressão de preconsolidação (σp, propondo-os como indicadores físicos na avaliação da qualidade e do estado crítico de consolidação dos solos agrícolas. Os índices físicos foram obtidos por meio de ensaios de consolidação uniaxial de amostras indeformadas de um Nitossolo Vermelho, depois de submetidas aos seguintes estados de consistência: tenacidade, friabilidade e plasticidade. Os resultados permitiram estimar a ρσpeanσp que o solo pode atingir para que o mesmo não tenha a sua estrutura degradada. As equações mostraram-se ferramentas poderosas na avaliação da capacidade de suporte de carga dos solos podendo estimar a máxima relação de massa/volume que o solo pode atingir.The objectives of this research was to suggest equations, to estimate the bulk den­sity (ρσp and total porosity (nσp, on the pre-compression stress (σp, proposing them as indicators for the evaluation of the quality and the critical consolidation state of farm­land. The physical characteristics were ob­tained by uniaxial precompression tests of undisturbed samples of an Alfisol after be­ing subject to the following states of con­sistency: toughness, friability and plasticity. The results allowed estimating the ρσp and nσp which the soil can reach without having its structure degraded. The equations were shown to be powerful tools in assessing the soil bearing capacity and the maximum mass-volume ratio that may reach the ground.

  10. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-04

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  11. The Star Formation Demographics of Galaxies in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Janice C; Jose J Funes, S J; Sakai, Shoko; Akiyama, Sanae

    2007-01-01

    We examine the connections between the current global star formation activity, luminosity, dynamical mass and morphology of galaxies in the Local Volume, using H-alpha data from the 11 Mpc H-alpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey (11HUGS). Taking the equivalent width (EW) of the H-alpha emission line as a tracer of the specific star formation rate, we analyze the distribution of galaxies in the M_B-EW and rotational velocity (V_{max})-EW planes. Star-forming galaxies show two characteristic transitions in these planes. A narrowing of the galaxy locus occurs at M_B~-15 and V_{max}~50 km/s, where the scatter in the logarithmic EWs drops by a factor of two as the luminosities/masses increase, and galaxy morphologies shift from predominately irregular to late-type spiral. Another transition occurs at M_B~-19 and V_{max}~120 km/s, above which the sequence turns off toward lower EWs and becomes mostly populated by intermediate and early-type bulge-prominent spirals. Between these two transitions, the mean logarithmic ...

  12. PERCOLATION TRANSITION IN ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL FLUIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Tian; CHEN Yihong; XU Zhengmiao; XU Yuanze; HUANG Yun

    1994-01-01

    The electric conductivity, dynamic modulus and yield stress of the developed electrorheological fluid (ERF) are measured at different volume fraction and different electric field strength using a modified Rheosetrics Mechanical Spectrometer (Model 605). The percolation theory is introduced to explain electrorheological effect and found that the ERF's have the similar percolated network structure as that of other ordinary suspensions with a critical volume fraction value independent of electric field strength. A master curve of dimensionless modulus against dimensionless volume fraction is obtained. which shows that the essence of ER phenomenon actually is one kind of the second ofder phase transition.

  13. Mass relations among quarks and/or leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Gilani, A H S

    2005-01-01

    The mass relations among respective quark family members are predicted and similar mass relation for the lepton family member are obtained. The volume of the volume element is also calculated which is (3/2)^(1/2).

  14. Thermodynamic volume of cosmological solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarek, Saoussen; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-02-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter a, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass Mout satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring Mout to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  15. Thermodynamic Volume of Cosmological Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Mbarek, Saoussen

    2016-01-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter $a$, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass $M_{out}$ satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring $M_{out}$ to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  16. 裂隙岩体三维渗透张量及表征单元体积的确定%ESTIMATION OF REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTARY VOLUME AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PERMEABILITY TENSOR FOR FRACTURED ROCK MASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦亮; 何吉; 陈胜宏

    2014-01-01

    Both numerical methods and single-hole packer tests are used in study of the representative elementary volume(REV) and three-dimensional(3D) permeability tensor for fractured rock masses. Based on the probability distribution functions and corresponding statistical parameters investigated in field,3D stochastic discrete fracture networks are randomly generated using the Monte Carlo method. The composite element method(CEM) is used to obtain the permeability tensor and REV of rock masses,with a large quantity of calculations concerning different sample sizes in various directions. The permeability tensor is then modified and improved by using single-hole packer test results. Finally, the proposed method is used in determining the permeability properties of dam foundation of Xiaowan hydropower station. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and reliable.%将基于复合单元法的数值试验和现场单孔压水试验相结合,对裂隙岩体的三维渗透张量及表征单元体积(REV)进行研究。首先根据研究域岩体的裂隙统计参数及分布规律,运用蒙特卡罗方法在统计域内生成三维随机裂隙网络,然后利用复合单元法计算不同尺寸岩体试件在不同方向上的等效渗透系数,以此计算岩体的三维渗透张量及REV尺度,最后利用现场单孔压水试验结果来修正裂隙岩体的3个渗透主值。在小湾水电站工程中,运用该方法对坝区岩体的三维渗透特性进行分析,得到修正后的岩体三维渗透张量,分析结果表明,结合单孔压水试验和基于复合单元法的数值试验来确定裂隙岩体的三维渗透张量和REV是合理且有效的。

  17. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  18. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair samples of Chinese people by protein precipitation (PPT) and large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC/MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Shen, Baohua; Xiang, Ping; Yan, Hui; Shen, Min

    2010-11-15

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been shown to be a suitable marker of excessive alcohol consumption. Determination of EtG in hair samples may help to differentiate social drinkers from alcoholics, and this testing can be widely used in forensic science, treatment programs, workplaces, military bases as well as driving ability test to provide legal proof of drinking. A method for determination of EtG in hair samples using large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC/MS/MS) was developed and validated. Hair samples (in 1 mL deionized water) were ultrasonicated for 1h and incubated overnight; these samples were then deproteinated to remove impurities and derivatisated with 15 μL of pyridine and 30 μL of BSTFA. EtG was detected using GC/MS/MS in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. This method exhibited good linearity: y=0.0036 x+0.0437, R²=0.9993, the limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 5 pg/mg and 10 pg/mg, respectively. The extraction recoveries were more than 60%, and the inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 15%. This method has been applied to the analysis of EtG in hair samples from 21 Chinese subjects. The results for samples obtained from all of those who were teetotallers were negative, and the results for the other 15 samples ranged from 10 to 78 pg/mg, except for one negative sample. These data are the basis for interpretation of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel method for the rapid determination of polyethoxylated tallow amine surfactants in water and sediment using large volume injection with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew R S; Liao, Xiangjun

    2015-08-19

    Polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) surfactants have been used in many glyphosate-based herbicide formulations for agricultural, industrial and residential weed control. The potential for release of these compounds into the environment is of increasing concern due to their toxicity towards aquatic organisms. Current methods for analysis of POEA surfactants require significant time and effort to achieve limits of quantification that are often higher than the concentrations at which biological effects have been observed (as low as 2 ng mL(-1)). We have developed a rapid and robust method for quantifying the POEA surfactant mixture MON 0818 at biologically relevant concentrations in fresh water, sea water and lake sediment using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Water samples preserved by 1:1 v/v dilution with methanol are analyzed directly following centrifugation. Sediment samples undergo accelerated solvent extraction in aqueous methanol prior to analysis. Large volume (100 μL) sample injection and multiple reaction monitoring of a subset of the most abundant POEA homologs provide limits of quantification of 0.5 and 2.9 ng mL(-1) for MON 0818 in fresh water and sea water, respectively, and 2.5 ng g(-1) for total MON 0818 in lake sediment. Average recoveries of 93 and 75% were achieved for samples of water and sediment, respectively spiked with known amounts of MON 0818. Precision and accuracy for the analysis of water and sediment samples were within 10 and 16%, respectively based upon replicate analyses of calibration standards and representative samples. Results demonstrate the utility of the method for quantifying undegraded MON 0818 in water and sediment, although a more comprehensive method may be needed to identify and determine other POEA mixtures and degradation profiles that might occur in the environment.

  20. New strategies to screen for endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the Portuguese marine environment utilizing large volume injection-capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with retention time locking libraries (LVI-GC-MS-RTL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C; Serôdio, P; Florêncio, M H; Nogueira, J M F

    2007-04-01

    A new analytical strategy to screen for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in environmental matrices is presented. The strategy uses solid-phase extraction followed by large volume injection and capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry combined with retention time locking libraries (SPE-LVI-GC-MS-RTL). Characterization of the proposed methodology (SPE-LVI-GC-MS) for selected classes of EDCs enabled high reproducibility and robustness at the ultratrace level. The RTL databases used allowed hundreds of non-target semivolatiles (i.e., pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and other classes of suspected EDCs from a great number of unknown environmental matrices) to be simultaneously screened for in an easy, fast and remarkable manner. The application of the proposed methodology to real environmental samples demonstrated its remarkable selectivity and sensitivity at the ultratrace level. Screening assessments performed on water and sediment matrices from eight Portuguese estuaries and coastal waters identified EDC "hotspots." These EDCs mainly come from agricultural and a wide variety of industrial sources, and include pesticides and pesticide metabolites, phenolic derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are included in the lists of priority substances published by international environmental agencies. The estuaries that contained relatively high levels of pesticides were Guadiana, Sado and Mondego, while Minho, Douro and Formosa showed enhanced levels of phenolic derivatives. Dibutyltin and tributyltin, selected as target compounds to be monitored by SPE-LVI-GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode, were shown to be widespread contaminants at trace levels in almost all of the sediment matrices assessed. The reliability of the proposed methodology undoubtedly makes it a valuable tool that could replace other analytical strategies currently used to screen for EDCs present in the environment at

  1. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  2. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o

  3. College Students in Transition: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Stephanie M., Ed.; Hinkle, Sara M., Ed.; Kranzow, Jeannine, Ed.; Pistilli, Matthew D., Ed.; Miles, LaTonya Rease, Ed.; Simmons, Jannell G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from high school to college is an important milestone, but it is only one of many steps in the journey through higher education. This volume is an annotated bibliography of the emerging literature examining the many other transitions students make beyond the first year, including the sophomore year, the transfer experience, and the…

  4. Topological Transitions in Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamoorthy, Harish N S; Narimanov, Evgenii; Kretzschmar, Ilona; Menon, Vinod M

    2011-01-01

    The ideas of mathematical topology play an important role in many aspects of modern physics - from phase transitions to field theory to nonlinear dynamics (1, 2). An important example of this is the Lifshitz transition (3), where the transformation of the Fermi surface of a metal from a closed to an open geometry (due to e.g. external pressure) leads to a dramatic effect on the electron magneto-transport (4). Here, we present the optical equivalent of the Lifshitz transition in strongly anisotropic metamaterials. When one of the components of the dielectric permittivity tensor of such a composite changes sign, the corresponding iso-frequency surface transforms from an ellipsoid to a hyperboloid. Since the photonic density of states can be related to the volume enclosed by the iso-frequency surface (5), such a topological transition in a metamaterial leads to a dramatic change in the photonic density of states, with a resulting effect on every single physical parameter related to the metamaterial - from thermo...

  5. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities: Phase A conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are highlighted. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or Follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSRF to the FOC LSRF.

  6. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  7. Thermodynamic Volume Product in Spherically Symmetric and Axisymmetric Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we compute particularly thermodynamic \\emph{volume product, volume sum, volume minus and volume division} for wide variety of spherically symmetric spacetime and axisymmetric spacetime in the frame work of \\emph{extended phase space}. We consider Einstein gravity as well as other than Einstein gravity i.e. \\emph{Ho\\v{r}ava Lifshitz} gravity. We speculate that for spherically symmetric black holes the volume product is mass-independent both in Einstein gravity as well as Ho\\v{r}ava Lifshitz gravity while the other combination is mass-dependent. For axisymmetric black hole spacetime in Einstein gravity all the combination is \\emph{mass-dependent}. There has been no chance to generate any combination of volume product is mass-independent. Interestingly, \\emph{only rotating BTZ black hole} in 3D provides the volume product formula is mass-independent i.e. \\emph{universal} and hence it is quantized.

  8. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  9. Rest mass or inertial mass?

    OpenAIRE

    Khrapko, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Rest mass takes the place of inertial mass in modern physics textbooks. It seems to be wrong. But this phenomenon is hidden away by the facts that rest mass adherents busily call rest mass "mass", not rest mass, and the word "mass" is associated with a measure of inertia. This topic has been considered by the author in the article "What is mass?" [1, 2, 3]. Additional arguments to a confirmation of such a thesis are presented here.

  10. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Phase 1: Conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Company's conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are presented. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSFR to the FOC LSFR. The IOC and FOC LSFRs correspond to missions SAAX0307 and SAAX0302 of the Space Station Mission Requirements Database, respectively.

  11. OPTIMIZED DETERMINATION OF TRACE JET FUEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN BLOOD USING IN-FIELD LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH SUBSEQUENT LABORATORY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC-MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS AND ON-COLUMN LARGE VOLUME INJECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A practical and sensitive method to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JP-8 jet fuel in human whole blood was developed by modifying previously established liquid-liquid extraction procedures, optimizing extraction times, solvent volume, specific sample processing te...

  12. Tessellations & Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes two sixth-grade lessons on the work of M. C. Escher: (1) the first lesson instructs students on tessellations, or tiles that interlock in a repeated pattern; (2) the second lesson explores Escher's drawings of transitions from two- to three-dimensional space. (DSK)

  13. Presidential Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-09

    Morton Mintz and Stuart Auerbach, “Ford Solicits Suggestions on No. 2 Man,” Washington Post, Aug. 11, 1974, p. A1. 64 Fred Austin, “Ford Begins Move...representatives of the federal departments and agencies to ensure a smooth transition. Management and organizational issues should be CRS-23 105 Carl Brauer

  14. Electroweak phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments on the four dimensional (4d) lattice studies of the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are summarized. The phase diagram is given in the continuum limit. The finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses m/sub H/<66.5+or-1.4 GeV. Above this endpoint only a rapid cross-over can be seen. The full 4d result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. The Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the standard model (SM) would be 72.1+or-1. 4 GeV. Taking into account the LEP Higgs-boson mass lower bound excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential in the SU(2)-Higgs model enables a precise comparison between lattice simulations and perturbative results. The most popular extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) is also studied on 4d lattices. (17 refs).

  15. Advances in heat transfer volume 21

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I

    1991-01-01

    This volume in a series on heat transfer covers the modelling of the dynamics of turbulent transport processes, supercritical pressures, hydrodynamics, mass transfer near rotating surfaces, lost heat in entropy and the mechanics of heat transfer in a multifluid bubbling pool. Other related titles are "Advances in Heat Transfer", volumes 18, 19 and 20.

  16. Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Michael [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.

  17. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  18. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Mars Transit Habitat Refinement Point of Departure Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew; Latorella, Kara; Martin, John; Cerro, Jeff; Lepsch, Roger; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; McCleskey, Carey; Smitherman, David; Stromgren, Chel

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the recently developed point of departure design for a long duration, reusable Mars Transit Habitat, which was established during a 2016 NASA habitat design refinement activity supporting the definition of NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign. As part of its development of sustainable human Mars mission concepts achievable in the 2030s, the Evolvable Mars Campaign has identified desired durations and mass/dimensional limits for long duration Mars habitat designs to enable the currently assumed solar electric and chemical transportation architectures. The Advanced Exploration Systems Mars Transit Habitat Refinement Activity brought together habitat subsystem design expertise from across NASA to develop an increased fidelity, consensus design for a transit habitat within these constraints. The resulting design and data (including a mass equipment list) contained in this paper are intended to help teams across the agency and potential commercial, academic, or international partners understand: 1) the current architecture/habitat guidelines and assumptions, 2) performance targets of such a habitat (particularly in mass, volume, and power), 3) the driving technology/capability developments and architectural solutions which are necessary for achieving these targets, and 4) mass reduction opportunities and research/design needs to inform the development of future research and proposals. Data presented includes: an overview of the habitat refinement activity including motivation and process when informative; full documentation of the baseline design guidelines and assumptions; detailed mass and volume breakdowns; a moderately detailed concept of operations; a preliminary interior layout design with rationale; a list of the required capabilities necessary to enable the desired mass; and identification of any worthwhile trades/analyses which could inform future habitat design efforts. As a whole, the data in the paper show that a transit habitat meeting the 43

  19. Light Scattering in Exoplanet Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-10-01

    Transit spectroscopy is currently the leading technique for studying exoplanet atmospheric composition, and has led to the detection of molecular species, clouds, and/or hazes for numerous worlds outside the Solar System. The field of exoplanet transit spectroscopy will be revolutionized with the anticipated launch of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2018. Over the course of the design five year mission for JWST, the observatory is expected to provide in-depth observations of many tens of transiting exoplanets, including some worlds in the poorly understood 2-4 Earth-mass regime. As the quality of transit spectrum observations continues to improve, so should models of exoplanet transits. Thus, certain processes initially thought to be of second-order importance should be revisited and possibly added to modeling tools. For example, atmospheric refraction, which was commonly omitted from early transit spectrum models, has recently been shown to be of critical importance in some terrestrial exoplanet transits. Beyond refraction, another process that has seen little study with regards to exoplanet transits is light multiple scattering. In most cases, scattering opacity in exoplanet transits has been treated as equivalent to absorption opacity. However, this equivalence cannot always hold, such as in the case of a strongly forward scattering, weakly absorbing aerosol. In this presentation, we outline a theory of exoplanet transit spectroscopy that spans the geometric limit (used in most modern models) to a fully multiple scattering approach. We discuss a new technique for improving model efficiency that effectively separates photon paths, which tend to vary slowly in wavelength, from photon absorption, which can vary rapidly in wavelength. Using this newly developed approach, we explore situations where cloud or haze scattering may be important to JWST observations of gas giants, and comment on the conditions necessary for scattering to become a major

  20. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration...... of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...... transition processes. Where. Addresses design processes aimed at sustainable transition enacted in complex social settings, socio-technical systems involving many different actors and agendas. How. The chapter outlines a conceptual and analytic framework for a reflexive design practice for sustainability...

  1. Transition Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock-Zeilinger, Judith

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give a generic algorithm of the transition operators between Hermitian Young projection operators corresponding to equivalent irreducible representations of SU(N), using the compact expressions of Hermitian Young projection operators derived in a companion paper. We show that the Hermitian Young projection operators together with their transition operators constitute a fully orthogonal basis for the algebra of invariants of $V^{\\otimes m}$ that exhibits a systematically simplified multiplication table. We discuss the full algebra of invariants over $V^{\\otimes 3}$ and $V^{\\otimes 4}$ as explicit examples. In our presentation we make use of various standard concepts such as Young projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan operators, and invariants (in birdtrack notation). We tie these perspectives together and use them to shed light on each other.

  2. Relationship Between Free Volume and Glass Transition Temperature of Zr50Cu50 Metallic Glasses Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulation%Zr50Cu50金属玻璃形成过程中自由体积与玻璃态转变温度关系的分子动力学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党一纵; 王鲁; 范群波

    2012-01-01

    Atomic structure evolution and diffusivity during the cooling of Zr5oCu50 metallic liquid are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Based on the theory that free volume is equal to the volume difference between the amorphous materials and their crystalline counterpart, a new method of annihilating rate of free volume has been developed and applied to predict the critical microscopic glass transition temperature. The predicted critical temperature Tc was 969. 5 K, which is close to the MCT(mode-coupling theory) value of 978. 4 K, and the caloric glass transition temperature Tg was 731 K, which is also close to the value of 725 K determined from the curve of average atomic volume with temperature. Without calculation of diffusion coefficients at a serial of specified temperatures, the developed method is more convenient than former methods to calculate Tc and Tg.%利用分子动力学模拟了Zr50Cu50金属玻璃的形成过程,并获得了不同温度下合金的原子构型.借助金属玻璃中自由体积量等于金属玻璃与对应晶体的体积差理论提出一种自由体积湮没速度法,对Zr50Cu50金属玻璃形成过程中的临界玻璃态转变温度Tc以及热力学玻璃态转变温度Tg进行预测.用该方法确定出的Tc(969.5 K)与利用模式耦合理论计算获得的Tc (978.4 K)接近;Tg(731 K)与利用平均原子体积随温度变化关系曲线确定的Tg(725 K)相近.运用自由体积湮没速度法计算的Tc和Tg无需计算各温度下的原子扩散系数,节省了计算时间.

  3. The bigger, the better? Volume measurements of parasites and hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagler, Christina; Hörnig, Marie K.; Haug, Joachim T.

    2017-01-01

    . Using advanced imaging methods (micro-CT in conjunction with 3D modeling), we measured the volume of parasitic structures (externa, interna, egg mass, egg number, visceral mass) and the volume of the entire host. Our results show positive correlations between the volume of (1) entire rhizocephalan...... (externa + interna) and host body, (2) rhizocephalan externa and host body, (3) rhizocephalan visceral mass and rhizocephalan body, (4) egg mass and rhizocephalan externa, (5) rhizocephalan egg mass and their egg number. Comparing the rhizocephalan Sylon hippolytes, a parasite of caridean shrimps...

  4. Axion Dark Matter Detection using Atomic Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sikivie, P

    2014-01-01

    Dark matter axions may cause transitions between atomic states that differ in energy by an amount equal to the axion mass. Such energy differences are conveniently tuned using the Zeeman effect. It is proposed to search for dark matter axions by cooling a kilogram-sized sample to milliKelvin temperatures and count axion induced transitions using laser techniques. This appears an appropriate approach to axion dark matter detection in the $10^{-4}$ eV mass range.

  5. Axion dark matter detection using atomic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikivie, P

    2014-11-14

    Dark matter axions may cause transitions between atomic states that differ in energy by an amount equal to the axion mass. Such energy differences are conveniently tuned using the Zeeman effect. It is proposed to search for dark matter axions by cooling a kilogram-sized sample to millikelvin temperatures and count axion induced transitions using laser techniques. This appears to be an appropriate approach to axion dark matter detection in the 10^{-4}  eV mass range.

  6. Axino mass

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2012-01-01

    I will talk on my recent works. Axino, related to the SUSY transformation of axion, can mix with Goldstino in principle. In this short talk, I would like to explain what is the axino mass and its plausible mass range. The axino mass is known to have a hierarchical mass structure depending on accidental symmetries. With only one axino, if G_A=0 where G=K+ 2ln|W|, we obtain axino mass= gravitino mass. For G_A nonzero, the axino mass depends on the details of the Kaehler potential. I also comment on the usefulness of a new parametrization of the CKM matrix.

  7. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  8. Electroweak phase transition recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc

    2000-01-01

    Recent results of four-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations on the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are discussed. The phase transition is of first order in the SU(2)-Higgs model below the end point Higgs mass 66.5$\\pm$1.4 GeV. For larger masses a rapid cross-over appears. This result completely agrees with the results of the dimensional reduction approach. Including the full Standard Model (SM) perturbatively the end point is at 72.1$\\pm$1.4 GeV. Combined with recent LEP Higgs mass lower bounds, this excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential makes possible a precise comparison of the lattice and perturbative results. Recent 4d lattice studies of the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM) are also mentioned.

  9. Conformational Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerminski, Ryszard; Roitberg, Adrian; Choi, Chyung; Ulitsky, Alexander; Elber, Ron

    1991-10-01

    Two computational approaches to study plausible conformations of biological molecules and the transitions between them are presented and discussed. The first approach is a new search algorithm which enhances the sampling of alternative conformers using a mean field approximation. It is argued and demonstrated that the mean field approximation has a small effect on the location of the minima. The method is a combination of the LES protocol (Locally Enhanced Sampling) and simulated annealing. The LES method was used in the past to study the diffusion pathways of ligands from buried active sites in myoglobin and leghemoglobin to the exterior of the protein. The present formulation of LES and its implementation in a Molecular Dynamics program is described. An application for side chain placement in a tetrapeptide is presented. The computational effort associated with conformational searches using LES grows only linearly with the number of degrees of freedom, whereas in the exact case the computational effort grows exponentially. Such saving is of course associated with a mean field approximation. The second branch of studies pertains to the calculation of reaction paths in large and flexible biological systems. An extensive mapping of minima and barriers for two different tetrapeptides is calculated from the known minima and barriers of alanine tetrapeptide which we calculated recently.1 The tetrapeptides are useful models for the formation of secondary structure elements since they are the shortest possible polymers of this type which can still form a complete helical turn. The tetrapeptides are isobutyryl-val(χ1=60)-ala-ala and isobutyryl-val(χ1=-60)-ala-ala. Properties of the hundreds of minima and of the hundreds intervening barriers are discussed. Estimates for thermal transition times between the many conformers (and times to explore the complete phase space) are calculated and compared. It is suggested that the most significant effect of the side chain size is

  10. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  11. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  12. InAs/GaAs(001) epitaxy: kinetic effects in the two-dimensional to three-dimensional transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, E [CNR-INFM, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Arciprete, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Fanfoni, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Patella, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Orsini, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Balzarotti, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy)

    2007-06-06

    Step instability and surface mass transport strongly influence the kinetics of the two- to three-dimensional (2D-3D) transition in InAs/GaAs self-assembly epitaxy. In this paper we report evidence of the step erosion of quantum dots (QDs) nucleated on step edges for samples having different surface morphologies and the explosive nucleation of 3D QDs triggered by it. Related issues such as the temperature dependence of the critical thickness, the volume dependence of the surface mass transport, and the scaling behaviour are illustrated by means of RHEED and AFM measurements and data analysis for small increments of InAs coverage throughout the 2D-3D transition.

  13. The QCD chiral transition, $\\ua$ symmetry and the Dirac spectrum using domain wall fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H -T; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Mawhinney, R D; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao; Lin, Zhongjie

    2013-01-01

    We report on a study of the finite-temperature QCD transition region for temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV, with a pion mass of 200 MeV and two space-time volumes: $24^3\\times8$ and $32^3\\times8$, where the larger volume varies in linear size between 5.6 fm (at T=139 MeV) and 4.0 fm (at T=195 MeV). These results are compared with the results of an earlier calculation using the same action and quark masses but a smaller, $16^3\\times8$ volume. The chiral domain wall fermion formulation with a combined Iwasaki and dislocation suppressing determinant ratio gauge action are used. This lattice action accurately reproduces the $\\sua$ and $\\ua$ symmetries of the continuum. Results are reported for the chiral condensates, connected and disconnected susceptibilities and the Dirac eigenvalue spectrum. We find a pseudo-critical temperature, $T_c$, of approximately 165 MeV consistent with previous results and strong finite volume dependence below $T_c$. Clear evidence is seen for $\\ua$ symmetry breaking above $T_c$ whi...

  14. From Engineer-To-Order to Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Edwards, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Most mass customization literature focuses on the move from mass production to mass customization. However, in some literature engineer-to-order (ETO) companies are also claiming to have become mass customizers, although it can be questioned if these companies conform to popular...... definitions of mass customizers. The purpose of this paper is to ask the question: under which conditions is it reasonable to label ETO companies as mass customizers? Design/methodology/approach - First, definitions of mass customization are examined and related to ETO companies that move towards mass...... customization. Second, the individual transitions from mass production and ETO to mass customization are analyzed by: relating the transition to classifications from relevant literature; describing the motivations and risks associated with the transition; and defining some of the most important transition...

  15. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mix, Michael; Müller, Frank; Merk, Stefan; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo

    2005-05-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81+/-15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV(LBM)).

  16. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  17. Optimized determination of trace jet fuel volatile organic compounds in human blood using in-field liquid-liquid extraction with subsequent laboratory gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis and on-column large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Pleil, J D

    2001-03-05

    A practical and sensitive method to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JP-8 jet fuel in human whole blood was developed by modifying previously established liquid-liquid extraction procedures, optimizing extraction times, solvent volume, specific sample processing techniques, and a new on-column large-volume injection method for GC-MS analysis. With the optimized methods, the extraction efficiency was improved by 4.3 to 20.1 times and the detection sensitivity increased up to 660 times over the standard method. Typical detection limits in the parts-per-trillion (ppt) level range were achieved for all monitored JP-8 constituents; this is sufficient for assessing human fuels exposures at trace environmental levels as well as occupational exposure levels. The sample extractions are performed in the field and only solvent extracts need to be shipped to the laboratory. The method is implemented with standard biological laboratory equipment and a modest bench-top GC-MS system.

  18. An estimate of global glacier volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grinsted

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I assess the feasibility of using multivariate scaling relationships to estimate glacier volume from glacier inventory data. Scaling laws are calibrated against volume observations optimized for the specific purpose of estimating total global glacier ice volume. I find that adjustments for continentality and elevation range improve skill of area–volume scaling. These scaling relationships are applied to each record in the Randolph Glacier Inventory, which is the first globally complete inventory of glaciers and ice caps. I estimate that the total volume of all glaciers in the world is 0.35 ± 0.07 m sea level equivalent, including ice sheet peripheral glaciers. This is substantially less than a recent state-of-the-art estimate. Area–volume scaling bias issues for large ice masses, and incomplete inventory data are offered as explanations for the difference.

  19. Abdominal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass in the abdomen ... care provider make a diagnosis. For example, the abdomen can be divided into four areas: Right-upper ... pain or masses include: Epigastric -- center of the abdomen just below the rib cage Periumbilical -- area around ...

  20. From molecular dehydration to excess volumes of phase-separating PNIPAM solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Martine; Kyriakos, Konstantinos; Silvi, Luca; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Petry, Winfried; Krüger, Jan K; Papadakis, Christine M; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2014-04-17

    For aqueous poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) solutions, a structural instability leads to the collapse and aggregation of the macromolecules at the temperature-induced demixing transition. The accompanying cooperative dehydration of the PNIPAM chains is known to play a crucial role in this phase separation. We elucidate the impact of partial dehydration of PNIPAM on the volume changes related to the phase separation of dilute to concentrated PNIPAM solutions. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering enables us to directly follow the isotropic jump diffusion behavior of the hydration water and the almost freely diffusing water. As the hydration number decreases from 8 to 2 for the demixing 25 mass % PNIPAM solution, only a partial dehydration of the PNIPAM chains occurs. Dilatation studies reveal that the transition-induced volume changes depend in a remarkable manner on the PNIPAM concentration of the solutions. The excess volume per mole of H2O molecules expelled from the solvation layers of PNIPAM during phase separation probably strongly increases from dilute to concentrated PNIPAM solutions. This finding is qualitatively related to the immense strain-softening previously observed for demixing PNIPAM solutions.