WorldWideScience

Sample records for mass sensing applications

  1. Applications of Terrestrial Remote Sensing to Volcanic Rock Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewit, M.; Williams-Jones, G.; Stead, D.; Kremsater, R.; So, M.; Francioni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing methods are widely used in geological applications today. The physical properties of rock such as composition, texture and structure have previously been difficult to accurately quantify through remote sensing, however, new research in the fields of terrestrial LiDAR and infrared thermography has proven useful in the differentiation of lithology in sedimentary outcrops. This study focuses on the application of these methods, in conjunction with digital photogrammetry, to a number of volcanic rock masses in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt (GVB) and Chilcotin Group (CG) of British Columbia. The GVB is a chain of volcanoes and related features extending through southwestern British Columbia and is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc. The CG is an assemblage of Neogene-aged lavas covering nearly 36,500 km2 in central British Columbia. We integrate infrared chronothermography, which enables the characterization of temporal change in the thermal signature, laser waveform attributes such as amplitude and intensity, and digital photogrammetry, in order to distinguish between a range of rock types, lithologies and structures. This data is compared to laboratory experiments on field samples and ground-truth information collected by classical geological and geotechnical methods. Our research clearly shows that it is possible to remotely map, in 3D, otherwise inaccessible volcanic rock masses.

  2. Design, fabrication and testing of a novel MEMS resonator for mass sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Boisen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) have a high potential for mass sensing application. By miniaturization of the dimensions, higher and higher sensitivities can be achieved. Here we are presenting finite element modelling and optimization of a free–free beam type mechanical...

  3. Fourth-Order Contour Mode ZnO-on-SOI Disk Resonators for Mass Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Rivera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have investigated the design, fabrication and testing of ZnO-on-SOI fourth-order contour mode disk resonators for mass sensing applications. This study aims to unveil the possibility for real-time practical mass sensing applications by using high-Q ZnO-on-SOI contour-mode resonators while taking into account their unique modal characteristics. Through focused ion beam (FIB direct-write metal deposition techniques, the effects of localized mass loading on the surface of three extensional mode devices have been investigated. Ten microfabricated 40 mm-radius disk resonators, which all have a 20 mm-thick silicon device layer and 1 mm-thick ZnO transducer layer but varied anchor widths and numbers, have exhibited resonant frequencies ranging from 84.9 MHz to 86.7 MHz with Q factors exceeding 6000 (in air and 10,000 (in vacuum, respectively. It has been found that the added mass at the nodal locations leads to noticeable Q-factor degradation along with lower induced frequency drift, thereby resulting in reduced mass sensitivity. All three measured devices have shown a mass sensitivity of ~1.17 Hz·fg−1 at the maximum displacement points with less than 33.3 ppm of deviation in term of fractional frequency change. This mass sensitivity is significantly higher than 0.334 Hz·fg−1 at the nodal points. Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD for this resonant mass sensor was determined to be 367 ag and 1290 ag (1 ag = 10−18 g for loaded mass at the maximum and minimum displacement points, accordingly.

  4. Cantilever Based Mass Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Cantilever based mass sensors utilize that a change in vibrating mass will cause a change in the resonant frequency. This can be used for very accurate sensing of adsorption and desorption processes on the cantilever surface. The change in resonant frequency caused by a single molecule depends...... on various parameters including the vibrating mass of the cantilever and the frequency at which it vibrates. The minimum amount of molecules detectable is highly dependent on the noise of the system as well as the method of readout. The aim of this Ph.D. thesis has been twofold: To develop a readout method...... suitable for a portable device and to investigate the possibility of enhancing the functionality and sensitivity of cantilever based mass sensors. A readout method based on the hard contact between the cantilever and a biased electrode placed in close proximity to the cantilever is proposed. The viability...

  5. Mass-sensing BioCD Protein Array towards Clinical Application: Prostate Specific Antigen Detection in Patient Sera

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xuefeng; Nolte, David D; Ratliff, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    Mass-sensing biosensor arrays for protein detection require no fluorophores or enzyme labels. However, few mass biosensor protein arrays have demonstrated successful application in high background samples, such as serum. In this paper, we test the BioCD as a mass biosensor based on optical interferometry of antibodies covalently attached through Schiff-base reduction. We use the BioCD to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA, a biomarker of prostate cancer) in patient sera in a 96-well anti-PSA microarray. We have attained a 4 ng/ml detection limit in full serum and have measured PSA concentrations in three patient sera.

  6. Mass sensitivity of layered shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave devices for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Trinchi, Adrian; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Holland, Anthony; Galatsis, Kosmas

    2001-11-01

    Layered Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices that allow the propagation of Love mode acoustic waves will be studied in this paper. In these devices, the substrate allows the propagation of Surface Skimming Bulks Waves (SSBWs). By depositing layers, that the speed of Shear Horizontal (SH) acoustic wave propagation is less than that of the substrate, the propagation mode transforms to Love mode. Love mode devices which will be studied in this paper, have SiO2 and ZnO acoustic guiding layers. As Love mode of propagation has no movement of particles component normal to the active sensor surface, they can be employed for the sensing applications in the liquid media.

  7. Application of Taguchi robust design method to SAW mass sensing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Der Ho; Chen, Hsin Hua

    2005-12-01

    It is essential that measurement systems provide an accurate and robust performance over a wide range of input conditions. This paper adopts Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis to develop a robust design for the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensing device operated in a conventional delay-line configuration. The goal of the present Taguchi design activity is to increase the sensitivity of this sensor while simultaneously reducing its variability. A time- and cost-efficient finite-element analysis method is used to investigate the effects on the sensor's response output of variations in the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas deposited mass. The simulation results for the resonant frequency and wave mode analysis are all shown to be in good agreement with the values predicted theoretically.

  8. Dynamical response of multi-walled carbon nanotube resonators based on continuum mechanics modeling for mass sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myungseok; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Kim, Chang-Wan [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Kilho [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Gwak, Kwanwoong [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dai, Mai Duc [Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2017-05-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has recently received much attention due to its excellent electromechanical properties, indicating that CNT can be employed for development of Nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) such as nanomechanical resonators. For effective design of CNT-based resonators, it is required to accurately predict the vibration behavior of CNT resonators as well as their frequency response to mass adsorption. In this work, we have studied the vibrational behavior of Multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) resonators by using a continuum mechanics modeling that was implemented in Finite element method (FEM). In particular, we consider a transversely isotropic hollow cylinder solid model with Finite element (FE) implementation for modeling the vibration behavior of Multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) resonators. It is shown that our continuum mechanics model provides the resonant frequencies of various MWCNTs being comparable to those obtained from experiments. Moreover, we have investigated the frequency response of MWCNT resonators to mass adsorption by using our continuum model with FE implementation. Our study sheds light on our continuum mechanics model that is useful in predicting not only the vibration behavior of MWCNT resonators but also their sensing performance for further effective design of MWCNT- based NEMS devices.

  9. An integrated mass wasting susceptibility assesment by geographical information systems and remote sensing applications: Example from North Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Aykut

    2016-04-01

    The Northern part of Turkey have been suffering from both landslides and snow avalanches due to the steep topography and climatological characteristics triggering the processes. In order to manage these natural hazard phenomenons, regional hazards assessments are both crucial and essential for the region. In this context, an integrated hazard assesment including landslide and snow avalanche was carried out for a selected area at North Turkey. Caykara (Trabzon) district was one of the most suitable areas for such a purpose, because several landslide and snow avalanche cases occured in the area during the last two decades. To inspect the landslide and snow avalanche susceptibility of the area, geographical information systems and remote sensing based assessments were applied to the area. To produce a landslide susceptibility map, logistic regression model was used by using lithological, topographical and environmental data set. To obtain a snow avalanche susceptibility map, topograhical data such as slope gradient, slope aspect and slope curvature, environmental data such as normaliazed vegetation index (NDVI), snow accumlation areas and landcover were taken into account, and these data set were analyzed by a 2D modelling tool, called as CONEFALL. By obtaining the landslide and snow avalanche susceptibility maps, five susceptibility classes from very low to very high were differentiated in the area. The both susceptibility maps were also verified by the actual field data as well, and it was determined that the obtained maps were successful. Then, the both susceptibility maps were overlaid, and finally an integrated mass wasting susceptibility map was created. In this final map, total susceptible areas to both landslide and snow avalanche occurrence were determined. The final susceptibility map is believed and expected to be used by the govermental and local authorities as a decision makers to mitigate the landslide and snow avalanche based hazards in the area.

  10. Closed form expression for self-sensing microcantilever-based mass sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Miheer; Jalili, Nader

    2006-03-01

    The dynamics of a self-sensing microcantilever beam for mass sensing applications are presented. The microcantilever is assumed to be uniform and obeying the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory assumptions. The beam possesses an unknown tip mass to be measured and a piezoelectric patch actuator deposited on the cantilever surface. The actuator is operated in a self-sensing mode, in the sense that the same piezoelectric patch is used to simultaneously actuate the beam and sense the voltage induced due to beam vibrations. A balanced impedance bridge is used to supply voltage to the piezoelectric actuator and to read the induced voltage. Mathematical models for this mechatronic system actuated through a pure capacitive and a resistive-capacitive bridge network are derived. Equations of motion are obtained using the Hamilton's principle by considering the microcantilever as a distributed-parameters system. A technique to estimate the unknown tip mass, based on the inverse solution to the characteristic equation problem is presented along with sensitivity analysis of the unknown mass with respect to the characteristic equation parameters. A closed-form solution for the determination of unknown tip mass is obtained which has many advantages over numerical estimation methods in a widespread mass sensing application.

  11. Virtual mass effect in dynamic micromechanical mass sensing in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiker, P.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2016-06-01

    Weighing individual micro- or nanoscale particles in solution using dynamic micromechanical sensors is quite challenging: viscous losses dramatically degrade the sensor's performance by both broadening the resonance peak and increasing the effective total mass of the resonator by the dragged liquid. While the virtual mass of the resonator was discussed frequently, little attention has been paid to the virtual mass of particles attached to the resonator's surface and its impact on the accuracy of mass sensing. By means of the in situ detection of a polystyrene microbead in water using a bridge-based microresonator, we demonstrate that the virtual mass of the bead significantly affects the observed frequency shift. In fact, 55 % of the frequency shift was caused by the virtual mass of the adsorbed bead, predicted by Stoke's theory. Based on the observed shift in the resonator's quality factor during particle adsorption, we confirm this significant effect of the virtual mass. Thus, a quantitative analysis of the mass of a single adsorbed particle is strongly diminished if dynamic micromechanical sensors are operated in a liquid environment.

  12. Combinatorial Chemistry for Optical Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, M. E.; Luis, G. Pina; Rivero-Espejel, I. A.

    The recent interest in combinatorial chemistry for the synthesis of selective recognition materials for optical sensing applications is presented. The preparation, screening, and applications of libraries of ligands and chemosensors against molecular species and metal ions are first considered. Included in this chapter are also the developments involving applications of combinatorial approaches to the discovery of sol-gel and acrylic-based imprinted materials for optical sensing of antibiotics and pesticides, as well as libraries of doped sol-gels for high-throughput optical sensing of oxygen. The potential of combinatorial chemistry applied to the discovery of new sensing materials is highlighted.

  13. Graphene Hybrid Materials in Gas Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Latif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, a two dimensional structure of carbon atoms, has been widely used as a material for gas sensing applications because of its large surface area, excellent conductivity, and ease of functionalization. This article reviews the most recent advances in graphene hybrid materials developed for gas sensing applications. In this review, synthetic approaches to fabricate graphene sensors, the nano structures of hybrid materials, and their sensing mechanism are presented. Future perspectives of this rapidly growing field are also discussed.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Thermal Flow Sensing in Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Baseerat; Kakkar, Vipan

    2016-01-01

    Flow sensors have diverse applications in the field of biomedical engineering and also in industries. Micromachining of flow sensors has accomplished a new goal when it comes to miniaturization. Due to the scaling in dimensions, power consumption, mass cost, sensitivity and integration with other modules such as wireless telemetry has improvised to a great extent. Thermal flow sensors find wide applications in biomedical such as in hydrocephalus shunts and drug delivery systems. Infrared thermal sensing is used for preclinical diagnosis of breast cancer, for identifying various neurological disorders and for monitoring various muscular movements. In this paper, various modes of thermal flow sensing and transduction methods with respect to different biomedical applications are discussed. Thermal flow sensing is given prime focus because of the simplicity in the design. Finally, a comparison of flow sensing technologies is also presented.

  15. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Marks, D.; Schiffman, K.; Souza, M.; Witebsky, E.

    1977-01-01

    An energy balance snowmelt model for rugged terrain was devised and coupled to a flow model. A literature review of remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling was included along with a software development outline.

  16. GNSS remote sensing theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Xie, Feiqin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the theory and methods of GNSS remote sensing as well as its applications in the atmosphere, oceans, land and hydrology. It contains detailed theory and study cases to help the reader put the material into practice.

  17. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  18. Application of Compressive Sensing to Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2015-0071 APPLICATION OF COMPRESSIVE SENSING TO DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHY Mark Neifeld University of Arizona...From - To) May 2015 Final 3 September 2013 – 27 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE APPLICATION OF COMPRESSIVE SENSING TO DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHY 5a...from under- sampled data. This work presents a new reconstruction algorithm for use with under-sampled digital holography measurements and yields

  19. Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, T; Knowles, T P J

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on-chip microfluidic spray nozzle and subsequent solvent removal provides the basis for the real-time determination of dry solute mass. Moreover, this detection scheme does not suffer from the decrease in the sensor quality factor and the viscous drag present if the measurement is performed in a liquid environment, yet allows solutions to be analysed. We demonstrate the sensitivity and reliability of our approach by controlled deposition of nanogram levels of salt and protein from a micrometer-sized channel.

  20. Effective mass sensing using optomechanically induced transparency in microresonator system

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yong-Pan; Cao, Cong; Mi, Si-Chen; Yang, Daquan; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and weighing the individual nanoparticles is an important approach to study the behavior and properties of single particles. Here we illustrate an effective mass sensing scheme using optomechanical resonator system. Based on the optomechanically induced transparency phenomenon, a Stokes field reference approach is used to sense the mass of the particle on the microresonator. The field intensity of the transmission field will be changed by the effect of the particle which avoids the limits of decay induced spectral width in the resonance shift detection. Exploiting the perturbation method, we theoretically evaluated the dynamical behavior of the system, and achieved the femtogram level mass sensing without the need for high cavity Q-value, and strong coupling strength in the optomechanically system.

  1. Ultrasensitive bulk disk microresonator-based sensor for distributed mass sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the development of an ultrasensitive microfabricated mass sensor for distributed mass sensing applications we present a bulk resonator-based mass sensor. The two devices presented are based on a polysilicon disk resonating at 132 and 66 MHz, respectively, actuated...... electrostatically in a wine-glass mode. By using bulk mode resonators it has been possible to reduce the thickness of the sensor layer without affecting the resonance frequency, reaching an extremely high distributed mass to a frequency shift sensitivity of 11.3 kHz mu m(2) fg(-1) and a markedly small mass...

  2. Device overshield for mass-sensing enhancement (DOME) structure fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vincent T. K.; Freeman, Mark R.; Hiebert, Wayne K.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) have demonstrated excellent sensitivity in their ability to measure small particle masses even to the point of being able to differentiate between different chemical species based on their mass. NEMS mass responsivity, however, depends upon mechanical mode profile and adsorption location, a fact which considerably complicates mass-sensing analysis and reduces overall sensitivity. We introduce a fabrication scheme-termed device overshield for mass-sensing enhancement (DOME) involving structures which physically limit the position at which a flux of material is deposited onto a NEMS resonating sensor. This surface nanomachining process uses silicon-on-insulator, silicon dioxide and silicon nitride layers to produce multiple, independent structural levels. It could be used to create MEMS over NEMS structures, to fabricate integrated shadow-masks resistant to high temperature processing, or for enhancing the mass-sensing performance of underlying nanomechanical devices. The DOME structures do not appear to significantly affect the resonator response and are shown to successfully block incoming mass from being deposited on specified portions of a NEMS beam.

  3. Aerospace applications of mass market MEMS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karin; Kroetz, Gerhard; Schalk, Josef; Mueller, Gerhard

    2002-07-01

    Aerospace applications of MEMS products, originally developed for automotive mass markets, are discussed. Various sensor examples with a high dual use potential are presented: inertial sensing, flow and gas sensing, robust micro sensors including SiC- and GaN-based devices, as well as first approaches towards flexible and distributed microsystems. In Europe the automotive industry is one of the main MEMS market drivers, simply because of the sheer size of this market and Europe's strong position in this industrial field. Main MEMS activities are development and integration of vehicle dynamics sensing systems, passenger safety and navigation systems, air and fuel intake systems, as well as sensor systems for exhaust gas after treatment and climate control. Benefits on the customer side are increased safety, passenger comfort and reduced fuel consumption. Benefits on the manufacturer's side are increased sub-system integration, modularity and reduced production cost. In the future the aerospace industry is likely to benefit from the introduction of micro-systems for the same reasons as the automotive industry. Interests of the aerospace industry are increasing safety and reliability of airplane operation, health and state monitoring of fuselage and airplane subsystems as well as improving service and maintenance procedures. In comparison to automotive applications, the numbers of devices needed is likely to be much smaller, however, new challenges arise in so far as distributed sensing and actuating microsystems will be needed. The idea is to identify and to exploit synergies between automotive mass market MEMS applications and lower-volume aerospace ones. The effort necessary to meet aerospace requirements and the extent of necessary trade-offs in customizing automotive MEMS is addressed considering the above-mentioned examples.

  4. Structured materials for catalytic and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokenek, Selma

    The optical and chemical properties of the materials used in catalytic and sensing applications directly determine the characteristics of the resultant catalyst or sensor. It is well known that a catalyst needs to have high activity, selectivity, and stability to be viable in an industrial setting. The hydrogenation activity of palladium catalysts is known to be excellent, but the industrial applications are limited by the cost of obtaining catalyst in amounts large enough to make their use economical. As a result, alloying palladium with a cheaper, more widely available metal while maintaining the high catalytic activity seen in monometallic catalysts is, therefore, an attractive option. Similarly, the optical properties of nanoscale materials used for sensing must be attuned to their application. By adjusting the shape and composition of nanoparticles used in such applications, very fine changes can be made to the frequency of light that they absorb most efficiently. The design, synthesis, and characterization of (i) size controlled monometallic palladium nanoparticles for catalytic applications, (ii) nickel-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles and (iii) silver-palladium nanoparticles with applications in drug detection and biosensing through surface plasmon resonance, respectively, will be discussed. The composition, size, and shape of the nanoparticles formed were controlled through the use of wet chemistry techniques. After synthesis, the nanoparticles were analyzed using physical and chemical characterization techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy- Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry (STEM-EDX). The Pd and Ni-Pd nanoparticles were then supported on silica for catalytic testing using mass spectrometry. The optical properties of the Ag-Pd nanoparticles in suspension were further investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). Monometallic palladium particles have

  5. Remote sensing applications in environmental research

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Prashant K; Gupta, Manika; Islam, Tanvir

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing Applications in Environmental Research is the basis for advanced Earth Observation (EO) datasets used in environmental monitoring and research. Now that there are a number of satellites in orbit, EO has become imperative in today's sciences, weather and natural disaster prediction. This highly interdisciplinary reference work brings together diverse studies on remote sensing and GIS, from a theoretical background to its applications, represented through various case studies and the findings of new models. The book offers a comprehensive range of contributions by well-known scientists from around the world and opens a new window for students in presenting interdisciplinary and methodological resources on the latest research. It explores various key aspects and offers state-of-the-art research in a simplified form, describing remote sensing and GIS studies for those who are new to the field, as well as for established researchers.

  6. Sensing Random Electromagnetic Fields and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0172 SENSING RANDOM ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND APPLICATIONS Aristide Dogariu UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/23... Electromagnetic Fields and Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...14. ABSTRACT Random electromagnetic fields (REF) exist in all forms and one common origin is a result of the interaction of coherent fields with

  7. Novel optical microresonators for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanzheng

    Optical microresonators have been proven as an effective means for sensing applications. The high quality (Q) optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) circulating around the rotationally symmetric structures can interact with the local environment through the evanescent field. The high sensitivity in detection was achieved by the long photon lifetime of the high-Q resonator (thus the long light-environment interaction path). The environmental variation near the resonator surface leads to the effective refractive index change and thus a shift at the resonance wavelength. In this dissertation, we present our recent research on the development of new optical microresonators for sensing applications. Different structures and materials are used to develop optical resonator for broad sensing applications. Specifically, a new coupling method is designed and demonstrated for efficient excitation of microsphere resonators. The new coupler is made by fusion splicing an optical fiber with a capillary tube and consequently etching the capillary wall to a thickness of a few microns. Light is coupled through the peripheral contact between inserted microsphere and the etched capillary wall. Operating in the reflection mode and providing a robust mechanical support to the microresonator, the integrated structure has been experimentally proven as a convenient probe for sensing applications. Microspheres made of different materials (e.g., PMMA, porous glass, hollow core porous, and glass solid borosilicate glass) were successfully demonstrated for different sensing purposes, including temperature, chemical vapor concentration, and glucose concentration in aqueous solutions. In addition, the alignment free, integrated microresonator structure may also find other applications such as optical filters and microcavity lasers.

  8. Remote sensing science - new concepts and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.

  9. Magnetostriction and magnetostrictive materials for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hristoforou, Evangelos [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780 (Greece)]. E-mail: eh@metal.ntua.gr; Ktena, Aphrodite [Technological Education Institute of Chalkis, Euboea 34400 (Greece)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper, after an introduction to the basics of magnetostriction and magnetostrictive materials, some of their uses and applications are presented. New position sensors based on the magnetostriction effect and the magnetostrictive delay-line technique are presented with respect to their applicability in engineering systems. It is also shown that the magnetostriction effect can be used in measuring the M(H) and {lambda}(H) functions as well as their uniformity response. Finally, the so-called magnetoelectric effect is discussed as one of the major future trends of magnetostriction and magnetostrictive materials for sensing applications.

  10. Mass and Force Sensing of an Adsorbate on a Beam Resonator Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mass sensing superiority of a micro-/nano-mechanical resonator sensor over conventional mass spectrometry has been, or at least is being firmly established. Because the sensing mechanism of a mechanical resonator sensor is the shifts of resonant frequencies, how to link the shifts of resonant frequencies with the material properties of an analyte formulates an inverse problem. Besides the analyte/adsorbate mass, many other factors, such as position and axial force, can also cause the shifts of resonant frequencies. The in situ measurement of the adsorbate position and axial force is extremely difficult if not impossible, especially when an adsorbate is as small as a molecule or an atom. Extra instruments are also required. In this study, an inverse problem of using three resonant frequencies to determine the mass, position and axial force is formulated and solved. The accuracy of the inverse problem solving method is demonstrated, and how the method can be used in the real application of a nanomechanical resonator is also discussed. Solving the inverse problem is helpful to the development and application of a mechanical resonator sensor for two reasons: reducing extra experimental equipment and achieving better mass sensing by considering more factors.

  11. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  12. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS(n)) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  13. The application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liang; ZHANG bing; CHEN Zhengchao; ZHENG Lanfen; TONG Qingxi

    2009-01-01

    Requirements for monitoring the coastal zone environment are first summarized. Then the application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment investigation is introduced, such as the classification of coast beaches and bottom matter, target recognition, mine detection, oil spill identification and ocean color remote sensing. Finally, what is needed to follow on in application of hyperspectral remote sensing to coast environment is recommended.

  14. Multimodal sensing-based camera applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordallo López, Miguel; Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, J. Olli; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2011-02-01

    The increased sensing and computing capabilities of mobile devices can provide for enhanced mobile user experience. Integrating the data from different sensors offers a way to improve application performance in camera-based applications. A key advantage of using cameras as an input modality is that it enables recognizing the context. Therefore, computer vision has been traditionally utilized in user interfaces to observe and automatically detect the user actions. The imaging applications can also make use of various sensors for improving the interactivity and the robustness of the system. In this context, two applications fusing the sensor data with the results obtained from video analysis have been implemented on a Nokia Nseries mobile device. The first solution is a real-time user interface that can be used for browsing large images. The solution enables the display to be controlled by the motion of the user's hand using the built-in sensors as complementary information. The second application is a real-time panorama builder that uses the device's accelerometers to improve the overall quality, providing also instructions during the capture. The experiments show that fusing the sensor data improves camera-based applications especially when the conditions are not optimal for approaches using camera data alone.

  15. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wilson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  16. Terahertz electronics for sensing and imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Short channel field effect transistors can detect terahertz radiation. Such detection is enabled by the excitation of the plasma waves rectified due to the device nonlinearities. The resulting response has nanometer scale spatial resolution and can be modulated in the sub THz range. This technology could enable a variety of sensing, imaging, and wireless communication applications, including detection of biological and chemical hazardous agents, cancer detection, shortrange covert communications (in THz and sub-THz windows), and applications in radio astronomy. Field effect transistors implemented using III-V, III-N, Si, SiGe, and graphene have been used to detect THz radiation. Using silicon transistors in plasmonic regimes is especially appealing because of compatibility with standard readout silicon VLSI components.

  17. Amorphous magnetostrictive wires used in delay lines for sensing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hristoforou, E

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we give a review on the use of amorphous magnetostrictive wires in delay lines for sensing applications. Initially, we demonstrate the engineering model of the operation of magnetostrictive delay lines (MDL), illustrating the micro-strain generation, propagation and detection. Accordingly, we present the developed sensing elements based on this technique. The sensing elements are based on the parameters affecting the operation of the MDL, which are the ambient field, the interrogating electromagnetic field and the mechanical action on the magnetic element. Finally, we discuss on the development of a new magnetostrictive device, which incorporate the excitation and sensing means and can be used in sensing applications.

  18. Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for quantitative measurement of quorum sensing inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Daniel A; Zich, David B; Ettefagh, Keivan A; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S; Horswill, Alexander R; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-08-01

    Drug resistant bacterial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and new strategies are needed for the treatment of these infections. The anti-virulence approach, which targets non-essential virulence factors in bacteria, has been proposed as one way to combat the problem of antibiotic resistance. Virulence in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and many other Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is controlled by the quorum sensing system. Thus, there is excellent therapeutic potential for compounds that target this system. With this project, we have developed and validated a novel approach for measuring quorum sensing inhibition in vitro. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was employed to directly measure one of the important outputs of the quorum sensing system in MRSA, auto-inducing peptide I (AIP I) in bacterial cultures. The method for AIP detection was validated and demonstrated limits of detection and quantification of range of 0.0035μM and 0.10μM, respectively. It was shown that the known quorum sensing inhibitor ambuic acid inhibited AIP I production by a clinically relevant strain of MRSA, with an IC50 value of 2.6±0.2μM. The new method performed similarly to previously published methods using GFP reporter assays, but has the advantage of being applicable without the need for engineering of a reporter strain. Additionally, the mass spectrometry-based method could be applicable in situations where interference by the inhibitor prevents the application of fluorescence-based methods.

  19. Graphene Hybrid Materials in Gas Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, a two dimensional structure of carbon atoms, has been widely used as a material for gas sensing applications because of its large surface area, excellent conductivity, and ease of functionalization. This article reviews the most recent advances in graphene hybrid materials developed for gas sensing applications. In this review, synthetic approaches to fabricate graphene sensors, the nano structures of hybrid materials, and their sensing mechanism are presented. Future perspectives of this rapidly growing field are also discussed. PMID:26690156

  20. GalMass: A Smartphone Application for Estimating Galaxy Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Kyle R

    2011-01-01

    This note documents the methods used by the smartphone application, "GalMass," which has been released on the Android Market. GalMass estimates the halo virial mass (Mvir), stellar mass (Mstar), gas mass (Mgas), and galaxy gas fraction of a central galaxy as a function of redshift (z<2), with any one of the above masses as an input parameter. In order to convert between Mvir and Mstar (in either direction), GalMass uses fitting functions that approximate the abundance matching models of either Conroy & Wechsler (2009), Moster et al. (2010), or Behroozi et al. (2010). GalMass uses a a semi-empirical fit to observed galaxy gas fractions to convert between Mstar and Mgas, as outlined in Stewart et al. (2009).

  1. Magnetic polymer nanocomposites for sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of magnetic polymer nanocomposites for a wide range of sensing applications. The composites are made of magnetic nanowires (NWs) incorporated into polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or UV sensitive SU-S. The developed composites utilize the permanent magnetic behavior of the NWs, allowing remote operation without an additional magnetic field to magnetize the NWs, which simplifies miniaturization and integration in microsystems. In addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the easy patterning of the polymer leading to a corrosion resistant, highly elastic, and permanent magnetic material that can be used to develop highly sensitive systems. Nanocomposite pillars are realized and integrated on magnetic sensor elements to achieve highly sensitive and power efficient flow and tactile sensors. The developed flow sensor can detect air and water flow at a power consumption as little as SO nW and a resolution up to 15 μm/s with easily modifiable performance. A tactile sensor element prototype is realized using the same concept, where a pressure range of 0-169 kPa is detected with a resolution of up to 1.3 kPa. © 2014 IEEE.

  2. Industrial applications of fiber optic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Francois X.; Blocksidge, Robert

    1996-08-01

    Thanks to the growth of the fiber optics telecommunication industry, fiber optic components have become less expensive, more reliable and well known by potential fiber optic sensor users. LEDs, optical fibers, couplers and connectors are now widely distributed and are the building blocks for the fiber optic sensor manufacturer. Additionally, the huge demand in consumer electronics of the past 10 years has provided the manufacturer with cheap and powerful programmable logic components which reduce the development time as well as the cost of the associated instrumentation. This market trend has allowed Photonetics to develop, manufacture and sell fiber optic sensors for the last 10 years. The company contribution in the fields of fiber optic gyros (4 licenses sold world wide), white light interferometry and fiber optic sensor networks is widely recognized. Moreover, its 1992 acquisition of some of the assets of Metricor Inc., greatly reinforced its position and allowed it to pursue new markets. Over the past four years, Photonetics has done an important marketing effort to better understand the need of its customers. The result of this research has fed R&D efforts towards a new generation instrument, the Metricor 2000, better adapted to the expectations of fiber optic sensors users, thanks to its unique features: (1) universality -- the system can accept more than 20 different sensors (T, P, RI, . . .). (2) scalability -- depending on the customer needs, the system can be used with 1 to 64 sensors. (3) performance -- because of its improved design, overall accuracies of 0.01% FS can be reached. (4) versatility -- its modular design enables a fast and easy custom design for specific applications. This paper presents briefly the Metricor 2000 and its family of FO probes. Then, it describes two fiber optic sensing (FOS) applications/markets where FOS have proven to be very useful.

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing for terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Murali Krishna Gumma,; Venkateswarlu Dheeravath,

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing data are considered hyperspectral when the data are gathered from numerous wavebands, contiguously over an entire range of the spectrum (e.g., 400–2500 nm). Goetz (1992) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The acquisition of images in hundreds of registered, contiguous spectral bands such that for each picture element of an image it is possible to derive a complete reflectance spectrum.” However, Jensen (2004) defines hyperspectral remote sensing as “The simultaneous acquisition of images in many relatively narrow, contiguous and/or non contiguous spectral bands throughout the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  5. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in wildlife management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneggie, David M.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1980-01-01

    Citations of 165 selected technical reports, journal articles, and other publications on remote sensing applications for wildlife management are presented in a bibliography. These materials summarize developments in the use of remotely sensed data for wildlife habitat mapping, habitat inventory, habitat evaluation, and wildlife census. The bibliography contains selected citations published between 1947 and 1979.

  6. Quantitative Application Study on Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-mei; XU Su-dong; LIN Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative application on remote sensing of suspended sediment is an important aspect of the engineering application of remote sensing study.In this paper,the Xiamen Bay is chosen as the study area.Eleven different phases of the remote sensing data are selected to establish a quantitative remote sensing model to map suspended sediment by using remote sensing images and the quasi-synchronous measured sediment data.Based on empirical statistics developed are the conversion models between instantaneous suspended sediment concentration and tidally-averaged suspended sediment concentration as well as the conversion models between surface layer suspended sediment concentration and the depth-averaged suspended sediment concentration.On this basis,the quantitative application integrated model on remote sensing of suspended sediment is developed.By using this model as well as multi-temporal remote sensing images,multi-year averaged suspended sediment concentration of the Xiamen Bay are predicted.The comparison between model prediction and observed data shows that the multi-year averaged suspended sediment concentration of studied sites as well as the concentration difference of neighboring sites can be well predicted by the remote sensing model with an error rate of 21.61% or less,which can satisfy the engineering requirements of channel deposition calculation.

  7. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  8. Epoch-based Application Collaboration for Sensing Data Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kan; LIU Yun-sheng; WEN Bing

    2008-01-01

    The application collaboration was addressed to provide energy-efficient data services for distributed sensing applications to collaboratively interacting to achieve a desired global objective not detectable by any single cluster. An epoch-based transaction model was proposed by using the concept of sphere of control (SoC), and a collaborative sensing application can be dynamically formed as a nested architecture composed of time-synchronized applications. By loosening the rigid constraints of ACID to adapt the requirements of sensor networks, the submission, rollback and consistency rules ware educed and a two-phrase submission protocol was designed. Finally, it was illustrated that the model is capable of providing an adaptive formal template for sensing application collaboration. Our performance evaluations show that by applying the two-phrase submission protocol, we can significantly improve the number of reported answers and response time, raise resource utilization, and reduce the energyconsumption and data loss.

  9. APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY TO POPULATION ESTIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-guang

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore a new avenue of urban small-regional population estimation by remote sensing technology, creatively and comprehensively for the first time using a residence count method, area (density) method and model method, incorporating the application experience of American scholars in the light of the state of our country. Firstly, the author proposes theoretical basis for population estimation by remote sensing, on the basis of analysing and evaluating the history and state quo of application of methods of population estimation by remote sens-ing. Secondly, two original types of mathematical models of population estimation are developed on the basis of remote sensing data, taking Tianjin City as an example. By both of the mathematical models the regional population may be estimated from remote sensing variable values with high accuracy. The number of the independent variables in the lat-ter model is somewhat smaller and the collection of remote sensing data is somewhat easier, but the deviation is a little larger. Finally, some viewpoints on the principled problems about the practical application of remote sensing to popu-lation estimation are put forward.

  10. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.

    1999-03-06

    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  11. Conjugated amplifying polymers for optical sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Sébastien; Swager, Timothy M

    2013-06-12

    Thanks to their unique optical and electrochemical properties, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention over the last two decades and resulted in numerous technological innovations. In particular, their implementation in sensing schemes and devices was widely investigated and produced a multitude of sensory systems and transduction mechanisms. Conjugated polymers possess numerous attractive features that make them particularly suitable for a broad variety of sensing tasks. They display sensory signal amplification (compared to their small-molecule counterparts) and their structures can easily be tailored to adjust solubility, absorption/emission wavelengths, energy offsets for excited state electron transfer, and/or for use in solution or in the solid state. This versatility has made conjugated polymers a fluorescence sensory platform of choice in the recent years. In this review, we highlight a variety of conjugated polymer-based sensory mechanisms together with selected examples from the recent literature.

  12. Remote sensing application on geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2013-09-01

    Geothermal energy is produced when water coming down from the surface of the earth and met with magma or hot rocks, which the heat comes from the very high levels of magma rises from the earth. This process produced a heated fluid supplied to a power generator system to finally use as energy. Geothermal field usually associated with volcanic area with a component from igneous rocks and a complex geological structures. The fracture and fault structure are important geological structures associated with geothermal. Furthermore, their geothermal manifestations also need to be evaluated associated their geological structures. The appearance of a geothermal surface manifestation is close to the structure of the fracture and the caldera volcanic areas. The relationship between the fault and geothermal manifestations can be seen in the form of a pattern of alignment between the manifestations of geothermal locations with other locations on the fault system. The use of remote sensing using electromagnetic radiation sensors to record images of the Earth's environment that can be interpreted to be a useful information. In this study, remote sensing was applied to determine the geological structure and mapping of the distribution of rocks and alteration rocks. It was found that remote sensing obtained a better localize areas of geothermal prospects, which in turn could cut the chain of geothermal exploration to reduce a cost of geothermal exploration.

  13. Integrated pressure sensing using capacitive Coriolis mass flow sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    The cross-sectional shape of microchannels is, dependent on the fabrication method, never perfectly circular. Consequently, the channels deform with the pressure, which is a non-ideal effect in flow sensors, but may be used for pressure sensing. Multiple suspended channels with different lengths

  14. Millimeter-wave/THz FMCW radar techniques for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirando, D. Amal; Higgins, Michael D.; Wang, Fenggui; Petkie, Douglas T.

    2016-10-01

    Millimeter-wave and terahertz continuous-wave radar systems have been used to measure physiological signatures for biometric applications and for a variety of non-destructive evaluation applications, such as the detection of defects in materials. Sensing strategies for the simplest homodyne systems, such as a Michelson Interferometer, can be enhanced by using Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) techniques. This allows multiple objects or surfaces to be range resolved while monitoring the phase of the signal in a particular range bin. We will discuss the latest developments in several studies aimed at demonstrating how FMCW techniques can enhance mmW/THz sensing applications.

  15. MOSDEN: A Scalable Mobile Collaborative Platform for Opportunistic Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Prakash Jayaraman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile smartphones along with embedded sensors have become an efficient enabler for various mobile applications including opportunistic sensing. The hi-tech advances in smartphones are opening up a world of possibilities. This paper proposes a mobile collaborative platform called MOSDEN that enables and supports opportunistic sensing at run time. MOSDEN captures and shares sensor data acrossmultiple apps, smartphones and users. MOSDEN supports the emerging trend of separating sensors from application-specific processing, storing and sharing. MOSDEN promotes reuse and re-purposing of sensor data hence reducing the efforts in developing novel opportunistic sensing applications. MOSDEN has been implemented on Android-based smartphones and tablets. Experimental evaluations validate the scalability and energy efficiency of MOSDEN and its suitability towards real world applications. The results of evaluation and lessons learned are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Microfiber-Based Bragg Gratings for Sensing Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Long Kou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfiber-based Bragg gratings (MFBGs are an emerging concept in ultra-small optical fiber sensors. They have attracted great attention among researchers in the fiber sensing area because of their large evanescent field and compactness. In this review, the basic techniques for the fabrication of MFBGs are introduced first. Then, the sensing properties and applications of MFBGs are discussed, including measurement of refractive index (RI, temperature, and strain/force. Finally a summary of selected MFBG sensing elements from previous literature are tabulated.

  17. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  18. Advanced laser diodes for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAWTER,GREGORY A.; MAR,ALAN; CHOW,WENG W.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed diode lasers for short pulse duration and high peak pulse power in the 0.01--100.0 m pulsewidth regime. A primary goal of the program was producing up to 10 W while maintaining good far-field beam quality and ease of manufacturability for low cost. High peak power, 17 W, picosecond pulses have been achieved by gain switching of flared geometry waveguide lasers and amplifiers. Such high powers area world record for this type of diode laser. The light emission pattern from diode lasers is of critical importance for sensing systems such as range finding and chemical detection. They have developed a new integrated optical beam transformer producing rib-waveguide diode lasers with a symmetric, low divergence, output beam and increased upper power limits for irreversible facet damage.

  19. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    An urban area was studied through the use of the inventory-by-surrogate method rather than by direct interpretation of photographic imagery. Prior uses of remote sensing in urban and public research are examined. The effects of crowding, poor housing conditions, air pollution, and street conditions on public health are considered. Color infrared photography was used to categorize land use features and the grid method was used in photo interpretation analysis. The incidence of shigella and salmonella, hepatitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and veneral disease were studied, together with mortality and morbidity rates. Sample census data were randomly collected and validated. The hypothesis that land use and residential quality are associated with and act as an influence upon health and physical well-being was studied and confirmed.

  20. Battlefield Acoustic Sensing, Multimodal Sensing, and Networked Sensing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon, Wesley Wang, and Miriam Häge...Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Wesley Wang...Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  1. Piezotronic Effect: An Emerging Mechanism for Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kory; Nguyen, Vu; Zhu, Ren; Yang, Rusen

    2015-01-01

    Strain-induced polarization charges in a piezoelectric semiconductor effectively modulate the band structure near the interface and charge carrier transport. Fundamental investigation of the piezotronic effect has attracted broad interest, and various sensing applications have been demonstrated. This brief review discusses the fundamentals of the piezotronic effect, followed by a review highlighting important applications for strain sensors, pressure sensors, chemical sensors, photodetectors, humidity sensors and temperature sensors. Finally, the review offers some perspectives and outlook for this new field of multi-functional sensing enabled by the piezotronic effect. PMID:26378536

  2. Piezotronic Effect: An Emerging Mechanism for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kory Jenkins

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Strain-induced polarization charges in a piezoelectric semiconductor effectively modulate the band structure near the interface and charge carrier transport. Fundamental investigation of the piezotronic effect has attracted broad interest, and various sensing applications have been demonstrated. This brief review discusses the fundamentals of the piezotronic effect, followed by a review highlighting important applications for strain sensors, pressure sensors, chemical sensors, photodetectors, humidity sensors and temperature sensors. Finally, the review offers some perspectives and outlook for this new field of multi-functional sensing enabled by the piezotronic effect.

  3. Advanced remote sensing terrestrial information extraction and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Shunlin; Wang, Jindi

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Remote Sensing is an application-based reference that provides a single source of mathematical concepts necessary for remote sensing data gathering and assimilation. It presents state-of-the-art techniques for estimating land surface variables from a variety of data types, including optical sensors such as RADAR and LIDAR. Scientists in a number of different fields including geography, geology, atmospheric science, environmental science, planetary science and ecology will have access to critically-important data extraction techniques and their virtually unlimited application

  4. Environmental monitoring: civilian applications of remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, W.; Lapp, M.; Vitko, J. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to explore how best to utilize Sandia`s defense-related sensing expertise to meet the Department of Energy`s (DOE) ever-growing needs for environmental monitoring. In particular, we focused on two pressing DOE environmental needs: (1) reducing the uncertainties in global warming predictions, and (2) characterizing atmospheric effluents from a variety of sources. During the course of the study we formulated a concept for using unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) for making key 0798 climate measurements; designed a highly accurate, compact, cloud radiometer to be flown on those UAVs; and established the feasibility of differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) to measure atmospheric effluents from waste sites, manufacturing processes, and potential treaty violations. These concepts have had major impact since first being formulated in this ,study. The DOE has adopted, and DoD`s Strategic Environmental Research Program has funded, much of the UAV work. And the ultraviolet DIAL techniques have already fed into a major DOE non- proliferation program.

  5. An Enhanced Sensing Application Based on a Flexible Projected Capacitive-Sensing Mattress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effective sensor system for mattresses that can classify the sleeping posture of an individual and prevent pressure ulcers. This system applies projected capacitive sensing to the field of health care. The charge time (CT method was used to sensitively and accurately measure the capacitance of the projected electrodes. The required characteristics of the projected capacitor were identified to develop large-area applications for sensory mattresses. The area of the electrodes, the use of shielding, and the increased length of the transmission line were calibrated to more accurately measure the capacitance of the electrodes in large-size applications. To offer the users comfort in the prone position, a flexible substrate was selected and covered with 16 × 20 electrodes. Compared with the static charge sensitive bed (SCSB, our proposed system-flexible projected capacitive-sensing mattress (FPCSM comes with more electrodes to increase the resolution of posture identification. As for the body pressure system (BPS, the FPCSM has advantages such as lower cost, higher aging-resistance capability, and the ability to sense the capacitance of the covered regions without physical contact. The proposed guard ring design effectively absorbs the noise and interrupts leakage paths. The projected capacitive electrode is suitable for proximity-sensing applications and succeeds at quickly recognizing the sleeping pattern of the user.

  6. Molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jingquan, E-mail: jliu@qdu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); Liu, Zhen; Barrow, Colin J. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Yang, Wenrong, E-mail: wenrong.yang@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The importance of surface chemistry of graphene materials is clearly described. • We discuss molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications. • We describe the latest developments of these materials for sensing technology. - Abstract: Graphene is scientifically and commercially important because of its unique molecular structure which is monoatomic in thickness, rigorously two-dimensional and highly conjugated. Consequently, graphene exhibits exceptional electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. Herein, we critically discuss the surface modification of graphene, the specific advantages that graphene-based materials can provide over other materials in sensor research and their related chemical and electrochemical properties. Furthermore, we describe the latest developments in the use of these materials for sensing technology, including chemical sensors and biosensors and their applications in security, environmental safety and diseases detection and diagnosis.

  7. Visible transmission response of nanoscale complementary metamaterials for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Xia, Xiaoxiang; Sun, Yimin; Yang, Haifang; Chen, Rongyan; Liu, Baoli; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2012-07-11

    Metamaterials (MMs) have shown huge potential in sensing applications by detecting their optical properties, which can be designed to operate at frequencies from visible to mid-IR. Here we constructed complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) based metamaterials in nanoscale with unit length of 100 nm and slit width of 30 nm, and observed obvious responses in the visible waveband from 600 to 900 nm. These visible responses show a good tunability with the structure's geometry, and are well suited for dielectric detection. We demonstrated good refractive index sensing of CSRR based metamaterials in the visible region under both 0° and 90° polarized incidence. Our results extend the study of CSRR based metamaterials to the visible region, which is expected to deepen the understanding of the response mechanism of CSRRs and benefit their sensing applications in the visible region.

  8. Quasi-droplet Microbubbles for High Resolution Sensing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yong; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties and sensing capabilities of fused silica microbubbles were studied numerically using a finite element method. Mode characteristics, such as quality factor (Q) and effective refractive index, were determined for different bubble diameters and shell thicknesses. For sensing applications with whispering gallery modes (WGMs), thinner shells yield improved sensitivity. However, the Q-factor decreases with reduced thickness and this limits the final resolution. Three types of sensing applications with microbubbles, based on their optimized geometrical parameters, were studied. Herein the so-called quasi-droplet regime is defined and discussed. It is shown that best resolution can be achieved when microbubbles act as quasi-droplets, even for water-filled cavities at the telecommunications C-band.

  9. Target Detection: Remote Sensing Techniques for Defence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Chaudhuri

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous development in remote sensing technology in the recent past has opened up new challenges in defence applications. On important area of such applications is in target detection. This paper describes both classical and newly developed approaches to detect the targets by using remotely-sensed digital images. The classical approach includes statistical classification methods and image processing techniques. The new approach deals with a relatively new sensor technology, namely, synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems and fast developing tools, like neural networks and multisource data integration for analysis and interpretation. With SAR images, it is possible to detect targets or features of a target that is otherwise not possible. Neural networks and multisource data integration tools also have a great potential in analysing and interpreting remote sensing data for target detection.

  10. Applications of Conjugated Polymers to DNA Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jadranka; Travas-Sejdic; Christian; Soeller

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Detection of biomolecules relies on a highly specific recognition event between an analyte biomolecule and a probe that is often closely connected or integrated within a sensor transducer element to provide a suitable signal. More widespread application of gene detection on a routine basis demands the development of a new generation of gene sensors that are fast, reliable and cost-effective.Conjugated polymers (CPs) have been shown to be a versatile substrate for DNA sensor construction, where...

  11. A Coaxial Cable Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Luo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a novel coaxial cable Fabry-Perot interferometer for sensing applications. The sensor is fabricated by drilling two holes half-way into a coaxial cable. The device physics was described. The temperature and strain responses of the sensor were tested. The measurement error was calculated and analyzed.

  12. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, William C.; McClelland, David T.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography contains nearly 300 citations of selected publications and technical reports dealing with the application of remote-sensing techniques to the collection and analysis of agricultural information. Most of the items included were published between January 1968 and December 1975, although some earlier works of continuing interest are included.

  13. Wireless, Low Mass, High Sensitivity Sensing Sheet for Structural Sensing and Long Term Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs sensor systems to inspect space structures with minimum human interaction. These systems must be highly integrated and self-sufficient, low mass, simple...

  14. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  15. Remote sensing applications for range management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of satellite information for range management is discussed. The use of infrared photography and color photography for analysis of vegetation cover is described. The methods of interpreting LANDSAT imagery are highlighted and possible applications of such interpretive methods to range management are considered. The concept of using LANDSAT as a sampling frame for renewable natural resource inventories was examined. It is concluded that a blending of LANDSAT vegetation data with soils and digital terrain data, will define a basic sampling unit that is appropriate for range management utilization.

  16. Graphene nanonet for biological sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taekyeong; Park, Jaesung; Jin, Hye Jun; Lee, Hyungwoo; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Chang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang S; Hong, Byung Hee; Kim, Tae Hyun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-09-20

    We report a simple but efficient method to fabricate versatile graphene nanonet (GNN)-devices. In this method, networks of V2O5 nanowires (NWs) were prepared in specific regions of single-layer graphene, and the graphene layer was selectively etched via a reactive ion etching method using the V2O5 NWs as a shadow mask. The process allowed us to prepare large scale patterns of GNN structures which were comprised of continuous networks of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with chemical functional groups on their edges. The GNN can be easily functionalized with biomolecules for fluorescent biochip applications. Furthermore, electrical channels based on GNN exhibited a rather high mobility and low noise compared with other network structures based on nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, which was attributed to the continuous connection of nanoribbons in GNN structures. As a proof of concept, we built DNA sensors based on GNN channels and demonstrated the selective detection of DNA. Since our method allows us to prepare high-performance networks of GNRs over a large surface area, it should open up various practical biosensing applications.

  17. Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nanzer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection,

  18. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  19. Remote sensing of aquatic vegetation: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago S F; Costa, Maycira P F; Melack, John M; Novo, Evlyn M L M

    2008-05-01

    Aquatic vegetation is an important component of wetland and coastal ecosystems, playing a key role in the ecological functions of these environments. Surveys of macrophyte communities are commonly hindered by logistic problems, and remote sensing represents a powerful alternative, allowing comprehensive assessment and monitoring. Also, many vegetation characteristics can be estimated from reflectance measurements, such as species composition, vegetation structure, biomass, and plant physiological parameters. However, proper use of these methods requires an understanding of the physical processes behind the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and vegetation, and remote sensing of aquatic plants have some particular difficulties that have to be properly addressed in order to obtain successful results. The present paper reviews the theoretical background and possible applications of remote sensing techniques to the study of aquatic vegetation.

  20. Progress in Dielectrophoretic Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes for Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have shown their potential for broad applications in field effect transistor, field emission, interconnects, energy storage, biomedicine, and many others, due to their excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. One requirement for many of these applications is to assemble CNTs into designated devices. As a promising nanomanipulation method, dielectrophoresis (DEP has been widely applied to assemble CNTs in the fabrication of CNT-based nanodevices. This paper presents a brief review of the progress in CNT-based nanosensors and the application of DEP in device making. These sensors focus on the sensing of gases, temperature, bioparticles, light, pressure, stress, and strain.

  1. Polarization Remote Sensing Physical Mechanism, Key Methods and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Wu, T.; Chen, W.; Li, Y.; Knjazihhin, J.; Asundi, A.; Yan, L.

    2017-09-01

    China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1) Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2) Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3) Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  2. Application of Nanodiamonds in Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Cheng; Xianglei Kong

    2010-01-01

    The combination of nanodiamond (ND) with biomolecular mass spectrometry (MS) makes rapid, sensitive detection of biopolymers from complex biosamples feasible. Due to its chemical inertness, optical transparency and biocompatibility, the advantage of NDs in MS study is unique. Furthermore, functionalization on the surfaces of NDs expands their application in the fields of proteomics and genomics for specific requirements greatly. This review presents methods of MS analysis based on solid phase...

  3. Tellurium based glasses for bio-sensing and space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Allison Anne

    2009-12-01

    Te2As3Se5 (TAS) fibers are often used in bio-sensing applications requiring direct contact between the fiber and live cells. However, the toxicity and stability of chalcogenide glasses typically used in such bio-sensing applications are not well known. The stability and toxicity of TAS glass fibers were therefore examined. The surface of TAS fibers stored for up to three years in air were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is shown that an oxide layer develops on the surface of TAS fibers stored in air. This oxide layer is highly soluble in water and therefore easily removed. Additional studies using cyclic voltammetry show that the fresh TAS glass surface is insoluble in water for at least a few days, and attenuation measurements show that oxidation does not affect the transmission properties of the glass fibers. It was also determined that old, oxidized fibers pose a toxic threat to cells, while washed and new fibers show no toxic effect. Therefore, it is concluded that a soluble oxide layer forms on the surface of TAS fibers stored in air and that this layer has a toxic effect on cells in an aqueous environment. However, through etching, the oxide layer and the toxicity can be easily removed. In other applications of telluride glasses, such as the search for possible signs of life on exoplanets, a glass transmitting further into the IR is required in order to detect molecules, such as CO2. A new family of Tellurium based glasses from the Ge-Te-I ternary system has therefore been investigated for use in space and bio-sensing applications. A systematic series of compositions has been synthesized in order to explore the ternary phase diagram in an attempt to optimize the glass composition for the fiber drawing and molding process. The resulting glass transition temperature range lies between 139°C and 174°C, with DeltaT values between 64°C and 124

  4. Digital holography and wavefront sensing principles, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnars, Ulf; Watson, John; Jüptner, Werner

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a self-contained treatment of the principles and major applications of digital hologram recording and numerical reconstruction (Digital Holography). This second edition has been significantly revised and enlarged. The authors have extended the chapter on Digital Holographic Microscopy to incorporate new sections on particle sizing, particle image velocimetry and underwater holography. A new chapter now deals comprehensively and extensively with computational wave field sensing. These techniques represent a fascinating alternative to standard interferometry and Digital Holography. They enable wave field sensing without the requirement of a particular reference wave, thus allowing the use of low brilliance light sources and even liquid-crystal displays (LCD) for interferometric applications.              

  5. Application of Nanodiamonds in Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Cheng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of nanodiamond (ND with biomolecular mass spectrometry (MS makes rapid, sensitive detection of biopolymers from complex biosamples feasible. Due to its chemical inertness, optical transparency and biocompatibility, the advantage of NDs in MS study is unique. Furthermore, functionalization on the surfaces of NDs expands their application in the fields of proteomics and genomics for specific requirements greatly. This review presents methods of MS analysis based on solid phase extraction and elution on NDs and different application examples including peptide, protein, DNA, glycan and others. Owing to the quick development of nanotechnology, surface chemistry, new MS methods and the intense interest in proteomics and genomics, a huge increase of their applications in biomolecular MS analysis in the near future can be predicted.

  6. Silicon Nanoridge Array Waveguides for Nonlinear and Sensing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Puckett, Matthew W; Vallini, Felipe; Shahin, Shiva; Monifi, Faraz; Barrina, Peter N; Mehravar, Soroush; Kieu, Khanh; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-01-01

    We fabricate and characterize waveguides composed of closely spaced and longitudinally oriented silicon ridges etched into silicon-on-insulator wafers. Through both guided mode and bulk measurements, we demonstrate that the patterning of silicon waveguides on such a deeply subwavelength scale is desirable for nonlinear and sensing applications alike. The proposed waveguide geometry simultaneously exhibits comparable propagation loss to similar schemes proposed in literature, an enhanced effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility, and high sensitivity to perturbations in its environment.

  7. Terahertz spectroscopy for chemicals and biological sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Bo

    Terahertz (THz) radiation offers innovative sensing and imaging technologies that can provide information unavailable through other conventional electromagnetic techniques. With the advancement of THz technologies, THz sensing will impact a broad range of areas. This thesis focuses on the use of THz spectroscopy for sensing applications including explosives detection, pharmaceutical identification and biological characterization. Using both a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system and a Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometer (FT-FIR), a THz spectral database of explosives and related compounds (ERCs) in the range of 0.1-20 THz was established. The transmission measurements show good agreement with the diffuse reflectance measurements, which are more feasible for practical applications. Density Functional Theory was employed to calculate structures and vibrational modes of several important ERCs and the calculated spectra are in good accordance with the experimental data in the 3-20 THz range. The detection and identification of the explosive RDX using diffusely reflected THz waves were also demonstrated. THz-TDS was applied successfully for pharmaceutical study, such as investigating drug interactions, as well as identifying hydrated and anhydrous drugs, based upon the intermolecular vibrational modes of drug substances. Dehydrations and complex solid state reactions of pharmaceutical materials were studied with THz-TDS and the reaction kinetics was successfully probed. These investigations have opened new avenues for using THz technologies in pharmaceutical science and industry. THz spectra of amino acids, purines and other biomolecules were recorded. Most of these solid-state biocompounds have THz spectral features in the 0.1-3.0 THz range. THz spectroscopy of solid-state proteins and bioactive protein micro suspensions in organic media was studied and their THz absorption features may reflect their collective vibrational modes which could be used to

  8. The Double Manipulations of Mass Media on Psychological World and Sense Instinct of People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高虹

    2012-01-01

      Don DeLillo is one of the post-modernist novelists with most important position in America. His work White Noise is the most classic art of post-modernist literature in America,which hit great commercial successes and deserved universal atten⁃tion in the field of criticism immediately after its publication. This paper is trying to analyze the functions of mass media in White Noise, discuss the double dominations of mass media on psychological world and sense instinct through analyze the effects of mass media on psychology, action and values of modern people, and then pay attention to the role of mass media in post-modernist so⁃ciety. Then all of these may provide some implications to work and life of modern people who depend on mass media overly.

  9. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  10. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  11. Parametric Sparse Representation and Its Applications to Radar Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sparse signal processing has been utilized to the area of radar sensing. Due to the presence of unknown factors such as the motion of the targets of interest and the error of the radar trajectory, a predesigned dictionary cannot provide the optimally spare representation of the actual radar signals. This paper will introduce a method called parametric sparse representation, which is a special case of dictionary learning and can dynamically learn the unknown factors during the radar sensing and achieve the optimally sparse representation of radar signals. This paper will also introduce the applications of parametric sparse representation to Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging (ISAR imaging, Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging (SAR autofocusing and target recognition based on micro-Doppler effect.

  12. Application of airborne remote sensing to the ancient Pompeii site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Fausto; Giordano, Antonio; Borfecchia, Flavio; Martini, Sandro; De Cecco, Luigi

    1996-12-01

    The ancient Pompeii site is in the Sarno Valley, an area of about 400 km2 in the South of Italy near Naples, that was utilized by man since old time (thousands of years ago). Actually the valley is under critical environmental conditions because of the relevant industrial development. ENEA is conducting various studies and research in the valley. ENEA is employing historical research, ground campaigns, cartography and up-to-date airborne multispectral remote sensing technologies to make a geographical information system. Airborne remote sensing technologies are very suitable for situations as that of the Sarno Valley. The paper describes the archaeological application of the research in progress as regarding the ancient site of Pompeii and its fluvial port.

  13. Nanocomposite films on mylar for temperature sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neella, Nagarjuna; Nayak, M. M.; Rajanna, K.

    2017-05-01

    Here in, we are reporting the fabrication of graphene oxide (GO) - Platinum (Pt) nanocomposite films on Mylar substrate for temperature sensor application on the basis of negative temperature coefficient (NTC) resistive element. The nanocomposite was successfully prepared by the solution mixing of GO nanosheets and Pt metal nanoparticles in N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) using ultra sonication process. It was found that, the as-formed nanocomposite shows the Pt nanoparticles were dispersed no homogeneously on the surface of the GO nanosheets. The as-synthesized GO nanosheets and nanocomposite were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for their surface analysis and structural properties respectively. The sensing film formation is carried out onto the flexible Mylar membrane for the fabrication of temperature sensor using drop casting method. The thickness of the sensing film is around 50 μm. As cab be observed that, the resistivity of nanocomposite sensing film decreased with the increase of temperature resulting in NTC behavior. The measured NTC and sensitivity of the sensor were found to be -4.26 x 10-3 Ω / Ω / K and 1.5231 Ω /K respectively. Therefore, the synthesized graphene oxide-Platinum nanocomposite film is an attractive candidate for making temperature sensors. Since the output is linear with respect to temperature variation, the electronic readout circuitry will be simpler. However, the change of electrical resistance of nanocomposite films can also be used in sensing environmental parameters such as chemical, biological, moisture and mechanical for their gas, glucose, humidity and strain/pressure sensor applications respectively.

  14. Development of Polymethylmethacrylate Based Composite for Gas Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devikala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection instruments are increasingly needed for industrial health and safety, environmental monitoring and process control. Conductive polymer composites have various industrial applications. The composite prepared by mixing carbon black with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA has very good gas sensing applications. The gas sensors based on carbon nanotube/polymer, ceramic and metal oxide composites such as epoxy, polyimide, PMMA / Barium titanate and tin oxide have also been developed. In the present work, a new composite has been prepared by using PMMA and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP. The PMMA/Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (PMADP composites PMADP 1 and PMADP 2 were characterized by using Powder XRD. The thick films of the composite on glass plates were prepared by using a spin coating unit at 9000 rpm. The application of the thick film as gas sensor has been studied between 0 and 2000 seconds. The results reveal that the thick film of PMADP composite can function as a very good gas sensor.

  15. Multi-scale characterization of rock mass discontinuities and rock slope geometry using terrestrial remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzenegger, Matthieu

    Terrestrial remote sensing techniques including both digital photogrammetry and laser scanning, represent useful complements to conventional field mapping and rock mass discontinuity characterization. Several studies have highlighted practical advantages at close-range (design projects has grown substantially over recent years. As these techniques are increasingly applied by geologists and geological engineers, it is important that their use be properly evaluated. Furthermore, guidelines to optimize their application are required in a similar manner to standardization of conventional discontinuity mapping techniques. An important thesis objective is to develop recommendations for optimal applications of terrestrial remote sensing techniques for discontinuity characterization, based on a quantitative evaluation of various registration approaches, sampling bias and extended manual mapping of 3D digital models. It is shown that simple registration networks can provide adequate measurement of discontinuity geometry for engineering purposes. The bias associated with remote sensing mapping is described. The advantages of these techniques over conventional mapping are demonstrated, including reliable discontinuity orientation measurements. Persistence can be precisely quantified instead of approximately estimated, resulting in a new class for extremely persistent discontinuities being suggested. Secondary roughness and curvature can also be considered at larger scales. The techniques are suitable for the definition of discontinuity sets, and the estimation of both trace intensity and block size/shape, if sampling bias is correctly accounted for. A new type of sampling window, suitable for the incorporation of remote sensing data into discrete fracture network models is presented. Another significant thesis objective is the extension of terrestrial digital photogrammetric methods to greater distances (> 1 km), using f = 200-400 mm lenses. This has required a careful

  16. Ultrafast laser inscribed fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on femtosecond infrared laser-material processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This tutorial paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments.

  17. Force Sensing Resistor and Its Application to Robotic Control①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHongrui; LUYingquan; 等

    1997-01-01

    The force sensing resistor(FSR) and its construction and characteristic are described.By using the optimal electronic interface,the end result which is a direct proportionality between force and voltage is obtained.The circuits of application for force and position measurements in the robotic control are given.The experiment that FSRs are placed on the fingers of BH-1 dexterous hand as tactile sensors to measure the contacting forces shows FSR's force sensitivity is optimized for use in the control of robot contacting with environment.

  18. Two-Dimensional Change Detection Methods Remote Sensing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ilsever, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Change detection using remotely sensed images has many applications, such as urban monitoring, land-cover change analysis, and disaster management. This work investigates two-dimensional change detection methods. The existing methods in the literature are grouped into four categories: pixel-based, transformation-based, texture analysis-based, and structure-based. In addition to testing existing methods, four new change detection methods are introduced: fuzzy logic-based, shadow detection-based, local feature-based, and bipartite graph matching-based. The latter two methods form the basis for a

  19. Application of optical remote sensing in the Wenchuan earthquake assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Lei, Liping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Liangyun; Zhu, Boqin; Zuo, Zhengli

    2009-06-01

    A mega-earthquake of magnitude 8 of Richter scale occurred in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China on May 12, 2008. The earthquake inflicted heavy loss of human lives and properties. The Wenchuan earthquake induced geological disasters, house collapse, and road blockage. In this paper, we demonstrate an application of optical remote sensing images acquired from airborne and satellite platforms in assessing the earthquake damages. The high-resolution airborne images were acquired by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The pre- and post-earthquake satellite images of QuickBird, IKONOS, Landsat TM, ALOS, and SPOT were collected by the Center for Earth Observation & Digital Earth (CEODE), CAS, and some of the satellite data were provided by the United States, Japan, and the European Space Agency. The pre- and post-earthquake remote sensing images integrated with DEM and GIS data were adopted to monitor and analyze various earthquake disasters, such as road blockage, house collapse, landslides, avalanches, rock debris flows, and barrier lakes. The results showed that airborne optical images provide a convenient tool for quick and timely monitoring and assessing of the distribution and dynamic changes of the disasters over the earthquake-struck regions. In addition, our study showed that the optical remote sensing data integrated with GIS data can be used to assess disaster conditions such as damaged farmlands, soil erosion, etc, which in turn provides useful information for the postdisaster reconstruction.

  20. Optical carrier-based microwave interferometers for sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Lan, Xinwei; Wang, Hanzheng; Yuan, Lei; Xiao, Hai

    2014-06-01

    Optical fiber interferometers (OFIs) have been extensively utilized for precise measurements of various physical/chemical quantities (e.g., temperature, strain, pressure, rotation, refractive index, etc.). However, the random change of polarization states along the optical fibers and the strong dependence on the materials and geometries of the optical waveguides are problematic for acquiring high quality interference signal. Meanwhile, difficulty in multiplexing has always been a bottleneck on the application scopes of OFIs. Here, we present a sensing concept of optical carrier based microwave interferometry (OCMI) by reading optical interferometric sensors in microwave domain. It combines the advantages from both optics and microwave. The low oscillation frequency of the microwave can hardly distinguish the optical differences from both modal and polarization dispersion making it insensitive to the optical waveguides/materials. The phase information of the microwave can be unambiguitly resolved so that it has potential in fully distributed sensing. The OCMI concept has been implemented in different types of interferometers (i.e., Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Fabry-Perot) among different optical waveguides (i.e., singlemode, multimode, and sapphire fibers) with excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and low polarization dependence. A spatially continuous distributed strain sensing has been demonstrated.

  1. New Optical Sensing Materials for Application in Marine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, S.; Klimant, I.

    2012-04-01

    Optical chemosensors are versatile analytical tools which find application in numerous fields of science and technology. They proved to be a promising alternative to electrochemical methods and are applied increasingly often in marine research. However, not all state-of-the- art optical chemosensors are suitable for these demanding applications since they do not fully fulfil the requirements of high luminescence brightness, high chemical- and photochemical stability or their spectral properties are not adequate. Therefore, development of new advanced sensing materials is still of utmost importance. Here we present a set of novel optical sensing materials recently developed in the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry which are optimized for marine applications. Particularly, we present new NIR indicators and sensors for oxygen and pH which feature high brightness and low level of autofluorescence. The oxygen sensors rely on highly photostable metal complexes of benzoporphyrins and azabenzoporphyrins and enable several important applications such as simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and chlorophyll or ultra-fast oxygen monitoring (Eddy correlation). We also developed ulta-sensitive oxygen optodes which enable monitoring in nM range and are primary designed for investigation of oxygen minimum zones. The dynamic range of our new NIR pH indicators based on aza-BODIPY dyes is optimized for the marine environment. A highly sensitive NIR luminescent phosphor (chromium(III) doped yttrium aluminium borate) can be used for non-invasive temperature measurements. Notably, the oxygen, pH sensors and temperature sensors are fully compatible with the commercially available fiber-optic readers (Firesting from PyroScience). An optical CO2 sensor for marine applications employs novel diketopyrrolopyrrol indicators and enables ratiometric imaging using a CCD camera. Oxygen, pH and temperature sensors suitable for lifetime and ratiometric imaging of analytes

  2. [Application of mass spectrometry in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles Melero, Inmaculada; Peláez, Teresa; Rezusta López, Antonio; Garcia-Rodríguez, Julio

    2016-06-01

    MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming an essential tool in most microbiology laboratories. At present, by using a characteristic fungal profile obtained from whole cells or through simple extraction protocols, MALDI-TOF MS allows the identification of pathogenic fungi with a high performance potential. This methodology decreases the laboratory turnaround time, optimizing the detection of mycoses. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the detection of human clinical fungal pathogens in the laboratory and discusses the future applications of this technology, which will further improve routine mycological diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel Capacitive Sensing System Design of a Microelectromechanical Systems Accelerometer for Gravity Measurement Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an in-plane sandwich nano-g microelectromechanical systems (MEMS accelerometer. The proof-mass fabrication is based on silicon etching through technology using inductive coupled plasma (ICP etching. The capacitive detection system, which employs the area-changing sensing method, combines elementary capacitive pickup electrodes with periodic-sensing-array transducers. In order to achieve a large dynamic range with an ultrahigh resolution, the capacitive detection system employs two periodic-sensing-array transducers. Each of them can provide numbers for the signal period in the entire operating range. The suspended proof-mass is encapsulated between two glass caps, which results in a three dimensional structure. The measured resonant frequency and quality factor (Q are 13.2 Hz and 47, respectively. The calibration response of a ±0.7 g input acceleration is presented, and the accelerometer system presents a sensitivity of 122 V/g and a noise floor of 30 ng/√Hz (at 1 Hz, and 1 atm. The bias stability for a period of 10 h is 30 μg. The device has endured a shock up to ±2.6 g, and the full scale output appears to be approximately ±1.4 g presently. This work presents a new opportunity for highly sensitive MEMS fabrication to enable future high-precision measurement applications, such as for gravity measurements.

  4. Application for the On-line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE Facility: the Mass Scan

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Mass Scan Application is to scan the mass of the ion beam that passes through the GPS (General Purpose Separator) on the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE facility. The application has been developed in Java, making use of the Java Development Kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment.

  5. Bacterial quorum sensing: functional features and potential applications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangwani, Neelam; Dash, Hirak Ranjan; Chauhan, Ashvini; Das, Surajit

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) represents an exceptional pattern of cell-to-cell communication in bacteria using self-synthesized signalling molecules known as autoinducers. Various features regulated by QS in bacteria include virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation, genetic competence and bioluminescence, among others. Other than the diverse signalling properties of autoinducers, there are non-signalling properties also associated with these signalling molecules which make them potential antimicrobial agents and metal chelators. Additionally, QS signal antagonism has also been shown to be a promising alternative for blocking pathogenic diseases. Besides, QS has impressive design features useful in tissue engineering and biosensor technology. Although many aspects of QS are well understood, several other features remain largely unknown, especially in biotechnology applications. This review focuses on the functional features and potential applications of QS signalling molecules in biotechnology.

  6. Graphene field-effect transistor application for flow sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuszczek Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microflow sensors offer great potential for applications in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems. However, thermal-based sensors, which are commonly used in modern flow sensing technology, are mainly made of materials with positive temperature coefficients (PTC and suffer from a self-heating effect and slow response time. Therefore, the design of novel devices and careful selection of materials are required to improve the overall flow sensor performance. In this work we propose graphene field-effect transistor (GFET to be used as microflow sensor. Temperature distribution in graphene channel was simulated and the analysis of heat convection was performed to establish the relation between the fluidic flow velocity and the temperature gradient. It was shown that the negative temperature coefficient (NTC of graphene could enable the self-protection of the device and should minimize sensing error from currentinduced heating. It was also argued that the planar design of the GFET sensor makes it suitable for the real application due to supposed mechanical stability of such a construction.

  7. Graphene field-effect transistor application for flow sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczek, Maciej; Świsulski, Dariusz; Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek

    Microflow sensors offer great potential for applications in microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems. However, thermal-based sensors, which are commonly used in modern flow sensing technology, are mainly made of materials with positive temperature coefficients (PTC) and suffer from a self-heating effect and slow response time. Therefore, the design of novel devices and careful selection of materials are required to improve the overall flow sensor performance. In this work we propose graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) to be used as microflow sensor. Temperature distribution in graphene channel was simulated and the analysis of heat convection was performed to establish the relation between the fluidic flow velocity and the temperature gradient. It was shown that the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) of graphene could enable the self-protection of the device and should minimize sensing error from currentinduced heating. It was also argued that the planar design of the GFET sensor makes it suitable for the real application due to supposed mechanical stability of such a construction.

  8. Overview of detector technologies for EO/IR sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Zeller, John W.; Welser, Roger E.; Puri, Yash R.; Lewis, Jay S.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal

    2016-05-01

    Optical sensing technology is critical for optical communication, defense and security applications. Advances in optoelectronics materials in the UV, Visible and Infrared, using nanostructures, and use of novel materials such as CNT and Graphene have opened doors for new approaches to apply device design methodology that are expected to offer enhanced performance and low cost optical sensors in a wide range of applications. This paper is intended to review recent advancements and present different device architectures and analysis. The chapter will briefly introduce the basics of UV and Infrared detection physics and various wave bands of interest and their characteristics [1, 2] We will cover the UV band (200-400 nm) and address some of the recent advances in nanostructures growth and characterization using ZnO/MgZnO based technologies and their applications. Recent advancements in design and development of CNT and Graphene based detection technologies have shown promise for optical sensor applications. We will present theoretical and experimental results on these device and their potential applications in various bands of interest.

  9. Taxonomy and remote sensing of leaf mass per area (LMA) in humid tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Tupayachi, Raul; Emerson, Ruth; Martinez, Paola; Sinca, Felipe; Powell, George V N; Wright, S Joseph; Lugo, Ariel E

    2011-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a trait of central importance to plant physiology and ecosystem function, but LMA patterns in the upper canopies of humid tropical forests have proved elusive due to tall species and high diversity. We collected top-of-canopy leaf samples from 2873 individuals in 57 sites spread across the Neotropics, Australasia, and Caribbean and Pacific Islands to quantify environmental and taxonomic drivers of LMA variation, and to advance remote-sensing measures of LMA. We uncovered strong taxonomic organization of LMA, with species accounting for 70% of the global variance and up to 62% of the variation within a forest stand. Climate, growth habit, and site conditions are secondary contributors (1-23%) to the observed LMA patterns. Intraspecific variation in LMA averages 16%, which is a fraction of the variation observed between species. We then used spectroscopic remote sensing (400-2500 nm) to estimate LMA with an absolute uncertainty of 14-15 g/m2 (r2 = 0.85), or approximately 10% of the global mean. With radiative transfer modeling, we demonstrated the scalability of spectroscopic remote sensing of LMA to the canopy level. Our study indicates that remotely sensed patterns of LMA will be driven by taxonomic variation against a backdrop of environmental controls expressed at site and regional levels.

  10. Gold/diamond nanohybrids for quantum sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Pei-Chang; Chen, Oliver Y.; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Ming-Shien [Academia Sinica, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Taipei (China); Guo, Jiun You; Wu, Chih-Che [National Chi Nan University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Puli, Nantou (China); Chang, Huan-Cheng [Academia Sinica, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2015-12-15

    Recent advances in quantum technology have demonstrated the potential use of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV{sup -}) centers in diamond for temperature and magnetic sensing at sub-cellular levels. Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) containing high-density ensembles of NV{sup -} centers are appealing for such applications because they are inherently biocompatible and non-toxic. Here, we show that FNDs conjugated with gold nanorods (GNRs) are useful as a combined nanoheater and nanothermometer for highly localized hyperthermia treatment using near-infrared (NIR) lasers as the heating source. A temperature rise of ∝10 K can be readily achieved at a NIR laser power of 0.4 mW in cells. The technique is compatible with the presence of static magnetic fields and allows for simultaneous temperature and magnetic sensing with nanometric spatial resolution. To elucidate the nanoscale heating process, numerical simulations are conducted with finite element analysis, providing an important guideline for the use of this new tool for active and high-precision control of temperature under diverse environmental conditions. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas J. Scherer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different polymer optical fibres for applications in force sensing systems in textile fabrics are reported. The proposed method is based on the deflection of the light in fibre waveguides. Applying a force on the fibre changes the geometry and affects the wave guiding properties and hence induces light loss in the optical fibre. Fibres out of three different elastic and transparent copolymer materials were successfully produced and tested. Moreover, the influence of the diameter on the sensing properties was studied. The detectable force ranges from 0.05 N to 40 N (applied on 3 cm of fibre length, which can be regulated with the material and the diameter of the fibre. The detected signal loss varied from 0.6% to 78.3%. The fibres have attenuation parameters between 0.16–0.25 dB/cm at 652 nm. We show that the cross-sensitivies to temperature, strain and bends are low. Moreover, the high yield strength (0.0039–0.0054 GPa and flexibility make these fibres very attractive candidates for integration into textiles to form wearable sensors, medical textiles or even computing systems.

  12. Compressed-sensing application - Pre-stack kirchhoff migration

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Least-squares migration is a linearized form of waveform inversion that aims to enhance the spatial resolution of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and reduce the migration artifacts due to limited recording aperture, coarse sampling of sources and receivers, and low subsurface illumination. Least-squares migration, however, due to the nature of its minimization process, tends to produce smoothed and dispersed versions of the reflectivity of the subsurface. Assuming that the subsurface reflectivity distribution is sparse, we propose the addition of a non-quadratic L1-norm penalty term on the model space in the objective function. This aims to preserve the sparse nature of the subsurface reflectivity series and enhance resolution. We further use a compressed-sensing algorithm to solve the linear system, which utilizes the sparsity assumption to produce highly resolved migrated images. Thus, the Kirchhoff migration implementation is formulated as a Basis Pursuit denoise (BPDN) problem to obtain the sparse reflectivity model. Applications on synthetic data show that reflectivity models obtained using this compressed-sensing algorithm are highly accurate with optimal resolution.

  13. Acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing: from evolution to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Martin; Sexton, D Joseph; Diggle, Stephen P; Greenberg, E Peter

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread process in bacteria that employs autoinducing chemical signals to coordinate diverse, often cooperative activities such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, and exoenzyme secretion. Signaling via acyl-homoserine lactones is the paradigm for QS in Proteobacteria and is particularly well understood in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite thirty years of mechanistic research, empirical studies have only recently addressed the benefits of QS and provided support for the traditional assumptions regarding its social nature and its role in optimizing cell-density-dependent group behaviors. QS-controlled public-goods production has served to investigate principles that explain the evolution and stability of cooperation, including kin selection, pleiotropic constraints, and metabolic prudence. With respect to medical application, appreciating social dynamics is pertinent to understanding the efficacy of QS-inhibiting drugs and the evolution of resistance. Future work will provide additional insight into the foundational assumptions of QS and relate laboratory discoveries to natural ecosystems.

  14. High-Temperature Strain Sensing for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Anthony; Richards, Lance W.; Hudson, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are utilizing advanced materials that operate at temperatures that exceed abilities to measure structural performance. Robust strain sensors that operate accurately and reliably beyond 1800 F are needed but do not exist. These shortcomings hinder the ability to validate analysis and modeling techniques and hinders the ability to optimize structural designs. This presentation examines high-temperature strain sensing for aerospace applications and, more specifically, seeks to provide strain data for validating finite element models and thermal-structural analyses. Efforts have been made to develop sensor attachment techniques for relevant structural materials at the small test specimen level and to perform laboratory tests to characterize sensor and generate corrections to apply to indicated strains. Areas highlighted in this presentation include sensors, sensor attachment techniques, laboratory evaluation/characterization of strain measurement, and sensor use in large-scale structures.

  15. Hierarchical Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Bo; Ding, Ailing; Liu, Yuqing; Diao, Jianglin; Razal, Joselito; Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, Roderick; Li, Changming; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the fabrication of hierarchical 3D Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels (NECAGs) for sensing applications via a fast freeze drying method. Graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Nafion were mixed and extruded into liquid nitrogen followed by the removal of ice crystals by freeze drying. The addition of Nafion enhanced the mechanical strength of NECAGs and effective control of the cellular morphology and pore size was achieved. The resultant NECAGs demonstrated high strength, low density, and high specific surface area and can achieve a modulus of 20 kPa, an electrical conductivity of 140 S m-1, and a specific capacity of 136.8 F g-1 after reduction. Therefore, NECAG monoliths performed well as a gas sensor and as a biosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity. The remarkable sensitivity of 8.52 × 103 μA mM-1 cm-2 was obtained in dopamine (DA) detection, which is two orders of magnitude better than the literature reported values using graphene aerogel electrodes made from a porous Ni template. These outstanding properties make the NECAG a promising electrode candidate for a wide range of applications. Further in-depth investigations are being undertaken to probe the structure-property relationship of NECAG monoliths prepared under various conditions.This work describes the fabrication of hierarchical 3D Nafion enhanced carbon aerogels (NECAGs) for sensing applications via a fast freeze drying method. Graphene oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Nafion were mixed and extruded into liquid nitrogen followed by the removal of ice crystals by freeze drying. The addition of Nafion enhanced the mechanical strength of NECAGs and effective control of the cellular morphology and pore size was achieved. The resultant NECAGs demonstrated high strength, low density, and high specific surface area and can achieve a modulus of 20 kPa, an electrical conductivity of 140 S m-1, and a specific capacity of 136.8 F g-1 after reduction. Therefore, NECAG

  16. Towards operational environmental applications using terrestrial remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp JG; Velde RJ van de; LBG

    1996-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van het Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing (BCRS) project 'Verankering van toepassingen van terrestrische remote sensing bij RIVM'. Het had ten eerste tot doel te voldoen aan de voorwaarden, zoals gesteld in de inventarisatie van remote sensing als

  17. Engineering cell-compatible paper chips for cell culturing, drug screening, and mass spectrometric sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushui; He, Ziyi; Liu, Wu; Lin, Xuexia; Wu, Jing; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2015-10-28

    Paper-supported cell culture is an unprecedented development for advanced bioassays. This study reports a strategy for in vitro engineering of cell-compatible paper chips that allow for adherent cell culture, quantitative assessment of drug efficiency, and label-free sensing of intracellular molecules via paper spray mass spectrometry. The polycarbonate paper is employed as an excellent alternative bioscaffold for cell distribution, adhesion, and growth, as well as allowing for fluorescence imaging without light scattering. The cell-cultured paper chips are thus amenable to fabricate 3D tissue construction and cocultures by flexible deformation, stacks and assembly by layers of cells. As a result, the successful development of cell-compatible paper chips subsequently offers a uniquely flexible approach for in situ sensing of live cell components by paper spray mass spectrometry, allowing profiling the cellular lipids and quantitative measurement of drug metabolism with minimum sample pretreatment. Consequently, the developed paper chips for adherent cell culture are inexpensive for one-time use, compatible with high throughputs, and amenable to label-free and rapid analysis.

  18. Engineering photo-plasmonic devices for spectroscopy and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Alyssa J.

    The control of light on the nano-scale has driven the development of novel optical devices such as biosensors, antennas and guiding elements. These applications benefit from the distinctive resonant properties of noble metal thin films and nanoparticles. Many optimization parameters exist in order to engineer nanoparticle properties for spectroscopy and sensing applications: for example, the choice of metal, the particle morphology, and the array geometry. By utilizing various designs from simple monomer gratings to more complex engineered arrays, we model and characterize plasmonic arrays for sensing applications. In this thesis, I have focused on the novel paradigm of photonic-plasmonic coupling to design, fabricate, and characterize optimized nanosensors. In particular, nanoplasmonic necklaces, which consist of circular loops of closely spaced gold nanoparticles, are designed using 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, fabricated with electron-beam lithography, and characterized using dark-field scattering and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of p-mercaptoaniline (pMA) monolayers. I show that such necklaces are able to support hybridized dipolar scattering resonances and polarization-controlled electromagnetic hot-spots. In addition, necklaces exhibit strong intensity enhancement when the necklace diameter leads to coupling between the broadband plasmonic resonance and the circular resonator structure of the necklace. Hence, these necklaces lead to stronger field intensity enhancement than nanoparticle monomers and dimers, which are also carefully studied. Furthermore, by embedding a dimer into one or more concentric necklace resonators, I am able to efficiently couple radiation into the dimer hot-spot by utilizing first- and second-order far-field coupling. This nanolensing leads to an order of 6-18 times improvement in Raman enhancement over isolated dimers, which is a promising platform for compact on-chip sensors. Additionally, I

  19. Remote sensing applications in evaluation of cadmium pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma-Bognar, Veronika; Martin, Gizella; Berke, Jozsef

    2013-04-01

    According to the 21st century developments in information technology the remote sensing applications open new perspectives to the data collection of our environment. Using the images in different spectral bands we get more reliable and accurate information about the condition, process and phenomena of the earth surface compared to the traditional aircraft image technologies (RGB images). The effects of particulate pollution originated from road traffic were analysed by the research team of Department of Meteorology and Water Management (University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty) with the application of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared remote sensing aircraft images. In the scope of our research was to detect and monitor the effects of heavy metal contamination in plant-atmosphere system under field experiments. The testing area was situated at Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely (Hungary), where maize crops were polluted once a week (0,5 M concentration) by cadmium. In our study we simulated the effects of cadmium pollution because this element is one of the most common toxic heavy metals in our environment. During two growing seasons (2011, 2012) time-series analyses were carried out based on the remote sensing data and parallel collected variables of field measurement. In each phenological phases of plant we took aerial images, in order to follow the changes of the structure and intensity values of plots images. The spatial resolution of these images were under 10x10 cm, which allowed to use a plot-level evaluation. The structural and intensity based measurement evaluation methods were applied to examine cadmium polluted and control maize canopy after data pre-processing. Research activities also focused on the examination of the influence of the irrigation and the comparison of aerial and terrain parameters. As conclusion, it could be determined the quantification of cadmium pollution effects is possible on maize plants by using remote

  20. Diamond micro-milling of lithium niobate for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Dehong; Jie Choong, Zi; Shi, Yilun; Hedley, John; Zhao, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is a crystalline material which is widely applied in surface acoustic wave, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and optical devices, owing to its superior physical, optical, and electronic properties. Due to its low toughness and chemical inactivity, LiNbO3 is considered to be a hard-to-machine material and has been traditionally left as as an inert substrate upon which other micro structures are deposited. However, in order to make use of its superior material properties and increase efficiency, the fabrication of microstructures directly on LiNbO3 is in high demand. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the micro machinability of LiNbO3 via micro milling with the aim of obtaining optimal process parameters. Machining of micro slots was performed on Z-cut LiNbO3 wafers using single crystal diamond tools. Surface and edge quality, cutting forces, and the crystallographic effect were examined and characterized. Ductile mode machining of LiNbO3 was found to be feasible at a low feed rate and small depth of cut. A strong crystallographic effect on the machined surface quality was also observed. Finally, some LiNbO3 micro components applicable to sensing applications were fabricated.

  1. Characterization of POF for liquid level and concentration sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumanta, B. G.; Candidato, R. T., Jr.; Reserva, R. L.

    2015-06-01

    Measuring liquid level and solution concentration play an important role in commercial and technological applications. For years, polymer optical fibers (POFs) have been very attractive for industrial applications because of their unique characteristics. In this work, we created simple, low cost and efficient set-up for sensing liquid level and solution concentration using POFs. We have calculated the acceptance angle of the POF to be 30°from numerical aperture (NA) measurements (NA ≈ 0.500).Images of a single POF showed the presence of impurities within the fiber which can contribute to power loss of the transmitted light. Light leakage was also observed when the fiber was bent to a tight radius, i.e. beyond its minimum bend radius of 15 mm. The experimental results show that as liquid level increases, the output power decreases. Furthermore, when the liquid concentration was increased, its response showed a greater loss of optical power due to the light rays in the submerged region of the POF tend to be refracted out of the fiber instead of being totally internally reflected and transmitted when index of refraction of the surrounding liquid medium is increased.

  2. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  3. Integrated Photonic Comb Generation: Applications in Coherent Communication and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John S.

    Integrated photonics combines many optical components including lasers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors in close proximity via homogeneous (monolithic) or heterogeneous (using multiple materials) integration. This improves stability for interferometers and lasers, reduces the occurrence of unwanted reflections, and it avoids coupling losses between different components as they are on the same chip. Thus, less power is needed to compensate for these added losses, and less heat needs to be removed due to these power savings. In addition, integration allows the many components that comprise a system to be fabricated together, thereby reducing the cost per system and allowing rapid scaling in production throughput. Integrated optical combs have many applications including: metrology, THz frequency generation, arbitrary waveform generation, optical clocks, photonic analog-to-digital converters, sensing (imaging), spectroscopy, and data communication. A comb is a set of optical sources evenly spaced in frequency. Several methods of comb generation including mode-locking and optical parametric oscillation produce phase-matched optical outputs with a fixed phase relationship between the frequency lines. When the absolute frequency of a single comb line is stabilized along with the frequency spacing between comb lines, absolute phase and frequency precision can be achieved over the entire comb bandwidth. This functionality provides tremendous benefits to many applications such as coherent communication and optical sensing. The goals for this work were achieving a broad comb bandwidth and noise reduction, i.e., frequency and phase stability. Integrated mode-locked lasers on the InGaAsP/InP material platform were chosen, as they could be monolithically integrated with the wide range of highly functional and versatile photonic integrated circuits (PICs) previously demonstrated on this platform at UCSB. Gain flattening filters were implemented to increase the comb

  4. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    WA 98105 phone: (206) 685-2609 fax: (206) 543-6785 email: jessup@apl.washington.edu Robert A. Holman Merrick Haller, Alexander Kuropov, Tuba...Ozkan-Haller Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331 phone: (541) 737-2914 fax: (541) 737-2064 email: holman @coas.oregonstate.edu Steve...Infrared Remote Sensing and Lidar– UW: Chickadel and Jessup B. Electro-Optical Remote Sensing – OSU: Holman C. Microwave Remote Sensing – UW

  5. Recent developments of diffusion processes and their applications fluid, heat and mass

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Murch, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    This topical volume on ""Recent Developments of Diffusion Processes and their Applications: Fluid, Heat and Mass"" addresses diffusion in a wider sense with a special focus on technical applications. Diffusion phenomena play an important role in the development of modern engineering materials and related fields. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of

  6. Optical properties and sensing applications of stellated and bimetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison F.

    This dissertation focuses on developing guidelines to aid in the design of new bimetallic platforms for sensing applications. Stellated metal nanostructures are a class of plasmonic colloids in which large electric field enhancements can occur at sharp features, making them excellent candidates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SE-IRS) platforms. Shape-dependent rules for convex polyhedra such as cubes or octahedra exist, which describe far-field scattering and near-field enhancements. However, such rules are lacking for their concave (stellated) counterparts. This dissertation presents the optical response of stellated Au nanocrystals with Oh, D4h, D3h, C2v, and T d symmetry, which were modeled to systematically investigate the role of symmetry, branching, and particle orientation with respect to excitation source using finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations. Expanding on stellated nanostructures, bimetallic compositions introduce an interplay between overall architecture and composition to provide tunable optical properties and the potential of new functionality. However, decoupling the complex compositional and structural contributions to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) remains a challenge, especially when the monometallic counterparts are not synthetically accessible for comparison and the theoretical tools for capturing gradient compositions are lacking. This dissertation explores a stellated Au-Pd nanocrystal model system with Oh symmetry to decouple structural and complex compositional effects on LSPR. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  7. Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of Quorum Sensing Activity in Multidrug Resistant Clinical Isolate Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Proteobacteria communicate via production followed by response of quorum sensing molecules, namely, N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs. These molecules consist of a lactone moiety with N-acyl side chain with various chain lengths and degrees of saturation at C-3 position. AHL-dependent QS is often associated with regulation of diverse bacterial phenotypes including the expression of virulence factors. With the use of biosensor and high resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, the AHL production of clinical isolate A. baumannii 4KT was studied. Production of short chain AHL, namely, N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL and N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL, was detected.

  8. The mass gap and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gogokhia, Vakhtang; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the most up-to-date theory of the strong interaction. Its predictions have been verified experimentally, and it is a cornerstone of the Standard Model of particle physics. However, standard perturbative procedures fail if applied to low-energy QCD. Even the discovery of the Higgs Boson will not solve the problem of masses originating from the non-perturbative behavior of QCD.This book presents a new method, the introduction of the 'mass gap', first suggested by Arthur Jaffe and Edward Witten at the turn of the millennium. It attempts to show that, to explain the

  9. Hydrological Application of Remote Sensing: Surface States -- Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Foster, James L.; Chang, Alfred T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing research of snow cover has been accomplished for nearly 40 years. The use of visible, near-infrared, active and passive-microwave remote sensing for the analysis of snow cover is reviewed with an emphasis on the work on the last decade.

  10. Application of remote sensing to agricultural field trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enable quantitative information about a field trial to be obtained instantaneously and non-destructively. The aim of this study was to identify a method that can reduce inaccuracies in field trial analysis, and to identify how remote sensing can support and/or replace conve

  11. An Update of NASA Public Health Applications Projects using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Sue M.; Haynes, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth s environment from space which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The session will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications. This session will an overview of many of the NASA public health applications using Remote Sensing Data and will also discuss opportunities to become a research collaborator with NASA.

  12. Development of fiber-optic current sensing technique and its applications in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the development and applications of a fiber-optic electric current sensing technique with the stable properties and compact, simple, and flexible structure of the sensing device. The special characteristics of the sensors were achieved by use of the special low birefringence fiber as the Faraday-effect sensing element and were also achieved with creation of sensing schemes which matched with the features of the fiber. Making use of the excellent features of the sensing technique, various current monitoring devices and systems were developed and applied practically for the control and maintenance in the electric power facility. In this paper, the design and performance of the sensing devices are introduced first. After that, examples of the application systems practically applied are also introduced, including fault section/point location systems for power transmission cable lines.

  13. Wide dynamic range microwave planar coupled ring resonator for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshmand, Mojgan

    2016-06-01

    A highly sensitive, microwave-coupled ring resonator with a wide dynamic range is studied for use in sensing applications. The resonator's structure has two resonant rings and, consequently, two resonant frequencies, operating at 2.3 and 2.45 GHz. Inductive and capacitive coupling mechanisms are explored and compared to study their sensing performance. Primary finite element analysis and measurement results are used to compare the capacitive and inductive coupled ring resonators, demonstrating sensitivity improvements of up to 75% and dynamic range enhancement up to 100% in the capacitive coupled structure. In this work, we are proposing capacitive coupled planar ring resonators as a wide dynamic range sensing platform for liquid sensing applications. This sensing device is well suited for low-cost, real-time low-power, and CMOS compatible sensing technologies.

  14. Mass spectrometry imaging: applications to food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Shu; Uematsu, Kohei; Kaneko, Daisaku; Katano, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of biological samples by means of what is called MS imaging (MSI) is now being used to analyze analyte distribution because it facilitates determination of the existence (what is it?) and localization (where is it?) of biomolecules. Reconstruction of mass image by target signal is given after two-dimensional MS measurements on a sample section. From only one section, we can understand the existence and localization of many molecules without the need of an antibody or fluorescent reagent. In this review, we introduce the analysis of localization of functional constituents and nutrients in herbal medicine products via MSI. The ginsenosides were mainly distributed in the periderm and the tip region of the root of Panax ginseng. The capsaicin was found to be more dominantly localized in the placenta than the pericarp and seed in Capsicum fruits. We expect MSI will be a useful technique for optical quality assurance.

  15. Six-Port Based Interferometry for Precise Radar and Sensing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Koelpin; Fabian Lurz; Sarah Linz; Sebastian Mann; Christoph Will; Stefan Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement princi...

  16. An Application for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE facility: the Mass Control

    CERN Document Server

    Ovalle Gonzalez, E

    2003-01-01

    The Mass Control Application will calculate the magnetic field for both the HRS and GPS separators. The calculation will be carry out according to parameters either entered by the user or taken from other sources.

  17. Boronic acids for sensing and other applications - a mini-review of papers published in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Karel; Skládal, Petr; James, Tony D

    2014-01-01

    Boronic acids are increasingly utilised in diverse areas of research. Including the interactions of boronic acids with diols and strong Lewis bases as fluoride or cyanide anions, which leads to their utility in various sensing applications. The sensing applications can be homogeneous assays or heterogeneous detection. Detection can be at the interface of the sensing material or within the bulk sample. Furthermore, the key interaction of boronic acids with diols allows utilisation in various areas ranging from biological labelling, protein manipulation and modification, separation and the development of therapeutics. All the above uses and applications are covered by this mini-review of papers published during 2013.

  18. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Urban Areas: An Overview of Techniques and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Z.M. Shafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, hyperspectral remote sensing from airborne and satellite systems has been used as a data source for numerous applications. Hyperspectral imaging is quickly moving into the mainstream of remote sensing and is being applied to remote sensing research studies. Hyperspectral remote sensing has great potential for analysing complex urban scenes. However, operational applications within urban environments are still limited, despite several studies that have explored the capabilities of hyperspectral data to map urban areas. In this paper, we review the methods for urban classification using hyperspectral remote sensing data and their applications. The general trends indicate that combined spatial-spectral and sensor fusion approaches are the most optimal for hyperspectral urban analysis. It is also clear that urban hyperspectral mapping is currently limited to airborne data, despite the availability of spaceborne hyperspectral systems. Possible future research directions are also discussed.

  19. Applications of accelerator mass spectrometry to nuclear physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Z Y

    2002-01-01

    As an ultra high sensitive analyzing method, accelerator mass spectrometry is playing an important role in the studies of nuclear physics and astrophysics. The accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications in searching for violation of Pauli exclusion principle and study on supernovae are discussed as examples

  20. Progress in the application of ocean color remote sensing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Delu; BAI Yan

    2008-01-01

    After many years'endeavor of research and application practice,the ocean color remote sensing in China has been growing into a new technique with valuable practicality from its initiate stage of trial research.With the aim of operational service,several kinds of ocean color remote sensing application systems have been developed and realized the long-term marine environmental monitoring utilizing the real-time or near real-time satellite and airborne remote sensing data.New progresses in the technology and application of ocean color remote sensing in China are described,including the research of key techniques and the development of various application systems.Meanwhile,according to the application status and demand,the prospective development of Chinese ocean color remote sensing is brought forward.With Chinese second ocean color satellite (HY-1B) orbiting on 11 April 2007 and the development of airborne ocean color remote sensing system for Chinese surveillance planes,great strides will take place in Chinese ocean color remote sensing application with the unique function in marine monitoring,resources management and national security,etc.

  1. Remote sensing in forestry: Application to the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.

  2. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  3. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  4. Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Remote sensing data has been used for mapping coastal vegetation along the Goa Coast, India. The study envisages the use of digital image processing techniques for delineating geomorphic features and associated vegetation, including mangrove, along...

  5. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Numerical simulations were performed 4 using a 3D ocean circulation model (ROMS) two-way coupled to a phase-averaged wave propagation model (SWAN) in...sensing observations to constrain a data assimilation model of wave and circulation dynamics in an area characterized by a river mouth or tidal inlet...success of using remote sensing data to drive DA models, and produced a dynamically consistent representation of the wave, circulation , and

  6. A chain dictionary method for Word Sense Disambiguation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tatar, Doina; Mihis, Andreea; Lupea, Mihaiela; Lupsa, Dana; Frentiu, Militon

    2008-01-01

    A large class of unsupervised algorithms for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is that of dictionary-based methods. Various algorithms have as the root Lesk's algorithm, which exploits the sense definitions in the dictionary directly. Our approach uses the lexical base WordNet for a new algorithm originated in Lesk's, namely "chain algorithm for disambiguation of all words", CHAD. We show how translation from a language into another one and also text entailment verification could be accomplished by this disambiguation.

  7. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita; Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing is an emerging technology for data compression and simultaneous data acquisition. This is an enabling technique for significant reduction in data bandwidth, and transmission power and hence, can greatly benefit spaceflight instruments. We apply this process to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. We experiment with various impact parameters that describe microlensing curves to determine the effectiveness and uncertainty caused by Compressive Sensing. Finally, we describe implications for spaceflight missions.

  8. Boronic acids for sensing and other applications - a mini-review of papers published in 2013

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lacina, Karel; Skládal, Petr; James, Tony D

    2014-01-01

    Boronic acids are increasingly utilised in diverse areas of research. Including the interactions of boronic acids with diols and strong Lewis bases as fluoride or cyanide anions, which leads to their utility in various sensing applications...

  9. New Sensing Application to Diagnose Power Semiconductor Aging in Actuator Power Drive Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a new sensing application to diagnose power semiconductor aging in power drive systems. It has been shown previously that device parasitic...

  10. Performance analysis of wireless sensor networks in geophysical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uligere Narasimhamurthy, Adithya

    Performance is an important criteria to consider before switching from a wired network to a wireless sensing network. Performance is especially important in geophysical sensing where the quality of the sensing system is measured by the precision of the acquired signal. Can a wireless sensing network maintain the same reliability and quality metrics that a wired system provides? Our work focuses on evaluating the wireless GeoMote sensor motes that were developed by previous computer science graduate students at Mines. Specifically, we conducted a set of experiments, namely WalkAway and Linear Array experiments, to characterize the performance of the wireless motes. The motes were also equipped with the Sticking Heartbeat Aperture Resynchronization Protocol (SHARP), a time synchronization protocol developed by a previous computer science graduate student at Mines. This protocol should automatically synchronize the mote's internal clocks and reduce time synchronization errors. We also collected passive data to evaluate the response of GeoMotes to various frequency components associated with the seismic waves. With the data collected from these experiments, we evaluated the performance of the SHARP protocol and compared the performance of our GeoMote wireless system against the industry standard wired seismograph system (Geometric-Geode). Using arrival time analysis and seismic velocity calculations, we set out to answer the following question. Can our wireless sensing system (GeoMotes) perform similarly to a traditional wired system in a realistic scenario?

  11. Fibre optic distributed scattering sensing system: perspectives and challenges for high performance applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Niklès

    2007-01-01

    As fiber optic distributed scattering sensing systems are providing innovative solutions for the monitoring of large structures, the comparison of different techniques and solutions is difficult because of the lack of standardized specifications and the difficulty associated to the characterization of such systems. The article presents a tentative definition of performance specifications and qualification procedures applicable to fiber optic distributed sensing systems aiming at providing clear guidelines for their design, specifications, qualification, application and selection.

  12. Indian remote sensing satellites: Planned missions and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Jayaraman, V.; Rao, Mukund

    1996-02-01

    To cater the enhanced user demands, Indian Space Research Organisation is stepping a giant leap forward towards development of the state-of-the-art second generation Indian Remote Sensing Satellites, IRS-1C/1D following the successful design, launch and in-orbit performance of the first generation satellites, IRS-1A/1B. Characterised by improved spatial resolution, extended spectral bands, stereo-viewing and more frequent revisit capability, IRS-1C/1D are expected for launch during the timeframe of 1995-96/8. The IRS-1C and ID, which are identical, will have three major payloads. The Linear Imaging Spectral Scanner (LISS-III) in four spectral bands covering from 0.52 to 1.70 microns will have a spatial resolution of 23m along with a swath of 142 km in the visible and NIR spectral bands and a spatial resolution of 70m along with a swath of 148 km in the SWIR spectral band. The Panchromatic Camera (PAN) with a spectral band of 0.50 to 0.75 microns will have a spatial resolution of information on water stress, pest infestation and vegetation indices to arrive at better agricultural management practices, besides providing enhanced capabilities for arriving solutions for micro-level resource development and generation of digital terrain models. Having marked by the successful launch of IRS-P2 in 1994 through the indigenous development flight of PSLV, India is now poised to launch IRS-P3 satellite with unique payloads in the timeframe of 1995-1996 The IRS-P3 will carry three operational payloads viz., Wide Field Sensor (WiFS), Modular Opto-electronic Scanner (MOS) imaging spectrometer and an X-ray Astronomy payload. These payload mix of sensors will provide further capabilities for application studies related to vegetation dynamics, oceanography and X-ray astronomy. With the launch of these payloads, India will provide more effective and assured data services to the user community beyond the 90's.

  13. Application of Sensing Techniques to Cellular Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H.-C. Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell traction forces (CTFs are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many fundamental biological processes, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Therefore, a close examination of CTFs can enable better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such processes. To this end, various force-sensing techniques for CTF measurement have been developed over the years. This article will provide a concise review of these sensing techniques and comment on the needs for improved force-sensing technologies for cell mechanics and biology research.

  14. The Application of Compressive Sensing on Spectra De-noising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Xiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the analyzing of limitations on wavelet threshold filter de-noising, this paper applies wavelet filter based on compressed sensing to reduce the signal noise of spectral signals, and compares the two methods through experiments. The results of experiments shown that the wavelet filter based on compressed sensing can effectively reduce the signal noise of spectral signal. The de-noising effect of the method is better than that of wavelet filter. The method provides a new approach for reducing the signal noise of spectral signals.

  15. Advancement in Sensing Technology New Developments and Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Fuchs, Anton

    2013-01-01

    The book presents the recent advancements in the area of sensors and sensing technology, specifically in environmental monitoring, structural health monitoring, dielectric, magnetic, electrochemical, ultrasonic, microfluidic, flow, surface acoustic wave, gas, cloud computing and bio-medical.   This book will be useful to a variety of readers, namely, Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, working on sensors and sensing technology. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.

  16. Fiber inline Michelson interferometer fabricated by one-step femtosecond laser micromachining for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Wu, Hongbin; Wang, Cong; Yu, Yingyu; Wang, Sumei; Xiao, Hai

    2013-12-01

    A fiber inline Michelson interferometer fiber optic sensor was presented for sensing applications, including high temperature performance and refractive index change. The sensor was fabricated using one-step femtosecond (fs) laser micromachining technique. A step structure at the tip of a single mode optical fiber was formed during the micromachining process. The device had a loss of 16 dB and an interference visibility exceeding 18 dB. The capability of this device for temperature sensing up to 1000 °C and refractive index sensing application in various concentrations of ethanol solution were all demonstrated.

  17. VTT's Fabry-Perot interferometer technologies for hyperspectral imaging and mobile sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Anna; Guo, Bin; Saari, Heikki; Näsilä, Antti; Mannila, Rami; Akujärvi, Altti; Ojanen, Harri

    2017-02-01

    VTT's Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) technology enables creation of small and cost-efficient microspectrometers and hyperspectral imagers - these robust and light-weight sensors are currently finding their way into a variety of novel applications, including emerging medical products, automotive sensors, space instruments and mobile sensing devices. This presentation gives an overview of our core FPI technologies with current advances in generation of novel sensing applications including recent mobile technology demonstrators of a hyperspectral iPhone and a mobile phone CO2 sensor, which aim to advance mobile spectroscopic sensing.

  18. AmericaView - A State-Based Remote Sensing Initiative Integrating Remote Sensing Data Into Geospatial Education and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, R. L.; Lawrence, R.

    2007-12-01

    AmericaView (AV) is a national program created to advance the availability, timely distribution, and widespread use of land remote sensing data, especially among users within the university and government communities. Since the 1970s the federal government and private sector have spent billions of dollars on satellite-based earth observing systems, but distribution of data and development of real-world applications have been tough issues for the government and the academic research communities. It has often been hard for researchers to use or even access the data, particularly at smaller schools or research facilities, hindering applied research and current and future workforce development. Many state and local agencies working with applied research programs have not been able to effectively integrate remote sensing data into their geospatial management or decision-support programs. AV addresses these issues through a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey and the AmericaView Consortium, which is a 501c3 non-profit comprised of university-led, state-based consortia. AmericaView is the federal government's partner in achieving the program vision and goals, which focus both on making data available in usable, cost-effective formats and on helping the university, secondary-education, and public sectors in each state identify, develop, and implement the kinds of remote sensing applications each state needs most. AV is developing applied remote sensing research programs in each of its thirty StateViews. Partner academic institutions are creating internships programs involving students and faculty with applications development, in cooperation with local, state, and federal government agencies. Education and training outreach programs are improving workforce preparation at K-12, post-secondary, and professional levels. Data distribution and sharing infrastructure that leverages funding and avoids duplication is enabling practical archive expansion and distribution

  19. Electrospun Polymer Fiber Lasers for Applications in Vapor Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämmer, Sarah; Laye, Fabrice; Friedrich, Felix

    2017-01-01

    A sensing approach based on laser emissionfrom polymer fiber networks is presented. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibers doped with a laser dye are fabricated by electrospinning. They form random loop resonators, which show laser emission upon optical pumping. The shift of the spectral position...

  20. Applications of Remote Sensing to Alien Invasive Plant Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Therefore, it is often important to systematically monitor the spread of species over a broad region. Remote sensing has been an important tool for large-scale ecological studies in the past three decades, but it was not commonly used to study alien invasive plants until the mid 1990s. We synthesize previous research efforts on remote sensing of invasive plants from spatial, temporal and spectral perspectives. We also highlight a recently developed state-of-the-art image fusion technique that integrates passive and active energies concurrently collected by an imaging spectrometer and a scanning-waveform light detection and ranging (LiDAR system, respectively. This approach provides a means to detect the structure and functional properties of invasive plants of different canopy levels. Finally, we summarize regional studies of biological invasions using remote sensing, discuss the limitations of remote sensing approaches, and highlight current research needs and future directions.

  1. Advances on Aryldiazonium Salt Chemistry Based Interfacial Fabrication for Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chaomin; Zhang, Yin; Jiang, Cheng; Qi, Meng; Liu, Guozhen

    2017-02-15

    Aryldiazonium salts as coupling agents for surface chemistry have evidenced their wide applications for the development of sensors. Combined with advances in nanomaterials, current trends in sensor science and a variety of particular advantages of aryldiazonium salt chemistry in sensing have driven the aryldiazonium salt-based sensing strategies to grow at an astonishing pace. This review focuses on the advances in the use of aryldiazonium salts for modifying interfaces in sensors and biosensors during the past decade. It will first summarize the current methods for modification of interfaces with aryldiazonium salts, and then discuss the sensing applications of aryldiazonium salts modified on different transducers (bulky solid electrodes, nanomaterials modified bulky solid electrodes, and nanoparticles). Finally, the challenges and perspectives that aryldiazonium salt chemistry is facing in sensing applications are critically discussed.

  2. Inland and coastal water environment remote sensing monitoring system: rapid construction and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Gu, Xingfa; Yin, Qiu; Li, Li; Chen, Qiang; Ren, Yuhuan; Chen, Hong; Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Juan

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims at bridging the gap between the academic research and practical application in water environment monitoring by remote sensing. It mainly focuses on how to rapidly construct the Inland and coastal Water Environment Remote Sensing Monitoring System (IWERSMS) in a software perspective. In this paper, the remote sensed data processing framework, dataflow and product levels are designed based on the retrieval algorithms of water quality parameters. The prototype is four-tier architecture and modules are designed elaborately. The paper subsequently analyzes the strategy and key technology of conglutinating hybrid components, adopting semantic metafiles and tiling image during rapid construction of prototype. Finally, the paper introduces the successful application to 2008 Qingdao enteromorpha prolifra disaster emergency monitoring in Olympics Sailing Match fields. The solution can also fit other domains in remote sensing and especially it provides a clue for researchers who are in an attempt to establish a prototype to apply research fruits to practical applications.

  3. Advances on Technology and Application of Ocean Color Remote Sensing in China (2004 - 2006)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Delu; BAI Yan

    2006-01-01

    China has great progress in the technology and application of ocean color remote sensing during 2004-2006. In this report, firstly, four major technical advances are displaying, including (1) the vector radiative transfer numerical model of coupled ocean-atmosphere system; (2) the atmospheric correction algorithm specialized on Chinese high turbid water; (3) systematical research of hyper-spectrum ocean color remote sensing; (4) local algorithms of oceanic parameters, like ocean color components, ocean primary productivity, water transparency, water quality parameters, etc. On the foundation of technical advances, ocean color remote sensing takes effect on ocean environment monitoring, with four major kinds of application systems, namely, (1) the automatic multi-satellites data receiving, processing and application system; (2) the shipboard satellite data receiving and processing system for fishery ground information; (3) Coastal water quality monitoring system, integrating satellite and airborne remote sensing technology and ship measurement; (4) the preliminary system of airborne ocean color remote sensing application system. Finally, the prospective development of Chinese ocean color remote sensing is brought forward. With Chinese second ocean color satellite (HY-1B) orbiting, great strides will take place in Chinese ocean color information accumulation and application.

  4. Mechanics of localized slippage in tactile sensing and application to soft sensing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Anh-Van

    2014-01-01

    Localized slippage occurs during any relative sliding of soft contacts, ranging from human fingertips to robotic fingertips. Although this phenomenon is dominant for a very short time prior to gross slippage, localized slippage is a crucial factor for any to-be-developed soft sensing system to respond to slippage before it occurs. The content of this book addresses all aspects of localized slippage, including modeling and simulating it, as well as applying it to the construction of novel sensors with slip tactile perception.

  5. Applications of Mass Spectrometry to Structural Analysis of Marine Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzhi Lang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine oligosaccharides have attracted increasing attention recently in developing potential drugs and biomaterials for their particular physical and chemical properties. However, the composition and sequence analysis of marine oligosaccharides are very challenging for their structural complexity and heterogeneity. Mass spectrometry (MS has become an important technique for carbohydrate analysis by providing more detailed structural information, including molecular mass, sugar constituent, sequence, inter-residue linkage position and substitution pattern. This paper provides an overview of the structural analysis based on MS approaches in marine oligosaccharides, which are derived from some biologically important marine polysaccharides, including agaran, carrageenan, alginate, sulfated fucan, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan (GAG and GAG-like polysaccharides. Applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS are mainly presented and the general applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS are also outlined. Some technical challenges in the structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides by MS have also been pointed out.

  6. Applications of mass spectrometry to structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yinzhi; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Lili; Yu, Guangli

    2014-06-30

    Marine oligosaccharides have attracted increasing attention recently in developing potential drugs and biomaterials for their particular physical and chemical properties. However, the composition and sequence analysis of marine oligosaccharides are very challenging for their structural complexity and heterogeneity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important technique for carbohydrate analysis by providing more detailed structural information, including molecular mass, sugar constituent, sequence, inter-residue linkage position and substitution pattern. This paper provides an overview of the structural analysis based on MS approaches in marine oligosaccharides, which are derived from some biologically important marine polysaccharides, including agaran, carrageenan, alginate, sulfated fucan, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and GAG-like polysaccharides. Applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) are mainly presented and the general applications of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) are also outlined. Some technical challenges in the structural analysis of marine oligosaccharides by MS have also been pointed out.

  7. Remote sensing in the marine environment. A description of facilities, applications, needs and opportunities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shannon, LV

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Against a background of the techniques and instrumentation available for remote sensing in the marine environment, this report considers the rationale for their use by the South African marine community. Local applications of remote sensing...

  8. An introduction to mass cytometry: fundamentals and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Scott D; Baranov, Vladimir I; Ornatsky, Olga I; Bandura, Dmitry R; George, Thaddeus C

    2013-05-01

    Mass cytometry addresses the analytical challenges of polychromatic flow cytometry by using metal atoms as tags rather than fluorophores and atomic mass spectrometry as the detector rather than photon optics. The many available enriched stable isotopes of the transition elements can provide up to 100 distinguishable reporting tags, which can be measured simultaneously because of the essential independence of detection provided by the mass spectrometer. We discuss the adaptation of traditional inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to cytometry applications. We focus on the generation of cytometry-compatible data and on approaches to unsupervised multivariate clustering analysis. Finally, we provide a high-level review of some recent benchmark reports that highlight the potential for massively multi-parameter mass cytometry.

  9. Small sample Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehpour, M., E-mail: mehran.salehpour@physics.uu.se; Håkansson, K.; Possnert, G.

    2015-10-15

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry activities at Uppsala University include a group dedicated to the biomedical applications, involving natural level samples, as well as {sup 14}C-labeled substances requiring separate handling and preparation. For most applications sufficient sample amounts are available but many applications are limited to samples sizes in the μg-range. We have developed a preparation procedure for small samples biomedical applications, where a few μg C can be analyzed, albeit with compromised precision. The latest results for the small sample AMS method are shown and some of the biomedical activities at our laboratory are presented.

  10. Application of remote sensing to estimating soil erosion potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of remote sensing data sources and interpretation techniques has been tested in a 6136 hectare watershed with agricultural, forest and urban land cover to determine the relative utility of alternative aerial photographic data sources for gathering the desired land use/land cover data. The principal photographic data sources are high altitude 9 x 9 inch color infrared photos at 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 and multi-date medium altitude color and color infrared photos at 1:60,000. Principal data for estimating soil erosion potential include precipitation, soil, slope, crop, crop practice, and land use/land cover data derived from topographic maps, soil maps, and remote sensing. A computer-based geographic information system organized on a one-hectare grid cell basis is used to store and quantify the information collected using different data sources and interpretation techniques. Research results are compared with traditional Universal Soil Loss Equation field survey methods.

  11. Application of PEDOT-CNT Microelectrodes for Neurotransmitter Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Samba, Ramona; Fuchsberber, Kai; Matiychyn, Ilona; Epple, Sebastian; Kiesel, Lydia; Stett, Alfred; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Stelzle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, composite microelectrodes from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) are characterized as electrochemical sensing material for neurotransmitters. Dopamine can be detected using square wave voltammetry at these microelectrodes. The CNTs improve the sensitivity by a factor of two. In addition, the selectivity towards dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid was examined. While both electrodes, PEDOT and PEDOT-CNT are able to detect all ...

  12. Application of Remote Sensing Technology in Mine Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mine environment problem caused by the exploitation of mineral resources has become a key factor which affects normal production of mine and safety of ecological environment for human settlement. For better protection and management of mine environment, this article has introduced the important role of remote sensing technology in pollution monitoring of mine environment, geological disaster monitoring and monitoring of mining activities.

  13. Finite element analysis of (SA) mechanoreceptors in tactile sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Syamimi; Yahud, S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the structural design of a fingertip model in order to analyse the sensory function of slow adapting (SA) mechanoreceptors by using the finite element analysis (FEA) method. A biologically inspired tactile sensor was designed to mimic a similar response of the human mechanoreceptors in the human glabrous skin. The simulation work was done by using COMSOL Multiphysics. The artificial skin was modelled as a solid square block of silicone elastomer with a semi cylinder protrusion on top. It was modelled as a nearly incompressible and linear hyperelastic material defined by Neo Hookean constitutive law. The sensing element on the other hand was modelled by using constantan alloy mimicking the SA1 receptor. Boundary loads of 1 N/m² to 4 N/m² with the increment of 1 N/m² were applied to the top surface of the protrusion in z and x-direction for normal and shear stress, respectively. The epidermal model base was constrained to maintain the same boundary conditions throughout all simulations. The changes of length experienced by the sensing element were calculated. The simulations result in terms of strain was identified. The simulated result was plotted in terms of sensing element strain against the boundary load and the graph should produce a linear response.

  14. A stochastic atmospheric model for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    There are many factors which reduce the accuracy of classification of objects in the satellite remote sensing of Earth's surface. One important factor is the variability in the scattering and absorptive properties of the atmospheric components such as particulates and the variable gases. For multispectral remote sensing of the Earth's surface in the visible and infrared parts of the spectrum the atmospheric particulates are a major source of variability in the received signal. It is difficult to design a sensor which will determine the unknown atmospheric components by remote sensing methods, at least to the accuracy needed for multispectral classification. The problem of spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric quantities which can affect the measured radiances are examined. A method based upon the stochastic nature of the atmospheric components was developed, and, using actual data the statistical parameters needed for inclusion into a radiometric model was generated. Methods are then described for an improved correction of radiances. These algorithms will then result in a more accurate and consistent classification procedure.

  15. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 3 - From theory to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of volume scattering and emission theory are discussed, taking into account a weakly scattering medium, the Born approximation, first-order renormalization, the radiative transfer method, and the matrix-doubling method. Other topics explored are related to scatterometers and probing systems, the passive microwave sensing of the atmosphere, the passive microwave sensing of the ocean, the passive microwave sensing of land, the active microwave sensing of land, and radar remote sensing applications. Attention is given to inversion techniques, atmospheric attenuation and emission, a temperature profile retrieval from ground-based observations, mapping rainfall rates, the apparent temperature of the sea, the emission behavior of bare soil surfaces, the emission behavior of vegetation canopies, the emission behavior of snow, wind-vector radar scatterometry, radar measurements of sea ice, and the back-scattering behavior of cultural vegetation canopies.

  16. Parallel processing of remotely sensed data: Application to the ATSR-2 instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J.; McIntire, T.; Berg, J.; Tsou, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Massively parallel computational paradigms can mitigate many issues associated with the analysis of large and complex remotely sensed data sets. Recently, the Beowulf cluster has emerged as the most attractive, massively parallel architecture due to its low cost and high performance. Whereas most Beowulf designs have emphasized numerical modeling applications, the Parallel Image Processing Environment (PIPE) specifically addresses the unique requirements of remote sensing applications. Automated, parallelization of user-defined analyses is fully supported. A neural network application, applied to Along Track Scanning Radiometer-2 (ATSR-2) data shows the advantages and performance characteristics of PIPE.

  17. Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Leahy-Hoppa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast pulsed lasers find application in a range of spectroscopy and sensing techniques including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS, coherent Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz spectroscopy. Whether based on absorption or emission processes, the characteristics of these techniques are heavily influenced by the use of ultrafast pulses in the signal generation process. Depending on the energy of the pulses used, the essential laser interaction process can primarily involve lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, or a combination of excited states produced by laser heating. While some of these techniques are currently confined to sensing at close ranges, others can be implemented for remote spectroscopic sensing owing principally to the laser pulse duration. We present a review of ultrafast laser-based spectroscopy techniques and discuss the use of these techniques to current and potential chemical and environmental sensing applications.

  18. SOFT SENSING MODEL BASED ON SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Weiwu; Shao Huihe; Wang Xiaofan

    2004-01-01

    Soft sensor is widely used in industrial process control.It plays an important role to improve the quality of product and assure safety in production.The core of soft sensor is to construct soft sensing model.A new soft sensing modeling method based on support vector machine (SVM) is proposed.SVM is a new machine learning method based on statistical learning theory and is powerful for the problem characterized by small sample, nonlinearity, high dimension and local minima.The proposed methods are applied to the estimation of frozen point of light diesel oil in distillation column.The estimated outputs of soft sensing model based on SVM match the real values of frozen point and follow varying trend of frozen point very well.Experiment results show that SVM provides a new effective method for soft sensing modeling and has promising application in industrial process applications.

  19. Commodity Cluster Computing for Remote Sensing Applications using Red Hat LINUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorband, John

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been doing research at Goddard Space Flight Center on implementing a wide variety of applications on commodity based computing clusters. This talk is about these clusters and haw they are used on these applications including ones for remote sensing.

  20. Control limitations from distributed sensing: theory and Extremely Large Telescope application

    OpenAIRE

    Sarlette, Alain; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    We investigate performance bounds for feedback control of distributed plants where the controller can be centralized (i.e. it has access to measurements from the whole plant), but sensors only measure differences between neighboring subsystem outputs. Such "distributed sensing" can be a technological necessity in applications where system size exceeds accuracy requirements by many orders of magnitude. We formulate how distributed sensing generally limits feedback performance robust to measure...

  1. Topological metrology and its application to optical position sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Tischler, Nora; Singh, Sukhwinder; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Vidal, Xavier; Brennen, Gavin; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    We motivate metrology schemes based on topological singularities as a way to build robustness against deformations of the system. In particular, we relate reference settings of metrological systems to topological singularities in the measurement outputs. As examples we discuss optical nano-position sensing (i) using a balanced photodetector and a quadrant photodetector, and (ii) a more general image based scheme. In both cases the reference setting is a scatterer position that corresponds to a topological singularity in an output space constructed from the scattered field intensity distributions.

  2. Wireless Structural Sensing for Health Monitoring and Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    The economic and societal impact of civil structures under-performing during large earthquakes can be significant. While in recent years the structural engineering community has made great strides in advancing knowledge of structural behavior under extreme loads, a need still exists for the rapid assessment of structural performance during seismic events. Numerous options are commercially available to facility owners who wish to install a structural monitoring system within their structures. However, these structural monitoring systems are defined by their use of coaxial cables for the transfer of response measurements from sensors to centralized data servers. The installation and maintenance of cables within a civil structure often drive system costs high thereby preventing widespread industry adoption. In response to these limitations, the integration of information technologies such as wireless communications and microcontrollers have been explored for the creation of alternative structural monitoring systems defined by low installation costs and decentralized computational frameworks. In particular, a novel wireless structural monitoring system assembled from a dense network of inexpensive wireless sensing units has been designed and fabricated. The wireless sensing unit architecture consists of three functional components: a data acquisition interface for the collection of data from attached sensors, a computational core for data interrogation, and a wireless communication channel for the transfer of data to the sensor network. The use of wireless modems drastically reduces the efforts and costs of system installations rendering the technology attractive for widespread adoption in a broad class of civil structures. A second innovation of the system is the inclusion of computational power within each wireless sensing unit allowing for local execution of embedded engineering analyses. In particular, analyses for the detection of damage in structures (structural

  3. Introduction to computational mass transfer with applications to chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Kuo-Tsung

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an easy-to-understand introduction to the computational mass transfer (CMT) method. On the basis of the contents of the first edition, this new edition is characterized by the following additional materials. It describes the successful application of this method to the simulation of the mass transfer process in a fluidized bed, as well as recent investigations and computing methods for predictions for the multi-component mass transfer process. It also demonstrates the general issues concerning computational methods for simulating the mass transfer of the rising bubble process. This new edition has been reorganized by moving the preparatory materials for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Heat Transfer into appendices, additions of new chapters, and including three new appendices on, respectively, generalized representation of the two-equation model for the CMT, derivation of the equilibrium distribution function in the lattice-Boltzmann method, and derivation of the Navier-S...

  4. Introduction to computational mass transfer with applications to chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Kuo-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a new computational methodology called Computational Mass Transfer (CMT). It offers an approach to rigorously simulating the mass, heat and momentum transfer under turbulent flow conditions with the help of two newly published models, namely the C’2—εC’ model and the Reynolds  mass flux model, especially with regard to predictions of concentration, temperature and velocity distributions in chemical and related processes. The book will also allow readers to understand the interfacial phenomena accompanying the mass transfer process and methods for modeling the interfacial effect, such as the influences of Marangoni convection and Rayleigh convection. The CMT methodology is demonstrated by means of its applications to typical separation and chemical reaction processes and equipment, including distillation, absorption, adsorption and chemical reactors. Professor Kuo-Tsong Yu is a Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Xigang Yuan is a Professor at the School of Chemical Engine...

  5. Zinc oxide doped graphene oxide films for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetna, Kumar, Shani; Garg, A.; Chowdhuri, A.; Dhingra, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Kapoor, A.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) is analogous to graphene, but presence of many functional groups makes its physical and chemical properties essentially different from those of graphene. GO is found to be a promising material for low cost fabrication of highly versatile and environment friendly gas sensors. Selectivity, reversibility and sensitivity of GO based gas sensor have been improved by hybridization with Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. The device is fabricated by spin coating of deionized water dispersed GO flakes (synthesized using traditional hummer's method) doped with Zinc Oxide on standard glass substrate. Since GO is an insulator and functional groups on GO nanosheets play vital role in adsorbing gas molecules, it is being used as an adsorber. Additionally, on being exposed to certain gases the electric and optical characteristics of GO material exhibit an alteration in behavior. For the conductivity, we use Zinc Oxide, as it displays a high sensitivity towards conduction. The effects of the compositions, structural defects and morphologies of graphene based sensing layers and the configurations of sensing devices on the performances of gas sensors were investigated by Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Keithley Sourcemeter.

  6. Applications of remote sensing to wind power facility siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J. E.; Rosenfeld, C. L.; Maule, P. A.

    A method by which wind energy prospectors can use remote sensing to rapidly examine extensive geographical areas to identify potential wind turbine generators' sites is outlined. Remote sensing in wind prospecting is not being considered as a tool for determining wind power potential but, rather, as an aid in identifying terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric characteristics associated with desirable wind power sites. It is noted that locations with interesting features noted in a regional assessment can be more closely evaluated using medium-scale imagery, which can be acquired from a number of different agencies, among them the U.S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, Water and Power Resources and the Soil Conservation Service. Once specific locations have been identified from small- and medium-scale imagery, low-level aerial reconnaissance in a locally chartered aircraft can verify the information obtained. Wind-deformed trees, active slip faces on dunes, snow cornices, snow fences, and the slopes of ridges can be evaluated.

  7. Zinc oxide doped graphene oxide films for gas sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetna,, E-mail: chetna2288@gmail.com; Kumar, Shani; Chaudhary, S.; Kapoor, A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Garg, A.; Chowdhuri, A.; Dhingra, V. [Department of Electronic Science, Acharya Narendra Dev College, University of Delhi, Kalkaji, New Delhi- 110019 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Graphene Oxide (GO) is analogous to graphene, but presence of many functional groups makes its physical and chemical properties essentially different from those of graphene. GO is found to be a promising material for low cost fabrication of highly versatile and environment friendly gas sensors. Selectivity, reversibility and sensitivity of GO based gas sensor have been improved by hybridization with Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. The device is fabricated by spin coating of deionized water dispersed GO flakes (synthesized using traditional hummer’s method) doped with Zinc Oxide on standard glass substrate. Since GO is an insulator and functional groups on GO nanosheets play vital role in adsorbing gas molecules, it is being used as an adsorber. Additionally, on being exposed to certain gases the electric and optical characteristics of GO material exhibit an alteration in behavior. For the conductivity, we use Zinc Oxide, as it displays a high sensitivity towards conduction. The effects of the compositions, structural defects and morphologies of graphene based sensing layers and the configurations of sensing devices on the performances of gas sensors were investigated by Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Keithley Sourcemeter.

  8. Application of Remote Sensing Techniques for Mapping Shifting Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Vijaya Kumari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation is an ancient and primitive method of cultivation, also referred to as ‘slash and burn’ or ‘rotational bush fallow agricultural system’. The practice mainly involves removal of the forests by primitive slash and burn technique followed by mixed cropping for short period before abandoning the site. Tribals all over India are known to follow the practice of shifting cultivation with some regional variations. The present study has been undertaken to estimate the spatial distribution of podu cultivation in Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh by using remote sensing techniques. Results of the present study indicate that an estimated area of 10,491.857 acres of the forest area is under shifting cultivation in Srikakulam district. Shifting cultivation has caused a great deal of environmental degradation. Remote sensing techniques with repetitive coverage and synoptic view provide database for assessing environment degrading practices. Mapping of shifting areas is important not only from ecological point of view but also for management purposes.

  9. Quorum-Sensing of Bacteria and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Guoliang; SU Mingxia

    2009-01-01

    Quorum sensing, or auto induction, as a cell density dependent signaling mechanism in many microorganisms, is triggered via auto inducers which passively diffuse across the bacterial envelope and therefore intracellulaly accumulate only at higher bacterial densities to regulate specialized processes such as genetic competence, bioluminescence, virulence and sporulation. N-acyl homoserine lactones are the most common type of signal molecules. Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing food-producing industries, but disease outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria are a significant constraint on the development of the sector worldwide. Many of these pathogens have been found to be controlled by their quorum sensing systems. As there is relevance between the pathogenic bacteria's virulence factor expression and their auto inducers, quorum quenching is a new effective anti-infective strategy to control infections caused by bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. The techniques used to do this mainly include the following: (1) the inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis, (2) blocking signal transduction, and (3) chemical inactivation and biodegradation of signal molecules. To provide a basis for finding alternative means of controlling aquatic diseases by quorum quenching instead of treatment by antibiotics and disinfectants, we will discuss the examination, purification and identification of auto inducers in this paper.

  10. MASS DEFLECTOR APPLICATION FOR CERN’s ON-LINE ISOTOPE SEPARATOR FACILITY 073

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, J

    2004-01-01

    The mass deflector application for the General Purpose Separator GPS allows splitting a beam of particles, characterized by a central mass, into two particle beams, which are sent to a high-mass and low-mass beam lines.

  11. MASS DEFLECTOR APPLICATION FOR CERN’s ON-LINE ISOTOPE SEPARATOR FACILITY 077

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, J

    2004-01-01

    The mass deflector application for the General Purpose Separator GPS allows splitting a beam of particles, characterized by a central mass, into two particle beams, which are sent to a high-mass and low-mass beam lines.

  12. Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Applications in Flood Hazards Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dano Umar Lawal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine and review the various applications of GIS and remote sensing tools in flood disaster management as opposed to the conventional means of recording the hydrological parameters, which in many cases failed to capture an extreme event. In the recent years, GIS along with remote sensing has become the key tools in flood disaster monitoring and management. Advancement particularly in the area of remote sensing application has developed gradually from optical remote sensing to microwave or radar remote sensing, which has proved a profound capability of penetrating a clouded sky and provided all weather capabilities compared to the later (optical remote sensing in flood monitoring, mapping, and management. The main concern here is delineation of flood prone areas and development of flood hazard maps indicating the risk areas likely to be inundated by significant flooding along with the damageable objects maps for the flood susceptible areas. Actually, flood depth is always considered to be the basic aspect in flood hazard mapping, and therefore in determining or estimating the flood depth, a Digital Elevation Model data (DEM is considered to be the most appropriate means of determining the flood depth from a remotely sensed data or hydrological data. Accuracy of flood depth estimation depends mainly on the resolution of the DEM data in a flat terrain and in the regions that experiences monsoon seasons such as the developing countries of Asia where there is a high dependence on agriculture, which made any effort for flood estimation or flood hazard mapping difficult due to poor availability of high resolution DEM. More so the idea of Web-based GIS is gradually becoming a reality, which plays an important role in the flood hazard management. Therefore, this paper provides a review of applications of GIS and remote sensing technology in flood disaster monitoring and management.

  13. Fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of ratiometric electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Yu, Jianbo; Lv, Wei; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-05-15

    Previously developed electrochemical biosensors with single-electric signal output are probably affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In contrast, the ratiometric electrochemical biosensors (RECBSs) with dual-electric signal outputs have an intrinsic built-in correction to the effects from system or background electric signals, and therefore exhibit a significant potential to improve the accuracy and sensitivity in electrochemical sensing applications. In this review, we systematically summarize the fabrication strategies, sensing modes and analytical applications of RECBSs. First, the different fabrication strategies of RECBSs were introduced, referring to the analytes-induced single- and dual-dependent electrochemical signal strategies for RECBSs. Second, the different sensing modes of RECBSs were illustrated, such as differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, alternating current voltammetry, electrochemiluminescence, and so forth. Third, the analytical applications of RECBSs were discussed based on the types of target analytes. Finally, the forthcoming development and future prospects in the research field of RECBSs were also highlighted.

  14. A Self-Sensing Piezoelectric MicroCantilever Biosensor for Detection of Ultrasmall Adsorbed Masses: Theory and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sridhar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of ultrasmall masses such as proteins and pathogens has been made possible as a result of advancements in nanotechnology. Development of label-free and highly sensitive biosensors has enabled the transduction of molecular recognition into detectable physical quantities. Microcantilever (MC-based systems have played a widespread role in developing such biosensors. One of the most important drawbacks of all of the available biosensors is that they all come at a very high cost. Moreover, there are certain limitations in the measurement equipments attached to the biosensors which are mostly optical measurement systems. A unique self-sensing detection technique is proposed in this paper in order to address most of the limitations of the current measurement systems. A self-sensing bridge is used to excite piezoelectric MC-based sensor functioning in dynamic mode, which simultaneously measures the system’s response through the self-induced voltage generated in the piezoelectric material. As a result, the need for bulky, expensive read-out equipment is eliminated. A comprehensive mathematical model is presented for the proposed self-sensing detection platform using distributed-parameters system modeling. An adaptation strategy is then implemented in the second part in order to compensate for the time-variation of piezoelectric properties which dynamically improves the behavior of the system. Finally, results are reported from an extensive experimental investigation carried out to prove the capability of the proposed platform. Experimental results verified the proposed mathematical modeling presented in the first part of the study with accuracy of 97.48%. Implementing the adaptation strategy increased the accuracy to 99.82%. These results proved the measurement capability of the proposed self-sensing strategy. It enables development of a cost-effective, sensitive and miniaturized mass sensing platform.

  15. Space-Time Data fusion for Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, H.; Cressie, N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been collecting massive amounts of remote sensing data about Earth's systems for more than a decade. Missions are selected to be complementary in quantities measured, retrieval techniques, and sampling characteristics, so these datasets are highly synergistic. To fully exploit this, a rigorous methodology for combining data with heterogeneous sampling characteristics is required. For scientific purposes, the methodology must also provide quantitative measures of uncertainty that propagate input-data uncertainty appropriately. We view this as a statistical inference problem. The true but notdirectly- observed quantities form a vector-valued field continuous in space and time. Our goal is to infer those true values or some function of them, and provide to uncertainty quantification for those inferences. We use a spatiotemporal statistical model that relates the unobserved quantities of interest at point-level to the spatially aggregated, observed data. We describe and illustrate our method using CO2 data from two NASA data sets.

  16. Gold/polypyrrole nanorods for gas sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šetka, Milena; Drbohlavová, Jana; Vallejos, Stella; Márik, Marian; Llobet, Eduard; Hubálek, Jaromír.

    2017-06-01

    This work describes the preparation of gold/polypyrrole nanorods (AuPPy NRs) using anodized alumina oxide (AAO) template and both pulsed galvanic deposition and electropolymerization for the deposition of Au and polypyrrole (PPy) nanorods (NRs), respectively. Characterization of the whole structure after AAO etching revealed the formation of a high density of NRs along the substrate with uniform diameters of approximately 50 nm and total lengths of 700 nm, the last corresponding to 1/3 and 2/3 of the length of the Au and PPy NRs, respectively. These structures are provided of bottom/top electrodes and a heating element coupled to the backside of the substrate, and their gas sensing properties towards various concentrations of NO2 in resistive configuration are presented.

  17. Multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber sensor for alcohol sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofi'ah, Iftihatur; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol is volatile and flammable liquid which is soluble substances both on polar and non polar substances that has been used in some industrial sectors. Alcohol detection method now widely used one of them is the optical fiber sensor. In this paper used fiber optic sensor based on Multimode-Single-mode-Multimode (MSM) to detect alcohol solution at a concentration range of 0-3%. The working principle of sensor utilizes the modal interference between the core modes and the cladding modes, thus make the sensor sensitive to environmental changes. The result showed that characteristic of the sensor not affect the length of the single-mode fiber (SMF). We obtain that the sensor with a length of 5 mm of single-mode can sensing the alcohol with a sensitivity of 0.107 dB/v%.

  18. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, J. P.; Hewson, I.; Moisander, P.

    2009-05-01

    The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensing technologies for marine microbial diversity and ecological function. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity), oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  19. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing, summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    Health and its association with the physical environment was studied based on the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the man-made physical environment and health status of a population. The statistical technique of regression analysis was employed to show the degree of association and aspects of physical environment which accounted for the greater variation in health status. Mortality, venereal disease, tuberculosis, hepatitis, meningitis, shigella/salmonella, hypertension and cardiac arrest/myocardial infarction were examined. The statistical techniques were used to measure association and variation, not necessarily cause and effect. Conclusions drawn show that the association still exists in the decade of the 1970's and that it can be successfully monitored with the methodology of remote sensing.

  20. Application of an ADS-B Sense and Avoid Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Kotcher, Robert; Cavalin, Moshe; Dandachy, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California is leading a program aimed towards integrating unmanned aircraft system into the national airspace system (UAS in the NAS). The overarching goal of the program is to reduce technical barriers associated with related safety issues as well as addressing challenges that will allow UAS routine access to the national airspace. This research paper focuses on three novel ideas: (1) A design of an integrated UAS equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast that constructs a more accurate state-based airspace model; (2) The use of Stratway Algorithm in a real-time environment; and (3) The verification and validation of sense and avoid performance and usability test results which provide a pilot's perspective on how our system will benefit the UAS in the NAS program for both piloted and unmanned aircraft.

  1. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zehr

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensing technologies for marine microbial diversity and ecological function. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity, oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  2. Sensing application of an optical fiber dip coated with L-Cystein ethyl ester hydrochloride capped ZnTe quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaray Madhulita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber in conjunction with ZnTe quantum dots (QDs is investigated for sensing application. ZnTe QDs, are synthesized by a simple chemical bottom up approach. Quantum dots are capped with L-Cystein ethyl ester hydrochloride (LEEH, to increase their stability. Then LEEH capped ZnTe QDs, whose size is estimated as 2.29 nm by effective mass approximation (EMA, are dip-coated on a cladding removed optical fiber. Different concentrations of alcohol and ammonia are used to investigate the sensing behavior. It is found that sensitivity of the sensor increases with the use of QDs for both alcohol and ammonia.

  3. Proteomics by mass spectrometry: approaches, advances, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, John R; Ruse, Cristian I; Nakorchevsky, Aleksey

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is the most comprehensive and versatile tool in large-scale proteomics. In this review, we dissect the overall framework of the MS experiment into its key components. We discuss the fundamentals of proteomic analyses as well as recent developments in the areas of separation methods, instrumentation, and overall experimental design. We highlight both the inherent strengths and limitations of protein MS and offer a rough guide for selecting an experimental design based on the goals of the analysis. We emphasize the versatility of the Orbitrap, a novel mass analyzer that features high resolution (up to 150,000), high mass accuracy (2-5 ppm), a mass-to-charge range of 6000, and a dynamic range greater than 10(3). High mass accuracy of the Orbitrap expands the arsenal of the data acquisition and analysis approaches compared with a low-resolution instrument. We discuss various chromatographic techniques, including multidimensional separation and ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) involves a continuum sample preparation, orthogonal separations, and MS and software solutions. We discuss several aspects of MudPIT applications to quantitative phosphoproteomics. MudPIT application to large-scale analysis of phosphoproteins includes (a) a fractionation procedure for motif-specific enrichment of phosphopeptides, (b) development of informatics tools for interrogation and validation of shotgun phosphopeptide data, and (c) in-depth data analysis for simultaneous determination of protein expression and phosphorylation levels, analog to western blot measurements. We illustrate MudPIT application to quantitative phosphoproteomics of the beta adrenergic pathway. We discuss several biological discoveries made via mass spectrometry pipelines with a focus on cell signaling proteomics.

  4. Submillimeter-Wave Radiometer Technology for Earth Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, P.

    2000-01-01

    Recent innovations in ultra-high frequency, semiconductor device/component technology have enabled both traditional and new applications for space-borne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometer instruments.

  5. Envirobiosens. New trends in bio-sensing for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, S. [Cranfield Biothechnology Centre, Cranfield University (United Kingdom); Cosnier, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. d' Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox, UMR CNRS 5630, 38 (France); Magner, E. [Limerick University, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Sciences (Ireland)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The development of useful sensor systems to monitor multiple pollutants is needed for many environmental applications like the pollution monitoring and processing. The advantages of chemical sensors, bio-sensors and bio-mimetic systems should be exploited to fill specific niche applications in environmental engineering. Sensors offer particular advantages as they can be used for rapid field assessment of pollution risks, including the effects of pollutant mixtures. This conference reviews the current state of the art for bio-sensors operating in the environment and in environmental processes to develop bio-sensors practical applications in the environmental technology. The papers are presented in three parts: enzymatic sensors for environmental monitoring; affinity sensors for environmental application; cell and tissue sensors for environmental analysis, future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Estimating actual irrigation application by remotely sensed evapotranspiration observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Lorite, I.J.; SWAP, PEST

    2010-01-01

    Water managers and policy makers need accurate estimates of real (actual) irrigation applications for effective monitoring of irrigation and efficient irrigation management. However, this information is not readily available at field level for larger irrigation areas. An innovative inverse modeling

  7. Remote sensing application system for water environments developed for Environment Satellite 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing data collected by the Environment Satellite I are characterized by high temporal resolution,high spectral resolution and mid-high spatial resolution.We designed the Remote Sensing Application System for Water Environments(RSASWE) to create an integrated platform for remote sensing data processing,parameter information extraction and thematic mapping using both remote sensing and GIS technologies.This system provides support for regional water environmental monitoring,and prediction and warning of water pollution.Developed to process and apply data collected by Environment Satellite I,this system has automated procedures including clipping,observation geometry computation,radiometric calibration,6S atmospheric correction and water quality parameter inversion.RSASWE consists of six subsystems:remote sensing image processing,basic parameter inversion,water environment remote sensing thematic outputs,application outputs,automated water environment outputs and a non-point source pollution monitoring subsystem.At present RSASWE plays an important role in operations at the Satellite Environment Center.

  8. Progress in Dielectrophoretic Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes for Sensing Application

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown their potential for broad applications in field effect transistor, field emission, interconnects, energy storage, biomedicine, and many others, due to their excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. One requirement for many of these applications is to assemble CNTs into designated devices. As a promising nanomanipulation method, dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely applied to assemble CNTs in the fabrication of CNT-based nanodevices. This ...

  9. The Archaeological Application of Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Data in Qin Yongcheng Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Wan, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Remote sensing archaeology bases on the use of remote sensing images and interpretation of the principles. The historic relics and sites are resulted from human activities and have constantly caused influences on the soil component, moisture content, temperature, vegetation growth and so on. Based on this thought, this paper proposed a new remote sensing model and approach that integrates optical and thermal infrared remote sensing data for archaeology. Taking the Qin Yongcheng site as the example, this method conducts a comprehensive analysis of key factors affecting archaeological application, that is, LST estimated with Landsat TM data, soil brightness, humidity and greenness obtained from GF-1 data, and then interprets the potential site targets. By conducting the field verification, it is shown that the interpreted potential sites are well consisted with the field investigations and have a high interpretation precision. It can provide a guide for further archaeological research.

  10. The Application of GeoRSC Based on Domestic Satellite in Field Remote Sensing Anomaly Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Yang, Min; Han, Haihui; Li, Jianqiang; Yi, Huan

    2016-11-01

    The Geo REC is the digital remote sensing survey system which based on domestic satellites, and by means of it, the thesis carriedy out a remote sensing anomaly verification field application test in Nachitai area of Qinghai. Field test checks the system installation, the stability of the system operation, the efficiency of reading and show the romoate image or vector data, the security of the data management system and the accuracy of BeiDou navigation; through the test data, the author indicated that the hardware and software system could satisfy the remote sensing anomaly verification work in field, which could also could make it convenient forconvenient the workflow of remote sense survey and, improve the work efficiency,. Aat the same time, in the course of the experiment, we also found some shortcomings of the system, and give some suggestions for improvement combineding with the practical work for the system.

  11. International Conference on Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeological Research and World Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Monitoring the Ancient Countryside: Remote Sensing and GIS at the Chora of Chersonesos (Crimea, Ukraine). Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS for Management Decision Support in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve (Republic of Benin). Monitoring of deforestation invasion in natural reserves of northern Madagascar based on space imagery. Cartography of Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Cartography and Land Use Change of World Heritage Areas and the Benefits of Remote Sensing and GIS for Conservation. Assessing and Monitoring Vegetation in Nabq Protected Area, South Sinai, Egypt, using combine approach of Satellite Imagery and Land Surveys. Evaluation of forage resources in semi-arid savannah environments with satellite imagery: contribution to the management of a protected area (Nakuru National Park) in Kenya. SOGHA, the Surveillance of Gorilla Habitat in World Heritage sites using Space Technologies. Application of Remote Sensing to monitor the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (France). Application of Remote Sensing & GIS for the Conservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites of the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. Social and Environmental monitoring of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve: Case Study over the Vosges du Nord and Pfalzerwald Parks using Corona and Spot Imagery. Satellite Remote Sensing as tool to Monitor Indian Reservation in the Brazilian Amazonia. Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Monitoring UNESCO World Heritage Sites - A Pilot Project. Urban Green Spaces: Modern Heritage. Monitoring of the technical condition of the St. Sophia Cathedral and related monastic buildings in Kiev with Space Applications, geo-positioning systems and GIS tools. The Murghab delta palaeochannel Reconstruction on the Basis of Remote Sensing from Space. Acquisition, Registration and Application of IKONOS Space Imagery for the cultural World Heritage site at Mew, Turkmenistan. Remote Sensing and VR applications for the reconstruction of archaeological landscapes

  12. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing data can provide important measurements of surface energy fluxes and temperatures, which are integral to understanding landscape processes and responses. One example of this is the successful application of TIR remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration and soil moisture, where results from a number of studies suggest that satellite-based measurements from TIR remote sensing data can lead to more accurate regional-scale estimates of daily evapotranspiration. With further refinement in analytical techniques and models, the use of TIR data from airborne and satellite sensors could be very useful for parameterizing surface moisture conditions and developing better simulations of landscape energy exchange over a variety of conditions and space and time scales. Thus, TIR remote sensing data can significantly contribute to the observation, measurement, and analysis of energy balance characteristics (i.e., the fluxes and redistribution of thermal energy within and across the land surface) as an implicit and important aspect of landscape dynamics and landscape functioning. The application of TIR remote sensing data in landscape ecological studies has been limited, however, for several fundamental reasons that relate primarily to the perceived difficulty in use and availability of these data by the landscape ecology community, and from the fragmentation of references on TIR remote sensing throughout the scientific literature. It is our purpose here to provide evidence from work that has employed TIR remote sensing for analysis of landscape characteristics to illustrate how these data can provide important data for the improved measurement of landscape energy response and energy flux relationships. We examine the direct or indirect use of TIR remote sensing data to analyze landscape biophysical characteristics, thereby offering some insight on how these data can be used more robustly to further the understanding and modeling of

  13. Six-Port Based Interferometry for Precise Radar and Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koelpin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement principle nearly forgotten over the years has recently gained more and more attention in both academia and industry: the six-port interferometer. This paper reviews the basic concept, investigates promising applications in remote, as well as contact-based sensing and compares the system with state-of-the-art metrology. The significant advantages will be discussed just as the limitations of the six-port architecture. Particular attention will be paid to impairment effects and non-ideal behavior, as well as compensation and linearization concepts. It will be shown that in application fields, like remote distance sensing, precise alignment measurements, as well as interferometrically-evaluated mechanical strain analysis, the six-port architecture delivers extraordinary measurement results combined with high measurement data update rates for reasonable system costs. This makes the six-port architecture a promising candidate for industrial metrology.

  14. Six-Port Based Interferometry for Precise Radar and Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelpin, Alexander; Lurz, Fabian; Linz, Sarah; Mann, Sebastian; Will, Christoph; Lindner, Stefan

    2016-09-22

    Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement principle nearly forgotten over the years has recently gained more and more attention in both academia and industry: the six-port interferometer. This paper reviews the basic concept, investigates promising applications in remote, as well as contact-based sensing and compares the system with state-of-the-art metrology. The significant advantages will be discussed just as the limitations of the six-port architecture. Particular attention will be paid to impairment effects and non-ideal behavior, as well as compensation and linearization concepts. It will be shown that in application fields, like remote distance sensing, precise alignment measurements, as well as interferometrically-evaluated mechanical strain analysis, the six-port architecture delivers extraordinary measurement results combined with high measurement data update rates for reasonable system costs. This makes the six-port architecture a promising candidate for industrial metrology.

  15. Developing Remote Sensing Applications Through an Engineering Life Cycle Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, S.; Gilruth, P.

    2005-12-01

    Remote sensing applications have become an integral part of several federal and state government agencies for the monitoring and management of natural resources, land use planning and disaster mitigation. Traditionally, remote sensing applications were developed within the academic research community and these algorithms were adopted by the users for various applications. However, it is not a common practice within the academic environment to involve the end users in all stages of the research and development process. During 2000-2005, NASA funded several remote sensing application development projects under the Synergy program to promote the use of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite data within the federal, state and local agencies. Several universities were funded around the US to develop applications in precision agriculture, management of water and other natural resources, urban planning, disaster mitigation and human health. Each application was aimed at providing spatial datasets derived from EOS satellites as decision aid tools for users within various agencies. One of the important lessons learned within this project was that a planned life cycle development improves the transition of remote sensing research to operations. The application lifecycle can be broadly divided into three stages: user needs and technical feasibility analysis, prototype development, and production and deployment. There are several checks within each phase to ensure that the final operational system adequately meets users needs. Metrics were instituted to track how the applications were being used and to plan improvements. While metrics such as web hits and data downloads could be automated and quantified, other metrics such as benefits to society and environment, impacts on policy, and other institutional benefits were difficult to quantify and monetize. Nonetheless, the metrics were useful for project management and to achieve project goals. Specific examples of applications

  16. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  17. Flexible pH-Sensing Hydrogel Fibers for Epidermal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayol, Ali; Akbari, Mohsen; Zilberman, Yael; Comotto, Mattia; Lesha, Emal; Serex, Ludovic; Bagherifard, Sara; Chen, Yu; Fu, Guoqing; Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Ruan, Weitong; Miller, Eric L; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Sonkusale, Sameer; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Epidermal pH is an indication of the skin's physiological condition. For example, pH of wound can be correlated to angiogenesis, protease activity, bacterial infection, etc. Chronic nonhealing wounds are known to have an elevated alkaline environment, while healing process occurs more readily in an acidic environment. Thus, dermal patches capable of continuous pH measurement can be used as point-of-care systems for monitoring skin disorder and the wound healing process. Here, pH-responsive hydrogel fibers are presented that can be used for long-term monitoring of epidermal wound condition. pH-responsive dyes are loaded into mesoporous microparticles and incorporated into hydrogel fibers using a microfluidic spinning system. The fabricated pH-responsive microfibers are flexible and can create conformal contact with skin. The response of pH-sensitive fibers with different compositions and thicknesses are characterized. The suggested technique is scalable and can be used to fabricate hydrogel-based wound dressings with clinically relevant dimensions. Images of the pH-sensing fibers during real-time pH measurement can be captured with a smart phone camera for convenient readout on-site. Through image processing, a quantitative pH map of the hydrogel fibers and the underlying tissue can be extracted. The developed skin dressing can act as a point-of-care device for monitoring the wound healing process.

  18. New spectral methods in cloud and aerosol remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K. Sebastian; McBride, Patrick; Pilewskie, Peter; Feingold, Graham; Jiang, Hongli

    2010-05-01

    We present new remote sensing techniques that rely on spectral observations of clouds and aerosols in the solar wavelength range. As a first example, we show how the effects of heterogeneous clouds, aerosols of changing optical properties, and the surface within one pixel can be distinguished by means of their spectral signatures. This example is based on data from the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS, Houston, Texas, 2006), Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of polluted boundary layer clouds, and 3-dimensional radiative transfer calculations. In a second example, we show that the uncertainty of cloud retrievals can be improved considerably by exploiting the spectral information around liquid water absorption features in the near-infrared wavelength range. This is illustrated with spectral transmittance data from the NOAA International Chemistry Experiment in the Arctic LOwer Troposphere (ICEALOT, 2008). In contrast to reflected radiance, transmitted radiance is only weakly sensitive to cloud effective drop radius, and only cloud optical thickness can be obtained from the standard dual-channel technique. We show that effective radius and liquid water path can also be retrieved with the new spectral approach, and validate our results with microwave liquid water path measurements.

  19. Rapid Scan Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, K.; Maxwell, S. E.; Truong, G.; Van Zee, R. D.; Hodges, J. T.; Plusquellic, D.; Long, D.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to develop accurate and reliable methods for quantifying distributed carbon sources and sinks to support both mitigation efforts and climate change research. The presentation will describe a method for rapid step-scan absorption spectroscopy in the near-infrared wavelength range for the measurement of greenhouse gases. The method utilizes a fiber coupled laser system and a free space confocal cavity to effectively scan the laser system over a bandwidth of 37.5 GHz (1.25 cm-1), with a step size of 300 MHz (0.01 cm-1) and a scan rate of 40 kHz. The laser system is scanned with microwave precision over a full absorption lineshape profile. Measurements have been demonstrated in a 45 m long multipass cell for detection of carbon dioxide near 1602.4 nm (6240.6 cm-1) and for methane near 1645.5 nm (6077.2 cm 1). Ambient level detection is demonstrated using the multipass cell with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~5:1 in a 5 ms integration time. The scan speed, resolution and bandwidth are well suited for remote sensing using integrated path and differential absorption LIDAR techniques.

  20. Geological applications of machine learning on hyperspectral remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, C. H.; Li, Yi-liang; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2015-02-01

    The CRISM imaging spectrometer orbiting Mars has been producing a vast amount of data in the visible to infrared wavelengths in the form of hyperspectral data cubes. These data, compared with those obtained from previous remote sensing techniques, yield an unprecedented level of detailed spectral resolution in additional to an ever increasing level of spatial information. A major challenge brought about by the data is the burden of processing and interpreting these datasets and extract the relevant information from it. This research aims at approaching the challenge by exploring machine learning methods especially unsupervised learning to achieve cluster density estimation and classification, and ultimately devising an efficient means leading to identification of minerals. A set of software tools have been constructed by Python to access and experiment with CRISM hyperspectral cubes selected from two specific Mars locations. A machine learning pipeline is proposed and unsupervised learning methods were implemented onto pre-processed datasets. The resulting data clusters are compared with the published ASTER spectral library and browse data products from the Planetary Data System (PDS). The result demonstrated that this approach is capable of processing the huge amount of hyperspectral data and potentially providing guidance to scientists for more detailed studies.

  1. Renewable resource applications of remote sensing in the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R. M.; Calabrese, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A number of renewable resource applications in the areas of agriculture, land, and water are summarized; and some of the current and future research efforts designed to enhance the utility of this tool are explored. Programs to incorporate microwave sensors with higher resolutions into the resource planning and management processes are also considered. Particular consideration is given to experience with LACIE and AgRISTARS; the current hydrologic land use, watershed physiography, and snow covered area applications of Landsat; and land cover mapping with MSS technology. Needed improvements are discussed with regard to goals of fundamental research, data acquisition requirements, and data handling and merging with other data sources.

  2. Trends in biochemical and biomedical applications of mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, Emilio

    1992-09-01

    This review attempts an in-depth evaluation of progress and achievements made since the last 11th International Mass Spectrometry Conference in the application of mass spectrometric techniques to biochemistry and biomedicine. For this purpose, scientific contributions in this field at major international meetings have been monitored, together with an extensive appraisal of literature data covering the period from 1988 to 1991. A bibliometric evaluation of the MEDLINE database for this period provides a total of almost 4000 entries for mass spectrometry. This allows a detailed study of literature and geographical sources of the most frequent applications, of disciplines where mass spectrometry is most active and of types of sample and instrumentation most commonly used. In this regard major efforts according to number of publications (over 100 literature reports) are concentrated in countries like Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, UK and the USA. Also, most of the work using mass spectrometry in biochemistry and biomedicine is centred on studies on biotransformation, metabolism, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology, which have been carried out on samples of blood, urine, plasma and tissue, by order of frequency of use. Human and animal studies appear to be evenly distributed in terms of the number of reports published in the literature in which the authors make use of experimental animals or describe work on human samples. Along these lines, special attention is given to the real usefulness of mass spectrometry (MS) technology in routine medical practice. Thus the review concentrates on evaluating the progress made in disease diagnosis and overall patient care. As regards prevailing techniques, GCMS continues to be the mainstay of the state of the art methods for multicomponent analysis, stable isotope tracer studies and metabolic profiling, while HPLC--MS and tandem MS are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research. However

  3. Mobile Crowd-Sensing Application%移动群智感知应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荟慧; 郭斌; 於志

    2014-01-01

    认为无线通信和智能移动设备的发展为群智感知在移动环境下的应用奠定了基础,而廉价多样的传感器使移动群智感知应用与人类社会的联系更加紧密。移动群智感知用户采集数据时的协作方式分为参与式感知、机会感知两种,各有优缺点和局限性。移动群智感知需要考虑用户成本、网络压力、云计算服务器架设、用户隐私保护等方面的问题,要面对情境隐私、匿名任务、匿名数据汇报、可靠数据读取、数据真实性等安全方面的挑战。%The development of wireless communication and smart mobile devices has been the impetus for mobile crowd-sensing applications. Low-cost sensors in smart devices means that mobile crowd-sensing applications are more tightly associated with human communities. In a mobile crowd-sensing application, measures for sensing cooperation between individuals may be categorized as participant-sensing or opportunity-sensing. Both of these measures have advantages and disadvantages. Mobile crowd-sensing has to consider problems such as cost to the user, pressure on the mobile communication network, constructing a cloud server, and user privacy. Security is a chal enge in privacy protection, anonymous tasking, anonymous reporting, col ection of dependent data, and data reliability.

  4. Applications of ambient mass spectrometry in high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ping; Feng, Bao-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Wang; Chang, Cui-Lan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2013-06-07

    The development of rapid screening and identification techniques is of great importance for drug discovery, doping control, forensic identification, food safety and quality control. Ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) allows rapid and direct analysis of various samples in open air with little sample preparation. Recently, its applications in high-throughput screening have been in rapid progress. During the past decade, various ambient ionization techniques have been developed and applied in high-throughput screening. This review discusses typical applications of AMS, including DESI (desorption electrospray ionization), DART (direct analysis in real time), EESI (extractive electrospray ionization), etc., in high-throughput screening (HTS).

  5. Semantic interoperability in sensor applications : Making sense of sensor data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.; Basten, T.; Stuijk, S.; Bui, V.; Clercq, P. de; Ferreira Pires, L.; Sinderen, M. van

    2013-01-01

    Much effort has been spent on the optimization of sensor networks, mainly concerning their performance and power efficiency. Furthermore, open communication protocols for the exchange of sensor data have been developed and widely adopted, making sensor data widely available for software applications

  6. A hybrid silicon-PDMS optofluidic platform for sensing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testa, G.; Persichetti, G.; Sarro, P.M.; Bernini, R.

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid silicon-poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS) optofluidic platform for lab-on-a-chip applications is proposed. A liquid-core waveguide with a self-aligned solid-core waveguide and a microfluidic device are integrated with a multilayer approach, resulting in a three-dimensional device assembly. The

  7. Advances in 193 nm excimer lasers for mass spectrometry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Esser, Hans-Gerd; Bonati, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Ongoing progress in mass analysis applications such as laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry of solid samples and ultraviolet photoionization mediated sequencing of peptides and proteins is to a large extent driven by ultrashort wavelength excimer lasers at 193 nm. This paper will introduce the latest improvements achieved in the development of compact high repetition rate excimer lasers and elaborate on the impact on mass spectrometry instrumentation. Various performance and lifetime measurements obtained in a long-term endurance test over the course of 18 months will be shown and discussed in view of the laser source requirements of different mass spectrometry tasks. These sampling type applications are served by excimer lasers delivering pulsed 193 nm output of several mJ as well as fast repetition rates which are already approaching one Kilohertz. In order to open up the pathway from the laboratory to broader market industrial use, sufficient component lifetimes and long-term stable performance behavior have to be ensured. The obtained long-term results which will be presented are based on diverse 193 nm excimer laser tube improvements aiming at e.g. optimizing the gas flow dynamics and have extended the operational life the laser tube for the first time over several billion pulses even under high duty-cycle conditions.

  8. Improving Human-Computer Interaction by Developing Culture-sensitive Applications based on Common Sense Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, Junia Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    The advent of Web 3.0, claiming for personalization in interactive systems (Lassila & Hendler, 2007), and the need for systems capable of interacting in a more natural way in the future society flooded with computer systems and devices (Harper et al., 2008) show that great advances in HCI should be done. This chapter presents some contributions of LIA for the future of HCI, defending that using common sense knowledge is a possibility for improving HCI, especially because people assign meaning to their messages based on their common sense and, therefore, the use of this knowledge in developing user interfaces can make them more intuitive to the end-user. Moreover, as common sense knowledge varies from group to group of people, it can be used for developing applications capable of giving different feedback for different target groups, as the applications presented along this chapter illustrate, allowing, in this way, interface personalization taking into account cultural issues. For the purpose of using com...

  9. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stuart G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Figueiredo, Eloi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric B [UCSD; Mascarenas, David L [UCSD; Todd, Michael D [UCSD

    2008-01-01

    A new wireless sensing network paradigm is presented for structural monitoring applications. In this approach, both power and data interrogation commands are conveyed via a mobile agent that is sent to sensor nodes to perform intended interrogations, which can alleviate several limitations of the traditional sensing networks. Furthermore, the mobile agent provides computational power to make near real-time assessments on the structural conditions. This paper will discuss such prototype systems, which are used to interrogate impedance-based sensors for structural health monitoring applications. Our wireless sensor node is specifically designed to accept various energy sources, including wireless energy transmission, and to be wirelessly triggered on an as-needed basis by the mobile agent or other sensor nodes. The capabilities of this proposed sensing network paradigm are demonstrated in the laboratory and the field.

  10. Optimization of Nickel Nanocomposite for Large Strain Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    industry in the UK. As Head of R&D and Head of Mechanical Engineering he developed high-speed energy storage flywheels based on novel composites for...two spin-off companies. The result was themost high-tech flywheel available, with applications on the NYMetro, a Fuji wind farm and other areas...requiring energy smoothing. Dr. Fullwood now focuses on composites and computational materials. George Hansen is the Founder and President of Conductive

  11. Recent advances in M13 bacteriophage-based optical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inhong; Moon, Jong-Sik; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2016-10-01

    Recently, M13 bacteriophage has started to be widely used as a functional nanomaterial for various electrical, chemical, or optical applications, such as battery components, photovoltaic cells, sensors, and optics. In addition, the use of M13 bacteriophage has expanded into novel research, such as exciton transporting. In these applications, the versatility of M13 phage is a result of its nontoxic, self-assembling, and specific binding properties. For these reasons, M13 phage is the most powerful candidate as a receptor for transducing chemical or optical phenomena of various analytes into electrical or optical signal. In this review, we will overview the recent progress in optical sensing applications of M13 phage. The structural and functional characters of M13 phage will be described and the recent results in optical sensing application using fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, Förster resonance energy transfer, and surface enhanced Raman scattering will be outlined.

  12. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Pe, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Corbiere, Franck; Belliot, Pierre; Estribeau, Magali

    2004-11-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding space applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this paper will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments and performances of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process will be presented in the corresponding section.

  13. Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, MengRu

    2015-04-01

    Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China Remote sensing technology , is one of the pillars of the space information technology in the 21st century ,play an important role in the study of vegetation. Vegetation coverage as an important parameter reflecting surface information, has been an important research topic in the field of vegetation remote sensing. Administrative region in zhejiang Province as the study area, use of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote sensing technology, combined with the related data, to survey the area of forest resources in zhejiang Province, establishes an index system of sustainable forest resources management ability in zhejiang, and to evaluate its ability. Remote Sensing is developed in the 1960 s of the earth observation technology, comprehensive instruments refers to the application, not contact with the object detection phase, the target characteristics of electromagnetic waves recorded from a distance, through the analysis, reveals the characteristics of the object properties and changes of comprehensive detection technology. Investigation of vegetation is an important application field of remote sensing investigation. Vegetation is an important factor of environment, and also is one of the best sign to reflect the regional ecological environment, at the same times is the interpretation of soil, hydrological elements such as logo, individual or prospecting indicator plant. Vegetation imaging and interpretation of research results for environmental monitoring, biodiversity conservation, agriculture, forestry and other relevant departments to provide information services.Microwave remote sensing hyperspectral remote sensing technology and application in the research of vegetation is an important direction of remote sensing technology in the future. This paper introduces the principle of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote

  14. New quantum cascade laser sources for sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troccoli, Mariano

    2017-05-01

    In this presentation we will review our most recent results on development of Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) for analytical and industrial applications. QCLs have demonstrated the capability to cover the entire range of Mid-IR, Far-IR, and THz wavelengths by skillful tuning of the material design and composition and by use of intrinsic material properties via a set of techniques collectively called "bandgap engineering". The use of MOCVD, pioneered on industrial scale by AdTech Optics, has enabled the deployment of QCL devices into a diverse range of environments and applications. QCLs can be tailored to the specific application requirements due to their unprecedented flexibility in design and thanks to the leveraging of well-known III-V fabrication technologies inherited from the NIR domain. Nevertheless, several applications and new frontiers in R and D need the constant support of new developments in device features, capabilities, and performances. We have developed a wide range of devices, from high power, high efficiency multi-mode sources, to narrow-band, single mode devices with low-power consumption, and from non-linear, multi-wavelength generating devices to broadband sources and multi-emitter arrays. All our devices are grown and processed using MOCVD technology and allow us to attain competitive performances across the whole mid-IR spectral range. This talk will present an overview of our current achievements. References 1. M. Troccoli, "High power emission and single mode operation of quantum cascade lasers for industrial applications", J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron., 21 (6), 1-7 (2015). Invited Review. 2. Seungyong Jung, Aiting Jiang, Yifan Jiang, Karun Vijayraghavan, Xiaojun Wang, Mariano Troccoli, and Mikhail A. Belkin, "Broadly Tunable Monolithic Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources", Nature Comm. 5, 4267 (2014).. 3. Mariano Troccoli, Arkadiy Lyakh, Jenyu Fan, Xiaojun Wang, Richard Maulini, Alexei G Tsekoun, Rowel Go, C Kumar N Patel, "Long

  15. Application of the Development in Environment Measurement and Sensibility Nano-Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kazutoshi; Aizawa, Hidenobu

    Recently, environmental pollution is social problem with nano materials and food contamination is a new social problem. On the other hand, the complaint related to the offensive odor in Japan exceeded 20,000 affairs in 1998, and these problems are not solved. The odor sensing system for detecting and control an offensive odor at an early stage is required. The sensing system using the sense of odor known as one of the fifth senses of human is proposed to these demands. Especially as for e-NOSE system, application will be expected from now on in many fields, such as medical diagnosis, health monitoring, environment, food, robot and a car. The sensing technology in which an electrochemical sensor called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is mainly used is making detection mechanisms, such as an electrode and a detection thin film on the nano-level. Therefore, detection films of sensor depend on the characteristic of the sensing devices using on material and processing technology. That the new technology sensor is asked can detect extremely low concentration from ppm to ppb level, and it is the sensor with low influence of environment, such as a gas of the outside for detection, temperature and humidity.

  16. Refractive Index Sensing with D-Shaped Plastic Optical Fibers for Chemical and Biochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Filipa; Duarte, Daniel; Bilro, Lúcia; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Pesavento, Maria; Zeni, Luigi; Cennamo, Nunzio

    2016-12-13

    We report the optimization of the length of a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor for refractive index (RI) sensing from a numerical and experimental point of view. The sensing principle is based on total internal reflection (TIR). POFs with 1 mm in diameter were embedded in grooves, realized in planar supports with different lengths, and polished to remove the cladding and part of the core. All D-shaped POF sensors were tested using aqueous medium with different refractive indices (from 1.332 to 1.471) through intensity-based configuration. Results showed two different responses. Considering the refractive index (RI) range (1.33-1.39), the sensitivity and the resolution of the sensor were strongly dependent on the sensing region length. The highest sensitivity (resolution of 6.48 × 10(-3) refractive index units, RIU) was obtained with 6 cm sensing length. In the RI range (1.41-1.47), the length of the sensing region was not a critical aspect to obtain the best resolution. These results enable the application of this optical platform for chemical and biochemical evanescent field sensing. The sensor production procedure is very simple, fast, and low-cost.

  17. Sensing and Control Electronics for Low-Mass Low-Capacitance MEMS Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    frequency is close to the best achievable noise floor without vacuum packaging . The experiments also show that the input-referred noise floor of the...One major difficulty in vacuum packaging MEMS sensors is that the structure has modes of vibration other than the sensing mode. Low-damping operation

  18. Encased cantilevers for low-noise force and mass sensing in liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziegler, D.; Klaassen, A.; Bahri, D.; Chmielewski, D.; Nievergelt, A.; Mugele, F.; Sader, J.; Ashby, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    Viscous damping severely limits the performance of resonator based sensing in liquids. We present encased cantilevers that overcome this limitation with a transparent and hydrophobic encasement built around the resonator. Only a few micrometers of the cantilever probe protrude from the encasement an

  19. Encased cantilevers for low-noise force and mass sensing in liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziegler, D.; Klaassen, A.; Bahri, D.; Chmielewski, D.; Nievergelt, A.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Sader, J.; Ashby, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    Viscous damping severely limits the performance of resonator based sensing in liquids. We present encased cantilevers that overcome this limitation with a transparent and hydrophobic encasement built around the resonator. Only a few micrometers of the cantilever probe protrude from the encasement an

  20. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Valentini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented.

  1. Privacy Protection in Participatory Sensing Applications Requiring Fine-Grained Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Kai; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping

    2010-01-01

    The emerging participatory sensing applications have brought a privacy risk where users expose their location information. Most of the existing solutions preserve location privacy by generalizing a precise user location to a coarse-grained location, and hence they cannot be applied in those...... provider is an trustworthy entity, making our solution more feasible to practical applications. We present and analyze our security model, and evaluate the performance and scalability of our system....

  2. Combustion synthesis of tin dioxide nanocomposites for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrania, Smitesh Dhirajlal

    The current work focuses on understanding the mechanisms controlling tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticle morphology in combustion synthesis systems and how nanoarchitecture affects performance of solid-state gas sensors. A range of analytical methods (including transmission and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, nitrogen absorption, and XEDS) were used to characterize the materials properties as a function of the combustion synthesis conditions. A novel method of generating tin dioxide materials was developed which provides a new degree of control over SnO2 morphology; including spherical, nanorod and encapsulated particle architectures. A simplified model for particle formation based on characteristic times was developed to identify the physical and chemical processes affecting the morphologies observed using transmission electron microscope imaging. The SnO2 nanoparticles evolve from primary particles sizes of 7 nm to 14 nm through the synthesis region, and the results indicate interparticle collision and sintering are the dominant mechanisms in determining particle size and morphology for the flame conditions studied. Metal acetates were used to create metal/SnO 2 nanocomposite materials, and the processes controlling gold acetate decomposition in particular were explored. The results of the studies suggest a relationship between the precursor crystallite size and the product nanoparticles. The well-characterized SnO2 particles were evaluated as the active materials for gas-sensing. Sensor sensitivity and time response to carbon monoxide in dry air was used to investigate microstructure-performance links. Excellent sensitivity (3 7, based on the ratio of the resistance of the sensor in air to the resistance in the target gas) and time response (4--20 seconds) were demonstrated for the thin film gas sensors. Fabrication studies demonstrated the sensor performance was a strong function of the film deposition method. A novel method for manufacturing

  3. Application of remote sensed precipitation for landslide hazard assessment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Adler, R. F.; Kumar, S.; Harrison, K.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing availability of remotely sensed land surface and precipitation information provides new opportunities to improve upon existing landslide hazard assessment methods. This research considers how satellite precipitation information can be applied in two types of landslide hazard assessment frameworks: a global, landslide forecasting framework and a deterministic slope-stability model. Examination of both landslide hazard frameworks points to the need for higher resolution spatial and temporal precipitation inputs to better identify small-scale precipitation forcings that contribute to significant landslide triggering. This research considers how satellite precipitation information may be downscaled to account for local orographic impacts and better resolve peak intensities. Precipitation downscaling is employed in both models to better approximate local rainfall distribution, antecedent conditions, and intensities. Future missions, such as the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will provide more frequent and extensive estimates of precipitation at the global scale and have the potential to significantly advance landslide hazard assessment tools. The first landslide forecasting tool, running in near real-time at http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov, considers potential landslide activity at the global scale and relies on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data and surface products to provide a near real-time picture of where landslides may be triggered. Results of the algorithm evaluation indicate that considering higher resolution susceptibility information is a key factor in better resolving potentially hazardous areas. However, success in resolving when landslide activity is probable is closely linked to appropriate characterization of the empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds. We test a variety of rainfall thresholds to evaluate algorithmic performance accuracy and determine the optimal set of conditions that

  4. Fluid Lensing and Applications to Remote Sensing of Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, Ved

    2017-01-01

    The use of fluid lensing technology on UAVs is presented as a novel means for 3D imaging of aquatic ecosystems from above the water's surface at the centimeter scale. Preliminary results are presented from airborne fluid lensing campaigns conducted over the coral reefs of Ofu Island, American Samoa (2013) and the stromatolite reefs of Shark Bay, Western Australia (2014), covering a combined area of 15km2. These reef ecosystems were revealed with centimetre-scale 2D resolution, and an accompanying 3D bathymetry model was derived using fluid lensing, Structure from Motion and UAV position data. Data products were validated from in-situ survey methods including underwater calibration targets, depth measurements and millimetre-scale high-dynamic range gigapixel photogrammetry. Fluid lensing is an experimental technology that uses water transmitting wavelengths to passively image underwater objects at high-resolution by exploiting time-varying optical lensing events caused by surface waves. Fluid lensing data are captured from low-altitude, cost-effective electric UAVs to achieve multispectral imagery and bathymetry models at the centimetre scale over regional areas. As a passive system, fluid lensing is presently limited by signal-to-noise ratio and water column inherent optical properties to approximately 10 m depth over visible wavelengths in clear waters. The datasets derived from fluid lensing present the first centimetre-scale images of a reef acquired from above the ocean surface, without wave distortion. The 3D multispectral data distinguish coral, fish and invertebrates in American Samoa, and reveal previously undocumented, morphologically distinct, stromatolite structures in Shark Bay. These findings suggest fluid lensing and multirotor electric drones represent a promising advance in the remote sensing of aquatic environments at the centimetre scale, or 'reef scale' relevant to the conservation of reef ecosystems. Pending further development and validation of

  5. Paper as a platform for sensing applications and other devices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Walus, Konrad; Stoeber, Boris

    2015-04-29

    Paper is a ubiquitous material that has various applications in day to day life. A sheet of paper is produced by pressing moist wood cellulose fibers together. Paper offers unique properties: paper allows passive liquid transport, it is compatible with many chemical and biochemical moieties, it exhibits piezoelectricity, and it is biodegradable. Hence, paper is an attractive low-cost functional material for sensing devices. In recent years, researchers in the field of science and engineering have witnessed an exponential growth in the number of research contributions that focus on the development of cost-effective and scalable fabrication methods and new applications of paper-based devices. In this review article, we highlight recent advances in the development of paper-based sensing devices in the areas of electronics, energy storage, strain sensing, microfluidic devices, and biosensing, including piezoelectric paper. Additionally, this review includes current limitations of paper-based sensing devices and points out issues that have limited the commercialization of some of the paper-based sensing devices.

  6. 无人机遥感众创时代%The Mass Innovation Era of UAV Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖小罕; 周成虎; 苏奋振; 卢海英; 岳焕印; 缑吉平

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary development of science and technology reduced barriers to applying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and remote sensors. Meanwhile, public participation triggered an explosive growth of innovative applications in the field of UAV remote sensing. Therefore, UAVs have become a common means of scientific research. Under some circumstances, the UAV remote sensing data can be used to substitute for the satellite remote sensing data. In this study, the authors firstly systematically summarized both of the features of times and characteristics of science and technology of UAV remote sensing. Then, the authors introduced several fundamental applications including earthquake relief, surveying and mapping of islands and reefs, Antarctic scientific expedition, accurate farmland management, etc. Thirdly, the authors put forward some future directions from the aspects of the stimulation of restructuring of remote sensing data supply, the promotion of comprehensive perspective in geography research as well as the necessity of planning of UAV remote sensing testing sites. In particular, a concept of UAV remote sensing data carrier was proposed.%当代科技发展降低了无人机和遥感器的准入门槛.大众参与为无人机遥感领域注入了巨大的创造力,触发了无人机遥感创新发展的爆发式增长.当前,无人机已成为普适化和平民化的科学手段,无人机遥感数据在众多领域和部门呈现出取代通航遥感和卫星遥感数据的趋势.本文首先对无人机遥感所处的时代特征及其展现的科技特色进行了分析与归纳,然后列举了无人机遥感在抗震救灾、岛礁测绘、极地科考、精准农田管理等领域开展的典型应用,最后从无人机发展所致遥感数据供应结构性调整、无人机遥感地理学研究推动、遥感无人机试验场地布局等方面进行了展望.特别地,针对无人机遥感应用量大面广、数据分布多源异构等特点,本文提

  7. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  8. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  9. The theory of scintillation with applications in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Rino, Charles

    2011-01-01

    "In order to truly understand data signals transmitted by satellite, one must understand scintillation theory in addition to well established theories of EM wave propagation and scattering. Scintillation is a nuisance in satellite EM communications, but it has stimulated numerous theoretical developments with science applications. This book not only presents a thorough theoretical explanation of scintillation, but it also offers a complete library of MATLAB codes that will reproduce the book examples. The library includes GPS coordinate manipulations, satellite orbit prediction, and earth mean magnetic field computations. The subect matter is for EM researchers; however, also theory is relevant to geophysics, acoustics, optics and astoronomy"--Provided by publisher.

  10. Fundamentals and applications of SERS-based bioanalytical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Mehmet; Mullen, Emma R.; Korkmaz, Aysun; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2017-08-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field that examines the interaction between light and metallic nanostructures at the metal-dielectric interface. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful analytical technique that uses plasmonics to obtain detailed chemical information of molecules or molecular assemblies adsorbed or attached to nanostructured metallic surfaces. For bioanalytical applications, these surfaces are engineered to optimize for high enhancement factors and molecular specificity. In this review we focus on the fabrication of SERS substrates and their use for bioanalytical applications. We review the fundamental mechanisms of SERS and parameters governing SERS enhancement. We also discuss developments in the field of novel SERS substrates. This includes the use of different materials, sizes, shapes, and architectures to achieve high sensitivity and specificity as well as tunability or flexibility. Different fundamental approaches are discussed, such as label-free and functional assays. In addition, we highlight recent relevant advances for bioanalytical SERS applied to small molecules, proteins, DNA, and biologically relevant nanoparticles. Subsequently, we discuss the importance of data analysis and signal detection schemes to achieve smaller instruments with low cost for SERS-based point-of-care technology developments. Finally, we review the main advantages and challenges of SERS-based biosensing and provide a brief outlook.

  11. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: principles and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C S; Lam, C W K; Chan, M H M; Cheung, R C K; Law, L K; Lit, L C W; Ng, K F; Suen, M W M; Tai, H L

    2003-01-01

    This mini-review provides a general understanding of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) which has become an increasingly important technique in the clinical laboratory for structural study or quantitative measurement of metabolites in a complex biological sample. The first part of the review explains the electrospray ionisation process, design of mass spectrometers with separation capability, characteristics of the mass spectrum, and practical considerations in quantitative analysis. The second part then focuses on some clinical applications. The capability of ESI-tandem-MS in measuring bio-molecules sharing similar molecular structures makes it particularly useful in screening for inborn errors of amino acid, fatty acid, purine, pyrimidine metabolism and diagnosis of galactosaemia and peroxisomal disorders. Electrospray ionisation is also efficient in generating cluster ions for structural elucidation of macromolecules. This has fostered a new and improved approach (vs electrophoresis) for identification and quantification of haemoglobin variants. With the understanding of glycohaemoglobin structure, an IFCC reference method for glycohaemoglobin assay has been established using ESI-MS. It represents a significant advancement for the standardisation of HbA1c in diabetic monitoring. With its other applications such as in therapeutic drug monitoring, ESI-MS will continue to exert an important influence in the future development and organisation of the clinical laboratory service.

  12. Upconversion Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Mechanism, and Applications in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Xiaojun Zhao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Upconversion is an optical process that involves the conversion of lower-energy photons into higher-energy photons. It has been extensively studied since mid-1960s and widely applied in optical devices. Over the past decade, high-quality rare earth-doped upconversion nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with the rapid development of nanotechnology and are becoming more prominent in biological sciences. The synthesis methods are usually phase-based processes, such as thermal decomposition, hydrothermal reaction, and ionic liquids-based synthesis. The main difference between upconversion nanoparticles and other nanomaterials is that they can emit visible light under near infrared irradiation. The near infrared irradiation leads to low autofluorescence, less scattering and absorption, and deep penetration in biological samples. In this review, the synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles and the mechanisms of upconversion process will be discussed, followed by their applications in different areas, especially in the biological field for biosensing.

  13. Optofluidic devices and applications in photonics, sensing and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lin; Chen, H Matthew; Freeman, Lindsay M; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2012-10-07

    Optofluidics integrates the fields of photonics and microfluidics, providing new freedom to both fields and permitting the realization of optical and fluidic property manipulations at the chip scale. Optofluidics was formed only after many breakthroughs in microfluidics, as understanding of fluid behaviour at the micron level enabled researchers to combine the advantages of optics and fluids. This review describes the progress of optofluidics from a photonics perspective, highlighting various optofluidic aspects ranging from the device's property manipulation to an interactive integration between optics and fluids. First, we describe photonic elements based on the functionalities that enable fluid manipulation. We then discuss the applications of optofluidic biodetection with an emphasis on nanosensing. Next, we discuss the progress of optofluidic lenses with an emphasis on its various architectures, and finally we conceptualize on where the field may lead.

  14. Polarization Invariants and Retrieval of Surface Parameters Using Polarization Measurements in Remote Sensing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shestopaloff, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Using polarization measurements in remote sensing and optical studies allows retrieving more information. We consider relationship between the reflection coefficients of plane and rough surfaces for linearly polarized waves. Certain polarization properties of reflected waves and polarization invariants, in particular at incident angle of forty five degrees, allow finding amplitude and phase characteristics of reflected waves. Based on this study, we introduce methods for finding dielectric permittivity, temperature and geometrical characteristics of observed surfaces. Experimental results prove that these methods can be used for different practical purposes in technological and remote sensing applications, in a broad range of electromagnetic spectrum.

  15. Stainless steel component with compressed fiber Bragg grating for high temperature sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinesh, Mathew; MacPherson, William N.; Hand, Duncan P.; Maier, Robert R. J.

    2016-05-01

    A smart metal component having the potential for high temperature strain sensing capability is reported. The stainless steel (SS316) structure is made by selective laser melting (SLM). A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is embedded in to a 3D printed U-groove by high temperature brazing using a silver based alloy, achieving an axial FBG compression of 13 millistrain at room temperature. Initial results shows that the test component can be used for up to 700°C for sensing applications.

  16. Elevation change and remote-sensing mass-balance methods on the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    radar (InSAR), it is possible to apply the principle of mass conservation and derive the mass balance from this. The method has previously been applied to a flow line, but the intention is here to attempt a regional, distributed calculation. We will present the method and its weaknesses and show a map...

  17. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  18. Rapid On-Site Formation of a Free-Standing Flexible Optical Link for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An optical link, based on a conventional Scotch tape waveguide, for sensing applications requiring rapid on-site assembly is proposed and demonstrated. The flexible waveguide contains an integrated aluminum one-dimensional grating coupler that, when stuck on the radiative surface of a light emitting device, allows light to be coupled in and transmitted through the tape, whose tip end is, in turn, adhered onto the photosensitive surface of a photodetector. The (decoupling approaches exhibit high alignment tolerances that permit the formation of a free-standing flexible optical connection between surface-normal optoelectronic devices without the need of specialized equipment. As the first demonstration of a sensing application, the proposed optical link is easily configured as a cost-effective intensity-based refractometric sensor for liquid detection, which can be applicable to on-site quality and process control of, for example, beverages.

  19. Rapid On-Site Formation of a Free-Standing Flexible Optical Link for Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo

    2016-01-01

    An optical link, based on a conventional Scotch tape waveguide, for sensing applications requiring rapid on-site assembly is proposed and demonstrated. The flexible waveguide contains an integrated aluminum one-dimensional grating coupler that, when stuck on the radiative surface of a light emitting device, allows light to be coupled in and transmitted through the tape, whose tip end is, in turn, adhered onto the photosensitive surface of a photodetector. The (de)coupling approaches exhibit high alignment tolerances that permit the formation of a free-standing flexible optical connection between surface-normal optoelectronic devices without the need of specialized equipment. As the first demonstration of a sensing application, the proposed optical link is easily configured as a cost-effective intensity-based refractometric sensor for liquid detection, which can be applicable to on-site quality and process control of, for example, beverages. PMID:27782049

  20. Hybrid plasmonic microcavity with an air-filled gap for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Binbin; Wu, Genzhu; Chen, Daru

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity with air-filled regions in the low-permittivity dielectric gap is proposed for sensing applications. Compared with the conventional structure with homogeneous gap, the introduced air-filled regions could improve the key modal characteristics of the hybrid mode. Simulation results reveal that this kind of hybrid microcavity maintains low loss with high quality factor ∼3062, and high field confinement with small mode volume 0.891 μm3. Moreover, in the sensing applications, this hybrid microcavity features simultaneously large refractive index sensitivity of 100 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and relatively high quality factor of 3062. Hence, it shows that the hybrid plasmonic microcavity has potential applications in ultra-compact refractive index sensor.

  1. Theoretical Studies of Spectroscopic Line Mixing in Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of collisional transfer of intensity due to line mixing has an increasing importance for atmospheric monitoring. From a theoretical point of view, all relevant information about the collisional processes is contained in the relaxation matrix where the diagonal elements give half-widths and shifts, and the off-diagonal elements correspond to line interferences. For simple systems such as those consisting of diatom-atom or diatom-diatom, accurate fully quantum calculations based on interaction potentials are feasible. However, fully quantum calculations become unrealistic for more complex systems. On the other hand, the semi-classical Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism, which has been widely used to calculate half-widths and shifts for decades, fails in calculating the off-diagonal matrix elements. As a result, in order to simulate atmospheric spectra where the effects from line mixing are important, semi-empirical fitting or scaling laws such as the ECS (Energy-Corrected Sudden) and IOS (Infinite-Order Sudden) models are commonly used. Recently, while scrutinizing the development of the RB formalism, we have found that these authors applied the isolated line approximation in their evaluating matrix elements of the Liouville scattering operator given in exponential form. Since the criterion of this assumption is so stringent, it is not valid for many systems of interest in atmospheric applications. Furthermore, it is this assumption that blocks the possibility to calculate the whole relaxation matrix at all. By eliminating this unjustified application, and accurately evaluating matrix elements of the exponential operators, we have developed a more capable formalism. With this new formalism, we are now able not only to reduce uncertainties for calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to remove a once insurmountable obstacle to calculate the whole relaxation matrix. This implies that we can address the line mixing with the semi-classical theory based on

  2. Versatile charge transfer through anthraquinone films for electrochemical sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venarusso, Luna B. [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900 (Brazil); Tammeveski, Kaido [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Maia, Gilberto, E-mail: gilberto.maia@ufms.br [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Caixa Postal 549, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900 (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the effect of anthraquinone (AQ) films on the charge transfer rate of {beta}-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), dopamine (DA), and ferricyanide on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in solutions of different pH. Maximum blocking action on the Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} redox probe was observed at pH 7 and open-circuit potential (OCP). However, maximum electron hopping effect was observed at pH 9 at both -0.58 V and -0.85 V for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-}, pH 7 at -0.58 V for NAD{sup +}, and pH 9 at -0.58 V for DA, suggesting that electron hopping in AQ films on a GC surface is dependent on both pH and electrode potential. These findings lend support for the application of these films in the detection of soluble redox probes such as NAD{sup +} and DA at biological pH values (from 7 to 9).

  3. Charge detection mass spectrometry: Instrumentation & applications to viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Elizabeth E.

    For over three decades, electrospray ionization (ESI) has been used to ionize non-covalent complexes and subsequently transfer the intact ion into the gas phase for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. ESI generates a distribution of multiple charged ions, resulting in an m/z spectrum comprised of a series of peaks, known as a charge state envelope. To obtain mass information, the number of charges for each peak must be deduced. For smaller biological analytes like peptides, the charge states are sufficiently resolved and this process is straightforward. For macromolecular complexes exceeding ~100 kDa, this process is complicated by the broadening and shifting of charge states due to incomplete desolvation, salt adduction, and inherent mass heterogeneity. As the analyte mass approaches the MDa regime, the m/z spectrum is often comprised of a broad distribution of unresolved charge states. In such cases, mass determination is precluded. Charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) is an emerging MS technique for determining the masses of heterogeneous, macromolecular complexes. In CDMS, the m/z and z of single ions are measured concurrently so that mass is easily calculated. With this approach, deconvolution of an m/z spectrum is unnecessary. This measurement is carried out by passing macroions through a conductive cylinder. The induced image charge on the cylindrical detector provides information about m/z and z: the m/z is related to its time-of-flight through the detector, and the z is related to the intensity of the image charge. We have applied CDMS to study the self-assembly of virus capsids. Late-stage intermediates in the assembly of hepatitis B virus, a devastating human pathogen, have been identified. This is the first time that such intermediates have been detected and represent a significant advancement towards understanding virus capsid assembly. CDMS has also been used to identify oversized, non-icosahedral polymorphs in the assembly of woodchuck hepatitis

  4. High resolution remote sensing image processing technology and its application to uranium geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie-lin

    2008-12-01

    Hyperspectral and high spatial resolution remote sensing technology take important role in uranium geological application, data mining and knowledge discovery methods are key to character spectral and spatial information of uranium mineralization factors. Based on curvelet transform algorithm, this paper developed the image fusion technology of hyperspectral (Hyperion) and high spatial data (SPOT5), and results demonstrated that fusion image had advantage in denoising, enhancing and information identification. Used discrete wavelet transform, the spectral parameters of uranium mineralization factors were acquired, the spectral identification pedigrees of typical quadrivalence and hexavalence uranium minerals were established. Furthermore, utilizing hyperspectral remote sensing observation technology, this paper developed hyperspectral logging of drill cores and trench, it can quickly processed lots of geological and spectral information, and the relationship between radioactive intensity and abnormal spectral characteristics of Fe3+ was established. All those provided remote sensing technical bases to uranium geology, and the better results have been achieved in Taoshan uranium deposits in south China.

  5. Temporal Analysis of Remotely Sensed Precipitation Products for Hydrological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, K. J.; Bennett, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    No study has systematically evaluated streamflow modeling between monthly and daily timescales. This study examines streamflow from eight watersheds across the United States where five different precipitation products were used as primary input into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to generate simulated streamflow. Timescales examined include monthly, dekad (10 day), pentad (5 day), triad (3 day), and daily. The eight basins studied are the San Pedro (Arizona); Cimarron (north-central Oklahoma); mid-Nueces (south Texas); mid-Rio Grande (south Texas and northern Mexico), Yocano (northern Mississippi); Alapaha (south Georgia); Upper Tar (North Carolina) and mid-St. Francis (eastern Arkansas). The precipitation products used to drive simulations include rain gauge, NWS Multisensor Precipitation Estimator, Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, Multi-Satellite (TRMM) Precipitation Analysis, TRMM 3B42-V6, and Climate Prediction Center Morphing Method (CMORPH). Understanding how streamflow varies at sub-monthly timescales is important because there are a host of hydrological applications such a flood forecast guidance and reservoir inflow forecasts that reside in a temporal domain between monthly and daily timescales. The major finding of this study is the quantification of a strong positive correlation between performance metrics and time step at which model performance deteriorates. Basically, better performing simulations, with higher Nash-Sutcliffe values of 0.80 and above can support modeling at finer timescales to at least daily and perhaps beyond into the sub-daily realm. These findings are significant in that they clearly document the ability of SWAT to support modeling at sub-monthly time steps, which is beyond the capability for which SWAT was initially designed.

  6. Establishment of Winter Wheat Regional Simulation Model Based on Remote Sensing Data and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yuping; WANG Shili; ZHANG Li; HOU Yingyu; ZHUANG Liwei; WANG Futang

    2006-01-01

    Accurate crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting are significant to the food security and the sus tainable development of agriculture. Crop yield estimation by remote sensing and crop growth simulation models have highly potential application in crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting. However, both of them have limitations in mechanism and regional application, respectively. Therefore, approach and methodology study on the combination of remote sensing data and crop growth simulation models are con cerned by many researchers. In this paper, adjusted and regionalized WOFOST (World Food Study) in North China and Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves-a model of leaf optical PROperties SPECTra (SAIL-PROSFPECT) were coupled through LAI to simulate Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) of crop canopy, by which crop model was re-initialized by minimizing differences between simulated and synthesized SAVI from remote sensing data using an optimization software (FSEOPT). Thus, a regional remote-sensing crop-simulation-framework-model (WSPFRS) was established under potential production level (optimal soil water condition). The results were as follows: after re-initializing regional emergence date by using remote sensing data, anthesis, and maturity dates simulated by WSPFRS model were more close to measured values than simulated results of WOFOST; by re-initializing regional biomass weight at turn-green stage, the spa tial distribution of simulated storage organ weight was more consistent with measured yields and the area with high values was nearly consistent with actual high yield area. This research is a basis for developing regional crop model in water stress production level based on remote sensing data.

  7. Thermal infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.

  8. Application of Compressive Sensing to Gravitational Microlensing Data and Implications for Miniaturized Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde-Patel, Asmita (Inventor); Barry, Richard K.; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2016-01-01

    Compressive Sensing is a technique for simultaneous acquisition and compression of data that is sparse or can be made sparse in some domain. It is currently under intense development and has been profitably employed for industrial and medical applications. We here describe the use of this technique for the processing of astronomical data. We outline the procedure as applied to exoplanet gravitational microlensing and analyze measurement results and uncertainty values. We describe implications for on-spacecraft data processing for space observatories. Our findings suggest that application of these techniques may yield significant, enabling benefits especially for power and volume-limited space applications such as miniaturized or micro-constellation satellites.

  9. Microwave propagation and remote sensing atmospheric influences with models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Pranab Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Because prevailing atmospheric/troposcopic conditions greatly influence radio wave propagation above 10 GHz, the unguided propagation of microwaves in the neutral atmosphere can directly impact many vital applications in science and engineering. These include transmission of intelligence, and radar and radiometric applications used to probe the atmosphere, among others. Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the probl

  10. Mass Transfer From Fundamentals to Modern Industrial Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    This didactic approach to the principles and modeling of mass transfer as it is needed in modern industrial processes is unique in combining a step-by-step introduction to all important fundamentals with the most recent applications. Based upon the renowned author's successful new modeling method as used for the O-18 process, the exemplary exercises included in the text are fact-proven, taken directly from existing chemical plants. Fascinating reading for chemists, graduate students, chemical and process engineers, as well as thermodynamics physicists.

  11. APPLICATION OF CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORK IN CLASSIFICATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION AGRICULTURAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Precision Agriculture (PA promoted by high-resolution remote sensing, it makes significant sense in management and estimation of agriculture through crop classification of high-resolution remote sensing image. Due to the complex and fragmentation of the features and the surroundings in the circumstance of high-resolution, the accuracy of the traditional classification methods has not been able to meet the standard of agricultural problems. In this case, this paper proposed a classification method for high-resolution agricultural remote sensing images based on convolution neural networks(CNN. For training, a large number of training samples were produced by panchromatic images of GF-1 high-resolution satellite of China. In the experiment, through training and testing on the CNN under the toolbox of deep learning by MATLAB, the crop classification finally got the correct rate of 99.66 % after the gradual optimization of adjusting parameter during training. Through improving the accuracy of image classification and image recognition, the applications of CNN provide a reference value for the field of remote sensing in PA.

  12. Application of Convolutional Neural Network in Classification of High Resolution Agricultural Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of Precision Agriculture (PA) promoted by high-resolution remote sensing, it makes significant sense in management and estimation of agriculture through crop classification of high-resolution remote sensing image. Due to the complex and fragmentation of the features and the surroundings in the circumstance of high-resolution, the accuracy of the traditional classification methods has not been able to meet the standard of agricultural problems. In this case, this paper proposed a classification method for high-resolution agricultural remote sensing images based on convolution neural networks(CNN). For training, a large number of training samples were produced by panchromatic images of GF-1 high-resolution satellite of China. In the experiment, through training and testing on the CNN under the toolbox of deep learning by MATLAB, the crop classification finally got the correct rate of 99.66 % after the gradual optimization of adjusting parameter during training. Through improving the accuracy of image classification and image recognition, the applications of CNN provide a reference value for the field of remote sensing in PA.

  13. Aerosol Remote Sensing Applications for Airborne Multiangle, Multispectral Shortwave Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bismarck, Jonas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Starace, Marco; Hollstein, André; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    and ground based operations of the instruments so far, only two exemplary campaigns shall be introduced here. FUBEX in July 2008 was the first airborne campaign with FUBISS-ASA2, FUBISS-ZENITH and AMSSP-EM simultaneously mounted on the Cessna 207T of the Institute for Space Sciences, based in Berlin. Vertical radiation profiles recorded on July 28 in 2008 where used for a first application of the introduced inversion algorithm. In Oktober/November 2009, FUBISS-ASA2 and FUBISS-ZENITH where mounted on the German research icebreaker FS Polarstern, crossing the Atlantic on its cruise from Bremerhaven (Germany) to Punta Arenas (Chile). Measurements where performed throughout the whole cruise on days with a variety of different atmospheric conditions, as a Saharan dust outbreak over Cape Verde, typical marine conditions with salt particles in the marine boundary layer and also pristine conditions in the southern Atlantic. Access to the data of other instruments aboard the ship, as a Raman-Lidar, a cloud camera, weather station, and a microwave radiometer, provided valuable a priori information for processing and calibration of the measurements. The results may be of special interest for the validation of satellite aerosol products.

  14. Squeezed hollow-core photonic Bragg fiber for surface sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-07-11

    We propose to use squeezed hollow-core photonic bandgap Bragg fibers for surface sensing applications. We demonstrate theoretically and confirm experimentally that squeezing a section of the Bragg fiber core increases overlap between the optical fields of the core guided modes and the modes bound to the sensing layer, thus, significantly enhancing their interaction via anticrossing phenomenon, which, in turn, enhances surface sensitivity of the fiber sensor. As a practical demonstration, we apply our fiber sensor to in situ monitoring of the dissolution dynamics of a sub-micron-thick polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film coated on the surface of the liquid-filled Bragg fiber core. Strong spectral shift is observed during the dissolution of the PVB film, and a surface spectral sensitivity of ~0.07nm/nm is achieved experimentally with aqueous analytes. The proposed fiber sensor offers a new sensing modality and opens new sensing applications for photonic bandgap fibers, such as real-time detection of binding and affinity, study of kinetics, etc. for a range of chemical and biological samples.

  15. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew J; Colna, Kaitlyn E; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  16. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew J.; Colna, Kaitlyn E.; El-Mezayen, Mahmoud M.; Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E.; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Otis, Daniel B.; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Vega-Rodriguez, Maria; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2017-08-01

    Management of coastal and marine natural resources presents a number of challenges as a growing global population and a changing climate require us to find better strategies to conserve the resources on which our health, economy, and overall well-being depend. To evaluate the status and trends in changing coastal resources over larger areas, managers in government agencies and private stakeholders around the world have increasingly turned to remote sensing technologies. A surge in collaborative and innovative efforts between resource managers, academic researchers, and industry partners is becoming increasingly vital to keep pace with evolving changes of our natural resources. Synoptic capabilities of remote sensing techniques allow assessments that are impossible to do with traditional methods. Sixty years of remote sensing research have paved the way for resource management applications, but uncertainties regarding the use of this technology have hampered its use in management fields. Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and decision-making goals.

  17. Metal-core@metal oxide-shell nanomaterials for gas-sensing applications: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, A.; Janghorban, K.; Hashemi, B.; Neri, G.

    2015-09-01

    With an ever-increasing number of applications in many advanced fields, gas sensors are becoming indispensable devices in our daily life. Among different types of gas sensors, conductometric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are found to be the most appealing for advanced applications in the automotive, biomedical, environmental, and safety sectors because of the their high sensitivity, reduced size, and low cost. To improve their sensing characteristics, new metal oxide-based nanostructures have thus been proposed in recent years as sensing materials. In this review, we extensively review gas-sensing properties of core@ shell nanocomposites in which metals as the core and metal oxides as the shell structure, both of nanometer sizes, are assembled into a single metal@metal oxide core-shell. These nanostructures not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Up-dated achievements in the synthesis and characterization of metal@metal oxide core-shell nanostructures as well as their use in MOS sensors are here reported with the main objective of providing an overview about their gas-sensing properties.

  18. Application of Lithium Attachment Mass Spectrometry for Knudsen Evaporation and Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (KEMS, CIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, Thomas; Booth, A. Murray; Alfarra, Rami; Bacak, Asan; Pericval, Carl

    2016-04-01

    Lithium ion attachment mass spectrometry provides a non-specific, non-fragmenting and sensitive method for detection of volatile species in the gas phase. The design, manufacture, and results from lithium ion attachment ionisation sources for two mass spectrometry systems are presented. Trace gas analysis is investigated using a modified Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) and vapour pressure (VP) measurements using a modified Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) are presented. The Li+ modified CIMS provided limits of detection of 4 ppt for acetone, 0.2 ppt for formic acid, 15 ppt for nitric acid and 120 ppt from ammonia. Despite improvements, the problem of burnout remained persistent. The Li+ CIMS would unlikely be suitable for field or aircraft work, but could be appropriate for certain lab applications. The KEMS currently utilizes an electron impact (EI) ionisation source which provides a highly sensitive source, with the drawback of fragmentation of ionized molecules (Booth et al., 2009). Using Li+ KEMS the VP of samples can be measured without fragmentation and can therefore be used to identify VPs of individual components in mixtures. The validity of using Li+ for determining the VP of mixtures was tested by making single component VP measurements, which showed good agreement with EI measurements of Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) 3 and PEG 4, both when individually measured and when mixed. The Li+ KEMS was then used to investigate a system of atmospheric relevance, α-pinene secondary organic aerosol, generated in a reaction chamber (Alfarra et al., 2012). The VPs of the individual components from this generated sample are within the range we expect for compounds capable of partitioning between the particle and gas phase of an aerosol (0.1-10-5 Pa). Li+ source has a calculated sensitivity approximately 75 times less than that of EI, but the lack of fragmentation using the Li+ source is a significant advantage.

  19. Public health applications of remote sensing of the environment, an evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The available techniques were examined in the field of remote sensing (including aerial photography, infrared detection, radar, etc.) and applications to a number of problems in the wide field of public health determined. The specific areas of public health examined included: air pollution, water pollution, communicable disease, and the combined problems of urban growth and the effect of disasters on human communities. The assessment of the possible applications of remote sensing to these problems was made primarily by examination of the available literature in each field, and by interviews with health authorities, physicists, biologists, and other interested workers. Three types of programs employing remote sensors were outlined in the air pollution field: (1) proving ability of sensors to monitor pollutants at three levels of interest - point source, ambient levels in cities, and global patterns; (2) detection of effects of pollutants on the environment at local and global levels; and (3) routine monitoring.

  20. Analysis of highly directive photoconductive dipole antenna at terahertz frequency for sensing and imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Isha; Ranjan Jha, Kumud; Singh, G.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed a photoconductive dipole antenna at terahertz (THz) frequency for sensing and imaging applications. For these applications, to detect powdered explosives, there is a need to have an image of the object under detection with high resolution to distinguish suspicious items from the normal background. The THz antenna is one of the most important components in a THz sensing and imaging system and there is a need to have such a transmitting THz source with high directivity and optimum radiation efficiency. Therefore, to achieve this, we have explored three photoconductive dipole antenna configurations to enhance the directivity and radiation efficiency. With the use of a simple dipole antenna and silicon lens, we are able to achieve the directivity of 10.7dBi and radiation efficiency of 91.59% in both E-plane and H-plane.

  1. Advances in electrospun carbon fiber-based electrochemical sensing platforms for bioanalytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Hatton, T Alan; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical sensing is an efficient and inexpensive method for detection of a range of chemicals of biological, clinical, and environmental interest. Carbon materials-based electrodes are commonly employed for the development of electrochemical sensors because of their low cost, biocompatibility, and facile electron transfer kinetics. Electrospun carbon fibers (ECFs), prepared by electrospinning of a polymeric precursor and subsequent thermal treatment, have emerged as promising carbon systems for biosensing applications since the electrochemical properties of these carbon fibers can be easily modified by processing conditions and post-treatment. This review addresses recent progress in the use of ECFs for sensor fabrication and analyte detection. We focus on the modification strategies of ECFs and identification of the key components that impart the bioelectroanalytical activities, and point out the future challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the fundamental understanding of the ECF electrochemistry and to realize the practical applications of ECF-based sensing devices.

  2. Quality management in clinical application of mass spectrometry measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; Seger, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Thanks to highly specific analyte detection and potentially complete compensation for matrix variables based on the principle of stable isotope derivative internal standardisation, mass spectrometry methods allow the development of diagnostic tests of outstanding analytical quality. However, these features per se do not guarantee reliability of tests. A wide range of factors can introduce analytical errors and inaccuracy due to the extreme complexity of the methods involved. Furthermore, it can be expected that the application patterns of MS methods in diagnostic laboratories will change substantially during the coming years - with presumably less specialised laboratories implementing mass spectrometry. Introduction of highly automated test solutions by manufacturers will require some trade-off between operation convenience, sample throughput and analytical performance. Structured and careful quality and risk management is therefore crucial to translate the analytical power of mass spectrometry into actionable and reliable results for individual patients' care and to maintain the degree of reliability that is expected from MS methods in clinical pathology. This reflection review discusses whether particular quality assurance tools have to be applied for MS-based diagnostic tests and whether these tools are different from those applied for optical- and affinity-based standard tests. Both pre-implementation strategies and surveillance of assays with assessment of metadata in routine testing are addressed. The release of the CLSI guideline C62-A in 2014 was a substantial achievement in this context because it addresses a wide spectrum of relevant issues in quality assurance of mass spectrometry-based clinical tests. However, the translation of this best practice document into individual laboratory settings is likely to be heterogeneous.

  3. Technology of fiber-optic temperature sensing and its application in temperature measuring of gob area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-wen; HUANG Li-ming

    2011-01-01

    Based on advantages of technology of distributive fiber-optic temperature sensing and specific to its applications in monitoring mine conflagration, the corresponding Processes such as connection arrangement, signal transmission and monitoring were illustrated. As applied in Sitai Coal Mine of Datong Coal Mine Group Co., this method is effective and accurate and could provide reliable gist for monitoring spontaneous combustion in gob area of mines.

  4. Dynamic Response of Tapered Optical Multimode Fiber Coated with Carbon Nanotubes for Ethanol Sensing Application

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a highly combustible chemical universally designed for biomedical applications. In this paper, optical sensing performance of tapered multimode fiber tip coated with carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film towards aqueous ethanol with different concentrations is investigated. The tapered optical multimode fiber tip is coated with CNT using drop-casting technique and is annealed at 70 °C to enhance the binding of the nanomaterial to the silica fiber tip. The optical fiber tip and the CNT se...

  5. Voltage-controlled oscillator at 6 GHz for Doppler radar in heart sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of a low noise voltage controlled oscillator (VCO for heart sensing applications is presented. It is designed using Ansoft Designer software to have a low level of phase noise, therefore a bipolar transistor is chosen. Many effects such as the behavior of large signals, the parasitic effects of packages, etc., are taken into account. Hence, through a nonlinear analysis, quite accurate simulation results are provided.

  6. Development of a quartz digital accelerometer for environmental sensing and navigation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, W.J.; Vianco, P.T.

    1993-03-01

    A quartz digital accelerometer has been developed which uses double ended tuning forks as the active sensing elements. The authors have demonstrated the ability of this accelerometer to be capable of acceleration measurements between {+-}150G with {+-}0.5G accuracy. They have further refined the original design and assembly processes to produce accelerometers with < 1mG stability in inertial measurement applications. This report covers the development, design, processing, assembly, and testing of these devices.

  7. Leveraging software architectures to guide and verify the development of sense/compute/control applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassou, Damien; Balland, Emilie; Consel, Charles;

    2011-01-01

    A software architecture describes the structure of a computing system by specifying software components and their interactions. Mapping a software architecture to an implementation is a well known challenge. A key element of this mapping is the architecture’s description of the data and control-f...... verifications. We instantiate our approach in an architecture description language for Sense/Compute/Control applications, and describe associated compilation and verification strategies....

  8. A new bio-inspired decision chain for UAV sense-and-avoid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallavollita, P.; Cimini, F.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Jankowski, S.

    This work, after a preliminary feasibility study using a Matlab environment simulation, defines the design and the real hardware testing of a new bio-inspired decision chain for UAV sense-and-avoid applications. Relying on a single and cheap visible camera sensor, computer vision, bio-inspired and automatic decision algorithms have been adopted and implemented on a specific ARM embedded platform through C++/OpenCV coding. A first data set processing, really captured on flight, has been presented.

  9. Sensitivity enhancement using annealed polymer optical fibre based sensors for pressure sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pospori, A.; Marques, C. A. F.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2016-01-01

    -inscribed and characterised with regard their stress and force sensitivities. Then, the fibres were annealed by placing them in hot water, controlling with that way the humidity factor. After annealing, stress and force sensitivities were measured again. The results show that the annealing can improve the stress and force...... sensitivity of the devices. This can provide better performing sensors for use in stress, force and pressure sensing applications....

  10. Ring-shaped inductive sensor design and application to pressure sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Myoung Gyu; Baek, Seong Ki; Park, Young Woo [Dept. of Mechatronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Young [Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Inductive sensors are versatile and economical devices that are widely used to measure a wide variety of physical variables, such as displacement, force, and pressure. In this paper, we propose a simple inductive sensor consisting of a thin partial ring and a coil set. The self-inductance of the sensor was estimated using magnetic circuit analysis and validated through finite element analysis (FEA). The natural frequency of the ring was estimated using Castigliano's theorem and the method of equivalent mass. The estimation was validated through experiments and FEA. A prototype sensor with a signal processing circuit is built and applied to noninvasively sense the pressure inside a flexible tube. The obtained sensor outputs show quadratic behavior with respect to the pressure. When fitted to a quadratic equation, the least-square measurement error was less than 2%. The results confirm the feasibility of pressure sensing using the proposed inductive sensor.

  11. Development of Optically Active Nanostructures for Potential Applications in Sensing, Therapeutics and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Padmanabh

    Materials at nanoscale are finding manifold applications in the various fields like sensing, plasmonics, therapeutics, to mention a few. Large amount of development has taken place regarding synthesis and exploring the novel applications of the various types of nanomaterials like organic, inorganic and hybrid of both. Yet, it is believed that the full potential of different nanomaterials is yet to be fully established stimulating researchers to explore more in the field of nanotechnology. Building on the same premise, in the following studies we have developed the nanomaterials in the class of optically active nanoparticles. First part of the study we have successfully designed, synthesized, and characterized Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposite substrate for potential applications in quantitative Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. Quantitative SERS-based detection of dopamine was performed successfully. In subsequent study, facile, single-step synthesis of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated lanthanide based NaYF4 (Yb, Er) nanoparticles was developed and their application as potential photodynamic therapy agent was studied using excitations by light in near infra-red and visible region. In the following and last study, synthesis and characterization of the conjugated polymer nanoparticles was attempted successfully. Functionalization of the conjugated nanoparticles, which is a bottleneck for their potential applications, was successfully performed by encapsulating them in the silica nanoparticles, surface of which was then functionalized by amine group. Three types of optically active nanoparticles were developed for potential applications in sensing, therapeutics and imaging.

  12. Advantages of high-frequency Pulse-tube technology and its applications in infrared sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, R.; Willems, D.; Mullié, J.; Benschop, T.

    2016-05-01

    The low-frequency pulse-tube cryocooler has been a workhorse for large heat lift applications. However, the highfrequency pulse tube has to date not seen the widespread use in tactical infrared applications that Stirling cryocoolers have had, despite significant advantages in terms of exported vibrations and lifetime. Thales Cryogenics has produced large series of high-frequency pulse-tube cryocoolers for non-infrared applications since 2005. However, the use of Thales pulse-tube cryocoolers for infrared sensing has to date largely been limited to high-end space applications. In this paper, the performances of existing available off-the-shelf pulse-tube cryocoolers are examined versus typical tactical infrared requirements. A comparison is made on efficiency, power density, reliability, and cost. An outlook is given on future developments that could bring the pulse-tube into the mainstream for tactical infrared applications.

  13. Taxonomy and remote sensing of leaf mass per area (LMA) in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Roberta E. Martin; Raul Tupayachi; Ruth Emerson; Paola Martinez; Felipe Sinca; George V.N. Powell; S. Joseph Wright; Ariel E. Lugo

    2011-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a trait of central importance to plant physiology and ecosystem function, but LMA patterns in the upper canopies of humid tropical forests have proved elusive due to tall species and high diversity. We collected top-of-canopy leaf samples from 2873 individuals in 57 sites spread across the Neotropics, Australasia, and Caribbean and Pacific...

  14. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25°C to 65°C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  15. Single molecule sensing with solid-state nanopores: novel materials, methods, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Benjamin N; Ivanov, Aleksandar P; Wilson, Kerry A; Doğan, Fatma; Japrung, Deanpen; Edel, Joshua B

    2013-01-07

    This tutorial review will introduce and explore the fundamental aspects of nanopore (bio)sensing, fabrication, modification, and the emerging technologies and applications that both intrigue and inspire those working in and around the field. Although nanopores can be classified into two categories, solid-state and biological, they are essentially two sides of the same coin. For instance, both garner popularity due to their ability to confine analytes of interest to a nanoscale volume. Due to the vast diversity of nanopore platforms and applications, no single review can cover the entire landscape of published work in the field. Therefore, in this article focus will be placed on recent advancements and developments taking place in the field of solid-state nanopores. It should be stated that the intention of this tutorial review is not to cite all articles relating to solid-state nanopores, but rather to highlight recent, select developments that will hopefully benefit the new and seasoned scientist alike. Initially we begin with the fundamentals of solid-state nanopore sensing. Then the spotlight is shone on the sophisticated fabrication methods that have their origins in the semiconductor industry. One inherent advantage of solid-state nanopores is in the ease of functionalizing the surface with a range of molecules carrying functional groups. Therefore, an entire section is devoted to highlighting various chemical and bio-molecular modifications and explores how these permit the development of novel sensors with specific targets and functions. The review is completed with a discussion on novel detection strategies using nanopores. Although the most popular mode of nanopore sensing is based upon what has come to be known as ionic-current blockade sensing, there is a vast, growing literature based around exploring alternative detection techniques to further expand on the versatility of the sensors. Such techniques include optical, electronic, and force based methods

  16. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions—From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Ip, Ezra; Pan, Zhongqi; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) using few-mode fibers (FMF) and the multicore fiber (MCF) based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF) and photonic crystal fibers (PCF) have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of SDM

  17. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions-From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Ip, Ezra; Pan, Zhongqi; Wang, Ting

    2016-08-30

    The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) using few-mode fibers (FMF) and the multicore fiber (MCF) based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF) and photonic crystal fibers (PCF) have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of SDM

  18. Application of Remote Sensing Data in a Distributed Hydrological Model for the Gambia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stisen, S.; Sandholt, I.; Jensen, K. H.

    2003-12-01

    Distributed hydrological models have an extensive demand of high resolution spatial and temporal data for driving and validating the models. Most of the variables are only available as point measurements which impose serious constraints to the applicability and the credibility of such models particularly for large regional scales and in areas where the availability and quality of hydrological data are limited. Remote sensing information appears to offer useful data that not only can fill some of the gaps in data availability but also can supply data at the appropriate scale for distributed hydrological models. In this study we tested three types of remote sensing derived variables in a distributed hydrological model of the 42,000 km2 Gambia River Basin in West Africa: (1) potential evapotranspiration estimated by the Makkink equation and based on daily global radiation fields derived from the geostationary meteorological satellite Meteosat, (2) leaf area index (LAI) based on data from the MODIS satellite, and (3) Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) derived form NOAA AVHRR images. The remote sensing derived time series of potential evapotranspiration and LAI were used as input to the model while TVDI was used for validating the spatial simulations of soil moisture. The effects of introducing remote sensing based input were evaluated for both discharge simulations and spatial outputs by comparing the model simulations to those based on traditional data. Application of remote sensing based input of potential evapotranspiration and LAI had in both cases little effects on the simulated discharges while some effects were seen on the spatial and temporal variation of variables like actual evapotranspiration and soil moisture. Improved spatial simulations of these variables may potentially allow for better design of e.g. irrigation schemes. The comparative analysis of TVDI estimates and spatial model simulations of soil moisture content in the root zone was however

  19. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions—From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Weng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA using few-mode fibers (FMF and the multicore fiber (MCF based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF and photonic crystal fibers (PCF have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of

  20. Application of indicators derived by remote sensing for mapping of landslide hazard and vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, Unni; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn; Geiss, Christian; Klotz, Martin; Ekseth, Kristine; Taubenböck, Hannes

    2014-05-01

    The choice and the development of methods for risk assessment of landslides depends on several factors. Important factors are the type of landslide and the elements at risk, the choice of spatial and temporal scale, the purpose of the analysis and the needs of the end-users. In addition, data availability is a major constraint, which greatly affects the type of methods and models that can be developed. Remote sensing is a promising tool for an economical and up-to-date data collection, which also could be applied to monitor the dynamic development of risk. The spatial and temporal distribution of the risk for landslides can be assessed by monitoring hazard indicators (e.g. slope height and slope angle), exposure indicators (e.g. number of houses and the total population) and vulnerability indicators (e.g. population density, settlement structures or indicators related to structural vulnerability). Several of the indicators applicable for landslide risk and vulnerability can be obtained by remote sensing techniques. However, for better results, indicators from remote sensing should be combined with other type of data. In this work, a review on the application of indicators for landslide risk assessment in explicit models as well as an assessment of end user needs was conducted in order to determine the most relevant indicators for landslide hazard and vulnerability. Lists of recommended indicators, mainly derivable from remote sensing, have been developed. These indicators are supposed to be used in risk assessment, e.g. by combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure indicators to produce risk indices. Moreover schemes for ranking, weighting and aggregation of the indicators into hazard- and vulnerability indices are provided. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7-SPACE-2012-1] under Grant agreement No 312972 Framework to integrate Space-based and in-situ sENSing for dynamic v

  1. Fast vision through frameless event-based sensing and convolutional processing: application to texture recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Carrasco, Jose Antonio; Acha, Begona; Serrano, Carmen; Camunas-Mesa, Luis; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2010-04-01

    Address-event representation (AER) is an emergent hardware technology which shows a high potential for providing in the near future a solid technological substrate for emulating brain-like processing structures. When used for vision, AER sensors and processors are not restricted to capturing and processing still image frames, as in commercial frame-based video technology, but sense and process visual information in a pixel-level event-based frameless manner. As a result, vision processing is practically simultaneous to vision sensing, since there is no need to wait for sensing full frames. Also, only meaningful information is sensed, communicated, and processed. Of special interest for brain-like vision processing are some already reported AER convolutional chips, which have revealed a very high computational throughput as well as the possibility of assembling large convolutional neural networks in a modular fashion. It is expected that in a near future we may witness the appearance of large scale convolutional neural networks with hundreds or thousands of individual modules. In the meantime, some research is needed to investigate how to assemble and configure such large scale convolutional networks for specific applications. In this paper, we analyze AER spiking convolutional neural networks for texture recognition hardware applications. Based on the performance figures of already available individual AER convolution chips, we emulate large scale networks using a custom made event-based behavioral simulator. We have developed a new event-based processing architecture that emulates with AER hardware Manjunath's frame-based feature recognition software algorithm, and have analyzed its performance using our behavioral simulator. Recognition rate performance is not degraded. However, regarding speed, we show that recognition can be achieved before an equivalent frame is fully sensed and transmitted.

  2. Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, J.; Gro{ß}, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Wiegner, M.

    2011-03-01

    Volcanic ash plumes, emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) in spring 2010, were observed by the lidar systems MULIS and POLIS in Maisach (near Munich, Germany), and by a CIMEL Sun photometer and a JenOptik ceilometer in Munich. We retrieve mass concentrations of volcanic ash from the lidar measurements; spectral optical properties, i.e.~extinction coefficients, backscatter coefficients, and linear depolarization ratios, are used as input for an inversion. The inversion algorithm searches for model aerosol ensembles with optical properties that agree with the measured values within their uncertainty ranges. The non-sphericity of ash particles is considered by assuming spheroids. Optical particle properties are calculated using the T-matrix method supplemented by the geometric optics approach. The lidar inversion is applied to observations of the pure volcanic ash plume in the morning of 17 April 2010. We find 1.45 g m-2 for the ratio between the mass concentration and the extinction coefficient at λ = 532 nm, assuming an ash density of 2.6 g cm-3. The uncertainty range for this ratio is from 0.87 g m-2 to 2.32 g m-2. At the peak of the ash concentration over Maisach the extinction coefficient at λ = 532 nm was 0.75 km-1 (1-h-average), which corresponds to a maximum mass concentration of 1.1 mg m-3 (0.65 to 1.8 mg m-3). Model calculations show that particle backscatter at our lidar wavelengths (λ ≤ 1064 nm), and thus the lidar retrieval, is hardly sensitive to large particles (r ≳ 3 μm); large particles, however, may contain significant amounts of mass. Therefore, as an independent cross check of the lidar retrieval and to investigate the presence of large particles in more detail, we model ratios of sky radiances in the aureole of the Sun and compare them to measurements of the CIMEL. These ratios are sensitive to particles up to r ≈ 10 μm. This approach confirms the mass concentrations from the lidar retrieval. We conclude that synergistic

  3. D Capturing Performances of Low-Cost Range Sensors for Mass-Market Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.; Gonizzi, S.; Micoli, L.

    2016-06-01

    Since the advent of the first Kinect as motion controller device for the Microsoft XBOX platform (November 2010), several similar active and low-cost range sensing devices have been introduced on the mass-market for several purposes, including gesture based interfaces, 3D multimedia interaction, robot navigation, finger tracking, 3D body scanning for garment design and proximity sensors for automotive. However, given their capability to generate a real time stream of range images, these has been used in some projects also as general purpose range devices, with performances that for some applications might be satisfying. This paper shows the working principle of the various devices, analyzing them in terms of systematic errors and random errors for exploring the applicability of them in standard 3D capturing problems. Five actual devices have been tested featuring three different technologies: i) Kinect V1 by Microsoft, Structure Sensor by Occipital, and Xtion PRO by ASUS, all based on different implementations of the Primesense sensor; ii) F200 by Intel/Creative, implementing the Realsense pattern projection technology; Kinect V2 by Microsoft, equipped with the Canesta TOF Camera. A critical analysis of the results tries first of all to compare them, and secondarily to focus the range of applications for which such devices could actually work as a viable solution.

  4. Human behavior understanding in networked sensing theory and applications of networks of sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Distante, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a broad overview of both the technical challenges in sensor network development, and the real-world applications of distributed sensing. Important aspects of distributed computing in large-scale networked sensor systems are analyzed in the context of human behavior understanding, including such topics as systems design tools and techniques, in-network signals, and information processing. Additionally, the book examines a varied range of application scenarios, covering surveillance, indexing and retrieval, patient care, industrial safety, social and ambient

  5. Advances in AlGaInN laser diode technology for defence, security and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Suski, T.; Marona, L.; Boćkowski, M.; Leszczyński, M.; Wisnieski, P.; Czernecki, R.; Targowski, G.

    2016-10-01

    Laser diodes fabricated from the AlGaInN material system is an emerging technology for defence, security and sensing applications. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., 380nm, to the visible 530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well, giving rise to new and novel applications including displays and imaging systems, free-space and underwater telecommunications and the latest quantum technologies such as optical atomic clocks and atom interferometry.

  6. Position determination and measurement error analysis for the spherical proof mass with optical shadow sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    To meet the very demanding requirements for space gravity detection, the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) as the key payload needs to offer the relative position of the proof mass with extraordinarily high precision and low disturbance. The position determination and error analysis for the GRS with a spherical proof mass is addressed. Firstly the concept of measuring the freely falling proof mass with optical shadow sensors is presented. Then, based on the optical signal model, the general formula for position determination is derived. Two types of measurement system are proposed, for which the analytical solution to the three-dimensional position can be attained. Thirdly, with the assumption of Gaussian beams, the error propagation models for the variation of spot size and optical power, the effect of beam divergence, the chattering of beam center, and the deviation of beam direction are given respectively. Finally, the numerical simulations taken into account of the model uncertainty of beam divergence, spherical edge and beam diffraction are carried out to validate the performance of the error propagation models. The results show that these models can be used to estimate the effect of error source with an acceptable accuracy which is better than 20%. Moreover, the simulation for the three-dimensional position determination with one of the proposed measurement system shows that the position error is just comparable to the error of the output of each sensor.

  7. Biological applications of LbL multilayer capsules: from drug delivery to sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mercato, Loretta Laureana; Ferraro, Marzia Maria; Baldassarre, Francesca; Mancarella, Serena; Greco, Valentina; Rinaldi, Ross; Leporatti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) capsules engineered with active elements for targeting, labeling, sensing and delivery hold great promise for the controlled delivery of drugs and the development of new sensing platforms. PEM capsules composed of biodegradable polyelectrolytes are fabricated for intracellular delivery of encapsulated cargo (for example peptides, enzymes, DNA, and drugs) through gradual biodegradation of the shell components. PEM capsules with shells responsive to environmental or physical stimuli are exploited to control drug release. In the presence of appropriate triggers (e.g., pH variation or light irradiation) the pores of the multilayer shell are unlocked, leading to the controlled release of encapsulated cargos. By loading sensing elements in the capsules interior, PEM capsules sensitive to biological analytes, such as ions and metabolites, are assembled and used to detect analyte concentration changes in the surrounding environment. This Review aims to evaluate the current state of PEM capsules for drug delivery and sensing applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying Freshwater Mass Balance in the Central Tibetan Plateau by Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Altimetry, and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsin Tseng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP has been observed by satellite optical remote sensing, altimetry, and gravimetry for a variety of geophysical parameters, including water storage change. However, each of these sensors has its respective limitation in the parameters observed, accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution. Here, we utilized an integrated approach to combine remote sensing imagery, digital elevation model, and satellite radar and laser altimetry data, to quantify freshwater storage change in a twin lake system named Chibuzhang Co and Dorsoidong Co in the central TP, and compared that with independent observations including mass changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data. Our results show that this twin lake, located within the Tanggula glacier system, remained almost steady during 1973–2000. However, Dorsoidong Co has experienced a significant lake level rise since 2000, especially during 2000–2005, that resulted in the plausible connection between the two lakes. The contemporary increasing lake level signal at a rate of 0.89 ± 0.05 cm·yr−1, in a 2° by 2° grid equivalent water height since 2002, is higher than the GRACE observed trend at 0.41 ± 0.17 cm·yr−1 during the same time span. Finally, a down-turning trend or inter-annual variability shown in the GRACE signal is observed after 2012, while the lake level is still rising at a consistent rate.

  9. Linking chlorophyll a fluorescence to photosynthesis for remote sensing applications: mechanisms and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcar-Castell, Albert; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Atherton, Jon; van der Tol, Christiaan; Flexas, Jaume; Pfündel, Erhard E; Moreno, Jose; Frankenberg, Christian; Berry, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) has been used for decades to study the organization, functioning, and physiology of photosynthesis at the leaf and subcellular levels. ChlF is now measurable from remote sensing platforms. This provides a new optical means to track photosynthesis and gross primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Importantly, the spatiotemporal and methodological context of the new applications is dramatically different compared with most of the available ChlF literature, which raises a number of important considerations. Although we have a good mechanistic understanding of the processes that control the ChlF signal over the short term, the seasonal link between ChlF and photosynthesis remains obscure. Additionally, while the current understanding of in vivo ChlF is based on pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) measurements, remote sensing applications are based on the measurement of the passive solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which entails important differences and new challenges that remain to be solved. In this review we introduce and revisit the physical, physiological, and methodological factors that control the leaf-level ChlF signal in the context of the new remote sensing applications. Specifically, we present the basis of photosynthetic acclimation and its optical signals, we introduce the physical and physiological basis of ChlF from the molecular to the leaf level and beyond, and we introduce and compare PAM and SIF methodology. Finally, we evaluate and identify the challenges that still remain to be answered in order to consolidate our mechanistic understanding of the remotely sensed SIF signal.

  10. AN ADAPTIVE WEB-BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers’ know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project “Space4Geography” a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software “BLIF” equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module “Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil”.

  11. Multiplexed optical operation of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) arrays for sensing and signal-processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin

    2014-06-01

    NEMS are rapidly being developed for a variety of sensing applications as well as for exploring interesting regimes in fundamental physics. In most of these endeavors, operation of a NEMS device involves actuating the device harmonically around its fundamental resonance and detecting subsequent motion while the device interacts with its environment. Even though a single NEMS resonator is exceptionally sensitive, a typical application, such as sensing or signal processing, requires the detection of signals from many resonators distributed over the surface of a chip. Therefore, one of the key technological challenges in the field of NEMS is development of multiplexed measurement techniques to detect the motion of a large number of NEMS resonators simultaneously. In this work, we address the important and difficult problem of interfacing with a large number of NEMS devices and facilitating the use of such arrays in, for example, sensing and signal processing applications. We report a versatile, all-optical technique to excite and read-out a distributed NEMS array. The NEMS array is driven by a distributed, intensity-modulated, optical pump through the photothermal effect. The ensuing vibrational response of the array is multiplexed onto a single, probe beam as a high-frequency phase modulation. The phase modulation is optically down converted to a low-frequency, intensity modulation using an adaptive full -field interferometer, and subsequently is detected using a charge-coupled device (CCD) array. Rapid and single-step mechanical characterization of approximately 60 nominally identical, high-frequency resonators is demonstrated. The technique may enable sensitivity improvements over single NEMS resonators by averaging signals coming from a multitude of devices in the array. In addition, the diffraction-limited spatial resolution may allow for position-dependent read-out of NEMS sensor chips for sensing multiple analytes or spatially inhomogeneous forces.

  12. Application of Compressed Sensing to 2-D Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging System data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenas, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chong, See Yenn [Engineering Institute-Korea; Lee, J.R. [Engineering Institute-Korea; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-29

    The Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging (UPI) System is a unique, non-contact, laser-based ultrasonic excitation and measurement system developed for structural health monitoring applications. The UPI system imparts laser-induced ultrasonic excitations at user-defined locations on a structure of interest. The response of these excitations is then measured by piezoelectric transducers. By using appropriate data reconstruction techniques, a time-evolving image of the response can be generated. A representative measurement of a plate might contain 800x800 spatial data measurement locations and each measurement location might be sampled at 500 instances in time. The result is a total of 640,000 measurement locations and 320,000,000 unique measurements. This is clearly a very large set of data to collect, store in memory and process. The value of these ultrasonic response images for structural health monitoring applications makes tackling these challenges worthwhile. Recently compressed sensing has presented itself as a candidate solution for directly collecting relevant information from sparse, high-dimensional measurements. The main idea behind compressed sensing is that by directly collecting a relatively small number of coefficients it is possible to reconstruct the original measurement. The coefficients are obtained from linear combinations of (what would have been the original direct) measurements. Often compressed sensing research is simulated by generating compressed coefficients from conventionally collected measurements. The simulation approach is necessary because the direct collection of compressed coefficients often requires compressed sensing analog front-ends that are currently not commercially available. The ability of the UPI system to make measurements at user-defined locations presents a unique capability on which compressed measurement techniques may be directly applied. The application of compressed sensing techniques on this data holds the potential to

  13. Calibration using constrained smoothing with applications to mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingdong; Sedransk, Nell; Xia, Jessie Q

    2014-06-01

    Linear regressions are commonly used to calibrate the signal measurements in proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry. However, with or without a monotone (e.g., log) transformation, data from such functional proteomic experiments are not necessarily linear or even monotone functions of protein (or peptide) concentration except over a very restricted range. A computationally efficient spline procedure improves upon linear regression. However, mass spectrometry data are not necessarily homoscedastic; more often the variation of measured concentrations increases disproportionately near the boundaries of the instruments measurement capability (dynamic range), that is, the upper and lower limits of quantitation. These calibration difficulties exist with other applications of mass spectrometry as well as with other broad-scale calibrations. Therefore the method proposed here uses a functional data approach to define the calibration curve and also the limits of quantitation under the two assumptions: (i) that the variance is a bounded, convex function of concentration; and (ii) that the calibration curve itself is monotone at least between the limits of quantitation, but not necessarily outside these limits. Within this paradigm, the limit of detection, where the signal is definitely present but not measurable with any accuracy, is also defined. An iterative approach draws on existing smoothing methods to account simultaneously for both restrictions and is shown to achieve the global optimal convergence rate under weak conditions. This approach can also be implemented when convexity is replaced by other (bounded) restrictions. Examples from Addona et al. (2009, Nature Biotechnology 27, 663-641) both motivate and illustrate the effectiveness of this functional data methodology when compared with the simpler linear regressions and spline techniques.

  14. Bio-Aerosol Detection Using Mass Spectrometry: Public Health Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvigson, Laura D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    I recently spent a summer as an intern at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. I worked on a project involving the real-time, reagentless, single cell detection of aerosolized pathogens using a novel mass spectrometry approach called Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS). Based upon preliminary results showing the differentiation capabilities of BAMS, I would like to explore the development and use of this novel detection system in the context of both environmental and clinical sample pathogen detection. I would also like to explore the broader public health applications that a system such as BAMS might have in terms of infectious disease prevention and control. In order to appreciate the potential of this instrument, I will demonstrate the need for better pathogen detection methods, and outline the instrumentation, data analysis and preliminary results that lead me toward a desire to explore this technology further. I will also discuss potential experiments for the future along with possible problems that may be encountered along the way.

  15. Bio-Aerosol Detection Using Mass Spectrometry: Public Health Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvigson, L D

    2004-03-05

    I recently spent a summer as an intern at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. I worked on a project involving the real-time, reagentless, single cell detection of aerosolized pathogens using a novel mass spectrometry approach called Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS). Based upon preliminary results showing the differentiation capabilities of BAMS, I would like to explore the development and use of this novel detection system in the context of both environmental and clinical sample pathogen detection. I would also like to explore the broader public health applications that a system such as BAMS might have in terms of infectious disease prevention and control. In order to appreciate the potential of this instrument, I will demonstrate the need for better pathogen detection methods, and outline the instrumentation, data analysis and preliminary results that lead me toward a desire to explore this technology further. I will also discuss potential experiments for the future along with possible problems that may be encountered along the way.

  16. Light absorption by phytoplankton in the southern Baltic and Pomeranian lakes: mathematical expressions for remote sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Meler

    2017-07-01

    The relationships derived here are applicable in local remote sensing algorithms used for monitoring the Baltic Sea and coastal lakes and can substantially improve the accuracy of the remotely determined optical and biogeochemical characteristics of these waters.

  17. Vertical One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Platforms for Label-Free (Bio)Sensing: Towards Drop-And- Measure Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In this work, all-silicon, integrated optofluidic platforms, fabricated by electrochemical micromachining technology, making use of vertical, one-dimensional high-aspect- ratio photonic crystals for flow-through (bio)sensing applications are reviewed. The potential of such platforms for point-of-care applications is discussed for both pressure-driven and capillarity- driven operations with reference to refractometry and biochemical sensing.

  18. Handbook on advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems paradigms and applications in forest landscape modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita N

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in remote-sensing and geographic information systems and applications. It is divided into four parts, focusing on Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Optical Measurements of Forests; Individual Tree Modelling; Landscape Scene Modelling; and Forest Eco-system Modelling. Given the scope of its coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, practitioners, and educators interested in remote sensing and geographic information systems and applications.

  19. 压缩传感技术及其应用%Compressive Sensing and its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduced a new signal processing method —Compressive Sensing (CS ) . Recently , an emerging theory of signal acquirement named Compressive Sensing become one of the hottest topics of signal sampling and image processing .It is a novel signal sampling theory under the condition that the signal is sparse or compressible .It has the ability of compressing a signal during the process of sampling .It consists of three main areas :sparse representation matrix , measurement matrix and reconstruction algorithm . This paper mainly introduces the model of Compressive Sensing ,and the main reconstruction algorithms ,then analyses and compares the algorithms .Finally ,the paper lists the main applications of Compressive Sensing .%  本文综述了一种新的信号处理方法—压缩传感(Compressive Sensing ,CS),它是针对稀疏或者可压缩信号,在采样的同时即可对信号数据进行适当压缩的新理论。近年来,压缩传感理论成为信号采样及图像处理领域最新、最热点的问题之一。它主要包括三个方面:稀疏表示矩阵,非相干测量矩阵以及重建算法。本文介绍了压缩传感理论的模型,以及压缩传感的主要重建算法,并将实现方法进行了分析与比较。文章最后列举出了压缩传感的主要应用领域。

  20. Recent advances in biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Sang Soo; Henderson, Paul T; Turteltaub, Kenneth W

    2009-06-17

    The use of radioisotopes has a long history in biomedical science, and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique for detection of very low-abundant, stable and long-lived isotopes, has now revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in biomedical research, because it allows the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring its decay, and thus the quantitative analysis of the fate of the radiolabeled probes under the given conditions. Since AMS was first used in the early 90's for the analysis of biological samples containing enriched 14C for toxicology and cancer research, the biomedical applications of AMS to date range from in vitro to in vivo studies, including the studies of 1) toxicant and drug metabolism, 2) neuroscience, 3) pharmacokinetics, and 4) nutrition and metabolism of endogenous molecules such as vitamins. In addition, a new drug development concept that relies on the ultrasensitivity of AMS, known as human microdosing, is being used to obtain early human metabolism information of candidate drugs. These various aspects of AMS are reviewed and a perspective on future applications of AMS to biomedical research is provided.

  1. Recent advances in biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hah Sang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of radioisotopes has a long history in biomedical science, and the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS, an extremely sensitive nuclear physics technique for detection of very low-abundant, stable and long-lived isotopes, has now revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in biomedical research, because it allows the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring its decay, and thus the quantitative analysis of the fate of the radiolabeled probes under the given conditions. Since AMS was first used in the early 90's for the analysis of biological samples containing enriched 14C for toxicology and cancer research, the biomedical applications of AMS to date range from in vitro to in vivo studies, including the studies of 1 toxicant and drug metabolism, 2 neuroscience, 3 pharmacokinetics, and 4 nutrition and metabolism of endogenous molecules such as vitamins. In addition, a new drug development concept that relies on the ultrasensitivity of AMS, known as human microdosing, is being used to obtain early human metabolism information of candidate drugs. These various aspects of AMS are reviewed and a perspective on future applications of AMS to biomedical research is provided.

  2. Fabricate Optical Microfiber by Using Flame Brushing Technique and Coated with Polymer Polyaniline for Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, N. A.; Hamida, B. A.; Irawati, N.; Habaebi, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Adiabaticity is one of the essential criteria in producing good fabricated tapered fibers. Good tapered fibers can be use in sensor application such as humidity sensor, temperature sensor and refractive index sensor. In this paper, good tapering silica fiber is produced by using flame brushing technique and then, the microfiber is coated with polymer Polyaniline (PAni) to sense different type of alcohols with different concentrations. The outcome of this experiment gives excellent repeatability in the detection of alcohol sensing with a sensitivity of 0.1332 μW/% and a resolution of 3.764%. In conclusion, conducting polymer coated optical microfiber sensor for alcohol detection with low cost, effective and simple set-up was successfully achieved in this study.

  3. Dynamic response of tapered optical multimode fiber coated with carbon nanotubes for ethanol sensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaneh, Arafat; Girei, Saad; Arasu, Punitha; Mahdi, Mohd; Rashid, Suraya; Paiman, Suriati; Yaacob, Mohd

    2015-05-04

    Ethanol is a highly combustible chemical universally designed for biomedical applications. In this paper, optical sensing performance of tapered multimode fiber tip coated with carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film towards aqueous ethanol with different concentrations is investigated. The tapered optical multimode fiber tip is coated with CNT using drop-casting technique and is annealed at 70 °C to enhance the binding of the nanomaterial to the silica fiber tip. The optical fiber tip and the CNT sensing layer are micro-characterized using FESEM and Raman spectroscopy techniques. When the developed sensor was exposed to different concentrations of ethanol (5% to 80%), the sensor reflectance reduced proportionally. The developed sensors showed high sensitivity, repeatability and fast responses (<55 s) towards ethanol.

  4. Dynamic Response of Tapered Optical Multimode Fiber Coated with Carbon Nanotubes for Ethanol Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Shabaneh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a highly combustible chemical universally designed for biomedical applications. In this paper, optical sensing performance of tapered multimode fiber tip coated with carbon nanotube (CNT thin film towards aqueous ethanol with different concentrations is investigated. The tapered optical multimode fiber tip is coated with CNT using drop-casting technique and is annealed at 70 °C to enhance the binding of the nanomaterial to the silica fiber tip. The optical fiber tip and the CNT sensing layer are micro-characterized using FESEM and Raman spectroscopy techniques. When the developed sensor was exposed to different concentrations of ethanol (5% to 80%, the sensor reflectance reduced proportionally. The developed sensors showed high sensitivity, repeatability and fast responses (<55 s towards ethanol.

  5. Hyperspectral remote sensing application for monitoring and preservation of plant ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas; Petrov, Nikolay; Stoev, Antoniy

    Remote sensing technologies have advanced significantly at last decade and have improved the capability to gather information about Earth’s resources and environment. They have many applications in Earth observation, such as mapping and updating land-use and cover, weather forecasting, biodiversity determination, etc. Hyperspectral remote sensing offers unique opportunities in the environmental monitoring and sustainable use of natural resources. Remote sensing sensors on space-based platforms, aircrafts, or on ground, are capable of providing detailed spectral, spatial and temporal information on terrestrial ecosystems. Ground-based sensors are used to record detailed information about the land surface and to create a data base for better characterizing the objects which are being imaged by the other sensors. In this paper some applications of two hyperspectral remote sensing techniques, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence, for monitoring and assessment of the effects of adverse environmental conditions on plant ecosystems are presented. The effect of stress factors such as enhanced UV-radiation, acid rain, salinity, viral infections applied to some young plants (potato, pea, tobacco) and trees (plums, apples, paulownia) as well as of some growth regulators were investigated. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by means of a portable fiber-optics spectrometer in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges (450-850 nm and 600-900 nm), respectively. The differences between the reflectance data of healthy (control) and injured (stressed) plants were assessed by means of statistical (Student’s t-criterion), first derivative, and cluster analysis and calculation of some vegetation indices in four most informative for the investigated species regions: green (520-580 nm), red (640-680 nm), red edge (690-720 nm) and near infrared (720-780 nm). Fluorescence spectra were analyzed at five characteristic wavelengths located at the

  6. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Identifying Tornado and Severe Weather Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, J. E.; Molthan, A.; Schultz, L. A.; McGrath, K.; Bell, J. R.; Cole, T.; Angle, K.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, collaborations between the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the National Weather Service (NWS), and the USGS led to the incorporation of Earth remote sensing imagery within the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT). The DAT is a smartphone, tablet, and web-based application that allows NWS meteorologists to acquire, quality control, and manage various storm damage indicators following a severe weather event, such as a tornado, occurrence of widespread damaging winds, or significant hail. Earth remote sensing supports the damage assessment process by providing a broad overview of how various acquired damage indicators relate to scarring visible from space, ranging from high spatial resolution commercial imagery (~1-4m) acquired via USGS and in collaboration with other federal and private sector partners, to moderate resolution imaging from NASA sensors (~15-30m) such as those aboard Landsat 7 and 8 and Terra's ASTER, to lower resolution but routine imaging from NASA's Terra and Aqua MODIS, or the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument. In several cases, the acquisition and delivery of imagery in the days after a severe weather event has proven helpful in confirming or in some cases adjusting the preliminary damage track acquired during a ground survey. For example, limited road networks and access to private property may make it difficult to observe the entire length of a tornado track, while satellite imagery can fill in observation gaps to complete a more detailed damage track assessment. This presentation will highlight successful applications of Earth remote sensing for the improvement of damage surveys, discuss remaining challenges, and provide direction on future efforts that will improve the delivery of remote sensing data and use through new automation processes and training opportunities.

  7. Nanomaterial processing for multifunctional patterned composites for in situ sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Zachary R.

    The increasing performance demands on composite materials have stimulated the development of new approaches and manufacturing techniques to integrate various system functionalities within the composite structure. Opportunity exists to produce smart, self-sensing composites, by altering the microstructure of the composite where sensors can be patterned for assessing damage locality and severity. Introduction of nanomaterials into continuous fiber-reinforced composites either at the fiber/matrix interface or within the polymer matrix enables further tailoring of mechanical and electrical properties. Carbon nanotubes have been studied extensively for modifying the mechanical and physical properties of fiber composites. Recently graphene has generated scientific and technical interest due to potential lower raw material costs and ease of processing. This work studies graphene nano-platelet processing parameters to determine the suitability of graphene nanocomposites for in situ sensing applications. Processing parameters for optimizing the piezoresistive response of graphene nano-platelet composites for in situ sensing applications are determined and applied in for the development of a patterning media suitable for deposition onto glass fibers. A new approach to selectively modify the electrical properties of composite fibers is employed to selectively deposit carbon nanotube and graphene nano-platelet enhanced patterning media through an adapted screen printing process. These nano-modified depositions create hierarchical patterns of piezoresistive sensors as fully integrated components and form a distributed sensor network at the fiber/matrix interface. New analysis tools for resistance based sensing techniques are applied to nanocomposites and patterned unidirectional hybrid nanocomposites to assess damage onset and accumulation. The sensitivity of the electrical response for the graphene nano-platelet is compared with the electrical response of the carbon nanotube

  8. Elevation change and remote-sensing mass-balance methods on the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    differential GPS instruments and corrected for pitch, roll and crab using an Inertial Navigation System. Knowledge of elevation change and ice thickness alone does not provide mass balance, but when combined with the surface velocity field obtained from satellite repeat-track interferometric synthetic aperture...... the last decade. Large amounts of data have been collected from satellite and airborne platforms, yielding surface elevation changes and surface velocity fields. Here we present data from the Greenland Ice-Sheet margin acquired with a new small-scale airborne system, designed for regional high......-density coverage. During campaigns in 2000, 2003 and 2005, we have collected and processed ice-sheet surface elevation and ice-thickness data, acquired with a laser altimeter and a 60~MHz ice-penetrating radar. Both instruments were mounted on a small Twin-Otter aircraft which were positioned using three onboard...

  9. Climate Literacy: STEM and Climate Change Education and Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) is a competitive project to promote climate and Earth system science literacy and seeks to increase the access of underrepresented minority groups to science careers and educational opportunities. A three year funding was received from NASA to partnership with JSU and MSU under cooperative agreement "Strengthening Global Climate Change education through Remote Sensing Application in Coastal Environment using NASA Satellite Data and Models". The goal is to increase the number of highschool and undergraduate students at Jackson State University, a Historically Black University, who are prepared to pursue higher academic degrees and careers in STEM fields. A five Saturday course/workshop was held during March/April 2015 at JSU, focusing on historical and technical concepts of math, enginneering, technology and atmosphere and climate change and remote sensing technology and applications to weather and climate. Nine students from meteorology, biology, industrial technology and computer science/engineering of JSU and 19 high scool students from Jackson Public Schools participated in the course/workshop. The lecture topics include: introduction to remote sensing and GIS, introduction to atmospheric science, math and engineering, climate, introduction to NASA innovations in climate education, introduction to remote sensing technology for bio-geosphere, introduction to earth system science, principles of paleoclimatology and global change, daily weather briefing, satellite image interpretation and so on. In addition to lectures, lab sessions were held for hand-on experiences for remote sensing applications to atmosphere, biosphere, earth system science and climate change using ERDAS/ENVI GIS software and satellite tools. Field trip to Barnett reservoir and National weather Service (NWS) was part of the workshop. Basics of Earth System Science is a non-mathematical introductory course designed for high school seniors, high school

  10. Application of body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat obtained by bioelectrical impedance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírele Savegnago Mialich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body mass index (BMI has been one of the methods most frequently used for diagnose obesity, but it isn't consider body composition. Objective: This study intends to apply one new adiposity index, the BMI adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat developed by Mialich, et al. (2011, in a adult Brazilian sample. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 501 individuals of both genders (366 women, 135 men aged 17 to 38 years and mean age was 20.4 ± 2.8 years, mean weight 63.0 ± 13.5 kg, mean height 166.9 ± 9.0 cm, and BMI 22.4 ± 3.4 kg/m². Results and discussion: High and satisfactory R2 values were obtained, i.e., 91.1%, 91.9% and 88.8% for the sample as a whole and for men and women, respectively. Considering this BMIfat were developed new ranges, as follows: 1.35 to 1.65 (nutritional risk for malnutrition, > 1.65 and ≤ 2.0 (normal weight and > 2.0 (obesity. The BMIfat had a more accurate capacity of detecting obese individuals (0.980. 0.993, 0.974 considering the sample as a whole and women and men, respectively, compared to the traditional BMI (0.932, 0.956, 0.95. Were also defined new cut-off points for the traditional BMI for the classification of obesity, i.e.: 25.24 kg/m² and 28.38 kg/m² for men and women, respectively. Conclusion: The BMIfat was applied for the present population and can be adopted in clinical practice. Further studies are needed to determine its application to different ethnic groups and to compare this index to others previously described in the scientific literature.

  11. Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR Technology: Applications in Electrical Current Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Càndid Reig

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics can be understood as a global recognition to the rapid development of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR, from both the physics and engineering points of view. Behind the utilization of GMR structures as read heads for massive storage magnetic hard disks, important applications as solid state magnetic sensors have emerged. Low cost, compatibility with standard CMOS technologies and high sensitivity are common advantages of these sensors. This way, they have been successfully applied in a lot different environments. In this work, we are trying to collect the Spanish contributions to the progress of the research related to the GMR based sensors covering, among other subjects, the applications, the sensor design, the modelling and the electronic interfaces, focusing on electrical current sensing applications.

  12. Image slicer manufacturing: from space application to mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Christophe; Cagnat, Jean-François; Laurent, Florence; Prieto, Eric; Ancourt, Gérard

    2004-09-01

    This presentation aims to show technical and industrial inputs to be taking into account for Image Slicer systems design and development for different types of projects from space application to mass production for multi-IFU instruments. Cybernétix has a strong experience of precision optics assembled thanks to molecular adhesion and have already manufactured 6 prototypes of image slicer subsystem (prototypes of NIRSPEC-IFU, IFS for JWST, MUSE ...) in collaboration with the Laboratoire d"Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) and the Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (CRAL). After a brief presentation of the principle of manufacturing and assembly, we will focus on the different performances achieved in our prototypes of slicer mirrors, pupil and slit mirrors lines: an accuracy on centre of curvature position better than 15 arsec has been obtained for a stack of 30 slices. The contribution of the slice stacking to this error is lower than 4 arcsec. In spite of very thin surfaces (~ 0.9 x 40 mm for instance), a special process allows to guarantee a surface roughness about 5 nm and very few digs on the slice borders. The WFE of the mini-mirror can also be measured at a stage of the manufacturing. Different environmental tests have shown the withstanding of these assemblies to cryogenic temperature (30 K). Then, we will describe the different solutions (spherical, flat, cylindrical surfaces) and characteristics of an image slicer that can influence difficulties of manufacturing and metrology, cost, schedule and risks with regard to fabrication. Finally, the study of a mass production plan for MUSE (CRAL) composed of 24 Image Slicers of 38 slices, that"s to say 912 slices, will be exposed as an example of what can be do for multi-module instruments.

  13. Evaluation and application of passive and active optical remote sensing methods for the measurement of atmospheric aerosol properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielonen, T.

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles affect the atmosphere's radiation balance by scattering and absorbing sunlight. Moreover, the particles act as condensation nuclei for clouds and affect their reflectivity. In addition, aerosols have negative health effects and they reduce visibility. Aerosols are emitted into the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Different types of aerosols have different effects on the radiation balance, thus global monitoring and typing of aerosols is of vital importance. In this thesis, several remote sensing methods used in the measurement of atmospheric aerosols are evaluated. Remote sensing of aerosols can be done with active and passive instruments. Passive instruments measure radiation emitted by the sun and the Earth while active instruments have their own radiation source, for example a black body radiator or laser. The instruments utilized in these studies were sun photometers (PFR, Cimel), lidars (POLLYXT, CALIOP), transmissiometer (OLAF) and a spectroradiometer (MODIS). Retrieval results from spaceborne instruments (MODIS, CALIOP) were evaluated with ground based measurements (PFR, Cimel). In addition, effects of indicative aerosol model assumptions on the calculated radiative transfer were studied. Finally, aerosol particle mass at the ground level was approximated from satellite measurements and vertical profiles of aerosols measured with a lidar were analyzed. For the evaluation part, these studies show that the calculation of aerosol induced attenuation of radiation based on aerosol size distribution measurements is not a trivial task. In addition to dry aerosol size distribution, the effect of ambient relative humidity on the size distribution and the optical properties of the aerosols need to be known in order to achieve correct results from the calculations. Furthermore, the results suggest that aerosol size parameters retrieved from passive spaceborne measurements depend heavily on surgace reflectance

  14. Standardized Low-Power Wireless Communication Technologies for Distributed Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Vilajosana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM, are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA, are based on contention medium access control (MAC layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

  15. Standardized low-power wireless communication technologies for distributed sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajosana, Xavier; Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis

    2014-02-10

    Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

  16. Plasmon field effect transistor: A novel sensing platform for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri Kojori, Hossein

    The interest in plasmons, associated with nanostructured metals, has remarkably increased in the past decade. A Recent improvement in fabrication techniques to create well-controlled nanostructures also contributed to the rapid development of plasmonic applications, such as meta-materials, nonlinear optics, photovoltaic devices, biomedical sensors, medical therapies and spectroscopy. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is one of the successful applications, which is widely used in biomedical research. On the other hand, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is also widely studied in a broad range of applications. The distinct property of LSPR is a tailored and sharp absorption/scattering peaks depending on the shape and sizes of the metal nanostructures. In addition, plasmonics can enable integration of high speed optical circuit by taking the advantages from the current electronics and optics technologies. Thus, plasmonics is considered as a solution for the next generation systems that offers ultra-high speed data processing. In this dissertation, we will introduce a novel plasmon field effect transistor (FET) that enables direct detection and efficient amplification of plasmon energy. This FET has several advantages such as electrical isolation of plasmon absorber nanostructures from a sensing and drug screening. Currently, we have proof of concept for the antigen-antibody bonding using the plasmon field effect transistor. We will develop a multiplexing capable plasmon FET sensing platform by integrating an array of plasmon FETs with microfluidic channels to detect cancer biomarkers.

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Remote Sensing Applications in Marine Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    This summer school was a sequel to the summer school on Remote Sensing in Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology which was held in Dundee in 1980 and the proceedings of which were published by Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, England. At the present summer scnool we concentrated on only part of the subject area that was covered in 1980. Although there was some repetit­ ion of material that was presented in 1980, because by and large we had a new set of participants, most subjects were treated in considerably greater detail than had been possible previously. The major topics covered in the present summer school were (i) the general principles of remote sensing with particular reference to marine applications, (ii) applications to physical oceanography, (iii) marine resources applications and (iv) coastal monitoring and protection. The material contained in this volume represents the written texts of most of the lectures presented at the summer school. One important set of lecture notes was not available; this...

  18. DFB Lasers Between 760 nm and 16 μm for Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Wolfgang; Naehle, Lars; Fuchs, Peter; Gerschuetz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Lars; Koeth, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have shown the importance of tunable semiconductor lasers in optical sensing. We describe the status quo concerning DFB laser diodes between 760 nm and 3,000 nm as well as new developments aiming for up to 80 nm tuning range in this spectral region. Furthermore we report on QCL between 3 μm and 16 μm and present new developments. An overview of the most interesting applications using such devices is given at the end of this paper. PMID:22319259

  19. Atmospheric remote sensing and applications from GNSS: Recent results and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Gurbuz, Gokhan; Akgul, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric delay is one of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) errors. Nowadays, the total zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) can be precisely obtained from GNSS, which can be used for weather prediction and atmospheric research as well as space weather. In this paper, recent results and progress on atmospheric remote sensing and applications from GNSS are presented, including ocean tide models and mapping functions effects, high-order ionospheric delay correction, tropoapause variations, ionospheric climatology, seismo-atmospheric anomalies and characteristics. Finally, some possible mechanism on atmospheric anomalies and coupling processes are given and discussed as well as future challenges.

  20. Development of semiconductor laser based Doppler lidars for wind-sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the progress we have made in the development of semiconductor laser (SL) based Doppler lidar systems for remote wind speed and direction measurements. The SL emitter used in our wind-sensing lidar is an integrated diode laser with a tapered (semiconductor) amplifier. The laser source...... based wind sensors have a strong potential in a number of applications such as wind turbine control, wind resource assessment, and micrometeorology (e.g. as alternative to the construction of meteorological towers with anemometers and wind vanes)....

  1. III-V/silicon photonic integrated circuits for communication and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelkens, Gunther; Keyvaninia, Shahram; Stankovic, Stevan; De Koninck, Yannick; Tassaert, Martijn; Mechet, Pauline; Spuesens, Thijs; Hattasan, N.; Gassenq, A.; Muneeb, M.; Ryckeboer, E.; Ghosh, Samir; Van Thourhout, D.; Baets, R.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we review our work in the field of heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors and non-reciprocal optical materials on a silicon waveguide circuit. We elaborate on the heterogeneous integration technology based on adhesive DVS-BCB die-to-wafer bonding and discuss several device demonstrations. The presented devices are envisioned to be used in photonic integrated circuits for communication applications (telecommunications and optical interconnects) as well as in spectroscopic sensing systems operating in the short-wave infrared wavelength range.

  2. Laser fabrication of large-scale nanoparticle arrays for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Evlyukhin, Andrey B; Gonçalves, Manuel R; Reinhardt, Carsten; Koroleva, Anastasia; Arnedillo, Maria Luisa; Kiyan, Roman; Marti, Othmar; Chichkov, Boris N

    2011-06-28

    A novel method for high-speed fabrication of large scale periodic arrays of nanoparticles (diameters 40-200 nm) is developed. This method is based on a combination of nanosphere lithography and laser-induced transfer. Fabricated spherical nanoparticles are partially embedded into a polymer substrate. They are arranged into a hexagonal array and can be used for sensing applications. An optical sensor with the sensitivity of 365 nm/RIU and the figure of merit of 21.5 in the visible spectral range is demonstrated.

  3. Neural Network Based on Rough Sets and Its Application to Remote Sensing Image Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new kind of back propagation neural network (BPNN) based on rough sets,called rough back propagation neural network (RBPNN).The architecture and training method of RBPNN are presented and the survey and analysis of RBPNN for the classification of remote sensing multi-spectral image is discussed.The successful application of RBPNN to a land cover classification illustrates the simple computation and high accuracy of the new neural network and the flexibility and practicality of this new approach.

  4. Soft Sensing Modelling Based on Optimal Selection of Secondary Variables and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Li; Cheng Shao

    2009-01-01

    The composition of the distillation column is a very important quality value in refineries, unfortunately, few hardware sensors are available on-line to measure the distillation compositions. In this paper, a novel method using sensitivity matrix analysis and kernel ridge regression (KRR) to implement on-line soft sensing of distillation compositions is proposed. In this approach, the sensitivity matrix analysis is presented to select the most suitable secondary variables to be used as the soft sensor's input. The KRR is used to build the composition soft sensor. Application to a simulated distillation column demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Public health applications of remote sensing of vector borne and parasitic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the potential application of remote sensing to various fields of public health are presented. Specific topics discussed include: detection of snail habitats in connection with the epidemiology of schistosomiasis; the detection of certain Anopheles breeding sites, and location of transient human populations, both in connection with malaria eradication programs; and detection of overwintering population sites for the primary screwworm (Cochliomyia americana). Emphasis was placed on the determination of ground truth data on the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of ground waters which would or would not support the growth of significant populations of mosquitoes.

  6. Proximal Remote Sensing Buggies and Potential Applications for Field-Based Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Deery

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The achievements made in genomic technology in recent decades are yet to be matched by fast and accurate crop phenotyping methods. Such crop phenotyping methods are required for crop improvement efforts to meet expected demand for food and fibre in the future. This review evaluates the role of proximal remote sensing buggies for field-based phenotyping with a particular focus on the application of currently available sensor technology for large-scale field phenotyping. To illustrate the potential for the development of high throughput phenotyping techniques, a case study is presented with sample data sets obtained from a ground-based proximal remote sensing buggy mounted with the following sensors: LiDAR, RGB camera, thermal infra-red camera and imaging spectroradiometer. The development of such techniques for routine deployment in commercial-scale breeding and pre-breeding operations will require a multidisciplinary approach to leverage the recent technological advances realised in computer science, image analysis, proximal remote sensing and robotics.

  7. Infrared Range Sensor Array for 3D Sensing in Robotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtae Do

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and testing of multiple infrared range detectors arranged in a two-dimensional (2D array. The proposed system can collect the sparse three-dimensional (3D data of objects and surroundings for robotics applications. Three kinds of tasks are considered using the system: detecting obstacles that lie ahead of a mobile robot, sensing the ground profile for the safe navigation of a mobile robot, and sensing the shape and position of an object on a conveyor belt for pickup by a robot manipulator. The developed system is potentially a simple alternative to high-resolution (and expensive 3D sensing systems, such as stereo cameras or laser scanners. In addition, the system can provide shape information about target objects and surroundings that cannot be obtained using simple ultrasonic sensors. Laboratory prototypes of the system were built with nine infrared range sensors arranged in a 3×3 array and test results confirmed the validity of system.

  8. Platinum Electrodeposition on Unsupported Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and Its Application as Methane Sensing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Enid Contes-de; Santiago, Diana; Casillas, Gilberto; Mayoral, Alvaro; Magen, Cesar; José-Yacaman, Miguel; Li, Jing; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the decoration of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with platinum (Pt) nanoparticles using an electrochemical technique, rotating disk slurry electrode (RoDSE). Pt/SWCNTs were electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV) and physically characterized through the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy - X-ray florescence (EDS-XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After characterization it was found that electrodeposited nanoparticles had an average particle size of 4.1 ± 0.8 nm. Pt/SWCNTs were used as sensing material for methane (CH4) detection and showed improved sensing properties in a range of concentration from 50 ppm to 200 ppm parts per million (ppm) at room temperature, when compared to other Pt/CNTs-based sensors. The use of this technique for the preparation of Pt/SWCNTs opens a new possibility in the bulk preparation of samples using an electrochemical method and thus their potential use in a wide variety of applications in chemical sensing, fuel cell and others. PMID:24991061

  9. Designing Zoning of Remote Sensing Drones for Urban Applications: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norzailawati, M. N.; Alias, A.; Akma, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses on-going research related to zoning regulation for the remote sensing drone in the urban applications. Timestamped maps are presented here follow a citation-based approach, where significant information is retrieved from the scientific literature. The emergence of drones in domestic air raises lots understandable issues on privacy, security and uncontrolled pervasive surveillance that require a careful and alternative solution. The effective solution is to adopt a privacy and property rights approach that create a drone zoning and clear drone legislatures. In providing a differential trend to other reviews, this paper is not limited to drones zoning and regulations, but also, discuss on trend remote sensing drones specification in designing a drone zones. Remote sensing drone will specific according to their features and performances; size and endurance, maximum airspeed and altitude level and particular references are made to the drones range. The implementation of laws zoning could lie with the urban planners whereby, a zoning for drone could become a new tactic used to specify areas, where drones could be used, will provide remedies for the harm that arise from drones, and act as a different against irresponsible behaviour. Finally, underlines the need for next regulations on guidelines and standards which can be used as a guidance for urban decision makers to control the drones' operating, thus ensuring a quality and sustainability of resilience cities simultaneously encouraging the revolution of technology.

  10. Graphene-Elastomer Composites with Segregated Nanostructured Network for Liquid and Strain Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Dong, Xuchu; Liu, Shuqi; Chen, Song; Wei, Yong; Liu, Lan

    2016-09-14

    One of the critical issues for the fabrication of desirable sensing materials has focused on the construction of an effective continuous network with a low percolation threshold. Herein, graphene-based elastomer composites with a segregated nanostructured graphene network were prepared by a novel and effective ice-templating strategy. The segregated graphene network bestowed on the natural rubber (NR) composites an ultralow electrical percolation threshold (0.4 vol %), 8-fold lower than that of the NR/graphene composites with homogeneous dispersion morphology (3.6 vol %). The resulting composites containing 0.63 vol % graphene exhibited high liquid sensing responsivity (6700), low response time (114 s), and good reproducibility. The unique segregated structure also provides this graphene-based elastomer (containing 0.42 vol % graphene) with exceptionally high stretchability, sensitivity (gauge factor ≈ 139), and good reproducibility (∼400 cycles) of up to 60% strain under cyclic tests. The fascinating performances highlight the potential applications of graphene-elastomer composites with an effective segregated network as multifunctional sensing materials.

  11. Application of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing for the retrieval of forest inventory parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Yegor V.; Kozoderov, Vladimir V.; Sokolov, Anton A.

    2016-04-01

    Collecting and updating forest inventory data play an important part in the forest management. The data can be obtained directly by using exact enough but low efficient ground based methods as well as from the remote sensing measurements. We present applications of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing for the retrieval of such important inventory parameters as the forest species and age composition. The hyperspectral images of the test region were obtained from the airplane equipped by the produced in Russia light-weight airborne video-spectrometer of visible and near infrared spectral range and high resolution photo-camera on the same gyro-stabilized platform. The quality of the thematic processing depends on many factors such as the atmospheric conditions, characteristics of measuring instruments, corrections and preprocessing methods, etc. An important role plays the construction of the classifier together with methods of the reduction of the feature space. The performance of different spectral classification methods is analyzed for the problem of hyperspectral remote sensing of soil and vegetation. For the reduction of the feature space we used the earlier proposed stable feature selection method. The results of the classification of hyperspectral airborne images by using the Multiclass Support Vector Machine method with Gaussian kernel and the parametric Bayesian classifier based on the Gaussian mixture model and their comparative analysis are demonstrated.

  12. Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1 load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs, (2 wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3 master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4 a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons.

  13. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  14. Grid workflow validation using ontology-based tacit knowledge: A case study for quantitative remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Longli; Xue, Yong; Dong, Jing; Hu, Yingcui; Hill, Richard; Guang, Jie; Li, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Workflow for remote sensing quantitative retrieval is the ;bridge; between Grid services and Grid-enabled application of remote sensing quantitative retrieval. Workflow averts low-level implementation details of the Grid and hence enables users to focus on higher levels of application. The workflow for remote sensing quantitative retrieval plays an important role in remote sensing Grid and Cloud computing services, which can support the modelling, construction and implementation of large-scale complicated applications of remote sensing science. The validation of workflow is important in order to support the large-scale sophisticated scientific computation processes with enhanced performance and to minimize potential waste of time and resources. To research the semantic correctness of user-defined workflows, in this paper, we propose a workflow validation method based on tacit knowledge research in the remote sensing domain. We first discuss the remote sensing model and metadata. Through detailed analysis, we then discuss the method of extracting the domain tacit knowledge and expressing the knowledge with ontology. Additionally, we construct the domain ontology with Protégé. Through our experimental study, we verify the validity of this method in two ways, namely data source consistency error validation and parameters matching error validation.

  15. Due Permafrost: a Circumpolar Remote Sensing Service for Permafrost - Evaluation and Application Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, B.; Bartsch, A.; Elger, K. K.; Rinke, A.; Gellhorn, C.; Matthes, H.; Buchhorn, M.; Klehmet, K.; Soliman, A. S.; Duguay, C.; Hachem, S.; Schwamborn, G.; Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.; Lantuit, H.; Herzschuh, U.; Seifert, F.

    2012-12-01

    The task of the ESA Data User Element DUE Permafrost project is to build up a Remote Sensing Service for permafrost applications. The DUE Permafrost remote sensing products are land temperature, soil moisture, frozen/thawed surface status, terrain parameters, land cover, and surface waters. The DUE Permafrost products are freely available for download under http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost/. The products are also published at the world data centre PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.780111, 2012: ESA Data User Element Permafrost), Snow parameters (snow extent and snow water equivalent) can be derived from the ESA DUE project GlobSnow. A major component is the evaluation of the DUE Permafrost products to test their scientific validity for high-latitudinal permafrost landscapes. The primary programme providing ground data is the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) initiated by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). The involvement of scientific stakeholders and the IPA, and the ongoing evaluation of the remote sensing derived products make the DUE Permafrost products accepted by the scientific community. We show evaluation case studies of DUE Permafrost remote sensing products using GTN-P in-situ data in Alaska and Siberia. The Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM (Regionale Klimaänderungen/Regional climate change) is a climate research program where regional observations and process studies are innovatively coupled with model simulations (http://www.reklim.de/en/home/). Within the REKLIM framework we spatio-temporally compare the geophysical surface parameters derived from regional climate modelling with the DUE Permafrost and DUE GlobSnow remote sensing products. The case studies are: i) spatio-temporal comparison of the ESA GlobSnow satellite-derived snow-water equivalent data with the output from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for Central Siberia for 1987-2010. ii) circum-arctic spatio-temporal comparison of the ESA DUE Permafrost

  16. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, S; Kim, S C; Schieber, C; Kannam, S; Gunn, N; Moore, S; Scott, D; Bathgate, R; Skafidas, S; Wagner, J M

    2015-05-08

    systems genomics has to be accompanied by an equally strong effort to develop next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug screening and design platforms. In that context lab-on-a-chip devices utilizing nanopore- and nanochannel based resistive pulse-sensing technology for DNA-sequencing and protein screening applications occupy a key role. This paper describes the status quo of resistive pulse sensing technology for these two application areas with a special focus on current technology trends and challenges ahead.

  17. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, S.; Kim, S. C.; Schieber, C.; Kannam, S.; Gunn, N.; Moore, S.; Scott, D.; Bathgate, R.; Skafidas, S.; Wagner, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    systems genomics has to be accompanied by an equally strong effort to develop next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug screening and design platforms. In that context lab-on-a-chip devices utilizing nanopore- and nanochannel based resistive pulse-sensing technology for DNA-sequencing and protein screening applications occupy a key role. This paper describes the status quo of resistive pulse sensing technology for these two application areas with a special focus on current technology trends and challenges ahead.

  18. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.H.; Tang, K.; Taranenko, N.I.; Allman, S.L.; Chang, L.Y.

    1994-12-31

    The application of DNA fingerprinting has become very broad in forensic analysis, patient identification, diagnostic medicine, and wildlife poaching, since every individual`s DNA structure is identical within all tissues of their body. DNA fingerprinting was initiated by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). In 1987, Nakamura et al. found that a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) often occurred in the alleles. The probability of different individuals having the same number of tandem repeats in several different alleles is very low. Thus, the identification of VNTR from genomic DNA became a very reliable method for identification of individuals. DNA fingerprinting is a reliable tool for forensic analysis. In DNA fingerprinting, knowledge of the sequence of tandem repeats and restriction endonuclease sites can provide the basis for identification. The major steps for conventional DNA fingerprinting include (1) specimen processing (2) amplification of selected DNA segments by PCR, and (3) gel electrophoresis to do the final DNA analysis. In this work we propose to use laser desorption mass spectrometry for fast DNA fingerprinting. The process and advantages are discussed.

  19. Remote Sensing Image Change Detection Based on NSCT-HMT Model and Its Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengyun; Zhang, Yichen; Jia, Zhenhong; Yang, Jie; Kasabov, Nikola

    2017-06-06

    Traditional image change detection based on a non-subsampled contourlet transform always ignores the neighborhood information's relationship to the non-subsampled contourlet coefficients, and the detection results are susceptible to noise interference. To address these disadvantages, we propose a denoising method based on the non-subsampled contourlet transform domain that uses the Hidden Markov Tree model (NSCT-HMT) for change detection of remote sensing images. First, the ENVI software is used to calibrate the original remote sensing images. After that, the mean-ratio operation is adopted to obtain the difference image that will be denoised by the NSCT-HMT model. Then, using the Fuzzy Local Information C-means (FLICM) algorithm, the difference image is divided into the change area and unchanged area. The proposed algorithm is applied to a real remote sensing data set. The application results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively suppress clutter noise, and retain more detailed information from the original images. The proposed algorithm has higher detection accuracy than the Markov Random Field-Fuzzy C-means (MRF-FCM), the non-subsampled contourlet transform-Fuzzy C-means clustering (NSCT-FCM), the pointwise approach and graph theory (PA-GT), and the Principal Component Analysis-Nonlocal Means (PCA-NLM) denosing algorithm. Finally, the five algorithms are used to detect the southern boundary of the Gurbantunggut Desert in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, and the results show that the proposed algorithm has the best effect on real remote sensing image change detection.

  20. Mass defect filter technique and its applications to drug metabolite identification by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Donglu; Ray, Kenneth; Zhu, Mingshe

    2009-07-01

    Identification of drug metabolites by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) involves metabolite detection in biological matrixes and structural characterization based on product ion spectra. Traditionally, metabolite detection is accomplished primarily on the basis of predicted molecular masses or fragmentation patterns of metabolites using triple-quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometers. Recently, a novel mass defect filter (MDF) technique has been developed, which enables high-resolution mass spectrometers to be utilized for detecting both predicted and unexpected drug metabolites based on narrow, well-defined mass defect ranges for these metabolites. This is a new approach that is completely different from, but complementary to, traditional molecular mass- or MS/MS fragmentation-based LC/MS approaches. This article reviews the mass defect patterns of various classes of drug metabolites and the basic principles of the MDF approach. Examples are given on the applications of the MDF technique to the detection of stable and chemically reactive metabolites in vitro and in vivo. Advantages, limitations, and future applications are also discussed on MDF and its combinations with other data mining techniques for the detection and identification of drug metabolites.

  1. In-database processing of a large collection of remote sensing data: applications and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikhtenko, Vladimir; Mamash, Elena; Chubarov, Dmitri; Voronina, Polina

    2016-04-01

    Large archives of remote sensing data are now available to scientists, yet the need to work with individual satellite scenes or product files constrains studies that span a wide temporal range or spatial extent. The resources (storage capacity, computing power and network bandwidth) required for such studies are often beyond the capabilities of individual geoscientists. This problem has been tackled before in remote sensing research and inspired several information systems. Some of them such as NASA Giovanni [1] and Google Earth Engine have already proved their utility for science. Analysis tasks involving large volumes of numerical data are not unique to Earth Sciences. Recent advances in data science are enabled by the development of in-database processing engines that bring processing closer to storage, use declarative query languages to facilitate parallel scalability and provide high-level abstraction of the whole dataset. We build on the idea of bridging the gap between file archives containing remote sensing data and databases by integrating files into relational database as foreign data sources and performing analytical processing inside the database engine. Thereby higher level query language can efficiently address problems of arbitrary size: from accessing the data associated with a specific pixel or a grid cell to complex aggregation over spatial or temporal extents over a large number of individual data files. This approach was implemented using PostgreSQL for a Siberian regional archive of satellite data products holding hundreds of terabytes of measurements from multiple sensors and missions taken over a decade-long span. While preserving the original storage layout and therefore compatibility with existing applications the in-database processing engine provides a toolkit for provisioning remote sensing data in scientific workflows and applications. The use of SQL - a widely used higher level declarative query language - simplifies interoperability

  2. Application of unified array calculus to connect 4-D spacetime sensing with string theory and relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    Array algebra of photogrammetry and geodesy unified multi-linear matrix and tensor operators in an expansion of Gaussian adjustment calculus to general matrix inverses and solutions of inverse problems to find all, or some optimal, parametric solutions that satisfy the available observables. By-products in expanding array and tensor calculus to handle redundant observables resulted in general theories of estimation in mathematical statistics and fast transform technology of signal processing. Their applications in gravity modeling and system automation of multi-ray digital image and terrain matching evolved into fast multi-nonlinear differential and integral array calculus. Work since 1980's also uncovered closed-form inverse Taylor and least squares Newton-Raphson-Gauss perturbation solutions of nonlinear systems of equations. Fast nonlinear integral matching of array wavelets enabled an expansion of the bundle adjustment to 4-D stereo imaging and range sensing where real-time stereo sequence and waveform phase matching enabled data-to-info conversion and compression on-board advanced sensors. The resulting unified array calculus of spacetime sensing is applicable in virtually any math and engineering science, including recent work in spacetime physics. The paper focuses on geometric spacetime reconstruction from its image projections inspired by unified relativity and string theories. The collinear imaging equations of active object space shutter of special relativity are expanded to 4-D Lorentz transform. However, regular passive imaging and shutter inside the sensor expands the law of special relativity by a quantum geometric explanation of 4-D photogrammetry. The collinear imaging equations provide common sense explanations to the 10 (and 26) dimensional hyperspace concepts of a purely geometric string theory. The 11-D geometric M-theory is interpreted as a bundle adjustment of spacetime images using 2-D or 5-D membrane observables of image, string and

  3. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing applications for tropical and subtropical vegetation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography contains 425 citations of selected technical reports, journal articles, and other publications covering the general subject of tropical and subtropical vegetation analysis. Functionally related topics that include vegetation analysis are included for completeness, and citations have been organized under the following subheadings for ease of reference: remote sensing application overviews, vegetation (general), forestry, grasslands/savannah/shrublands, agriculture, land use/thematic mapping, and integrated surveys/multiple resource analysis/land systems. The terms "tropics and subtropics" are used in the widest context to include applications related to a broad range of equatorial environments. The bibliography contains selected citations published between 1924 and 1978. Many foreign language and non U.S.- source items are included.

  4. New insights into the application of geographical information systems and remote sensing in veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Biggeri, Annibale; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2006-11-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward.

  5. Environment effects on surface-plasmon spectra in gold-island films potential for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriaudeau, F. [Laboratoire Electronique Informatique et Image (LE2I), 12 rue de la fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot, France and Photometrics Group, Life Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Downey, T.R.; Passian, A.; Wig, A.; Ferrell, T.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, 401 A. H. Nielsen Avenue, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The effects of the local dielectric environment on the surface-plasmon resonances of annealed gold-island films as a potential for sensing applications are studied experimentally and modeled theoretically. Gold-island films were annealed at 600{degree}C to produce spheroidal shape particles that exhibit well-resolved resonances in polarized, angle-resolved, absorption spectra. These resonances are shifted in different amounts by the depolarization effect of the surrounding medium (liquids with various refraction indices). Cross-section calculations based on nonretarded, single-particle, dielectric interaction for these various configurations are presented and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations. The results show an interesting potential for biosensing or environmental monitoring applications. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  6. Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies to Enable Boiler Balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Prabir

    2008-12-31

    Identifying gas species and their quantification is important for optimization of many industrial applications involving high temperatures, including combustion processes. CISM (Center for Industrial Sensors and Measurements) at the Ohio State University has developed CO, O{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2} sensors based on TiO{sub 2} semiconducting oxides, zirconia and lithium phosphate based electrochemical sensors and sensor arrays for high-temperature emission control. The underlying theme in our sensor development has been the use of materials science and chemistry to promote high-temperature performance with selectivity. A review article presenting key results of our studies on CO, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} sensors is described in: Akbar, Sheikh A.; Dutta, Prabir K. Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies for Combustion Processes, PowerPlant Chemistry, 9(1) 2006, 28-33.

  7. EgoSENSE: A Framework for Context-Aware Mobile Applications Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Milic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a context-aware mobile framework (or middleware, intended to support the implementation of context-aware mobile services. The overview of basic concepts, architecture and components of context-aware mobile framework is given. The mobile framework provide acquisition and management of context, where raw data sensed from physical (hardware sensors and virtual (software sensors are combined, processed and analyzed to provide high-level context and situation of the user to the mobile context-aware applications in near real-time. Using demo mobile health application, its most important components and functions, such as these supposed to detect urgent or alarming health conditions of a mobile user and to initiate appropriate actions demonstrated.

  8. Application of a novel electrosynthesized polydopamine-imprinted film to the capacitive sensing of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wei, Wan-Zhi; Zeng, Jin-Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Gao, Yan-Ping

    2006-06-01

    The application of novel electrosynthesized polydopamine (PDA)-imprinted film as a recognition element for the capacitive sensing of nicotine is reported. The PDA-imprinted film was electropolymerized directly on the gold electrode surface in the presence of nicotine without an additional self-assembled thiol sublayer. The compact PDA film has various functional groups that aid the imprinting procedure. Furthermore, the film shows good capacitive response since it is insulating in nature and ultrathin. The sensor's linear response range for nicotine was between 1-25 micromol L(-1), with a detection limit of 0.5 micromol L(-1). The proposed molecularly imprinted polymer capacitive (MIPC) sensor exhibited good selectivity for nicotine. The reproducibility and repeatability of the MIPC sensor were all found to be satisfactory. The results from sample analysis confirmed the applicability of the MIPC sensor to quantitative analysis.

  9. New insights into the application of geographical information systems and remote sensing in veterinary parasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS. In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward.

  10. Flexible visible-infrared metamaterials and their applications in highly sensitive chemical and biological sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinlong; Peng, Bo; Li, Dehui; Zhang, Jun; Wong, Lai Mun; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Shijie; Xiong, Qihua

    2011-08-10

    Flexible electronic and photonic devices have been demonstrated in the past decade, with significant promise in low-cost, light-weighted, transparent, biocompatible, and portable devices for a wide range of applications. Herein, we demonstrate a flexible metamaterial (Metaflex)-based photonic device operating in the visible-IR regime, which shows potential applications in high sensitivity strain, biological and chemical sensing. The metamaterial structure, consisting of split ring resonators (SRRs) of 30 nm thick Au or Ag, has been fabricated on poly(ethylene naphthalate) substrates with the least line width of ∼30 nm by electron beam lithography. The absorption resonances can be tuned from middle IR to visible range. The Ag U-shaped SRRs metamaterials exhibit an electric resonance of ∼542 nm and a magnetic resonance of ∼756 nm. Both the electric and magnetic resonance modes show highly sensitive responses to out-of-plane bending strain, surrounding dielectric media, and surface chemical environment. Due to the electric and magnetic field coupling, the magnetic response gives a sensitivity as high as 436 nm/RIU. Our Metaflex devices show superior responses with a shift of magnetic resonance of 4.5 nm/nM for nonspecific bovine serum albumin protein binding and 65 nm for a self-assembled monolayer of 2-naphthalenethiol, respectively, suggesting considerable promise in flexible and transparent photonic devices for chemical and biological sensing.

  11. The research of a gyro-stabilized platform and POS application technology in airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Du, Qi

    2009-07-01

    The distortion of the collected images usually takes place since the attitude changes along with the flying aerocraft on airborne remote sensing. In order to get original images without distortion, it is necessary to use professional gyro-stabilized platform. In addition to this, another solution of correcting the original image distortion is to utilize later geometric rectification using position & orientation system ( POS ) data. The third way is to utilize medium-accuracy stabilized platform to control the distortion at a tolerant range, and then make use of the data obtained by high-solution posture measure system to correct the low-quality remote sensing images. The third way which takes advantage of both techniques is better than using only one of the two other ways. This paper introduces several kinds of structural forms of gyro-stabilized platforms, and POS acquiring instruments respectively. Then, the essay will make some analysis of their advantages and disadvantages, key technologies and the application experiment of the third method. After the analysis, the thesis discusses the design of the gyro-stabilized platform. The thesis provides crucial information not only for the application technology of gyro-stabilized platform and POS but also for future development.

  12. [Vegetation water content retrieval and application of drought monitoring using multi-spectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Tao; Wang, Shi-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Fu-Tao

    2011-10-01

    The vegetation is one of main drying carriers. The change of Vegetation Water Content (VWC) reflects the spatial-temporal distribution of drought situation and the degree of drought. In the present paper, a method of retrieving the VWC based on remote sensing data is introduced and analyzed, including the monitoring theory, vegetation water content indicator and retrieving model. The application was carried out in the region of Southwest China in the spring, 2010. The VWC data was calculated from MODIS data and spatially-temporally analyzed. Combined with the meteorological data from weather stations, the relationship between the EWT and weather data shows that precipitation has impact on the change in vegetation moisture to a certain extent. However, there is a process of delay during the course of vegetation absorbing water. So precipitation has a delaying impact on VWC. Based on the above analysis, the probability of drought monitoring and evaluation based on multi-spectral VWC data was discussed. Through temporal synthesis and combined with auxiliary data (i. e. historical data), it will help overcome the limitation of data itself and enhance the application of drought monitoring and evaluation based on the multi-spectral remote sensing.

  13. The Electrostatically Formed Nanowire: A Novel Platform for Gas-Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Shalev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN gas sensor is based on a multiple-gate field-effect transistor with a conducting nanowire, which is not defined physically; rather, the nanowire is defined electrostatically post-fabrication, by using appropriate biasing of the different surrounding gates. The EFN is fabricated by using standard silicon processing technologies with relaxed design rules and, thereby, supports the realization of a low-cost and robust gas sensor, suitable for mass production. Although the smallest lithographic definition is higher than half a micrometer, appropriate tuning of the biasing of the gates concludes a conducting channel with a tunable diameter, which can transform the conducting channel into a nanowire with a diameter smaller than 20 nm. The tunable size and shape of the nanowire elicits tunable sensing parameters, such as sensitivity, limit of detection, and dynamic range, such that a single EFN gas sensor can perform with high sensitivity and a broad dynamic range by merely changing the biasing configuration. The current work reviews the design of the EFN gas sensor, its fabrication considerations and process flow, means of electrical characterization, and preliminary sensing performance at room temperature, underlying the unique and advantageous tunable capability of the device.

  14. Application of remote sensing in regional scale estimates of vegetation carbon budgets: The Belfix project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroustraete, Frank; Patyn, Johan; Myneni, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    A concept for coupling the remote sensing derived fraction of the absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR) with a functional ecosystem model was developed. The study was named the Belfix procedure. The quantification of changes in carbon dynamics at the ecosystem level is a key issue in studies of global climatic change effects at the vegetation atmosphere interface. An operational procedure, for the determination of carbon fluxes at the regional scale (Belgian territory), is presented. The approach allows for the determination of the sink function of vegetation for carbon (dioxide). The phyto- and litter mass, photosynthetic assimilation, autotroph and heterotroph carbon fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon, were evaluated. The results suggest that a single solution can be obtained for ecosystem rates and states, applying an iterative procedure, based on minimizing the change in maximal seasonal green phytomass in function of yearly FAPAR temporal profiles. Total phytomass values obtained are in close range with those obtained by ground sampling.

  15. Assessment of Left Ventricular Function and Mass on Free-Breathing Compressed Sensing Real-Time Cine Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Tomoyuki; Kido, Teruhito; Nakamura, Masashi; Watanabe, Kouki; Schmidt, Michaela; Forman, Christoph; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2017-09-25

    Compressed sensing (CS) cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the advantage of being inherently insensitive to respiratory motion. This study compared the accuracy of free-breathing (FB) CS and breath-hold (BH) standard cine MRI for left ventricular (LV) volume assessment.Methods and Results:Sixty-three patients underwent cine MRI with both techniques. Both types of images were acquired in stacks of 8 short-axis slices (temporal/spatial resolution, 41 ms/1.7×1.7×6 mm(3)) and compared for ejection fraction, end-diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, and LV mass. Both BH standard and FB CS cine MRI provided acceptable image quality for LV volumetric analysis (score ≥3) in all patients (4.7±0.5 and 3.7±0.5, respectively; Pcine MRI (median, IQR: BH standard, 83.8 mL, 64.7-102.7 mL; FB CS, 79.0 mL, 66.0-101.0 mL; P=0.0006). The total acquisition times for BH standard and FB CS cine MRI were 113±7 s and 24±4 s, respectively (Pcine MRI is a clinically useful alternative to BH standard cine MRI in patients with impaired BH capacity.

  16. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 1: Advanced Applications Flight Experiments (AAFE) and microwave remote sensing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    The earth resources activity is comprised of two basic programs as follows: advanced applications flight experiments, and microwave remote sensing. The two programs are in various stages of implementation, extending from experimental investigations within both the AAFE program and the microwave remote sensing program, to multidisciplinary studies and planning. The purpose of this paper is simply to identify the main thrust of the Langley Research Center activity in earth resources.

  17. Remote Sensing of Tropical Cyclones: Applications from Microwave Radiometry and Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mary

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are important to observe, especially over the course of their lifetimes, most of which is spent over the ocean. Very few in situ observations are available. Remote sensing has afforded researchers and forecasters the ability to observe and understand TCs better. Every remote sensing platform used to observe TCs has benefits and disadvantages. Some remote sensing instruments are more sensitive to clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric constituents. Some remote sensing instruments are insensitive to the atmosphere, which allows for unobstructed observations of the ocean surface. Observations of the ocean surface, either of surface roughness or emission can be used to estimate ocean surface wind speed. Estimates of surface wind speed can help determine the intensity, structure, and destructive potential of TCs. While there are many methods by which TCs are observed, this thesis focuses on two main types of remote sensing techniques: passive microwave radiometry and Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R). First, we develop and apply a rain rate and ocean surface wind speed retrieval algorithm for the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD). HIRAD, an airborne passive microwave radiometer, operates at C-band frequencies, and is sensitive to rain absorption and emission, as well as ocean surface emission. Motivated by the unique observing geometry and high gradient rain scenes that HIRAD typically observes, a more robust rain rate and wind speed retrieval algorithm is developed. HIRAD's observing geometry must be accounted for in the forward model and retrieval algorithm, if high rain gradients are to be estimated from HIRAD's observations, with the ultimate goal of improving surface wind speed estimation. Lastly, TC science data products are developed for the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS). The CYGNSS constellation employs GNSS-R techniques to estimate ocean surface wind speed in all precipitating

  18. Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry. II. Applications to Structural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-02

    was unexpected, was the quaternary amine Safranin -O. Ions corresponding to (M-HC)- at m/z 313 dominate the negative ion mass spectrum. Two classes of...and cluster species were observed. The positive ion LD mass spectrum of safranin -O, shown in Figure 6, is tvnical of LD results for salts. The...Figure 6. Laser Desorption Positive-ion Spectrum of Safranin 0. Figure 7. Laser Desorntion Mass Spectra of Doubly Charged Organic Salts Top - N,N

  19. Mass transportation in diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsushima, Shigenori, E-mail: mitsushi@ynu.ac.j [Chemical Energy Laboratory, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Shinohara, Yoshitsugu; Matsuzawa, Koichi; Ota, Ken-ichiro [Chemical Energy Laboratory, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2010-09-01

    To use the protonic mesothermal fuel cell without humidification, mass transportation in diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]), trifluoromethanesulfuric acid (TfOH)-added [dema][TfO], and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4})-added [dema][TfO] was investigated by electrochemical measurements. The diffusion coefficient and the solubility of oxygen were ca. 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and ca. 10{sup -3} M (=mol dm{sup -3}), respectively. Those of hydrogen were a factor of 10 and one-tenth compared to oxygen, respectively. The permeability, which is a product of the diffusion coefficient and solubility, of oxygen and hydrogen were almost the same for the perfluoroethylenesulfuric acid membrane and the sulfuric acid solution; therefore, these values are suitable for fuel cell applications. On the other hand, a diffusion limiting current was observed for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The current corresponded to ca. 10{sup -10} mol cm{sup -1} s{sup -1} of the permeability, and the diffusion limiting species was the hydrogen carrier species. The TfOH addition enhanced the diffusion limiting current of [dema][TfO], and the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} addition eliminated the diffusion limit. The hydrogen bonds of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} or water-added H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} might significantly enhance the transport of the hydrogen carrier species. Therefore, [dema][TfO] based materials are candidates for non-humidified mesothermal fuel cell electrolytes.

  20. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a SOI-MEMS-Based Active Microprobe for Potential Cellular Force Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, analysis, fabrication, and characterization of an electrostatically driven single-axis active probing device for the applications of cellular force sensing and materials characterization. The active microprobe is actuated by linear comb drivers to generate the motion in the probing direction. Both actuation and sensing comb-drive structures are designed for the probing stage. The sensing comb structures enable us to sense the probe displacement when the device is actuated, which enables applications of force-balanced sensing and provides the capability of closed-loop control towards better accuracy. The designed active probing device is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI substrate with a 10 μm thick device layer through surface micromachining technologies and deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE process. The handle layer beneath probe stage is etched away by DRIE process to decrease the film damping between the stage and the handle wafer thus achieving high-quality factor. The fabricated stage provides a motion range of 14 μm at actuation voltage of 140 V. The measured natural frequency of the stage is 1.5 kHz under ambient conditions. A sensitivity of 6 fF/μm has been achieved. The proposed single-axis probe is aimed at sensing cellular force which ranges from a few nano-Newton to μN and micromanipulation applications.

  1. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-12-01

    dielectrics, where real plane image analysis may fail to sense index perturbations, simply due to superposition of different modes in the real plane images of such substrates. Control experiments and analysis revealed a refractive index resolution of 10-5 RIU. The results were correlated with simulations to establish the physical origin of the change in the fundamental mode and higher-order modes due to the refractive index and thickness of analyte. As a demonstration of an application and to test the limits of sensing, the substrates were used to image the surface functionalization using 2-nm-thick 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and immobilization of 7-nm-thick mouse anti-human IgG antibody. In biological systems, where a priori knowledge about a process step is available, where accurate chemical composition testing is not necessary or possible, the presented method could be used to study the surface changes using a label-free sensing mechanism.

  2. Visible-infrared remote-sensing model and applications for ocean waters. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping

    1994-01-01

    and value of the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient. The simulation was tested for a wide range of water types, including waters from Monterey Bay, the West Florida Shelf, and the Mississippi River plume. Using the simulation, the R(sub rs)-derived in-water absorption coefficients were consistent with the values from in-water measurements (r(exp 2) greater than 0.94, slope approximately 1.0). In the remote-sensing applications, a new approach is suggested for the estimation of primary production based on remote sensing. Using this approach, the calculated primary production (PP) values based upon remotely sensed data were very close to the measured values for the euphotic zone (r(exp 2) = 0.95, slope 1.26, and 32% average difference), while traditional, pigment-based PP model provided values only one-third the size of the measured data. This indicates a potential to significantly improve the accuracy of the estimation of primary production based upon remote sensing.

  3. Fourier plane colorimetric sensing using broadband imaging of surface plasmons and application to biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, P.; Krishnan, A., E-mail: ananthk@iitm.ac.in [Centre for NEMS and Nano Photonics (CNNP), Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India); Experimental Optics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India)

    2015-12-21

    dielectrics, where real plane image analysis may fail to sense index perturbations, simply due to superposition of different modes in the real plane images of such substrates. Control experiments and analysis revealed a refractive index resolution of 10{sup –5} RIU. The results were correlated with simulations to establish the physical origin of the change in the fundamental mode and higher-order modes due to the refractive index and thickness of analyte. As a demonstration of an application and to test the limits of sensing, the substrates were used to image the surface functionalization using 2-nm-thick 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and immobilization of 7-nm-thick mouse anti-human IgG antibody. In biological systems, where a priori knowledge about a process step is available, where accurate chemical composition testing is not necessary or possible, the presented method could be used to study the surface changes using a label-free sensing mechanism.

  4. Plasmonic Properties of Bimetallic Nanostructures and Their Applications in Hydrogen Sensing and Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruibin

    Noble metal nanocrystals have attracted great interest from a wide range of research fields because of their intriguing properties endowed by their localized surface plasmon resonances, which are the collective oscillations of free electrons. Under resonant excitation, metal nanostructures exhibit very large scattering and absorption cross sections and large near-field enhancement. These extraordinary properties can be used in different applications, such as plasmonic sensing and imaging, plasmon-controlled optics, photothermal therapy, photocatalysis, solar cells, and so on. Gold and Silver nanocrystals have plasmon resonances in the visible and near-infrared regions. However, gold and silver are not suitable for some applications. For example, they are generally inactive for catalyzing chemical reactions. The integration of plasmonic metals with other metals can offer superior or new physical/chemical properties. In this thesis, I prepared Au/Ag and Au/Pd bimetallic nanostructures and studied their plasmonic properties and applications in hydrogen sensing and photocatalysis. Seeds have a crucial importance in the synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures. I therefore first studied the roles of the crystalline structure and shape of seeds on the overgrowth of bimetallic nanostructures. The overgrowth of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods, multicrystalline Au nanorods, and nanobipyramids were studied under the same conditions for each metal. The growths of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods gave cuboidal nanostructures, while rod-shaped nanostructures were obtained from the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanorods and nanobipyramids. Moreover, the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanobipyramids started at the stepped side facets, while the growths started at the twin boundaries on multicrystalline Au nanorods. These results unambiguously indicate that the crystalline structure of

  5. Graphene nano-devices and nano-composites for structural, thermal and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Fazel

    In this dissertation we have developed graphene-based nano-devices for applications in integrated circuits and gas sensors; as well as graphene-based nano-composites for applications in structures and thermal management. First, we have studied the bandgap of graphene for semiconductor applications. Graphene as a zero-bandgap material cannot be used in the semiconductor industry unless an effective method is developed to open the bandgap in this material. We have demonstrated that a bandgap of 0.206 eV can be opened in graphene by adsorption of water vapor molecules on its surface. Water molecules break the molecular symmetries of graphene resulting in a significant bandgap opening. We also illustrate that the lack of bandgap in graphene can be used to our advantage by making sensors that are able to detect low concentrations of gas molecules mixed in air. We have shown that 1-2 layers of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition enables detection of trace amounts of NO 2 and NH3 in air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The gas species are detected by monitoring changes in electrical resistance of the graphene film due to gas adsorption. The sensor response time is inversely proportional to the gas concentration. Heating the film expels chemisorbed molecules from the graphene surface enabling reversible operation. The detection limits of ~100 parts-per-billion (ppb) for NO2 and ~500 ppb for NH3 obtained using this device are markedly superior to commercially available NO2 and NH3 detectors. This sensor is fabricated using individual graphene sheets that are exquisitely sensitive to the chemical environment. However, the fabrication and operation of devices that use individual nanostructures for sensing is complex, expensive and suffers from poor reliability due to contamination and large variability from sample-to-sample. To overcome these problems we have developed a gas sensor based on a porous 3D network of graphene sheets called graphene foam

  6. Implementation of Simple and Functional Web Applications at the Alaska Volcano Observatory Remote Sensing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Web pages are ubiquitous and accessible, but when compared to stand-alone applications they are limited in capability. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) Remote Sensing Group has implemented web pages and supporting server software that provide relatively advanced features to any user able to meet basic requirements. Anyone in the world with access to a modern web browser (such as Mozilla Firefox 1.5 or Internet Explorer 6) and reasonable internet connection can fully use the tools, with no software installation or configuration. This allows faculty, staff and students at AVO to perform many aspects of volcano monitoring from home or the road as easily as from the office. Additionally, AVO collaborators such as the National Weather Service and the Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center are able to use these web tools to quickly assess volcanic events. Capabilities of this web software include (1) ability to obtain accurate measured remote sensing data values on an semi- quantitative compressed image of a large area, (2) to view any data from a wide time range of data swaths, (3) to view many different satellite remote sensing spectral bands and combinations, to adjust color range thresholds, (4) and to export to KML files which are viewable virtual globes such as Google Earth. The technologies behind this implementation are primarily Javascript, PHP, and MySQL which are free to use and well documented, in addition to Terascan, a commercial software package used to extract data from level-0 data files. These technologies will be presented in conjunction with the techniques used to combine them into the final product used by AVO and its collaborators for operational volcanic monitoring.

  7. Atmospheric correction for satellite remotely sensed data intended for agricultural applications: impact on vegetation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Hadjimitsis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation reflected by the Earth's surface to satellite sensors is modified by its interaction with the atmosphere. The objective of applying an atmospheric correction is to determine true surface reflectance values and to retrieve physical parameters of the Earth's surface, including surface reflectance, by removing atmospheric effects from satellite images. Atmospheric correction is arguably the most important part of the pre-processing of satellite remotely sensed data. Such a correction is especially important in cases where multi-temporal images are to be compared and analyzed. For agricultural applications, in which several vegetation indices are applied for monitoring purposes, multi-temporal images are used. The integration of vegetation indices from remotely sensed images with other hydro-meteorological data is widely used for monitoring natural hazards such as droughts. Indeed, the most important task is to retrieve the true values of the vegetation status from the satellite-remotely sensed data. Any omission of considering the effects of the atmosphere when vegetation indices from satellite images are used, may lead to major discrepancies in the final outcomes. This paper highlights the importance of considering atmospheric effects when vegetation indices, such as DVI, NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI and SARVI, are used (or considered and presents the results obtained by applying the darkest-pixel atmospheric correction method on ten Landsat TM/ETM+ images of Cyprus acquired from July to December 2008. Finally, in this analysis, an attempt is made to determine evapotranspiration and to examine its dependence on the consideration of atmospheric effects when multi-temporal image data are used. It was found that, without applying any atmospheric correction, the real daily evapotranspiration was less than the one found after applying the darkest pixel atmospheric correction method.

  8. Application of remote sensing techniques to measurement of windblown dust over the Columbia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Joseph Kevin

    The Columbia Plateau PM10 Project (CP3) is a multidisciplinary program to investigate the effect of windblown dust upon air quality within the Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington, northeastern Oregon and northern Idaho. The research presented here involves three applications of spectral remote sensing technologies in support of CP3 objectives to characterize regional vegetative cover and to determine aerosol dust burdens in the atmosphere. In the first application, data from the Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used to construct a detailed vegetation map for input to an air quality modeling system for windblown dust. Composite biweekly AVHRR data were used in conjunction with soils maps to develop vegetation classes (including conservation lands), defined by modeling requirements, through a spectral clustering technique. The vegetation map was validated using both ground-truth observations and NDVI (normalized difference vegetative index) results from the entire growing season, and at multiple locations. The result is a validated vegetation map meeting the requirements of the CP3 air quality modeling system. In the second application, ground-based Multi-filter Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements collected at two sites were used to determine the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) through the 1998 growing season and including an April, 1998 Asian dust influx. The AOT reached a maximum of ~0.45 at 500 nm during the Asian dust event. Finally, the third application employed a contrast method to obtain AOT from two pairs of AVHRR images; results were evaluated using MFRSR-derived AOT observations. The method yielded reasonable results in one case (~0.14 compared to MFRSR AOT of 0.07) and inconclusive results in the other. This experiment was the first application of the contrast method for AOT from AVHRR imagery to a mid-latitude continental region and represents progress toward an observationally based continental dust climatology. Taken

  9. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing-Based Micro-Vibration Sensor and Its Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianliang; Tan, Yuegang; Zhou, Zude

    2016-04-15

    This paper proposes a fiber Bragg grating sensing-based micro-vibration sensor. The optical fiber has been directly treated as an elastomer to design the micro-vibration sensor, which possesses two FBGs. The mass is fixed on the middle of the fiber, and the vertical vibration of the mass has been converted into the axial tension/compression of the fiber. The principle of the sensor has been introduced, and the experiment conclusions show that the sensor sensitivity is 2362 pm/g within the range of 200-1200 mm/s², which is consistent with theoretical analysis sensitivity of 2532.6 pm/g, and it shows an excellent linearity of 1.376%, while the resonant frequency of the sensor is 34 Hz, and the flat frequency range resides in the 0-22 Hz range. When used to measure micro-vibrations, its measured frequency relative error is less than 1.69% compared with the values acquired with a MEMS accelerometer, and the amplitude values of its measured vibration signal are consistent with the MEMS accelerometer under different excitation conditions too, so it can effectively realize the micro-vibration measurements.

  10. Polydopamine-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films as a platform for bio-sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Georgievski, Ognen, E-mail: georgievski@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Neykova, Neda, E-mail: neykova@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16253 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering Trojanova 13, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Proks, Vladimir [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Houdkova, Jana; Ukraintsev, Egor; Zemek, Josef; Kromka, Alexander [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16253 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rypaček, František [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-30

    Diamond exhibits good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, and thus, it is particularly suitable for bio-functionalization and bio-sensing. Modification of the diamond surface can be achieved through mussel-inspired surface chemistry based on polydopamine (PDA) while maintaining the intrinsic properties of the surface. We present a comparative study on the polymerization/deposition of PDA from an aqueous solution of dopamine on hydrogen- (H) and oxygen- (O) terminated nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD). The dopamine polymerization/deposition was performed under mild conditions, which resulted in a confluent PDA layer. A detailed investigation of the growth kinetics of the PDA film on H- and O-terminated NCD substrates was performed using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The chemical composition, the functional group distribution, the surface topography and the wetting properties of the adherent PDA films were evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle goniometry, respectively. According to the results, a PDA layer can be used as a platform for future bio-functionalization and/or optical bio-sensing applications. - Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) was modified through polydopamine (PDA) chemistry. ► PDA's growth kinetics on H- and O-terminated NCD films were investigated. ► The growth kinetics and composition of PDA were independent of the NCD termination.

  11. A Compact QPSK Modulator with Low Amplitude and Phase Imbalance for Remote Sensing Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul

    2012-09-30

    A new, compact and wide-band Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulator is presented for remote sensing applications. The microstrip-based modulator employs quadrature hybrid coupler, Wilkinson divider, rat race coupler and GaAs MESFET switches. It is designed to be part of an X band remote sensing transmitter with a center frequency of 8.25GHz. The fabricated module demonstrates the lowest reported amplitude and phase imbalances (0.1dB and 0.4° respectively) around its center frequency. The modulation, tested up to 160 Mbps data rate, displays carrier suppression greater than 30 dB. With negligible DC power consumption and low insertion loss, it operates for a wide bandwidth of 3 GHz (7-10 GHz). The effect of amplitude and phase imbalance is investigated on the performance of the modulator. Finally, a transmitter employing this modulator exhibits an excellent overall Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of around 8 % that is considerably low as compared to the typically obtained values for such transmitters.

  12. High Performance Infrared Plasmonic Metamaterial Absorbers and Their Applications to Thin-film Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2016-04-07

    Plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (PMAs) have attracted considerable attention for developing various sensing devices. In this work, we design, fabricate and characterize PMAs of different geometrical shapes operating in mid-infrared frequencies, and explore the applications of the PMAs as sensor for thin films. The PMAs, consisting of metal-insulator-metal stacks with patterned gold nanostructured surfaces (resonators), demonstrated high absorption efficiency (87 to 98 %) of electromagnetic waves in the infrared regime. The position and efficiency of resonance absorption are dependent on the shape of the resonators. Furthermore, the resonance wavelength of PMAs was sensitive to the thin film coated on the surface of the PMAs, which was tested using aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as the film. With increase of the Al2O3 thickness, the position of resonance absorption shifted to longer wavelengths. The dependence of the resonant wavelength on thin film thickness makes PMAs a suitable candidate as a sensor for thin films. Using this sensing strategy, PMAs have potential as a new method for thin film detection and in situ monitoring of surface reactions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  13. Evaluation of zinc oxide nano-microtetrapods for biomolecule sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yichen; Karlsson, Mikael; Wang, Qin; Toprak, Muhammet S.

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide tetrapods (ZnO-Ts) were synthesized by flame transport synthesis using Zn microparticles. This work herein reports a systematical study on the structural, optical and electrochemical properties of the ZnO-Ts. The morphology of the ZnO-Ts was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as joint structures of four nano-microstructured legs, of which the diameter of each leg is 0.7-2.2 μm in average from the tip to the stem. The ZnO-Ts were dispersed in glucose solution to study the luminescence as well as photocatalytic activity in a mimicked biological environment. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity in the ultraviolet (UV) region quenches with linear dependence to increased glucose concentration up to 4 mM. The ZnO-Ts were also attached with glucose oxidase (GOx) and over coated with a thin film of Nafion to form active layers for electrochemical glucose sensing. The attachment of GOx and coating of Nafion were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Furthermore, the current response of the active layers based on ZnO-Ts was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in various glucose concentrations. Stable current response of glucose was detected with linear dependence to glucose concentration up to 12 mM, which confirms the potential of ZnO-Ts for biomolecule sensing applications.

  14. Grapefruit photonic crystal fiber long period gratings sensor for DNT sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chuanyi; Li, Jingke; Zhu, Tenglong

    2016-10-01

    The detection of explosives and their residues is of great importance in public health, antiterrorism and homeland security applications. The vapor pressures of most explosive compounds are extremely low and attenuation of the available vapor is often great due to diffusion in the environment, making direct vapor detection difficult. In reality bomb dogs are still the most efficient way to quickly detect explosives on the spot. Many formulations of TNT-based explosives contain DNT residues. The use of long period gratings (LPGs) formed in grapefruit photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with thin-film overlay coated on the inner surface of air holes for gas sensing is demonstrated. A gas analyteinduced index variation of the thin-film immobilized on the inner surface of the holey region of the fiber can be observed by a shift of the resonance wavelength. We demonstrate a 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) sensor using grapefruit PCF-LPGs. Coating with gas-sensitive thin-film on the inner surface of the air holes of the grapefruit PCF-LPG could provide a promising platform for rapid highly sensitive gas sensing. A rapid and highly sensitive detection of DNT has been demonstrated using the grapefruit PCF-LPG sensor to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  15. Hollow plasmonic high Q-factor absorber for bio-sensing in mid-infrared application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Payam; Zarrabi, Ferdows B.; Naser-Moghadasi, Mohammad; Saee Arezoomand, Afsaneh; Heydari, Samaneh

    2017-07-01

    High Q-factor elements have been noticed for detecting biological particles with more accuracy, and in this current research, we have noticed a High Q- Factor absorber for bio sensing and as the first result we have confirmed that the higher Q- Factor is given more figure of merit in the presence of various biological materials. A parametric study has been revealed that how the dimensions effect the resonance of the absorber and the reflection. Finally, based on the manner of surface plasmon in absorbers in the interface of the metal and dielectric layer, we have developed an optical sensor by implementing a thin layer of active material. Therefore, the final structure is useful for bio sensing and energy harvesting applications. Our results revealed that the absorber particle enhanced the Absorption Cross Section for final model with an active layer of InGaAsSb and the current is increased more than 4 times in comparison with the case that we do not have any cylindrical particle.

  16. Individual hollow and mesoporous aero-graphitic microtube based devices for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupan, Oleg; Postica, Vasile; Marx, Janik; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Schulte, Karl; Fiedler, Bodo; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    In this work, individual hollow and mesoporous graphitic microtubes were integrated into electronic devices using a FIB/SEM system and were investigated as gas and vapor sensors by applying different bias voltages (in the range of 10 mV-1 V). By increasing the bias voltage, a slight current enhancement is observed, which is mainly attributed to the self-heating effect. A different behavior of ammonia NH3 vapor sensing by increasing the applied bias voltage for hollow and mesoporous microtubes with diameters down to 300 nm is reported. In the case of the hollow microtube, an increase in the response was observed, while a reverse effect has been noticed for the mesoporous microtube. It might be explained on the basis of the higher specific surface area (SSA) of the mesoporous microtube compared to the hollow one. Thus, at room temperature when the surface chemical reaction rate (k) prevails on the gas diffusion rate (DK) the structures with a larger SSA possess a higher response. By increasing the bias voltage, i.e., the overall temperature of the structure, DK becomes a limiting step in the gas response. Therefore, at higher bias voltages the larger pores will facilitate an enhanced gas diffusion, i.e., a higher gas response. The present study demonstrates the importance of the material porosity towards gas sensing applications.

  17. Methodology for classification of geographical features with remote sensing images: Application to tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo Sarmiento, G. N.; Cipolletti, M. P.; Perillo, M. M.; Delrieux, C. A.; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.

    2016-03-01

    Tidal flats generally exhibit ponds of diverse size, shape, orientation and origin. Studying the genesis, evolution, stability and erosive mechanisms of these geographic features is critical to understand the dynamics of coastal wetlands. However, monitoring these locations through direct access is hard and expensive, not always feasible, and environmentally damaging. Processing remote sensing images is a natural alternative for the extraction of qualitative and quantitative data due to their non-invasive nature. In this work, a robust methodology for automatic classification of ponds and tidal creeks in tidal flats using Google Earth images is proposed. The applicability of our method is tested in nine zones with different morphological settings. Each zone is processed by a segmentation stage, where ponds and tidal creeks are identified. Next, each geographical feature is measured and a set of shape descriptors is calculated. This dataset, together with a-priori classification of each geographical feature, is used to define a regression model, which allows an extensive automatic classification of large volumes of data discriminating ponds and tidal creeks against other various geographical features. In all cases, we identified and automatically classified different geographic features with an average accuracy over 90% (89.7% in the worst case, and 99.4% in the best case). These results show the feasibility of using freely available Google Earth imagery for the automatic identification and classification of complex geographical features. Also, the presented methodology may be easily applied in other wetlands of the world and perhaps employing other remote sensing imagery.

  18. Tactile Sensing System Based on Arrays of Graphene Woven Microfabrics: Electromechanical Behavior and Electronic Skin Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Hongze; Li, Xinming; Shi, Jidong; He, Yijia; Zheng, Quan-shui; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2015-11-24

    Nanomaterials serve as promising candidates for strain sensing due to unique electromechanical properties by appropriately assembling and tailoring their configurations. Through the crisscross interlacing of graphene microribbons in an over-and-under fashion, the obtained graphene woven fabric (GWF) indicates a good trade-off between sensitivity and stretchability compared with those in previous studies. In this work, the function of woven fabrics for highly sensitive strain sensing is investigated, although network configuration is always a strategy to retain resistance stability. The experimental and simulation results indicate that the ultrahigh mechanosensitivity with gauge factors of 500 under 2% strain is attributed to the macro-woven-fabric geometrical conformation of graphene, which induces a large interfacial resistance between the interlaced ribbons and the formation of microscale-controllable, locally oriented zigzag cracks near the crossover location, both of which have a synergistic effect on improving sensitivity. Meanwhile, the stretchability of the GWF could be tailored to as high as over 40% strain by adjusting graphene growth parameters and adopting oblique angle direction stretching simultaneously. We also demonstrate that sensors based on GWFs are applicable to human motion detection, sound signal acquisition, and spatially resolved monitoring of external stress distribution.

  19. Microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on long period grating for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanzhen; Sun, Li-Peng; Jin, Long; Li, Jie; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2013-01-14

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) composed by a pair of long period gratings (LPGs) fabricated in silica microfiber for sensing applications is demonstrated. Each LPG is fabricated with a pulsed CO2 laser by creating six periodical deformations along fiber length with only one scanning cycle. The length of the MZI can reach as short as 8.84 mm when the diameter of the microfiber is 9.5 μm. Compared with the ones fabricated in single-mode fibers, the present MZI is much shorter owing to the large effective-index difference between the fundamental and higher order modes. The microfiber MZI exhibits a sensitivity to surrounding refractive index (RI) of 2225 nm per refractive index unit and the temperature sensitivity of only 11.7 pm/°C. Theoretical analysis suggests that the performances of the MZI sensor can be improved by using thinner microfibers with a diameter down to 3.5 μm: The sensitivity can be greatly enhanced due to the stronger evanescent-field interaction and reduced dispersion factor; the transmission dips become narrower which benefits high-resolution measurement; the thinner fiber also allows further reduction in device length. The present device has great potential in biochemical and medical sensing due to the advantages including easy fabrication, excellent compactness and high sensitivity.

  20. Quorum quenching enzymes and their application in degrading signal molecules to block quorum sensing-dependent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Gao, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yu, Zhimin; Li, Xianzhen

    2013-08-26

    With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, the available options for treating bacterial infections have become very limited, and the search for a novel general antibacterial therapy has received much greater attention. Quorum quenching can be used to control disease in a quorum sensing system by triggering the pathogenic phenotype. The interference with the quorum sensing system by the quorum quenching enzyme is a potential strategy for replacing traditional antibiotics because the quorum quenching strategy does not aim to kill the pathogen or limit cell growth but to shut down the expression of the pathogenic gene. Quorum quenching enzymes have been identified in quorum sensing and non-quorum sensing microbes, including lactonase, acylase, oxidoreductase and paraoxonase. Lactonase is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species and has variable substrate spectra. The existence of quorum quenching enzymes in the quorum sensing microbes can attenuate their quorum sensing, leading to blocking unnecessary gene expression and pathogenic phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of quorum quenching enzymes in bacterial infection and elucidate the enzymatic protection in quorum sensing systems for host diseases and their application in resistance against microbial diseases.

  1. Quorum Quenching Enzymes and Their Application in Degrading Signal Molecules to Block Quorum Sensing-Dependent Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhen Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, the available options for treating bacterial infections have become very limited, and the search for a novel general antibacterial therapy has received much greater attention. Quorum quenching can be used to control disease in a quorum sensing system by triggering the pathogenic phenotype. The interference with the quorum sensing system by the quorum quenching enzyme is a potential strategy for replacing traditional antibiotics because the quorum quenching strategy does not aim to kill the pathogen or limit cell growth but to shut down the expression of the pathogenic gene. Quorum quenching enzymes have been identified in quorum sensing and non-quorum sensing microbes, including lactonase, acylase, oxidoreductase and paraoxonase. Lactonase is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species and has variable substrate spectra. The existence of quorum quenching enzymes in the quorum sensing microbes can attenuate their quorum sensing, leading to blocking unnecessary gene expression and pathogenic phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of quorum quenching enzymes in bacterial infection and elucidate the enzymatic protection in quorum sensing systems for host diseases and their application in resistance against microbial diseases.

  2. Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials for Applications in Catalysis, Sensing, Drug Delivery and Gene Transfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Daniela Rodica [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The central theme of this dissertation is represented by the versatility of mesoporous silica nanomaterials in various applications such as catalysis and bio-applications, with main focus on biological applications of Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres (MSN). The metamorphosis that we impose to these materials from catalysis to sensing and to drug and gene delivery is detailed in this dissertation. First, we developed a synthetic method that can fine tune the amount of chemically accessible organic functional groups on the pores surface of MSN by exploiting electrostatic and size matching between the cationic alkylammonium head group of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant and various anionic organoalkoxysilane precursors at the micelle-water interface in a base-catalyzed condensation reaction of silicate. Aiming nature imitation, we demonstrated the catalytic abilities of the MSNs, We utilized an ethylenediamine functional group for chelating Cu2+ as a catalytic functional group anchored inside the mesopores. Thus, a polyalkynylene-based conducting polymer (molecular wire) was synthesized within the Cu-functionalized MSNs silica catalyst. For sensing applications, we have synthesized a poly(lactic acid) coated mesoporous silica nanosphere (PLA-MSN) material that serves as a fluorescence sensor system for detection of amino-containing neurotransmitters in neutral aqueous buffer. We exploited the mesoporosity of MSNs for encapsulating pharmaceutical drugs. We examined bio-friendly capping molecules such as polyamidoamine dendrimers of generations G2 to G4, to prevent the drug leaching. Next, the drug delivery system employed MSNs loaded with Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug. The results demonstrated that these nano-Trojan horses have ability to deliver Doxorubicin to cancer cells and induce their death. Finally, to demonstrate the potential of MSN as an universal cellular transmembrane nanovehicle, we anchored positively charged dendrimers on

  3. Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials for Applications in Catalysis, Sensing, Drug Delivery and Gene Transfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniela Rodica Radu

    2005-12-19

    The central theme of this dissertation is represented by the versatility of mesoporous silica nanomaterials in various applications such as catalysis and bio-applications, with main focus on biological applications of Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres (MSN). The metamorphosis that we impose to these materials from catalysis to sensing and to drug and gene delivery is detailed in this dissertation. First, we developed a synthetic method that can fine tune the amount of chemically accessible organic functional groups on the pores surface of MSN by exploiting electrostatic and size matching between the cationic alkylammonium head group of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant and various anionic organoalkoxysilane precursors at the micelle-water interface in a base-catalyzed condensation reaction of silicate. Aiming nature imitation, we demonstrated the catalytic abilities of the MSNs, We utilized an ethylenediamine functional group for chelating Cu{sup 2+} as a catalytic functional group anchored inside the mesopores. Thus, a polyalkynylene-based conducting polymer (molecular wire) was synthesized within the Cu-functionalized MSNs silica catalyst. For sensing applications, we have synthesized a poly(lactic acid) coated mesoporous silica nanosphere (PLA-MSN) material that serves as a fluorescence sensor system for detection of amino-containing neurotransmitters in neutral aqueous buffer. We exploited the mesoporosity of MSNs for encapsulating pharmaceutical drugs. We examined bio-friendly capping molecules such as polyamidoamine dendrimers of generations G2 to G4, to prevent the drug leaching. Next, the drug delivery system employed MSNs loaded with Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug. The results demonstrated that these nano-Trojan horses have ability to deliver Doxorubicin to cancer cells and induce their death. Finally, to demonstrate the potential of MSN as an universal cellular transmembrane nanovehicle, we anchored positively charged dendrimers on the

  4. Applications of Mass Customization Production Mode in Chinese Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouShichun; DingJianhua; ChenChao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the conflict between individual needs of market and the efficient mass production requirement of manufacture under the background of market globalization is discussed, a trend that the main production mode for domestic steel industry should be the mass customization is pointed out, and the problems to be solved for domestic enterprise are analyzed. Summarizing the practice of Baosteel Co. LTD on the new production mode, the achievements and experiences are presented.

  5. Microhardness with depth sensing indentation. Instruments methods and applications; Mesure de durete submicronique instrumentee. Methode et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poissonnet, S

    1999-07-01

    The study of applied surface layer or modified layers lead to the development of depth sensing indentation instruments in which measurements of penetration depth replaces optical measurements of surface impressions and sub-micron hardness may be determined. Indentation curves, depth-load, of elastoplastic materials give informations about plasticity and elasticity. After a description of the micro-indentation techniques we show few applications. Irradiation effects are measured in different materials like hafnium diboride, stainless steel or kapton. Hardness in oxide formed on metal study give informations. All these examples show that the nano-indentation is a powerful mean in the physical studies of materials because of a good statistic may be obtained and we have access to thin samples and to small phases. (author)

  6. Application of Laser Mass Spectrometry to Art and Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulian, Lase Lisa E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Muliadi, Sarah; Owens, Shawn; McGovern, Patrick E.; Schmidt, Catherine M.; Trentelman, Karen A.; deVries, Mattanjah S.

    2011-01-01

    REMPI laser mass spectrometry is a combination of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy and time of flight mass spectrometry, This technique enables the collection of mass specific optical spectra as well as of optically selected mass spectra. Analytes are jet-cooled by entrainment in a molecular beam, and this low temperature gas phase analysis has the benefit of excellent vibronic resolution. Utilizing this method, mass spectrometric analysis of historically relevant samples can be simplified and improved; Optical selection of targets eliminates the need for chromatography while knowledge of a target's gas phase spectroscopy allows for facile differentiation of molecules that are in the aqueous phase considered spectroscopically indistinguishable. These two factors allow smaller sample sizes than commercial MS instruments, which in turn will require less damage to objects of antiquity. We have explored methods to optimize REMPI laser mass spectrometry as an analytical tool to archaeology using theobromine and caffeine as molecular markers in Mesoamerican pottery, and are expanding this approach to the field of art to examine laccaic acid in shellacs.

  7. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N.; Szuchmacher Blum, Amy; Soto, Carissa M.; Whitley, Jessica L.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Chatterji, Anju; Lin, Tianwei; Johnson, John E.; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Ratna, Banahalli R.

    2008-03-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  8. The vectorial photoelectric effect under solar irradiance and its application to sun sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Sun sensors are an integral part of the attitude and orbit control system onboard almost any spacecraft. While the majority of standard analogue sun sensors is based on photo-detectors which produce photo-currents proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle (cosine detectors), we propose an alternative scheme where the vectorial photoelectric effect is exploited to achieve a higher sensitivity of the sensed photo-current to the incidence angle. The vectorial photo-effect is investigated in detail for metal cathode detectors in a space environment. Besides long operational lifetimes without significant degradation, metal cathode detectors are insensitive to earth albedo, which may significantly reduce the errors affecting attitude measurements in low earth orbits. Sensitivity curves are calculated and trade-offs performed with the aim of optimizing the sensitivity whilst also providing currents sufficient for detection. Simple applications and detector configurations are also discussed and compared to ex...

  9. Applications of array processors in the analysis of remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Strong, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The architectures, programming characteristics, and ranges of application of past, present, and planned array processors for the digital processing of remote-sensing images are compared. Such functions as radiometric and geometric corrections, principal-components analysis, cluster coding, histogram generation, grey-level mapping, convolution, classification, and mensuration and modeling operations are considered, and both pipeline-type and single-instruction/multiple-data-stream (SIMD) arrays are evaluated. Numerical results are presented in a table, and it is found that the pipeline-type arrays normally used with minicomputers increase their speed significantly at low cost, while even further gains are provided by the more expensive SIMD arrays. Most image-processing operations become I/O-limited when SIMD arrays are used with current I/O devices.

  10. Analysis of multimode POF gratings in stress and strain sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Li, Mo; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wu, Wenxuan; Zhang, Qijin; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2011-05-01

    Polymer fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are made using the modified sagnac system with a 355 nm pulsed laser from a photosensitive polymer optical fiber (POF) with external and core diameters of 290.6 and 21.0 μm, respectively. Multimodes are reflected based on the reflection spectra of the gratings. The reflectivity spectra are also studied when such multimode polymer FBGs are subjected to axial static stress and strain. The respective effects of stress and strain on the sensor are decoupled and analyzed independently. Experiments and regression show that the effect of stress and the relaxation of stress in multimode FBGs (MM FBGs) in POF during loading and unloading have a more evident non-linear effect than that of strain. These non-linear properties make FBGs attractive for mechanical sensing applications.

  11. Satellite Remote Sensing Atmospheric Compositions and their Application in Air Quality Monitoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Zhang, X. Y.; Bai, W. G.; Wang, W. H.; Huang, F. X.; Li, X. J.; Sun, L.; Wang, G.; Qi, J.; Qiu, H.; Zhang, Y.; van der A, R. J.; Mijling, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements related to atmospheric compositions remote sensing from the bilateral cooperation under the framework of MOST-ESA Dragon Programme. The algorithms to retrieve Aerosol, ozone amount and profile, NO2, SO2, CH4, CO2, etc. have been developed since 2004. Such algorithms are used to process FY-3 series (Chinese second generation polar orbit satellites) observation and ground based FTIR observation. The results are validated with in-situ measurements. Aerosol, total ozone amount shows the very good consistent with the ground measurements. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the important atmospheric compositions, such as aerosol, O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, CO etc., have been analysed from satellite derived products. These works demonstrate the satellite’s capacity on atmospheric composition monitoring, as well as the possible application in the air quality monitoring and climate change research.

  12. Application of remote sensing to thermal pollution analysis. [satellite sea surface temperature measurement assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiser, H. W.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Sengupta, S.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical model development program for near-field thermal plume discharge and far field general circulation in coastal regions is being carried on at the University of Miami Clean Energy Research Institute. The objective of the program is to develop a generalized, three-dimensional, predictive model for thermal pollution studies. Two regions of specific application of the model are the power plants sites at the Biscayne Bay and Hutchinson Island area along the Florida coastline. Remote sensing from aircraft as well as satellites are used in parallel with in situ measurements to provide information needed for the development and verification of the mathematical model. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to identify problems and limitations of the presently available satellite data and to develop methods for enhancing and enlarging thermal infrared displays for mesoscale sea surface temperature measurements.

  13. Acousto-optic control of the LPG spectrum for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Roberson A.; Possetti, Gustavo R. C.; Marques, Carlos A. F.; Neves, Paulo T., Jr.; Bavastri, Carlos A.; Kamikawachi, Ricardo C.; Fabris, José L.; Muller, Marcia; Nogueira, Rogério N.; Canning, John; Pohl, Alexandre A. P.

    2011-05-01

    Experimental and numerical demonstration of the acousto-optic effect applied in long period grating by means of flexural waves is presented. The interaction between acoustic and optical waves is modeled with help of the method of assumed modes, which delivers the strain field inside the grating and the transfer matrix method, which, given the strain field as input, calculate the resultant grating spectrum. The experimental and theoretical results are found to be in good agreement. The main effect of the bends in the grating is the break of degeneracy of the circular cladding modes, leading the attenuation band to be changed. Among all the applications of this methodology, it is important to mention the possibility of use as a tunable filter, laser cavity gain controller, switching device and transducer in sensing systems.

  14. Estimating the amount of Ship Recycling Activity Using Remote Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watagawa, M.; Shinoda, T.; Hasegawa, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched for earth observation and there are more than 6 million scenes of archives including coastal areas during period of five years. The wealth of satellite imagery is noticeable for investigating monitoring methods such as ship detection in wide ocean area. Especially, it is useful way to estimate past behaviour from satellite imagery compared to reference data. We collected satellite imagery and analysis breaking process in major ship breaking yards between year 2009 and 2011. Comparing the number of recycling ships by satellite imagery to the world statistics is in good agreement. In this study, Remote Sensing Application has been discussed in order to assess the potential to be used for economic activities such as ship recycling in wide coastal area. It was used to evaluate the performance of ship recycling monitoring by Satellite imagery. Additionally, an approach for recognizing ships by SAR imagery regardless of weather conditions is presented.

  15. A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, M.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a novel electrically tunable hybrid graphene-gold Fano resonator. The proposed metamaterial consists of a square graphene patch and a square gold frame. The destructive interference between the narrow- and broadband dipolar surface plasmons, which are induced respectively on the surfaces of the graphene patch and the gold frame, leads to the plasmonic equivalent of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The response of the metamaterial is polarization independent due to the symmetry of the structure and its spectral features are shown to be highly controllable by changing a gate voltage applied to the graphene patch. Additionally, effective group index of the device is retrieved and is found to be very high within the EIT window suggesting its potential use in slow light applications. Potential outcomes such as high sensing ability and switching at terahertz frequencies are demonstrated through numerical simulations with realistic parameters.

  16. Superior selectivity and sensitivity of blue phosphorus nanotubes in gas sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2017-05-23

    On the basis of first principles calculations, we study the adsorption of CO, CO2, NH3, NO, and NO2 molecules on armchair and zigzag blue phosphorus nanotubes. The nanotubes are found to surpass the gas sensing performance of other one-dimensional materials, in particular Si nanowires and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional materials, in particular graphene, phosphorene, and MoS2. Investigation of the energetics of the gas adsorption and induced charge transfers indicates that blue phosphorus nanotubes are highly sensitive to N-based molecules, in particular NO2, due to covalent bonding. The current–voltage characteristics of nanotubes connected to Au electrodes are derived by the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism and used to quantitatively evaluate the change in resistivity upon gas adsorption. The observed selectivity and sensitivity properties make blue phosphorus nanotubes superior gas sensors for a wide range of applications.

  17. A LOSSLESS COMPRESSION ALGORITHM OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGE FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Yuping; Yang Chengyu; Liu Yanjun; Wang Jun; Wei Zhonghui; He Xin

    2008-01-01

    A simple and adaptive lossless compression algorithm is proposed for remote sensing image compression,which includes integer wavelet transform and the Rice entropy coder. By analyzing the probability distribution of integer wavelet transform coefficients and the characteristics of Rice entropy coder,the divide and rule method is used for high-frequency sub-bands and low-frequency one.High-frequency sub-bands are coded by the Rice entropy coder,and low-frequency coefficients are predicted before coding. The role of predictor is to map the low-frequency coefficients into symbols suitable for the entropy coding. Experimental results show that the average Compression Ratio (CR) of our approach is about two,which is close to that of JPEG 2000. The algorithm is simple and easy to be implemented in hardware. Moreover,it has the merits of adaptability,and independent data packet. So the algorithm can adapt to space lossless compression applications.

  18. Compressive sensing of full wave field data for structural health monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Tommaso; De Marchi, Luca; Perelli, Alessandro; Marzani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Numerous nondestructive evaluations and structural health monitoring approaches based on guide waves rely on analysis of wave fields recorded through scanning laser Doppler vibrometers (SLDVs) or ultrasonic scanners. The informative content which can be extracted from these inspections is relevant; however, the acquisition process is generally time-consuming, posing a limit in the applicability of such approaches. To reduce the acquisition time, we use a random sampling scheme based on compressive sensing (CS) to minimize the number of points at which the field is measured. The CS reconstruction performance is mostly influenced by the choice of a proper decomposition basis to exploit the sparsity of the acquired signal. Here, different bases have been tested to recover the guided waves wave field acquired on both an aluminum and a composite plate. Experimental results show that the proposed approach allows a reduction of the measurement locations required for accurate signal recovery to less than 34% of the original sampling grid.

  19. Sensing and control for autonomous vehicles applications to land, water and air vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Kristin; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume includes thoroughly collected on sensing and control for autonomous vehicles. Guidance, navigation and motion control systems for autonomous vehicles are increasingly important in land-based, marine and aerial operations. Autonomous underwater vehicles may be used for pipeline inspection, light intervention work, underwater survey and collection of oceanographic/biological data. Autonomous unmanned aerial systems can be used in a large number of applications such as inspection, monitoring, data collection, surveillance, etc. At present, vehicles operate with limited autonomy and a minimum of intelligence. There is a growing interest for cooperative and coordinated multi-vehicle systems, real-time re-planning, robust autonomous navigation systems and robust autonomous control of vehicles. Unmanned vehicles with high levels of autonomy may be used for safe and efficient collection of environmental data, for assimilation of climate and environmental models and to complement global satellite sy...

  20. High-contrast GeTe4 waveguides for mid-infrared biomedical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vinita; Wilkinson, James S.; Murugan, Ganapathy S.

    2014-03-01

    Realization of single-mode waveguides is essential for ultra-sensitive biosensing in the mid-infrared molecular "fingerprint" region for biomedical lab-on-chip applications. High contrast (Δn ≍ 1) germanium telluride (GeTe4) single mode rib waveguides were fabricated on zinc selenide (ZnSe) substrates for evanescent field based sensing to detect analytes at low concentration. Amorphous GeTe4 thin films were deposited by RF-sputtering and were found to transmit over the spectral range from 2μm - 20μm. Photolithography followed by reactive ion etching was carried out to etch the film, forming rib waveguide structures with minimum surface roughness and vertical sidewalls. It was found that films deposited at room temperature have average roughness of about 5nm. Optical constants were determined by IR-VASE ellipsometry.

  1. Applications of tunable high energy/pressure pulsed lasers to atmospheric transmission and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. V.; Seals, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Atmospheric transmission of high energy C12 O2(16) lasers were improved by pulsed high pressure operation which, due to pressure broadening of laser lines, permits tuning the laser 'off' atmospheric C12 O2(16) absorption lines. Pronounced improvement is shown for horizontal transmission at altitudes above several kilometers, and for vertical transmission through the entire atmosphere. The atmospheric transmission of tuned C12 O2(16) lasers compares favorably with C12 O2(18) isotope lasers and CO lasers. The advantages of tunable, high energy, high pressure pulsed lasers over tunable diode lasers and waveguide lasers, in combining high energies with a large tuning range, are evaluated for certain applications to remote sensing of atmospheric constituents and pollutants. Pulsed operation considerably increases the signal to noise ratio without seriously affecting the high spectral resolution of signal detection obtained with laser heterodyning.

  2. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitley, Jessica L [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Sapsford, Kim E [George Mason University, 10910 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)], E-mail: amy.blum@nrl.navy.mil

    2008-03-12

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  3. Recent Developments in the Application of Biologically Inspired Computation to Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, S.; Gutierrez-Gálvez, A.

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system. In this work, the state of the art concerning biologically inspired computation for chemical sensing will be reviewed. Instead of reviewing the whole body of computational neuroscience of olfaction, we restrict this review to the application of models to the processing of real chemical sensor data.

  4. Boronic Acid-Based Approach for Separation and Immobilization of Glycoproteins and Its Application in Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojin; Xia, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Glycoproteins influence a broad spectrum of biological processes including cell-cell interaction, host-pathogen interaction, or protection of proteins against proteolytic degradation. The analysis of their glyco-structures and concentration levels are increasingly important in diagnosis and proteomics. Boronic acids can covalently react with cis-diols in the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins to form five- or six-membered cyclic esters. Based on this interaction, boronic acid-based ligands and materials have attracted much attention in both chemistry and biology as the recognition motif for enrichment and chemo/biosensing of glycoproteins in recent years. In this work, we reviewed the progress in the separation, immobilization and detection of glycoproteins with boronic acid-functionalized materials and addressed its application in sensing. PMID:24141187

  5. Boronic Acid-Based Approach for Separation and Immobilization of Glycoproteins and Its Application in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins influence a broad spectrum of biological processes including cell-cell interaction, host-pathogen interaction, or protection of proteins against proteolytic degradation. The analysis of their glyco-structures and concentration levels are increasingly important in diagnosis and proteomics. Boronic acids can covalently react with cis-diols in the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins to form five- or six-membered cyclic esters. Based on this interaction, boronic acid-based ligands and materials have attracted much attention in both chemistry and biology as the recognition motif for enrichment and chemo/biosensing of glycoproteins in recent years. In this work, we reviewed the progress in the separation, immobilization and detection of glycoproteins with boronic acid-functionalized materials and addressed its application in sensing.

  6. Classification under Data Contamination with Application to Remote Sensing Image Mis-registration

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Donghui; Chen, Aiyou; Zhong, Liheng

    2011-01-01

    This work is motivated by the problem of image mis-registration in remote sensing and we are interested in determining the resulting loss in the accuracy of pattern classification. A statistical formulation is given where we propose to use data contamination to model and understand the phenomenon of image mis-registration. This model is widely applicable to many other types of errors as well, for example, measurement errors and gross errors etc. The impact of data contamination on classification is studied under a statistical learning theoretical framework. A closed-form asymptotic bound is established for the resulting loss in classification accuracy, which is less than $\\epsilon/(1-\\epsilon)$ for data contamination of an amount of $\\epsilon$. Extensive simulations have been conducted on both synthetic and real datasets under various types of data contamination, including label flipping, feature swapping and the replacement of feature values with data generated from a random source such as a Gaussian or Cauc...

  7. Climate- and remote sensing-based tools for drought management application in North and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, W.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Tadesse, T.; Svoboda, M.; Fuchs, B.; Wilhite, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    North and South Korea have experienced more frequent and extreme droughts since the late 1990s. In recent years, severe droughts in 2000-2001, 2012, and 2015 have led to widespread agricultural and environmental impacts, and resulted in water shortages and large reductions in crop yields. This has been particularly problematic in the agricultural sector of North Korea, which has a high-level of vulnerability due to variations of climate and this, in turn, results in food security issues. This vulnerability is exacerbated by North Korea's relatively small area of arable land, most of which is not very productive. The objective of this study was to develop a drought management application using climate- and remote sensing-based tools for North and South Korea. These tools are essential for improving drought planning and preparedness in this area. In this study, various drought indicators derived from climate and remote sensing data (SPI, SC-PDSI, SPEI, and VegDRI-Korea) were investigated to monitor the current drought condition and evaluate their ability to characterize agricultural and meteorological drought events and their potential impacts. Results from this study can be used to develop or improve the national-level drought management application for these countries. The goal is to provide improved and more timely information on both the spatial and temporal dimensions of drought conditions and provide a tool to identify both past and present drought events in order to make more informed management decisions and reduce the impacts of current droughts and reduce the risk to future events.

  8. Best Practices for the Application of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Operator State Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Hylton, Alan G.; Hearn, Tristan A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuronal measurement technique with many advantages for application in operational and training contexts. Instrumentation and protocol improvements, however, are required to obtain useful signals and produce expeditiously self-applicable, comfortable and unobtrusive headgear. Approaches for improving the validity and reliability of fNIRS data for the purpose of sensing the mental state of commercial aircraft operators are identified, and an exemplary system design for attentional state monitoring is outlined. Intelligent flight decks of the future can be responsive to state changes to optimally support human performance. Thus, the identification of cognitive performance decrement, such as lapses in operator attention, may be used to predict and avoid error-prone states. We propose that attentional performance may be monitored with fNIRS through the quantification of hemodynamic activations in cortical regions which are part of functionally-connected attention and resting state networks. Activations in these regions have been shown to correlate with behavioral performance and task engagement. These regions lie beneath superficial tissue in head regions beyond the forehead. Headgear development is key to reliably and robustly accessing locations beyond the hair line to measure functionally-connected networks across the whole head. Human subject trials using both fNIRS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) will be used to test this system. Data processing employs Support Vector Machines for state classification based on the fNIRS signals. If accurate state classification is achieved based on sensed activation patterns, fNIRS will be shown to be useful for monitoring attentional performance.

  9. A Simple Model for Estimating Evapotranspiration Based Solely on Remote Sensing: Algorithm and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Wang, Q.; Matsushita, B.; Fukushima, T.; Ouyang, Z.; Gebremichael, M.

    2009-12-01

    Remote sensing (RS) has been considered as the most promising tool for evapotranspiration (ET) estimations from local, regional to global scales. Many studies have been conducted to estimated ET using RS data, however, most of them are based partially on ground observations. This limits the applications of these algorithms when the necessary data are unavailable. Some other algorithms can generate real-time ET solely using remote sensing data, but lack mechanistic realism. In our study, we developed a new dual-source Simple Remote Sensing EvapoTranspiration model (Sim-ReSET) based only on RS data. One merit of this model is that the calculation of aerodynamic resistance can be avoided by means of a reference dry bare soil and an assumption that wind speed at the upper boundary of atmospheric surface layer is homogenous, but the aerodynamic characters are still considered by means of canopy height. The other merit is that all inputs (net radiation, soil heat flux, canopy height, variables related to land surface temperature) can be potentially obtained from remote sensing data, which allows obtaining regular RS-driven ET product. For the purposes of sensitivity analysis and performance evaluation of the Sim-ReSET model without the effect of potential uncertainties and errors from remote sensing data, the Sim-ReSET model was tested only using intensive ground observations at the Yucheng ecological station in the North China Plain from 2006 to 2008. Results show that the model has a good performance for instantaneous ET estimations with a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 34.27 W/m2 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 41.84 W/m2 under neutral or near-neutral atmospheric conditions. On 12 cloudless days, the MAD of daily ET accumulated from instantaneous estimations is 0.26 mm/day, and the RMSE is 0.30 mm/day. In our study, we mapped Asian 16-day ET from 2000 to 2009 only using MODIS land data products based on the Sim-ReSET model. Then, the obtained ET product was

  10. Green synthesis and characterization of novel gold nanocomposites for electrochemical sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Shivani; Ho, Ja-an Annie; Magi, Emanuele

    2013-12-15

    Synthesis, characterization and application of Au-PANI-Calix and Au-PANI-Nap nanocomposites, is reported herein. An easy template free green synthesis is proposed and discussed for easy expediency. A variety of analytical techniques were used to characterize the nanocomposites: UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the nanocomposites. Surface morphology was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocomposites were immobilized on screen-printed electrode and showed electroactivity in neutral pH, making them promising candidates for various analytical applications. A sensitive and selective detection of Cu(2+) was perceived on the Au-PANI-Calix modified electrode with no interference from ions K(+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Pb(2+), Cr(3+) with a detection limit of 10nM. The copper detection is facilitated for accessible ligation with 4-sulfocalix[4]arene, so as the Cu(II)-Calix complex formed. The electrode modified with Au-PANI-Nap showed sensing application towards H2O2 with a detection limit of 1 μM. The modified electrodes were reproducible and stable for 2 months.

  11. Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Javidi, Bahram; Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Stern, Adrian

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sensing and imaging technologies have been extensively researched for many applications in the fields of entertainment, medicine, robotics, manufacturing, industrial inspection, security, surveillance, and defense due to their diverse and significant benefits. Integral imaging is a passive multiperspective imaging technique, which records multiple two-dimensional images of a scene from different perspectives. Unlike holography, it can capture a scene such as outdoor events with incoherent or ambient light. Integral imaging can display a true 3D color image with full parallax and continuous viewing angles by incoherent light; thus it does not suffer from speckle degradation. Because of its unique properties, integral imaging has been revived over the past decade or so as a promising approach for massive 3D commercialization. A series of key articles on this topic have appeared in the OSA journals, including Applied Optics. Thus, it is fitting that this Commemorative Review presents an overview of literature on physical principles and applications of integral imaging. Several data capture configurations, reconstruction, and display methods are overviewed. In addition, applications including 3D underwater imaging, 3D imaging in photon-starved environments, 3D tracking of occluded objects, 3D optical microscopy, and 3D polarimetric imaging are reviewed.

  12. Practical application of RINO, a smartphone-based dynamic displacement sensing application for wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Knez, Kyle P.; Min, Jae-Hong; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic displacement is one of the most important measurands in wind tunnel tests of structures. Laser sensors or optical sensors are usually used in wind tunnel tests to measure displacements. However, these commercial sensors have limitations in its use, cost and installation despite of their good performance in accuracy. RINO (Real-time Image- processing for Non-contact monitoring), an iOS software application for dynamic displacement monitoring, has been developed in the previous study. In this study, feasibility of RINO in practical use for wind tunnel tests is explored. Series of wind tunnel tests show that performances of RINO are comparable with those of conventional displacement sensors.

  13. Applications of a Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Laser in Gas Sensing Research

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-05-01

    Laser absorption based sensors are extensively used in a variety of gas sensing areas such as combustion, atmospheric research, human breath analysis, and high resolution infrared spectroscopy. Quantum cascade lasers have recently emerged as high resolution, high power laser sources operating in mid infrared region and can have wide tunability range. These devices provide an opportunity to access stronger fundamental and combination vibrational bands located in mid infrared region than previously accessible weaker overtone vibrational bands located in near infrared region. Spectroscopic region near 8 µm contains strong vibrational bands of methane, acetylene, hydrogen peroxide, water vapor and nitrous oxide. These molecules have important applications in a wide range of applications. This thesis presents studies pertaining to spectroscopy and combustion applications. Advancements in combustion research are imperative to achieve lower emissions and higher efficiency in practical combustion devices such as gas turbines and engines. Accurate chemical kinetic models are critical to achieve predictive models which contain several thousand reactions and hundreds of species. These models need highly reliable experimental data for validation and improvements. Shock tubes are ideal devices to obtain such information. A shock tube is a homogenous, nearly constant volume, constant pressure, adiabatic and 0-D reactor. In combination with laser absorption sensors, shock tubes can be used to measure reaction rates and species time histories of several intermediates and products formed during pyrolysis and oxidation of fuels. This work describes measurement of the decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide which is an important intermediate species controlling reactivity of combustion system in the intermediate temperature range. Spectroscopic parameters (linestrengths, broadening coefficients and temperature dependent coefficients) are determined for various transitions of

  14. Photoacoustic Detection of Terahertz Radiation for Chemical Sensing and Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    PHOTOACOUSTIC ... PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF TERAHERTZ RADIATION FOR CHEMICAL SENSING AND IMAGING THESIS Presented to the Faculty...AFIT-ENG-13-M-08 PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF TERAHERTZ RADIATION FOR CHEMICAL SENSING AND IMAGING Stjepan Blazevic, B. E. E

  15. Inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed autonomous wearable RF modules for biomonitoring, positioning and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Jo; Bahr, Ryan; Hester, Jimmy; Kimionis, John; Nauroze, Abdullah; Su, Wenjing; Tehrani, Bijan; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, numerous inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed wearable flexible antennas, RF electronics, modules and sensors fabricated on paper and other polymer (e.g. LCP) substrates are introduced as a system-level solution for ultra-low-cost mass production of autonomous Biomonitoring, Positioning and Sensing applications. This paper briefly discusses the state-of-the-art area of fully-integrated wearable wireless sensor modules on paper or flexible LCP and show the first ever 4D sensor module integration on paper, as well as numerous 3D and 4D multilayer paper-based and LCP-based RF/microwave, flexible and wearable structures, that could potentially set the foundation for the truly convergent wireless sensor ad-hoc "on-body networks of the future with enhanced cognitive intelligence and "rugged" packaging. Also, some challenges concerning the power sources of "nearperpetual" wearable RF modules, including flexible miniaturized batteries as well as power-scavenging approaches involving electromagnetic and solar energy forms are discuessed. The final step of the paper will involve examples from mmW wearable (e.g. biomonitoring) antennas and RF modules, as well as the first examples of the integration of inkjet-printed nanotechnology-based (e.g.CNT) sensors on paper and organic substrates for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. It has to be noted that the paper will review and present challenges for inkjetprinted organic active and nonlinear devices as well as future directions in the area of environmentally-friendly "green") wearable RF electronics and "smart-skin conformal sensors.

  16. Convex-hull mass estimates of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus): application of a CT-based mass estimation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassey, Charlotte A; O'Mahoney, Thomas G; Kitchener, Andrew C; Manning, Phillip L; Sellers, William I

    2016-01-01

    The external appearance of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus, Linnaeus, 1758) has been a source of considerable intrigue, as contemporaneous accounts or depictions are rare. The body mass of the dodo has been particularly contentious, with the flightless pigeon alternatively reconstructed as slim or fat depending upon the skeletal metric used as the basis for mass prediction. Resolving this dichotomy and obtaining a reliable estimate for mass is essential before future analyses regarding dodo life history, physiology or biomechanics can be conducted. Previous mass estimates of the dodo have relied upon predictive equations based upon hind limb dimensions of extant pigeons. Yet the hind limb proportions of dodo have been found to differ considerably from those of their modern relatives, particularly with regards to midshaft diameter. Therefore, application of predictive equations to unusually robust fossil skeletal elements may bias mass estimates. We present a whole-body computed tomography (CT) -based mass estimation technique for application to the dodo. We generate 3D volumetric renders of the articulated skeletons of 20 species of extant pigeons, and wrap minimum-fit 'convex hulls' around their bony extremities. Convex hull volume is subsequently regressed against mass to generate predictive models based upon whole skeletons. Our best-performing predictive model is characterized by high correlation coefficients and low mean squared error (a = - 2.31, b = 0.90, r (2) = 0.97, MSE = 0.0046). When applied to articulated composite skeletons of the dodo (National Museums Scotland, NMS.Z.1993.13; Natural History Museum, NHMUK A.9040 and S/1988.50.1), we estimate eviscerated body masses of 8-10.8 kg. When accounting for missing soft tissues, this may equate to live masses of 10.6-14.3 kg. Mass predictions presented here overlap at the lower end of those previously published, and support recent suggestions of a relatively slim dodo. CT-based reconstructions provide a means of

  17. Convex-hull mass estimates of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus): application of a CT-based mass estimation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Mahoney, Thomas G.; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Manning, Phillip L.; Sellers, William I.

    2016-01-01

    The external appearance of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus, Linnaeus, 1758) has been a source of considerable intrigue, as contemporaneous accounts or depictions are rare. The body mass of the dodo has been particularly contentious, with the flightless pigeon alternatively reconstructed as slim or fat depending upon the skeletal metric used as the basis for mass prediction. Resolving this dichotomy and obtaining a reliable estimate for mass is essential before future analyses regarding dodo life history, physiology or biomechanics can be conducted. Previous mass estimates of the dodo have relied upon predictive equations based upon hind limb dimensions of extant pigeons. Yet the hind limb proportions of dodo have been found to differ considerably from those of their modern relatives, particularly with regards to midshaft diameter. Therefore, application of predictive equations to unusually robust fossil skeletal elements may bias mass estimates. We present a whole-body computed tomography (CT) -based mass estimation technique for application to the dodo. We generate 3D volumetric renders of the articulated skeletons of 20 species of extant pigeons, and wrap minimum-fit ‘convex hulls’ around their bony extremities. Convex hull volume is subsequently regressed against mass to generate predictive models based upon whole skeletons. Our best-performing predictive model is characterized by high correlation coefficients and low mean squared error (a = − 2.31, b = 0.90, r2 = 0.97, MSE = 0.0046). When applied to articulated composite skeletons of the dodo (National Museums Scotland, NMS.Z.1993.13; Natural History Museum, NHMUK A.9040 and S/1988.50.1), we estimate eviscerated body masses of 8–10.8 kg. When accounting for missing soft tissues, this may equate to live masses of 10.6–14.3 kg. Mass predictions presented here overlap at the lower end of those previously published, and support recent suggestions of a relatively slim dodo. CT-based reconstructions provide a

  18. Convex-hull mass estimates of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus: application of a CT-based mass estimation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A. Brassey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The external appearance of the dodo (Raphus cucullatus, Linnaeus, 1758 has been a source of considerable intrigue, as contemporaneous accounts or depictions are rare. The body mass of the dodo has been particularly contentious, with the flightless pigeon alternatively reconstructed as slim or fat depending upon the skeletal metric used as the basis for mass prediction. Resolving this dichotomy and obtaining a reliable estimate for mass is essential before future analyses regarding dodo life history, physiology or biomechanics can be conducted. Previous mass estimates of the dodo have relied upon predictive equations based upon hind limb dimensions of extant pigeons. Yet the hind limb proportions of dodo have been found to differ considerably from those of their modern relatives, particularly with regards to midshaft diameter. Therefore, application of predictive equations to unusually robust fossil skeletal elements may bias mass estimates. We present a whole-body computed tomography (CT -based mass estimation technique for application to the dodo. We generate 3D volumetric renders of the articulated skeletons of 20 species of extant pigeons, and wrap minimum-fit ‘convex hulls’ around their bony extremities. Convex hull volume is subsequently regressed against mass to generate predictive models based upon whole skeletons. Our best-performing predictive model is characterized by high correlation coefficients and low mean squared error (a = − 2.31, b = 0.90, r2 = 0.97, MSE = 0.0046. When applied to articulated composite skeletons of the dodo (National Museums Scotland, NMS.Z.1993.13; Natural History Museum, NHMUK A.9040 and S/1988.50.1, we estimate eviscerated body masses of 8–10.8 kg. When accounting for missing soft tissues, this may equate to live masses of 10.6–14.3 kg. Mass predictions presented here overlap at the lower end of those previously published, and support recent suggestions of a relatively slim dodo. CT

  19. SVSCf plasma desorption mass spectrometry: recent advances and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamensky, I.; Craig, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    SVSCf plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) as utilized in the BIO-ION instruments is described. The sensitivity of the technique is investigated for varying amounts of bovine insulin. The results show accurate mass assignment for pmole amounts of sample. Several methods, currently used for sample preparation in PDMS, are described. Spectra of the antibiotic nisin using two different sample preparation techniques show significant variation. The fragmentation pattern of reduced acetylated maltoheptaose is also presented. The initial results obtained using a new PDMS instrument equipped with variable flight path are shown. The increased resolution is illustrated using the extended flight path to measure the molecular ion region of the maltoheptaose.

  20. Applicability of geomechanical classifications for estimation of strength properties in Brazilian rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tatiana B; Lana, Milene S; Santos, Allan E M; Silveira, Larissa R C

    2017-01-01

    Many authors have been proposed several correlation equations between geomechanical classifications and strength parameters. However, these correlation equations have been based in rock masses with different characteristics when compared to Brazilian rock masses. This paper aims to study the applicability of the geomechanical classifications to obtain strength parameters of three Brazilian rock masses. Four classification systems have been used; the Rock Mass Rating (RMR), the Rock Mass Quality (Q), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and the Rock Mass Index (RMi). A strong rock mass and two soft rock masses with different degrees of weathering located in the cities of Ouro Preto and Mariana, Brazil; were selected for the study. Correlation equations were used to estimate the strength properties of these rock masses. However, such correlations do not always provide compatible results with the rock mass behavior. For the calibration of the strength values obtained through the use of classification systems, ​​stability analyses of failures in these rock masses have been done. After calibration of these parameters, the applicability of the various correlation equations found in the literature have been discussed. According to the results presented in this paper, some of these equations are not suitable for the studied rock masses.

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Uav Based Mapping System for Remote Sensing and Surveying Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, C.; Wieland, M.; Hess, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have increasingly been used in various application areas, such as in the remote sensing or surveying. For these applications the UAV has to be equipped with a mapping sensor, which is mostly a camera. Furthermore, a georeferencing of the UAV platform and/or the acquired mapping data is required. The most efficient way to realize this georeferencing is the direct georeferencing, which is based on an onboard multi-sensor system. In recent decades, direct georeferencing systems have been researched and used extensively in airborne, ship and land vehicle applications. However, these systems cannot easily be adapted to UAV platforms, which is mainly due to weight and size limitations. In this paper a direct georeferencing system for micro- and mini-sized UAVs is presented, which consists of a dual-frequency geodetic grade OEM GPS board, a low-cost single-frequency GPS chip, a tactical grade IMU and a magnetometer. To allow for cm-level position and sub-degree attitude accuracies, RTK GPS (real-time kinematic) and GPS attitude (GPS compass) determination algorithms are running on this system, as well as a GPS/IMU integration. Beside the direct georeferencing, also the precise time synchronization of the camera, which acts as the main sensor for mobile mapping applications, and the calibration of the lever arm between the camera reference point and the direct georeferencing reference point are explained in this paper. Especially the high accurate time synchronization of the camera is very important, to still allow for high surveying accuracies, when the images are taken during the motion of the UAV. Results of flight tests demonstrate that the developed system, the camera synchronization and the lever arm calibration make directly georeferenced UAV based single point measurements possible, which have cm-level accuracies on the ground.

  2. Guided-mode resonance in planar photonic crystals: Application to sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Nikhil

    This dissertation addresses the design, fabrication and characterization of planar photonic crystals that employ the guided-mode resonance effect for sensing and detection applications. A theoretical basis for these applications is first developed, followed by the demonstration of a near-ultraviolet reflectance filter that provides high reflection efficiency in the 400-450 nm spectral range. The response of photonic crystal label-free biosensors is shown to be greatly improved by the use of a near-ultraviolet device, and this improvement in performance is shown to stem from the enhanced surface sensitivity and lowered bulk sensitivity for devices operating in this wavelength range. The application of PCs for wavelength detection is demonstrated by developing a system employing a continuously variable reflectance filter. The system is composed of only two components and allows detection of wavelength changes as small as 0.011 nm. Visible wavelength PCs are also studied for application as fluorescence enhancement biosensors. For the first time, a PC capable of a dual enhancement modality (enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction of fluorescence) is demonstrated for boosting quantum dot fluorescence by over two orders of magnitude. The distance dependence of the enhanced excitation effect is studied and provides clarification for its mechanism and suggests that the PC can be modified to accommodate a wide range of analyte sizes. Finally the enhanced extraction effect is studied in detail using a model system involving quantum dots and waveguide gratings. The results suggest that enhanced extraction can greatly improve the output of fluorophores that are spectrally and spatially matched to the device. A practical demonstration of this effect is carried out in the detection of the cytokine TNF-alpha.

  3. Timing of Bag Application and Removal in Controlled Mass Pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.E. Bridgwater; D.L. Bramlett; V.D. Hipkins

    1999-01-01

    Controlled mass pollination (CMP) among outstanding parents is one way to increase genetic gains from traditional wind-pollinated seed orchards, but the economic success of CMP depends on both genetic gains and costs. CMP has been shown. to be cost-effective (Bridgwater et al. 1998) even when costs were adjusted for risk (Byram and Bridgwater 1999, These Proceedings...

  4. Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems as an Application of Mass Customisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Nielsen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    and responsiveness of manufacturing systems. A Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) is aimed at possess such flexibility and responsiveness and is said to be the manufacturing paradigm of tomorrow. RMS is, though, not yet fully developed. A similarity between RMS and modular product families, known from Mass...

  5. Applicability of hydraulic dynamometer for measuring load mass on forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandur Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, with the start of wood biomass production from wood residues, the need for determining the quantity of extracted wood residuals on a landing site has appeared. The beginning of intensive usage of wood residues for wood biomass starts in lowland forest where all wood residues are extracted with forwarders. There are several ways to determine load mass on a forwarder, first and probably most accurate is the use of load cells which are installed between forwarder undercarriage and loading space. In Croatia, as far as it is known, there is no forwarder with such equipment, although manufacturers offer the installation of such equipment when buying a new forwarder. The second option is using a portable measuring platform (axle scale which was already used for research of axle loads of trucks and forwarders. The data obtained with the measuring platform are very accurate, while its deficiency is relatively great mass, large dimensions and high price. The third option is determining mass by using hydraulic dynamometer which is installed on crane between the rotator and the telescopic boom. The production and installation of such a system is very simple, and with the price it can easily compete with previously described measuring systems. The main deficiency of this system is its unsatisfying accuracy. The results of assortment mass measuring with hydraulic dynamometer installed on a hydraulic crane and discussion on factors influencing obtained results will be presented in this paper.

  6. Data analysis for mass spectrometry imaging : methods and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmoula, Walid Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation we developed a number of automatic methods for multi-modal data registration, mainly between mass spectrometry imaging, imaging microscopy, and the Allen Brain Atlas. We have shown the importance of these methods for performing large scale preclinical biomarker discovery

  7. 3D CAPTURING PERFORMANCES OF LOW-COST RANGE SENSORS FOR MASS-MARKET APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, G; S. Gonizzi; Micoli, L.

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of the first Kinect as motion controller device for the Microsoft XBOX platform (November 2010), several similar active and low-cost range sensing devices have been introduced on the mass-market for several purposes, including gesture based interfaces, 3D multimedia interaction, robot navigation, finger tracking, 3D body scanning for garment design and proximity sensors for automotive. However, given their capability to generate a real time stream of range images, th...

  8. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  9. Slow-light enhanced absorption for bio-chemical sensing applications: potential of low-contrast lossy materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2008-01-01

    Slow-light enhanced absorption in liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals has recently been proposed as a route to compensate for the reduced optical path in typical lab-on-a-chip systems for bio-chemical sensing applications. A simple perturbative expression has been applied to ideal structures...

  10. Developing and Analysing sub-10 µm Fluidic Systems with Integrated Electrodes for Pumping and Sensing in Nanotechnology Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuck, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, sub-10 µm fluidic systems with integrated electrodes for pumping and sensing in nanotechnology applications were developed and analyzed. This work contributes to the development of the scanning ion pipette (SIP), a tool to investigate surface changes on the nanometer scale induced by

  11. User Requirements for the Application of Remote Sensing in the Planning and Management of Water Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Data relating to hydrologic and water resource systems and subsystems management are reported. Systems models, user application, and remote sensing technology are covered. Parameters governing water resources include evaportranspiration, vegetation, precipitation, streams and estuaries, reservoirs and lakes, and unsaturate and saturated soil zones.

  12. Developing and Analysing sub-10 µm Fluidic Systems with Integrated Electrodes for Pumping and Sensing in Nanotechnology Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuck, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, sub-10 µm fluidic systems with integrated electrodes for pumping and sensing in nanotechnology applications were developed and analyzed. This work contributes to the development of the scanning ion pipette (SIP), a tool to investigate surface changes on the nanometer scale induced by

  13. Will algorithms modified with soil and weather information improve in-field reflectance-sensing corn nitrogen applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) needs to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable within fields. Canopy reflectance sensing for assessing crop N health has been implemented on many farmers’ fields to side-dress or top-dress variable-rate N application, but at times farmers report the performance of...

  14. Review: in vivo optical spectral tissue sensing-how to go from research to routine clinical application?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.L.; Spliethoff, Jarich; Sterenborg, Hendricus J.C.M.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Innovations in optical spectroscopy have helped the technology reach a point where performance previously seen only in laboratory settings can be translated and tested in real-world applications. In the field of oncology, spectral tissue sensing (STS) by means of optical spectroscopy is considered t

  15. Truly Fluorescent Excitation-Dependent Carbon Dots and Their Applications in Multicolor Cellular Imaging and Multidimensional Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lulu; Sun, Shan; Zhang, Aidi; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Ling; Dong, Chaoqing; Huang, Qing; Wu, Aiguo; Lin, Hengwei

    2015-12-16

    Truly fluorescent excitation-dependent carbon dots are prepared, and the relationship between their chemical composition and fluorescent emission is discussed. Furthermore, potential applications of the as-prepared carbon dots to multicolor bio-labeling and multidimodal sensing are demonstrated.

  16. Performance of a Fiber Optic Spectrofluorometer with Applications for In Situ Sensing and Eddy Correlatio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, I. H.; Hemond, H.

    2016-02-01

    A novel optical fiber spectrofluorometer has been created capable of high-speed, high-resolution in situ measurements of naturally fluorescing compounds. This low-power (acid and fluorescence concentration measurements. For example, in a 3 ppm humic acid solution, 1,900 photons were measured in 50 ms (20 Hz), with a stdev/avg error of 2.9%. This compares favorably to the theoretical counting statistics sqrt(N)/N error of 2.3%. The calibration curve for humic acid is highly linear at low to moderate concentrations (e.g. at environment. The use of optical fibers to interrogate a distal sensing volume allows great flexibility in physical setup, making the instrument suitable for a variety of marine applications. In particular, its adaptable geometry and fast response time render it particularly suitable for use in aquatic eddy correlation (EC) systems. EC is a relatively new technique for determining benthic fluxes that to date has mainly been used to determine dissolved oxygen fluxes. By coupling this spectrofluorometer to an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, it will be possible to determine benthic fluxes of naturally fluorescing compounds. Expanding the capabilities of EC in this way to a much wider range of biogeochemical fluxes is one exciting potential application of this new instrument.

  17. Low-Power Analog Processing for Sensing Applications: Low-Frequency Harmonic Signal Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Balkir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A low-power analog sensor front-end is described that reduces the energy required to extract environmental sensing spectral features without using Fast Fouri´er Transform (FFT or wavelet transforms. An Analog Harmonic Transform (AHT allows selection of only the features needed by the back-end, in contrast to the FFT, where all coefficients must be calculated simultaneously. We also show that the FFT coefficients can be easily calculated from the AHT results by a simple back-substitution. The scheme is tailored for low-power, parallel analog implementation in an integrated circuit (IC. Two different applications are tested with an ideal front-end model and compared to existing studies with the same data sets. Results from the military vehicle classification and identification of machine-bearing fault applications shows that the front-end suits a wide range of harmonic signal sources. Analog-related errors are modeled to evaluate the feasibility of and to set design parameters for an IC implementation to maintain good system-level performance. Design of a preliminary transistor-level integrator circuit in a 0:µm complementary metal-oxide-silicon (CMOS integrated circuit process showed the ability to use online self-calibration to reduce fabrication errors to a sufficiently low level. Estimated power dissipation is about three orders of magnitude less than similar vehicle classification systems that use commercially available FFT spectral extraction.

  18. Introduction to structure from motion and its applications in remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, Matt B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    This talk discusses my experience at Los Alamos National Laboratories developing the Wide Area Persistent Surveillance (WAPS) system AngelFire and the problems with working with low resolution surface models. This experience provided a motivation to seek solutions to utilize the redundant WAPS imagery to build surface models of the urban environment. Structure from Motion (SfM) is a process that takes multiple view imagery and compute the 3D structure of a scene. We will walk through the basic algorithm and discuss areas for optimization. Military services and intelligence agencies face long-standing challenges with processing, exploiting, and disseminating ISR data. The problem is that too much data is being produced and not enough people to look at it and the problem is not going away. As a result of this data overload, we need to shift the way we think about data and find creative ways to use and present it so it can be easily digested by decision makers. SfM also provides a means for developing a data processing and organization architecture. Applications for various remote sensing applications will be discussed for motivation for why SfM and Multi-View Stereo rendering is an important area that needs to be continued to be developed.

  19. Low-power analog processing for sensing applications: low-frequency harmonic signal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel J; William, Peter E; Hoffman, Michael W; Balkir, Sina

    2013-07-25

    A low-power analog sensor front-end is described that reduces the energy required to extract environmental sensing spectral features without using Fast Fouriér Transform (FFT) or wavelet transforms. An Analog Harmonic Transform (AHT) allows selection of only the features needed by the back-end, in contrast to the FFT, where all coefficients must be calculated simultaneously. We also show that the FFT coefficients can be easily calculated from the AHT results by a simple back-substitution. The scheme is tailored for low-power, parallel analog implementation in an integrated circuit (IC). Two different applications are tested with an ideal front-end model and compared to existing studies with the same data sets. Results from the military vehicle classification and identification of machine-bearing fault applications shows that the front-end suits a wide range of harmonic signal sources. Analog-related errors are modeled to evaluate the feasibility of and to set design parameters for an IC implementation to maintain good system-level performance. Design of a preliminary transistor-level integrator circuit in a 0.13 µm complementary metal-oxide-silicon (CMOS) integrated circuit process showed the ability to use online self-calibration to reduce fabrication errors to a sufficiently low level. Estimated power dissipation is about three orders of magnitude less than similar vehicle classification systems that use commercially available FFT spectral extraction.

  20. Investigation on strain sensing properties of carbon-based nanocomposites for structural aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo; Guadagno, Liberata; Vertuccio, Luigi; Russo, Salvatore

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties of a thermosetting epoxy resin particularly indicated for the realization of structural aeronautic components and reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, at 0.3 wt%) are investigated for specimens subjected to cycles and different levels of applied strain (i.e. ɛ) loaded both in axial tension and flexural mode. It is found that the piezoresistive behavior of the resulting nanocomposite evaluated in terms of variation of the electrical resistance is strongly affected by the applied mechanical stress mainly due to the high sensibility and consequent rearrangement of the electrical percolating network formed by MWCNTs in the composite at rest or even under a small strain. In fact, the variations in electrical resistance that occur during the mechanical stress are correlated to the deformation exhibited by the nanocomposites. In particular, the overall response of electrical resistance of the composite is characterized by a linear increase with the strain at least in the region of elastic deformation of the material in which the gauge factor (i.e. G.F.) of the sensor is usually evaluated. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the possible use of the nanotechnology for application of embedded sensor systems in composite structures thus having capability of self-sensing and of responding to the surrounding environmental changes, which are some fundamental requirements especially for structural aircraft monitoring applications.

  1. Survey for Image Representation Using Block Compressive Sensing For Compression Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Hundet

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compressing sensing theory have been favourable in evolving data compression techniques, though it was put forward with objective to achieve dimension reduced sampling for saving data sampling cost. In this paper two sampling methods are explored for block CS (BCS with discrete cosine transform (DCT based image representation for compression applications - (a coefficient random permutation (b adaptive sampling. CRP method has the potency to balance the sparsity of sampled vectors in DCT field of image, and then in improving the CS sampling efficiency. To attain AS we design an adaptive measurement matrix used in CS based on the energy distribution characteristics of image in DCT domain, which has a good impact in magnifying the CS performance. It has been revealed in our experimental results that our proposed methods are efficacious in reducing the dimension of the BCS-based image representation and/or improving the recovered image quality. The planned BCS based image representation scheme could be an efficient alternative for applications of encrypted image compression and/or robust image compression.

  2. High-throughput heterogeneous integration of diverse nanomaterials on a single chip for sensing applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel MacNaughton

    Full Text Available There is a large variety of nanomaterials each with unique electronic, optical and sensing properties. However, there is currently no paradigm for integration of different nanomaterials on a single chip in a low-cost high-throughput manner. We present a high throughput integration approach based on spatially controlled dielectrophoresis executed sequentially for each nanomaterial type to realize a scalable array of individually addressable assemblies of graphene, carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanowires and conductive polymers on a single chip. This is a first time where such a diversity of nanomaterials has been assembled on the same layer in a single chip. The resolution of assembly can range from mesoscale to microscale and is limited only by the size and spacing of the underlying electrodes on chip used for assembly. While many applications are possible, the utility of such an array is demonstrated with an example application of a chemical sensor array for detection of volatile organic compounds below parts-per-million sensitivity.

  3. Bio-inspired approaches to sensing for defence and security applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Peter D E; Kusterbeck, Anne; Hiltz, John A

    2008-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research in biotechnology and related scientific areas has increased tremendously over the past decade. This rapid pace, in conjunction with advances in microfabricated systems, computer hardware, bioengineering and the availability of low-powered miniature components, has now made it feasible to design bio-inspired materials, sensors and systems with tremendous potential for defence and security applications. To realize the full potential of biotechnology and bio-inspiration, there is a need to define specific requirements to meet the challenges of the changing world and its threats. One approach to assisting the defence and security communities in defining their requirements is through the use of a conceptual model. The distributed or intelligent autonomous sensing (DIAS) system is one such model. The DIAS model is not necessarily aimed at a single component, for instance a sensor, but can include a system, or even a system of systems in the same way that a single organism, a multi-cellular organism or group of organisms is configured. This paper provides an overview of the challenges to and opportunities for bio-inspired sensors and systems together with examples of how they are being implemented. Examples focus on both learning new things from biological organisms that have application to the defence and security forces and adapting known discoveries in biology and biochemistry for practical use by these communities.

  4. Enhanced monolithic diffraction gratings with high efficiency and reduced polarization sensitivity for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Peter; Diehl, Torsten; Moeller, Tobias; Gatto, Alexandre; Pesch, Alexander; Erdmann, Lars H.; Burkhardt, Matthias; Kalies, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provides an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly improve the spectral performance. The ZEISS unique technology of manufacturing real-blazed profiles and as well as lamellar profiles comprising transparent substrates is well suited for the production of transmission gratings. In order to reduce high order aberrations, aspherical and free-form surfaces can be alternatively processed to allow more degrees of freedom in the optical design of spectroscopic instruments with less optical elements and therefore size and weight advantages. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for UV to IR spectral range. Many years of expertise in the research and development of optical coatings enable high transmission anti-reflection coatings from the DUV to the NIR. ZEISS has developed specially adapted coating processes (Ion beam sputtering, ion-assisted deposition and so on) for maintaining the micro-structure of blazed gratings in particular. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. This technology steps can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings from the EUV to the IR applications with an outstanding level of low stray light and ghost diffraction order by employing a combination of holography and reactive ion beam etching together with the in-house coating capabilities. We report on results of transmission gratings on plane and curved substrates and GRISM elements with enhanced efficiency of the grating itself combined with low scattered light in the angular

  5. Ultra-fast coherent optical system for active remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shubhashish; Becker, Don; Joshi, Abhay; Howard, Roy

    2008-04-01

    Active optical remote sensing has numerous applications including battlefield target recognition and tracking, atmospheric monitoring, structural monitoring, collision avoidance systems, and terrestrial mapping. The maximum propagation distance in LIDAR sensors is limited by the signal attenuation. Sensor range could be improved by increasing the transmitted pulse energy, at the expense of reduced resolution and information bandwidth. Coherent detection can operate at low optical power levels without sacrificing sensor bandwidth. Utilizing a high power LO laser to increase the receiver gain, coherent systems provide shot noise-limited gain thereby increasing the sensing range. To fully exploit high LO powers without incurring performance penalties due to the RIN of the LO, high power handling balanced photodiodes are used. The coherent system has superior dynamic range, bandwidth, and noise performance than small-signal APD-based systems. Coherent detection is a linear process that is sensitive to the amplitude, phase and polarization of the received signal. Therefore, Doppler shifts and vibration signatures can be easily recovered. RF adaptive filtering following photodetection enables channel equalization, atmospheric turbulence compensation, and efficient background light filtering. We demonstrate a coherent optical transmission system using 15mA high power handling balanced photodetectors. This system has an IF linewidth <1Hz, employing a proprietary phase locked loop design. Data is presented for 100ps pulsed transmission. We have demonstrated amplitude and phase modulated 10Gb/s communication links with sensitivities of 132 and 72 photons per bit respectively. Investigations into system performance in the presence of laboratory induced atmospheric turbulence are shown.

  6. pH sensing characteristics and biosensing application of solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Il-Yung; Kim, Duck-Jin; Jung, Jin-Heak; Yoon, Ok Ja; Thanh, Tien Nguyen; Quang, Trung Tran; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2013-07-15

    Solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors (R-GO FETs) were investigated for pH sensing and biochemical sensing applications. A channel of a networked R-GO film formed by self-assembly was incorporated as a sensing layer into a solution-gated FET structure for pH sensing and the detection of acetylcholine (Ach), which is a neurotransmitter in the nerve system, through enzymatic reactions. The fabricated R-GO FET was sensitive to protons (H(+)) with a pH sensitivity of 29 mV/pH in terms of the shift of the charge neutrality point (CNP), which is attributed to changes in the surface potential caused by the interaction of protons with OH surface functional groups present on the R-GO surface. The R-GO FET immobilized with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was used to detect Ach in the concentration range of 0.1-10mM by sensing protons generated during the enzymatic reactions. The results indicate that R-GO FETs provide the capability to detect protons, demonstrating their applicability as a biosensing device for enzymatic reactions.

  7. Challenges ahead for mass spectrometry and proteomics applications in epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Benedikt M

    2010-02-01

    Inheritance of biological information to future generations depends on the replication of DNA and the Mendelian principle of distribution of genes. In addition, external and environmental factors can influence traits that can be propagated to offspring, but the molecular details of this are only beginning to be understood. The discoveries of DNA methylation and post-translational modifications on chromatin and histones provided entry points for regulating gene expression, an area now defined as epigenetics and epigenomics. Mass spectrometry turned out to be instrumental in uncovering molecular details involved in these processes. The central role of histone post-translational modifications in epigenetics related biological processes has revitalized mass spectrometry based investigations. In this special report, current approaches and future challenges that lay ahead due to the enormous complexity are discussed.

  8. New Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Lipid Analysis*

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Murphy; Gaskell, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool for the analysis of all lipids. Lipidomic analysis of biological systems using various approaches is now possible with a quantitative measurement of hundreds of lipid molecular species. Although availability of reference and internal standards lags behind the field, approaches using stable isotope-labeled derivative tagging permit precise determination of specific phospholipids in an experimental series. The use of reactivity of ozone has enabl...

  9. Miniature Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Space and Extraterrestrial Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PI has developed a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), which can be op-timized for space and extraterrestrial applications, by using a...

  10. Remote Sensing Ocean Color Observations from NASA's PACE Mission: Applications and Societal Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortziou, M.; Omar, A. H.; Turner, W.

    2014-12-01

    The PACE (Pre- Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystems) mission is a strategic Climate Continuity mission, included in NASA's 2010 plan: "Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space". On a polar orbit, PACE will make climate-quality global measurements that are essential for understanding ocean biology, biogeochemistry and ecology, and determining how the ocean's role in global biogeochemical cycling and ocean ecology both affects and is affected by climate change. With advanced global remote sensing capabilities that include high spectral-resolution imaging, extended spectral coverage to the UV and SWIR, improved spatial resolution in inland, estuarine and coastal waters, enhanced atmospheric correction and higher signal-to-noise, PACE is expected to provide high quality observations that, over the long-term, will contribute to an extended time series of records on inland, coastal, and ocean ecosystems—all of which have substantial value beyond basic science and research. The combination of climate-quality, global atmospheric and oceanic observations provided by the PACE mission will provide a unique capability to help understand changes that affect our ecosystem services, implement science-based management strategies of coastal, marine and inland aquatic resources, and support assessments, policy analyses, and design approaches to plan adaptation and responses to impacts of climate change. Here we discuss the PACE applications program, the new capabilities afforded by this future satellite mission, and how they could potentially advance applications across a range of areas, including Oceans, Climate, Water Resources, Ecological Forecasting, Disasters, Human Health and Air Quality.

  11. Urban remote sensing applications: TIMS observations of the City of Scottsdale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Melendrez, David E.; Anderson, Donald L.; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Wenrich, Melissa L.; Howard, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    A research program has been initiated between Arizona State University and the City of Scottsdale, Arizona to study the potential applications of TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) data for urban scene classification, desert environmental assessment, and change detection. This program is part of a long-term effort to integrate remote sensing observations into state and local planning activities to improve decision making and future planning. Specific test sites include a section of the downtown Scottsdale region that has been mapped in very high detail as part of a pilot program to develop an extensive GIS database. This area thus provides excellent time history of the evolution of the city infrastructure, such as the timing and composition of street repavement. A second area of study includes the McDowell intensive study by state and local agencies to assess potential sites for urban development as well as preservation. These activities are of particular relevance as the Phoenix metropolitan area undergoes major expansion into the surrounding desert areas. The objectives of this study in urban areas are aimed at determining potential applications of TIMS data for classifying and assessing land use and surface temperatures. Land use centers on surface impermeability studies for storm runoff assessment and pollution control. These studies focus on determining the areal abundance of urban vegetation and undeveloped soil. Highly experimental applications include assessment and monitoring of pavement condition. Temperature studies focus on determining swimming pool area and temperature for use in monitoring evaporating and urban water consumption. These activities are of particular relevance as the Phoenix metropolitan area undergoes major expansion into the surrounding desert area.

  12. Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Kurth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater-surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote-control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid-independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site, issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.

  13. Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Kurth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Distributed temperature sensing (DTS is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater–surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site, issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.

  14. Facet effects of palladium nanocrystals for oxygen reduction in ionic liquids and for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongan; Chi, Xiaowei; Zou, Shouzhong; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2016-03-01

    Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal facets, were successfully synthesized through an aqueous one-pot synthesis method. A new thermal annealing approach was developed for fabricating these palladium nanocrystals as a working electrode on a gas permeable membrane to study the facet effects of the oxygen reduction process in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy][NTf2]). Results were compared with the same processes at a conventional platinum electrode. Our study shows that the structural difference between the two facets of Pd nanocrystals has little effect on the oxygen reduction process but significantly affects the oxidation process of the superoxide. It is found that the Pd{110}/IL interface can better stabilize superoxide radicals revealed by a more positive oxidation potential compared to that of Pd{100}. In addition, the analytical characteristic of utilizing both palladium nanocrystals as electrodes for oxygen sensing is comparable with a polycrystal platinum oxygen sensor, in which Pd{110} presents the best sensitivity and lowest detection limit. Our results demonstrate the facet-dependence of oxygen reduction in an ionic liquid medium and provide the fundamental information needed to guide the applications of palladium nanocrystals in electrochemical gas sensor and fuel cell research.Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal facets, were successfully synthesized through an aqueous one-pot synthesis method. A new thermal annealing approach was developed for fabricating these palladium nanocrystals as a working electrode on a gas permeable membrane to study the facet effects of the oxygen reduction process in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy][NTf2]). Results were compared with the same processes at a conventional platinum electrode. Our study shows that the structural difference between the two facets of Pd

  15. Dielectric micro-resonator-based opto-mechanical systems for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amir Roushdy

    In recent years, whispering gallery mode (WGM), or morphology dependent optical resonances (MDR) of dielectric micro-resonators have attracted interest with proposed applications in a wide range of areas due to the high optical quality factors, Q, they can exhibit (reaching ~ 10. 9 for silica spheres). Micro-resonator WGMs have been used in applications that include those in spectroscopy, micro-cavity laser technology, optical communications (switching, filtering and multiplexing), sensors technologies and even chemical and biological sensing. The WGM of these dielectric micro-resonators are highly sensitive to morphological changes (such as the size, shape, or refractive index) of the resonance cavity and hence, can be tuned by causing a minute change in the physical condition of the surrounding. In this dissertation, we have been creating opto-mechanical systems, which at their most basic, are extraordinarily sensitive sensors. One of the ultimate goals of this dissertation is to develop sensors capable of detecting the extremely small electric field changes. To improve the performance of the sensors, we couple a polymer cantilever beam to a dielectric micro-resonator. The eventual use of such ultra sensitive electric filed sensors could include neural-machine interfaces for advanced prosthetics devices. The work presented here includes a basic analysis and experimental investigations of the electric field sensitivity and range of micro-resonators of several different materials and geometries followed by the electric field sensor design, testing, and characterization. Also, the effects of angular velocity on the WGM shifts of spherical micro-resonators are also investigated. The elastic deformation that is induced on a spinning resonator due to the centrifugal force may lead to a sufficient shift in the optical resonances and therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Furthermore, this principle could be used for the development of

  16. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry in aluminum metabolism studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirav, O.; Sutton, R. A. L.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Klein, J.; Walker, V. R.; Halabe, A.; Vetterli, D.; Johnson, R. R.

    1990-12-01

    The recent recognition that aluminum causes toxicity in uremie patients and may be associated with Alzheimer's disease has stimulated many studies of its biochemical effects. However, such studies were hampered by the lack of a suitable tracer. In a novel experiment, we have applied the new technique of accelerator mass spectrometry to investigate aluminum kinetics in rats, using as a marker the long-lived isotope 26Al. We present the first aluminum kinetic model for a biological system. The results clearly demonstrate the advantage this technique holds for isotope tracer studies in animals as well as in humans.

  17. Applications of mass spectrometry to DNA fingerprinting and DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Chen, C.H.; Doktycz, M.J.; McLuckey, S.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Arlinghaus, H.F. (Atom Sciences, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting and sequencing rely on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the sizes of the DNA fragments. Innovative altematives to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are under investigation for characterization of such fingerprinting and sequencing. One method uses stable isotopes of tin and other elements to label the DNAwhereas other procedures do not require labels. The detectors in each case are mass spectrometers that detect either the stable isotopes or the DNA fragments themselves. If successful, these methods will speed up the rate of DNA analysis by one or two orders of magnitude.

  18. Applications of mass spectrometry to DNA fingerprinting and DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Chen, C.H.; Doktycz, M.J.; McLuckey, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arlinghaus, H.F. [Atom Sciences, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-06-01

    DNA fingerprinting and sequencing rely on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the sizes of the DNA fragments. Innovative altematives to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are under investigation for characterization of such fingerprinting and sequencing. One method uses stable isotopes of tin and other elements to label the DNAwhereas other procedures do not require labels. The detectors in each case are mass spectrometers that detect either the stable isotopes or the DNA fragments themselves. If successful, these methods will speed up the rate of DNA analysis by one or two orders of magnitude.

  19. Universal and efficient compressed sensing by spread spectrum and application to realistic Fourier imaging techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Puy, Gilles; Gribonval, Rémi; Wiaux, Yves

    2011-01-01

    We advocate a compressed sensing strategy that consists of multiplying the signal of interest by a wide bandwidth modulation before projection onto randomly selected vectors of an orthonormal basis. Firstly, in a digital setting with random modulation, considering a whole class of sensing bases including the Fourier basis, we prove that the technique is universal in the sense that the required number of measurements for accurate recovery is optimal and independent of the sparsity basis. This universality stems from a drastic decrease of coherence between the sparsity and the sensing bases, which for a Fourier sensing basis relates to a spread of the original signal spectrum by the modulation (hence the name "spread spectrum"). The approach is also efficient as sensing matrices with fast matrix multiplication algorithms can be used, in particular in the case of Fourier measurements. Secondly, these results are confirmed by a numerical analysis of the phase transition of the l1- minimization problem. Finally, w...

  20. Tunable optical-path correlator for distributed strain or temperature-sensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yonggui; Wu, Bing; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2010-10-15

    Based on a cavity-length tunable fiber-loop resonator, a multibeam optical path difference is generated. It can be used to match and correlate the reflective signals from the partial reflective ends of each sensing fiber gauge. The correlation signals correspond to the sensing gauge lengths, and the shift of the correlation peak is related with the fiber sensing gauge elongation caused by strain or temperature. Therefore, it can be used to measure distributed strain or deformation for smart structural monitoring.

  1. Development of a high speed wideband frequency tunable infrared laser source for real time wind turbine array sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Philip; Janssen, Adrian; Partov Poor, Bahar

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports the development of an infra-red circa 193THz (~1.5μm) frequency tunable laser source selected and evaluated for photonic environment sensing systems. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) offers a method of remote wind speed measurement. Widespread deployment of the technique has been limited by the expense and complexity of LIDAR systems. However development of systems based on optical fiber and photonic components from the telecommunications industry promises improvements in cost, compactness, and reliability, so that it becomes viable to consider deployment of such systems on large wind turbines for the advance detection of fluctuations of wind speed. A monolithic multi-section laser, originally designed as a tunable source for telecommunications applications, has been modified and re-evaluated as a source for sensing applications, based on the technique of coherent laser radar (CLR), and coherent doppler LIDAR (CDL). A tunable frequency optical source should fulfil specific technical criteria to fulfil the applications requirements; speed of frequency selection, absolute accuracy of emitted frequency, spectral purity, and stability. Custom electronics and firmware were developed to realise an improvement in frequency switching speed by a factor of 10 relative to equivalent commercially available telecoms (DBR) sources, satisfying the target application requirements. An overview of the sensing architecture is presented, a detailed description of the fast tuning process described, including the custom hardware and firmware, and specifically the laser energising sequence. The results of the laser module are then presented with detailed consideration of the target application.

  2. Issues and Applications in Label-Free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyin Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To address the challenges associated with differential expression proteomics, label-free mass spectrometric protein quantification methods have been developed as alternatives to array-based, gel-based, and stable isotope tag or label-based approaches. In this paper, we focus on the issues associated with label-free methods that rely on quantitation based on peptide ion peak area measurement. These issues include chromatographic alignment, peptide qualification for quantitation, and normalization. In addressing these issues, we present various approaches, assembled in a recently developed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry platform, that overcome these difficulties and enable comprehensive, accurate, and reproducible protein quantitation in highly complex protein mixtures from experiments with many sample groups. As examples of the utility of this approach, we present a variety of cases where the platform was applied successfully to assess differential protein expression or abundance in body fluids, in vitro nanotoxicology models, tissue proteomics in genetic knock-in mice, and cell membrane proteomics.

  3. Exploiting quorum sensing interfering strategies in gram-negative bacteria for the enhancement of environmental applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS is a widespread intercellular form of communication to coordinate physiological processes and cooperative activities of bacteria at the population level, and it depends on the production, secretion, and detection of small diffusible autoinducers, such as acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs, auto-inducing oligo-peptides (AIPs and autoinducer 2. In this review, the function of QS autoinducers of gram-negative bacteria in different aspects of wastewater treatment systems is examined. Based on research primarily performed over the past ten years, QS involvement in the formation of biofilm and aerobic granules and changes of the microbial community and degradation/transformation pathways is discussed. In particular, the QS pathway in the role of bacterial infections and disease prevention in aquaculture is addressed. Interference of QS autoinducer-regulated pathways is considered potential treatment for a variety of environmentally related problems. This review is expected to serve as a stepping stone for further study and development strategies based on the mediation of QS-regulated pathways to enhance applications in both wastewater treatment systems and aquaculture.

  4. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, N.M.

    2015-06-11

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  5. On the role of a coumarin derivative for sensing applications: Nucleotide identification using a micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoschi, Alexandre; Ceglie, Andrea; Lopez, Francesco; Meli, Valeria; Murgia, Sergio; Tamburro, Manuela; Caltagirone, Claudia; Cuomo, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The recognition of nucleotides is of crucial importance because they are the basic constituents of nucleic acids. The present study is focused on the selective interaction between a novel amphiphilic fluorophore containing coumarin and imidazole, CI (1-methyl-3-(12-((2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)oxy)dodecyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromide), and different nucleotide-monophosphates (NMPs). It was supposed that the solubilization of the low water soluble CI in a micelle system of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) would make the coumarin moiety of CI available to the interaction with the water-soluble NMPs. Changes in CTAC critical micelle concentration suggested that CI strongly interacted with the host cationic surfactant, thus forming a positively charged interface enriched with coumarin able to interact with the anionic NMPs. Steady-state fluorescence quenching revealed that CI/CTAC system was capable of distinguish between purine- and pyrimidine-based nucleotides. A modified Stern-Volmer equation permitted the use of a quenching model that accounted for the possible interactions between the micelles and the nucleotides. The data analysis allowed calculating selective parameters that differentiated according to the type of nucleotide either at 25 or 50°C. Our results established the utility of the novel coumarin derivative fluorophore, supported by the simple and suitable micellar systems, as a tool for DNA sensing applications.

  6. A 0.18 μm CMOS fluorescent detector system for bio-sensing application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Nan; Chen Guoping; Hong Zhiliang

    2009-01-01

    A CMOS fluorescent detector system for biological experiment is presented. This system integrates a CMOS compatible photodiode, a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA), and a 12 bit pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and is implemented in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process. Some special techniques, such as a "contact imaging" detecting method, pseudo-differential architecture, dummy photodiodes, and a T-type reset switch, are adopted to achieve low-level sensing application. Experiment results show that the Nwell/Psub photodi-ode with CTIA pixel achieves a sensitivity of 0.1 A/W at 515 nm and a dark current of 300 fA with 300 mV reverse biased voltage. The maximum differential and integral nonlinearity of the designed ADC are 0.8 LSB and 3 LSB, respectively. With an integrating time of 50 ms, this system is sensitive to the fluorescence emitted by the fluorescein solution with concentration as low as 20 ng/mL and can generate 7 fA photocurrent. This chip occupies 3 mm2 and consumes 37 mW.

  7. Polarization-based index of refraction and reflection angle estimation for remote sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilak, Vimal; Voelz, David G; Creusere, Charles D

    2007-10-20

    A passive-polarization-based imaging system records the polarization state of light reflected by objects that are illuminated with an unpolarized and generally uncontrolled source. Such systems can be useful in many remote sensing applications including target detection, object segmentation, and material classification. We present a method to jointly estimate the complex index of refraction and the reflection angle (reflected zenith angle) of a target from multiple measurements collected by a passive polarimeter. An expression for the degree of polarization is derived from the microfacet polarimetric bidirectional reflectance model for the case of scattering in the plane of incidence. Using this expression, we develop a nonlinear least-squares estimation algorithm for extracting an apparent index of refraction and the reflection angle from a set of polarization measurements collected from multiple source positions. Computer simulation results show that the estimation accuracy generally improves with an increasing number of source position measurements. Laboratory results indicate that the proposed method is effective for recovering the reflection angle and that the estimated index of refraction provides a feature vector that is robust to the reflection angle.

  8. Orthogonal linear polarized lasers(Ⅲ) Applications in self-sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shulian; DU Wenhua; LIU Gang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the applications of orthogonal linear polarized lasers in self-sensing are reviewed. The properties for such a laser include the production of a new frequency in one longitudinal mode spacing, the tuning of frequency difference, the change of polarization states as cavity tuning, the control of mode competition intensity, the optical feedback, and so on. The orthogonal polarized lasers have been used as a laser nanometer ruler based on competition between two polarized lights in a HeNe laser and as a displacement measurement tool based on the optical feedback in the orthogonal polarized lasers. They are also used in the phase retardation measurement of a waveplate, the angle measurement, the vibration measurement, the pressure/force measurement, the weak magnetic field measurement,and so on. The structures of these new devices are simple and compact with the great advantages of high resolution and high accuracy.Some of these devices can trace to the source of the laser wavelength. The nanometer laser ruler is an example whose measurement range is 12 mm, resolution is 79 nm and linearity is less than 5×10- 5. The repeatability of the phase retardation measuring system of waveplate can reach 3'.

  9. Application of remote sensing for prediction and detection of thermal pollution, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veziroglu, T. N.; Lee, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a predictive mathematical model for thermal pollution in connection with remote sensing measurements was continued. A rigid-lid model has been developed and its application to far-field study has been completed. The velocity and temperature fields have been computed for different atmospheric conditions and for different boundary currents produced by tidal effects. In connection with the theoretical work, six experimental studies of the two sites in question (Biscayne Bay site and Hutchinson Island site) have been carried out. The temperature fields obtained during the tests at the Biscayne Bay site have been compared with the predictions of the rigid-lid model and these results are encouraging. The rigid-lid model is also being applied to near-field study. Preliminary results for a simple case have been obtained and execution of more realistic cases has been initiated. The development of a free-surface model also been initiated. The governing equations have been formulated and the computer programs have been written.

  10. Nanosecond laser textured superhydrophobic metallic surfaces and their chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Duong V.; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates superhydrophobic behavior on nanosecond laser patterned copper and brass surfaces. Compared with ultrafast laser systems previously used for such texturing, infrared nanosecond fiber lasers offer a lower cost and more robust system combined with potentially much higher processing rates. The wettability of the textured surfaces develops from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity over time when exposed to ambient conditions. The change in the wetting property is attributed to the partial deoxidation of oxides on the surface induced during laser texturing. Textures exhibiting steady state contact angles of up to ∼152° with contact angle hysteresis of around 3-4° have been achieved. Interestingly, the superhydrobobic surfaces have the self-cleaning ability and have potential for chemical sensing applications. The principle of these novel chemical sensors is based on the change in contact angle with the concentration of methanol in a solution. To demonstrate the principle of operation of such a sensor, it is found that the contact angle of methanol solution on the superhydrophobic surfaces exponentially decays with increasing concentration. A significant reduction, of 128°, in contact angle on superhydrophobic brass is observed, which is one order of magnitude greater than that for the untreated surface (12°), when percent composition of methanol reaches to 28%.

  11. Magneto-optical plasmonic heterostructure with ultranarrow resonance for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyeva, Daria O.; Knyazev, Grigory A.; Kapralov, Pavel O.; Dietler, Giovanni; Sekatskii, Sergey K.; Belotelov, Vladimir I.

    2016-06-01

    Currently, sensors invade into our everyday life to bring higher life standards, excellent medical diagnostic and efficient security. Plasmonic biosensors demonstrate an outstanding performance ranking themselves among best candidates for different applications. However, their sensitivity is still limited that prevents further expansion. Here we present a novel concept of magnetoplasmonic sensor with ultranarrow resonances and high sensitivity. Our approach is based on the combination of a specially designed one-dimensional photonic crystal and a ferromagnetic layer to realize ultralong-range propagating magnetoplasmons and to detect alteration of the environment refractive index via observation of the modifications in the Transversal Magnetooptical Kerr Effect spectrum. The fabrication of such a structure is relatively easy in comparison with e.g. nanopatterned samples. The fabricated heterostructure shows extremely sharp (angular width of 0.06°) surface plasmon resonance and even sharper magnetoplasmonic resonance (angular width is 0.02°). It corresponds to the propagation length as large as 106 μm which is record for magnetoplasmons and promising for magneto-optical interferometry and plasmonic circuitry as well as magnetic field sensing. The magnitude of the Kerr effect of 11% is achieved which allows for detection limit of 1•10-6. The prospects of further increase of the sensitivity of this approach are discussed.

  12. A low-cost large-aperture optical receiver for remote sensing and imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Stephen A.

    2003-03-01

    An inexpensive large aperture (10 m class) receiver for optical wavelength imaging and remote sensing applications is discussed. The design was developed for active (laser illumination) imaging of remote objects using pupil plane measurement techniques, where relatively low optical quality collecting elements can be used. The approach is also well suited for conventional imaging at lower resolutions when light collection capability is of primary importance. The approach relies on a large aperture heliostat consisting of an array of flat mirror segments, like those used in solar collector systems, to collect light from the region of interest. The heliostat segments are tilted in a manner to concentrate the light, by making the light from all segments overlap at a common point, resulting in a region of higher intensity about the size of a segment at the heliostat "focus". A smaller secondary collector, consisting of a concave mirror located at the overlap point, further concentrates the light and forms a pupil image of the heliostat. Additional optics near the pupil image collimate the light for efficient transmission though a narrow band interference filter used to reduce sky background, and focus the light onto a PMT, or other sensor, for detection. Several design approaches for the collimating optics are discussed as well as system performance and limitations.

  13. Copper nano-clusters prepared by one-step electrodeposition and its application on nitrate sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of copper nano-clusters prepared by a simple one-step electrodeposition process on platinum microelectrode, and the application for nitrate determination. The one-step electrodepostion process was performed by chronoamperometry scan in acidic copper sulphate electrolyte directly. The SEM and electrochemical examination showed that the morphologies and microstructures of deposited copper layers can be precisely controlled by using different deposition voltages. It was found that the copper layer is porous when the deposition voltage is higher than -500 mV, and this porous layer has a larger effective surface area compared with the corresponding smooth flat copper layer deposited under voltage less than -300 mV. Under the optimized deposition voltage, copper clusters constructed by uniform nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 100 nm can be obtained. The mechanism of electrodeposition process for this method was also speculated. The copper layers deposited under different voltages are used in a series of tests in order to evaluate their performance for nitrate sensing. The experimental results reveal that the microelectrode modified by fixed potential deposition under -700 mV had a higher sensitivity of 39.31 μA/mmolL−1 for nitrate detection within the concentration ranging from 0.1 mmolL−1 to 4.0 mmolL−1.

  14. Nano-structured interface of graphene and h-BN for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fábio A. L.; Amorim, Rodrigo G.; Scopel, Wanderlã L.; Scheicher, Ralph H.

    2016-09-01

    The atomically-precise controlled synthesis of graphene stripes embedded in hexagonal boron nitride opens up new possibilities for the construction of nanodevices with applications in sensing. Here, we explore properties related to the electronic structure and quantum transport of a graphene nanoroad embedded in hexagonal boron nitride, using a combination of density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's functions method to calculate the electric conductance. We find that the graphene nanoribbon signature is preserved in the transmission spectra and that the local current is mainly confined to the graphene domain. When a properly sized nanopore is created in the graphene part of the system, the electronic current becomes restricted to a carbon chain running along the border with hexagonal boron nitride. This circumstance could allow the hypothetical nanodevice to become highly sensitive to the electronic nature of molecules passing through the nanopore, thus opening up ways to detect gas molecules, amino acids, or even DNA sequences based on a measurement of the real-time conductance modulation in the graphene nanoroad.

  15. Optical signal processing and tracking of whispering gallery modes in real-time for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amir R.; Afifi, Amr N.; Taha, Hazem

    2017-05-01

    A novel approach for tracking of whispering gallery modes (WGM) in real-time for dielectric cavities used in sensing application is presented in this paper. Real-time tracking for the shifts of the WGM can be used to measure the physical quantity of interest precisely, under high repetition rates. The tracking algorithm is based on cross-correlation signal processing technique which has been proved to be accurate in WGM shifts detection. In order to achieve portability, the aforementioned real-time algorithm is implemented using a single-board re-configurable input-output hardware. The hardware platform used combines a real-time processor and a field programmable gate array (FPGA), it also allows for data exchange between them. The tracking algorithm's accuracy and real-time behavior is verified by preforming simulations based on experiments conducted on the dielectric cavity, where the cavity is used as a force sensor measuring mechanical compression. The light from a laser diode is tuned with rates up to 10 kHz and then tangentially coupled into the cavity to excite the WGM. Results show that shifts of the WGM are tracked by the algorithm providing real-time force readings.

  16. An innovative application of time-domain spectroscopy on localized surface plasmon resonance sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Chi; Chang, Ying-Feng; Wang, Huai-Yi; Lin, Yu-Xen; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Annie Ho, Ja-An; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Su, Li-Chen

    2017-03-01

    White-light scanning interferometry (WLSI) is often used to study the surface profiles and properties of thin films because the strength of the technique lies in its ability to provide fast and high resolution measurements. An innovative attempt is made in this paper to apply WLSI as a time-domain spectroscopic system for localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing. A WLSI-based spectrometer is constructed with a breadboard of WLSI in combination with a spectral centroid algorithm for noise reduction and performance improvement. Experimentally, the WLSI-based spectrometer exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2 × 10-3 refractive index units (RIU), which is better than that obtained with a conventional UV-Vis spectrometer, by resolving the LSPR peak shift. Finally, the bio-applicability of the proposed spectrometer was investigated using the rs242557 tau gene, an Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease biomarker. The LOD was calculated as 15 pM. These results demonstrate that the proposed WLSI-based spectrometer could become a sensitive time-domain spectroscopic biosensing platform.

  17. Characterization of Ring Wave Spectra for Natural Rain: Measurements and Model for Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliven, L.; Sobieski, P.; Craeye, C.

    1998-01-01

    Ring waves generated by natural rains from 1 to 100 mm/hr were measured in a small tank located in a field. Time series were obtained: (a) from a wire capacitance probe that measured surface elevation, (b) from an optical gauge that measured rain rates R, (c) from an anemometer that measured wind speeds and (d) from a 13.5 GHz scatterometer (w polarization, and 30 degree incidence angle). Ring wave frequency spectra are computed from the surface elevation data for each minute of rain. All the spectra have a similar shape, with a maximum near 5 Hz, and with a more rapid decay towards higher frequencies than towards lower frequencies. A log-Gaussian spectral model provides a useful representation of these data and analysis of the model coefficients shows that the peak frequency and bandwidth are approximately constant, but the magnitude increases as R increases, Additionally, the normalized radar cross section from the scatterometer varies approximately linearly with the spectral line corresponding to the Bragg-wavelength, so together the log-Gaussian ring wave model and the Bragg scattering theory should be useful for a broad range of applications. These findings can be used to help interpret remote sensing data during rain events and to guide model development for radar scattering from rain roughened seas.

  18. High-Crystallinity Covalent Organic Framework with Dual Fluorescence Emissions and Its Ratiometric Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hai-Long; Dai, Cong; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2017-07-26

    High crystallinity of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with dual fluorescence emissions has not been reported so far. Here, we show the rational design and preparation of high-crystallinity COF TzDa via the synergetic interaction of docking sites and hydrogen bonds: 4,4',4″-(1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyl)trianiline (Tz) with the docking site and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalaldehyde (Da) with the OH group are employed to synthesize the imine-linked two-dimensional high-crystallinity layered structure TzDa. The prepared mesoporous TzDa (ca. 36 Å) exhibits high thermal and chemical stability. The intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) effects bring TzDa two main fluorescence emissions around 500 and 590 nm. Water molecules can interfere with the ICT and ESIPT effects, allowing the development of a ratiometric fluorescent sensor for water in organic solvents. The proposed sensor shows high sensitivity to trace water in conventional organic solvents. The high stability of TzDa allows its recyclable uses for trace water detection. This work not only offers a platform for the construction of high-crystallinity COFs, but also provides a rational design of COFs with dual fluorescence emissions for ratiometric sensing applications.

  19. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, N M; Staal, M; Siddiqui, A; Borisov, S M; Bucs, Sz S; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2015-10-15

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  20. A Pure Marine Aerosol Model, for Use in Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Smirnov, A.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and related parameters from satellite measurements typically involve prescribed models of aerosol size and composition, and are therefore dependent on how well these models are able to represent the radiative behaviour of real aerosols, This study uses aerosol volume size distributions retrieved from Sun-photometer measurements at 11 Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) island sites, spread throughout the world's oceans, as a basis to define such a model for unpolluted maritime aerosols. Size distributions are observed to be bimodal and approximately lognormal, although the coarse mode is skewed with a long tail on the low-radius end, The relationship of AOD and size distribution parameters to meteorological conditions is also examined, As wind speed increases, so do coarse-mode volume and radius, The AOD and Angstrom exponent (alpha) show linear relationships with wind speed, although there is considerable scatter in all these relationships, limiting their predictive power. Links between aerosol properties and near-surface relative humidity, columnar water vapor, and sea surface temperature are also explored. A recommended bimodal maritime model, which is able to reconstruct the AERONET AOD with accuracy of order 0.01-0.02, is presented for use in aerosol remote sensing applications. This accuracy holds at most sites and for wavelengths between 340 nm and 1020 nm. Calculated lidar ratios are also provided, and differ significantly from those currently used in Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) processing.