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Sample records for mass number etude

  1. Study of the neutron strength function and of the diffusion radius as a function of mass number; Etude de la fonction densite de neutron et du rayon de diffusion en fonction du nombre de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    The strength functions S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}, and the scattering length R' are studied. The values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are obtained by shape analysis of the individual resonances observed in total neutron cross-section measurements. These measurements were performed at the Saclay 45 MeV linac by the time of flight method. The best resolution achieved was equal to 0.19 ns/m. We have particularly studied the nuclei around number of mass A = 50, 90, 140 and 200. The experimental values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are compared with optical model calculations. A fairly good agreement is obtained using an optical potential with surface absorption. (author) [French] Nous etudions les fonctions densite S{sub 0} et S{sub 1} ainsi que le rayon de diffusion R'. Les valeurs de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' sont determinees a partir de l'analyse de forme des resonances individuelles observees lors de la mesure de la section efficace neutronique totale. Cette mesure a ete faite aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de 45 MeV de Saclay par la methode du temps de vol. La meilleure resolution atteinte etait egale a 0.19 ns/m. Nous avons particulierement etudie les noyaux situes vers les nombres de masse A 50, 90, 140 et 200. Nous comparons ensuite les valeurs experimentales de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' a differents calculs de modele optique. Un bon accord est obtenu avec un potentiel optique a absorption de surface. (auteur)

  2. Study of the neutron strength function and of the diffusion radius as a function of mass number; Etude de la fonction densite de neutron et du rayon de diffusion en fonction du nombre de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    The strength functions S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}, and the scattering length R' are studied. The values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are obtained by shape analysis of the individual resonances observed in total neutron cross-section measurements. These measurements were performed at the Saclay 45 MeV linac by the time of flight method. The best resolution achieved was equal to 0.19 ns/m. We have particularly studied the nuclei around number of mass A = 50, 90, 140 and 200. The experimental values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are compared with optical model calculations. A fairly good agreement is obtained using an optical potential with surface absorption. (author) [French] Nous etudions les fonctions densite S{sub 0} et S{sub 1} ainsi que le rayon de diffusion R'. Les valeurs de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' sont determinees a partir de l'analyse de forme des resonances individuelles observees lors de la mesure de la section efficace neutronique totale. Cette mesure a ete faite aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de 45 MeV de Saclay par la methode du temps de vol. La meilleure resolution atteinte etait egale a 0.19 ns/m. Nous avons particulierement etudie les noyaux situes vers les nombres de masse A 50, 90, 140 et 200. Nous comparons ensuite les valeurs experimentales de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' a differents calculs de modele optique. Un bon accord est obtenu avec un potentiel optique a absorption de surface. (auteur)

  3. Quark mass effects in quark number susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Thorben; Petreczky, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The quark degrees of freedom of the QGP with special focus on mass effects are investigated. A next-to-leading-order perturbation theory approach with quark mass dependence is applied and compared to lattice QCD results. (paper)

  4. Neutrino masses, lepton number violation and unification

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Riccardo

    1980-01-01

    Theories with parity as a short-distance symmetry lead rather naturally to a small but non-vanishing nu L/sub 2/ mass. A reference formula for the size of the effect is m/sub nu / approximately=m/sup 2 //M with M a huge Majorana mass of the nu /sub R/ field, associated with the breaking of the group down to SU(3)*SU(2)*U(1) and m a typical quark mass, most likely that of charge 2/3. This is because of the Pati-Salam SU(4) which relates neutrinos with charge 2/3 quarks, and is contained in the prototypes of these theories, SO(10) or E/sub 6/. Ten GeV for m requires M approximately=10/sup 11/ GeV in order to saturate the cosmological bound (m/sub nu / of a few eV). This value is not too far from the currently preferred mass approximately=10/sup 14/ GeV of the superheavy gauge bosons. In view of these concepts, the search for neutrino oscillations appears to be of overwhelming importance. A combined effort in all different kinds of possible experiments (reactors, accelerators, deep mines, and solar neutrino obse...

  5. The quark mass and baryon numbers of empty chiral bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Zalewski, K.

    1984-01-01

    We show that for spherical chiral bags the baryon number of the Dirac vacuum inside the bag does not depend on quark masses. Thus, the sum of the baryon numbers of an empty chiral bag and the skyrmion surrounding the bag is an integer, which depends on the boundary condition on the surface of the bag. This extends the result obtained by Goldstone and Jaffe for massless quarks. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear masses and the number of valence nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Temis, J.; Frank, A.; Hirsch, J.G.; Lopez Vieyra, J.C.; Morales, I.; Barea, J.; Van Isacker, P.; Velazquez, V.

    2008-01-01

    An improved version of the liquid drop model is presented. The addition of two terms, linear and quadratic in the total number of valence nucleons (particles or holes), improves the description of atomic masses, which can be fitted with an r.m.s. error of 1.2 MeV. Predictions are analysed an compared with those of established models

  7. Comparative Ebulliometry: a Simple, Reliable Technique for Accurate Measurement of the Number Average Molecular Weight of Macromolecules. Preliminary Studies on Heavy Crude Fractions Ébulliométrie comparative : technique simple et fiable pour déterminer précisément la masse molaire moyenne en nombre des macromolécules. Etudes préliminaires sur des fractions lourdes de bruts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the authors present a comparison of the major techniques for the measurement of the molecular weight of macromolecules. The bibliographic results are gathered in several tables. In the second part, a comparative ebulliometer for the measurement of the number average molecular weight (Mn of heavy crude oil fractions is described. The high efficiency of the apparatus is demonstrated with a preliminary study of atmospheric distillation residues and resins. The measurement of molecular weights up to 2000 g/mol is possible in less than 4 hours with an uncertainty of about 2%. Cet article comprend deux parties. Dans la première, les auteurs présentent une comparaison entre les principales techniques de détermination de la masse molaire de macromolécules. Les résultats de l'étude bibliographique sont rassemblés dans plusieurs tableaux. La seconde partie décrit un ébulliomètre comparatif conçu pour la mesure de la masse molaire moyenne en nombre (Mn des fractions lourdes des bruts. Une illustration de l'efficacité de cet appareil est indiquée avec l'étude préliminaire de résidus de distillation atmosphérique et de résines. En particulier, la mesure de masses molaires pouvant atteindre 2000 g/mol est possible en moins de 4 heures avec une incertitude expérimentale de l'ordre de 2 %.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NUMBER AND MASS OF RELATIVISTIC SPECIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer-Sørensen, Signe; Parkinson, David; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Recent indications from both particle physics and cosmology suggest the possible existence of more than three neutrino species. In cosmological analyses the effects of neutrino mass and number of species can in principle be disentangled for fixed cosmological parameters. However, since we do not have perfect measurements of the standard Λ cold dark matter model parameters, some correlation remains between the neutrino mass and number of species, and both parameters should be included in the analysis. Combining the newest observations of several cosmological probes (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure, expansion rate), we obtain N eff = 3.58 +0.15 –0.16 (68% CL) +0.55 –0.53 (95% CL) and Σm ν eff and Σm ν from an analysis including both parameters. The preference for N eff >3 is at the 2σ level.

  9. Folds and Etudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about "Folds" and "Etudes" which are images derived from anonymous typing exercises that he found in a used copy of "Touch Typing Made Simple". "Etudes" refers to the musical tradition of studies for a solo instrument, which is a typewriter. Typing exercises are repetitive attempts to type words and phrases…

  10. Experimental study of heat and mass transfer across a density interface; Etude experimentale des transferts de chaleur et de masse a travers une interface de densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellouf, Y.

    2004-11-15

    This work is part of a major research program on stratified flows encountered in the storage tanks of liquid natural gas. The subject of this dissertation concerns more particularly the problem of heat and mass transfer across a density interface. These flows are complex by nature due to the combination of three parameters: density difference {delta}{rho} across the interface, turbulence intensity u' in the homogeneous layers and the diffusivity K of the stratifying components. To control the operational conditions of the liquid gas storage, it is crucial to have a universal physical model to estimate the fluxes across the interface and to predict the brutal mixing of homogeneous layers commonly called the 'roll-over' event. In this work heat and mass transfer across an interface is measured in the presence of turbulence generated by vertical oscillation of two grids. Turbulent velocity field is measured in a homogeneous environment by Particle Image velocimetry (PIV). It shows that the turbulence generated by the two grids is homogeneous and isotropic in the vertical plan. We have established, based on this measurements, an experimental decay law of the turbulence intensity as a function of the flow parameters and the distance from the grids. Stratifications have been followed in time by recording the vertical profiles of temperature and density. Measured heat and mass fluxes are presented as a function of the three flow parameters (u', {delta}{rho}, K) through the non-dimensional numbers: Richardson number Ri g({delta}{rho}/{rho}{sub 0})(l'/u'{sup 2}) and Peclet number Pe = u'l'/K. Measurements show that these two parameters have opposite effects on transfer phenomena. While thermal diffusivity favours the entrainment near the interface, the stratification effect limits this entrainment. This fact is explained by analysing the interface structure. A phenomenological model is then proposed which takes into account these

  11. Critical masses for the even-neutron-numbered transuranium actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a standards effort of the American Nuclear Society to establish subcritical mass limits for the transuranium actinides, critical masses were calculated for seven actinides, critical masses were calculated for seven actinide elements in bare, water-reflected, and steel-reflected metal systems. For the nuclides /sup 242/Pu and /sup 241/Am, values obtained with ENDF/B-V cross-section data were in much better agreement with values inferred from experimental measurement than were initial values calculated with ENDF/B-IV data. A brief description of the analytical methods employed is followed by a presentation of the results. 10 refs

  12. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    literature on the measurement of mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite. The knowledge of photon ... pure) MgO and Fe2O3. The details of experimental ... and (4 4 0) planes belonging to cubic spinel structure. The XRD pattern ...

  13. Photon mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier. The best-fit coefficients so obtained in the photon ..... This photon build-up is a function of thickness and atomic number of the sample and also the incident photon energy, which combine to ...

  14. Lepton number conservation and constraints on neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, H.; Takikawa, H.; Toyoda, M.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Presented here is a very simple argument in favor of a particular hybrid lepton conservation scheme, which restricts the number of lepton generations to be ≤4. Various electroweak gauge models with this conservation law imposed are examined and its found that a left-right symmetric four-generation model is experimentally acceptable and theoretically most attractive

  15. Criticality studies; Etudes de criticite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D; Lecorche, P; Clouet d' Orval, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Criticality studies made at the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique deal on the one hand with experiments on plutonium and uranium solutions, on the other hand with theoretical work on the development and use of computation, methods for the resolution of problems concerning the nuclear safety of chemical and metallurgical plants. I - Since 1958 the experimental studies have dealt with homogeneous media constituted by a fissile salt dissolved in light water. Developed using the reactor Proserpine, the experiments have been carried on at Saclay on the Alecto assemblies where solutions of plutonium or of 90 p.100 - enriched uranium can be made critical. The results already obtained relate to critical masses of cylindrical tanks of diameters from 20 to 50 cm. reflected in several ways (water, concrete, etc. . ) at concentrations up to 100 g/liter. Physical measurements (spectra, reactor noises) and interaction measurements complete the results. Other experiments relating to plutonium solutions were begun in 1963, at the Valduc Center. They deal with the study of critical masses of annular vessels of external diameter 50 cm and internal diameter varying from 10 to 30 cm. These vessels can be water reflected internally, externally, or both. Two of these vessels have been studied in interaction for various geometries. Slabs of various thicknesses were also studied. II - The studies thus undertaken allowed the development of methods of computation which have been tested on several experiments. Particular use has been made of the possibilities of calculations based on transport theory and on Monte Carlo methods. All these theoretical studies are applied to the design and control of industrial plants from the point of view of safety. (authors) [French] Les etudes de criticite effectuees au CEA comportent d'une part des experiences sur des solutions de plutonium et d'uranium enrichi, d'autre part des travaux theoriques portant sur la mise au point et l'exploitation de methodes

  16. Number and mass analysis of particles emitted by aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions from aircraft is a complex issue because of the limited possibility of measurements in flight conditions. Most of the studies on this subject were performed on the basis of stationary test. Engine certification data is used to calculate total emissions generated by air transport. However, it doesnt provide any information about the local effects of air traffic. The main threat to local communities is particulate matter emissions, which adversely affects human health. Emissions from air transport affect air quality, particularly in the vicinity of the airports; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. The article presents the measurement results of the concentration and size distribution of particles emitted during aircraft landing operation. Measurements were carried out during the landings of aircraft at a civilian airport. It was found that a single landing operation causes particle number concentration value increase of several ten-fold in a short period of time. Using aircraft engine certification data, the methodology for determination of the total number of particles emitted during a single landing operation was introduced.

  17. Thermodynamic study of sulphur hemi-oxide using mass spectrometry (1963); Etude thermodynamique de l'hemioxyde de soufre par spectrometry de masse (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-01-15

    The action of oxygen on sulphur, at low pressures, in a high frequency discharge has been studied by continuous mass-spectrometric analysis of the reaction products. The mass spectra of the gases produced by the discharge correspond to a mixture of SO{sub 2}, S{sub 2}O, S{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. We have measured up to 75 per cent of SO{sub 2} in the SO{sub 2} + S{sub 2}O mixture. We have concluded that the molecules S{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and SO are not present in the mixture. The ionisation potentials of the molecules and the potential required for the appearance of ion fragments in the gas discharge mixture have been studied by mass spectrometry. The heat of formation of S{sub 2}O has been estimated using the appearance potentials of the SO{sup +} ions coming from SO{sub 2}, and S{sub 2}O. ( 18.5 kcal/mole < {delta}H, (S{sub 2}O{sub g}) < 7 kcal/mole). We have measured the ionisation potentials of the molecules S{sub 2}, S{sub 4}, S{sub 6} and S{sub 8} which are respectively as follows: 9.7 {+-} 0.1 eV; 10.4 {+-} 0.5 eV; 8.5 {+-} 0.3 eV et 7.3 {+-} 0.3 eV. Finally we have studied the equilibrium for the formation of S{sub 2}O from sulphur and SO{sub 2} in a hot filament reactor. The measurement of the variation, between 1100 deg K and 1500 deg K, of the equilibrium constant for the reaction: SO{sub 2} + 3/2 S{sub 2} {r_reversible} 2 S{sub 2}O has made it possible to determine the enthalpy change of this reaction. ({delta}H = 5310 {+-} 370 cals) The sum of the states of the S{sub 2}O molecule, Z{sup 0}, has been calculated from the literature data. By applying to the S{sub 2}O formation equilibrium the equation: Log K{sub p} = {delta}Log Z{sup 0}/N - {delta}H{sup 0}{sub 0}/RT it has been possible to calculate the enthalpy of the reaction at absolute zero ({delta}H{sup 0}{sub 0} 4780 {+-} 60 cal/mole). Taking into account the specific heat integral between 0 deg K and 1300 deg K, the values obtained by this method and by using Van't Hoff's law are in good agreement. We

  18. Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

  19. The origin of nuclear mass number dependence in EMC-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.; Date, S.; Nakamura, A.; Sato, H.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Yoshinada, K.

    1985-03-01

    The origin of the mass number dependence of the nucleon structure functions extracted from the deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering is investigated by factorizing the structure function into A and x dependent parts. It is found that the mass number dependence is determined by the probability of exotic components in multi-nucleon overlap. This suggests that the deformation of the nucleon structure function is caused by the interaction among nucleons during their overlap. (author)

  20. Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of {sup 239}Pu; Etude du nombre de neutrons produits par la fission de {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Study of the number of neutrons produced by fission of {sup 239}Pu. The counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by these fissions allows the study of the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by {nu} fission. In the first chapter, it studied the variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by {sup 239}Pu fission with the energy of the incident neutron. A description of the experiment is given: a spectrometer with a crystal of sodium chloride or beryllium (mounted on a goniometer) is used, a fission chamber containing 10 mg of {sup 239}Pu and the neutron detection system constituted of BF{sub 3} counters which are enriched in {sup 10}B. In the second part, the counting by coincidence of fissions and neutrons produced by the same fission and received by two different groups of counters allow the determination of a relationship between the root mean square and the average of neutron number produced by fission. The variation of the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of {sup 239}Pu is studied when we change from a thermal spectra of neutrons to a fission spectra of incident neutrons. Finally, when separating in two different part the fission chamber, it is possible to measure the mean number of neutrons emitted from fission of two different sources. It compared the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 233}U. (M.P.)

  1. Seeking the purported magic number N= 32 with high-precision mass spectrometry

    CERN Multimedia

    Schweikhard, L C; Herfurth, F; Boehm, C; Manea, V; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K D; Stanja, J; Audi, G; Rosenbusch, M; Wienholtz, F; Litvinov, Y

    Accounting for the appearance of new magic numbers represents an exacting test for nuclear models. Binding energies offer a clear signature for the presence (or disappearance) of shell closures. To determine the strength of the purported N = 32 shell closure, we propose using the Penning-trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP for mass measurements of N = 34 isotones $^{58}$Cr (Z = 24), $^{55}$Sc (Z = 21) and $^{54}$Ca (Z = 20), as well as the N = 32 isotones $^{53}$Sc and $^{52}$Ca. We also propose measuring the mass of $^{60}$Cr to test the shell model prediction of a new magic number at N = 34. In addition to the Penning-trap system at ISOLTRAP, we intend to use the newly commissioned multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator, which enables direct mass measurements on nuclei with half-lives below 50 ms.

  2. Seeking the purported magic number N= 32 with high-precision mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kreim, S; Blaum, K; Bohm, Ch; Borgmann, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Cakirli, R B; Herfurth, F; Kowalska, M; Litvinov, Y; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Naimi, S; Neidherr, D; Rosenbusch, M; Schweikhard, L; Stanja, J; Stora, Th; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N; Zuber, K

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for the appearance of new magic numbers represents an exacting test for nuclear models. Binding energies o er a clear signature for the presence (or dis- appearance) of shell closures. To determine the strength of the purported N = 32 shell closure, we propose using the Penning-trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP for mass measure- ments of N = 34 isotones 58 Cr ( Z = 24), 55 Sc ( Z = 21) and 54 Ca ( Z = 20), as well as the N = 32 isotones 53 Sc and 52 Ca. We also propose measuring the mass of 60 Cr to test the shell model prediction of a new magic number at N = 34. In addition to the Penning-trap system at ISOLTRAP, we intend to use the newly commissioned multi-re ection time-of- ight mass separator, which enables direct mass measurements on nuclei with half-lives below 50 ms.

  3. Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkkönen, P; Pai, P; Maynard, A; Lehtinen, K E J; Hämeri, K; Rechkemmer, P; Ramachandran, G; Prasad, B; Kulmala, M

    2005-07-15

    Fine particle number concentration (D(p)>10 nm, cm(-3)), mass concentrations (approximation of PM(2.5), microg m(-3)) and indoor/outdoor number concentration ratio (I/O) measurements have been conducted for the first time in 11 urban households in India, 2002. The results indicate remarkable high indoor number and mass concentrations and I/O number concentration ratios caused by cooking. Besides cooking stoves that used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene as the main fuel, high indoor concentrations can be explained by poor ventilation systems. Particle number concentrations of more than 300,000 cm(-3) and mass concentrations of more than 1000 microg m(-3) were detected in some cases. When the number and mass concentrations during cooking times were statistically compared, a correlation coefficient r>0.50 was observed in 63% of the households. Some households used other fuels like wood and dung cakes along with the main fuel, but also other living activities influenced the concentrations. In some areas, outdoor combustion processes had a negative impact on indoor air quality. The maximum concentrations observed in most cases were due to indoor combustion sources. Reduction of exposure risk and health effects caused by poor indoor air in urban Indian households is possible by improving indoor ventilation and reducing penetration of outdoor particles.

  4. Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re{sub r} = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in

  5. Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re r = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in the

  6. Effect of Reynolds number on flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Ikarashi, Yuya; Yamagata, Takayuki; Taguchi, Syoichi

    2016-11-01

    The flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow was studied experimentally by using the mass transfer measurement by plaster dissolution method, the surface flow visualization by oil film method and stereo PIV measurement. The experiments are carried out in a water tunnel of a circular pipe of 56mm in diameter with a working fluid of water. The Reynolds number was varied from 30000 to 200000. The experimental result indicated the change of the mass transfer coefficient distribution in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds number. This phenomenon is further examined by the surface flow visualization and measurement of secondary flow pattern in the elbow, and the results showed the suggested change of the secondary flow pattern in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds numbers.

  7. Is a top-heavy initial mass function needed to reproduce the submillimetre galaxy number counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Lu, Yu; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2017-12-01

    Matching the number counts and redshift distribution of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) without invoking modifications to the initial mass ffunction (IMF) has proved challenging for semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation. We adopt a previously developed SAM that is constrained to match the z = 0 galaxy stellar mass function and makes various predictions which agree well with observational constraints; we do not recalibrate the SAM for this work. We implement three prescriptions to predict the submillimetre flux densities of the model galaxies; two depend solely on star formation rate, whereas the other also depends on the dust mass. By comparing the predictions of the models, we find that taking into account the dust mass, which affects the dust temperature and thus influences the far-infrared spectral energy distribution, is crucial for matching the number counts and redshift distribution of SMGs. Moreover, despite using a standard IMF, our model can match the observed SMG number counts and redshift distribution reasonably well, which contradicts the conclusions of some previous studies that a top-heavy IMF, in addition to taking into account the effect of dust mass, is needed to match these observations. Although we have not identified the key ingredient that is responsible for our model matching the observed SMG number counts and redshift distribution without IMF variation - which is challenging given the different prescriptions for physical processes employed in the SAMs of interest - our results demonstrate that in SAMs, IMF variation is degenerate with other physical processes, such as stellar feedback.

  8. Low density lesion in solid mass on CT: Pathologic change and housfield number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Il; Lim, Joo Won; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Ko, Young Tae; Song, Mi Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie

    1994-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic changes and housfield unit of the low density lesion in solid mass on CT. Pathologically proved solid mass was evaluated in regard to the shape and margin of the low density in the mass on the CT scans of 23 patient. The CT number of the low density lesion was correlated with the pathologic changes. Pathologic changes of the low density lesions were; necrosis (n=17), hemorrhage (n=13), cyst (n=4), myxoid degeneration (n=2), hyaline degeneration (n=1), fibrosis (n=1), and mixed cellularity (n=1). In 14 cases, more than 2 pathologic changes were seen. In 11 cases, necrosis was associated with hemorrhage. The CT number ranged from 11.5 to 44.9 Housfield unit(HU) (mean, 25.2 HU). The average CT number was 26.9 HU in hemorrhage and necrosis, 17.2 HU in cystic change, 20.9 HU in myxoid degeneration, 35.7 HU in hyaline de generation, 22.3 HU in fibrosis, and 21.4 HU in mixed cellularity. The hemorrhage and necrosis in 17 cases showed irregular margin, amorphous shape, and showed centrifugal distribution. The cystic change in 4 cases showed well defined margin, round shape, and peripheral location in solid mass. The low density lesions in solid mass on CT represented variable pathologic changes; necrosis, hemorrhage, cyst, myxoid degeneration, hyaline degeneration, fibrosis, and mixed cellularity. Pathologic changes would not be differentiated on the basis of CT number

  9. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Neutrino masses, leptogenesis and dark matter from small lepton number violation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Asmaa [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Arcadi, Giorgio [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Domcke, Valerie [Paris Diderot Univ. (France). AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC)/Paris Centre for Cosmological Physics (PCCP); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lucente, Michele [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3)

    2017-09-05

    We consider the possibility of simultaneously addressing the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the dark matter problem and the neutrino mass generation in minimal extensions of the Standard Model via sterile fermions with (small) total lepton number violation. Within the framework of Inverse and Linear Seesaw models, the small lepton number violating parameters set the mass scale of the active neutrinos, the efficiency of leptogenesis through a small mass splitting between pairs of sterile fermions as well as the mass scale of a sterile neutrino dark matter candidate. We provide an improved parametrization of these seesaw models taking into account existing experimental constraints and derive a linearized system of Boltzmann equations to describe the leptogenesis process, which allows for an efficient investigation of the parameter space. This in particular enables us to perform a systematic study of the strong washout regime of leptogenesis. Our study reveals that one can have a successful leptogenesis at the temperature of the electroweak scale through oscillations between two sterile states with a natural origin of the (necessary) strong degeneracy in their mass spectrum. The minimal model however requires a non-standard cosmological history to account for the relic dark matter. Finally, we discuss the prospect for neutrinoless double beta decay and for testing, in future experiments, the values of mass and different active-sterile mixings required for successful leptogenesis.

  11. Neutrino masses, leptogenesis and dark matter from small lepton number violation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Asmaa; Domcke, Valerie; Lucente, Michele

    2017-01-01

    We consider the possibility of simultaneously addressing the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the dark matter problem and the neutrino mass generation in minimal extensions of the Standard Model via sterile fermions with (small) total lepton number violation. Within the framework of Inverse and Linear Seesaw models, the small lepton number violating parameters set the mass scale of the active neutrinos, the efficiency of leptogenesis through a small mass splitting between pairs of sterile fermions as well as the mass scale of a sterile neutrino dark matter candidate. We provide an improved parametrization of these seesaw models taking into account existing experimental constraints and derive a linearized system of Boltzmann equations to describe the leptogenesis process, which allows for an efficient investigation of the parameter space. This in particular enables us to perform a systematic study of the strong washout regime of leptogenesis. Our study reveals that one can have a successful leptogenesis at the temperature of the electroweak scale through oscillations between two sterile states with a natural origin of the (necessary) strong degeneracy in their mass spectrum. The minimal model however requires a non-standard cosmological history to account for the relic dark matter. Finally, we discuss the prospect for neutrinoless double beta decay and for testing, in future experiments, the values of mass and different active-sterile mixings required for successful leptogenesis.

  12. Neutrino masses, leptogenesis and dark matter from small lepton number violation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Asmaa; Arcadi, Giorgio; Domcke, Valerie; Lucente, Michele

    2017-12-01

    We consider the possibility of simultaneously addressing the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the dark matter problem and the neutrino mass generation in minimal extensions of the Standard Model via sterile fermions with (small) total lepton number violation. Within the framework of Inverse and Linear Seesaw models, the small lepton number violating parameters set the mass scale of the active neutrinos, the efficiency of leptogenesis through a small mass splitting between pairs of sterile fermions as well as the mass scale of a sterile neutrino dark matter candidate. We provide an improved parametrization of these seesaw models taking into account existing experimental constraints and derive a linearized system of Boltzmann equations to describe the leptogenesis process, which allows for an efficient investigation of the parameter space. This in particular enables us to perform a systematic study of the strong washout regime of leptogenesis. Our study reveals that one can have a successful leptogenesis at the temperature of the electroweak scale through oscillations between two sterile states with a natural origin of the (necessary) strong degeneracy in their mass spectrum. The minimal model however requires a non-standard cosmological history to account for the relic dark matter. Finally, we discuss the prospect for neutrinoless double beta decay and for testing, in future experiments, the values of mass and different active-sterile mixings required for successful leptogenesis.

  13. The nuclear flow and the mass number dependence of the balance point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille, F.; de la Mota, V.; Remaud, B.; Schuck, P.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear flow is studied theoretically with the Landau Vlasov equation in the E/A = 50 to 150 MeV energy domain using the finite range Gogny force. For comparison also other equations of states based on velocity independent mean fields are used. In this paper the mass number dependence of the balance point is investigated. A sensitivity of the flow on the equation of state as a function of mass and energies around and above the balance point can tentatively be advanced

  14. Constraints on the Dark Matter Particle Mass from the Number of Milky Way Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    assuming dark matter only simulations (we do not include the effect of baryons in our simulations). We adopted values for cosmological parameters from the...ar X iv :1 00 4. 14 59 v1 [ as tr o- ph .C O ] 9 A pr 2 01 0 Constraints on the Dark Matter Particle Mass from the Number of Milky Way...simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky

  15. Mass transfer controlled reactions in packed beds at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedkiw, P.S.

    1978-12-01

    The a priori prediction and correlation of mass-transfer rates in transport limited, packed-bed reactors at low Reynolds numbers is examined. The solutions to the governing equations for a flow-through porous electrode reactor indicate that these devices must operate at a low space velocity to suppress a large ohmic potential drop. Packed-bed data for the mass-transfer rate at such low Reynolds numbers were examined and found to be sparse, especially in liquid systems. Prior models to simulate the solid-void structure in a bed are reviewed. Here the bed was envisioned as an array of sinusoidal periodically constricted tubes (PCT). Use of this model has not appeared in the literature. The velocity field in such a tube should be a good approximation to the converging-diverging character of the velocity field in an actual bed. The creeping flow velocity profiles were calculated. These results were used in the convective-diffusion equation to find mass transfer rates at high Peclet number for both deep and shallow beds, for low Peclet numbers in a deep bed. All calculations assumed that the reactant concentration at the tube surface is zero. Mass-transfer data were experimentally taken in a transport controlled, flow-through porous electrode to test the theoretical calculations and to provide data resently unavailable for deeper beds. It was found that the sinusoidal PCT model could not fit the data of this work or that available in the literature. However, all data could be adequately described by a model which incorporates a channelingeffect. The bed was successfully modeled as an array of dual sized straight tubes.

  16. Target mass number dependence of cluster excitation in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.I.; Mueller, H.; Tesch, S.

    1984-06-01

    A phenomenological cluster excitation model is used to calculate spectra of backward emitted protons and pions from proton- and pion-nucleus collisions at incidence energies of 1 GeV to 400 GeV. Assuming the same properties of clusters within all target nuclei good agreement of the model calculations with experimental data is reached for a wide region of the target mass number. (author)

  17. Constraints on the dark matter particle mass from the number of Milky Way satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polisensky, Emil; Ricotti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming that the number of dark matter satellites exceeds or equals the number of observed satellites of the Milky Way, we derive lower limits on the dark matter particle mass. We find with 95% confidence m s >13.3 keV for a sterile neutrino produced by the Dodelson and Widrow mechanism, m s >8.9 keV for the Shi and Fuller mechanism, m s >3.0 keV for the Higgs decay mechanism, and m WDM >2.3 keV for a thermal dark matter particle. The recent discovery of many new dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows us to set lower limits comparable to constraints from the complementary methods of Lyman-α forest modeling and x-ray observations of the unresolved cosmic x-ray background and of dark matter halos from dwarf galaxy to cluster scales. Future surveys like LSST, DES, PanSTARRS, and SkyMapper have the potential to discover many more satellites and further improve constraints on the dark matter particle mass.

  18. New fermion mass textures from anomalous U(1) symmetries with baryon and lepton number conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Leontaris, George K

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present solutions to the fermion mass hierarchy problem in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard theory augmented by an anomalous family-dependent U(1)_X symmetry. The latter is spontaneously broken by non-zero vevs of a pair of singlet fields whose magnitude is determined through the D- and F-flatness conditions of the superpotential. We derive the general solutions to the anomaly cancellation conditions and show that they allow numerous choices for the U(1)_X fermion charges which give several fermion mass textures in agreement with the observed fermion mass hierarchy and mixing. Solutions with U(1)_X fermion charge assignments are found which forbid or substantially suppress the dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators and the lepton-higgs mixing coupling while a higgs mixing mass classification of the fermion mass textures with respect to the sum of the doublet-higgs U(1)_X-charges and show that suppression of dimension-five operators naturally occurs for vario...

  19. Mass number dependence of total neutron cross section; a discussion based on the semi-classical optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, Istvan

    1990-01-01

    The dependence of total neutron cross section on mass number can be calculated by the black nucleus formula, according to the optical model. The fine structure of mass number dependence is studied, and a correction factor formula is given on the basis of a semi-classical optical model. Yielding results in good agreement with experimental data. In addition to the mass number dependence, the neutron-energy dependence can also be calculated using this model. (K.A.)

  20. Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.

  1. Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 μm and a geometric standard deviation, σ g of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and σ g decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 μm and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented

  2. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Loredana Marcovecchio

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI. Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV, have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1 gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children.744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD: 8.4±1.4years underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR.A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033, but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04 and waist circumference (p = 0.01 when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers.In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain.

  3. Inclusive B-meson hadroproduction in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schienbein, I. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie]|[CNRS/IN2P3, Inst. National Polytechnique de Grenoble (France); Spiesberger, H. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2007-05-15

    We calculate the cross section for the inclusive hadroproduction of B mesons as a function of transverse momentum p{sub T} at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the general- mass variable-flavor-number scheme using realistic non-perturbative fragmentation functions that are obtained through a global fit to e{sup +}e{sup -} data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC exploiting their universality and scaling violations. We find good agreement with recent p anti p data taken by the CDF Collaboration in run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. We also present comparisons with NLO results obtained in two other schemes. (orig.)

  4. Baryon- and lepton-number non-conserving processes and intermediate mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the possible mechanisms to mediate various baryon- and lepton-number non-conserving processes is presented. Processes considered include the Δ(B+L) = 0 proton decay, ΔB = 2 neutron-antineutron oscillations and neutrino Majorana masses. Among our results we find that, in the absence of elementary scalars and exotic fermions, all the renormalizable interactions of vector bosons and ordinary fermions conserve B-L. Therefore, the observation of Δ(B-L) not equal 0 processes would imply the existence of elementary scalars and/or exotic fermions. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear study of Melusine; Etude nucleaire de Melusine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherot, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this report are reviewed - with respect to starting of experiments - the main nuclear characteristics of a 20 per cent enriched uranium lattice, with light water as moderator and reflector. The reactor is to operate at 1 MW. 1) Study of various critical masses. 2) Control. Effectiveness of cadmium. Control rods and of a stainless steel regulating rod. 3) Study of the effect on reactivity of disturbances in the core center. 4) Study of xenon and samarium poisoning. 5) Temperature factor. 6) Heat exchanges in a fuel element. (author) [French] On etudie, dans ce rapport, les principales proprietes nucleaires d'un reseau a uranium enrichi (20 pour cent), dont le moderateur et le reflecteur sont l'eau legere en vue des experiences de demarrage. Ce reacteur devra fonctionner a 1 MW. 1) Etude de diverses masses critiques. 2) Controle. Efficacite des barres de controle en cadmium et d'une barre de reglage en acier inoxydable. 3) Etude de l'effet sur la reactivite de perturbation au centre du coeur. 4) Etude de l'empoisonnement xenon et samarium. 5) Coefficient de temperature. 6) Echanges thermiques dans un element. (auteur)

  6. Heat or mass transfer from a sphere in Stokes flow at low Péclet number

    KAUST Repository

    Bell, Christopher G.

    2013-04-01

    We consider the low Péclet number, Pe≪1, asymptotic solution for steady-state heat or mass transfer from a sphere immersed in Stokes flow with a Robin boundary condition on its surface, representing Newton cooling or a first-order chemical reaction. The application of Van Dyke\\'s rule up to terms of O(Pe3) shows that the O(Pe3logPe) terms in the expression for the average Nusselt/Sherwood number are twice those previously derived in the literature. Inclusion of the O(Pe3) terms is shown to increase the range of validity of the expansion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mass transfer in wetted-wall columns: correlations at high Reynolds numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian H.E.; Kiil, Søren; Thomsen, Henrik W.

    1998-01-01

    (G)) were determined. In dimensionless form, the correlations are given by Sh(L) = 0.01613 Re-G(0.664) Re-L(0.426) Sc-L(0.5) Sh(G) = 0.00031 Re-G(1.05) Re-L(0.207) Sc-G(0.5) and are valid at gas-phase Reynolds numbers from 7500 to 18,300 and liquid-phase Reynolds numbers from 4000 to 12,000, conditions...... of industrial relevance. To our knowledge, no correlations for Sh(G) have been reported in the literature which are valid at such high Reynolds numbers. The wetted-wall column was equipped with six intermediate measuring positions for gas and two for liquid samples, giving rise to a high accuracy...... of the obtained correlations. Our data showed that Sh(L) and Sh(G) both depend on Re-G and Re-L due to changes in the interfacial area at the high Reynolds numbers employed. The presence of inert particles in the liquid-phase may influence the rate of mass transport, and experimental work was initiated to study...

  8. Sunflower petals: Some physical properties and modeling distribution of their number, dimensions, and mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mirzabe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower petal is one of the parts of the sunflower which has drawn attention and has several applications these days. These applications justify getting information about physical properties, mechanical properties, drying trends, etc. in order to design new machines and use new methods to harvest or dry the sunflower petals. For three varieties of sunflower, picking force of petals was measured; number of petals of each head was counted; unit mass and 1000-unit mass of fresh petals were measured and length, width, and projected area of fresh petals were calculated based on image processing technique; frequency distributions of these parameters were modeled using statistical distribution models namely Gamma, Generalized Extreme Value (G. E. V, Lognormal, and Weibull. Results of picking force showed that with increasing number of days after appearing the first petal on each head from 5 to 14 and decreasing loading rate from 150 g min−1 to 50 g min−1 values of picking force were decreased for three varieties, but diameter of sunflower head had different effects on picking force for each variety. Length, width, and number of petals of Dorsefid variety ranged from 38.52 to 95.44 mm, 3.80 to 9.28 mm and 29 to 89, respectively. The corresponding values ranged from 34.19 to 88.18 mm, 4.28 to 10.60 mm and 21 to 89, respectively for Shamshiri variety and ranged from 44.47 to 114.63 mm, 7.03 to 20.31 mm and 29 to 89 for Sirena variety. Results of frequency distribution modeling indicated that in most cases, G. E. V and Weibull distributions had better performance than other distributions. Keywords: Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. petal, Picking force, Image processing, Fibonacci sequence, Lucas sequence

  9. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GALAXY CLUSTERING AND THE MASS-TO-NUMBER RATIO OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Blanton, Michael R.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo; Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H.; Zehavi, Idit; Busha, Michael T.; Koester, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    We place constraints on the average density (Ω m ) and clustering amplitude (σ 8 ) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, w p (r p ), and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our w p (r p ) measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct nonlinear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both w p (r p ) and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when Ω m or σ 8 is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, without the use of abundance information. Using w p (r p ) and M/N alone, we find Ω 0.5 m σ 8 = 0.465 ± 0.026, with individual constraints of Ω m = 0.29 ± 0.03 and σ 8 = 0.85 ± 0.06. Combined with current cosmic microwave background data, these constraints are Ω m = 0.290 ± 0.016 and σ 8 = 0.826 ± 0.020. All errors are 1σ. The systematic uncertainties that the M/N technique are most sensitive to are the amplitude of the bias function of dark matter halos and the possibility of redshift evolution between the SDSS Main sample and the maxBCG cluster sample. Our derived constraints are insensitive to the current level of uncertainties in the halo mass function and in the mass-richness relation of clusters and its scatter, making the M/N technique complementary to cluster abundances as a method for constraining cosmology with future galaxy surveys.

  10. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GALAXY CLUSTERING AND THE MASS-TO-NUMBER RATIO OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States); Sheldon, Erin S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy and CERCA, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Busha, Michael T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 6037 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    We place constraints on the average density ({Omega}{sub m}) and clustering amplitude ({sigma}{sub 8}) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, w{sub p} (r{sub p} ), and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct nonlinear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when {Omega}{sub m} or {sigma}{sub 8} is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, without the use of abundance information. Using w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) and M/N alone, we find {Omega}{sup 0.5}{sub m}{sigma}{sub 8} = 0.465 {+-} 0.026, with individual constraints of {Omega}{sub m} = 0.29 {+-} 0.03 and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.85 {+-} 0.06. Combined with current cosmic microwave background data, these constraints are {Omega}{sub m} = 0.290 {+-} 0.016 and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.826 {+-} 0.020. All errors are 1{sigma}. The systematic uncertainties that the M/N technique are most sensitive to are the amplitude of the bias function of dark matter halos and the possibility of redshift evolution between the SDSS Main sample and the maxBCG cluster sample. Our derived constraints are insensitive to the current level of uncertainties in the halo mass function and in the mass-richness relation of clusters and its scatter, making the M/N technique complementary to cluster abundances as a method for constraining cosmology with future galaxy

  11. Particle-number conservation in odd mass proton-rich nuclei in the isovector pairing case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.; Oudih, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    An expression of a wave function which describes odd–even systems in the isovector pairing case is proposed within the BCS approach. It is shown that it correctly generalizes the one used in the pairing between like-particles case. It is then projected on the good proton and neutron numbers using the Sharp-BCS (SBCS) method. The expressions of the expectation values of the particle-number operator and its square, as well as the energy, are deduced in both approaches. The formalism is applied to study the isovector pairing effect and the number projection one on the ground state energy of odd mass N ≈ Z nuclei using the single-particle energies of a deformed Woods–Saxon mean-field. It is shown that both effects on energy do not exceed 2%, however, the absolute deviations may reach several MeV. Moreover, the np pairing effect rapidly diminishes as a function of (N - Z). The deformation effect is also studied. It is shown that the np pairing effect, either before or after the projection, as well as the projection effect, when including or not the isovector pairing, depends upon the deformation. However, it seems that the predicted ground state deformation will remain the same in the four approaches. (author)

  12. Mass-reduced quantum numbers: application to the isotopic lithium hydrides (X1B+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.C.; Stwalley, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The massed-reduced quantum number (MRQN) method of combining isotopic data is applied to the lithium hydride X 1 Σ + ground state. The ΔG(eta) = μ/sup 1 / 2 / ΔG(v), B(eta) = μB(v) and D(eta) = μ 2 D(v) isotopically-combined functions are obtained. An isotopically-combined Rydberg-Klein Rees (ICRKR) potential is constructed using the G(eta) and B(eta) functions. Evidence for breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is presented and examined. The Dunham, Simons-Parr-Finlan, and Thakkar methods of potential expansion are also applied to lithium hydride and compared to the RKR Potential

  13. Prompt neutrinos from atmospheric charm in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzke, M.; Garzelli, M.V.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Moch, S.; Sigl, G.

    2017-08-01

    We present predictions for the prompt-neutrino flux arising from the decay of charmed mesons and baryons produced by the interactions of high-energy cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere, making use of a QCD approach on the basis of the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme for the description of charm hadroproduction at NLO, complemented by a consistent set of fragmentation functions. We compare the theoretical results to those already obtained by our and other groups with different theoretical approaches. We provide comparisons with the experimental results obtained by the IceCube Collaboration in two different analyses and we discuss the implications for parton distribution functions.

  14. Effective Majorana mass matrix from tau and pseudoscalar meson lepton number violating decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Asmaa; De Romeri, Valentina; Lucente, Michele; Teixeira, Ana M.; Toma, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    An observation of any lepton number violating process will undoubtedly point towards the existence of new physics and indirectly to the clear Majorana nature of the exchanged fermion. In this work, we explore the potential of a minimal extension of the Standard Model via heavy sterile fermions with masses in the [0.1 - 10] GeV range concerning an extensive array of "neutrinoless" meson and tau decay processes. We assume that the Majorana neutrinos are produced on-shell, and focus on three-body decays. We conduct an update on the bounds on the active-sterile mixing elements, |{U}_{ℓ }{{}{_{α}}}_4{U}_{ℓ }{{}{_{β}}}_4| , taking into account the most recent experimental bounds (and constraints) and new theoretical inputs, as well as the effects of a finite detector, imposing that the heavy neutrino decay within the detector. This allows to establish up-to-date comprehensive constraints on the sterile fermion parameter space. Our results suggest that the branching fractions of several decays are close to current sensitivities (likely within reach of future facilities), some being already in conflict with current data (as is the case of K + → ℓ α + ℓ β + π -, and τ - → μ +π-π-). We use these processes to extract constraints on all entries of an enlarged definition of a 3 × 3 "effective" Majorana neutrino mass matrix m ν αβ .

  15. Genome-wide association study identified copy number variants important for appendicular lean mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Shu; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Yufang; Yang, Tie-Lin; Hai, Rong; Han, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yong; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a major component of the human body. Age-related loss of muscle mass and function contributes to some public health problems such as sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Skeletal muscle, mainly composed of appendicular lean mass (ALM), is a heritable trait. Copy number variation (CNV) is a common type of human genome variant which may play an important role in the etiology of many human diseases. In this study, we performed genome-wide association analyses of CNV for ALM in 2,286 Caucasian subjects. We then replicated the major findings in 1,627 Chinese subjects. Two CNVs, CNV1191 and CNV2580, were detected to be associated with ALM (p = 2.26×10(-2) and 3.34×10(-3), respectively). In the Chinese replication sample, the two CNVs achieved p-values of 3.26×10(-2) and 0.107, respectively. CNV1191 covers a gene, GTPase of the immunity-associated protein family (GIMAP1), which is important for skeletal muscle cell survival/death in humans. CNV2580 is located in the Serine hydrolase-like protein (SERHL) gene, which plays an important role in normal peroxisome function and skeletal muscle growth in response to mechanical stimuli. In summary, our study suggested two novel CNVs and the related genes that may contribute to variation in ALM.

  16. Genome-wide association study identified copy number variants important for appendicular lean mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Ran

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a major component of the human body. Age-related loss of muscle mass and function contributes to some public health problems such as sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Skeletal muscle, mainly composed of appendicular lean mass (ALM, is a heritable trait. Copy number variation (CNV is a common type of human genome variant which may play an important role in the etiology of many human diseases. In this study, we performed genome-wide association analyses of CNV for ALM in 2,286 Caucasian subjects. We then replicated the major findings in 1,627 Chinese subjects. Two CNVs, CNV1191 and CNV2580, were detected to be associated with ALM (p = 2.26×10(-2 and 3.34×10(-3, respectively. In the Chinese replication sample, the two CNVs achieved p-values of 3.26×10(-2 and 0.107, respectively. CNV1191 covers a gene, GTPase of the immunity-associated protein family (GIMAP1, which is important for skeletal muscle cell survival/death in humans. CNV2580 is located in the Serine hydrolase-like protein (SERHL gene, which plays an important role in normal peroxisome function and skeletal muscle growth in response to mechanical stimuli. In summary, our study suggested two novel CNVs and the related genes that may contribute to variation in ALM.

  17. Study of the effect of positive ions impinging sensitive emulsions in mass spectrography; Etude de l'action des ions positifs sur les emulsions sensibles en spectrographie de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavard, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-08-01

    Experimental relationships have been established between the blackening of emulsions by impinging ions and the following parameters: number, mass and energy of impinging particles. Mean energy ions (about twenty keV) give rise to a latent image probably made of small specks of metallic silver located at the surface or in the bulk of the silver halide grain. A specific developer for ion sensitive emulsion was perfected. Sensitivity and detection threshold are increased by a factor of two or three, compared with values observed using a classical developer. Low energy particles sputtered from superficial layers of the emulsion by the impinging twenty keV ions, produce a latent image close to the surface of the silver halide grain. An oxidizing process bleaches superficial latent image and then reduces background fog. The improved signal over background ratio allows to observe lines undetectable when the plates are developed by usual process. (author) [French] On a etabli les relations experimentales entre le noircissement resultant de l'action des ions sur l'emulsion sensible et les parametres suivants: nombre de particules incidentes, masse et energie de ces particules. L'effet sur les grains d'halogenure d'argent a ete examine: les ions d'energie moyenne (de l'ordre de 20 keV) creent une image latente vraisemblablement constituee d'argent, situee a la fois a la surface et a l'interieur du grain. Un revelateur specifique pour le developpement des emulsions sensibles exposees aux ions a ete mis au point: il accroit la sensibilite d'un facteur deux a trois et le facteur de contraste par rapport a un revelateur usuel. Les particules de faible energie, emises par pulverisation des couches superficielles de l'emulsion au cours de l'enregistrement des spectres de masse des ions d'energie moyenne, creent essentiellement dans les grains d'halogenure d'argent, une image latente superficielle, responsable du fond. Un traitement oxydant est propose pour eliminer cette image en

  18. Fractional statistics, exceptional preons, scalar dark matter, lepton number violation, neutrino masses, and hidden gauge structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1985-09-01

    A brief review is given of the basics of fractional statistics, which is based on the Dirac-Bohm-Aharanov effect. Some group theoretic aspects of exceptional preons are breifly described, and a theory is proposed containing hypercolor and hyperflavor with G/sub HC/ x G/sub HF/ = E(6) x E(6) and preons in (27,27). It is also suggested that the dark matter in the universe is due to a scalar field which transforms as a singlet under SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and interacts only via the Higgs boson. Some speculation is made on the existence and physical consequences of a SU(2) singet charged scalar field which couples to two lepton doublet, necessarily violating electron, muon, and tauon numbers. The Majorana masses of neutrinos are discussed as the result of breaking the total lepton number. Abelian gauge field hidden inside non-abelian gauge theory is briefly described in analogy to the electromagnetic potential term. 20 refs

  19. X-ray constraints on the number of stellar mass black holes in the inner parsec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei [University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LEI 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes should form a cusp in the inner parsec. Calculations [5, 6] show that approximately 20 thousand black holes would be present in a sphere with radius of about a parsec around Sgr A*. The presence of these objects opens up the possibility that they might be accreting ''cool'' gas (i.e. the Minispiral) as discussed by Morris [6]. Here we calculate the X-ray emission expected from these black holes as a method to constrain their population. We find that the data limits the total number of such black holes to around 10 - 20 thousand. Even a much smaller number of such black holes, i.e. 5 thousand, is sufficient to produce several sources with X-ray luminosity above L{sub x} {approx} 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} at any one time. We suggest that some of the discrete X-ray sources observed by Muno [7] with Chandra in the inner parsec may be such ''fake X-ray binaries''.

  20. X-ray constraints on the number of stellar mass black holes in the inner parsec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2006-12-01

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes should form a cusp in the inner parsec. Calculations [5, 6] show that approximately 20 thousand black holes would be present in a sphere with radius of about a parsec around Sgr A*. The presence of these objects opens up the possibility that they might be accreting ''cool'' gas (i.e. the Minispiral) as discussed by Morris [6]. Here we calculate the X-ray emission expected from these black holes as a method to constrain their population. We find that the data limits the total number of such black holes to around 10 - 20 thousand. Even a much smaller number of such black holes, i.e. 5 thousand, is sufficient to produce several sources with X-ray luminosity above Lx ~ 1033 erg s-1 at any one time. We suggest that some of the discrete X-ray sources observed by Muno [7] with Chandra in the inner parsec may be such ''fake X-ray binaries''.

  1. X-ray constraints on the number of stellar mass black holes in the inner parsec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes should form a cusp in the inner parsec. Calculations [5, 6] show that approximately 20 thousand black holes would be present in a sphere with radius of about a parsec around Sgr A*. The presence of these objects opens up the possibility that they might be accreting ''cool'' gas (i.e. the Minispiral) as discussed by Morris [6]. Here we calculate the X-ray emission expected from these black holes as a method to constrain their population. We find that the data limits the total number of such black holes to around 10 - 20 thousand. Even a much smaller number of such black holes, i.e. 5 thousand, is sufficient to produce several sources with X-ray luminosity above L x ∼ 10 33 erg s -1 at any one time. We suggest that some of the discrete X-ray sources observed by Muno [7] with Chandra in the inner parsec may be such ''fake X-ray binaries''

  2. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SAREF) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SAPSD) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SAINV1) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SAINV2) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SAPSD was 0.7-1.8 times higher and SAINV1 and SAINV2 were 2.2-8 times higher than SAREF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SAREF. However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SAREF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SAPSD) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  3. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SA REF ) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SA PSD ) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SA INV1 ) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SA INV2 ) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SA PSD was 0.7–1.8 times higher and SA INV1 and SA INV2 were 2.2–8 times higher than SA REF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SA REF . However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SA REF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SA PSD ) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  4. MASS TRANSFER CONTROL OF A BACKWARD-FACING STEP FLOW BY LOCAL FORCING- EFFECT OF REYNOLDS NUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaier MEHREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of fluid mechanics and mass transfer in separated and reattaching flow over a backward-facing step by a local forcing, is studied using Large Eddy Simulation (LES.To control the flow, the local forcing is realized by a sinusoidal oscillating jet at the step edge. The Reynolds number is varied in the range 10000 ≤ Re≤ 50000 and the Schmidt number is fixed at 1.The found results show that the flow structure is modified and the local mass transfer is enhanced by the applied forcing. The observed changes depend on the Reynolds number and vary with the frequency and amplitude of the local forcing. For the all Reynolds numbers, the largest recirculation zone size reduction is obtained at the optimum forcing frequency St = 0.25. At this frequency the local mass transfer enhancement attains the maximum.

  5. Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

    2001-01-01

    Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

  6. Genotoxic effects of daily personal exposure to particle mass and number concentrations on buccal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Daniela S.; da Costa, Silvano César; Ribeiro, Marcos; Moreira, Camila A. B.; Beal, Alexandra; Squizzato, Rafaela; Rudke, Anderson Paulo; Rafee, Sameh Adib Abou; Martins, Jorge A.; Palioto, Graciana Freitas; Kumar, Prashant; Martins, Leila D.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess personal exposure to Particle Number Concentrations (PNC) in four size ranges between 0.3 and 10 μm, and particulate matter (PM1; PM2.5; PM4; PM10) in order to evaluate possible genotoxic effects through a comet assay in buccal cells. A convenience cohort of 30 individuals from a Brazilian medium-sized city was selected. These individuals aged between 20 and 61 and worked in typical job categories (i.e., administrative, commerce, education, general services and transport). They were recruited to perform personal exposure measurements during their typical daily routine activities, totaling 240 h of sampling. The 8-h average mass concentrations in air for volunteers ranged from 2.4 to 31.8 μg m-3 for PM1, 4.2-45.1 μg m-3 for PM2.5, 7.9-66.1 μg m-3 for PM4 and from 23.1 to 131.7 μg m-3 for PM10. The highest PNC variation was found for 0.3-0.5 range, between 14 and 181 particles cm-3, 1 to 14 particles cm-3 for the 0.5-1.0 range, 0.2 to 2 particles cm-3 for the 1.0-2.5 range, and 0.06 to 0.7 particles cm-3 for the 2.5-10 range. Volunteers in the 'education' category experienced the lowest inhaled dose of PM2.5, as opposed to those involved in 'commercial' activities with the highest doses for PM10 (1.63 μg kg-1 h-1) and PM2.5 (0.61 μg kg-1 h-1). The predominant cause for these high doses was associated with the proximity of the workplace to the street and vehicle traffic. The comet assay performed in buccal cells indicated that the volunteers in 'commerce' category experienced the highest damage to their DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) compared with the control category (i.e. 'education'). These results indicate the variability in personal exposure of the volunteers in different groups, and the potential damage to DNA was much higher for those spending time in close proximity to the vehicle sources (e.g. commercial services) leading to exposure to a higher fraction of fine particles. This study builds understanding on the exposure

  7. Annual Enrollment Report: Growth in Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)

  8. Measurement of the mass and the quantum numbers JPC of the X(3872) state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studied properties of the charmonium-like X(3872) state, which is an exotic matter candidate. The measurements are performed using a data sample collected with the CDF experiment. This sample features the world's largest amount of X(3872) particles. Constraints on spin, parity, and charge conjugation parity of the X(3872) are obtained by studying the angular distributions and correlations in the exclusive decay mode X(3872)→J/ψπ + π - .The assignments J PC =1 ++ and J PC =2 -+ are the only hypotheses consistent with the measured data. All other tested hypotheses are excluded by more than 3σ confidence level. To test the hypothesis of two separate states with similar mass, the signal mass distribution of the X(3872) is investigated. It is concluded that the measured spectrum is very well compatible with only one state. Assuming equal production and decay rates between two possible states, an upper limit on their mass difference Δm is set to be 3.2(3.6) MeV/c 2 at 90%(95%) confidence level. A precise X(3872) mass measurement is performed, resulting in m X(3872) =3871.61±0.16(stat)±0.20(syst) MeV/c 2 . This is the most precise single measurement to date, reducing the world average mass uncertainty by nearly 50%. All measurements are crucial inputs for the developing understanding of the X(3872). (orig.)

  9. Concept of effective atomic number and effective mass density in dual-energy X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnin, Anne; Duvauchelle, Philippe; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Ponard, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on dual-energy X-ray computed tomography and especially the decomposition of the measured attenuation coefficient in a mass density and atomic number basis. In particular, the concept of effective atomic number is discussed. Although the atomic number is well defined for chemical elements, the definition of an effective atomic number for any compound is not an easy task. After reviewing different definitions available in literature, a definition related to the method of measurement and X-ray energy, is suggested. A new concept of effective mass density is then introduced in order to characterize material from dual-energy computed tomography. Finally, this new concept and definition are applied on a simulated case, focusing on explosives identification in luggage

  10. Experimental study of the thermal fission of uranium 235 in the region of symmetrical masses; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de la fission thermique de l'uranium 235 dans la region des masses symetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribrag, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-15

    Energy correlation experiments with fission fragments are strongly perturbed, in the symmetric region, by the detection of spurious events caused by the apparatus. We show that the measurement of an additional parameter, namely the difference in time-of-flight between the fragments, enables us to eliminate these difficulties. In this work we show also an original method of calibration of the time-of-flight set-up. For thermal fission of {sup 235}U, values of mass yields in the symmetric region are found to agree quantitatively with radiochemical values. Moreover, the average total kinetic energy distribution as a function of the pre-neutron emission masses of the fragments has been calculated. This curve presents in the symmetric region a large dip, the value of which takes on the value 21.2 {+-} 0.8 MeV. This value is smaller than previously published results. (author) [French] Les mesures correlees des energies cinetiques des fragments de fission sont fortement perturbees, dans la region symetrique, par la detection d'evenements aberrants d'origine instrumentale. Nous montrons que la mesure d'un parametre supplementaire, a savoir, la difference des temps de vol des deux fragments, nous permet d'eliminer ces difficultes. Dans ce travail, nous indiquons egalement une methode originale de calibration du dispositif de mesure des temps de vol. Dans le cas de la fission thermique de {sup 235}U, nous avons trouve, dans la region symetrique, une courbe de rendement des masses, en accord quantitatif avec les donnees radiochimiques. De plus, nous avons calcule la distribution de l'energie cinetique totale moyenne en fonction de la masse des fragments, avant emission neutronique. Cette courbe presente, dans la region symetrique, un creux important, dont la valeur atteint 21,2 {+-} 0,8 MeV. Cette valeur est inferieure aux resultats precedemment publies. (auteur)

  11. Is the Field of Numbers a Real Physical Field? On the Frequent Distribution and Masses of the Elementary Patricles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the fractions of integers (rational numbers, local maxima which meet the ratios of masses of the elementary particles have been found.

  12. Is the Field of Numbers a Real Physical Field? On the Frequent Distribution and Masses of the Elementary Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the fractions of integers (rational numbers, local maxima which meet the ratios of masses of the elementary particles have been found.

  13. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 6 (2017), s. 957-964 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Aesculus * chromosome number * genome size * phylogeny * seed mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  14. Study by similarity of wind influence on mass transfers in complex buildings; Etude par similitude de l'influence du vent sur les transferts de masse dans les batiments complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Nicolas

    2011-12-05

    Residential and industrial buildings equipped with a ventilation system are complex facilities, where various heat and mass transfers could occur according to the operating conditions. In order to study these mass transfers, a methodology has been developed so as to carry out reduced-scale experiments for the study of isothermal flows, in steady or transient state. This methodology has been numerically and experimentally validated on simple configurations, and then applied to two standard configurations, representing nuclear facilities. The wind influence on mass transfers inside these configurations, in normal, damaged (stopping ventilation) or accidental (internal overpressure) situations, has been studied in the Jules Verne climatic wind tunnel of the CSTB. The wind effects, coupled or not with an internal overpressure, can lead to a partial or a total loss of the pollutant's containment inside buildings. Moreover, the wind turbulence can bring about instantaneous reversal leakage flow-rates, which cannot be identified in steady state. In addition, the study of transient phenomena has highlighted the low influence of the branch inertia on transient flows, for typical values of real facilities. Finally, tracer tests have been carried out in order to study the pollutant dispersion inside a standard configuration subjected to wind, mechanical ventilation and internal overpressure effects. The reliability of the zonal code SYLVIA, used notably to support safety assessment in nuclear buildings, has been analyzed from these experimental results. The modelling of the physical phenomena experimentally observed has been validated, in steady and transient states. However, limitations have been identified for the study of pollutant dispersion, due to hypothesis used in SYLVIA code, as in all zonal codes (homogenous concentration inside rooms, instantaneous propagation inside branches and rooms). (author)

  15. Study of the first collective levels of the even-even nuclei between masses 182 and 206; Etude des premiers niveaux collectifs des noyaux pairs-pairs entre les masses 182 et 206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R; Leveque, A; Lehmann, P; Quidort, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The reduced probabilities of deexcitation of the first two 2 + levels of {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt have been deduced from coulombic excitation experiments on these nuclei.The results are included in a chart of the properties of the first two 2 + levels of even-even nuclei situated between masses 182 and 206. The variation of these properties as a function of nuclear distortion is compared with the various theoretical predictions concerning vibration levels. (author) [French] Les probabilites reduites de desexcitation des deux premiers niveaux 2 + de {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt ont ete deduites des experiences d'excitation coulombienne de ces noyaux. Les resultats sont inseres dans une systematique des proprietes des deux premiers niveaux 2 + des noyaux pairs-pairs situes entre les masses 182 et 206. La variation de ces proprietes en fonction de la deformation nucleaire est comparee aux diverses predictions theoriques concernant les niveaux de vibration. (auteur)

  16. Sphaleron-induced baryon-number nonconservation and a constraint on Majorana neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukugita, M.; Yanagida, T.

    1990-01-01

    We point out that the baryon-number asymmetry in the Universe is erased by the sphaleron effect just below the electroweak phase transition irrespective of the primordial baryon- and lepton-number asymmetry, if there exists a Majorana-type interaction. The requirement to avoid this happening leads to the condition that m ν (Majorana) <50 keV for all species of neutrinos, regardless of whether or not neutrinos are stable

  17. Baryon-plus-lepton number violation at high temperatures for arbitrary Higgs mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xu.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis, baryon-plus lepton (B + L) number violation in the electroweak theory of the Weinberg-Salam model is systematically studied. B + L number non-conservation in the electroweak theory is believed to be a consequence of the axial U(1) anomaly. It is argued that sphaleron, not instanton dominates the topological vacuum-to-vacuum transitions for B + L number change at high temperatures. The rate of change is reduced to a dimensionless prefactor κ which is related to the determinants of small fluctuations around the sphaleron configuration. And κ is exactly computed at high temperatures exploiting symmetries of sphaleron under spatial rotations combined with isospin and custodial SU(2) transformations. For the ratio λ/g 2 of scalar four point coupling λ to gauge coupling g 2 near unity, it is found that κ is 0.03 and the rate of B + L number change at temperatures of order 1 Tev is about 8 to 9 orders of magnitude faster than the expansion rate of the big band theory. For λ/g 2 very small tending to the Coleman-Weinberg limit, it is found that the determinant strongly suppresses the rate of baryon number changing processes

  18. Heat or mass transfer at low Péclet number for Brinkman and Darcy flow round a sphere

    KAUST Repository

    Bell, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research into the effect of convection on steady-state mass transfer from a spherical particle embedded in a porous medium has used the Darcy model to describe the flow. However, a limitation of the Darcy model is that it does not account for viscous effects near boundaries. Brinkman modified the Darcy model to include these effects by introducing an extra viscous term. Here we investigate the impact of this extra viscous term on the steady-state mass transfer from a sphere at low Péclet number, Pe 1. We use singular perturbation techniques to find the approximate asymptotic solution for the concentration profile. Mass-release from the surface of the sphere is described by a Robin boundary condition, which represents a first-order chemical reaction. We find that a larger Brinkman viscous boundary layer renders mass transport by convection less effective, and reduces the asymmetry in the peri-sphere concentration profiles. We provide simple analytical expressions that can be used to calculate the concentration profiles, as well as the local and average Sherwood numbers; and comparison to numerical simulations verifies the order of magnitude of the error in the asymptotic expansions. In the appropriate limits, the asymptotic results agree with solutions previously obtained for Stokes and Darcy flow. The solution for Darcy flow with a Robin boundary condition has not been considered previously in the literature and is a new result. Whilst the article has been formulated in terms of mass transfer, the analysis is also applicable to heat transfer, with concentration replaced by temperature and the Sherwood number by the Nusselt number. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat and mass transfer in multi-scale porous structures: application to Diesel particulate filters modelling; Transferts de chaleur et de masse dans des structures poreuses multi-echelles: application a l'etude des filtres a particules Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxarango, L.

    2004-09-15

    Ceramic filters appear to be the most promising solution to deal with the future emission standard requirements for diesel powered vehicles. Indeed, this type of Diesel Particulate Filters provides suitable characteristics for high efficiency soot collection. However, this filtration process is characterised by a dramatic increase of the pressure drop imposed in the exhaust line. Thus, the filter has to be cleaned periodically to insure the proper engine operating conditions. This regeneration phase is based on the oxidation of the carbon particles within the apparatus. This complex thermal process is critical for the safety working of Diesel Particulate Filters. Indeed, thermal stresses induced by the heat released during soot oxidation are involved in most of the filter breaking scenario. Numerous geometrical parameters defining the complex multi-scale structure of the apparatus could influence its thermal response. Thus, the geometrical optimization of these filters is a major problematic for the development of new products. This study aims at modelling heat and mass transfer phenomenon within Diesel Particulate Filters. The studied geometrical configuration is based on a ceramic honeycomb with porous walls and alternately plugged channel known as wall-flow DPF. In a first part, the gas flow, particles transport and collection are considered. Given the apparatus particular structure, the problem has to be treated considering various spatial length-scales. The filtering walls are characterised by a micrometric porous structure. The flow modelling with the Darcy law requires determining a particular effective permeability. The laminar flow problem in millimetric channels with wall suction (or injection) is studied. The asymptotic solution for flow in two-dimensional channels is used to derive a one-dimensional system preserving mass and momentum balances. This approach is then extended to the square channel configuration using direct numerical simulations. The

  20. Heat or mass transfer from a sphere in Stokes flow at low Péclet number

    KAUST Repository

    Bell, Christopher G.; Byrne, Helen M.; Whiteley, Jonathan P.; Waters, Sarah L.

    2013-01-01

    . The application of Van Dyke's rule up to terms of O(Pe3) shows that the O(Pe3logPe) terms in the expression for the average Nusselt/Sherwood number are twice those previously derived in the literature. Inclusion of the O(Pe3) terms is shown to increase the range

  1. The massive 3-loop operator matrix elements with two masses and the generalized variable flavor number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Schoenwald, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Goedicke, A. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Wissbrock, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)

    2017-12-15

    We report on our latest results in the calculation of the two-mass contributions to 3-loop operator matrix elements (OMEs). These OMEs are needed to compute the corresponding contributions to the deep-inelastic scattering structure functions and to generalize the variable flavor number scheme by including both charm and bottom quarks. We present the results for the non-singlet and A{sub gq,Q} OMEs, and compare the size of their contribution relative to the single mass case. Results for the gluonic OME A{sub gg,Q} are given in the physical case, going beyond those presented in a previous publication where scalar diagrams were computed. We also discuss our recently published two-mass contribution to the pure singlet OME, and present an alternative method of calculating the corresponding diagrams.

  2. Transition in x-ray yield, mass scaling observed in the high-wire-number, plasma-shell regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Pulsifer, P.E.; Apruzese, J.P.; Thornhill, J.W.; Davis, J.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Initial calculations, based on classical transport coefficients and carried out to predict the efficiency with which the implosion kinetic energy of aluminum Z pinches could be thermalized and converted into kilovolt x-rays, predicted a sharp transition between m 2 and m yield scaling, where m is the aluminum array mass. Later, when ad hoc increases in the heat conductivity and artificial viscosity were introduced into these calculations and the densities that were achieved on axis were sharply reduced, the transition from m 2 to m scaling was found to have shifted, but was otherwise still fairly sharp and well-defined. The location of these breakpoint curves defined the locus of implosion velocities at which the yields would obtain their maximum for different mass arrays. The first such mass breakpoint curve that was calculated is termed hard, while the second is termed soft. Early 24, 30, and 42 aluminum wire experiments on the Saturn accelerator at the Sandia National laboratories confirmed the predictions of the soft breakpoint curve calculations. In this talk, the authors present results from a more recent set of aluminum experiments on Saturn, in which the array mass was varied at a fixed array radius and in which the radius was varied for a fixed mass. In both sets of experiments, the wire numbers were large: in excess of 92 and generally 136 or 192. In this high-wire-number regime, the wire plasmas are calculated to merge to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial implosion. Large wire number has been found to improve the pinch compressibility, and the analysis of these experiments in the shell regime shows that they come very close to the original predictions of the hard breakpoint curve calculations. A discussion of these detailed comparisons will be presented

  3. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  4. Total radiative width (Γγ) as a function of mass number A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, V.D.; Barros, S. De; Chevillon, P.L.; Julien, J.; Poittevin, G. Le; Morgenstern, J.; Samour, C.

    1967-01-01

    The total radiative width Γ γ was measured accurately for a large number of nuclei. These values, which are important for reactor calculations, are difficult to determine. The fluctuations in Γ γ from resonance to resonance in the same nucleus are discussed in terms of level parity and the de-excitation scheme. The authors compare the experimental values with those predicted by theory. (author) [fr

  5. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  6. Particle number and particulate mass emissions of heavy duty vehicles in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymaniak Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the issue of PM emissions from HDV vehicles. The theoretical part discusses the problem of emission of this toxic compound in terms of particle structure taking into account the mass and dimensions of PM. Next, the methodology of the research and the results of the measurements performed under the conditions of actual operation were presented. The test drive routes were chosen in accordance with the operational purpose of the selected test vehicles. Two heavy vehicles were used for the study: a tractor with trailer and an eighteen meter long city bus. The test vehicles complied with the Euro V standard, with the second vehicle additionally complying with the EEV standard and being equipped with a DPF. The analysis of the research results was performed in the aspect of determining the operating time densities of vehicles and their drive systems as well as defining their emission characteristics and ecological indicators. PM and PN emissions were measured in the tests and particle size distribution was determined. It was shown that the exhaust gas after treatment system used in the city bus had a positive influence on the ecological indicators and had contributed to the reduction of PN emissions for heavier particles.

  7. Contribution from indoor sources to particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; Gilbert, Dale

    As part of a large study investigating indoor air in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia, the purpose of this work was to quantify emission characteristics of indoor particle sources in 15 houses. Submicrometer particle number and approximation of PM 2.5 concentrations were measured simultaneously for more than 48 h in the kitchen of all the houses by using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a photometer (DustTrak), respectively. In addition, characterizations of particles resulting from cooking conducted in an identical way in all the houses were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a DustTrak. All the events of elevated particle concentrations were linked to indoor activities using house occupants diary entries, and catalogued into 21 different types of indoor activities. This enabled quantification of the effect of indoor sources on indoor particle concentrations as well as quantification of emission rates from the sources. For example, the study found that frying, grilling, stove use, toasting, cooking pizza, cooking, candle vaporizing eucalyptus oil and fan heater use, could elevate the indoor submicrometer particle number concentration levels by more than five times, while PM 2.5 concentrations could be up to 3, 30 and 90 times higher than the background levels during smoking, frying and grilling, respectively.

  8. Relationship between parity and bone mass in postmenopausal women according to number of parities and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Behzad; Heidari, Parnaz; Nourooddini, Haj Ghorban; Hajian-Tilaki, Karim Ollah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of multiple pregnancies on postmenopausal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. Diagnosis of osteoporosis (OP) was confirmed by World Health Organization criteria. Women were stratified according to number of parity as 7 parity groups as well as in age groups of or = 65 years. BMD values and frequency of OP were compared across the groups according to age. Multiple logistic regression analysis with calculation of adjusted odds ratio (OR) was used for association. A total of 264 women with mean age of 63 +/- 8.7 and mean menopausal duration of 15.8 +/- 10.2 years were studied. LS-OP and FN-OP were observed in 28% and 58.3% of women, respectively. There were significant differences in BMD values across different parity groups at both sites of LS and FN (p = 0.011 and p = 0.036, respectively). Parity 4-7 (vs. 7 significantly decreased LS-BMD and FN-BMD as compared with 0-7 parity (p = 0.006 and p = 0.009, respectively). Parity > 7 increased the risk of LS-OP by OR = 1.81 (95% CI 1.03-3.1, p = 0.037) and FN-OP by OR = 1.67 (95% CI 0.97-2.8, p = 0.063). In addition, women with high parity had lower BMD decline at LS and FN by age (> or = 65 vs. 7 is associated with spinal trabecular bone loss in younger postmenopausal women as well as an osteoprotective effect against age-related bone loss, which counteracts the early negative effect. Therefore, parity should not be considered as a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. Determinants of black carbon, particle mass and number concentrations in London transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ioar; Kumar, Prashant; Hagen-Zanker, Alex; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Slovic, Anne Dorothee; Pritchard, John P.; Geurs, Karst T.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the determinants of personal exposure concentrations of commuters' to black carbon (BC), ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC), and particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) in different travel modes. We quantified the contribution of key factors that explain the variation of the previous pollutants in four commuting routes in London, each covered by four transport modes (car, bus, walk and underground). Models were performed for each pollutant, separately to assess the effect of meteorology (wind speed) or ambient concentrations (with either high spatial or temporal resolution). Concentration variations were mainly explained by wind speed or ambient concentrations and to a lesser extent by route and period of the day. In multivariate models with wind speed, the wind speed was the common significant predictor for all the pollutants in the above-ground modes (i.e., car, bus, walk); and the only predictor variable for the PM fractions. Wind speed had the strongest effect on PM during the bus trips, with an increase in 1 m s-1 leading to a decrease in 2.25, 2.90 and 4.98 μg m-3 of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in car trips were better explained by ambient concentrations with high temporal resolution although from a single monitoring station. On the other hand, ambient concentrations with high spatial coverage but lower temporal resolution predicted better the concentrations in bus trips, due to bus routes passing through streets with a high variability of traffic intensity. In the underground models, wind speed was not significant and line and type of windows on the train explained 42% of the variation of PNC and 90% of all PM fractions. Trains in the district line with openable windows had an increase in concentrations of 1 684 cm-3 for PNC and 40.69 μg m-3 for PM2.5 compared with trains that had non-openable windows. The results from this work can be used to target efforts to reduce personal exposures of

  10. Contribution to the study of several chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses; Contribution a l'etude de quelques nuisances chimiques au centre d'etudes nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megemont, C; Grau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-10-01

    From the checking of 2750 index cards of hazards, the study relates the distribution of the chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses. Those concerning the greatest number of agents in the Centre are classified according to the categories corresponding to the different conditions of working. Thus, the most important are put forward. Then, the authors rapidly make a review of hazards which may have some special interest because they appear more specific of the nuclear energy or because they are the most frequently noted on the index cards of hazards. The case of the tributylphosphate is studied more precisely. (authors) [French] A partir de l'examen de 2750 fiches de nuisances, l'etude porte sur la repartition des nuisances chimiques au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Celles qui concernent le plus grand nombre d'agents du Centre sont classees selon les categories correspondant aux differentes conditions de travail. Les plus importantes d'entre elles sont ainsi mises en evidence. | Les auteurs passent ensuite en revue, rapidement, les nuisances qui peuvent presenter un interet particulier soit parce qu'elles semblent plus specifiques de l'Energie Nucleaire, soit parce qu'on les rencontre le plus frequemment sur les fiches de nuisances. Le cas du tributylphosphate est envisage de facon plus detaillee. (auteurs)

  11. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávnícek, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species. Flow cytometric measurements of 2C nuclear DNA values were conducted on eight species, and mean seed mass values were estimated for the same taxa. The same chromosome number, 2 n = 40, was determined in all investigated taxa. Original measurements of 2C values for seven Aesculus species (eight taxa), added to just one reliable datum for A. hippocastanum , confirmed the notion that the genome size in this genus with relatively large seeds is surprisingly low, ranging from 0·955 pg 2C -1 in A. parviflora to 1·275 pg 2C -1 in A. glabra var. glabra. The chromosome number of 2 n = 40 seems to be conclusively the universal 2 n number for non-hybrid species in this genus. Aesculus genome sizes are relatively small, not only within its own family, Sapindaceae, but also within woody angiosperms. The genome sizes seem to be distinct and non-overlapping among the four major Aesculus clades. These results provide an extra support for the most recent reconstruction of Aesculus phylogeny. The correlation between the 2C values and seed masses in examined Aesculus species is slightly negative and not significant. However, when the four major clades are treated separately, there is consistent positive association between larger genome size and larger seed mass within individual lineages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  12. Study of mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers of bismuth-ground granulated blast furnace slag concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal

    2016-01-01

    Five samples of Bismuth-Ground granulated blast furnace slag (Bi-GGBFS) concretes were prepared using composition (0.6 cement + x Bi_2O_3 + (0.4-x) GGBFS, x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25) by keeping constant water (W) cement (C) ratio. Mass attenuation coefficients (μ_m) of these prepared samples were calculated using a computer program winXCOM at different gamma ray energies, whereas effective atomic numbers (Z_e_f_f) is calculated using mathematical formulas. The radiation shielding properties of Bi-GGBFS concrete has been compared with standard radiation shielding concretes.

  13. Changes in the number of eggs loaded in Pantala flavescens females with age from mass flights (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yuta; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-11-01

    The wandering glider dragonfly Pantala flavescens migrates to Japan every spring, where the population increases until autumn, in which mass flights often occur, followed by death in the winter. There have been no reports to date on the maturation process of this species throughout its lifespan in Japan. We collected females from mass flights when the flight height was low, and classified them into seven age stages by examining their wing condition. Very few females of the older stage were collected from the mass flights. The wing condition corresponded with the change in body color and with the egg production process in the ovaries. While pre-reproductive-stage females did not release eggs when treated with our artificial oviposition technique, each reproductive-stage female released about 640 eggs. Nearly all eggs released were fertilized. The ovaries developed with the stage, and reproductive-stage females had about 1100 ovarioles. The estimated maximum fecundity was about 29,000 eggs. The lifetime number of eggs laid of P. flavescens should be revealed by dissection.

  14. Characterisation of particle mass and number concentration on the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula during the northeast monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Doreena; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Khan, Md Firoz; Amil, Norhaniza; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Moi, Phang Siew; Samah, Azizan Abu; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Sturges, William T.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Robinson, Andrew D.; Pyle, John A.

    2015-09-01

    Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and particle number concentration ((PNC); 0.27 μm ≤ Dp ≤ 34.00 μm) were measured in the tropical coastal environment of Bachok, Kelantan on the Malaysian Peninsula bordering the southern edge of the South China Sea. Statistical methods were applied on a three-month hourly data set (9th January to 24th March 2014) to study the influence of north-easterly winds on the patterns of particle mass and PNC size distributions. The 24-h concentrations of particle mass obtained in this study were below the standard values detailed by the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG), United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Union (EU) except for PM2.5, which recorded a 24-h average of 30 ± 18 μg m-3 and exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold value (25 μg m-3). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PNC with smaller diameter sizes (0.27-4.50 μm) showed a stronger influence, accounting for 57.6% of the variability in PNC data set. Concentrations of both particle mass and PNC increased steadily in the morning with a distinct peak observed at around 8.00 h, related to a combination of dispersion of accumulated particles overnight and local traffic. In addition to local anthropogenic, agricultural burning and forest fire activities, long-range transport also affects the study area. Hotspot and backward wind trajectory observations illustrated that the biomass burning episode (around February-March) significantly influenced PNC. Meteorological parameters influenced smaller size particles (i.e. PM1 and Dp (0.27-0.43 μm)) the most.

  15. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  16. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  17. Dependency of neutron power function S0 from mass number in the area of 100 < A < 140

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pravdivy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resume of some previous investigations concerning definition of full sets of average resonances parameters S0, S1, , , S1,1/2, S1,3/2 for nuclei 47,9Ti, 55,8Fe, 58,7Ni, 65,4Zn, 72,6Ge, 79Se, 91,2Zr, 95,9Mo, 101,1Ru, 106,4Pd, 106Cd, 108Cd, 110Cd, 112Cd, 116Cd, 116Sn, 118Sn, 120Sn, 122Sn, 124Sn, 127,6Te, 144,2Nd has been presented and the place of these sets in the existing system of recommended parameters has been shown. The explored dependency power func-tion S0 from mass number in the area of 100 < A < 140 was studied.

  18. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of moderate-to-high atomic-number elements at low photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajuddin, A.A.; Chong, C.S.; Shukri, A.; Bradley, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients for 12 selected moderate-to-high atomic-number elements have been obtained from good-geometry measurements made at five 241 Am photon energies of significant emission intensity. Particular interest focuses on measured values for photon energies close to absorption edges. Comparisons with renormalized cross-section predictions indicate agreement to within stated error limits for the majority of cases. Significant discrepancies (> 10%) are noted for Ta at 17.8 and 26.3 keV and W at 59.5 keV. Some support for a discrepancy between measurement and theory for W in the region of 60 keV is found in the reported measurements of others. (author)

  19. Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers of stainless steel and carbon steels with different energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fakarudin Abdul Rahman; Mohd Iqbal Saripan; Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan; Ismail Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ ρ) of stainless steel (SS316L) and carbon steel (A516) that are widely used as petrochemical plant components, such as distillation column, heat exchanger, boiler and storage tank were measured at 662, 1073 and 1332 keV of photon energies. Measurements of radiation intensity for various thicknesses of steel were made by using transmission method. The γ-ray intensity were counted by using a Gamma spectrometer that contains a Hyper-pure Germanium (HPGe) detector connected with Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). The effective numbers of atomic (Z eff ) and electron (N eff ) obtained experimentally were compared by those obtained through theoretical calculation. Both experimental and calculated values of Z eff and N eff were in good agreement. (author)

  20. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  1. The remote ischemic preconditioning algorithm: effect of number of cycles, cycle duration and effector organ mass on efficacy of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Jacob; Pryds, Kasper; Salman, Rasha; Løfgren, Bo; Kristiansen, Steen Buus; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2016-03-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC), induced by cycles of transient limb ischemia and reperfusion (IR), is cardioprotective. The optimal rIPC-algorithm is not established. We investigated the effect of cycle numbers and ischemia duration within each rIPC-cycle and the influence of effector organ mass on the efficacy of cardioprotection. Furthermore, the duration of the early phase of protection by rIPC was investigated. Using a tourniquet tightened at the inguinal level, we subjected C57Bl/6NTac mice to intermittent hind-limb ischemia and reperfusion. The rIPC-protocols consisted of (I) two, four, six or eight cycles, (II) 2, 5 or 10 min of ischemia in each cycle, (III) single or two hind-limb occlusions and (IV) 0.5, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 h intervals from rIPC to index cardiac ischemia. All rIPC algorithms were followed by 5 min of reperfusion. The hearts were subsequently exposed to 25 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion in an ex vivo Langendorff model. Cardioprotection was evaluated by infarct size and post-ischemic hemodynamic recovery. Four to six rIPC cycles yielded significant cardioprotection with no further protection by eight cycles. Ischemic cycles lasting 2 min offered the same protection as cycles of 5 min ischemia, whereas prolonged cycles lasting 10 min abrogated protection. One and two hind-limb preconditioning were equally protective. In our mouse model, the duration of protection by rIPC was 1.5 h. These findings indicate that the number and duration of cycles rather than the tissue mass exposed to rIPC determines the efficacy of rIPC.

  2. A constant-volume rapid exhaust dilution system for motor vehicle particulate matter number and mass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

    2003-10-01

    An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles.

  3. Copy Number Variations in Candidate Genes and Intergenic Regions Affect Body Mass Index and Abdominal Obesity in Mexican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguete-García, Ana Isabel; Bonnefond, Amélie; Peralta-Romero, Jesús; Froguel, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Increase in body weight is a gradual process that usually begins in childhood and in adolescence as a result of multiple interactions among environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between copy number variants (CNVs) in five genes and four intergenic regions with obesity in Mexican children. Methods. We studied 1423 children aged 6–12 years. Anthropometric measurements and blood levels of biochemical parameters were obtained. Identification of CNVs was performed by real-time PCR. The effect of CNVs on obesity or body composition was assessed using regression models adjusted for age, gender, and family history of obesity. Results. Gains in copy numbers of LEPR and NEGR1 were associated with decreased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and risk of abdominal obesity, whereas gain in ARHGEF4 and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d and losses in INS were associated with increased BMI and WC. Conclusion. Our results indicate a possible contribution of CNVs in LEPR, NEGR1, ARHGEF4, and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d to the development of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity in Mexican children. PMID:28428959

  4. Singing as a Therapeutic Agent, inThe Etude, 1891-1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter

    1999-01-01

    The Etude music magazine, founded by Theodore Presser, was one of a number of popular music magazines published in the years prior to the establishment of the music therapy profession in 1950. During its publication run from 1883 to 1957, over 100 music therapy related articles appeared, including 13 on the health benefits of singing published between 1891 and 1949. Written by authors with diverse backgrounds, such as the famous Battle Creek, Michigan physician John Harvey Kellogg and Boston music critic Louis C. Elson, the articles contained consistent and adamant support regarding the health benefits of singing. The advantages described were both physical and psychological, and were recommended prophylactically for well persons and therapeutically for ill persons. Although the articles varied in perspective, from philosophical to theoretical to pedagogical, there is a consistent holistic medicine theme that appeared almost ahead of its time and no doubt linked to the push for vocal music education in that era. The importance of The Etude in promulgating ideas that helped shape the early practice of music therapy should not be underestimated. For much of its publication run The Etude was the largest music periodical in print, reaching its peak circulation of 250,000 copies per month in 1924.

  5. Lithium formate ion clusters formation during electrospray ionization: Evidence of magic number clusters by mass spectrometry and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Anil; Bogdanov, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Small cationic and anionic clusters of lithium formate were generated by electrospray ionization and their fragmentations were studied by tandem mass spectrometry (collision-induced dissociation with N 2 ). Singly as well as multiply charged clusters were formed in both positive and negative ion modes with the general formulae, (HCOOLi) n Li + , (HCOOLi) n Li m m+ , (HCOOLi) n HCOO − , and (HCOOLi) n (HCOO) m m− . Several magic number cluster (MNC) ions were observed in both the positive and negative ion modes although more predominant in the positive ion mode with (HCOOLi) 3 Li + being the most abundant and stable cluster ion. Fragmentations of singly charged positive clusters proceed first by the loss of a dimer unit ((HCOOLi) 2 ) followed by the loss of monomer units (HCOOLi) although the former remains the dominant dissociation process. In the case of positive cluster ions, all fragmentations lead to the magic cluster (HCOOLi) 3 Li + as the most abundant fragment ion at higher collision energies which then fragments further to dimer and monomer ions at lower abundances. In the negative ion mode, however, singly charged clusters dissociated via sequential loss of monomer units. Multiply charged clusters in both positive and negative ion modes dissociated mainly via Coulomb repulsion. Quantum chemical calculations performed for smaller cluster ions showed that the trimer ion has a closed ring structure similar to the phenalenylium structure with three closed rings connected to the central lithium ion. Further additions of monomer units result in similar symmetric structures for hexamer and nonamer cluster ions. Thermochemical calculations show that trimer cluster ion is relatively more stable than neighboring cluster ions, supporting the experimental observation of a magic number cluster with enhanced stability

  6. Mother and offspring fitness in an insect with maternal care: phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and egg care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Oviparous females have three main options to increase their reproductive success: investing into egg number, egg mass and/or egg care. Although allocating resources to either of these three components is known to shape offspring number and size, potential trade-offs among them may have key impacts on maternal and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the occurrence of phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and maternal expenditure on egg care in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect with pre- and post-hatching forms of maternal care. In particular, we used a series of laboratory observations and experiments to investigate whether these three components non-additively influenced offspring weight and number at hatching, and whether they were associated with potential costs to females in terms of future reproduction. Results We found negative associations between egg number and mass as well as between egg number and maternal expenditure on egg care. However, these trade-offs could only be detected after statistically correcting for female weight at egg laying. Hatchling number was not determined by single or additive effects among the three life-history traits, but instead by pairwise interactions among them. In particular, offspring number was positively associated with the number of eggs only in clutches receiving high maternal care or consisting of heavy eggs, and negatively associated with mean egg mass in clutches receiving low care. In contrast, offspring weight was positively associated with egg mass only. Finally, maternal expenditure on egg care reduced their future reproduction, but this effect was only detected when mothers were experimentally isolated from their offspring at egg hatching. Conclusions Overall, our study reveals simultaneous trade-offs between the number, mass and care of eggs. It also demonstrates that these factors interact in their impact on offspring production, and that maternal expenditure on egg

  7. Realization of an electromagnetic isotope separator. Application to the isotopes of the mass 93 from the molybdenum and the technetium; Realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique d'isotope. Application a l'etude des isotopes de masse 93 du molybdene et du technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-15

    Analysis of focusing properties of a homogeneous magnetic field leads the author to use a magnetic sector of 60 deg, for the realization of an electromagnetic separator. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. The currents ionic detached isotopes to the collector vary from 1 to 5 mA. The separation efficiency is of 125 for a current collected of 1 mA. A survey of the neutralization of the space charge permitted to specify the role of the negative ions in this phenomenon. A method of neutralization of the space charge is proposed and gave excellent results. A report will be given of the separations of some elements: mercury, bromine, thorium, etc... The application of the separator to the study of the isomeric transfers in the molybdenum and the technetium permitted to assign definitely for {sup 93}Mo and {sup 93}Tc two radiances {gamma} of respective energies 260 and 390 keV. A new process of fast chemical separation Mo/Tc is described. (author) [French] L'analyse des proprietes de focalisation d'un champ magnetique homogene conduit l'auteur, pour la realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique, a employer un secteur magnetique de 60 deg. Les sources d'ions realisees fournissent des debits ioniques de 10 mA. Les courants ioniques d'isotopes separes au collecteur varient de 1 a 5 mA. Le pouvoir separateur est de 125 pour un courant collecte de 1 mA. Une etude de la neutralisation de la charge d'espace a permis de preciser le role des ions negatifs dans ce phenomene. Une methode de neutralisation de la charge d'espace est proposee et a donne d'excellents resultats. On donne le compte rendu des separations de quelques elements: mercure, brome, thorium, etc... L'application du separateur a l'etude des translations isomeriques dans le molybdene et le technetium a permis d'attribuer definitivement a {sup 93}Mo et a {sup 93}Tc deux rayonnements {gamma} d'energies respectives 260 et 390 keV. Un nouveau procede de separation chimique rapide Mo c est

  8. Realization of an electromagnetic isotope separator. Application to the isotopes of the mass 93 from the molybdenum and the technetium; Realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique d'isotope. Application a l'etude des isotopes de masse 93 du molybdene et du technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-15

    Analysis of focusing properties of a homogeneous magnetic field leads the author to use a magnetic sector of 60 deg, for the realization of an electromagnetic separator. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. The currents ionic detached isotopes to the collector vary from 1 to 5 mA. The separation efficiency is of 125 for a current collected of 1 mA. A survey of the neutralization of the space charge permitted to specify the role of the negative ions in this phenomenon. A method of neutralization of the space charge is proposed and gave excellent results. A report will be given of the separations of some elements: mercury, bromine, thorium, etc... The application of the separator to the study of the isomeric transfers in the molybdenum and the technetium permitted to assign definitely for {sup 93}Mo and {sup 93}Tc two radiances {gamma} of respective energies 260 and 390 keV. A new process of fast chemical separation Mo/Tc is described. (author) [French] L'analyse des proprietes de focalisation d'un champ magnetique homogene conduit l'auteur, pour la realisation d'un separateur electromagnetique, a employer un secteur magnetique de 60 deg. Les sources d'ions realisees fournissent des debits ioniques de 10 mA. Les courants ioniques d'isotopes separes au collecteur varient de 1 a 5 mA. Le pouvoir separateur est de 125 pour un courant collecte de 1 mA. Une etude de la neutralisation de la charge d'espace a permis de preciser le role des ions negatifs dans ce phenomene. Une methode de neutralisation de la charge d'espace est proposee et a donne d'excellents resultats. On donne le compte rendu des separations de quelques elements: mercure, brome, thorium, etc... L'application du separateur a l'etude des translations isomeriques dans le molybdene et le technetium a permis d'attribuer definitivement a {sup 93}Mo et a {sup 93}Tc deux rayonnements {gamma} d'energies respectives 260 et 390

  9. Instrumental performance of an etude after three methods of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Ark, S

    1997-12-01

    For 80 fifth-grade students three practice conditions (mental, mental with physical simulation, and physical with singing) produced significant mean differences in instrumental performance of an etude. No significant differences were found for traditional, physical practice.

  10. Heat or mass transfer at low Péclet number for Brinkman and Darcy flow round a sphere

    KAUST Repository

    Bell, Christopher G.; Byrne, H.M.; Whiteley, J.P.; Waters, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research into the effect of convection on steady-state mass transfer from a spherical particle embedded in a porous medium has used the Darcy model to describe the flow. However, a limitation of the Darcy model is that it does not account

  11. The Evangelical Origins of Mass Media in America, 1815-1835. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, David Paul

    1984-01-01

    It was the evangelical Christian publicists in the tract and Bible societies who first dreamed of genuinely mass media--that is, they proposed to deliver the same printed message to everyone in America. To this end, organizations such as the American Bible Society and the American Tract Society helped to develop, in the very earliest stages, the…

  12. Determination of thermodynamic potentials and the aggregation number for micelles with the mass-action model by isothermal titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2015-01-01

    of micelles with ITC were compared to a mass-action model (MAM) of reaction type: n⋅S⇌Mn. This analysis can provide guidelines for future ITC studies of systems behaving in accordance with this model such as micelles and proteins that undergo self-association to oligomers. Micelles with small aggregation...

  13. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  14. Measurement of the mass and the quantum numbers J{sup PC} of the X(3872) state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, Joachim

    2008-06-20

    This thesis studied properties of the charmonium-like X(3872) state, which is an exotic matter candidate. The measurements are performed using a data sample collected with the CDF experiment. This sample features the world's largest amount of X(3872) particles. Constraints on spin, parity, and charge conjugation parity of the X(3872) are obtained by studying the angular distributions and correlations in the exclusive decay mode X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}.The assignments J{sup PC}=1{sup ++} and J{sup PC}=2{sup -+} are the only hypotheses consistent with the measured data. All other tested hypotheses are excluded by more than 3{sigma} confidence level. To test the hypothesis of two separate states with similar mass, the signal mass distribution of the X(3872) is investigated. It is concluded that the measured spectrum is very well compatible with only one state. Assuming equal production and decay rates between two possible states, an upper limit on their mass difference {delta}m is set to be 3.2(3.6) MeV/c{sup 2} at 90%(95%) confidence level. A precise X(3872) mass measurement is performed, resulting in m{sub X(3872)}=3871.61{+-}0.16(stat){+-}0.20(syst) MeV/c{sup 2}. This is the most precise single measurement to date, reducing the world average mass uncertainty by nearly 50%. All measurements are crucial inputs for the developing understanding of the X(3872). (orig.)

  15. Systematics of radiation widths and level density parameters in the mass number range region 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.M.; Grudzevich, O.T.; Plyaskin, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    We suggest a systematics of radiation width based on a reduced radiative capture strength function for the E1-transition, which eliminates fluctuations in the analysed quantity with neutron binding energy, nuclear level density and γ-quanta energy. A smooth dependence for the fitting parameter of the radiative strength function for E1-transitions in relation to the relative atomic mass of the nucleus is obtained. 10 refs, 2 figs

  16. Microphysics of mass-transport in coupled droplet-pairs at low Reynolds number and the role of convective dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qingming; Sau, Amalendu

    2016-06-01

    Interfacial mass-transport and redistribution in the micro-scale liquid droplets are important in diverse fields of research interest. The role of the "inflow" and the "outflow" type convective eddy-pairs in the entrainment of outer solute and internal relocation are examined for different homogeneous and heterogeneous water droplet pairs appearing in a tandem arrangement. Two micro-droplets of pure (rain) water interact with an oncoming outer air stream (Re ≤ 100) contaminated by uniformly distributed SO2. By virtue of separation/attachment induced non-uniform interfacial shear-stress gradient, the well-defined inflow/outflow type pairs of recirculating eddy-based convective motion quickly develops, and the eddies effectively attract/repel the accumulated outer solute and control the physical process of mass-transport in the droplet-pair. The non-uniformly shear-driven flow interaction and bifurcation of the circulatory internal flow lead to growth of important micro-scale "secondary" eddies which suitably regroup with the adjacent "primary" one to create the sustained inflow/outflow type convective dynamics. The presently derived flow characteristics and in-depth analysis help to significantly improve our understanding of the micro-droplet based transport phenomena in a wider context. By tuning "Re" (defined in terms of the droplet diameter and the average oncoming velocity of the outer air) and gap-ratio "α," the internal convective forcing and the solute entrainment efficiency could be considerably enhanced. The quantitative estimates for mass entrainment, convective strength, and saturation characteristics for different coupled micro-droplet pairs are extensively examined here for 0.2 ≤ α ≤ 2.0 and 30 ≤ Re ≤ 100. Interestingly, for the compound droplets, with suitably tuned radius-ratio "B" (of upstream droplet with respect to downstream one) the generated "inflow" type coherent convective dynamics helped to significantly augment the centre

  17. Inclusive photoproduction of D*± mesons at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Schienbein, I.; Spiesberger, H.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss the inclusive production of D *± mesons in γp collisions at DESY HERA, based on a calculation at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme. In this approach, MS subtraction is applied in such a way that large logarithmic corrections are resummed in universal parton distribution and fragmentation functions and finite mass terms are taken into account. We present detailed numerical results for a comparison with data obtained at HERA and discuss various sources of theoretical uncertainties. (orig.)

  18. Inclusive photoproduction of D{sup *{+-}} mesons at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schienbein, I. [Univ. Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie; Spiesberger, H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2009-02-15

    We discuss the inclusive production of D{sup *{+-}} mesons in {gamma}p collisions at DESY HERA, based on a calculation at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme. In this approach, MS subtraction is applied in such a way that large logarithmic corrections are resummed in universal parton distribution and fragmentation functions and finite mass terms are taken into account. We present detailed numerical results for a comparison with data obtained at HERA and discuss various sources of theoretical uncertainties. (orig.)

  19. Inclusive photoproduction of bottom quarks for low and medium pT in the general-mass variable-flavour-number scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Spiesberger, H.; Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch

    2015-09-01

    We present predictions for b-quark production in photoproduction and compare with experimental data from HERA. Our theoretical predictions are obtained at next-to-leading-order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme, an approach which takes into account the finite mass of the b quarks. We use realistic evolved nonperturbative fragmentation functions obtained from fits to e + e - data. We find in general good agreement of data with both the GM-VFNS and the FFNS calculations, while the more precise ZEUS data seem to prefer the GM-VFNS predictions.

  20. Demonstrativeness of using energy rather than mass as the unit of measure for a number of problems in physics, mechanics, and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golitsyn, G S

    2008-01-01

    Changing from the mass - length - time to the energy - length - time system of units is suggested as a means by which a number of problems in physics, mechanics, and geophysics can be more easily and conveniently solved using similarity analysis and dimensional methods. Eight examples are presented, with the derivations of the Stefan - Boltzmann radiation law, total kinetic energy of a hurricane, cosmic ray energy spectrum, etc. (methodological notes)

  1. Osmotic dehydration of some agro-food tissue pre-treated by pulsed electric field: Impact of impeller’s Reynolds number on mass transfer and color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Amami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissues of apple, carrot and banana were pre-treated by pulsed electric field (PEF and subsequently osmotically dehydrated in an agitated flask at ambient temperature using a 65% sucrose solution as osmotic medium. The effect of stirring intensity was investigated through water loss (WL and solid gain (SG. Changes in product color were also considered to analyze the impact of the treatment. The impeller’s Reynolds number was used to quantify the agitation. The Reynolds number remained inferior to 300 thus displaying laminar flow regime. Water loss (WL and solid gain (SG increase with the increase of Reynolds number. Mass transfer in osmotic dehydration of all three test particles has been studied on the basis of a two-exponential kinetic model. Then, mass transfer coefficients were related to the agitation intensity. This paper shows that the proposed empirical model is able to describe mass transfer phenomena in osmotic dehydration of these tissues. It is also shown that a higher agitation intensity improves both the kinetics of water loss and solid gain.

  2. THE NUMBER DENSITY AND MASS DENSITY OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Whitaker, K. E.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Lee, K.-S.; Muzzin, A.; Marchesini, D.; Franx, M.; Kriek, M.; Labbe, I.; Quadri, R. F.; Williams, R.; Rudnick, G.

    2011-01-01

    We study the buildup of the bimodal galaxy population using the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, which provides excellent redshifts and well-sampled spectral energy distributions of ∼27, 000 galaxies with K 3 x 10 10 M sun increases by a factor of ∼10 from z ∼ 2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time period. Modest mass growth by a factor of ∼2 of individual quiescent galaxies can explain roughly half of the strong density evolution at masses >10 11 M sun , due to the steepness of the exponential tail of the mass function. The rest of the density evolution of massive, quiescent galaxies is likely due to transformation (e.g., quenching) of the massive star-forming population, a conclusion which is consistent with the density evolution we observe for the star-forming galaxies themselves, which is flat or decreasing with cosmic time. Modest mass growth does not explain the evolution of less massive quiescent galaxies (∼10 10.5 M sun ), which show a similarly steep increase in their number densities. The less massive quiescent galaxies are therefore continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population.

  3. A Comparison of body mass index and daily step numbers of secondary school and high school students according to age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Saygın

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the body mass index and daily steps number of secondary and high school students in Mugla region according to age and gender. Material and Methods: A total of 1851 volunteer students (682 secondary school students and 1169 high school students participated in this study. Physical activity level was determined by measuring daily step numbers of students with a pedometer. Body mass index (kg/m2 was calculated by utilizing from height and weight measurements in order to find body composition. Acquired data was recorded in SPSS (18.0 program. In order to find a difference in body composition and physical activity level between gender, Independent t-test was applied. One-way Anova was applied in order to find the differences among ages. Tukey HSD Analysis was used to find from which age the difference stemmed from. Frequencies and percentages values were calculated to assess the number of daily steps and body mass index standards, and chi-square analysis was used to find differences according to sex. Results: As a result of the statistical analyse; statistically significant difference was found in the physical activity level of secondary school students, it was also found both high school student’s body composition and physical activity levels of high school students according to gender (p<0.05. While the body mass index values of both male and female students tend to increase with age, the physical activity level of both students tends to decrease with age. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the daily step count standards were compared by sex (X2=23.999 p=0.000. It was found that 65.91% (n=698 of the female students and 49.87% (n=395 of the male students were below the normal values of the daily step counts. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the body mass index standards were compared by sex (X2=15.702, p=0.000. It was seen that 16.90% of female students (n=179

  4. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, W E; Hughson, M D; Zimanyi, M; Samuel, T; Douglas-Denton, R; Holden, L; Mott, S; Bertram, J F

    2010-11-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy occurs in a number of normal and pathological states. Glomerular volume in kidneys at autopsy is usually indirectly derived from estimates of total glomerular mass and nephron number, and provides only a single value per kidney, with no indication of the range of volumes of glomeruli within the kidney of any given subject. We review findings of the distribution of volumes of different glomeruli within subjects without kidney disease, and their correlations with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index (BMI). The study describes findings from autopsy kidneys of selected adult white males from the Southeast USA who had unexpected deaths, and who did not have renal scarring or renal disease. Total glomerular (nephron) number and total glomerular volume were estimated using the disector/fractionator combination, and mean glomerular volume (Vglom) was derived. The volumes of 30 individual glomeruli (IGV) in each subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri method. IGV values were compared by categories of age, nephron number, birth weight and BMI. There was substantial variation in IGV within subjects. Older age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight and gross obesity were associated with higher mean IGV and with greater IGV heterogeneity. High Vglom and high IGVs were associated with more glomerulosclerosis. However, amongst the generally modest numbers of sclerosed glomeruli, the pattern was uniformly of ischemic collapse of the glomerular tuft. There was no detectable focal segmental glomerular tuft injury. In this series of people without overt renal disease, greater age, nephron deficit, lower birth weight and obesity were marked by glomerular enlargement and greater glomerular volume heterogeneity within individuals.

  5. Exposure to carbon monoxide, fine particle mass, and ultrafine particle number in Jakarta, Indonesia: effect of commute mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Adam F; Westerdahl, Dane; Fruin, Scott; Haryanto, Budi; Marshall, Julian D

    2013-01-15

    We measured real-time exposure to PM(2.5), ultrafine PM (particle number) and carbon monoxide (CO) for commuting workers school children, and traffic police, in Jakarta, Indonesia. In total, we measured exposures for 36 individuals covering 93 days. Commuters in private cars experienced mean (st dev) exposures of 22 (9.4) ppm CO, 91 (38) μg/m(3)PM(2.5), and 290 (150)×10(3) particles cm(-3). Mean concentrations were higher in public transport than in private cars for PM(2.5) (difference in means: 22%) and particle counts (54%), but not CO, likely reflecting in-vehicle particle losses in private cars owing to air-conditioning. However, average commute times were longer for private car commuters than public transport commuters (in our sample, 24% longer: 3.0 vs. 2.3 h per day). Commute and traffic-related exposures experienced by Jakarta residents are among the highest in the world, owing to high on-road concentrations and multi-hour commutes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A systematic correlation analysis of carotenoids, chlorophyll, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number for the blueprint of Dunaliella salina culture in a photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyeon Gi; Byeon, Seon Yeong; Chung, Goo Yong; Jung, Sang-Myung; Choi, Jung Il; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2018-05-28

    Microalgal carotenoids are attractive health ingredients, but their production should be optimized to improve cost-effectiveness. Understanding cellular physiology centered on carotenoid synthesis is the prerequisite for this work. Therefore, systematic correlation analyses were conducted among chlorophyll, carotenoids, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number of Dunaliella salina in a specified condition over a relatively long culture time. First, an integrated correlation was performed: a temporal profile of the carotenoids was correlated with those of other factors, including chlorophyll, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number. Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses were performed to identify linearity and monotonicity of the correlation, respectively, and then cross-correlation was executed to determine if the correlation had a time lag. Second, to understand the cellular potential of metabolism, the procedure was repeated to provide a data set composed of the specific synthesis rates of the factors or growth rate, which additionally provided kinetic correlations among the constituting components of the cell, excluding the effect of cell number. This systematic approach could generate a blueprint model that is composed of only what it needs, which could make it possible to efficiently control and optimize the process.

  7. NACRE II: an update of the NACRE compilation of charged-particle-induced thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei with mass number A<16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Goriely, S.; Arnould, M.; Ohta, M.; Utsunomiya, H.

    2013-01-01

    An update of the NACRE compilation [3] is presented. This new compilation, referred to as NACRE II, reports thermonuclear reaction rates for 34 charged-particle induced, two-body exoergic reactions on nuclides with mass number A 6 ≲T⩽10 10 K range. Along with the ‘adopted’ rates, their low and high limits are provided. The new rates are available in electronic form as part of the Brussels Library (BRUSLIB) of nuclear data. The NACRE II rates also supersede the previous NACRE rates in the Nuclear Network Generator (NETGEN) for astrophysics. [ (http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/databases.html)

  8. PENULISAN ETUDE-ETUDE MUSIK TALEMPONG UNGGAN (Sebuah Usaha Pembelajaran Musik Tradisi Berbasis Literatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri MK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Talempong unggan”, a traditional music from Minangkabau community particularly in Unggan, Sumpur Kudus, Sijunjung Regency, West Sumatera Indonesia is classified into genre of “talempong duduak” (rea. Due to its special musical concept and the playing technics, this traditional music is selected as a practising course in the Karawitan Department of Indonesian Institute of Art (ISI Padang Panjang since 1993 till now. In a system of class learning with many students, Talempong Unggan definitely needs supporting methods and learning technics suitable for the course where the students can reach their maximum skills. All the melody of “talempong unggan” that has been made as a material of practice is transcribed to the system of numeric notation and rhythm motive of “gendang” and “aguang” which is written into signs and special notation. All of qualitative data is formulated into finding methods, technics and etude of learning ensamble of Talempong Unggan the traditional music that learned in Karawitan Department of ISI Padang Panjang. Key words: Talempong Unggan, Methods, Technics, Etude

  9. Petroleomics by electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry coupled to partial least squares with variable selection methods: prediction of the total acid number of crude oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Luciana A; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Tose, Lílian V; Romão, Wanderson; de Souza, Douglas D; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; de Oliveira, Mirela S L; Dias, Júlio C M; Poppi, Ronei J

    2014-10-07

    Negative-ion mode electrospray ionization, ESI(-), with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was coupled to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression and variable selection methods to estimate the total acid number (TAN) of Brazilian crude oil samples. Generally, ESI(-)-FT-ICR mass spectra present a power of resolution of ca. 500,000 and a mass accuracy less than 1 ppm, producing a data matrix containing over 5700 variables per sample. These variables correspond to heteroatom-containing species detected as deprotonated molecules, [M - H](-) ions, which are identified primarily as naphthenic acids, phenols and carbazole analog species. The TAN values for all samples ranged from 0.06 to 3.61 mg of KOH g(-1). To facilitate the spectral interpretation, three methods of variable selection were studied: variable importance in the projection (VIP), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and elimination of uninformative variables (UVE). The UVE method seems to be more appropriate for selecting important variables, reducing the dimension of the variables to 183 and producing a root mean square error of prediction of 0.32 mg of KOH g(-1). By reducing the size of the data, it was possible to relate the selected variables with their corresponding molecular formulas, thus identifying the main chemical species responsible for the TAN values.

  10. Effect of vitrification on number of inner cell mass in mouse blastocysts in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem, S.; Negar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of using open and closed carriers on count of inner cell mass in vitrified mouse blastocyst after warming. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, from April to September 2010. Forty female NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute, USA) mice were injected with pregnant mares serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin in order to induce super ovulation. Following the latter injection, two or three females were caged with the same-breed male mice. The presence of vaginal plug was examined the following morning. To collect blastocyst embryos, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 88-90 hours after the injection and dissected. Blastocysts were collected in phosphate-buffered saline and allocated to four groups: vitrification in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop. The vitrification solution was ethylene glycol, Ficol and sucrose (EFS) 20% and 40%. After storage for 1 month in liquid nitrogen, the blastocysts were thawed in 0.5 M sucrose then cultured in M16 medium. After 6 hours of culture, the number of expanded blastocysts was recorded and stained by double-dye technique. After staining, the number of total cell and inner cell mass was calculated. Results: The re-expansion rate of blastocysts in the cryoloop group (n=90; 78.26%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than open pulled straw (n=83; 69.16%), closed pulled straw (n=68; 54.83%) and conventional straws (n=63; 51.21%) groups. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the number of inner cell mass in blastocysts vitrified in open pulled straws, closed straws and cryoloop with blastocysts cryopreserved in conventional straws. Conclusion: The re-expansion rate and total cell number of mouse blastocysts vitrified using open system had a better result compared with the closed system. The value of cryoloop and open pulled straws as carriers in

  11. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF: Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Wulf Christensen

    Full Text Available Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF. Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following treatment-cycles and a more favorable outcome. The main objective was to explore if treatment cycle number modifies the outcome when investigating the effect of female Body Mass Index (BMI on oocyte quantity in IVF.A historical cohort study was conducted on 5,342 treatment-cycles during the period 1999-2009. Exclusion criteria were missing information on BMI or treatment type. Further, women were excluded if they had ovulated before oocyte retrieval. According to baseline BMI, women were divided into four categories following the World Health Organization standards. Multiple linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman.Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect modification from cycle number or a factor related to cycle number. The median dose of total follicular stimulating hormone given to the four BMI groups could not straight forwardly explain the less optimal oocyte outcome observed in first treatment cycles. No statistically significant differences were observed in oocyte yield for underweight, overweight and obesity compared to normal weight women when analyzing all treatment-cycles. Overweight women had significantly fewer mature (MII oocytes (p = 0.009 than normal weight women, whereas no differences was observed for underweight and obese women.Our study suggests a possible interaction or effect modification related to treatment cycle number. Investigating the effects of BMI on IVF-results in first treatment-cycles alone should be carried out cautiously.

  12. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-12-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately} 1.4 mm. In this plasma-shell regime, many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  13. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ∼ 1.4 mm. In this plasma-shell regime, many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models

  14. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.

    1997-05-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ˜1.4 mm. In this "plasma-shell regime," many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  15. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ∼1.4 mm. In this ''plasma-shell regime,'' many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models

  16. The dependence on energy and mass-number of the α-particle optical potential: A justification for the folding model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, E.; Gils, H.J.; Rebel, H.; Pesl, R.

    1980-09-01

    Data for elastic scattering of α-particles by sup(40,42,44,48)Ca, 50 Ti, 52 Cr and 90 Zr at 104 MeV, by 40 Ca, sup(46,48,50)Ti, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb at 140 MeV and by sup(58,60,62,64)Ni at 173 MeV are analysed using a Fourier-Bessel description of the optical potential. All data extend to large angles thus allowing unique determination of volume integrals and rms radii of the potentials. The variations with mass number and energy of these quantities are investigated and conclusions are drawn about studies of nuclear radii with the help of optical potentials. (orig.)

  17. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Jardim-Messeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans, roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal

  18. Determination of the mass of W boson at LEP2 with ALEPH detector by studying energy spectra of leptons; Determination de la masse du boson W a LEP2 avec le detecteur ALEPH par l'etude du spectre d'energie des leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessagne-Trescarte, S

    2000-07-07

    One of the most significant goals of the LEP is to test with precision the Electroweak Standard Model. Whereas the first step was mainly centered on the study of the Z boson, the second phase, LEP200, allowed the study of the proprieties of the W boson. Thus, the mass of the W is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model and its measurement is a very significant stake to test this model and to predict the mass of the Higgs boson through radiative corrections. LEP200 is well adapted to the study of the mass of the W boson, because the centre-of-mass energy is above the kinematic threshold, {radical}S = 2M{sub W}, and thus makes it possible to produce W{sup +}W{sup -} pairs through the process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}. The data collected by the ALEPH detector during the years 1997 and 1998 at the centre-of-mass energy of respectively 183 GeV and 189 GeV have been used in this thesis to perform a measurement of M{sub W} based on the comparison of distributions sensitive to M{sub W}, and built using the data and Monte Carlo samples generated at different W masses. Two types of methods can be used to estimate the W mass: the direct reconstruction of M{sub W} (using as estimator the invariant mass obtained after a 2C kinematic fit) or the measurement of M{sub W} through the WW cross section. This thesis proposes a new technique of direct reconstruction based on the use of the W {yields} l{nu} channel. The distributions used in the semileptonic channel are the energies of the lepton and of the neutrino calculated in the laboratory frame and in the centre-of-mass of the W, the lepton-neutrino invariant mass and the boost of the W. In the leptonic channel, the three distributions used are the energy of the most energetic lepton, the energy of the second lepton and the missing energy of the event. In the leptonic channel, WW {yields} l{nu}l{nu}, one gets: M{sub W} = 81.409 {+-} 0.565(Stat) {+-} 0.125(Syst) GeV/c{sup 2}. In the semileptonic channel WW

  19. Study of the fluctuations of the partial and total radiative widths by neutron capture resonance method; Etude des fluctuations des largeurs radiatives partielles et totales par la capture des neutrons de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, V D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    Radiative capture experiments by neutron time-of-flight methods have been made for following studies: distribution of partial radiative widths, effects of correlation between different radiative transitions, fluctuations of total radiative widths {gamma}{sub {gamma}} from resonance to resonance, variation of {gamma}{sub {gamma}} with number of mass and the search for the existence of potential capture. Also, some other experiments with the use of neutron capture gamma-rays spectra have been investigated. (author) [French] Par la capture des neutrons de resonance dont les energies sont selectionnees a l'aide de la technique du temps de vol, differents types d'experiences ont ete realisees concernant les etudes des distributions des largeurs radiatives partielles, des effets de correlation entre differentes voies de desexcitation, de la fluctuation des largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} de resonance a resonance, de la variation de la quantite {gamma}{sub {gamma}} en fonction du nombre de masse et de la mise en evidence de l'existence du processus de capture potentielle. Quelques autres applications de l'emploi du spectre de rayons gamma ont egalement ete presentees. (auteur)

  20. Study of the fluctuations of the partial and total radiative widths by neutron capture resonance method; Etude des fluctuations des largeurs radiatives partielles et totales par la capture des neutrons de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, V.D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    Radiative capture experiments by neutron time-of-flight methods have been made for following studies: distribution of partial radiative widths, effects of correlation between different radiative transitions, fluctuations of total radiative widths {gamma}{sub {gamma}} from resonance to resonance, variation of {gamma}{sub {gamma}} with number of mass and the search for the existence of potential capture. Also, some other experiments with the use of neutron capture gamma-rays spectra have been investigated. (author) [French] Par la capture des neutrons de resonance dont les energies sont selectionnees a l'aide de la technique du temps de vol, differents types d'experiences ont ete realisees concernant les etudes des distributions des largeurs radiatives partielles, des effets de correlation entre differentes voies de desexcitation, de la fluctuation des largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} de resonance a resonance, de la variation de la quantite {gamma}{sub {gamma}} en fonction du nombre de masse et de la mise en evidence de l'existence du processus de capture potentielle. Quelques autres applications de l'emploi du spectre de rayons gamma ont egalement ete presentees. (auteur)

  1. Study of an industrial process for the synthesis of high molar mass ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymers usable as extrusible electrolyte; Etude d`un procede industriel de synthese de copolymeres oxyde d`ethylene-oxyde de propylene de hautes masses molaires utilisables comme electrolyte extrudable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramain, Ph. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Caselles, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is to develop an industrial process for the synthesis of an extrusible electrolyte polymer for lithium batteries. From literature data and precise specifications the high molar mass EO/OP copolymers synthesis by coordinative catalysis has been studied in order to reach a high productivity and to minimize the treatment steps. Two catalytic systems have been studied: the aluminium alkoxide-based Vandenberg-type catalysis and the calcium alcoholate amides catalysis. The first catalysis performed in solution gives excellent results. Its adaptation to silicon supported catalysis leads to a directly usable polymer in suspension but the productivity falls down and remains to be optimized. The calcium amide catalysis in heptane suspension generates acceptable productivities but also a too high proportion of low molar masses. Various approaches have been studied to minimize this proportion due to the presence of secondary sites that generate a cationic mechanism. The two synthesis ways explored are promising but remain to be optimized in order to increase the productivity of the efficient catalytic site and to reduce the formation of low molar masses generated by parasite catalytic sites. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  2. Study of an industrial process for the synthesis of high molar mass ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymers usable as extrusible electrolyte; Etude d`un procede industriel de synthese de copolymeres oxyde d`ethylene-oxyde de propylene de hautes masses molaires utilisables comme electrolyte extrudable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramain, Ph [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Caselles, E [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work is to develop an industrial process for the synthesis of an extrusible electrolyte polymer for lithium batteries. From literature data and precise specifications the high molar mass EO/OP copolymers synthesis by coordinative catalysis has been studied in order to reach a high productivity and to minimize the treatment steps. Two catalytic systems have been studied: the aluminium alkoxide-based Vandenberg-type catalysis and the calcium alcoholate amides catalysis. The first catalysis performed in solution gives excellent results. Its adaptation to silicon supported catalysis leads to a directly usable polymer in suspension but the productivity falls down and remains to be optimized. The calcium amide catalysis in heptane suspension generates acceptable productivities but also a too high proportion of low molar masses. Various approaches have been studied to minimize this proportion due to the presence of secondary sites that generate a cationic mechanism. The two synthesis ways explored are promising but remain to be optimized in order to increase the productivity of the efficient catalytic site and to reduce the formation of low molar masses generated by parasite catalytic sites. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  3. Implementing Formative Assessment in Engineering Education: The Use of the Online Assessment System Etude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopper, Sofia M.; Sjoer, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the possibilities offered by the online assessment system Etude to achieve the benefits of formative assessment. In order to find out the way this works in practice, we carried out an experiment with the use of Etude for formative assessment in the course on collaborative report writing. Results show that online formative…

  4. Suspect screening of large numbers of emerging contaminants in environmental waters using artificial neural networks for chromatographic retention time prediction and high resolution mass spectrometry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Felix

    2015-12-15

    The recent development of broad-scope high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) screening methods has resulted in a much improved capability for new compound identification in environmental samples. However, positive identifications at the ng/L concentration level rely on analytical reference standards for chromatographic retention time (tR) and mass spectral comparisons. Chromatographic tR prediction can play a role in increasing confidence in suspect screening efforts for new compounds in the environment, especially when standards are not available, but reliable methods are lacking. The current work focuses on the development of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for tR prediction in gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and applied along with HRMS data to suspect screening of wastewater and environmental surface water samples. Based on a compound tR dataset of >500 compounds, an optimized 4-layer back-propagation multi-layer perceptron model enabled predictions for 85% of all compounds to within 2min of their measured tR for training (n=344) and verification (n=100) datasets. To evaluate the ANN ability for generalization to new data, the model was further tested using 100 randomly selected compounds and revealed 95% prediction accuracy within the 2-minute elution interval. Given the increasing concern on the presence of drug metabolites and other transformation products (TPs) in the aquatic environment, the model was applied along with HRMS data for preliminary identification of pharmaceutically-related compounds in real samples. Examples of compounds where reference standards were subsequently acquired and later confirmed are also presented. To our knowledge, this work presents for the first time, the successful application of an accurate retention time predictor and HRMS data-mining using the largest number of compounds to preliminarily identify new or emerging contaminants in wastewater and surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Z, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira, M. S.; Goncalves Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Z eff of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Z eff using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  6. 98 Etude Comparative du Systeme Phonematique et Tonal des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    98. Etude Comparative du Systeme Phonematique et Tonal des. Deux Parlers: Le Yoruba du Nigeria et L'itsa Parle en. Republique du Benin. Ajani Akinwumi Lateef et Ayuba G. Ajibabi http://dx.doi./org/10.4314/ujah.v18i3.5. Résume. En ce début de l'époque ou la mondialisation et la coexistence des peuples dans le ...

  7. The use of mass spectrometry for analysing metabolite biomarkers in epidemiology: methodological and statistical considerations for application to large numbers of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Mads V; Savolainen, Otto I; Ross, Alastair B

    2016-08-01

    Data quality is critical for epidemiology, and as scientific understanding expands, the range of data available for epidemiological studies and the types of tools used for measurement have also expanded. It is essential for the epidemiologist to have a grasp of the issues involved with different measurement tools. One tool that is increasingly being used for measuring biomarkers in epidemiological cohorts is mass spectrometry (MS), because of the high specificity and sensitivity of MS-based methods and the expanding range of biomarkers that can be measured. Further, the ability of MS to quantify many biomarkers simultaneously is advantageously compared to single biomarker methods. However, as with all methods used to measure biomarkers, there are a number of pitfalls to consider which may have an impact on results when used in epidemiology. In this review we discuss the use of MS for biomarker analyses, focusing on metabolites and their application and potential issues related to large-scale epidemiology studies, the use of MS "omics" approaches for biomarker discovery and how MS-based results can be used for increasing biological knowledge gained from epidemiological studies. Better understanding of the possibilities and possible problems related to MS-based measurements will help the epidemiologist in their discussions with analytical chemists and lead to the use of the most appropriate statistical tools for these data.

  8. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.; Nash, T.J.; Spielman, R.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico87185 (United States); Peterson, D.L.; Roderick, N.F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States); Hammer, J.H.; De Groot, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California94550 (United States); Mosher, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, District of Columbia20375 (United States); Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P. [Naval Research Laboratory, Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch, Washington, District of Columbia20375 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately}1.4mm. In this {open_quotes}plasma-shell regime,{close_quotes} many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, array radius, and load mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-06-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, including the radiated power, increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMEC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately} 1.4 mm. In the plasma-shell regime, the experimental implosions exhibit 1D- and 2D-code characteristics as evidenced by the presence of a strong first and a weak second radiation pulse that correlates with a strong and weak radial convergence. In this regime, many of the radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. Moreover, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in array mass and radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple K-shell radiation scaling models.

  10. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.; Nash, T.J.; Spielman, R.B.; Peterson, D.L.; Roderick, N.F.; Hammer, J.H.; De Groot, J.S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ∼1.4mm. In this open-quotes plasma-shell regime,close quotes many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Charged Higgs production from polarized top-quark decay in the 2HDM considering the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, S.; Mohammad Moosavi Nejad, S.

    2018-05-01

    Charged Higgs bosons are predicted by some non-minimal Higgs scenarios, such as models containing Higgs triplets and two-Higgs-doublet models, so that the experimental observation of these bosons would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. In the present work, we introduce a channel to indirect search for the charged Higgses through the hadronic decay of polarized top quarks where a top quark decays into a charged Higgs H+ and a bottom-flavored meson B via the hadronization process of the produced bottom quark, t (↑) →H+ + b (→ B + jet). To obtain the energy spectrum of produced B-mesons we present, for the first time, an analytical expression for the O (αs) corrections to the differential decay width of the process t →H+ b in presence of a massive b-quark in the General-Mass Variable-Flavor-Number (GM-VFN) scheme. We find that the most reliable predictions for the B-hadron energy spectrum are made in the GM-VFN scheme, specifically, when the Type-II 2HDM scenario is concerned.

  12. Numerical investigation of the vortex-induced vibration of an elastically mounted circular cylinder at high Reynolds number (Re = 104 and low mass ratio using the RANS code.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Bahadur Khan

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates the vortex-induced vibration (VIV of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations with computational fluid dynamic (CFD tools. CFD analysis is performed for a fixed-cylinder case with Reynolds number (Re = 104 and for a cylinder that is free to oscillate in the transverse direction and possesses a low mass-damping ratio and Re = 104. Previously, similar studies have been performed with 3-dimensional and comparatively expensive turbulent models. In the current study, the capability and accuracy of the RANS model are validated, and the results of this model are compared with those of detached eddy simulation, direct numerical simulation, and large eddy simulation models. All three response branches and the maximum amplitude are well captured. The 2-dimensional case with the RANS shear-stress transport k-w model, which involves minimal computational cost, is reliable and appropriate for analyzing the characteristics of VIV.

  13. Cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters: marginalizing over the physics of galaxy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy L., E-mail: rmredd@stanford.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining Ω {sub m} and σ{sub 8} from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.

  14. Cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters: marginalizing over the physics of galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu; Tinker, Jeremy L.

    2014-01-01

    Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining Ω m and σ 8 from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.

  15. Etude par Spectrométrie de masse de la décomposition thermique sous vide de kérogènes appartenant à deux lignées évolutives distinctes Mass Spectrometry Investigation of the Vaccum Thermal Decomposition of Kerogens from Two Distinct Evolutive Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souron C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cette étude est la connaissance qualitative et quantitative des composés dégagés lors de la décomposition thermique sous vide de quelques échantillons de kérogènes appartenant à deux lignées différentes. La principale technique utilisée est la spectrométrie de masse, appuyée sur des études préliminaires par thermogravi métrie et analyse élémentaire. Une adaptation particulière de l'appareillage et une mise au point de la méthode d'étalonnage permettent de doser les quatre composés minéraux les plus abondants et de donner une représentation des composés organiques. Cette étude montre que les composés formés au cours du chauffage comprennent, pour tous les kérogènes étudiés, des composés oxygénés et soufrés (CO, H2O, SH2, SOJ libérés principalement dans l'intervalle de température 200-400° C, et des composés hydrocarbonés, plus abondants, dans l'intervalle 300-500° C. On commente dans cet article l'origine supposée de ces composés; la formation de S02 au cours de la pyrolyse est particulièrement mal connue. On remarque que le rapport H2O/C02 peut être un critère de distinction des deux lignées de kérogènes étudiés. La distinction observée sur les produits hydrocarbonés nécessitera des recherches complémentaires pour être utilisée avec plus de sûreté. The aim of this investigation is to obtain a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the compounds given off during the vacuum thermal decomposition of several kerogen samples from two different lines. The main technique used is mass spectrometry, based on prior investigations by thermogravimetry and element onalysis. The equipment was specially adapted and a calibration method was developed for titrating the four most abundant minerai compounds and for representing the organic compounds. This investigation shows that the compounds formed during heating include, for oil the kerogens examined, oxygen-and sulfur

  16. Determination of iodine at ppt level in a nitric acid medium by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry: influence of the chemical forms; Etude de la determination de traces d'iode en solution par spectrometrie de masse a secteur magnetique utilisant un plasma a couplage inductif comme source d'ionisation: influence de la forme chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, B

    2001-07-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP/SFMS) was used to determine several chemical forms of iodine, at ppt level, in a nitric acid media. Ascorbic acid was added as a reducing agent in order to maintain iodine as iodide. In a preliminary approach, the influence of the chemical form was studied by comparing inorganic iodine (NaI) and organic iodine (CH3I). Different signal responses were observed. With a conventional sample introduction system, sensitivities obtained for iodo-methane could differ by a factor of 5. This was not caused by a problem of atomization or by a change in the ionization efficiency of the iodo-compound into the plasma. The low volatilization temperature of iodo-methane (315.5 K) seemed to be the main explanation of this phenomena. Actually, nebulization resulted in the volatilization of a 2% nitric acid solution containing iodo-methane. As a result, the transport efficiency of iodo-methane between the nebulizer and the torch was approaching 100%. A Direct Injection High Efficiency Nebulizer (DIHEN) allowed us to minimize the behavior difference between the two iodine species, but the sensitivity ratio was inverted and still differed by 20 - 40%. Moreover, the association of a guard electrode and the direct injection system was studied in order to apply these equipments to the determination of iodine. This association allowed us to improve the sensitivity by a factor of 10 and to minimize memory effects, when compared with a conventional system. Further studies indicated that signal responses obtained with different iodine-containing species, except for iodo-methane, were found to be similar. (author)

  17. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-07-08

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues.

  18. Effects of aromatics, olefins and distillation temperatures (T50 & T90) on particle mass and number emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Zu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Abstratct: Fuel quality is among the primary reasons for severe vehicle pollution. A limited understanding of the effects of gasoline properties on modern vehicle emissions is one obstacle for the establishment of stricter fuel standards in China. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of aromatic and olefin contents and T50 and T90 (defined as the 50%v and 90%v distillation temperatures) on tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles compliant with China 4 standards. Both gaseous and particle emissions using different types of gasoline were measured. Changing aromatic and olefin contents had relatively small impacts on fuel consumption. Compared with olefins and T90, the regulated gaseous emissions were impacted more by aromatics and T50. Evident decreases of the particle mass (PM) and particle number (PN) emissions were noticed when the aromatic content and T90 decreased. Reducing the olefin content slightly decreased the PM emissions and increased the PN emissions. With decreasing T50, the PM emissions increased and the PN emissions slightly decreased. These results suggest that aromatic content and T90 should be decreased to reduce particle emissions from GDI vehicles. The information presented in this study provides some suggestions for how to improve gasoline quality in China. - Highlights: • Effect of aromatics, olefins, T50 and T90 on GDI vehicle emissions was investigated. • Aromatics and olefins had little impact on fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. • Reducing the aromatic content and T90 significantly decreased PM and PN emissions. • Changing the olefin content and T50 had a minor impact on particle emissions. • Thresholds of aromatics and T90 should be tightened in future gasoline regulations.

  19. Experimental study of heat transfer for parallel flow in tube bundles with constant heat flux and for medium Prandtl numbers; Etude experimentale du transfert de chaleur dans des faisceaux tubulaires en ecoulement parallele pour une densite de flux thermique constante dans le domaine des nombres de Prandtl moyens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The heat transfer parameters were determined experimentally in electrically heated tube bundles for turbulent flow parallel to the axis. The tubes were arranged in a pattern of equilateral triangles. The ratios of the distance between the axes of the tubes to their external diameter were 1.60 and 1.25 in the two test sections studied. The experiments were carried out with distilled water and with a mixture of 60 per cent ethylene glycol and 40 per cent water. The values obtained for the Prandtl numbers in this way fell within the range from 2.3 to 18. The Reynolds numbers were varied between 10{sup 4} and 2.10{sup 5}. The relation between the mean heat transfer coefficients and the friction factor in the tube bundles was found from the experiments as: Nu = [Re Pr {zeta}/8]/[1+{radical}({zeta}/8) 8.8 (Pr-1.3) Pr{sup -0.22}]. The experimentally determined mean Nusselt numbers were also given by the following function: Nu = (0.0122 + 0.00245 p/d) Re{sup 0.86} Pr{sup 0.4}, with a maximum deviation of {+-}4 per cent. For certain local Nusselt numbers, deviations of up to 20 per cent with respect to the relations given were observed. (author) [French] Dans des faisceaux tubulaires a chauffage electrique parcourus par un ecoulement turbulent parallele a l'axe, on a determine experimentalement les parametres du transfert de chaleur. Les centres des sections droites des tubes etaient des sommets de triangles equilateraux. Les rapports de la distance a l'axe des tubes et leur diametre exterieur dans les deux veines de mesure etudiees etaient de 1.60 et 1.25. Des essais furent effectues avec de l'eau distillee ainsi qu'avec un melange de 60 pour cent de glycol ethylenique et 40 pour cent d'eau. Les valeurs des nombres de Prandtl obtenues ainsi etaient situees entre 2.3 a 18. On a fait varier les nombres de Reynolds entre 10{sup 4} et 2.10{sup 5}. La relation entre les nombres caracteristiques de transfert de chaleur moyens et la perte de charge dans les faisceaux tabulaires

  20. Contribution to the study of mesons and their interactions with nuclei, by threshold production in low nucleon number systems; Contribution a l`etude des mesons et de leur interaction avec les noyaux, par production au seuil dans les systemes a petit nombre de nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudot, F

    1995-01-01

    The threshold excitation function of the pd {yields} {sup 3}HeX reaction and the total {eta}-meson production cross section near threshold in the dd {yields} {alpha}{eta} reaction have been measured using the SPES4 beam line of the Laboratoire National Saturne. In the pd {yields} {sup 3}HeX threshold function, clear signals are observed at {omega}, {eta}` and {phi}6 mesons threshold; some structures appear at central masses of the a{sub 0} and f{sub 0}-mesons, as just above the two kaons production threshold. These structures could be the signature of new hadronic exotic states. The two-pion and two-kaon physical background has been estimated in a one-pion exchange model allowing the calculation of the differential cross section for the {pi}{sup -}p {yields} nX elementary process. The results of this calculation of the physical background of the threshold excitation function. The the dd {yields} {alpha}{eta} study, the {eta}-meson was clearly observed in the spectrometer`s final focal plane spectra, in good agreement with a Monte Carlo simulation. A total cross section of the order of the nano-barn has been measured. The results are compared to some other {eta}-meson production processes with lighter nuclei than helium-4. Using different nuclei a comparative study of the {eta}-nucleus interaction has shown that the latter is more binding in the helium-4 case. Based on these data, the charge symmetry breaking in the dd {yields} {alpha}{pi}{sup 0} reaction is studied. Using a {pi}{sup 0}-{eta} mixing model, the extracted cross sections are compatible with the only measurement of this reaction cross section. (author). 59 refs.

  1. Validation study of an interpolation method for calculating whole lung volumes and masses from reduced numbers of CT-images in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, H; Moens, Y; Braun, C; Kneissl, S; Noreikat, K; Reske, A

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative computer tomographic analysis (qCTA) is an accurate but time intensive method used to quantify volume, mass and aeration of the lungs. The aim of this study was to validate a time efficient interpolation technique for application of qCTA in ponies. Forty-one thoracic computer tomographic (CT) scans obtained from eight anaesthetised ponies positioned in dorsal recumbency were included. Total lung volume and mass and their distribution into four compartments (non-aerated, poorly aerated, normally aerated and hyperaerated; defined based on the attenuation in Hounsfield Units) were determined for the entire lung from all 5 mm thick CT-images, 59 (55-66) per animal. An interpolation technique validated for use in humans was then applied to calculate qCTA results for lung volumes and masses from only 10, 12, and 14 selected CT-images per scan. The time required for both procedures was recorded. Results were compared statistically using the Bland-Altman approach. The bias ± 2 SD for total lung volume calculated from interpolation of 10, 12, and 14 CT-images was -1.2 ± 5.8%, 0.1 ± 3.5%, and 0.0 ± 2.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for total lung mass were -1.1 ± 5.9%, 0.0 ± 3.5%, and 0.0 ± 3.0%. The average time for analysis of one thoracic CT-scan using the interpolation method was 1.5-2 h compared to 8 h for analysis of all images of one complete thoracic CT-scan. The calculation of pulmonary qCTA data by interpolation from 12 CT-images was applicable for equine lung CT-scans and reduced the time required for analysis by 75%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Observations of different core water cluster ions Y-(H2O)n (Y = O2, HOx, NOx, COx) and magic number in atmospheric pressure negative corona discharge mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    Reliable mass spectrometry data from large water clusters Y(-)(H(2)O)(n) with various negative core ions Y(-) such as O(2)(-), HO(-), HO(2)(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), NO(3)(-)(HNO(3))(2), CO(3)(-) and HCO(4)(-) have been obtained using atmospheric pressure negative corona discharge mass spectrometry. All the core Y(-) ions observed were ionic species that play a central role in tropospheric ion chemistry. These mass spectra exhibited discontinuities in ion peak intensity at certain size clusters Y(-)(H(2)O)(m) indicating specific thermochemical stability. Thus, Y(-)(H(2)O)(m) may correspond to the magic number or first hydrated shell in the cluster series Y(-)(H(2)O)(n). The high intensity discontinuity at HO(-)(H(2)O)(3) observed was the first mass spectrometric evidence for the specific stability of HO(-)(H(2)O)(3) as the first hydrated shell which Eigen postulated in 1964. The negative ion water clusters Y(-)(H(2)O)(n) observed in the mass spectra are most likely to be formed via core ion formation in the ambient discharge area (760 torr) and the growth of water clusters by adiabatic expansion in the vacuum region of the mass spectrometers (≈1 torr). The detailed mechanism of the formation of the different core water cluster ions Y(-)(H(2)O)(n) is described. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Extension of the analytical window for characterizing aromatic compounds in oils using a comprehensive suite of high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques and double bond equivalence versus carbon number plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Birdwell, Justin E.; Hur, Manhoi; Lee, Joonhee; Kim, Byungjoo; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) were used to study the aromatic fractions of crude oil and oil shale pyrolysates (shale oils). The collected data were compared and combined in the double bond equivalence (DBE) versus carbon number plot to obtain a more complete understanding of the composition of the oil fractions. The numbers of peaks observed by each technique followed the order 2D GC–MS plots of DBE and carbon number showed an extended range of higher values relative to the other methods. For the aromatic fraction of an oil shale pyrolysate generated by the Fischer assay, only a few nitrogen-containing compounds were observed by 2D GC–MS but a large number of these compounds were detected by Orbitrap MS and FT-ICR MS. This comparison clearly shows that the data obtained from these three techniques can be combined to more completely characterize oil composition. The data obtained by Orbitrap MS and FT-ICR MS agreed well with one another, and the combined DBE versus carbon number plot provided more complete coverage of compounds present in the fractions. In addition, the chemical structure information provided by 2D GC–MS could be matched with the chemical formulas in the DBE versus carbon number plots, providing information not available in ultrahigh-resolution MS results. It was therefore concluded that the combination of 2D GC–MS, Orbitrap MS, and FT-ICR MS in the DBE versus carbon number space facilitates structural assignment of heavy oil components.

  4. Aerodynamic and thermal studies of cans of gas cooled fuel elements; Etudes aerodynamiques et thermiques de gaines d'elements combustibles refroidis par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Milliat, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    Research on clusters was undertaken at the CEA in 1959, while studies on herring-bone cans were developed at the EDF Laboratory at Chatou and the CEA laboratory at Saclay at the end of 1959. In 1962, a general study on corrugations was begun at the Saclay Laboratory with a view to improving the clusters, and continued later in both laboratories relative to the internal cooling of annular fuel elements. As these studies progressed, trial facilities were extended while experimental methods have improved constantly. At the present time, both laboratories, working in complete collaboration, have powerful means at their disposal. Work on the clusters has been concerned chiefly with pressure losses due to the assembly parts, and with the temperature variations around the elements of the cluster. In this way, we have been able to determine satisfactorily the hot points of the can, the deformations of the rods and the conditions of stability of these deformations. In the case of the herring-bone cans, studies have been directed to the evolution of performances as a function of the geometric parameters on the one hand, and to the special aerodynamic and thermal features caused by the fins and by interruptions of cartridge on the other hand. These studies have led to a very thorough knowledge of the cartridges chosen for the reactors EDF 2 and EDF 3, and now open up very hopeful prospects for future reactors, particularly those fitted with annular elements; among the alternatives suitable for the inner surface of the annular element can, corrugations and longitudinal fins have been fairly extensively tested over a wide range of Reynolds number. (authors) [French] Les etudes de grappes ont ete entreprises au C.E.A. en 1959, tandis que les etudes de gaines a chevrons se sont developpees au Laboratoire de Chatou de l'EDF et au Laboratoire de Saclay du C.E.A. a la fin de l'annee 1959. En 1962, une etude generale sur les corrugations a ete commencee au Laboratoire de Saclay pour

  5. Treatment of effluent at the Saclay Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires (1960); Le traitement des effluents du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay possesses several installations from which liquid radioactive effluent is rejected, and it has thus been found necessary to construct a station for the purification of radioactive liquids and to settle various chemical, analytical and technological problems. This report describes, in the following order: - the disposal possibilities at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, - the effluents produced at the centre, - the set-up for collecting effluent, - treatment of the effluent, - results of these treatments. (author) [French] La presence, au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, de plusieurs installations susceptibles de rejeter des effluents liquides radioactifs a necessite la construction d'une station d'epuration d'eaux radioactives et la mise au point de differents problemes chimiques, analytiques et technologiques. Dans ce rapport, nous exposerons successivement: - les possibilites de rejet du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, - les effluents du centre, - le dispositif de collecte des effluents, - le traitement de ces effluents, - les resultats de ces traitements. (auteur)

  6. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF): Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Wulf; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Degn, Birte

    2016-01-01

    linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman. RESULTS: Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect......INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF). Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following...

  7. Etudes sur le Portugal au Temps de l'Humanisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cruz Costa

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available BATAILLON (Marcel. — Etudes sur le Portugal au Temps de l'Humanisme.  Acta Universitatis Conimbrigencis, 1952, 309 pp. (Primeiro Parágrafo do Artigo O Prof. Marcel Bataillon, erudito dos mais inteligentes da França atual, autor de uma obra que é hoje impr:scindível para quem pretenda estudar o humanismo renascentista na Espanha ou em Portugal, diríamos melhor, talvez: para quem pretenda estudar o Humanismo e a Renascença, — acaba de publicar, na coleção Acta Universitatis Conimbrigencis, êste volume no qual reune alguns trabalhos da mais alta importância para o conhecimento de muitos aspectos da vida espiritual portuguêsa do século XVI.

  8. Mass, quark-number, and sqrt sNN dependence of the second and fourth flow harmonics in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein, S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.

    2007-01-01

    We present STAR measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v 2 for pions, kaons, protons, Lambda, bar Lambda, Xi+bar Xi,and Omega + bar Omega, along with v 4 for pions, kaons, protons, and Lambda + bar Lambda at mid-rapidity for Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN=62.4and 200 GeV. The v 2 (p T ) values for all hadron species at 62.4 GeV are similar to those observed in 130 and 200 GeV collisions. For observed kinematic ranges, v 2 values at 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are as little as 10 percent-15 percent larger than those in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt s NN=17.3 GeV. At intermediate transverse momentum (p T from 1.5-5 GeV/c),the 62.4 GeV v 2 (p T ) and v 4 (p T ) values are consistent with the quark-number scaling first observed at 200 GeV. A four-particle cumulant analysis is used to assess the non-flow contributions to pions and protons and some indications are found for a smaller non-flow contribution to protons than pions. Baryon v 2 is larger than anti-baryon v 2 at 62.4 and 200 GeV perhaps indicating either that the initial spatial net-baryon distribution is anisotropic, that the mechanism leading to transport of baryon number from beam- to mid-rapidity enhances v 2 , or that anti-baryon and baryon annihilation is larger in the in-plane direction

  9. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

  10. Study of heavy meson production in p-Pb collisions at p√(S)=5.02 TeV in the general-mass variable-flavour-number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Spiesberger, H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Inst. fuer Physik; Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics and Dept. of Physics

    2017-03-16

    We study inclusive charm and bottom production, for both D and B mesons, in p-Pb collisions at the LHC. Numerical results for p{sub T} -differential production cross sections are obtained at next-to-leading-order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme. We compare our results with recent data from ALICE and CMS at a center-of-mass energy of 5 TeV and find good agreement. A comparison with p-p cross sections does not reveal the presence of nuclear initial-state interaction effects that could be expected to become visible as deviations of the ratio of p-Pb and p-p cross sections from one.

  11. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  12. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  13. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  14. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  15. Study of various processes for marking sediments with gold-198; Etude de divers procedes de marquages de sediments par l'or 198

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanneau, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-15

    The use of radioactive isotopes for the study of sediment deposits is based mainly on two methods: marking in the mass - a glass of an element which can be activated replaces the sediment; surface marking - a physico-chemical process is used to deposit a radio-element at the surface of the sediment. The second process is used in particular for sands when it is advantageous to have a large number of particles for statistical analysis. The aim of this work was to develop a rapid and simple method of marking which could be applied on the actual site of the experiment where equipment, may be limited. The method recommended for marking sand with gold-198 is a combination of the Petersen (treatment with tin chloride) and Campbell (treatment with silver) methods combined with prior treatments with nitric acid and caustic soda. Using this method it is possible to deposit 125 mg of gold per kilo of sediment with a yield of 95 per cent (i.e. 10 Ci/kg) using a hydrochloric acid solution containing gold. The problem of the solidity of the deposits, of their value and of their reproducibility is discussed from the point of view of the mineral constitution of the sand. (author) [French] L'utilisation d'isotopes radioactifs pour l'etude des deplacements sedimentaires fait, principalement appel a deux methodes: le marquage massique - un verre contenant un element activable remplace le sediment; le marquage superficiel - un traitement physico-chimique permet de deposer un radioelement a la surface du sediment. Le second procede est surtout employe pour les sables lorsqu'il est utile de disposer d'un grand nombre de grains pour des raisons statistiques. Le but de ce travail etait de mettre au point une methode simple et rapide de marquage pouvant etre appliquee sur le site meme de l'experience pour les utilisateurs disposant d'un equipement limite. Le procede preconise pour le marquage des sables par l'or 198 est une combinaison des methodes Petersen (traitement au chlorure d

  16. Beach sediments drift study by means of radioactive tracers; L'etude du transport littoral par la methode des traceurs radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hours, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique

    1959-07-01

    The present state of the sediments drift studies by means of radioactive tracers is exposed. Various processes of labelling, immersion and detection, used in France and other countries, are reviewed. A more extended analysis of some aspects of the problem by the same authors can be found in 'La Houille Blanche', number 3, may-june 1959 (Rapport C.E.A. number 1269). (author) [French] L'etude du transport littoral des sediments et galets par la methode des traceurs radioactifs est en plein developpement. Le present rapport precise l'etat actuel de la question. Les techniques de marquage, d'immersion et de detection utilisees en France et a l'etranger sont decrites; une analyse plus detaillee de certains aspects de la question est presentee par les memes auteurs dans 'La Houille Blanche', numero 3, mai-juin 1959 (Rapport C.E.A. numero 1269). (auteur)

  17. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  18. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor will want you to develop—or keep—healthy habits such as eating foods rich in calcium and vitamin D and doing weight-bearing exercise such as walking, jogging, or dancing. In some cases, ... these healthy habits will help, but your doctor will probably also ...

  19. Etude de la qualité physico-chimique et biologique des eaux du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude de la qualité physico-chimique et biologique des eaux du fleuve Niger à Niamey. ... le récepteur principal des rejets d'eaux usées de la ville de Niamey, capital du ... La description de ces taxons montre une variation de la structure des ...

  20. English Department Reforms at the Hautes Etudes Commerciales: Entering the Nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the reforms made in the fall of 1990 in the English department at the Ecole Hautes Etudes Commerciales (Paris, France), which were based on the basis of a combination of literature-culture and second- and foreign-language acquisition pedagogical biases. (four references) (VWL)

  1. Contribution a l'etude des plantes alimentaires mineures dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution a l'etude des plantes alimentaires mineures dans la prefecture de Dankpen (Togo). AB Kebenzikato, S Akpavi, K Batawila, K Wala, M Dourma, K Kossi-Titrikou, KS Amouzou, I Butare, H Dantsey-Barry, K Akpagana ...

  2. 152 Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john mukalay

    Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à-vis de la salinité en culture de bananier. Michel Mazinga KWEY1, Séverin Kalala BANZE2 et John Banza MUKALAY2*. 1Laboratoire des cultures in vitro, Département de phytotechnie, Faculté des sciences agronomiques,. Université de Lubumbashi, BP 1825, ...

  3. 186 Etude théorique du transport électronique par la simulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youness

    Choukria SAYAH et al. 186. Etude théorique du ... For that we carried out the microscopic simulations, based on the Monte. Carlo method. ... intervalles, piezoelectric as well as the interactions of alloy and on ionized impurities. ..... SAYA et al. 198. [5] - R. W. Hockney, J. W. Eastwood, "Computer simulation using particles",.

  4. Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les zones hypo et hyper endémiques d'ulcère de Buruli en Côte d'Ivoire. C. Cisse Boni, E. Ehouman, D. Soro, M.W. Kone, A. Bakayoko, F. Dembele, K. Bauthire, M Dosso ...

  5. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  6. Alecto 2 - interaction studies; Alecto 2 - etudes d'interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J P; Clouet d' Orval, Ch; Mougniot, J C; Penet, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Weak interactions were experimentally studies with the tank of the critical assembly Alecto II and one, two or three bottles containing solutions of various concentrations. In particular, was studied the validity of certain classical assumptions, shielding effects, screening and semi-reflexion effects, importance of thermal coupling. The method of the 'k{sub eff}, solid angle' is shown to apply to such a system. The determination by divergence and pulsed neutron technique of the reactivity related to a millimeter of solution level affords the obtention of critical heights in terms of reactivity. (authors) [French] Une etude experimentale d'interactions faibles a ete faite entre la cuve de l'experience critique ALECTO II et une, deux ou trois bouteilles contenant des concentrations variees. On etudie, en particulier, la validite de certaines hypotheses classiques, effets d'ombre, d'ecrans, de semi-reflexion, importance du couplage thermique. On montre d'autre part que la methode du 'K{sub eff}, angle solide' peut s'appliquer a un tel systeme. La determination par divergence et neutrons pulses de la reactivite liee au millimetre de solution permet de traduire les hauteurs critiques obtenues, en terme de reactivite. (auteurs)

  7. Baby fission chambers; Etude de chambres a fission miniatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guery, U; Tachon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The present report is intended, on the one band, as a study of the main types of fission chambers produced to date, and on the other, to deal more generally with this type of detector. Originally, it was with a view to the charting of neutron scatter in 'Proserpine' that the authors undertook the study of these chambers. During the course of the task, it was considered worth tbe trouble of developing its scope to include a more general application: neutron scatter measurement of various energy neutrons within a reduced volume with slight local disturbance. (author) [French] Le present rapport se propose, d'une part, d'exposer les principales realisations de chambres a fission, d'autre part de faire une mise au point a caractere plus general sur ces detecteurs. Au depart, c'est surtout en vue des mesures de densite neutronique dans 'Proserpine' que les auteurs ont etudie ces chambres; au cours de la mise au point, il a paru interessant de developper leur etude pour des applications plus generales: mesures de densites de neutrons de differentes energies dans un element de volume tres reduit et avec faible perturbation locale. (auteur)

  8. SEPA (Service d'etudes, de Procedes et Analyses)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The SEPA (Service d'etudes, de Procedes et Analyses), is an engineering department specializing in the analysis and processing of uranium ore. It comes from a long tradition of mining in France that began sixty-five years ago with the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and that has been carried on by COGEMA and then Areva. SEPA brings a combination of experience and excellence to its activities thanks to its multidisciplinary staff (mineralogists, chemists, mechanical engineers, instrumentation specialists...), who come from diverse cultural backgrounds. Today, the SEPA draws on its wealth of know-how and expertise to devise and develop new methods for processing and valorizing ores everywhere in the world. Its mission is to: - Develop and conduct laboratory tests on methods for processing uranium and other valuable elements such as molybdenum, vanadium, rare earths, niobium, tantalum and thorium; - Analyze ores obtained during prospecting at locations all over the world; -Serve as an advisor in the commissioning of Areva industrial units and ore processing plants; -Perform environmental analyses during the full period of mining operations; -Conduct audits and provide advice on processes and analysis methods; -Carry out research and development in all aspects of minerals treatment (including the filing of patents). The SEPA combines experience, skills and a global approach to technologies used in ore processing. Its role is to continually improve the processes for extracting, processing and valorizing ores while protecting the environment

  9. Baby fission chambers; Etude de chambres a fission miniatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guery, U.; Tachon, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The present report is intended, on the one band, as a study of the main types of fission chambers produced to date, and on the other, to deal more generally with this type of detector. Originally, it was with a view to the charting of neutron scatter in 'Proserpine' that the authors undertook the study of these chambers. During the course of the task, it was considered worth tbe trouble of developing its scope to include a more general application: neutron scatter measurement of various energy neutrons within a reduced volume with slight local disturbance. (author) [French] Le present rapport se propose, d'une part, d'exposer les principales realisations de chambres a fission, d'autre part de faire une mise au point a caractere plus general sur ces detecteurs. Au depart, c'est surtout en vue des mesures de densite neutronique dans 'Proserpine' que les auteurs ont etudie ces chambres; au cours de la mise au point, il a paru interessant de developper leur etude pour des applications plus generales: mesures de densites de neutrons de differentes energies dans un element de volume tres reduit et avec faible perturbation locale. (auteur)

  10. Development and application of the global rainbow refractometry for the study of heat and mass transfers in a spray; Developpement et application de la refractometrie arc-en-ciel global pour l'etude des transferts massique et thermique dans un spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P

    2004-12-15

    During the course of an hypothetical severe accident in a Pressure Water Reactor (PWR), hydrogen produced by the degradation and oxidation of the reactor core and high pressure water vapor can be released into the reactor containment. The repartition of the hydrogen in the reactor containment is then dependent of the forced (mixed or natural) convection flows which will be established. This type of accidental scenario will lead then to the pressurization of the reactor containment and to a potential risk of hydrogen combustion, able to prejudice to the integrity of the reactor. One of the means of PWR safety, called spraying, consists to release cold water sprays in the reactor containment, with the aim to make its internal pressure and its temperature decrease, on account of the condensation of water vapor on the injected water droplets. Moreover, the spraying leads to a mixing of the gaseous mixture containing air, water vapor and hydrogen, and contributes to make the hydrogen local concentration decreased. The TOSQAN experiment, developed at the IRSN, allows to reproduce the thermal-hydraulic conditions which represent accidental sequences able to happen in a PWR. In the frame of the current program consecrated to the spraying study, an innovating optical technique has been implemented on the TOSQAN experiment to finely characterize the mass and heat transfers between a spray and the surrounding atmosphere. This work gives into details the development of the global rainbow technique which allows to measure, in a non intrusive way, the temperature of the droplets during their fall. This technique has been coupled with others optical diagnoses such as the spontaneous Raman diffusion spectrometry, the PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and the implementation imagery, to respectively measure the water vapor parts as well as the velocities and the droplets sizes. The obtained experimental results have led to a global and local analysis of the interaction between the

  11. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  12. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  13. Etude de la densité de particules chargées et des mésons vecteurs de basses masses en collisions Pb-Pb à sqrt(s)NN = 2.76 TeV dans ALICE au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Guilbaud, M.

    The matter is composed of hadrons of which quarks and gluons are the elementary components. These do not exist in a free state in ordinary matter and are therefore permanently confined in hadrons. However, according to theoretical predictions, a few microseconds after the Big Bang, the temperature was high enough to create a deconfined state of quarks and hadrons : the Quark and Gluon Plasma (QGP). The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) is a particle accelerator which accelerates, among others, ions and produces collisions with energies per nucleons in the center of mass up to several TeraelectronVolts. It is thus possible to achieve temperatures to recreate the QGP phase to study its properties. The experiment ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is dedicated to the study of such ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The lifetime of the QGP being too low, it is not possible to study it directly. It is then necessary to use indirect observables. This PhD work is directly related to the study o...

  14. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  15. Pulmonary deposition of urban atmospheric aerosol. Assessments of the mass, number and surface of the deposited particles; Deposizione polmonare dell'aerosol atmosferico urbano in termini di massa, numero e superficie delle particelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, A.; Berico, M.; Castellani, C.M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    Pulmonary deposition of urban atmospheric aerosol has been calculated by means of the data derived from March 1995 measurement campaign of urban aerosol. The human respiratory tract model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (n. 66) developed for radiation protection purposes has been used. The number and surface of the deposited particles, as well as the mass, have been also evaluated. [Italian] I dati relativi alla campagna di misure effettuata nel marzo 1995 sono stati rielaborati al fine di valutare la deposizione polmonare dell'aerosol atmosferico in area urbana. Le valutazioni di deposizione nel tratto respiratorio umano sono state condotte mediante l'utilizzo del modello del tratto respiratorio umano presentato per fini radioprotezionistici dalla International Commission on Radiological Protection (n. 66). Sono state effettuate valutazioni di deposizione in massa e in termini di numero e superficie delle particelle.

  16. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  17. Despina Hatzifotiadou: ALICE Master Class 4 - Demonstration of the software for the 2nd part of the exercise - invariant mass spectra - background subtraction and calculation of number of Kaons, Lambdas, antiLambdas.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This is the 4th of 4 short online videos. It contains a demonstration of the software for the 2nd part of the exercise, related to invariant mass spectra - background subtraction and calculation of number of Kaons, Lambdas, antiLambdas. More details and related links on this indico event page. In more detail: What is Physics Master Classes Students after morning lectures, run programmes in the afternoon to do measurements. These tutorials are about how to use the software required to do these measurements. Background info and examples  Looking for strange particles with ALICE http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/Public/MasterCL/MasterClassWebpage.html Introduction to first part of the exercise : what are strange particles, V0 decays, invariant mass. Demonstration of the software for the 1st part of the exercise - visual identification of V0s Introduction to second part of the exercise : strangeness enhancement; centrality of lead-lead collisions; explanation of efficiency, yield, background etc Demonstr...

  18. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  19. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  20. Fundamental study of ionization and dissociation processes caused by electron impact in aromatic molecules; application of the quasi-equilibrium theory to phenanthrene and to methylphenanthrenes; Etudes fondamentales des processus d'ionisation et de dissociation des molecules aromatiques par impact electronique et application de la theorie du quasi-equilibre au phenanthrene et aux methyl-phenanthrenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nounou, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The quasi-equilibrium theory has been applied only to the family of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons. We have tried to extend it to phenanthrene and methyl-phenanthrenes molecules, i.e. to aromatic molecules possessing a great number of degrees of freedom. In a first part, we have attempted to give a method of interpretation of the ionization and dissociation processes of the phenanthrenic molecules. These preliminary experimental studies of the behaviour under electron impact of the compounds provide us a great wealth of information about important structural transformations of the molecular and fragment ions, and also about auto-ionization and excitation processes of the studied molecules. The experimental study of the metastable peaks has then confirmed the validity of the preceding dissociation processes, while it gave with more accuracy some thermodynamical values in connection with decomposition reactions. The three studies of the ionization, then dissociation processes and of the metastable peaks, represent the three phases of a general method of interpretation of the fragmentation in mass spectrometry. In order to give this method a theoretical basis, we have carried out the molecular diagrams of each of the studied, compounds, showing by this way the aid of Quantum Mechanics to the study of excited and ionic states. In a second part, we have carried out the mass spectra of the phenanthrene and methyl-phenanthrenes molecules by means of the rate constants expression given by ROSENSTOCK. We have proposed new methods of calculation of the frequency factors, for the aliphatic molecules as well as the aromatic ones. If the rather good agreement observed between the experimental and calculated results cannot be surely attributed to the validity of the theory, however it out-lines the interest presented by the application of this theory to large aromatic molecules. Furthermore, the results at which we arrived provide us with interesting information about the

  1. Etude aerodynamique d'un jet turbulent impactant une paroi concave

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Benoit

    Etant donne la demande croissante de temperatures elevees dans des chambres de combustion de systemes de propulsions en aerospatiale (turbomoteurs, moteur a reaction, etc.), l'interet dans le refroidissement par jets impactant s'est vu croitre. Le refroidissement des aubes de turbine permet une augmentation de temperature de combustion, ce qui se traduit en une augmentation de l'efficacite de combustion et donc une meilleure economie de carburant. Le transfert de chaleur dans les au bages est influence par les aspects aerodynamiques du refroidissement a jet, particulierement dans le cas d'ecoulements turbulents. Un manque de comprehension de l'aerodynamique a l'interieur de ces espaces confinees peut mener a des changements de transfert thermique qui sont inattendus, ce qui augmente le risque de fluage. Il est donc d'interet pour l'industrie aerospatiale et l'academie de poursuivre la recherche dans l'aerodynamique des jets turbulents impactant les parois courbes. Les jets impactant les surfaces courbes ont deja fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes. Par contre des conditions oscillatoires observees en laboratoire se sont averees difficiles a reproduire en numerique, puisque les structures d'ecoulements impactants des parois concaves sont fortement dependantes de la turbulence et des effets instationnaires. Une etude experimentale fut realisee a l'institut PPRIME a l'Universite de Poitiers afin d'observer le phenomene d'oscillation dans le jet. Une serie d'essais ont verifie les conditions d'ecoulement laminaires et turbulentes, toutefois le cout des essais experimentaux a seulement permis d'avoir un apercu du phenomene global. Une deuxieme serie d'essais fut realisee numeriquement a l'Universite de Moncton avec l'outil OpenFOAM pour des conditions d'ecoulement laminaire et bidimensionnel. Cette etude a donc comme but de poursuivre l'enquete de l'aerodynamique oscillatoire des jets impactant des parois courbes, mais pour un regime d'ecoulement transitoire, turbulent

  2. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  3. Stable isotope separation; Separations physicochimiques d'isotopes stables realisations et etudes de petites productions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botter, F; Molinari, Ph; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    capacite totale environ 2 litres, il a ete realise un appareil preparatif, de faible volume mort, permettant de produire 1 litre de D{sub 2} pur a partir des melange 50 p.100 D{sub 2}, 50 p.100 H{sub 2} en 12 minutes environ. Sur le plan theorique, en premiere approximation, nous assimilions la chromatographie a un fractionnement contre courant en negligeant resistance superficielle a l'echange ainsi que diffusions longitudinale et laterale. On etablit graphiquement ou par calcul, le nombre de plateaux theoriques necessires a un certain enrichissement de la phase gazeuse ce qui permet de comparer l'efficacite de colonnes qui different par leur masse palladiee. DIFFUSION THERMIQUE: Afin d'assurer une separation des isotopes de l'hydrogene, on a realise une installation de diffusion thermique construite en acier inoxydable et entierement telecommandee. La cascade de separation se compose de deux couples identiques de colonnes a fil central chaud. Chaque couple peut travailler isolement ou etre relie par thermosyphon. La temperature du fil chaud est de l'ordre de 1000 deg C entretenue par courant redresse. Avec cette installation, des echantillons d'hydrogene a la teneur isotopique en deuterium inferieure a 0,5 ppm. ont ete obtenus a partir d'un gaz initial a 32 ppm. Il a ainsi ete possible de preparer du tritium a la teneur de 99,3 p. 100 a partir d'un gaz d'une teneur initale de 6 p. 100. Pour la separation quantitative du Xenon enrichi cinq fois en {sup 124}Xe par thermodiffusion on a construit deux cascades identiques de 5 colonnes fonctionnant en parallele, reliees par thermosyphon ou par tube capillaire lie a un oscillateur thermique de gaz. Le fil central en tungstene fonctionne a 1200 deg C. Les colonnes sont groupees a la facon d'un faisceau tubulaire d'un echangeur de chaleur dans une virole de 30 cm de diametre ou circule l'eau de refroidissement. Des etudes sont en cours pour augmenter le facteur de separation de la cascade en utilisant un gaz auxiliaire. ECHANGE

  4. The magnetic strip(s) in the advanced phases of stellar evolution. Theoretical convective turnover timescale and Rossby number for low- and intermediate-mass stars up to the AGB at various metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, C.; Decressin, T.; Lagarde, N.; Gallet, F.; Palacios, A.; Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Mathis, S.; Anderson, R. I.; Dintrans, B.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Recent spectropolarimetric observations of otherwise ordinary (in terms e.g. of surface rotation and chemical properties) G, K, and M giants have revealed localized magnetic strips in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram coincident with the regions where the first dredge-up and core helium burning occur. Aims: We seek to understand the origin of magnetic fields in such late-type giant stars, which is currently unexplained. In analogy with late-type dwarf stars, we focus primarily on parameters known to influence the generation of magnetic fields in the outer convective envelope. Methods: We compute the classical dynamo parameters along the evolutionary tracks of low- and intermediate-mass stars at various metallicities using stellar models that have been extensively tested by spectroscopic and asteroseismic observations. Specifically, these include convective turnover timescales and convective Rossby numbers, computed from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or the early asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. To investigate the effects of the very extended outer convective envelope, we compute these parameters both for the entire convective envelope and locally, that is, at different depths within the envelope. We also compute the turnover timescales and corresponding Rossby numbers for the convective cores of intermediate-mass stars on the main sequence. Results: Our models show that the Rossby number of the convective envelope becomes lower than unity in the well-delimited locations of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where magnetic fields have indeed been detected. Conclusions: We show that α - Ω dynamo processes might not be continuously operating, but that they are favored in the stellar convective envelope at two specific moments along the evolution tracks, that is, during the first dredge-up at the base of the RGB and during central helium burning in the helium-burning phase and early-AGB. This general behavior can explain

  5. A new definition of Bejan number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of Bejan number will be generated by replacing the thermal diffusivity with the mass diffusivity. For example, the Schmidt number is the mass transfer analog of the Prandtl number. For the case of Reynolds analogy (Sc = Pr = = 1, both current and new definitions of Bejan number are the same. This new definition is useful and needed for diffusion of mass (mass diffusion.

  6. Size-resolved mass concentrations of iron oxide aerosols and size-resolved number concentrations of iron oxide aerosols collected from King Air aircraft in Yellow Sea and East China Sea from 2013-02-14 to 2013-03-10 (NCEI Accession 0162201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains size-resolved mass concentrations of iron oxide aerosols and size-resolved number concentrations of iron oxide aerosols, measured using the...

  7. Fermion number in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    1975-01-01

    The two known methods for introducing a conserved fermion number into supersymmetric models are discussed. While the introduction of a conserved fermion number often requires that the Lagrangian be massless or that bosons carry fermion number, a model is discussed in which masses can be introduced via spontaneous symmetry breaking and fermion number is conserved at all stages without assigning fermion number to bosons. (U.S.)

  8. Magnetic resonance studies of solid polymers; Etude des polymeres solides par resonance magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This paper is a review of the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to solid polymers. In the first, theoretical part, the elements of the theory of NMR, which are necessary for the study of the properties of solid polymers are discussed: the moments method, nuclear relaxation and the distribution of correlation times. In the second part the experimental results are presented. (author) [French] Cette etude est une recherche bibliographique sur l'application de la resonance magnetique nucleaire (RMN) aux polymeres solides. Dans la premiere partie theorique on discute les elements de la theorie de RMN, necessaires pour l'etude des proprietes des polymeres solides: la methode des moments, la relaxation nucleaire et la distribution des temps de correlation. La deuxieme partie presente les resultats des experiences. (auteur)

  9. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Z, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira, M. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Goncalves Z, E., E-mail: madelon@cdtn.br [Pontifice Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Av. Dom Jose Gaspar 500, Belo Horizonte 30535-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  10. Production of heavy water in France; Etude sur la production d'eau lourde en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerat, J M; Roth, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Lefrancois, B [Houllere du Bassin du Nord et du Pas de Calais (France)

    1964-07-01

    Since 1958, studies relating to heavy water production have covered several processes. Each one has been examined to a greater or lesser degree and attention has finally been concentrated on the isotopic exchanges between hydrogen sulphide and water and between ammonia and synthesis gas, the pilot experiment having shown that hydrogen distillation, although technologically satisfactory, was not competitive. NH{sub 3} synthesis gas exchange process; 1) Research was continued and led to the decision to build a production unit, devoted also to the synthesis of ammonia. The process essentially depends on the source of the synthesis gas; the use of a H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} exchange, which could make it independent, has in fact been rejected for economic reasons. Amongst the various possible designs for the process, the one temperature system was chosen, in spite of certain technological problems, because of it provides: a high enrichment with a reduced number of contact devices. These have now been perfected after large-scale pilot tests. The original industrial experiment to be set in operation will supply useful information for second generation plants, whether they use the one temperature lay out again or whether they adopt the two temperature system. H{sub 2}S-H{sub 2}O exchange process. The pilot plant, described in 1958, has been used for a systematic study of corrosion. It was possible to proceed to preliminary specifications of plants, with 2 or 3 H{sub 2}S - H{sub 2}O stages exchange for primary enrichment. They final stage beyond a 10 to 20 p.100 D{sub 2}O concentration being carried out by the distillation of water. Various heat exchange systems have been studied in detail and it was concluded that choices, as for instance the one of optimum division of the cascade, were eventually to be made according to the particular economic conditions of creation at the chosen location of the plant. (author) [French] Depuis 1958 les etudes concernant la production d

  11. Etude de l'impact de la variation de la température sur les activités ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude de l'impact de la variation de la température sur les activités microbiennes : application à une population de Listeria monocytogenes CIP 7831, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A CIP 103575 et Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.

  12. Bio-metric study of pig karyotype; Etude biometrique du caryotype du porc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, J; Lacourly, N; Nizza, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This study has a twofold purpose, the former is to determine the swine karyotype as accurately as possible, the latter is to try and develop a method of automatic classification and to show its possibilities and limits. (authors) [French] Cette etude a un double objet: d'une part, de definir de la facon aussi precise que possible le caryotype du porc et d'autre part, de tenter une methode de classification automatique et d'en montrer les possibilites ainsi que les limites. (auteurs)

  13. SU-E-J-122: The CBCT Dose Calculation Using a Patient Specific CBCT Number to Mass Density Conversion Curve Based On a Novel Image Registration and Organ Mapping Method in Head-And-Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J; Lasio, G; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Langen, K; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B; Huang, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a CBCT HU correction method using a patient specific HU to mass density conversion curve based on a novel image registration and organ mapping method for head-and-neck radiation therapy. Methods: There are three steps to generate a patient specific CBCT HU to mass density conversion curve. First, we developed a novel robust image registration method based on sparseness analysis to register the planning CT (PCT) and the CBCT. Second, a novel organ mapping method was developed to transfer the organs at risk (OAR) contours from the PCT to the CBCT and corresponding mean HU values of each OAR were measured in both the PCT and CBCT volumes. Third, a set of PCT and CBCT HU to mass density conversion curves were created based on the mean HU values of OARs and the corresponding mass density of the OAR in the PCT. Then, we compared our proposed conversion curve with the traditional Catphan phantom based CBCT HU to mass density calibration curve. Both curves were input into the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation. Last, the PTV and OAR doses, DVH and dose distributions of CBCT plans are compared to the original treatment plan. Results: One head-and-neck cases which contained a pair of PCT and CBCT was used. The dose differences between the PCT and CBCT plans using the proposed method are −1.33% for the mean PTV, 0.06% for PTV D95%, and −0.56% for the left neck. The dose differences between plans of PCT and CBCT corrected using the CATPhan based method are −4.39% for mean PTV, 4.07% for PTV D95%, and −2.01% for the left neck. Conclusion: The proposed CBCT HU correction method achieves better agreement with the original treatment plan compared to the traditional CATPhan based calibration method

  14. SU-E-J-122: The CBCT Dose Calculation Using a Patient Specific CBCT Number to Mass Density Conversion Curve Based On a Novel Image Registration and Organ Mapping Method in Head-And-Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Bel Air, MD (United States); Lasio, G; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Langen, K; Prado, K; D’Souza, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yi, B [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huang, J [University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a CBCT HU correction method using a patient specific HU to mass density conversion curve based on a novel image registration and organ mapping method for head-and-neck radiation therapy. Methods: There are three steps to generate a patient specific CBCT HU to mass density conversion curve. First, we developed a novel robust image registration method based on sparseness analysis to register the planning CT (PCT) and the CBCT. Second, a novel organ mapping method was developed to transfer the organs at risk (OAR) contours from the PCT to the CBCT and corresponding mean HU values of each OAR were measured in both the PCT and CBCT volumes. Third, a set of PCT and CBCT HU to mass density conversion curves were created based on the mean HU values of OARs and the corresponding mass density of the OAR in the PCT. Then, we compared our proposed conversion curve with the traditional Catphan phantom based CBCT HU to mass density calibration curve. Both curves were input into the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation. Last, the PTV and OAR doses, DVH and dose distributions of CBCT plans are compared to the original treatment plan. Results: One head-and-neck cases which contained a pair of PCT and CBCT was used. The dose differences between the PCT and CBCT plans using the proposed method are −1.33% for the mean PTV, 0.06% for PTV D95%, and −0.56% for the left neck. The dose differences between plans of PCT and CBCT corrected using the CATPhan based method are −4.39% for mean PTV, 4.07% for PTV D95%, and −2.01% for the left neck. Conclusion: The proposed CBCT HU correction method achieves better agreement with the original treatment plan compared to the traditional CATPhan based calibration method.

  15. Physical activity patterns in the French 18-74-year-old population: French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé, ENNS) 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanave, Benoit; Vernay, Michel; Szego, Emmanuelle; Malon, Aurélie; Deschamps, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2012-11-01

    To describe detailed physical activity and sedentary behaviour in French adults across physical activity categories. The French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé, ENNS), conducted in 2006-2007, was a national cross-sectional survey based on three-stage random sampling. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to classify participants into three physical activity categories. Time spent in a sitting position and time spent in front of a screen were used as markers of sedentary behaviour. France. Adults (n 2971) aged 18 to 74 years were included. Overall, 29·5 % of men and 23·6 % of women were classified into the high-IPAQ category, while 36·1 % of men and 37·5 % of women were in the low-IPAQ category. For each intensity level of physical activity (vigorous intensity, moderate intensity or walking), the number of active days per week decreased from the high- to the low-IPAQ category and daily duration of physical activity was longer in the high-IPAQ category than in the other two categories; 6 % of adults declared neither vigorous nor moderate nor walking activities. For most adults in the low-IPAQ category, an increasing number of active days per week would be sufficient to attain the moderate-IPAQ category. This should be taken into account in public health initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity.

  16. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiesse, J.

    1958-01-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' was created (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author) [fr

  17. Study of the age of uranium-containing mineral deposits in the Limouzat, the bois-noir mountains (12963); Etude des ages des mineralisations uraniferes du gisement du Limouzat, Massif des bois-noirs (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The present work is concerned with 7 different samples taken at various levels in the Limouzat mine in the Bois-Noirs mountains. It has been possible to show that the uranium dates from 265 M.Y. and that a rearrangement occurred 65 M.Y. ago. A {gamma}-spectrometer study which was originally intended to show the existence of the lack of balance in the radon circulation, has made it possible to show that the {gamma} spectra recorded on various samples could be erroneous. We observed in effect that the presence of lead, iron, etc., had a strong influence on the {gamma} spectrum of the radium family, whereas all research workers have considered that concentrations in the uranium ore were negligible and had no significant effect on the study of the {gamma} spectra of the samples. It is obvious that an interesting study has to be undertaken on the screen effects of the different cations existing in the ores. We believe that it is possible to show the presence of certain elements directly by {gamma}-spectrometry. The ages measured with the mass spectrometer present two types of disagreement but these have been explained by considering that there occurred a first arrival of lead followed by a rearrangement and, at certain points, a second arrival at this date. Finally, the deposit studied undergoes a circulation of uranium and of radon. (author) [French] La presente etude a porte sur 7 prelevements differents effectues a divers niveaux de la mine du Limouzat, massif des Bois-Noirs. Elle a permis de mettre en evidence une premiere venue d'uranium il y a 265 M.A., suivie d'un remaniements il y a 65 M.A. Une etude au spectrometre {gamma} destinee, a l'origine, a prouver les desequilibres dus aux circulations de radon a permis de montrer que les spectres {gamma} enregistres sur divers echantillons pouvaient etre entaches d'erreurs. Nous nous sommes apercus en effet que la presence de plomb, de fer..., avait une forte influence sur le spectre {gamma} de la famille du radium

  18. Influence of non-integer order parameter and Hartmann number on the heat and mass transfer flow of a Jeffery fluid over an oscillating vertical plate via Caputo-Fabrizio time fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, A. R.; Abdullah, M.; Raza, N.; Imran, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, semi analytical solutions for the heat and mass transfer of a fractional MHD Jeffery fluid over an infinite oscillating vertical plate with exponentially heating and constant mass diffusion via the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative are obtained. The governing equations are transformed into dimensionless form by introducing dimensionless variables. A modern definition of the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative has been used to develop the fractional model for a Jeffery fluid. The expressions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields are obtained in the Laplace transformed domain. We have used the Stehfest's and Tzou's algorithm for the inverse Laplace transform to obtain the semi analytical solutions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields. In the end, in order to check the physical impact of flow parameters on temperature, concentration and velocity fields, results are presented graphically and in tabular forms.

  19. Contribution to the study of point defects formed in nickel by electron bombardment; Contribution a l'etude des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddou, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    After a short account of the experimental techniques employed in our studies, the experimental results obtained on pure nickel samples are exposed. The apparition of the successive annihilation stages of point defects created by electron bombardment is established by isochronal heat treatments: the annihilation kinetics and the corresponding activation energies are determined. The effect of the incident particle doses is also studied. The experimental results are then compared with R.A. Johnson's theoretical calculations of the stability and the migration of point defects in nickel, and taking into account the results obtained by Peretto in magnetic after effect measurements. This leads us to a model in good agreement with calculations and experiment for the first stages. In a second chapter the behaviour of nickel doped by certain impurities is studied. First, the results concerning the rate of increase of resistivity (function of sample purity) is investigated. Two possible explanations of the observed phenomenon are proposed: either a deviation with respect to Mathiessen's law, or an increase of the number of defects formed in the presence of impurity atoms. Finally, a study of the resistivity recovery of the doped samples permits us to suggest an order of magnitude for the binding energy interstitial/impurity atom in the nickel matrix. (author) [French] Apres avoir brievement rappele les techniques experimentales que nous avons utilisees pour cette etude, nous exposons les resultats experimentaux obtenus sur des echantillons de nickel pur. Les stades successifs d'annihilation des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique sont mis en evidence par traitements thermiques isochrones; les cinetiques de disparition, et les energies d'activation correspondantes sont determinees. Nous etudions egalement l'effet de la dose des particules incidentes. Les resultats experimentaux sont ensuite compares avec les calculs theoriques de R.A JOHNSON sur la stabilite

  20. Number Sense on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…

  1. Initiation of detonation by impact on granular explosives; Contribution a l'etude de la generation de la detonation provoquee par impact sur un explosif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    A good number of experiments have shown up the particular behaviour of granular explosives when they are detonated by barrier transmitted shocks. Similar results can be obtained when the shock is induced by impact. In this case the pressure signal shape applied at the explosive is better known and both its intensity and duration can be varied. By using a mathematical model in which the law of chemical kinetics is a linear function of pressure, and different temperatures are used for solids and gases, it is possible to describe most of the behaviour of detonation initiation in solid granular explosives. (author) [French] De nombreuses etudes experimentales ont montre le comportement particulier des explosifs granulaires lors de la detonation provoquee par choc transmis a travers une barriere. Les memes resultats peuvent etre obtenus lorsque la detonation est engendree par impact. Dans ce cas, la forme du signal de pression induit dans l'explosif est mieux connue, et il est possible d'en faire varier l'intensite et la duree d'application. Un modele mathematique utilisant une loi de cinetique chimique fonction lineaire de la pression et ou les temperatures des etats solide et gazeux pendant la reaction sont differenciees, permet de retrouver la plupart des caracteres specifiques de la generation dans un explosif solide granulaire. (auteur)

  2. Study of the acceptance of a constant gradient synchrotron (1960); Etude de l'acceptance d'un synchrotron a gradient constant (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronca, G; Gendreau, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the work of H. Bell and E. Persico; a detailed analysis is given of the phenomena which occurs at the time of injection (collision against the back of the inflector, overshooting of the 'useful zone'; collision against the horizontal walls of the chamber) and of capture (assumed to be fast) in a faultless machine. The maximum number of particles which may be injected and captured is determined as a function of various parameters: emittance of the beam injected, radial position of the inflector, synchronous phase or peak HF voltage. A final limitation due to the transverse space charge is then recalled, and lastly conclusions are drawn from the results with particular reference to Saturn. (author) [French] Cette etude est une synthese du travail de H. BELL et E. PERSICO; on analyse en detail les phenomenes a l'injection (choc contre le dos inflecteur, depassement de 'zone utile', choc contre les parois horizontales de la chambre) et a la capture (supposee rapide) pour une machine sans defaut. On determine le nombre maximum de particules injectables et capturables en fonction de divers parametres: emittance du faisceau injecte, position radiale de l'inflecteur, phase synchrone ou tension crete HF. Puis, on rappelle une derniere limitation due a la charge d'espace transversale et enfin les conclusions qu'on tire des resultats en ce qui concerne plus particulierement Saturne. (auteur)

  3. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  4. Body mass in comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J; Jungers, W L

    1997-06-01

    Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.

  5. Study of certain random variations in the measurement of low level radioactivities by means of electric circuits (1963); Etude, au moyen de circuits electroniques, de certaines fluctuations aleatoires dans les mesures de radioactivite a bas niveau (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghimi, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-03-15

    The aim of this work is to find a control method which ensures that there is really a statistical distribution of pulses during the measurement of very low activities. The use of a method based on the distribution of time intervals is examined first, as well as the graphical representation to which it leads. The second method is a study of the distribution of the number of pulses in a given time interval. It makes it possible to use two tests for verifying Gauss's law: Henry's graphical test and the {chi}{sup 2} mathematical test. The electronic devices necessary for these tests have been built; they have made it possible to study the fluctuations in on installation for measuring the natural activity of carbon. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est de rechercher des methodes de controle qui permettent de s'assurer qu'au cours de mesures de tres faibles activites, on a bien une distribution statistique des impulsions. L'utilisation d'une premiere methode basee sur la distribution des intervalles de temps est d'abord examinee, ainsi que la representation graphique a laquelle elle conduit. La deuxieme methode est une etude de la repartition du nombre d'impulsions pendant un temps determine. Elle permet l'utilisation de 2 tests de verification de la loi de Gauss: le test graphique de Henry et le test mathematique de {chi}{sup 2}. Les dispositifs electroniques necessaires pour l'utilisation de ces tests ont ete realises.; ils ont ensuite permis l'etude des fluctuations dans une installation de mesure d'activite naturelle du carbone. (auteur)

  6. Generalities on the dynamic behaviour of rapid reactors. Preliminary studies on Rapsodie; Generalites sur le comportement dynamique des piles rapides. Etudes preliminaires de rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campan, J L; Chaumont, J P; Clauzon, P P; Ghesquiere, G; Leduc, J; Schmitt, A P; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The study of the dynamic behaviour of fast reactors may be divided into three section: 1. Stability studies around equilibrium power only the linear case was examining. S. Transient studies in the case of usual reactor operation (shut down, scram, etc.) with thermal shocks evaluation, for instance. 3. Explosion studies, for the maximum credible accidents. This report presents the status of the studies performed at the 'Physics Research Department' at Cadarache. Methods used are detailed and illustrated with the results obtained on a preliminary metallic core of the Rapsodie Reactor. (authors) [French] Le comportement dynamique des piles rapides, se presente tout naturellement sous trois aspects: 1. Etude de stabilite autour d'un regime d'equilibre (nous nous sommes bornes ici au cas lineaire). 2. Etude de regimes transitoires lors des operations normales de pile (arret, arret d'urgence, etc.) avec evaluation des chocs thermiques par exemple. 3. Etude des regimes transitoires de caractere explosif lors des accidents les plus graves possibles. Ce rapport presente l'etat des etudes a la date du 20 decembre 1961 a la Section d'Etudes de Piles Rapides a CADARACHE. Les methodes employees ont ete detaillees et illustrees a partir des resultats obtenus sur une premiere version 'combustible metallique' de Rapsodie. (auteurs)

  7. Etude cinétique de la dégradation de l'Endosufane en solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude cinétique de la dégradation de l'Endosufane en solution. S Traore, K Mamadou, A Dembele, V Yao, Y Bekro, P Mazellier, B Legube, P Houenou. Abstract. Les pesticides sont fréquemment utilisés en Côte d'Ivoire. Leur détection dans les eaux de forage témoigne de leur mauvais usage et d'un grave problème ...

  8. Study of the tributyl phosphate - 30% dodecane solvent; Etude du solvant phosphate tributylique - 30 % dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 92 (France)

    1967-07-01

    This study, originating mainly from a literature survey, gives the principal chemical and physical features of the tributyl-phosphate (TBP) agent diluted at 30 volumes per cent in dodecane. The mixture is a very commonly used extractant in nuclear fuel processing. In this paper, the main following points are reported: -) the components (TBP and diluents) -) the TBP-diluents systems (non-loaded), -) the TBP-diluents-water systems, -) TBP-diluents-water-nitric acid systems, and -) industrial solvents. (author) [French] Cette etude, d'origine bibliographique, regroupe les caracteristiques physico-chimiques essentielles du phosphate tributylique (TBP) dilue a 30% en volume dans du dodecane. Ce melange constitue un agent d'extraction tres utilise dans le traitement des combustibles nucleaires. Les principaux points traites sont les suivants: -) les constituants (TBP et diluants), -) les systemes TBP-diluants non charges, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau-acide nitrique, et -) les solvants industriels. (auteur)

  9. An economic study of the site of Marcoule; Etude economique du site de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprat, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The study of this site of the Marcoule Center shows that its regional economical influence is limited to the buying power distributed among its personnel. This entails distortions between first this supplementary buying power and the overall markets within the possible Marcoule influence zone, and secondly the concentration on Bagnols-sur-Ceze and this town's normal extension possibilities. (author) [French] L'etude du site de Marcoule demontre que son influence economique se limite, pour la region, au pouvoir d'achat distribue a son personnel. Ceci entraine une disproportion d'une part entre ce pouvoir d'achat supplementaire et l'ensemble des marches contenus dans l'aire d'influence possible de Marcoule, d'autre part entre la concentration realisee a Bagnole-sur-Ceze et la capacite d'extension normale de cette agglomeration. (auteur)

  10. Lepton family number violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, P.

    1999-01-01

    At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the τ, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author's conclusions

  11. Neutronic study of the two french heavy water reactors; Etude neutronique des deux piles francaises a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The two french reactors - the reactor of Chatillon, named Zoe, and the reactor of Saclay - P2 - were the object of detailed neutronic studies which the main ideas are exposed in this report. These studies were mostly done by the Department of the Reactor Studies (D.E.P.). We have thus studied the distribution of neutronic fluxes; the factors influencing reactivity; the link between reactivity and divergence with the formula of Nordheim; the mean time life of neutrons; neutron spectra s of P2; the xenon effect; or the effect of the different adjustments of the plates and controls bar. (M.B.) [French] Les deux reacteurs francais - la pile de Chatillon, appelee ZOE, et la pile de Saclay, designee dans la suite par P2 - ont fait l'objet d'etudes neutroniques detaillees dont les principales sont exposees dans ce rapport. Ces etudes ont ete pour la plupart effectuees dans le cadre du Departement des Etudes de Piles (D.E.P.). Nous avons ainsi entre autre etudie la distribution du flux neutronique; les facteurs influencants la reactivite; le lien entre reactivite et divergence par la formule de Nordheim; le temps de vie moyen des neutrons; les spectres de neutrons de P2; l'effet xenon; ou encore l'effet des differents reglages des plaques et barres de controles. (M.B.)

  12. Study and achievement of a digital-analog-divider; Etude et realisation d'un diviseur-analogique-numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    This apparatus is designed to give directly, in digital form, the value of the ratio Vt1/V2 two analog voltages. It consists essentially of an analog-digital coder operating by successive weighing; the comparison voltage is made proportional to the divider V2 in the coder. The input dynamics are such that the voltages Vi and V2 are all in the range -50 mV to -5 V. Each of the circuits has an input impedance of about 10 K{omega}. As for the quotient, it is a binary number given in series and parallel form; it is made up of 8 bits, this giving a change of 1/16 to 16 per jump of 1/16 in the zone where the accuracy is highest (V2 {>=} 800 mV). The time required for a division is, at best, 15 {mu}sec. During the time of calculation, the voltages V{sub 1} and V{sub 2} should not vary by more than 1 per cent and 0.5 per cent respectively. The theory of the system and the investigation of a synoptic diagram, the study of the circuits and the actual construction are presented. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a fournir directement sous forme numerique la valeur du rapport V1/V2 de deux tensions analogiques. Il est constitue essentiellement d'un codeur analogique-numerique fonctionnant par pesees successives dans lequel la tension de reference est rendue proportionnelle au diviseur V2. La dynamique d'entree est telle que les tensions V1 et V2 peuvent etre comprises dans l'intervalle -50 mV a -5 V. Chacune des voies presente une impedance d'entree d'environ 10 K{omega}. En ce qui concerne le quotient, c'est un nombre binaire delivre sous les formes serie et parallele ; il est compose de 8 bits, ce qui donne une variation de 1/16 a 16 par bond de 1/16 dans la zone de meilleure precision (V2 {>=} 800 mV). Le temps necessaire pour effectuer la division est au mieux de 15 {mu}s. Durant le temps de calcul les tensions V{sub 1} et V{sub 2} ne doivent pas varier respectivement de plus de 1 pour cent et 0.5 pour cent. Apres avoir etabli la theorie du systeme, les

  13. Study and achievement of a digital-analog-divider; Etude et realisation d'un diviseur-analogique-numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    This apparatus is designed to give directly, in digital form, the value of the ratio Vt1/V2 two analog voltages. It consists essentially of an analog-digital coder operating by successive weighing; the comparison voltage is made proportional to the divider V2 in the coder. The input dynamics are such that the voltages Vi and V2 are all in the range -50 mV to -5 V. Each of the circuits has an input impedance of about 10 K{omega}. As for the quotient, it is a binary number given in series and parallel form; it is made up of 8 bits, this giving a change of 1/16 to 16 per jump of 1/16 in the zone where the accuracy is highest (V2 {>=} 800 mV). The time required for a division is, at best, 15 {mu}sec. During the time of calculation, the voltages V{sub 1} and V{sub 2} should not vary by more than 1 per cent and 0.5 per cent respectively. The theory of the system and the investigation of a synoptic diagram, the study of the circuits and the actual construction are presented. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a fournir directement sous forme numerique la valeur du rapport V1/V2 de deux tensions analogiques. Il est constitue essentiellement d'un codeur analogique-numerique fonctionnant par pesees successives dans lequel la tension de reference est rendue proportionnelle au diviseur V2. La dynamique d'entree est telle que les tensions V1 et V2 peuvent etre comprises dans l'intervalle -50 mV a -5 V. Chacune des voies presente une impedance d'entree d'environ 10 K{omega}. En ce qui concerne le quotient, c'est un nombre binaire delivre sous les formes serie et parallele ; il est compose de 8 bits, ce qui donne une variation de 1/16 a 16 par bond de 1/16 dans la zone de meilleure precision (V2 {>=} 800 mV). Le temps necessaire pour effectuer la division est au mieux de 15 {mu}s. Durant le temps de calcul les tensions V{sub 1} et V{sub 2} ne doivent pas varier respectivement de plus de 1 pour cent et 0.5 pour cent. Apres avoir etabli la

  14. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  15. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  16. Twisted mass lattice QCD with non-degenerate quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, Gernot; Sudmann, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics on a lattice with Wilson fermions and a chirally twisted mass term is considered in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. For two and three numbers of quark flavours, respectively, with non-degenerate quark masses the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants are calculated in next-to-leading order including lattice effects quadratic in the lattice spacing a

  17. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Contribution to the study of the thermal fission process for uranium 235 (1964); Contribution a l'etude du processus de la fission thermique de l'uranium 235 (1964)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahrtache, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-12-15

    This report deals with the study of the distribution of the masses of the fragments produced by the disintegration of the U-236 nucleus, formed when a U-235 nucleus captures a thermal neutron. The experimental method chosen consists in the simultaneous measurement using p-n silicon junction detectors of the energies of the two fragments emitted in coincidence. This measurement is first made by a conditioned analysis of the energy of one of the fragments and then by a two dimensional analysis of the energies of the two fragments. Systematic results, are obtained concerning the distribution of the masses for different values of the total kinetic energy. The five structures appearing both for the mass distributions and for the energies of the fragments are studied and discussed. Generally speaking, our results are in agreement with those obtained by the time-of-flight method. (author) [French] Le present rapport a pour objet t'etude de la distribution des masses des fragments emis lors de la fission du noyau U-236, forme par capture d'un neutron thermique par un noyau d'U-235. La methode experimentale choisie consiste en la mesure simultanee - a l'aide de detecteurs a jonction p-n au silicium des energies des deux fragments emis en coincidence. Cette mesure est d'abord effectuee par analyse conditionnee de l'energie de l'un des fragments puis par analyse bidimensionnelle des energies des deux fragments. Des resultats systematiques sont obtenus sur les distributions des masses pour differentes valeurs de l'energie cinetique totale. Les 'structures fines' apparaissant tant sur les distributions des masses que sur celles des energies des fragments sont egalement etudiees et discutees. D'une facon generale, nos resultats sont en accord avec ceux obtenus par la methode du temps de vol. (auteur)

  19. Lepton number violating processes and Majorana neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, C.; Schmidt, I.; Gribanov, V.; Kovalenko, S.

    2001-01-01

    Some generic properties of lepton number violating processes and their relation to different entries of the Majorana neutrino mass matrix are discussed. Present and near future experiments searching for these processes, except the neutrinoless double beta decay, are unable to probe light (eV mass region) and heavy (hundred GeV mass region) neutrinos. On the other hand, due to the effect of a resonant enhancement, some of lepton number violating decays can be very sensitive to the intermediate-mass neutrinos with typical masses in the hundred MeV region. These neutrinos may appear as admixtures of the three active and an arbitrary number of sterile neutrino species. The experimental constraints on these massive neutrino states are analyzed and their possible cosmological and astrophysical implications are discussed

  20. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    from the University of Grenoble I and it. It is difficult to isolate aspects the Centre d’Etudes Nucl4aires de Valduc of the problem for ease in analysis...distribution of plasma conductivity. primary analysis tool since the growth the plasma channel. Valduc is a nuclear rates of resistive instabilities depend...secondary Nuclear Agency and the Sandia National electrons whose unknown velocity distri- Laboratory. To this end, Valduc houses bution is generated by

  1. Electrochemical study in molten potassium thiocyanate; Etude electrochimique dans le thiocyanate de potassium fondu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    We have studied in this work the electrochemical properties of molten potassium thiocyanate. The melting point of this salt is 173 deg C and we have chosen to work at 195 deg C. The molten salted is dissociated into K{sup +} and SCN{sup -} ions; since the K{sup +} ions are very difficult to reduce it is the oxido-reduction reaction of the SCN{sup -} ion which limits the electro-active zone of the solvent. We have shown that SCN{sup -} behaves as an addition compound of S{sup 0} and CN{sup -}.analysis of the products formed during the oxidation and the coulometric reduction of the bath shows that the electrochemical reactions which limit the electro-active zone of the solvent are the following: SCN{sup -} + 2 e {yields} S{sup 2-} + CN{sup -} SCN{sup -} + 2 e {yields} S{down_arrow} + 1/2 (CN){sup -}{sub 2} We have shown that it is possible also to carry out the chemical oxidation of the thiocyanate by introducing an oxidising cation such as Fe{sup 3+} or Cu{sup 2+}. This reaction leads to the same chemical species as the electrochemical oxidation. With respect to the Ag{down_arrow} / Ag 0.1 M electrode taken as reference, the electro-active limits are the following: from - 1.050 V to + 0.750 V for a platinum electrode from - 1.350 V to + 0.050 V for a mercury drop electrode. We have studied the electrochemical behaviour of a certain number of ions in the molten salt; by plotting the intensity-potential curves it has been possible to determine the half-wave potentials of several cations: Pb{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}{sub 2}, Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup +}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}. A comparison of the potential values found in the thiocyanate with those which are already known for other molten solvents has made it possible for us to find parallels between the properties of the thiocyanate and those of certain salts such as molten chlorides or nitrates. Thus the complexing properties of SCN{sup -} with respect to Cu

  2. Slope of the mass function of low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, O.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the modern method of obtaining the initial mass function contains a number of a uncertainties that can have a significant effect on the slope of the function in the low-mass section (m < m**). The influence of changes of the mass-luminosity relation, the scale of bolometric corrections, and the luminosity function on the form of the mass function is considered. The effect of photometrically unresolved binaries is also discussed. Some quantitative estimates are made, and it is shown that the slope of the initial mass function in the low-mass section can vary in wide ranges

  3. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  4. Etude Experimentale du Photo-Injecteur de Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Jean-Paul [Orsay

    2001-01-01

    TESLA (TeV Superconducting Linear Accelerator) is an international collaboration which is studying the feasibility of an $e^+e^-$ collider of energy 0.8 TeV in the center of mass. One of the first goals of this collaboration was to construct a prototype linear accelerator at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg, the TESLA Test Facility (TTF), in order to establish the technical basis for the collider. Two injectors were developed for TTF: a thermionic injector (developed by LAL-Orsay, IPN-Orsay, and CEA-Saclay) and a photo-injector (developed by Fermilab). The thermionic injector was used from February 1997 to October 1998, and then it was replaced by the photo-injector, which was first operated in December 1998. Another photo-injector, identical to the one delivered to TTF, was installed at Fermilab in the $A{\\emptyset}$ Building. The first beam from the latter was produced on 3 March 1999. The photo-injector consists of an RF gun, followed by a superconducting cavity. The RF gun is a 1.625-cell copper cavity with a resonant frequency of 1.3 GHz. The gun contains a cesium telluride ($C_{s_2}$Te) photo-cathode, which is illuminated by UV pulses from a Nd:YLF laser. The system can produce trains of 800 bunches of photo-electrons of charge 8 nC per bunch with spacing between bunches of 1$\\mu$s and 10 Hz repetition rate. Upon emerging from the RF gun, the beam energy is 4 to 5 MeV; the beam is then rapidly accelerated by the superconducting cavity to an energy of 17 to 20 MeV. Finally, a magnetic chicane, consisting of 4 dipoles, produces longitudinal compression of the electron bunches. This thesis describes the installation of the photo-injector at Fermilab and presents the experimentally-measured characteristics of the injector. The principal measurements were quantum eciency, dark current, transverse emittance, and bunch length. The conclusion from these studies is that the quality of the photo-injector beam fullls the design goals. The photo-injector at Fermilab is

  5. Contribution to the study of radio toxicity of aromatic and medicinal plants using solid state nuclear track detectors; Contribution a l etude de la radio toxicite des plantes aromatiques et medicinales au moyen des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortassim, A; Misdaq, M A; Naaman, A

    2009-07-01

    The concentrations of uranium (238 U), thorium (232 Th), radon (222 Rn) and thoron (220 Rn) were measured in twenty aromatic and medicinal plants in {sup f}ind a new method based on using solid state nuclear track detectors type Cr-39 and Rs-115. He emerges from this study that the verbena and salvia have higher levels of uranium (radon) higher than that of other plants while the leaves of olive and saturja have concentrations of thorium (thoron) higher than other plants therefore radio toxicity of these plants is higher than that of others and may pose a radiological hazard if the masses are incorporated by consumers high. [French] Les concentrations en uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), et thoron (220Rn) ont ete mesurees dans vingt plantes aromatiques et medicinales en utilsant une nouvelle methode basee sur l utilisation des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires de types CR-39 et LR-115. Il en sort de cette etude que la verveine et la salvia presentent des teneurs en uranium (radon) superieurs a celle des autres plantes alors que les feuilles d olivier et la saturja presentent des concentrations en thorium (thoron) plus elevee que celles des autres plantes par consequent la radio toxicite de ces plantes est superieure a celles des autres et peuvent presenter un risque radiologique si les masses incorporees par les consommateurs sont elevees.

  6. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  7. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  8. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  9. Those fascinating numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Koninck, Jean-Marie De

    2009-01-01

    Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of High-Frequency Plasma Structures; Etudes Theoriques et Experimentales sur les Structures HF a Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1969-03-15

    The author has studied high-frequency structures at the resonance {omega}{sub ec} = {omega}{sub HF} in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The following points have been developed theoretically: the complete (relativistic and non-linear) analytical description of individual movement, taking into account the fact that the number of revolutions of the particles in the resonance zone is high; study of the self-consistent space charge field, with a view to establishing the conditions necessary for the energy of the ions to be of the order of the energy gained by the electrons in the resonance zone; calculation of the self-consistent HF field in the accelerated plasma, with a view to establishing the conditions for optimum operation of the HF accelerator; the problem of the mirror losses. The experimental results were obtained with various devices constructed for the purpose of verifying the theoretical predictions. With the Circe-Pleiade, where the ionization and acceleration functions have been separated by means of ionization with a Circe device ({lambda} = 3 cm, 300 W), it has been verified the relativistic law of variation of the parallel ion energy as a function of the injected density (existence of a minimum density for the entrainment of ions) and of the applied HF power (TE{sub 111} cavity, 3 GHz, 700 W). With the Circe accelerator ({lambda} =3 cm, P = 2.5kW, CW) it has been verified that, for n{sub plasma} n{sub c} , because of the strong attenuation of the field due to the high index. With the Icare device ({lambda} = 25 cm, P{sub HF} = 1 MW for 100 {mu}s), operating with pre-ionization by laser focalization on a solid D{sub 2} target with an injection density always higher than the cut-off density, accelerated deuteron

  11. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  12. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  13. Contribution to the study of french pitchblendes; Contribution a l'etude des pechblendes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffroy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Mineralogie, Centre de Chatillon (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Sarcia, J A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Div. de la Crouzille, Haute Vienne (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The authors first review the characteristics of uraninite-pitchblende, as deduced of present literature. They set apart from typical pitchblende a black oxide aspect, which probably corresponds to neo-formations, and a 'para-pitchblende' aspect, which they relate to deep sur-oxidation of normal pitchblende. They insist on the easy replacement of pitchblende by silica. and give indications as to changes in vein stones (fluorite, quartz, etc...). A detailed study of paragenesis and successions in french uranium districts follows (including discussion of uranium of uranium-bearing coals). The authors attempt to classify french pitchblende veins. They are chiefly epithermal and poor in satellite ores. Three types of deposits are identified: massive - pitchblende type, silica type, fluorite type. These deposits, as those of Portugal, are included in granite, Central-European peri-batholitic types where uranium associates which Ni, Co, Bi and Ag, are in France both rare and poor. Finally, the authors attempt to bring out in the european Hercynian area a particular distribution of paragenetic types. (authors) [French] Les auteurs recapitulent d'abord les caracteres et les occurences de l'uraninite - pechblende, tels qu'ils peuvent etre degages de l'actuelle bibliographie. Ils exposent ensuite les faits qui du point de vue mineralogique seulement ressortent de l'etude mineralogique et chalcographique des pechblendes francaises et de leurs satellites. Ils distinguent de la pechblende-type un facies oxyde noir; correspondant probablement a une neoformation, et un facies parapechblende, qui est rapporte a une sur oxydation hypogene de la pechblende proprement dite. Ils insistent sur le facile remaniement de la pechblende par la slice; et donnent quelques precisions sur les modifications des gangues (fluorine, quartz, etc...). Suit l'etude detaillee des parageneses et des successions dans les districts uraniferes francais: Divisions du Limousin, de Grury, de Lachaux et de

  14. Study of some properties of zirconium phosphate; Etude de quelques proprietes du phosphate de zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prospert, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-05-01

    Zirconium phosphate has been studied with a view to using it as an ion exchanger: the first objective was to develop a method of preparation easy to apply and also reproducible. To this end, several tests were carried out varying the molar ratios of phosphorus and of zirconium. Some physical properties such as the diffraction of X-rays were examined. The work then involved certain chemical properties, particularly the percentages of free water and structural water given by the loss on calcination, the Karl-Fisher method and the weight losses by thermogravimetry. Finally an attempts was made to apply the exchanger to the separation of alkaline ions. The static tests showed that the order of fixation of these ions was Cs{sup +} > Rb{sup +} >> K{sup +} > Na{sup +}. Tests with columns showed that Na{sup +} and K{sup +} were easily separable, as was the Rb{sup +}-Cs{sup +} mixture, this last pair being fairly difficult to dissociate. (author) [French] Le phosphate de zirconium a ete etudie en vue de son utilisation comme echangeur d'ions: le premier but a atteindre a ete de mettre au point une preparation pouvant se reveler facilement utilisable ainsi qu'aisement reproductible. A cet effet, plusieurs essais ont ete effectues en faisant varier les rapports molaires du phosphore et du zirconium. Quelques proprietes physiques, telle la diffraction des rayons X, ont ete abordees. Ensuite, l'etude a porte sur certaines proprietes chimiques, particulierement les pourcentages d'eau libre et d'eau de structure par des pertes au feu, utilisation de la methode de Karl-Fisher, ainsi que des pertes de poids a la thenmobalance. Enfin, on a tente d'utiliser l'echangeur a la separation des ions alcalins. Les etudes statiques ont permis de constater que l'ordre de fixation de ces ions etait Cs{sup +} > Rb{sup +} >> K{sup +} > Na{sup +}. Les essais effectues en colonne ont montre que Na{sup +} et K{sup +} etaient aisement separables entre eux, ainsi que du couple Rb{sup +}-Cs{sup +}, ce

  15. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  16. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay; Formation des scientifiques et des techniciens au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiesse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' waeated (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author)Fren. [French] Les besoins considerables actuels et previsibles en chercheurs et scientifiques necessites par l'avevement de l'energie nucleaire imposaient au Commissariat a I'Energie atomique un effort particulier pour augmenter la formation quantitative et qualitative des scientifiques. Les moyens les plus divers ont ete mis en oeuvre: 1- Creation de l'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires par decret de la Presidence du Conseil et de l'Education Nationale en date du 18.6.57. Cet Institut d'Enseignement Superieur (250 etudiants) donne des cours en: genie atomique, mecanique quantique, theorie et technique des Accelerateurs de particules, metallurgie speciale, radiobiologie

  17. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    without loss of any generality to be the first k primes), then the equation a + b = c has .... This is an elementary exercise in partial summation (see [12]). Thus ... This is easily done by inserting a stronger form of the prime number theorem into the.

  18. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to myocardial infarction: the ECTIM study. Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, J L; Loukaci, V; Poirier, O; Evans, A; Luc, G; Arveiler, D; Ruidavets, J B; Cambien, F; Tiret, L

    2001-06-01

    There is growing evidence that interleukin (IL) 6 plays an important role in the atherosclerotic process because of its role in mediating immune and inflammatory responses and inducing cell proliferation. The present study examined whether molecular variations at the IL-6 locus are involved in the predisposition to myocardial infarction. The entire coding region, 1,158 bp of the 5' flanking region and 237 bp of the 3' flanking region of the IL-6 gene were screened. We detected three nucleotide substitutions in the 5' region at positions -174 (G/C), -572 (G/C), and -596 (G/A) from the transcription start site, and one insertion/deletion in the 3' region at position +528 after the Stop codon. These polymorphisms were genotyped in the Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde study comparing male patients (n=640) and age-matched controls (n=719) from Northern Ireland and France. The IL-6/G-174C and IL-6/G-596A polymorphisms were in nearly complete association. Carriers of the IL-6/-174 C allele were more frequent in patients than in controls. The population-adjusted odds ratio for myocardial infarction associated with genotype CC+CG vs. GG was estimated as 1.34. In French patients the number of coronary arteries with greater than 50% stenosis was assessed by angiography. The IL-6/-174 C allele was more frequent in patients with two or fewer stenosed vessels than in patients with three-vessel lesions. These results suggest that genetic variation at the IL-6 locus is associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction, especially events occurring on less extended lesions. These findings would be compatible with a lower IL-6 secretion associated with the IL-6/-174 C allele, itself or in combination with other promoter polymorphisms, leading to more unstable plaques.

  19. Concerning the study of the irreversible magnetic behaviour of superconductivity; Contribution a l'etude du comportement magnetique irreversible des supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    The influence of the presence of extended lattice defects on the magnetic behaviour has been studied for the case of type I superconductors, such as Re and Ta, and in a more quantitative manner for the type II superconductor niobium. In this case, measurements of the thermal conductivity have given an estimate of the relative concentration of lattice defects in each specimen. These measurements show that the larger the number of lattice defects, the more irreversible becomes the magnetization curve, and the larger becomes the values of the critical current, which is related by a simple model to the magnetization values. Finally, a study by transmission electron microscopy has confirmed on the one hand the diversity of the extended lattice defects and on the other hand has allowed the formulation of several hypothesis on their respective influence. [French] L'influence de la presence de defauts etendus sur le comportement magnetique a ete etudie pour des supraconducteurs de premiere espece, tels que le rhenium et le tantale, et plus quantitativement pour un supraconducteur de deuxieme espece, le niobium. Dans ce cas, des mesures de conductibilite thermique ont permis d'estimer la concentration relative des defauts du reseau dans chaque echantillon. Ces mesures montrent que plus les defauts du reseau sont nombreux, plus la courbe d'aimantation est irreversible, et plus les valeurs du courant critique, reliees par un modele simple aux valeurs de l'aimantation, sont elevees. Enfin une etude par microscopie electronique en transmission - a permis d'une part de constater la diversite des defauts etendus et d'autre part de formuler quelques hypotheses sur leurs influences respectives.

  20. Mass hysteria

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Considerable research is being undertaken to identify the Higgs particle that is believed to give things their mass. According to the standard model, what we call mass is really an indication of how strongly particles interact with an invisible syrupy substance called the Higgs field. Quantum mechanics say that the mass-giving field can also be thought of as a sea of electrically neutral Higgs particles that should be dislodged in collisions between subatomic particles with high enough energies. Particle physicists expect the Higgs to exist only for a fleeting moment before decaying into other particles, which are caught in a detector. (Edited abstract).

  1. p-adic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2015-01-01

    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  2. Development of a gas-ionization {beta}-spectrometer; Etude et realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} a ionisation gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Du, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-05-15

    We intend to develop in our laboratory a {beta}-spectrometer. This apparatus will have two main objectives: 1 - the determination of the nature and the degree of purity of certain {beta}-emitting radioactive substances; 2 - the study of an activity calibration process for {beta}-emitting radioactive sources. (author) [French] Nous nous proposons d'etudier et de realiser dans notre laboratoire un spectrometre {beta}. Cet appareil aura deux buts principaux: 1 - determiner la nature et le degre de purete de certains corps radioactifs emetteurs {beta}; 2 - permettre l'etude d'un procede d'etalonnage en activite de sources radioactives emetteurs {beta}. (auteur)

  3. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We now apply the theory of the Thue equation to obtain an effective bound on m. Indeed, by Lemma 3.2, we can write m2 = ba3 and m2 − 4 = cd3 with b, c cubefree. By the above, both b, c are bounded since they are cubefree and all their prime factors are less than e63727. Now we have a finite number of. Thue equations:.

  4. Preparation and study of dialkyl nitroxide radicals; Preparation et etude de radicaux nitroxydes diacyles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenavas, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    These radicals are obtained by oxidation of N-hydroxy-imides with lead tetracetate or p-nitro-perbenzoic acid. These imides are prepared by heating dicarboxylic acids anhydrides with benzyloxy-amine followed by catalytic hydrogenation of N-benzyloxy-imides so obtained. Two series of radicals have mainly been studied, the first concerning five-membered cyclic imides, the second six-membered cyclic imides, these molecules having methyls substituents or no on the carbon ring. N. M. R. spectra of some O-benzyl-imides have been analysed. These different results have made it possible to study the conformation and stereochemistry of these imides. (author) [French] Ces radicaux sont obtenus par oxydation d'imides N-hydroxyles par le tetracetate de plomb ou l'acide p-nitroperbenzoique; ces imides sont prepares par chauffage d'anhydrides de diacides en presence de benzyloxyamine suivie d'une hydrogenation catalytique des N-benzyloxyimides ainsi obtenus. Deux series de radicaux ont principalement ete etudies: la premiere relative a des imides cycliques a cinq chainons, la seconde a des imides cycliques a six chainons, ces molecules ayant des substituants methyles ou non sur la chaine carbonee. Les derives O-benzyles de quelques-uns de ces imides ont ete analyses en R. M. N. Ces differents resultats ont permis une etude de la conformation et de la stereochimie de ces imides. (auteur)

  5. The abject gaze and the homosexual body: Flandrin's Figure d'Etude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camille, M

    1994-01-01

    This article charts the history of the reception, reproduction and appropriation of a single image that has recently become a kind of "gay icon"--the Figure d'Etude in the Louvre, painted by Hippolyte Flandrin in 1835. Initially no more than a neo-classical academic exercise, the formal emptiness of this picture meant that it could be re-invested and reinscribed with new meanings and new titles at every turn. Emblematic of the anxious visibility/invisibility of the newly discovered homosexual body during a period when the gaze still had to be kept a dark secret, Flandrin's image only "came out" in its later photographic reworkings by Frederick Holland Day and Baron von Gloeden. After being reproduced for a specifically homosexual audience early this century, the popular Romantic pose of the young man curled-up in profile became a standard one, reappearing recently in the photographs of Robert Mapplethorpe. The inactive, abject and inward-turned isolation of the figure with its narcissistic self-absorption makes it, in my view, a profoundly negative stereotype of the gay gaze and the homosexual body. Flandrin's figure nonetheless appears today on gay merchandise world-wide as a sign of our separate and secluded subject positions and our community's unwillingness to radically alter older imposed and inherited classical stereotypes.

  6. Study of copper fluorination; Contribution a l'etude de la fluoruration du cuivre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillardeau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-01

    This report deals with the action of fluorine on copper. Comprehensive descriptions are given of the particular technological methods and of the preparation of the reactants. This fluorination reaction has been studied at medium and low fluorine pressures. A nucleation and growth phenomenon is described. The influence of a pollution of the gas phase on the fluorination process is described. The solid-state reaction between cupric fluoride and cooper has also been studied. A special study has been made of the growth of copper deposits by thermal decomposition of gaseous fluorides. (author) [French] Ce rapport traite de la reaction du fluor sur le cuivre. Les methodes technologiques particulieres ainsi que les preparations des reactifs sont largement developpees. Cette reaction de fluoruration est etudiee sous pressions moyennes et sous basses pressions de fluor. Un phenomene de germination et croissance est decrit. L'influence de la pollution de la phase gazeuse sur le processus de fluoruration est rapportee. La reaction a l'etat solide du fluorure cuivrique sur le cuivre a egalement ete etudiee. La croissance de depots de cuivre par decomposition thermique des fluorures de cuivre gazeux fait l'objet d'une etude speciale. (auteur)

  7. Preparation and study of dialkyl nitroxide radicals; Preparation et etude de radicaux nitroxydes diacyles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenavas, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    These radicals are obtained by oxidation of N-hydroxy-imides with lead tetracetate or p-nitro-perbenzoic acid. These imides are prepared by heating dicarboxylic acids anhydrides with benzyloxy-amine followed by catalytic hydrogenation of N-benzyloxy-imides so obtained. Two series of radicals have mainly been studied, the first concerning five-membered cyclic imides, the second six-membered cyclic imides, these molecules having methyls substituents or no on the carbon ring. N. M. R. spectra of some O-benzyl-imides have been analysed. These different results have made it possible to study the conformation and stereochemistry of these imides. (author) [French] Ces radicaux sont obtenus par oxydation d'imides N-hydroxyles par le tetracetate de plomb ou l'acide p-nitroperbenzoique; ces imides sont prepares par chauffage d'anhydrides de diacides en presence de benzyloxyamine suivie d'une hydrogenation catalytique des N-benzyloxyimides ainsi obtenus. Deux series de radicaux ont principalement ete etudies: la premiere relative a des imides cycliques a cinq chainons, la seconde a des imides cycliques a six chainons, ces molecules ayant des substituants methyles ou non sur la chaine carbonee. Les derives O-benzyles de quelques-uns de ces imides ont ete analyses en R. M. N. Ces differents resultats ont permis une etude de la conformation et de la stereochimie de ces imides. (auteur)

  8. Study of {gamma}'s in Naiade; Etude des gamma de Naiade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millot, J P; Rastoin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following a study of the gamma sources, the flux of gamma of different energies in the swimming pool is investigated. The biological dose can thus be obtained by calculation, and compared with the results given by photographic plates. The influence of photoneutrons is estimated by calculation, and research is being carried out on their influence on the thermal neutron flux curve on the axis of the uranium plate, with the plate emitting neutrons and with the plate protected by boral. (author) [French] Apres l'etude des sources de gamma, l'on etudie le flux de gamma de differentes energies dans la piscine. La dose biologique peut etre obtenue ainsi par le calcul et comparee avec les resultats donnes par les plaques photographiques. L'influence des photoneutrons est estimee par le calcul et l'on recherche leur influence sur la courbe de flux de neutrons thermiques sur l'axe de la plaque d'uranium, la plaque emettant des neutrons et la plaque protegee par du boral. (auteur)

  9. Technological study of organic fluids; Etudes technologiques des fluides caloporteurs organique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Under contract to EURATOM (MM. VAN der VENNE and HANNAERT), the C.E.A. and the Progil Society have collaborated on a technological study of the terphenyls. The results obtained from the radiolysis and pyrolysis of the product OM2 (70 p. 100 m-terphenyl, 25 p. 100 o-terphenyl, 5 p. 100 p-terphenyl) are reported. Using two pile loops at temperatures up to 450 deg. C, a phenomena of accelerated pyrolysis on the radiolized material has been demonstrated. Some by-products of the petroleum industry have also been studied, with a view to finding substitutes for terphenyl. (author) [French] Le C.E.A. et la Societe PROGIL ont entrepris en commun sous contrat EURATOM (MM. VAN der VENNE et HANNAERT) une etude technologique des terphenyles. Les resultats de radiolyse et de pyrolyse obtenus sur le produit OM2 (70 p. 100 m-terphenyle, 25 p. 100 o-terphenyle. 5 p. 100 de p-terphenyle) sont exposes. L'exploitation de deux boucles en pile jusqu'a des temperatures de 450 deg. C a mis en evidence un phenomene de pyrolyse acceleree sur le produit radiolyse. On a etudie egalement quelques sous-produits de l'industrie petroliere dans le but de trouver des substituts au terphenyle. (auteur)

  10. Underground nuclear explosions. Geological survey of the cavities; Explosions nucleaires souterraines etude geologique des cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A geological survey of underground nuclear explosions makes it possible to determine the main characteristics of the cavity formed. The lower portion is spherical; the same was very likely true of the roof, which collapses in the majority of media with the exception of rock-salt. Its radius, for a given bomb size, can vary by a factor of two according to the type of rock. The lay-out of its contents depends on the characteristics of the solid and liquid products at the moment of the roof collapse; according to the medium involved, mixing of the rubble and the mud-flow occurs (granite) or does not occur (tuff and alluvia). In all media, the average physical properties can be evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude geologique d'explosions nucleaires souterraines permet de determiner les principaux caracteres de la cavite creee. Sa partie inferieure est spherique; il en etait vraisemblablement de meme de sa voute, effondree dans la plupart des milieux a l'exception du sel gemme. Son rayon, a energie d'engin egale, varie selon les roches du simple au double. La disposition de son contenu depend des caracteristiques des produits solides et liquides au moment de la chute du toit; selon le cas, il n'y a pas (tuf et alluvions) ou il y a (granite) melange des eboulis et des laves. Dans tous les milieux, les proprietes physiques moyennes peuvent etre evaluees. (auteur)

  11. Number projection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.

    1987-01-01

    A relationship between the number projection and the shell model methods is investigated in the case of a single-j shell. We can find a one-to-one correspondence between the number projected and the shell model states

  12. Numbers and brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-12-01

    The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.

  13. Very low mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, J.; Probst, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses several theoretical and observational topics involved in discovering and analyzing very low mass stellar objects below about 0.3 M circle, as well as their likely extension into the substellar range. The authors hereafter refer to these two classes of objects as VLM stars and brown dwarfs, respectively; collectively, they are called VLM objects. The authors outline recent theoretical work on low-mass stellar interiors and atmospheres, the determination of the hydrogen-burning mass limit, important dynamical evidence bearing on the expected numbers of such objects, and the expectations for such objects from star-formation theory. They focus on the properties of substellar objects near the stellar mass limit. Observational techniques used to discover and analyze VLM objects are summarized

  14. Number in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    had a marked singular and an unmarked plural. Synchronically, however, the singular is arguably the basic member of the number category as revealed by the use of the two numbers. In addition, some nouns have a collective form, which is grammatically singular. Number also plays a role...

  15. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....

  16. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  17. Top quark mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Tuula; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Helsinki U. of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parameterized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parameterized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector

  18. Asymptotic numbers: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    The set of asymptotic numbers A as a system of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R, as well as infinitely small (infinitesimals) and infinitely large numbers, is introduced. The detailed algebraic properties of A, which are unusual as compared with the known algebraic structures, are studied. It is proved that the set of asymptotic numbers A cannot be isomorphically embedded as a subspace in any group, ring or field, but some particular subsets of asymptotic numbers are shown to be groups, rings, and fields. The algebraic operation, additive and multiplicative forms, and the algebraic properties are constructed in an appropriate way. It is shown that the asymptotic numbers give rise to a new type of generalized functions quite analogous to the distributions of Schwartz allowing, however, the operation multiplication. A possible application of these functions to quantum theory is discussed

  19. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  20. A digital squarer system for positive mass identification on the ARL ion microprobe mass analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, K.N.; Grant, L.D.V.; Rawsthorne, E.D.; Strydom, H.J.; Gries, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The original analogue squarer for mass scale linearisation in the Ion Microprobe Mass Analyser (IMMA) has been replaced by a programmable digital squarer system which permits reliable mass number identification throughout the tested range 1 to 240. The digital squarer provides signals to both a digital direct reading mass number display and to an X-Y recorder where it provides a linear mass scale correct to within 0,3 mass units. An additional output to a computer can provide binary or BCD mass number data

  1. Measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and patchouli alcohol of patchouli oil produced in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningrum, Reni Banowati; Saepuloh, Azis; Jannah, Wirdatul; Aji, Didit Waskito

    2017-03-01

    Yogyakarta is one of patchouli oil distillation center in Indonesia. The quality of patchouli oil greatly affect its market price. Therefore, testing quality of patchouli oil parameters is an important concern, one through determination of the measurement uncertainty. This study will determine the measurement uncertainty of ester number, acid number and content of patchouli alcohol through a bottom up approach. Source contributor to measurement uncertainty of ester number is a mass of the sample, a blank and sample titration volume, the molar mass of KOH, HCl normality, and replication. While the source contributor of the measurement uncertainty of acid number is the mass of the sample, the sample titration volume, the relative mass and normality of KOH, and repetition. Determination of patchouli alcohol by Gas Chromatography considers the sources of measurement uncertainty only from repeatability because reference materials are not available.

  2. Theoretical, physical and experimental study of fissile aqueous media; Etudes theorique, physique et experimentale des milieux fissiles aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caizergues, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    This thesis consists of a set of theoretical and experimental studies. a) Theoretical calculation methods used for cross-sections and the critical parameters; b) Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results: it is shown that the agreement between these results cannot be improved above a certain limit because of the accuracy with which are known the composition and the dimensions of the media and the microscopic cross-sections; c) Determination of the ratios {eta}{sup 9}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar, {eta}{sup 3}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar for fissile aqueous media ({eta}-bar: number of neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed, averaged over the reactor neutron spectrum). Evaluation of the accuracy to which these ratios are known; d) Effect of {sup 240}Pu: the measurements are carried out on Pu with a {sup 240}Pu content of 1.5 per cent, 3.11 per cent and 9.95 per cent; Calculation of the resonance integral I240 using the experimental results gives values in reasonable agreement with the results obtained by other more conventional methods. e) Measurement of the spectrum indices for aqueous media containing Pu, U5 and U3. With these latter it is possible to obtain mean fission cross-section ratios {sigma}f239-bar / {sigma}f235-bar for these different spectra. A calculation-experiment comparison is carried out using various theoretical methods. (author) [French] Cette these groupe un ensemble d'etudes theoriques et experimentales. a) Methodes theoriques de calcul utilisees pour les sections efficaces et les parametres critiques; b) Comparaisons des resultats theoriques et experimentaux: on montre que l'accord entre ces resultats ne peut etre ameliore au-dela de certaines limites vu la precision avec laquelle sont connues la composition et les dimensions des milieux et les sections efficaces macroscopiques; c) Determination des rapports {eta}{sup 9}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar, {eta}{sup 3}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar pour les milieux fissiles aqueux ({eta}: nombre de

  3. Theoretical, physical and experimental study of fissile aqueous media; Etudes theorique, physique et experimentale des milieux fissiles aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caizergues, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    This thesis consists of a set of theoretical and experimental studies. a) Theoretical calculation methods used for cross-sections and the critical parameters; b) Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results: it is shown that the agreement between these results cannot be improved above a certain limit because of the accuracy with which are known the composition and the dimensions of the media and the microscopic cross-sections; c) Determination of the ratios {eta}{sup 9}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar, {eta}{sup 3}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar for fissile aqueous media ({eta}-bar: number of neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed, averaged over the reactor neutron spectrum). Evaluation of the accuracy to which these ratios are known; d) Effect of {sup 240}Pu: the measurements are carried out on Pu with a {sup 240}Pu content of 1.5 per cent, 3.11 per cent and 9.95 per cent; Calculation of the resonance integral I240 using the experimental results gives values in reasonable agreement with the results obtained by other more conventional methods. e) Measurement of the spectrum indices for aqueous media containing Pu, U5 and U3. With these latter it is possible to obtain mean fission cross-section ratios {sigma}f239-bar / {sigma}f235-bar for these different spectra. A calculation-experiment comparison is carried out using various theoretical methods. (author) [French] Cette these groupe un ensemble d'etudes theoriques et experimentales. a) Methodes theoriques de calcul utilisees pour les sections efficaces et les parametres critiques; b) Comparaisons des resultats theoriques et experimentaux: on montre que l'accord entre ces resultats ne peut etre ameliore au-dela de certaines limites vu la precision avec laquelle sont connues la composition et les dimensions des milieux et les sections efficaces macroscopiques; c) Determination des rapports {eta}{sup 9}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar, {eta}{sup 3}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar pour les milieux fissiles aqueux ({eta}: nombre de neutrons emis

  4. MassTRIX: mass translator into pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhre, Karsten; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2008-07-01

    Recent technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have brought the field of metabolomics to a point where large numbers of metabolites from numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms can now be easily and precisely detected. The challenge today lies in the correct annotation of these metabolites on the basis of their accurate measured masses. Assignment of bulk chemical formula is generally possible, but without consideration of the biological and genomic context, concrete metabolite annotations remain difficult and uncertain. MassTRIX responds to this challenge by providing a hypothesis-driven approach to high precision MS data annotation. It presents the identified chemical compounds in their genomic context as differentially colored objects on KEGG pathway maps. Information on gene transcription or differences in the gene complement (e.g. samples from different bacterial strains) can be easily added. The user can thus interpret the metabolic state of the organism in the context of its potential and, in the case of submitted transcriptomics data, real enzymatic capacities. The MassTRIX web server is freely accessible at http://masstrix.org.

  5. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  6. Invitation to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ore, Oystein

    2017-01-01

    Number theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the counting numbers, 1, 2, 3, … and their multiples and factors. Of particular importance are odd and even numbers, squares and cubes, and prime numbers. But in spite of their simplicity, you will meet a multitude of topics in this book: magic squares, cryptarithms, finding the day of the week for a given date, constructing regular polygons, pythagorean triples, and many more. In this revised edition, John Watkins and Robin Wilson have updated the text to bring it in line with contemporary developments. They have added new material on Fermat's Last Theorem, the role of computers in number theory, and the use of number theory in cryptography, and have made numerous minor changes in the presentation and layout of the text and the exercises.

  7. Study: control of atomic energy power plant; Etude de la regulation d'une installation atomique productrice d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautray, R; Leny, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    We are studying the control of a very flexible atomic power plant, able to supply an independent network. Two systems have been examined: in the first the moderator pre-heats the light water, in the second, this preheating is dispensed with, subsequent to a study of the dynamics of the plant. Very complete linear approximation study is being effected on the model of the second system, all effects being taken into account. The reactor is stable at all power levels, though slight reactivity or load variations cause undamped power oscillations around the equilibrium level. (author)Fren. [French] Nous etudions la regulation d'une installation atomique d'une grande souplesse, pouvant eventuellement fournir de l'energie a un reseau isole. Deux versions de l'installation sont etudiees: dans la premiere le moderateur sert a rechauffer l'eau industrielle, mais l'etude dynamique conduit a supprimer ce rechauffage, ce qui donne la deuxieme version. On effectue sur celle-ci une etude en approximation lineaire tres complete ou l'on tient compte de differents effets. L'installation se montre stable a tous les niveaux de puissance. Toutefois, de petites perturbations de reactivite ou de charge entrainent des oscillations de puissance mal amorties autour de la position d'equilibre. (auteur)

  8. Methods for studying the radioactive contamination of plants (1963); Methodes d'etude de la contamination radioactive des vegetaux (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, R; Jeanmaire, L; Michon, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The authors first define the doctrine which led to the devising of a method for studying the radioactive pollution of plants, based on the use of simple techniques, having the possibility of being adapted for routine work, and so devised that each stage is proceeded with only if the preceding one justifies it. For each stage a study is effected comparing the results obtained by the use of more exact techniques. The second part describes in detail the techniques used. (authors) [French] Dans une premiere partie lea auteurs definissent la doctrine qui leur a permis d'elaborer une methode d'etude de la pollution radioactive des vegetaux, basee sur l'utilisation de techniques simples, se pretant au travail de serie et concues de telle maniere que chaque etape n'est abordee que si la precedente le justifie. Chaque etape fait l'objet d'une etude qui compare les resultats a ceux obtenue par des techniques plus precises. La deuxieme partie decrit dans le detail les techniques utilisees. (auteurs)

  9. Negative numbers and antimatter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2012-01-01

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter

  10. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  11. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  12. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  13. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...... as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’....

  14. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  15. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  16. Numbers, sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc

  17. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (approx. 10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (approx. 10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to Dirac's large number hypothesis. (orig.)

  18. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1981-02-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (--10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (--10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to the Dirac's large number hypothesis. (author)

  19. The application of radioactive isotopes to the study of motion of silt and pebbles in the rivers and in the sea; Application des isotopes radioactifs a l'etude des mouvements des sediments et des galets dans les cours d'eau et en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hours, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique

    1959-07-01

    The application of radioactive tracers to the study of sediments drift has received considerable attention since 1954 in various countries. A comparative review is made of a number of techniques of labelling, immersing and detecting silts, sands, and pebbles. The influence of the burying of the active material is emphasized. The different experiments which have been so far carried out are described. (author) [French] L'application des traceurs radioactifs a l'etude des deplacements de sediments a fait depuis 1954 l'objet de travaux nombreux dans divers pays. On passe en revue et on compare differentes techniques de marquage, d'immersion et de detection des vases, sables et galets; on insiste sur l'influence de l'enfouissement du materiau actif. On decrit les differentes experiences effectuees jusqu'a ce jour. (auteur)

  20. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddick, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A·Mass 1/2 + B·(Mass) p where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs

  1. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddick, J C

    1997-12-31

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A{center_dot}Mass{sup 1/2} + B{center_dot}(Mass){sup p} where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  2. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  3. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained...

  4. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  5. Mass of neutrino and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Yanagida, T

    2003-01-01

    We give a brief review on the seesaw mechanism in a grand unified theory which predicts small neutrino masses. In the seesaw mechanism the lepton-number conservation is broken and neutrinos have Majorana type masses. We also explain why the lepton-number nonconservation can be an origin of the baryon-number asymmetry in the present universe. (author)

  6. Study of new structures adapted to gas-graphite and gas-heavy water reactors; Etude de structures nouvelles adaptees aux reacteurs graphite-gaz et eau lourde-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R; Roche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The experience acquired as a result of the operation of the Marcoule reactors and of the construction and start-up of the E.D.F. reactors on the one hand, and the conclusions of research and tests carried out out-of-pile on the other hand, lead to a considerable change in the general design of reactors of the gas-graphite type. The main modifications envisaged are analysed in the paper. The adoption of an annular fuel element and of a down-current cooling will make it possible to increase considerably the specific power and the power output of each channel; as a result there will be a considerable reduction in the number of the channels and a corresponding increase in the size of the unit cell. The graphite stack will have to be adapted to there new conditions. For security reasons, the use of prestressed concrete for the construction of the reactor vessel is becoming more widespread; they could lead to the exchangers and the fuel-handling apparatus becoming integrated inside the vessel (the so-called 'attic' device). A full-size mode) of this attic has been built at Saclay with the participation of EURATOM; the operational results obtained are presented as well as a new original design for the control rods. As for as the gas-heavy-water system is concerned, the research is carried out on two points of design; the first, which retains the use of horizontal pressure tubes, takes into account the experience acquired during the construction of the EL 4 reactor of which it will constitute an extrapolation; the second, arising from the research carried out on the gas-graphite system, will use a pre-stressed concrete vessel for holding the pressure, the moderator being almost at the same pressure as the cooling fluid and the fuel being placed in vertical channels. The relative merits of these two variants are analysed in the present paper. (authors) [French] L'experience acquise par l'exploitation des reacteurs de MARCOULE, la construction et le demarrage des reacteurs d

  7. Contribution to the study of french pitchblendes; Contribution a l'etude des pechblendes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffroy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Mineralogie, Centre de Chatillon (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Sarcia, J.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Div. de la Crouzille, Haute Vienne (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The authors first review the characteristics of uraninite-pitchblende, as deduced of present literature. They set apart from typical pitchblende a black oxide aspect, which probably corresponds to neo-formations, and a 'para-pitchblende' aspect, which they relate to deep sur-oxidation of normal pitchblende. They insist on the easy replacement of pitchblende by silica. and give indications as to changes in vein stones (fluorite, quartz, etc...). A detailed study of paragenesis and successions in french uranium districts follows (including discussion of uranium of uranium-bearing coals). The authors attempt to classify french pitchblende veins. They are chiefly epithermal and poor in satellite ores. Three types of deposits are identified: massive - pitchblende type, silica type, fluorite type. These deposits, as those of Portugal, are included in granite, Central-European peri-batholitic types where uranium associates which Ni, Co, Bi and Ag, are in France both rare and poor. Finally, the authors attempt to bring out in the european Hercynian area a particular distribution of paragenetic types. (authors) [French] Les auteurs recapitulent d'abord les caracteres et les occurences de l'uraninite - pechblende, tels qu'ils peuvent etre degages de l'actuelle bibliographie. Ils exposent ensuite les faits qui du point de vue mineralogique seulement ressortent de l'etude mineralogique et chalcographique des pechblendes francaises et de leurs satellites. Ils distinguent de la pechblende-type un facies oxyde noir; correspondant probablement a une neoformation, et un facies parapechblende, qui est rapporte a une sur oxydation hypogene de la pechblende proprement dite. Ils insistent sur le facile remaniement de la pechblende par la slice; et donnent quelques precisions sur les modifications des gangues (fluorine, quartz, etc...). Suit l'etude detaillee des parageneses et des successions dans les districts uraniferes francais: Divisions du

  8. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically—as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution—and non-parametrically—as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M 1% , of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M 1% ; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M 1% >4.3 M sun with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M 1% >4.5 M sun with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass

  9. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  10. Model of a plasma without collisions in a cylindrical geometry by the study of the motions of the particles (1960); Modele d'un plasma sans collisions dans une geometrie cylindrique par l'etude des mouvements de particules (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebut, P H [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1960-07-01

    The Boltzmann equation for a group of particles in the absence of collisions may be written df/dt = 0, where f is the distribution function in the phase space. This equation means that f is an individual motion constant. This leads to a study, of the paths and to a research of the first integrals of the differential system related to them. This study leads also to a confinement condition on the velocities of a particle. The following step is related to the theoretical study of some distribution functions and of the resulting consequences. A differential system is obtained, giving density and magnetic and electric fields. This system has been in a number of cases solved by a digital computer. This solution allows an experimental comparison to be made. The first integrals obtained are still valid when magnetic 'screw-type' fields are concerned, which results in the obtention of a type of helicoidal deformation and of a stability criteria with respect to these deformations. (author) [French] L'equation de Boltzmann pour un groupe de particules en l'absence de collision peut s'ecrire df/dt = 0, ou f est la fonction de distribution dans l'espace des phases. Cette equation signifie que f est une constante du mouvement individuel. On est donc amene a etudier les trajectoires et a rechercher des integrales premieres du systeme differentiel qui leur est lie; cette etude conduit aussi a une condition de confinement portant sur les vitesses d'une particule. L'etape suivante se rapporte a l'etude theorique de certaines fonctions de distribution et des consequences qui en decoulent. On arrive a un systeme differentiel donnant densite, champs magnetiques et electriques, systeme qui a ete resolu dans un certain nombre de cas par une machine a calculer digitale. Cette resolution permet une confrontation experimentale. Les integrales premieres obtenues restent encore valables lors de champs magnetiques en 'vis'; il en resulte l'obtention d'un type de deformation helicoidale et d

  11. The dynamic behaviour of heat exchangers; Etude du comportement dynamique des echangeurs de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonteray, J; Rozenholc, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    In order to study the dynamics of nuclear power plants, one needs mathematical models made up of ordinary differential equations. This report deals with models for heat exchangers. These models allow exact evaluations of the temperatures for any steady state. The deformation of the temperature maps during transients is taken into account. To do this, average temperatures are evaluated keeping In mind, on one hand the partial differential equations, on the other hand, the physical phenomenons which are involved. Seven ordinary differential equations at most, are necessary for one heat exchanger. Theses models were compared with mathematically exact ones and also with experimental results, that EDF was able to measure on EDF-1 heat exchangers. The results appear to be correct. (authors) [French] Les etudes de dynamique sur les centrales nucleaires exigent l'elaboration de modeles apparaissant sous forme d'equations differentlelles ordinaires. Ce rapport est consacre a la recherche de modeles d'echangeurs. Dans ces modeles les temperatures sont calculees exactement pour n'importe quel regime permanent. Pour tenir compte de la deformation des distributions de temperature en regime transitoire, on evalue les temperatures moyennes dans l'echangeur en s'appuyant, d'une part, sur les equations aux derivees partielles et, d'autre part, sur une analyse des phenomenes physiques. Les modeles contiennent au plus sept equations differentielles ordinaires. Ces modeles ont ete compares aux modeles mathematiques exacts et aussi a des resultats experimentaux, obtenus par l'EDF, sur les echangeurs d'EDF-1. Les resultats paraissent satisfaisants. (auteurs)

  12. Plan for mass accelerator spectrometry at Gif-sur-Yvette and Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, B.; Bianchi, L.; Delibrias, G.; Koechlin, Y.

    1981-05-01

    From early 50', a carbon 14 dating laboratory was created at the Centre des Faibles Radioactivites de Gif-sur-Yvette (C.F.R.). From this time, more than 5,000 archaeological and geological samples were measured with the Libby method by this laboratory. C.F.R. is in the way to actualize its dating activities with the new accelerator method. A 3 MV General Ionex Tandetron is planed to be located at Gif-sur-Yvette next year and shared with Orsay University for 14 C. 10 Be and 36 Cl mass spectroscopy measurement. During the same time attempts have been made to adapt the Super FN Tandem of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay for 14 C dating

  13. Possibility of using radioactivity control measurements for determining contamination paths in nutritional vectors; Etude des possibilites d'utilisation des resultats de la surveillance de la radioactivite pour la recherche des trajectoires d'evolution de la contamination des vecteurs alimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The object of the report is to study the possibility of using results of radioactivity controls for determining the paths followed by contamination in nutritional vectors; these are necessary for calculating protection norms. Radioactive contamination of a nutritional vector is expressed in terms of parameters which suggest that a certain number of criteria may be used for choosing the results which are to be exploited. An actual example of a 'vertical' study based on results of measurements made purely for control purposes shows the difficulties which may be encountered. A list of the results obtained by the control networks set up in the Community Countries, either for the atmosphere, for milk, or for other foodstuffs, shows that these networks are not at the present organised in such a way as to make such a study possible. It appears desirable that a large part of the work carried out by the control Services be oriented in such a way as to yield the complementary information required for experimental studies of radioactive contamination transfers. (author) [French] L'objet du rapport est l'examen des possibilites d'utilisation des resultats de la surveillance de la radioactivite pour la recherche des trajectoires d'evolution de la contamination des vecteurs alimentaires, necessaires au calcul des niveaux de protection. La contamination radioactive d'un vecteur alimentaire s'exprime en fonction de parametres, qui suggerent de retenir un certain nombre de criteres pour la selection des resultats a exploiter. Un exemple concret d'etude 'verticale' basee sur des resultats de mesures faites uniquement dans un but de controle met en evidence les difficultes rencontrees. L'inventaire des resultats obtenus par les reseaux de controle des differents Pays de la Communaute, soit pour l'atmosphere, soit pour le lait, soit pour d'autres aliments, montre que ces reseaux ne sont pas actuellement organises de facon a permettre de telles etudes, Il parait souhaitable qu

  14. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  15. An approach to automated chromosome analysis; Etudes pour une methode d'automatisation des analyses chromosomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Go, Roland

    1972-05-03

    d'une automatisation des differentes etapes de l'analyse chromosomique. Il est divise en trois tomes dont la matiere est decrite ci-apres. Dans le tome 1 est decrite l'etude d'un selecteur automatique de metaphases. Cet appareil doit realiser au cours du scanning d'une preparation, un processus de decision aboutissant a rejeter toutes images ininteressantes et a conserver les images pertinentes (bonnes metaphases). Ce probleme a ete aborde au moyen d'une etude sur ordinateur par un programme de simulation. La realisation de ce programme a permis d'etablir des algorithmes de selection dont la replique pourra etre realisee dans des circuits logiques electroniques. Dans le tome 2 est traite le probleme de l'automatisation de l'etude morphologique des chromosomes presents dans une metaphase. Cette automatisation necessite le traitement des photographies de metaphases par un appareil convertisseur optique-numerique qui extrait l'information-image et la transcrit sous la forme d'un fichier numerique. Ce fichier comporte pour une image de metaphase, environ 200 000 valeurs de gris, codees selon une echelle a 16, 32 ou 64 ni veaux. Ce fichier numerique est traite par un programme de reconnaissance de forme, qui isole les chromosomes et en recherche les traits caracteristiques: sommets de bras et region centromerique, dans le but d'obtenir des mensurations equivalentes aux longueurs des quatre bras. Le tome 3 etudie un programme d'etablissement automatique du caryotype humain, par appariement optimise des chromosomes. Les donnees proviennent de la numerisation directe des longueurs de bras, effectuee au moyen d'un lecteur digital BENSON. Le programme etablit une liste des appariements, un document graphique imprime representant les paires constituees, dans l'espace: longueur - index centromerique; enfin un document graphique obtenu sur traceur BENSON dans lequel l'auteur donne une representation personnelle des chromosomes, sous forme de croix a bras orthogonaux, dont chaque

  16. Random number generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coveyou, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    The subject of random number generation is currently controversial. Differing opinions on this subject seem to stem from implicit or explicit differences in philosophy; in particular, from differing ideas concerning the role of probability in the real world of physical processes, electronic computers, and Monte Carlo calculations. An attempt is made here to reconcile these views. The role of stochastic ideas in mathematical models is discussed. In illustration of these ideas, a mathematical model of the use of random number generators in Monte Carlo calculations is constructed. This model is used to set up criteria for the comparison and evaluation of random number generators. (U.S.)

  17. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  18. Advanced number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Harvey

    1980-01-01

    ""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts

  19. The emergence of number

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, John N

    1987-01-01

    This book presents detailed studies of the development of three kinds of number. In the first part the development of the natural numbers from Stone-Age times right up to the present day is examined not only from the point of view of pure history but also taking into account archaeological, anthropological and linguistic evidence. The dramatic change caused by the introduction of logical theories of number in the 19th century is also treated and this part ends with a non-technical account of the very latest developments in the area of Gödel's theorem. The second part is concerned with the deve

  20. Professor Stewart's incredible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,

  1. Fundamentals of number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    1996-01-01

    This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha

  2. Numbers and computers

    CERN Document Server

    Kneusel, Ronald T

    2015-01-01

    This is a book about numbers and how those numbers are represented in and operated on by computers. It is crucial that developers understand this area because the numerical operations allowed by computers, and the limitations of those operations, especially in the area of floating point math, affect virtually everything people try to do with computers. This book aims to fill this gap by exploring, in sufficient but not overwhelming detail, just what it is that computers do with numbers. Divided into two parts, the first deals with standard representations of integers and floating point numb

  3. Elementary theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    1988-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this work, considerable progress has been made in many of the questions examined. This edition has been updated and enlarged, and the bibliography has been revised.The variety of topics covered here includes divisibility, diophantine equations, prime numbers (especially Mersenne and Fermat primes), the basic arithmetic functions, congruences, the quadratic reciprocity law, expansion of real numbers into decimal fractions, decomposition of integers into sums of powers, some other problems of the additive theory of numbers and the theory of Gaussian

  4. On powerful numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mollin

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful number is a positive integer n satisfying the property that p2 divides n whenever the prime p divides n; i.e., in the canonical prime decomposition of n, no prime appears with exponent 1. In [1], S.W. Golomb introduced and studied such numbers. In particular, he asked whether (25,27 is the only pair of consecutive odd powerful numbers. This question was settled in [2] by W.A. Sentance who gave necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such pairs. The first result of this paper is to provide a generalization of Sentance's result by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of pairs of powerful numbers spaced evenly apart. This result leads us naturally to consider integers which are representable as a proper difference of two powerful numbers, i.e. n=p1−p2 where p1 and p2 are powerful numbers with g.c.d. (p1,p2=1. Golomb (op.cit. conjectured that 6 is not a proper difference of two powerful numbers, and that there are infinitely many numbers which cannot be represented as a proper difference of two powerful numbers. The antithesis of this conjecture was proved by W.L. McDaniel [3] who verified that every non-zero integer is in fact a proper difference of two powerful numbers in infinitely many ways. McDaniel's proof is essentially an existence proof. The second result of this paper is a simpler proof of McDaniel's result as well as an effective algorithm (in the proof for explicitly determining infinitely many such representations. However, in both our proof and McDaniel's proof one of the powerful numbers is almost always a perfect square (namely one is always a perfect square when n≢2(mod4. We provide in §2 a proof that all even integers are representable in infinitely many ways as a proper nonsquare difference; i.e., proper difference of two powerful numbers neither of which is a perfect square. This, in conjunction with the odd case in [4], shows that every integer is representable in

  5. Brief history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Corry, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the

  6. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood

    2008-01-01

    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  7. Pegase: safety studies - experimental study of burn-out risks in transient operation; Pegase: etude de surete - etude experimentale des risques de burn out en regime transitoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    canal chaud se met en etat de calefaction au bout de 0.1 s et que sa temperature atteint 500 C en 0.8 s. Les regimes hydrodynamiques rencontres dans les canaux apres l'accident sont des regimes d'expulsion periodiques de periodes courtes 0.2 a 0.5 s, caracteristiques de l'ebullition a basse pression. L'etude en regime permanent de la redistribution de debit dans un by-pass a donne des flux PHI{sub R} de redistribution de 190 W/cm{sup 2} pour une vitesse de 4.5 m/s a 50 C et de 175 W/cm{sup 2} a 60 C. Ces valeurs sont a majorer de 25 pour cent pour une vitesse de 6 m/s. On a montre la distinction a faire entre flux critique PHI{sub C} en regime periodique d'expulsion et flux de redistribution PHI{sub R} en regime permanent. (auteur)

  8. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  9. High Reynolds Number Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smits, Alexander J

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...

  10. Crunching the Numbers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Operating a Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) like this one requires a blend of high-tech number-crunching ability and .... views follow a standardized format that takes several ... general levels of health and to the use of health services.

  11. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  12. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  14. The Congruent Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One could endlessly churn out congruent numbers following the method in Box 1 without being certain when a given number n (or n x m 2, for some integer m) will ap- pear on the list. Continuing in this way ·would exhaust one's computing resources, not to mention one's patience! Also, this procedure is of no avail if n is not ...

  15. The Brothel Phone Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind

    2017-01-01

    Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro-infrastructure in......Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro...... in turn cultivate and maximize uncertainty about themselves in others. When making the move to go abroad into unknown terrains, accessing the infrastructure generated by the phone number can provide certainty and consolidate one’s position within criminal networks abroad. However, at the same time......, mishandling the phone number can be dangerous and in that sense produce new doubts and uncertainties....

  16. Study of the dynamic behaviour of the reactor Rapsodie; Etude du comportement dynamique de la pile rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdon, R; Chaigne, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    . The investigation of the control, carried out on analog computer, served to determine the different possible means of starting and changing the conditions of the reactor as well as its automatic control. The calculations were examined in the totality by the construction of a training simulator composed of a board similar to the control board of the reactor, all of whose commands (reactivity and flows) work on an analogue computer which resolves in the real time the dynamic equations of the reactor and which reproduces simultaneously all the parameters representing the state of the installation (power, period, temperatures, etc. ) in the case of various incidents as well as under normal conditions of functioning. (authors) [French] On sait que le developpement des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides pose des problemes nouveaux d'une part dans les domaines mecanique et thermique et d'autre part en ce qui concerne leur comportement dynamique et leur surete. La pile RAPSODIE a ete l'objet de tres nombreuses etudes dynamiques effectuees sur machines analogiques et digitales, pour deux versions du combustible (metal et oxyde). Apres elaboration des modeles mathematiques representatifs de l'ensemble de l'installation (bloc pile et circuit de refroidissement) tant du point de vue neutronique que du point de vue thermodynamique, on a mis au point les schemas analogiques et les codes digitaux utilisables pour mener a bien les simulations d'incidents, de conduite et de stabilite du reacteur. On s'est attache, par rapport aux methodes habituelles a obtenir une precision plus grande, par un decoupage en zones plus fines, par l'emploi de formulations plus representatives du systeme reel, voire solubles analytiquement. Les etudes d'incidents ont ete effectuees par voie analogique pour l'ensemble de l'installation et par voie digitale pour l'etude du bloc pile seul ou de l'installation fonctionnant avec un seul circuit thermique. Un programme complementaire special - qui, a

  17. Review of atomic mass formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Wapstra and Audi`s Table is famous for evaluation of experimental data of atomic nuclear masses (1993/1995 version) which estimated about 2000 kinds of nuclei. The error of atomic mass of formula is 0.3 MeV-0.8 MeV. Four kinds of atomic mass formula: JM (Jaenecke and Masson), TUYY (Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada), FRDM (Moeller, Nix, Myers and Swiatecki) and ETFSI (Aboussir, Pearson, Dutta and Tondeur) and their properties (number of parameter and error etc.) were explained. An estimation method of theoretical error of mass formula was presented. It was estimated by the theoretical error of other surrounding nuclei. (S.Y.)

  18. Some studies on the fission of uranium with the help of a self-controlled wilson chamber; Quelques etudes sur la fission de l'uranium a l'aide d'une chambre de wilson autocommandee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboulaye, H de; Tzara, C; Olkowsky, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    The authors applied the method of Wilson's chamber self intern control to the survey of the uranium fission with neutrons of the core. This method allowed them: 1) - to establish a distribution of the courses of the fission fragments in argon on a big number of events. 2) - to search for the probability of production of tri-partitions to third fragment of short course. The authors succeed to the conclusion that in relation to ordinary fission, this, probability is lower to (1 {+-} 3)/1000, what permits to doubt the existence of the phenomenon. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont applique la methode de la chambre de Wilson a autocommande interne a l'etude de la fission de l'uranium par neutrons de pile. Cette methode leur a permis: 1) - d'etablir une distribution des parcours des fragments de fission dans l'argon portant sur un grand nombre d'evenements. 2) - de rechercher la probabilite de production de tripartitions a troisieme fragment de court parcours. Les auteurs aboutissent a la conclusion que par rapport a la fission ordinaire, cette probabilite est inferieure a (1 {+-} 3)/1000, ce qui permet de douter de l'existence du phenomene. (auteur)

  19. Contribution to the study of turbulent flow in cylindrical tubing with porous walls; Contribution a l'etude de l'ecoulement turbulent dans une conduite cylindrique a paroi poreuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnage, H

    1962-07-01

    A theoretical study has been made of a fully developed turbulent flow in cylindrical tubing of circular cross-section subjected to a uniform suction through the walls. This study has made it possible to find a relationship giving the friction coefficient at the wall in terms of the amount of local suction and of the longitudinal static pressure gradient. A method for calculating the Reynolds tensions from the pressure measurements has been devised. An experimental system has been developed. Pressure measurements have been made. By using experimental results it has been possible to obtain a semi empirical expression for the friction coefficient at the wall, in terms of the amount of suction of the inlet Reynolds number, and of the abscissa. (author) [French] Une etude theorique de refoulement turbulent pleinement developpe dans une conduite cylindrique de section circulaire soumise a une aspiration parietale uniforme a ete entreprise. Elle a permis de trouver une relation donnant le coefficient de frottement a la paroi en fonction du taux d'aspiration local et du gradient de pression statique longitudinal. Une methode de calcul des tensions de Reynolds a partir des mesures de pression a ete etablie. Un dispositif experimental a ete realise et mis au point. Des mesures de pression ont ete effectuees. L'utilisation des resultats experimentaux a permis d'obtenir une expression semi-empirique du coefficient de frottement a la paroi en fonction du taux d'aspiration, du nombre de Reynolds d'entree et de l'abscisse. (auteur)

  20. A Study Of The Dilution Of Radio-Active Waste In The Rhone (1961); Etude de la dilution dans le rhone des effluents radioactifs du Centre de Marcoule (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J; Scheidhauer, J; Marichal, M; Court, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The discharge into the Rhone of liquid radio-active waste from the Marcoule Centre necessitates a large number of measurements, in particular chemical and radio-chemical analysis of the waste, itself and of the waters of the Rhone both above arid below the point of discharge. The results thus obtained during 1960 made it possible to evaluate the total amount of active waste discharged and its dilution in the receiving medium. A statistical study of the results of the analysis of the Rhone waters shows that a satisfactory dilution of the waste occurs rapidly; the experimental results obtained with an experimental discharge of rhodamine are thus confirmed. (authors) [French] Le rejet au Rhone des effluents radioactifs liquides produits sur le Centre de Marcoule donne lieu a un grand nombre de mesures et en particulier d'analyses chimiques et radio-chimiques des effluents eux-memes ainsi que des eaux du Rhone avant et apres rejet. Au cours de l'annee 1960, l'ensemble des resultats ainsi obtenus a permis de dresser un bilan des activites rejetees et de leur dispersion dans le milieu recepteur. Une etude statistique des resultats d'analyses des eaux du Rhone montre qu'une dilution satisfaisante des effluents s'effectue rapidement confirmant ainsi les resultats obtenus lors d'un rejet experimental de rhodamine. (auteurs)

  1. The study of neutron transport by oscillation method; Etude du transport des neutrons par la methode de modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V

    1959-07-01

    The oscillation method is of very general use for studying the behavior of thermal neutrons in media. The main experiments are described and a general theory of them is given. This theory, which is presented in the first part, is established using the two-group approximation which has proved its efficiency in the case of thermal neutron piles. The validity of the two-group approximation is recalled. This allows definition of the meaning of the parameters used in the theory and which are measured in these experiments. The experiments carried out by this method are described, especially those performed at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay where the method has been extensively used. These experiments are interpreted by means of the general theory given previously. In this way, the identity of parameters measured by this method and those given by the theory is proved. This is particularly conclusive is the case of the mean life of neutrons in a pile. (author) [French] La methode de modulation est un procede tres general d'etude des proprietes neutroniques des milieux contenant des neutrons thermiques. Le present rapport a pour but de decrire les principales de ces experiences et d'en donner une theorie generale. Cette theorie, exposee dans la premiere partie, est etablie dons le cadre de l'approximation a deux groupes de vitesse qui a prouve son efficacite dons le cas des piles a neutrons thermiques. Le domaine de validite de l'approximation a deux groupes est rappele au debut, ce qui permet de definir avec precision la signification des parametres qui entrent dons la theorie et qui font l'objet de ces mesures. La deuxieme partie decrit les experiences realisees, en particulier celles effectuees au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay ou la methode a ete considerablement developpee. Ces experiences sont interpretees dans le cadre de la theorie generale exposee precedemment. On prouve ainsi l'identite des parametres mesures par cette methode et de ceux figurant

  2. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  3. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  4. A Numbers Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Bruce R; McCall, Ingrid C.; Perrot, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective......-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics, the time before these bacteria start to grow again when the drugs are removed, referred to as the post-antibiotic effect (PAE), is markedly greater for constructs with fewer rrn operons than for those with more rrn operons. We interpret the results of these other experiments reported...... here as support for the hypothesis that the reduction in the effective number of ribosomes due to binding to these structures provides a sufficient explanation for the action of bacteriostatic antibiotics that target these structures....

  5. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubusta, Jan; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin

    2001-03-01

    Since reflection or transmission of a quantum particle on a beamsplitter is inherently random quantum process, a device built on this principle does not suffer from drawbacks of neither pseudo-random computer generators or classical noise sources. Nevertheless, a number of physical conditions necessary for high quality random numbers generation must be satisfied. Luckily, in quantum optics realization they can be well controlled. We present an easy random number generator based on the division of weak light pulses on a beamsplitter. The randomness of the generated bit stream is supported by passing the data through series of 15 statistical test. The device generates at a rate of 109.7 kbit/s.

  6. The LHC in numbers

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    What makes the LHC the biggest particle accelerator in the world? Here are some of the numbers that characterise the LHC, and their equivalents in terms that are easier for us to imagine.   Feature Number Equivalent Circumference ~ 27 km   Distance covered by beam in 10 hours ~ 10 billion km a round trip to Neptune Number of times a single proton travels around the ring each second 11 245   Speed of protons first entering the LHC 299 732 500 m/s 99.9998 % of the speed of light Speed of protons when they collide 299 789 760 m/s 99.9999991 % of the speed of light Collision temperature ~ 1016 °C ove...

  7. Study of hyperon-antihyperon production in antiproton-proton collision at 4 GeV/c; Etude de la production d'hyperon et d'antihyperon dans les collisions antiproton-proton a 4 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-05-15

    We present the results on hyperon-antihyperon production by 4 GeV/c antiprotons in hydrogen. We used about 10{sup 5} pictures taken in an antiproton beam from the CERN proton synchrotron with the 81 cm Saclay hydrogen bubble chamber. The aim of this work was the study, through the cross sections and the angular distributions, of production mechanism of hyperon antihyperon pairs and excited hyperons (or antihyperons). For most of the channels, these angular distributions show a strong forward peaking of the antihyperon in the center of mass of the interaction. This suggests that a peripheral-type mechanism is predominant in these processes. We compare the results of some cross sections, with theoretical predictions according to SU{sub 3} unitary symmetry. (author) [French] Nous presentons ici des resultats concernant la production d'hyperons et d'antihyperons dans l'interaction antiproton sur proton a 4 GeV/c. Nous avons utilise pour cette experience un lot de 10{sup 5} photographies, prises avec la chambre a bulles de 81 cm a hydrogene liquide de Saclay, placee dans un faisceau d'antiprotons aupres du synchrotron a protons du CERN. Le but de ce travail etait l'etude des mecanismes de production des paires hyperons antihyperons et des hyperons excites (antihyperons excites) au travers des sections efficaces et des distributions angulaires. Pour la plupart des voies, ces distributions angulaires, dans le systeme du centre de masse, indiquent une forte tendance a l'emission vers l'avant de l'antihyperon, ce qui suggere un mecanisme de production de type peripherique. Nous avons compare les resultats de certaines sections efficaces avec des previsions obtenues a partir de la theorie de symetrie unitaire SU{sub 3}. (auteur)

  8. Randomized control trial for the assessment of the anti-albuminuric effects of topiroxostat in hyperuricemic patients with diabetic nephropathy (the ETUDE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Sawako; Ando, Masahiko; Mizukoshi, Toshihiro; Nagata, Takanobu; Katsuno, Takayuki; Kosugi, Tomoki; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2016-05-01

    Proteinuria is an established risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. Recent studies indicate that some xanthine oxidase inhibitors have a renoprotective effect. The aim of this study was to assess whether topiroxostat reduces albuminuria in hyperuricemic patients with diabetic nephropathy and overt proteinuria. The ETUDE study is an ongoing 24-week, multicenter, open-label, randomized (1:1), parallel group study involving hyperuricemic patients with diabetic nephropathy (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 20 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and overt proteinuria (0.3 ≤ urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPCR) ETUDE trial is the first randomized controlled study of topiroxostat in hyperuricemic patients with diabetic nephropathy and overt proteinuria. We will clarify the pleiotropic function of topiroxostat including an anti-albumiuric effect as well as its effects on safely decreasing serum uric acid levels.

  9. Mass Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.

  10. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  11. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  12. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  13. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service

  14. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service  

  15. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  16. About the lepton number non conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, J

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of lepton number non conservation through the mixing of lepton flavours, as well as the IΔLI=2 lepton antilepton conversion, is discussed. The paper follows the scheme: i) Experimental Situation; ii) Relation with the Neutrino Mass problem; iii) Majorana Neutrinos?; iv) Extensions of the Standard Model; v) Lepton Flavour Violating Decays of μ and τ; vi) Z∞ Boson Decays. (Author)

  17. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of heat transfers and pressure drops along surfaces fitted with herring-bone fins: correlation between geometric and aero thermal parameters; Etudes theorique et experimentale du transfert de chaleur et des pertes de charge de surfaces munies d'ailettes disposees en chevron - correlation entre parametres geometriques et aerothermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelce, J; Malherbe, J; Pierre, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Principal results are given of experimental research which has been carried out on the flow of a fluid along a surface fitted with herringbone fins. Aero-thermal tests have been effected on a large number of these surfaces whose geometrical parameters have been made to vary systematically. In particular, work on a large scale model has made it possible to analyse the mechanisms of heat transfer and of pressure drops. On this basis a theoretical study has led to the establishment of a correlation between the geometric configuration and the aero-thermal performances of these surfaces. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical relationships. An expression has thus been derived applicable to this type of herring-boned surface in a wide zone. (authors) [French] L'ecoulement d'un fluide au voisinage d'une surface munie d'ailettes disposees en chevron a fait l'objet de recherches experimentales dont on a rappele les principaux resultats. Des essais aerothermiques ont ete effectues sur un grand nombre de ces surfaces dont a fait varier les parametres geometriques de facon systematique. En particulier, des etudes sur une maquette a grande echelle ont permis d'analyser les mecanismes de transfert de chaleur et de perte de charge. Sur ces bases, une etude theorique a conduit a des correlations entre la geometrie et les performances aerothermiques de ces surfaces. Les resultats experimentaux sont en bon accord avec les relations theoriques. On possede ainsi une formulation pour ce type de surface ailettee valable dans un domaine etendu. (auteurs)

  19. The purification by ion exchange resins of the heavy water la the reactors EL1 and EL2. B - study of the general properties of the resins used; Purification par resines echangeuses d'ions de l'eau lourde de reacteurs EL1 et EL2. B - etude des proprietes generales des resines utilisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourre,; Platzer, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Within the programme of the pile heavy water purification project, organized by the stable Isotopes Section, we have carried out a certain number of tests on ion exchange resins. The problem posed by the stable Isotopes Section was to determine the conditions of utilisation of ion exchange resins, knowing that they would be employed in a system branching off the heavy water circuit in the piles. These investigations were carried out in close collaboration with the stable Isotopes Section, and were guided chiefly by the extremely short delay permitted between the laboratory study and its application to the piles. The tests are divided into two groups: 1- General properties of the resins. 2- Utilisation of the resins, particularly in an apparatus similar to those mounted on the piles but of smaller dimensions. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet d'epuration de l'eau lourde des piles, traite par la Section des Isotopes stables, nous avons fait un certain nombre d'essais sur les resines echangeuses d'ions. Le probleme pose par la Section des Isotopes stables etait de determiner les conditions d'utilisation des resines echangeuses d'ions sachant qu'elles devraient etre employees dans un appareil place en derivation sur le circuit d'eau lourde des piles. L'ensemble de l'etude a ete mene en collaboration etroite avec la Section des Isotopes stables et a ete guide principalement par le delai extremement court dans lequel l'etude de laboratoire devait etre appliquee aux piles. Les essais se divisent en deux groupes: 1- Proprietes generales des resines. 2- Utilisation des resines, en particulier dans un appareil analogue a ceux montes sur les piles, mais de dimensions reduites. (auteur)

  20. Etude de la transition ferroelectrique-ferroelastique du KD2PO4 forme du front de phase en fonction du gradient thermique

    OpenAIRE

    Kvítek, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Etude de la transition ferroelectrique-ferroelastique du KD2PO4 forme du front de phase en fonction du gradient thermique The thesis explores complex process of first order transition of KD2PO4 crystal from tetragonal phase to ferroelectric - ferroelastic orthorhombic phase and back at temperature 209 K. The experimental set up of nitrogeneous cryostat allowes temperature and temperature gradient variations during simultaneous three axes optical sample observations, dielectric measurements. T...

  1. Point-of-care ultrasonography adoption in Canada: using diffusion theory and the Evaluation Tool for Ultrasound skills Development and Education (ETUDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Michael Y; Frank, Jason R; Lee, A Curtis

    2014-09-01

    Point-of-care ultrasonography (PoCUS) first appeared in the 1980s in North America, but the extent of the diffusion of its adoption is unknown. We characterized early PoCUS adoption by emergency physicians in Canada and its barriers to use using Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory. We developed a questionnaire based on a pilot study and literature review to assess past, current, and potential use of PoCUS and potential barriers to adoption. A Dillman technique for electronic surveys was used for dissemination. Using Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory, we developed and validated the Evaluation Tool for Ultrasound skills Development and Education (ETUDE). ETUDE scores allowed categorization of respondents into innovators, early adopters, majority, and nonadopters. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and χ² statistics were used to analyze the data. The 296 respondents (36.4% of 814 surveyed) had a median age of 40 and were 72.5% male. Adoption scores using ETUDE revealed nonadopters (18.8%), majority (28.7%), early adopters (34.5%), and innovators (18.0%). Respondents endorsed "always" using PoCUS currently and in the future for focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) (current 41.8%/future 88.4%), first trimester pregnancy (current 23.3%/future 73.7%), suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm (current 32.7%/future 92.6%), basic cardiac indications (current 30.7%/future 87.5%), and central venous catheterization (current 17.0%/future 80.3%). Several barriers to PoCUS were identified for part-time emergency physicians and those working in inner-city/urban/suburban settings. This is the first study to determine the state of adoption and barriers to the introduction of PoCUS in Canadian emergency medicine practice. The novel validated ETUDE instrument should be used to evaluate the uptake of PoCUS over time.

  2. Theoretical study, and construction, of a spherical electrostatic beta spectrometer; Etude theorique et realisation d'un spectrometre beta electrostatique spherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-03-15

    After a literature survey showing the importance of an electrostatic spectrometer with spherical electrodes for studying disintegration processes, the theoretical characteristics of such an apparatus are derived (determination of the trajectory equations calculation of the transmission and of the resolving power the case of a point source and of an extended source). The apparatus built as a result of these calculations is described. The electrostatic field distribution outside the electrodes is derived. As well as giving electron spectra ({beta} disintegration and conversion electrons) the apparatus make s it possible to study e-{gamma}, e-{beta}, e-e-{gamma} and e-e-{beta} coincidences. In the last part are given experimental characteristics and the results of the first measurements made on conversion electron spectra ({sup 161}Tb, {sup 151}Pm, {sup 155}Eu) and on coincidences ({sup 170}Tm) using this spectrometer. (author) [French] Apres une etude bibliographique montrant l'interet que presente un spectrometre electrostatique a electrodes spheriques pour l'etude des schemas de desintegration, l'auteur etablit les caracteristiques theoriques d'un tel appareil (determination de l'equation des trajectoires calcul de la transmission et du pouvoir de resolution cas d'une source ponctuelle et d'une source etendue). On decrit l'appareil realise d'apres ces calculs. On etablit la repartition du champ electrostatique a l'exterieur des electrodes. Outre le trace des spectres d'electrons (desintegration {beta} et electrons de conversion), l'appareil permet l'etude de coincidences e-{gamma}, e-{beta}, e-e-{gamma} and e-e-{beta}. Dans la derniere partie, sont donnees les caracteristiques experimentales et les premieres etudes de spectres d'electrons de conversion ({sup 161}Tb, {sup 151}Pm, {sup 155}Eu) et de coincidences ({sup 170}Tm) faites a l'aide de ce spectrometre. (auteur)

  3. Experimental study of contamination by inhalation of radioactive iodine aerosols. Biological balance; Etude experimentale de la contamination par inhalation d'aerosols d'iode radioactif bilan biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Several articles have been published concerning research into contamination produced by inhalation of radioactive iodine aerosols in monkeys. Results dealing with the biological balance of this contamination are presented and discussed in this report. (author) [French] L'etude experimentale de la contamination par inhalation d'aerosols d'iode radioactif effectuee chez le singe a fait l'objet de plusieurs publications. Les resultats concernant le bilan biologique de cette contamination sont presentes et discutes dans ce rapport. (auteur)

  4. Colour by Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This is an edited extract from the keynote address given by Dr. Chris Wetherell at the 26th Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc. The author investigates the surprisingly rich structure that exists within a simple arrangement of numbers: the times tables.

  5. The magic of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Eric Temple

    1991-01-01

    From one of the foremost interpreters for lay readers of the history and meaning of mathematics: a stimulating account of the origins of mathematical thought and the development of numerical theory. It probes the work of Pythagoras, Galileo, Berkeley, Einstein, and others, exploring how ""number magic"" has influenced religion, philosophy, science, and mathematics

  6. ALARA notes, Number 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the 'tyranny' of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment

  7. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  8. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  9. The numbers game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oli Brown

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the potential number of ‘climate changemigrants’ vary hugely. In order to persuade policymakers ofthe need to act and to provide a sound basis for appropriateresponses, there is an urgent need for better analysis, betterdata and better predictions.

  10. Introducing Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgian, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    One of the difficulties in any teaching of mathematics is to bridge the divide between the abstract and the intuitive. Throughout school one encounters increasingly abstract notions, which are more and more difficult to relate to everyday experiences. This article examines a familiar approach to thinking about negative numbers, that is an…

  11. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  12. Littlewood and Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    improved by Selberg [4] in 1941 who showed that a pos- ... be seen by entries of his first letter to G H Hardy in ... tary in the technical sense of the word, employed com- ..... III: On the expression of a number as a sum of primes, Acta Math.,.

  13. Studies of iron carbon alloys; Contribution a l'etude des alliages dilues de carbone dans le fer {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostopoulos, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1971-07-01

    Precipitation of carbon in {alpha} iron during a thermal treatment was followed using the magnetic after effect. A study was made of the influence of different parameters such as quenching speed, annealing rate, carbon concentration with or without impurity, irradiation effects. A transient sur-saturation occurs during dissolution of carbon in iron at 500 C. (author) [French] La precipitation du carbone dans le fer au cours d'un traitement thermique a ete suivie au moyen du trainage magnetique. L'etude de differents parametres tels que: vitesse de trempe, mode de recuit, concentration en carbone, presence d'impuretes, effet d'une irradiation, ont ete menes a bien. Un phenomene de sursaturation transitoire au cours de la remise en solution a 500 C a ete mis en evidence. (auteur)

  14. Dosimeter calibration facilities and methods at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory of the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H. de; Herbaut, Y.; Haddad, A.; Giroux, J.; Rouillon, J.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1975-01-01

    At the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble, the Radiation Measurement Laboratory, which forms part of the Environmental Protection and Research Department, serves the entire Centre for purposes of dosimetry and the calibration of dose meters. The needs of radiation protection are such that one must have facilities for checking periodically the calibration of radiation-monitoring instruments and developing special dosimetry techniques. It was thought a good idea to arrange for the dosimetry and radiation protection team to assist other groups working at the Centre - in particular, the staff of the biology and radiobiology laboratories - and also bodies outside the framework of the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique. Thus, technical collaboration has been established with, for example, Grenoble's Centre hospitalier universitaire (university clinic), which makes use of the facilities and skills available at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory for solving special dosimetry problems. With the Laboratory's facilities it is possible to calibrate dose meters for gamma, beta and neutron measurements

  15. Some techniques for studying actomyosin by electron microscopy; Quelques techniques d'etude de l'actomyosine par microscopie electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzberg, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de Biologie

    1967-07-01

    A method has been developed for shadowing using a platinum-carbon alloy; it has been applied to the study of the interaction of actomyosin with its substrate ATP. The results obtained seem to favour the hypothesis of a dissociation of the actomyosin into its two components: actin and myosin. Pictures have been obtained showing particles resembling non-polymerized myosin but no rigorous proof of this exists. (author) [French] Une methode d'ombrage par un alliage de platine et carbone a ete mise au point et appliquee a l'etude de l'interaction de l'actomyosine et de son substrat l'ATP. Les resultats obtenus semblent pencher en faveur de la these d'une dissociation de l'actomyosine en ses deux constituants: l'actine et la myosine. Des images ont ete obtenues montrant des particules dont l'identite avec la myosine non polymerisee reste a demontrer plus rigoureusement. (auteur)

  16. Cell for studying electron-adsorbed gas interactions; Cellule d'etudes des interactions electron-gaz adsorbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golowacz, H; Degras, D A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Deptartement de Physique des Plasmas et de la Fusion Controlee, Service de Physique Appliquee, Service de Physique des Interractions Electroniques, Section d' Etude des Interactions Gaz-Solides

    1967-07-01

    The geometry and the technology of a cell used for investigations on electron-adsorbed gas interactions are described. The resonance frequencies of the surface ions which are created by the electron impact on the adsorbed gas are predicted by simplified calculations. The experimental data relative to carbon monoxide and neon are in good agreement with these predictions. (authors) [French] Les caracteristiques geometriques et technologiques generales d'une cellule d'etude des interactions entre un faisceau d'electrons et un gaz adsorbe sont donnees. Un calcul simplifie permet de prevoir les frequences de resonance des ions de surface crees par l'impact des electrons sur le gaz adsorbe. Les donnees experimentales sur l'oxyde de carbone et le neon confirment les previsions du calcul. (auteurs)

  17. The development of a very high stability electrostatic generator (1962); Etude et realisation d'un generateur electrostatique a tres haute stabilite (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonckheere, R E.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This thesis deals with the study of an electrostatic high voltage generator having a voltage stability of the order of 10{sup -6} per minute. This equipment should be very useful in electron microscopy. The electrostatic generator is studied as a control system element: transfer function, parasitic signals and noise are determined and a mathematical model is proposed. A theoretical study of the open loop transfer function, stability, transient response, voltage stabilization of five different control systems shows which one should be able to fulfill the requirements There follows a detailed study of drift, a description of the actual system and performance data. (author) [French] Cette etude concerne un generateur electrostatique capable de fournir une tres haute tension continue dont la stabilite relative est de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} pendant une minute. Une telle performance rend cet appareillage tres utile en microscopie electronique. La generatrice electrostatique est etudiee en tant qu'element d'un systeme asservi: on determine successivement la fonction de transfert, les perturbations, le bruit de fond et le modele mathematique. L'etude de cinq differents circuits de regulation en ce qui concerne leur fonction de transfert, stabilite, reponse en regime transitoire, attenuation des perturbations, permettra de choisir le systeme qui semble le mieux repondre aux exigences. Viennent ensuite une etude detaillee de la derive, la description de la realisation pratique et les resultats de mesure. (auteur)

  18. A study of the aptitude of soils under natural conditions to retain radiostrontium; Etude de la vocation des sols en place a la retention du radiostrontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P; Grauby, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Independently of the theoretical study of the propagation of radioactivity in the soil as a result of submersions or of radioactive rain, the authors have studied directly and practically how this radioactivity can vary in the actual soil. To this end a simple, rapid method has been perfected; it makes it possible to maintain for each soil sample the natural parameters (structure, humidity, etc.) without introducing boundary effects. In the laboratory, after charging the soil samples, part of the study of the propagation of radioactivity is done by autoradiography; finally, as a practical application, the study of an atomic site illustrates the methods described. (author) [French] Independamment de l'etude theorique de la propagation de la radioactivite dans le sol a la suite de submersions ou de pluies radioactives, les auteurs ont etudie directement et pratiquement comment pourrait evoluer cette radioactivite dans les sols en place. Pour cela, une methode simple et rapide a ete mise au point; elle permet de conserver pour chaque echantillon de sol, les parametres naturels (structure, humidite, etc...), sans introduire d'effets de paroi. En laboratoire, apres mise en charge des massifs preleves, une partie de l'etude de la propagation des radioelements est realisee par autoradiographie; enfin, une application pratique, l'etude d'un site atomique, illustre l'expose. (auteur)

  19. A study of the aptitude of soils under natural conditions to retain radiostrontium; Etude de la vocation des sols en place a la retention du radiostrontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P.; Grauby, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Independently of the theoretical study of the propagation of radioactivity in the soil as a result of submersions or of radioactive rain, the authors have studied directly and practically how this radioactivity can vary in the actual soil. To this end a simple, rapid method has been perfected; it makes it possible to maintain for each soil sample the natural parameters (structure, humidity, etc.) without introducing boundary effects. In the laboratory, after charging the soil samples, part of the study of the propagation of radioactivity is done by autoradiography; finally, as a practical application, the study of an atomic site illustrates the methods described. (author) [French] Independamment de l'etude theorique de la propagation de la radioactivite dans le sol a la suite de submersions ou de pluies radioactives, les auteurs ont etudie directement et pratiquement comment pourrait evoluer cette radioactivite dans les sols en place. Pour cela, une methode simple et rapide a ete mise au point; elle permet de conserver pour chaque echantillon de sol, les parametres naturels (structure, humidite, etc...), sans introduire d'effets de paroi. En laboratoire, apres mise en charge des massifs preleves, une partie de l'etude de la propagation des radioelements est realisee par autoradiographie; enfin, une application pratique, l'etude d'un site atomique, illustre l'expose. (auteur)

  20. Contribution to the study of the stability of water-cooled reactors; Contribution a l'etude de la stabilite des reacteurs refroidis par de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the stability of reactors cooled by water subjected only to natural convection. It is made up of two parts, a theoretical study and experimental work, each of these parts being devoted to a consideration of linear and non-linear conditions: - calculation of the transfer function of the reactor using neutronic and hydrodynamic linear equations with the determination of the instability threshold; - demonstration of the existence of the limiting oscillation cycle in the case of a linear feedback using MALKIN'S method; - measurement and interpretation of the reactor's transfer functions and of the hydrodynamic transfer functions; and - analysis of the noise due to boiling. (author) [French] Dans ce travail on etudie la stabilite des piles refroidies par de l'eau circulant en convection naturelle. Cette etude se divise en deux parties: un travail theorique et un travail experimental, chacune de ces parties comportant une etude lineaire et une etude non-lineaire: - calcul de la fonction de transfert du reacteur a partir des equations lineaires de la neutronique et de l'hydrodynamique avec determination du seuil d'instabilite; - demonstration de l'existence du cycle limite des oscillations dans le cas d'une retroaction lineaire en utilisant la methode de MALKIN; - mesure et interpretation de la fonction de transfert du reacteur et des fonctions de transfert hydrodynamiques; et - analyse du bruit d'ebullition. (auteur)

  1. The development of a very high stability electrostatic generator (1962); Etude et realisation d'un generateur electrostatique a tres haute stabilite (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonckheere, R.E.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This thesis deals with the study of an electrostatic high voltage generator having a voltage stability of the order of 10{sup -6} per minute. This equipment should be very useful in electron microscopy. The electrostatic generator is studied as a control system element: transfer function, parasitic signals and noise are determined and a mathematical model is proposed. A theoretical study of the open loop transfer function, stability, transient response, voltage stabilization of five different control systems shows which one should be able to fulfill the requirements There follows a detailed study of drift, a description of the actual system and performance data. (author) [French] Cette etude concerne un generateur electrostatique capable de fournir une tres haute tension continue dont la stabilite relative est de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} pendant une minute. Une telle performance rend cet appareillage tres utile en microscopie electronique. La generatrice electrostatique est etudiee en tant qu'element d'un systeme asservi: on determine successivement la fonction de transfert, les perturbations, le bruit de fond et le modele mathematique. L'etude de cinq differents circuits de regulation en ce qui concerne leur fonction de transfert, stabilite, reponse en regime transitoire, attenuation des perturbations, permettra de choisir le systeme qui semble le mieux repondre aux exigences. Viennent ensuite une etude detaillee de la derive, la description de la realisation pratique et les resultats de mesure. (auteur)

  2. Study of electron groupings in the Saclay linear accelerator; Etude du groupement des electrons dans l'accelerateur lineaire de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergere, R; Veyssiere, A; Beil, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The classical theory of the linear accelerator buncher does not fit the experimental measurements of the shape of the bunch of electrons performed at Saclay by the method of the energy spectrum. If the spurious effect of the mode converter at the input of the linac is taken into account the theory can fit the experimental results and also explain the variations of the phase of the bunch on the accelerating sine wave. (authors) [French] Une etude classique du groupeur en tete de l'Accelerateur Lineaire de Saclav conduit a des resultats incompatibles avec les resultats experimentaux obtenus sur le groupement des electrons par l'etude du spectre des frequences rayonnees par le faisceau d'electrons ou par l'etude des spectres en energie. Par contre si l'effet parasite du convertisseur de mode a l'entree de l'accelerateur est pris en consideration les resultats theoriques coincident bien avec les resultats experimentaux et permettent en outre d'expliquer les variations du calage en phase des paquets elementaires d'electrons. (auteurs)

  3. Study of thermocouples for control of high temperatures; Etude de thermocouples pour le reperage des hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villamayor, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de l' Universite de Lyon - 69 (France)

    1967-07-01

    Previous works have shown that the tungsten-rhenium alloys thermocouples were a good instrument for control of high temperatures. From its, the author has studied the W/W 26 per cent and W 5 per cent Re/W 26 per cent Re french manufactured thermocouples and intended for control of temperatures in nuclear reactors until 2300 deg. C. In 'out-pile' study he determines the general characteristics of these thermocouples: average calibration curves, thermal shocks influence, response times, and alloys allowing the cold source compensation. The evolution of these thermocouples under thermal neutron flux has been determined by 'in-pile' study. The observations have led the author to propose a new type of thermocouples settled of molybdenum-columbium alloys. (author) [French] Des travaux anterieurs ont montre que les thermocouples des alliages tungstene-rhenium etaient susceptibles de reperer avec precision des hautes temperatures. A partir de la, l'auteur a etudie las thermocouples W/W 26 pour cent Re et W 5 pour cent Re/W 26 pour cent Re de fabrication francaise et destines au controle des temperatures dans les reacteurs nucleaires, jusqu'a 2300 deg. C Dans l'etude 'hors-pile' il a determine les caracteristiques generales de ces thermocouples: courbes d'etalonnage moyen, influence des chocs thermiques, temps de reponse, et alliages assurant la compensation de soudure froide. L'etude 'en-pile' a permis de rendre compte de l'evolution de ces thermocouples sous flux neutroniques. Les phenomenes observes ont conduit l'auteur a proposer un nouveau type de thermocouples constitues d'alliages molybdene-niobium. (auteur)

  4. Study of radio-active ions in the atmosphere; Etude des ions radioactifs de l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    A comparative study is made of active, deposits of radon and thoron in suspension in the atmosphere by means of {alpha} radiation counting, using ZELENY tubes, scattering equipment, filter papers or membranes. It has been possible to show the existence of small and large ions which are negative and positive, as well as of neutral radio-active nuclei; their properties are studied. A theoretical interpretation of the results is presented. The average content of radon (using the Ra A concentration) and of Th B in the air has been determined. The radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughter products in atmospheric air are examined. The techniques developed for active radon and thoron deposits are applied to the study of artificial radio-activity, the analyses being carried out by means of {gamma} spectrometry. (author) [French] On effectue une etude comparative entre les depots actifs du radon et du thoron en suspension dont l'atmosphere a l'aide de comptages de rayonnement {alpha}, en utilisant des tubes de ZELENY, une batterie de diffusion, des papiers filtres ou des membranes. On met ainsi en evidence la presence de petits et gros ions negatifs et positifs, ainsi que celle de noyaux neutres radioactifs, et on etudie leurs proprietes. Une Interpretation theorique des resultats obtenus est developpee. On determine la teneur moyenne de l'air en radon (a partir de la concentration en Ra A) et en Th B. L'equilibre radioactif entre le radon et ses descendants, dans l'air atmospherique, est examine. Les Techniques mises au point pour les depots actifs du radon et du thoron sont appliquees a l'etude de la radioactivite artificielle, les depouillements s'effectuant par spectrometrie {gamma}. (auteur)

  5. Theoretical study for a digital transfer function analyser; Etude theorique pour un transferometre digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freycenon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This study deals with the harmonic analysis of the instantaneous counting rate of a pulse train. This arises from using a fission chamber for reactivity to power transfer function measurements by oscillation methods in reactors. The systematical errors due to the sampling process are computed. The integration carried out when sampling the signal modifies the formulae of the Nyquist theorem on spectrum folding. The statistical errors due to the noise are analysed: it is shown that the bandwidth of the spectral window applied to the noise frequency spectrum is equal to the inverse of the time duration of the experiment. A dead time of 25 per cent of the sampling time does not increase appreciably the bandwidth. A new method is proposed afterwards yielding very approximate results of the Fourier analysis during the experiment. The systematical errors arising from the measuring process are determined, and it is shown that the bandwidth of the corresponding spectral window is still given by the inverse of the time duration of the experiment. (author) [French] Cette etude se rapporte a l'analyse harmonique de la valeur instantanee du taux de comptage d'une suite d'impulsions. On rencontre ce probleme dans l'utilisation de chambres a fission pour les mesures de fonction de transfert reactivite-puissance par la methode d'oscillation dans les piles. On calcule l'erreur systematique due au processus d'echantillonnage ou l'integration operee modifie les formules classiques de recouvrement du spectre. On analyse ensuite les erreurs statistiques dues au bruit de fond. On montre que la largeur de bande de la fenetre spectrale appliquee au spectre de puissance du bruit est donnee par l'inverse du temps de mesure. Un temps mort de 25 pour cent du temps de prelevement n'accroit pas sensiblement cette largeur de bande. On propose ensuite un procede simple qui permet d'obtenir, en cours d'experience, des resultats tres approches de l'analyse de Fourier. On determine les erreurs

  6. Study of the recrystallisation of irradiated uranium; Etude sur l'uranium irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, J; Mustelier, J P; Bussy, P; Blin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1- Study of the recrystallisation of irradiated uranium. The recrystallisation of uranium irradiated to a burnup level of 220 MWj/t, at a temperature of the order of 350 deg. C, has been investigated. The observations were made chiefly by means of micrography an hardness measurements. If the irradiated metal is compared with a cold-drawn metal showing the same shearing of the twinned crystals, and therefore the same rate of plastic deformation, as the irradiated metal, it is noted that the restoring of the irradiated metal takes place at a considerably higher temperature than that of the cold-drawn metal. Pre-crystallisation is very much delayed. Only, a passage of the {alpha}-{beta} transformation point quickly wipes out irradiation effect. 2- Hardening of uranium by irradiation. Using hardness measurements we have studied more especially the effect of very weak irradiations on uranium (integrated flux < 10{sup 16} nvt). The hardness does not increase linearly with the flux, but a period of incubation is observed probably representing the time necessary for saturation of the dislocations. (author)Fren. [French] 1- Etude de la recristallisation de l'uranium irradie. On a etudie la recristallisation d'uranium irradie jusqu'a un taux de combustion de 220 MWj/t a une temperature de l'ordre de 350 deg. C. Les observations ont ete faites principalement a l'aide de la micrographie et de la durete. Si l'on compare le metal irradie avec un metal ecroui presentant le meme cisaillement des macles, donc le meme taux de deformation plastique que le metal irradie, on constate que la restauration du metal irradie se fait a une temperature notablement superieure a celle du metal ecroui. La recristallisation est tres retardee. Seul, un passage du point de transformation {alpha}-{beta} efface rapidement l'effet de l'irradiation. 2- Durcissement de l'uranium par irradiation. Nous avons, a l'aide de la durete, etudie plus particulierement l'effet de tres faibles irrtions sur l

  7. Low Reynolds Number Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    of the blade. The Darrieus VAWT has more complex aerodynamics. This type of wind turbine produces power as a result of the tangential thrust as...Horizontal Axis Propeller-Type b) Verticle Axis Darrieus -Type Figure 78. Wind Turbine Configurations 0 6 Q K [_ 2 -, C 4 UJ UJ...Sailplanes 23 5.2 Wind Turbines 23 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS 24 7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 24 REFERENCES 25 FIGURES 32 yv/ LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER

  8. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  9. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paasonen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa, coke production (Russia and China, and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol–cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response

  10. Masses of noble gases

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, G H; Herfurth, F; Stora, T; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Audi, G; Rosenbusch, M

    The so-called magic numbers, cornerstones of the quantum nuclear ensemble, are now known to lose their supernatural powers far from the protected valley of stability. To complement the well-established (but not yet well-understood) case of N = 20, we propose to examine the erstwhile N = 28 shell closure via a measurement of the important (but unknown) mass of the nuclide $^{48}$Ar. The quenching of a shell closure, a mechanism as mysterious as the reason for magic numbers themselves, also has important consequences in nucleosynthesis. While $^{48}$Ar is not part of the region concerned by the canonical rapid neutro-capture r-process, the question of shell strength is of great importance for heavier nuclides. The location of the r-process path would benefit from extending the succesful ISOTRAP krypton mass measurements beyond the N = 58 sub-shell to $^{96-98}$Kr. Modeling the complementary rapid proton-capture rp- process, putative source of some proton-rich species, requires the mass of $^{70}$Kr, near the e...

  11. Topics in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    2002-01-01

    Classic two-part work now available in a single volume assumes no prior theoretical knowledge on reader's part and develops the subject fully. Volume I is a suitable first course text for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Volume II requires a much higher level of mathematical maturity, including a working knowledge of the theory of analytic functions. Contents range from chapters on binary quadratic forms to the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem. Includes numerous problems and hints for their solutions. 1956 edition. Supplementary Reading. List of Symb

  12. Drawing a random number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2006-01-01

    Random numbers are used for a great variety of applications in almost any field of computer and economic sciences today. Examples ranges from stock market forecasting in economics, through stochastic traffic modelling in operations research to photon and ray tracing in graphics. The construction...... distributions into others with most of the required characteristics. In essence, a uniform sequence which is transformed into a new sequence with the required distribution. The subject of this article is to consider the well known highly uniform Halton sequence and modifications to it. The intent is to generate...

  13. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Proceedings of the seminar ''Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community'' organized by the Commission of the European Community in collaboration with the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, France, from 3 to 4 December 1985. Part I presents rapporteurs' papers which summarize the salient points concerning: the status of regulations and practices in the different countries, mass chest screening, mammography screening and infants' hip dysplasia screening. Part II presents all the technical papers contributed by the participants. The overall conclusions of the seminar pointed up the importance of assessing the effectiveness of screening or prevention practices more systematically. Although some aspects of the problems associated with radiological mass screening were only qualitatively addressed, the papers presented did explain why the use of certain medical practices must be justified. It is hoped that these proceedings will be useful to national experts and bodies in the planning of future public health programmes which, in the light of current practices, will have to take account of the medical, economic and social dimension of mass screening.

  14. Power Reactor Design at Zero Power; Etudes de Reacteurs de Puissance, au Moyen de Machines de Puissance Zero; Konstruktsiya ehnergeticheskogo reaktora nulevoj moshchnosti; Diseno de Reactores Generadores con Ayuda de Reactores de Potencia Nula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, W. C.; Plumlee, K. E.; Baird, Q. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1964-02-15

    reliance placed in the past on exponential and critical systems for fulfilling Argonne's responsibilities in reactor development. An indication of their future role is provided by a brief summary of the current and planned programmes for the existing members of, and anticipated additions to, Argonne's family of operating zero-power reactors. (author) [French] Avec le reacteur de puissance zero du Laboratoire national d'Argonne, on a procede a des etudes de reacteurs tres divers; reacteurs de recherche, generatrices nucleaires, reacteurs pour la propulsion, pour la production de radioisotopes et reacteurs experimentaux; les ensembles associes - exponentiels et critiques non empoisonnes - ont fourni les donnees debase. Afin de rendre compte d'experiences recentes et de montrer quelle masse de renseignements sur la physique des reacteurs on peut obtenir avec des systemes a bas flux, les auteurs exposent les programmes experimentaux ci-apres: 1. Etude des proprietes des elements combustibles en oxydes d'uranium et de thorium, immerges dans l'eau lourde, en s'attachant particulierement aux donnees necessaires pour l'etude d'un deuxieme coeur pour le reacteur experimental a eau bouillante du Laboratoire d'Argonne; 2. Maquette d'un reacteur de recherche a haut flux, qui permettra de verifier les calculs faits au cours de l'etude, de determiner la geometrie optimale et d'estimer l'effet du taux de combustion; 3. Determination des repartitions energetiques et de l'effet de l'immersion des cartouches sur la reactivite pour un reacteur experimental a ebullition et a surchauffe combinees; 4. Etude d'un coeur de reacteur surgenerateur plutonigene a neutrons rapides, alimente en U{sup 235} et refroidi au sodium qui constituerait la charge initiale du Deuxieme reacteur surgenerateur experimental d'Argonne; 5. Etude des caracteristiques d'un reacteur a deux regions, l'une thermique et l'autre rapide, en interaction. Dans l'expose de ces programmes, les auteurs expliquent pourquoi on a

  15. The neutron star mass distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiziltan, Bülent [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thorsett, Stephen E., E-mail: bkiziltan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California and UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M {sub ☉} and 1.55 M {sub ☉}, suggesting significant mass accretion (Δm ≈ 0.22 M {sub ☉}) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ∼2.1 M {sub ☉} for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M {sub ☉} limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  16. Mass extinctions of Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.; Fernandez, P.; Pereira, B.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of our planet, there have been global phenomena which have led to the disappearance of a large number of species: It is what is known as mass or massive extinctions. This article will make a tour of these large events, from the most remote antiquity to the present day. Today we find ourselves immersed in a process unprecedented since we are eyewitnesses and, more important still, an active part in the decision-making process to try to mitigate their effects. (Author)

  17. Analysis of solids by spark-source mass spectrometry; Analyse des solides au spectrometre de masse a etincelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, R; Desjardins, M; Brun, J C; Cornu, A; Bourguillot, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Spark source mass spectrometer MS7 has been designed to determine traces of impurities in solids without standards. An atlas of 12 000 lines, assembled in the Grenoble laboratory, allows a quick investigation of mass spectra, notwithstanding their complexity due to multiply charged and polyatomic darkening. Photometric measurements increase accuracy calibration curve is known for each photo-plate. Further, reproducibility is better, if random fluctuations of matrix line darkening are corrected. So far, in a concentration range of 0,01 to 1 000 ppm (atomic), reproducibility is approximately 20 per cent, but absolute value of results depends on 'sensitivity coefficients'. (authors) [French] Le spectrometre de masse a etincelles, de type MS7, est destine a l'analyse chimique de traces dans les solides, sans echantillons etalons. L'emploi de catalogues de 12 000 raies, elabores au laboratoire, permet un depouillement rapide des spectres, malgre leur complexite due aux ionisations multiples et aux associations d'atomes. Le niveau d'apparition d'une impurete donne une estimation de sa teneur, mais la valeur du renseignement depend de la preparation des electrodes et de la connaissance plus ou moins approfondie des processus d'ionisation dans l'etincelle et de noircissement des emulsions photographiques. Les mesures photometriques augmentent la precision des resultats, si l'on determine systematiquement la courbe de noircissement de chaque plaque. De meme la reproductibilite est amelioree si l'on tient compte des fluctuations statistiques du noircissement de l'emulsion par les ions de la matrice. Actuellement, les concentrations mesurees dans le domaine de 0,01 a 1000 ppm atomiques sont reproductibles a 20 pour cent pres, mais leur valeur absolue n'est assuree qu'a un coefficient 3 pres. Des etudes sont en cours pour calibrer l'appareil en valeur absolue, par une determination des coefficients de sensibilite a partir d'echantillons etalons. (auteurs)

  18. [The power of numbers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, J

    2000-01-01

    The round figure for the current year has stirred people's minds in anticipation. Numbers have acquired great significance also in today's medical science. The Paris physician Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis (1787-1872) is considered the founding father of the numerical method in medicine. At first the principle of aggregating data from different individuals aroused much resistance and even disgust: Claude Bernard was a leading figure among those who warned that one will never find a mean in nature, and that grouping findings together obscures the true relationship between biological phenomena. True enough, statistical significance is not a characteristic of nature itself. Significant differences or risk reductions do not necessarily imply clinical relevance, and results obtained in a group of patients are rarely applicable to an individual patient in the consultation room. Likewise, the health of a human being cannot be captured in biochemical, radiological or other technical measures, nor in disease-specific scales that reduce well-being to one or two digits. The editors of this journal will remain keen on publishing numerical studies that contribute to evidence-based medicine, but at the same time they will continue to foster the art of reporting illness from the point of view of the sick person.

  19. The number of families of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.; Steinberger, J.

    1991-01-01

    The universe around us consists of three fundamental particles. They are the up quark, the down quark and the electron. Stars, planets, molecules, atoms - and indeed, ourselves - are built from amalgamations of these three entities. They, together with the neutral and possibly massless partner of the electron, the electron neutrino, constitute the first family of matter. Nature, however, is not so simple. It provides two other families that are like the first in every respect except in their mass. Why did nature happen to provide three replications of the same pattern of matter? The authors theories as yet give no indication. Could there be more than three families? Recent experiments have led to the conclusion that there are not. In the spring and summer of 1989, experiments were performed by teams of physicists working at the Sanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) near Geneva. The teams used machines of differing designs to cause electrons (e - ) and positrons (e + ) to collide and thus produce quantities of the Z particle (or Z degree, pronounced zee zero or zee naught). The most massive elementary particle observed, the Z weighs about 100 times as much as a proton and nearly as much as an atom of silver. As the authors shall see, this mass is merely an average. The Z lifetime is so short that individual Z particles differ slightly in their mass. The spread in the mass values is called a mass width, a quantity that depends on the number of families of matter. Because this width can be measured experimentally, the number of families of matter can be inferred. In this article they describe the experiments by which the families of matter were numbered

  20. Theoretical study of the paramagnetic scattering of neutrons; Etude theorique de la diffusion paramagnetique des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-James, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-02-15

    diverses diffusions (elastique et inelastiques) est calculee pour les terres rares soumises a l'action d'un champ cristallin de symetrie cubique, pour les sesquioxydes d'holmium et d'erbium et pour le chlorure ferreux anhydre (Cl{sub 2}Fe). Elle est suffisamment forte pour permettre une detection experimentale, fournissant ainsi une determination directe de la distance des niveaux par mesure de la variation de longueur d'onde du neutron. Il est, de plus, remarquable que, dans le cas du neodyme, de l'holium et de l'erbium, la section efficace totale calculee pour des neutrons de longueur d'onde aux alentours de l'angstrom soit peu sensible aux effets du champ cristallin. On compare les resultats des calculs ci-dessus aux etudes experimentales existantes. On examine egalement l'influence du moment orbital sur la dependance angulaire de la diffusion pour des ions polarises. La loi I = I{sub 0}sin{sup 2}{beta} n'est qu'approchee; on en donne les limites de validite. On envisage enfin l'influence des interactions d'echange entre les ions magnetiques. Les raies de diffusion elastiques et inelastiques sont elargies. Le comportement de la largeur de raie, avec la longueur du vecteur de diffusion k, est different de celui obtenu dans le cas ou le niveau fondamental de l'ion magnetique est defini par un moment cinetique J . La largeur de raie ne tend pas vers zero avec K. (auteur)

  1. An Empirical Mass Function Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.

    2018-03-01

    The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.

  2. An overview of studies in structural mechanics; Panorama des etudes en mecanique des structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilbaud, D.; Blay, N.; Broc, D.; Chaudat, T.; Feau, C.; Sollogoub, P.; Wang, F.; Baj, F.; Bung, H.; Combescure, D.; Lepareux, M.; Phalippou, C.; Bentejac, F.; Hourdequin, N.; Laporte, T.; Millard, A.; Nicolas, L.; Chapuliot, S.; Fissolo, A.; Gourdin, C.; Kayser, Y.; Marie, S.; Reytier, M.; Yuritzinn, T.; Magnaud, J.P. [CEA Saclay Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Braillard, O.; Collard, B.; Gobillot, G.; Mori, V.; Vallory, J.; Pascal-Ribot, S.; Pluyette, E. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Berton, M.N.; Cabrillat, M.T.; Lejeail, Y. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    -elastic instability velocity are being obtained. Moreover, influence of non-dimensional parameters that are characteristic of the coupled problem (Reynolds number, Stokes number, reduced velocity) and their influence on the evolution of modal parameters (added mass, damping and thickness) is being studied through parametric studies. The research actions described here, and those in progress are in agreement with the general pattern of the 'Mechanics 2010' program, but nevertheless the R and D effort is less extensive than it was expected. So, this activity would also deserve more effort in transverse fields like probabilistic methods, innovative measuring techniques and numerical methods. (authors)

  3. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  4. Application of Rqd-Number and Rqd-Volume Multifractal Modelling to Delineate Rock Mass Characterisation in Kahang Cu-Mo Porphyry Deposit, Central Iran / Zastosowanie Metod Modelowania Numerycznego Oraz Modelowania Fraktalnego do Analizy JAKOŚCI SKAŁ W Celu OKREŚLENIA Charakterystyki GÓROTWORU W Obszarze ZŁOŻA Cu-Mo W Kahang, ŚRODKOWY Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andrew; Foster, Patrick J.; Afzal, Peyman; Coggan, John; Ahangaran, Dariush Kaveh

    2013-12-01

    Identification of rock mass properties in terms of Rock Quality Designation (RQD) plays a significant role in mine planning and design. This study aims to separate the rock mass characterisation based on RQD data analysed from 48 boreholes in Kahang Cu-Mo porphyry deposit situated in the central Iran utilising RQD-Volume (RQD-V) and RQD-Number (RQD-N) fractal models. The log-log plots for RQD-V and RQD-N models show four rock mass populations defined by RQD thresholds of 3.55, 25.12 and 89.12% and 10.47, 41.68 and 83.17% respectively which represent very poor, poor, good and excellent rocks based on Deere and Miller rock classification. The RQD-V and RQD-N models indicate that the excellent rocks are situated in the NW and central parts of this deposit however, the good rocks are located in the most parts of the deposit. The results of validation of the fractal models with the RQD block model show that the RQD-N fractal model of excellent rock quality is better than the RQD-V fractal model of the same rock quality. Correlation between results of the fractal and the geological models illustrates that the excellent rocks are associated with porphyric quartz diorite (PQD) units. The results reveal that there is a multifractal nature in rock characterisation with respect to RQD for the Kahang deposit. The proposed fractal model can be intended for the better understanding of the rock quality for purpose of determination of the final pit slope. Identyfikacja właściwości górotworu odgrywa zasadniczą rolę w planowaniu wydobycia i projektowaniu kopalni. Praca niniejsza ma na celu określenie charakterystyki górotworu w oparciu o dane o jakości skał zebrane na podstawie próbek uzyskanych z 48 odwiertów wykonanych w złożu porfiru Cu-Mo w Kahang, zalegającym w środkowym Iranie przy użyciu modeli fraktalnych RQD-V - Rock Quality Determination-Volume [Określenie jakości skał-objętość]) i RQD-N (Rock Quality Determination-Number [Określenie jakości ska

  5. Contribution to the study of samarium-151 excited levels; Contribution a l'etude des niveaux excites du samarium-151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locard, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France)

    1967-07-01

    The nucleus of {sup 151}Sm, which has 89 neutrons, happens to be on the lower edge of the deformed nuclei of region II. Therefore, the study of its levels is very interesting for the verification of the goodness of the collective models for deformed nuclei when the deformation is small (we introduce these models in the first chapter). {sup 151}Sm has often been studied, but the direct gamma spectrum measured with a lithium drift-germanium detector (chapter 3) shows many high energy transitions which did not appear in the previous level schemes. In order to settle these transitions, we have undertaken gamma-gamma coincidence spectra (as well as sum-coincidence spectra) experiments with a scintillation spectrometer designed in our laboratory (chapter 2). The investigation of the intensities of these coincidences leads us to modify the last proposed level schemes: we suppress the levels at 405,5 and 650 keV, we add levels at 245,6 - 306,6 - 522 - 952 and 962 keV. We have also verified the multipolarities of the main transitions and measured the half-lives of a few levels (chapter 3) (we find a half-life of 1.1 {+-} 0.5 nanosecond for the level at 167,7 keV). In chapter 4, we compare our results to the predictions of the models described in chapter 1. (author) [French] Le noyau de {sup 151}Sm, qui possede 89 neutrons, se trouve a la limite inferieure des noyaux deformes de la region II. L'etude de ses niveaux excites est donc d'un interet tout particulier pour la verification de la validite des differents modeles collectifs pour les noyaux deformes, lorsque la deformation est petite (nous introduisons ces modeles dans un premier chapitre). Le {sup 151}Sm a deja fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes, mais le spectre gamma direct fait avec une jonction de germanium compense au lithium (chapitre 3), nous a montre l'existence d'un grand nombre de transitions de hautes energies qui ne sont pas placees dans les schemas proposes jusqu'a ce jour. Pour preciser la place de ces

  6. Straight flavor of Binary Number in Decimal Number System

    OpenAIRE

    MD. Abdul Awal Ansary; Sushanta Acharjee

    2012-01-01

    Different number systems are available on the basis of their base numbers. For instance, decimal number system is of base 10, hexadecimal number system which base is 16 and, Binary number system which base is 2 etc. Some numbers systems are easy to understand by the human being and some are easy to understand by electronics machine for instance digital computers. Computers only can understand data and instructions that are stored in binary form, though we input the data and instruction in dec...

  7. Neutrino masses and family replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, P.Q.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of whether or not there is any link between the smallness of the neutrino mass (if present) and the odd or even nature of the number of families is investigated. It is found that, by assuming the existence of right-handed neutrinos (which would imply that neutrinos will have a mass) and a new chiral SU(2) gauge theory, a constraint on the nature of the number of families can be obtained. In addition, a model, based on that extra SU(2), is constructed where it is plausible to have one 'very heavy' fourth neutrino and three almost degenerate light neutrinos whose masses are all of the Dirac type. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. Study of the artificial radioactivity of the marine medium using gamma spectrometry (1962-1966); Etude de la radioactivite artificielle du milieu marin par spectrometrie gamma (1962-1966)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    incidences de cette retombee dans les eaux marines superficielles. Considerant les radioelements etudies comme des 'traceurs' dans le milieu marin, divers processus physiques, chimiques ou biologiques ont ete etudies par spectrometrie gamma a haute sensibilite. Le passage en phase soluble dans l'eau de mer d'une fraction importante (environ 50 pour cent) de l'activite liee aux poussieres radioactives, phenomene qui n'etait pas previsible pour les radioelements etudies, gouverne les processus d'accumulation dans la biomasse planctonique et la diffusion vers les eaux plus profondes. Par ailleurs, une methode de spectrometrie 'in situ' permettant de mesurer directement dans la mer de tres faibles concentrations en certains radionuclides emetteurs gamma est decrite. L'application de cette methode a permis de nombreuses observations dans les eaux de surface de la Mediterranee occidentale et du Golfe de Gascogne. On montre quo la profondeur de melange est etroitement liee a celle de la thermocline. Un processus d'accumulation au niveau de celle-ci est constate. Les coefficients de diffusion sont voisins du coefficient de diffusion thermique turbulente. L'existence de compartiments qui subsistent pendant plusieurs mois dans la masse des eaux de surface du Golfe de Gascogne est mise en evidence. Grace aux bilans effectues, une etude comparative montre que le taux de retombees radioactives sur les surfaces maritimes est toujours deux a trois fois superieur a celui sur les regions continentales voisines. Diverses explications de ce phenomene sont discutees. (auteur)

  9. Investigation of the diffusion {proportional_to} brasses using methods depending on the evaporation or condensation of zinc; Etude de la diffusion dans les laitons {proportional_to} au moyen des methodes d'evaporation ou de condensation du zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique du CNRS (France)

    1959-07-01

    sont precises: les traitements mecaniques subis par l'eprouvette avant diffusion, le sens de la diffusion, la nature des eprouvettes. Le coefficient de diffusion D est alors donne par la relation: D = ({pi}/4t){rho}{sup 2}{sub 0} expression dans laquelle t est la duree de diffusion et {rho}{sub 0} la valeur extrapolee de {rho} = ({delta}m)/({delta}C) a variation nulle de concentration; ({delta}m, variation de poids de l'eprouvette par unite de surface; {delta}C, difference entre la concentration superficielle et la concentration initiale de l'eprouvette). Cette methode a ete utilisee pour etudier l'influence du sens de diffusion sur le coefficient de diffusion le coefficient de diffusion avec appauvrissement en zinc est 5 fois plus grand que le coefficient de diffusion avec enrichissement en zinc;une interpretation de ce phenomene, basee sur le mecanisme lacunaire de diffusion a ete proposee. Par une etude ponderale et une etude micrographique, l'auteur a montre que certaines impuretes, telles que le phosphore, l'arsenic, l'antimoine, le silicium et l'aluminium peuvent augmenter notablement la vitesse de diffusion; il a relie a la valence et a la masse atomique des impuretes, l'influence de celles-ci sur le coefficient de diffusion. (auteur)

  10. Study of the artificial radioactivity of the marine medium using gamma spectrometry (1962-1966); Etude de la radioactivite artificielle du milieu marin par spectrometrie gamma (1962-1966)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    atmospherique entre 1962 et 1964 et les incidences de cette retombee dans les eaux marines superficielles. Considerant les radioelements etudies comme des 'traceurs' dans le milieu marin, divers processus physiques, chimiques ou biologiques ont ete etudies par spectrometrie gamma a haute sensibilite. Le passage en phase soluble dans l'eau de mer d'une fraction importante (environ 50 pour cent) de l'activite liee aux poussieres radioactives, phenomene qui n'etait pas previsible pour les radioelements etudies, gouverne les processus d'accumulation dans la biomasse planctonique et la diffusion vers les eaux plus profondes. Par ailleurs, une methode de spectrometrie 'in situ' permettant de mesurer directement dans la mer de tres faibles concentrations en certains radionuclides emetteurs gamma est decrite. L'application de cette methode a permis de nombreuses observations dans les eaux de surface de la Mediterranee occidentale et du Golfe de Gascogne. On montre quo la profondeur de melange est etroitement liee a celle de la thermocline. Un processus d'accumulation au niveau de celle-ci est constate. Les coefficients de diffusion sont voisins du coefficient de diffusion thermique turbulente. L'existence de compartiments qui subsistent pendant plusieurs mois dans la masse des eaux de surface du Golfe de Gascogne est mise en evidence. Grace aux bilans effectues, une etude comparative montre que le taux de retombees radioactives sur les surfaces maritimes est toujours deux a trois fois superieur a celui sur les regions continentales voisines. Diverses explications de ce phenomene sont discutees. (auteur)

  11. Neutrino number of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of grand unified theories on the lepton number of the universe is reviewed. A scenario is presented for the generation of a large (>> 1) lepton number and a small (<< 1) baryon number. 15 references

  12. Contribution to a research on electron beam welding of metals; Contribution a l'etude de la soudure des metaux par faisceau d'electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-03-15

    pressure, occasioned by additional elements with high vapour pressure, put on the formation of the hole. Micrographs made with welded parts of different metals show melting segregations similar to those obtained when filling a mould of great length. One may point out, that the geometrical configuration adopted by these segregations confirm the hypothesis of the metal flow, as previously contemplated. The study of these segregations, observed during examination through an interferential contrast microscope, has been attempted with a Castaing probe and by radiographical inspection of thin plates: no heterogeneity whatever has been observed. Mechanical tests operated on welded parts, did not show any appreciable difference existing between failure, elongation, yield point and impact values of a welded piece and those of a piece of the basic metal. This method applied on stainless steel shows not only excellent results, but also that the number of calories provided per length unit increases slightly with the welded thickness, whereas one could have expected a linear expression. Results obtained during this work, allow us to sift a certain number of data inherent to the electron beam welding, and to reflect on the definition of welding parameters versus aim to be reached. (author) [French] La soudure des metaux par faisceau d'electrons s'effectue par deplacement du point de focalisation du faisceau sur la ligne de jonction des deux pieces a assembler. Les parametres de soudure sont la puissance du canon W, la valeur de la surface d'impact des electrons S, la vitesse de soudure s. Des le debut de notre etude en 1954, est apparu le role essentiel joue par la puissance specifique W/s, sur la forme de la zone soudee et la profondeur de penetration. Une etude plus systematique a ete entreprise aux laboratoires du C.E.N. Saclay sous le patronage de Monsieur le Professeur CHAUDRON pour mieux definir l'Importance des divers parametres de soudure et voir l'influence exercee par eux sur

  13. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  14. Development of a slow mono-kinetic electron source; Etude et realisation d'une source d'electrons lents monocinetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballu, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    A comparative study of already existing slow mono-kinetic electron guns shows that those using a 127 degrees electrostatic selector can be improved still further to arrive at the performances obtained with spherical 180 degrees selectors for example. For this reason we have examined the 127 degrees selector theoretically in more detail; it appears that it should be possible to obtain a resolving power better than 30 mV for a current of about 10{sup -10} A, on condition that certain improvements be made to the instrument as normally designed, in particular concerning the entrance and exit slides. As a result, the usual suppressors for the scattered electrons are no longer necessary. The development of this apparatus has been carried out with particular care: the dimensional characteristics are fixed to an accuracy of a few microns, although the instrument can be baked out at 300 C. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions: for a current of 10{sup -10} A, the measured resolving power is 24 {+-} 4 mV. The easy detection of the He{sup -} resonance line at 19.3 eV has confirmed the advantages of this apparatus for the study of atomic collisions. (author) [French] L'etude comparative des canons a electrons lents monocinetiques realises jusqu'a present montre que ceux qui utilisent un selecteur electrostatique a 127 degres peuvent etre encore perfectionnes en vue de parvenir aux performances obtenues avec les selecteurs spheriques a 180 degres par exemple. D'ou notre etude theorique approfondie du selecteur a 127 degres qui nous a conduit a esperer une resolution meilleure que 30 mV pour un courant de l'ordre de 10{sup -10} A a condition d'apporter certaines ameliorations a la conception usuelle de cet instrument notamment au niveau des fentes d'entree et de sortie. Par voie de consequence les suppresseurs habituels d'electrons parasites deviennent inutiles. L'etude et la mise au point de l'appareil ont fait l'objet de soins

  15. Study of cerenkov radiation. Production of {gamma} rays by electron accelerators; Etude du rayonnement de freinage. Production de rayons {gamma} par des accelerateurs d'electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This study is a critical comparison of the theories of Bremsstrahlung. Experimental results obtained by the production of {gamma} radiation with electron accelerators are compared to the theoretical results in order to estimate the extent to which the various theories are valid. (author) [French] Cette etude est une synthese des theories du rayonnement de freinage. Des resultats experimentaux, obtenus par la production de rayonnements {gamma} avec des accelerateurs d'electrons, sont compares aux resultats theoriques afin d'evaluer les domaines de validite des diverses theories. (auteur)

  16. Use of hydraulic and aerial mock up to study atmospheric pollution; L'utilisation des maquettes aeriennes et hydrauliques pour l'etude de la pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facy, L; Perrin De Brichambaut, C; Doury, A; Le Quinio, R

    1962-07-01

    Fundamental studies on turbulent atmospheric diffusion of finely divided particles, cannot remain on a purely theoretical basis. Further experimental studies must be considered. - In full scale, from accidental and induced releases. - On a reduced scale, in aerodynamic wind tunnels or hydraulic water tunnels. A first set of studies on reduced scale models has been worked out according to a contract between French 'Meteorologie Nationale' and French 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' and with the Collaboration of Saint-Cyr 'Institut Aerotechnique'. Essentially two kinds of results have been obtained: - The mathematical model of SUTTON for the turbulent diffusion in the atmosphere, deduced from the SUTTON theory, generally used by us, has been correctly verified, qualitatively and quantitatively whenever experiments were consistent with the theory conditions. - The quantitative assays of photographic and cinematographic visualization have given precise details on the phenomena inaccessible to calculations, due to the influence of obstacles and release conditions. - Generally, it can be asserted, that the atmospheric pollution studies are worked out by mock up experimentations and that, in some cases these experiments never can be replaced by mathematically pure models. (authors) [French] Les etudes fondamentales portant sur la diffusion turbulente dans l'atmosphere de quantites de matieres finement divisees, ne peuvent se maintenir sur un plan exclusivement theorique. C'est pourquoi des etudes experimentales complementaires doivent etre obligatoirement envisagees: - en vraie grandeur, a partir d'emissions accidentelles ou provoquees; - sur modeles reduits, en soufflerie aerodynamique ou en veine hydraulique. En ce qui concerne les modeles reduits, une premiere serie d'etudes a pu etre menee a bien, dans le cadre d'un contrat passe entre la Meteorologie Nationale et le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, et avec la collaboration de l'Institut Aerotechnique de Saint

  17. Studies of magnetism with inelastic scattering of cold neutrons; Etudes de magnetisme realisees a l'aide de la diffusion inelastique de neutrons froids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacrot, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of cold neutrons can be used to study some aspects of magnetism: spins waves, exchange integrals, vicinity of Curie point. After description of the experimental set-up, several experiments, in the fields mentioned above, are analysed. (author) [French] La technique de diffusion inelastique des neutrons froids est utilisee pour etudier certains aspects du magnetisme: ondes de spins, integrales d'echange, etude au voisinage du point de Curie, etc. Apres une description de l'appareillage, on analyse diverses experiences effectuees dans les domaines enumeres plus haut. (auteur)

  18. Probes and their application to the study of H.F. plasmoids; Les sondes et leur application dans l'etude des plasmoides H.F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, A; Geller, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In the first part of this paper, we study the single Langmuir probe and the double-probe method. In the second part, we describe the probe-technique in connection with R.F. plasmoids. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de cet article, nous rappelons les principes d'utilisation de la sonde simple de Langmuir ainsi que la methode de la sonde double. La seconde partie est consacree a la pratique des sondes dans l'etude des plasmoides H.F. (auteur)

  19. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  20. Bell numbers, determinants and series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients. Keywords. p-adic series; Bell numbers. 1. Introduction. Bell numbers, Bn [2] ...

  1. Method of research and study of uranium deposits; Methode de recherches et d'etude des gites uraniferes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoble, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In a first part, the author gives a fast retrospective of the evaluations of the uranium deposits in the French Union. The author established a method of prospecting and studying, modifiable at all times following the experiences and the results, permitting to make the general inventory of uranium resources on the territory. The method is based on: 1 - the determination of geological guides in order to mark the most promising deposits, 2 - the definition of a methodology adapted to every steps of the research, 3 - the choice of the material adapted for each of the steps. This method, originally established for the prospecting in crystalline massifs, is adaptable to the prospecting of the sedimentary formations. (M.B.) [French] Dans une premiere partie, l'auteur donne une retrospective rapide des estimations des gites uraniferes dans l'Union Francaise. L'auteur a etabli une methode de prospection et d'etude, modifiable a tout instant suivant les experiences et les resultats, permettant de faire l'inventaire general des ressources en uranium du territoire. La methode est base sur: 1 - la determination de guides geologiques afin de reperer les gisements les plus prometteurs, 2 - la definition d'une methodologie adaptee a chaque stade de la recherche, 3 - le choix du materiel adapte pour chacun des stades. Cette methode, a l'origine etablie pour la prospection en massifs cristallins, est adaptable a la prospection des formations sedimentaires. (M.B.)

  2. Some equipment for graphite research in swimming pool reactors; Quelques dispositifs d'etude du graphite dans les piles piscines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, M; Arragon, Ph; Dupont, G; Gentil, J; Tanis, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The irradiation devices described are used for research concerning reactors of the natural uranium type, moderated by graphite and cooled by carbon dioxide. The devices are generally designed for use in swimming pool reactors. The following points have been particularly studied: - maximum use of the irradiation volume, - use of the simplest technological solutions, - standardization of certain constituent parts. This standardization calls for precision machining and careful assembling; these requirements are also true when a relatively low irradiation temperature is required and the nuclear heating is pronounced. Finally, the design of these devices is suitable for the irradiation of other fissile or non-fissile materials. (authors) [French] Les dispositifs d'irradiation decrits servent aux etudes relatives a la filiere des reacteurs a uranium naturel, moderes au graphite et refroidis par le gaz carbonique. Ils sont generalement concus pour etre utilises dans des piles piscines. L'accent a ete mis sur: - l'utilisation au maximum du volume d'irradiation, - le recours aux solutions technologiques les plus simples, - la standardisation de certaines parties constitutives. Cette standardisation impose un usinage precis et un montage soigne, lesquels sont egalement necessaires lorsqu'on doit obtenir une temperature d'irradiation relativement basse alors que l'echauffement nucleaire est important. Enfin, la conception de ces dispositifs est valable pour irradier d'autres materiaux non fissiles ou fissiles. (auteurs)

  3. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and myocardial infarction: Etude Cas-Témoins de l'Infarctus du Myocarde (ECTIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumeron, Frédéric; Betoulle, Dina; Nicaud, Viviane; Evans, Alun; Kee, Frank; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Arveiler, Dominique; Luc, Gérald; Cambien, François

    2002-06-25

    Depression is a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduce this risk. The site of action is the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), which is expressed in brain and blood cells. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene has been described. This polymorphism may be associated with the risk of MI. The SLC6A4 polymorphism has been investigated by polymerase chain reaction in 671 male patients with MI and in 688 controls from the Etude Cas-Témoins de l'Infarctus du Myocarde (ECTIM) multicentric study. Percentages for LL, LS, and SS genotypes were 35.5%, 45.4%, and 19.1%, respectively, for cases versus 28.1%, 49.1%, and 22.8%, respectively, for controls. S allele frequency was 41.8% and 47.4% for cases and controls, respectively. After adjustment for age and center by using multivariable logistic regression, the odds ratio for MI associated with the LL genotype was 1.40 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.76, P=0.0047). The LL genotype of the SLC6A4 polymorphism is associated with a higher risk of MI. This could be attributable to the effect of the polymorphism on serotonin-mediated platelet activation or smooth muscle cell proliferation or on other risk factors, such as depression or response to stress.

  4. Cognitive decline is associated with systemic oxidative stress: the EVA study. Etude du Vieillissement Artériel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, C; Balansard, B; Arnaud, J; Roussel, A M; Alpérovitch, A

    2000-10-01

    To determine whether systemic oxidative stress status is associated with cognitive decline. A longitudinal population-based study. A cohort study of older subjects in Nantes, France. A total of 1166 high cognitive functioning subjects aged 60 to 70 in the Etude du Vieillissement Arteriel (EVA) cohort with a 4 year follow-up. Subjects completed a baseline interview and a global cognitive test (Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE)). Blood samples were obtained at baseline to determine plasma levels of selenium, carotenoids, thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS), an indicator of lipoperoxidation, and red blood cell vitamin E. Risk of cognitive decline, defined as a loss of 3 points in MMSE score between baseline and the 4 year follow-up, was assessed by oxidative stress level. Subjects with the highest levels of TBARS show an increased risk of cognitive decline (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.25; confidence interval (CI) 95% = 1.26-4.02). This result is reinforced in the lower antioxidant status subgroup. Subjects with low levels of selenium have an increased risk of cognitive decline (OR = 1.58; CI 95% = 1.08-2.31) after adjustment for various confounding factors. These results suggest that increased levels of oxidative stress and/or antioxidant deficiencies may pose risk factors for cognitive decline. The direct implication of oxidative stress in vascular and neurodegenerative mechanisms that lead to cognitive impairment should be further explored.

  5. Some aspects of nuclear graphite production in France; Etude generale sur les graphites nucleaires produits en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueron, J; Hering, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Legendre, A [Pechiney, 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    1) Manufacturing: A summary and results on the CEA-Pechiney purification process are given. Variations in the preparation of green pastes and their effects on graphitized material are described. 2) Physical and mechanical properties: Results are given on: - Statistics of dimensional variatior products having square cross-section. - Statistical variation of thermal expansion coefficients and of electrical conductivity. - Density of normals to carbon layer planes and their connexion with thermal expansion. - Stress-strain cycles and conclusions drawn therefrom. - Mechanical resistance and gas permeability of items for supporting fuel elements. 3) Behaviour under radiation: Alteration under radiation of French graphites irradiated either in G1 pile or in experimental piles, and thermal annealing of those alterations, are given. (author)Fren. [French] 1) Fabrication: On resume le procede d'epuration CEA-PECHINEY, ainsi que diverses modalites de preparation des pates et on expose les resultats obtenus. 2) Proprietes physiques et mecaniques: On indique le resultat d'etudes sur: - la statistique des dimensions de produits a section carree. - celle des variations des coefficients de dilatation thermique et de la conductibilite electrique. - la densite des normales aux plans graphitiques et leur connexion avec la dilatation thermique. - la compression mecanique du graphite. - la solidite mecanique et la permeabilite aux gaz de pieces destinees a supporter des cartouches de combustible. 3) Tenue sous rayonnement: Modification sous rayonnement des graphites fran is irradies soit dans la pile G1, soit dans des piles experimentales, et guerison thermique de ces modifications. (auteur)

  6. Cosmic numbers the numbers that define our universe

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, James D

    2011-01-01

    Our fascination with numbers begins when we are children and continues throughout our lives. We start counting our fingers and toes and end up balancing checkbooks and calculating risk. So powerful is the appeal of numbers that many people ascribe to them a mystical significance. Other numbers go beyond the supernatural, working to explain our universe and how it behaves. In Cosmic Numbers , mathematics professor James D. Stein traces the discovery, evolution, and interrelationships of the numbers that define our world. Everyone knows about the speed of light and absolute zero, but numbers lik

  7. Critical number of flavors in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Calcaneo-Roldan, C.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavors N f . This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling α beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in α to illustrate this. We study the flavor and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of α and N f . Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through (α,α c )↔(1/N f ,1/N f c ). Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension γ m shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the β function. The criticality plane is drawn in the (α,N f ) phase space which clearly depicts how larger N f is required to restore chiral symmetry for an increasing interaction strength.

  8. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  9. Studies of the Stabilization of Superconductor Coils; Etudes sur la Stabilisation des Bobines Supraconductrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadieu, L.; Maldy, J. [Compagnie Generale d' Electricite Marcoussis (France)

    1966-12-15

    operation of the coil will be stable and the passage of the I-B characteristic of the material will be reversible; (b) Ic < Im, the operation of the coil is unstable and any sufficiently large disturbances (flux jump, movement of windings, etc. ) can produce blocking. This is inevitably the case with the large coils whose operational limit tends towards Im. Different coils have been constructed with more or leas stabilised materials and the results of tests on them are analysed as a' function of the previous theories. There Is a full discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of coil stabilizations. (author) [French] La stabilisation de l'intensite du courant dans les bobinages supra-conducteurs, qui apparait d'une importance capitale pour la construction de bobinages de grande taille , est etudiee a la fois du point de vue theorique et du point de vue experiment a l. L'etude de la dynamique de la transition d'un supraconducteur transportant du courant, entre l ' e t at supraconducteur a resistance nulle et l ' e tat a resistance normale ( l e blocage), revele l'existence d'une intensite caracteristique, Im, pour laquelle la vitesse de propagation de la region normale est nulle. Cette intensite depend directement des echanges de chaleur entre le supraconducteur et le milieu ambiant, et de la resistance du materiau a l ' e t a t normal; Im depend indirectement de l'intensite du champ magnetique. Si un supraconducteur est utilise avec une intensite de courant inferieure a Im, la vitesse de propagation est negative et le supraconducteur est capable eventuellement de realiser la transition inverse de l ' e t a t normal a l ' e t a t supraconducteur. On peut montrer que pour une intensite Is telle que Is = Im/ Square-Root 2 , la vitesse de propagation qui est negative devient infiniment grande. L'existence de ces 2 intensites caracteristiques permet de distinguer trois cas de comportement differents selon l'intensite du courant qui parcourt le supraconducteur. L'auteur a

  10. Study of uranium-titanium diffusion; Etude de la diffusion uranium-titane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adda, Y; Philibert, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)

    1959-07-01

    . (author) [French] Dans le cadre de recherches sur la diffusion chimique de l'uranium et des metaux de transition, nous avons etudie le systeme uranium-titane. Les couples de diffusion sont prepares, suivant une technique que avons deja decrite, par soudage sous pression de plaquettes d'uranium et de titane. Apres traitement de diffusion sous vide, les echantillons sont etudies micrographiquement suivant une section polie. Cet examen nous a permis de mettre en evidence une diffusion intergranulaire au-dessous de 650 deg. C; aux temperatures superieures, la diffusion a lieu uniquement en volume, et la zone de diffusion apparait alors comme une succession de bandes qui se distinguent par leur aspect micrographique. L'etude de la cinetique de croissance de ces bandes nous a permis de mesurer les 'coefficients de penetration' correspondants. En outre, nous avons observe, dans la zone de diffusion, des variations importantes de microdurete, que nous avons cherche a relier a la variation de concentration. Celle-ci est mesuree par analyse ponctuelle au moyen de la microsonde de Castaing. Nous avons ainsi etabli avec precision les courbes concentration-penetration pour des temperatures comprises entre 950 et 1075 deg. C. A partir de ces courbes nous avons calcule le coefficient de diffusion D en fonction de la concentration c par la methode de Matano. La coube D(c) presente a toutes les temperatures une forme en U, deja observee pour le systeme U-Zr. L'energie d'activation passe par un maximum de 42 kcal/g pour une concentration atomique 0,5. Bien que nous n'ayons observe que rarement la presence de pores dans la zone de diffusion, nous avons neanmoins observe un effet Kirkendall important en etudiant les deplacements x{sub i} d'un interface repere au moyen de fils de tungstene. Ces deplacements peuvent s'exprimer en fonction du temps t et de la temperature T par la relation x{sub i} = 0,9 t {sup 1/2} exp ( - 14600/(RT)). Enfin, au moyen des equations de Darken nous avons calcule

  11. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  12. Ion-molecule interactions of biological importance. A vibrational spectroscopic study of magnesium complexes with hydroxylated quinones; Interactions ions-molecules d'interet biologique. Etude par spectrometrie de vibrations de la complexation du magnesium avec des molecules quinoniques hydroxylees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirszenbaum, Marek

    1976-06-14

    Luteoskyrin and rugulosin are two naturally occurring yellow pigments with hydroxylated bis-anthraquinonic structures. They cause serious liver disorders in man due to the formation of complexes of the type pigment-Mg{sup 2+}-DNA. In order to elucidate the structure of these complexes we have studied the vibrational spectra of some model systems, namely 1-hydroxy- and 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone, their magnesium chelate complexes, and a series of simpler complexes as the acetylacetonates of some divalent metals. Complete vibrational assignment are proposed for anthraquinone-9,10, the two hydroxylated and deureroxylated derivatives and their magnesium complexes. The substitution of {sup 26}Mg in place of {sup 24}Mg in these complexes enabled us to assign the Mg-O vibrations; their number corresponds to a hexa-coordinated metal in the acetylacetonate case and to a tetra-coordinated structure in the anthraquinone-olates complexes. The position of the ν C=0 and ν C-0 vibrations bands in the complexes shows that the bonds in the chelated ring of Mg(1-O-AQ){sub 2} retains their single and double bond characteristic whereas in the CMg(1,4-O{sub 2},-AQ){sub n} a resonating structure appears in the ring. The study of the IR and R spectra of the complexes enabled a tetrahedral structure to be proposed for the oxygens around the magnesium. Finally it was noted that the Mg-O bonds possessed a high degree of covalent character. (author) [French] La luteoskyrine et la rugulosine, deux pigments jaunes de structure de bis-anthraquinones hydroxylees, provoquent des troubles hepatiques graves par la formation des complexes pigment-Mg{sup 2+}-ADN. Dans le but d'eclaircir la structure de ces complexes nous avons etudie, par spectrometrie de vibrations, les systemes-modeles suivants: la 1-hydroxy- et la 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinones, leurs complexes magnesies et une serie des complexes plus simples, tels que les acetylacetonates. de metaux divalents. Nous avons propose une attribution

  13. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  14. Mass Media and Terrorism: Deconstructing the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Prayudi, Prayudi

    2008-01-01

    Issue of terrorism came to surface in this early twenty first century through a number ofacts violence that have killed hundreds and injured thousands of people. At the same time, theseevents have been dominated the mass media contents. Principally, mass media and issue ofterrorism are inseparable. This paper examines the relationship between mass media and terrorism.It is done through the deconstruction of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism isunderstood as a communicational process. ...

  15. Small numbers in supersymmetric theories of nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesser, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle interactions is a successful theory for describing the interactions of quarks, leptons and gauge bosons at microscopic distance scales. Despite these successes, the theory contains many unsatisfactory features. The origin of particle masses is a central mystery that has eluded experimental elucidation. In the Standard Model the known particles obtain their mass from the condensate of the so-called Higgs particle. Quantum corrections to the Higgs mass require an unnatural fine tuning in the Higgs mass of one part in 10 -32 to obtain the correct mass scale of electroweak physics. In addition, the origin of the vast hierarchy between the mass scales of the electroweak and quantum gravity physics is not explained in the current theory. Supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model are not plagued by this fine tuning issue and may therefore be relevant in Nature. In the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model there is also a natural explanation for electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories also correctly predict a parameter of the Standard Model. This provides non-trivial indirect evidence for these theories. The most general supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model however, is excluded by many physical processes, such as rare flavor changing processes, and the non-observation of the instability of the proton. These processes provide important information about the possible structure such a theory. In particular, certain parameters in this theory must be rather small. A physics explanation for why this is the case would be desirable. It is striking that the gauge couplings of the Standard Model unify if there is supersymmetry close to the weak scale. This suggests that at high energies Nature is described by a supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory. But the mass scale of unification must be introduced into the theory since it does not coincide with the probable mass scale of strong quantum gravity. The subject

  16. Preparation of small uranium hexafluoride samples in view of mass spectrometry analysis; Preparation de petits echantillons d'hexafluorure d'uranium en vue d'analyse spectrometrique de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severin, Michel

    1958-07-01

    We have studied the preparation of uranium hexafluoride for the determination of the isotopic ratio {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U by means of a mass spectrometer. UF{sub 6} should be produced from an amount of raw material (metallic uranium or oxide) that should not exceed 0,1 g. Our method has a good yield (we have studied the rate of transformation) and gives samples which present a content of impurities (HF and SiF{sub 4}) low enough to enable correct isotopic measurements. The method which seemed the best uses the cobalt trifluoride as a fluorining agent. It is now in current use in the laboratories of mass spectrometry. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la preparation de l'hexafluorure d'uranium en vue de la determination au spectrometre de masse du rapport isotopique {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U. L'hexafluorure d'uranium devait etre produit a partir d'une quantite de matiere premiere (uranium metallique ou oxyde) ne devant pas exceder 0,1 g. Nous avons mis au point une methode de preparation presentant un rendement eleve (etude du taux de transformation) et donnant des echantillons dont le taux d'impuretes (HF et SiF{sub 4}) est suffisamment faible pour permettre des mesures isotopiques correctes. La methode ayant donne le plus de satisfaction utilise le trifluorure de cobalt comme agent fluorant. Ce procede est maintenant couramment employe dans les laboratoires de spectrometrie de masse. (auteur)

  17. The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access from Symbolic Numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Anne; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a…

  18. Leptogenesis. Theory and neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.

    2012-12-15

    After a brief discussion of baryon and lepton number nonconservation, we review the status of thermal leptogenesis with GUT scale neutrino masses, as well as low scale alternatives with keV neutrinos as dark matter and heavy neutrino masses within the reach of the LHC. Recent progress towards a full quantum mechanical description of leptogenesis is described with resonant leptogenesis as an application. Finally, cosmological B-L breaking after inflation is considered as origin of the hot early universe, generating entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter.

  19. Functional genomics by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    Systematic analysis of the function of genes can take place at the oligonucleotide or protein level. The latter has the advantage of being closest to function, since it is proteins that perform most of the reactions necessary for the cell. For most protein based ('proteomic') approaches to gene f...... numbers of intact proteins by mass spectrometry directly. Examples from this laboratory illustrate biological problem solving by modern mass spectrometric techniques. These include the analysis of the structure and function of the nucleolus and the analysis of signaling complexes....

  20. Theoretical perspective for baryon number violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langacker, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this talk I describe the theoretical predictions for proton decay and other baryon number violating processes, emphasizing that there are many models and theories involving baryon number violation and that it is an experimental problem to distinguish between them. I first review the the theoretical predictions for the unification mass M/sub X/ and for the weak angle sin 2 theta/sub W/. It will be seen that the class of models involving an Su 3 x SU 2 x U 1 invariant desert between M/sub W/ and M/sub X/ are strongly favored. I then turn to baryon number violation. The proton lifetime and branching ratio predictions for the SU 5 and other 3-2-1 desert models are reviewed, with emphasis on distinguishing between models and on the implications of the small value of the QCD parameter lambda/sub anti MS/ that seems to be favored by the data. I then discuss the consequences of low energy supersymmetry for proton decay, nuclear effects, and models with low mass scales. Finally, I mention possible implications of the anomalously large flux of cosmic ray antiprotons that has recently been reported

  1. Quadratic mass relations in topological bootstrap theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Uschersohn, J.

    1980-01-01

    From the requirement of reality of discontinuities of scattering amplitudes at the spherical level of the topological bootstrap theory, a large number of mass relations for hadrons is derived. Quadratic mass formulas for the symmetry-breaking pattern of both mesons and baryon is obtained and their relation to conventional models of symmetry breaking is briefly discussed

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how th......, a second, regular set of number names is introduced in primary school. The study’s findings suggest that the regularity of number names influences the development of number concepts and creates a positive impact on the understanding of the base-10 system....

  3. Number density structures in the inner heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansby, D.; Horbury, T. S.

    2018-06-01

    Aims: The origins and generation mechanisms of the slow solar wind are still unclear. Part of the slow solar wind is populated by number density structures, discrete patches of increased number density that are frozen in to and move with the bulk solar wind. In this paper we aimed to provide the first in-situ statistical study of number density structures in the inner heliosphere. Methods: We reprocessed in-situ ion distribution functions measured by Helios in the inner heliosphere to provide a new reliable set of proton plasma moments for the entire mission. From this new data set we looked for number density structures measured within 0.5 AU of the Sun and studied their properties. Results: We identified 140 discrete areas of enhanced number density. The structures occurred exclusively in the slow solar wind and spanned a wide range of length scales from 50 Mm to 2000 Mm, which includes smaller scales than have been previously observed. They were also consistently denser and hotter that the surrounding plasma, but had lower magnetic field strengths, and therefore remained in pressure balance. Conclusions: Our observations show that these structures are present in the slow solar wind at a wide range of scales, some of which are too small to be detected by remote sensing instruments. These structures are rare, accounting for only 1% of the slow solar wind measured by Helios, and are not a significant contribution to the mass flux of the solar wind.

  4. The theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Harry

    1998-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  5. Elementary number theory with programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lewinter, Marty

    2015-01-01

    A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con

  6. Distribution theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chung-Chun

    2008-01-01

    The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.

  7. Preliminary study of the preparation of uranium 232 by irradiation of protactinium 231; Etude preliminaire a la preparation d'uranium 232 par irradiation de protactinium 231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillot, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A bibliography about preparation of uranium 232 is done. This even-even isotope of uranium is suitable for radioactive tracer, neutron source through {alpha},n reaction and heat source applications. The irradiation of protactinium 231, the chemical separation and the purification of uranium are studied. (author) [French] Une etude bibliographique de la preparation d'uranium 232 a ete effectuee. Cet isotope pair-pair de l'uranium peut etre utilise en tant que traceur, source d'energie et source de neutrons, lorsqu'il est melange a un element leger tel le beryllium. Une etude du taux de formation des isotopes produits, lors de l'irradiation du protactinium 231 - une des manieres d'obtenir l'uranium 232 - a ete faite a l'aide d'un programme passe sur ordinateur. Les problemes poses par la separation chimique et la purification de l'uranium ont ete egalement envisages dans ce rapport. (auteur)

  8. Castor and Pollux - shielded cells for studying fuel treatment processes; Castor et Pollux chaines blindees d'etudes de procedes de traitement de combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faudot, G; Bathellier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    CASTOR and POLLUX, two alpha, beta, gamma cells are described in the present paper. They are located in the CEN at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). They are designed for improvement studies of the various aqueous separation processes used in irradiated fuels reprocessing plants. Located in the same air-tight steel encasement, they arc inter-connected by a pneumatic transfer. These two cells have a similar in-line conception and they include: a gamma shielding in lead of 10 cm of thickness; an inner air-tight box, made with stainless steel and plexiglas, is maintained in lowering in comparison to room pressure. Eleven Hobson model seven master-slave manipulators allow inner manipulations. Then the inner equipment is described briefly. (author) [French] Le present document decrit les cellules alpha, beta, gamma CASTOR et POLLUX edifiees au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Elles sont destinees aux etudes visant a l'amelioration des procedes de separation par voie aqueuse utilises dans les usines de retraitement des combustibles irradies. Ces deux chaines, implantees dans le meme caisson et reliees par convoyeur pneumatique, sont de conception identique et comprennent: une protection biologique constituee par 10 cm d'epaisseur de plomb; une enceinte interieure etanche alpha, en acier inoxidable et plexiglas, maintenue en depression. Des telemanipulateurs Hobson, modele 7, permettent les manipulations interieures. On decrit ensuite brievement les installations annexes. (auteur)

  9. Study of point defects in pure iron by means of electrical resistivity; Etude au moyen de la resistivite electrique des defauts ponctuels dans le fer pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minier-Cassayre, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-04-01

    In the first part of this work, after having reviewed the production, observation and the annealing of point defects In metals, we resume the present state of research. In the second part, we explain the techniques we have employed to produce point defects at low temperatures: irradiation, quenching and cold-work; and go on to the study of their migration and annealing. The experimental results obtained for pure iron and for iron containing certain impurities are presented in the third part. In the fourth part we suggest a model which explains the different stages of annealing observed, and their properties. We then compare the energies of interaction between point defects with the values deduced from the theory of elasticity. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de cette etude, apres avoir passe en revue la production, l'observation et les modes de guerison des defauts ponctuels dans les metaux, nous exposons l'etat actuel des recherches. La seconde partie est consacree aux techniques que nous avons employees pour produire des defauts ponctuels a basse temperature: irradiations, trempe et ecrouissage puis a l'etude de leur migration et de leur guerison. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus dans le fer pur et le fer contenant certaines impuretes sont presentes dans le troisieme chapitre. Nous proposons ensuite un modele qui explique les differents stades de guerison observes et leurs nombreuses proprietes: nous comparons les energies d'interaction entre defauts ponctuels aux valeurs que l'on pourrait deduire d'un modele elastique. (auteur)

  10. The ultrasonic copper and brass decontamination study; Etude de la decontamination du cuivre et des laitons en presence d'ultra-sons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtault, J; Kerdelleau, J de; Mestre, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The use of ultra-sounds as a decontamination technic does not bring an absolute solution. As a function of the materials it seemed necessary to find what was the optimum conditions for using the ultra-sounds and to define not only the ultra-sonic factors but also the chemical solutions which bring some appreciable decontamination factors without bringing any too important corrosion processus. This report gives the results of this study applied to copper and brass. This study allowed to select some effective treatment baths on the two types of contamination: plutonium and fission products. (authors) [French] L'emploi des ultra-sons comme technique de decontamination n'amene pas une solution absolue. Il est apparu necessaire de rechercher en fonction de la nature du materiau a decontaminer quelles etaient les conditions optimales d'utilisation des ultra-sons et de definir alors non seulement les facteurs ultrasoniques mais encore les solutions chimiques qui apportent des facteurs de decontamination appreciables sans amener des phenomenes de corrosion trop importants. Ce rapport donne les resultats de cette etude appliquee au cuivre et aux laitons. Cette etude a permis de selectionner des bains de traitement efficaces dans les deux cas de contamination: plutonium et produits de fission. (auteurs)

  11. A crystallographic and spectroscopic study of crystal sites in the 'spinel' structure; Etude cristallographique et spectroscopique des sites cristallins dans la structure 'spinelle'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drifford, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    A crystallographic study on magnesium aluminates led to the determination of crystal site average distortion. A spectroscopic study of transition elements doped spinels gave the position of the doping element in tetrahedral (A) or octahedral (B) sites, and the local distortion of the latter. The comparison of average and local parameters points to differences in the behaviour of doping elements and shows the size of (A) sites are independent of the host crystal composition while the average size of (B) sites varies with the composition. (author) [French] Une etude cristallographique des aluminates de magnesium a permis de determiner la deformation moyenne des sites cristallins. Une etude spectroscopique des aluminates de magnesium dopes avec des elements de transition a permis de localiser les dopants entre les sites tetraedriques (A) et octaedriques (B) et d'etudier la deformation locale de ces sites. La comparaison entre les parametres moyens et locaux a caracterise le comportement du dopant et montre que les dimensions des sites (A) sont independantes de la composition de la matrice, alors que les caracteristiques geometriques moyennes des sites (B) varient continument avec la composition. (auteur)

  12. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry mers and copolymers of polyacrylate salt series edited by Professor J.F.J. Todd latex) rather than an inorganic or or- (University...changes in the popu- cy with two potassium dihydrogen phos- lation of a vibrational manifold were phate (KDP) crystals. Following a fil- determined by...AD-A162 235 EUROPEAN SCIENCE NOTES VOLUME 48 NUMBER I(U) OFFICE OF i/1 NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) L E SHAFFER JAN 86 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/2

  13. Protecting the axion with local baryon number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Michael; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Unwin, James

    2018-05-01

    The Peccei-Quinn (PQ) solution to the Strong CP Problem is expected to fail unless the global symmetry U(1)PQ is protected from Planck-scale operators up to high mass dimension. Suitable protection can be achieved if the PQ symmetry is an automatic consequence of some gauge symmetry. We highlight that if baryon number is promoted to a gauge symmetry, the exotic fermions needed for anomaly cancellation can elegantly provide an implementation of the Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov 'hidden axion' mechanism with a PQ symmetry protected from Planck-scale physics.

  14. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  15. Prediction of cloud droplet number in a general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    We have applied the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) bulk cloud microphysics parameterization to the treatment of stratiform clouds in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). The RAMS predicts mass concentrations of cloud water, cloud ice, rain and snow, and number concnetration of ice. We have introduced the droplet number conservation equation to predict droplet number and it`s dependence on aerosols.

  16. Galaxy Masses : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courteau, Stephane; Cappellari, Michele; Jong, Roelof S. de; Dutton, Aaron A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The dierent sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Contribution to the study of hydrogenated and oxygenated impurities in liquid sodium; Contribution a l'etude des impuretees hydrogenees et oxygenees dans le sodium liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    This study is made up essentially of two parts. The first is devoted to the development of dosage methods for selectively determining the oxygenated and hydrogenated impurities present in sodium, that is the oxide, the hydride and the hydroxide. The second makes use of these methods for a study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} system, as well as of the related problem of the attack of pyrex glass by molten sodium. The conventional method for dosing oxygen by amalgamation was first adapted to the simultaneous measurement of the hydride. We then developed a method for dosing the total hydrogen by measuring successively the concentrations of gas present in the hydride and hydroxide form. This method is based on the thermal decomposition of the hydride and the reaction between sodium and the hydroxide. Our contribution to the study of the Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} System consists first of all in the study of the reaction between hydrogen and sodium in the temperature range from 150 to 250 deg C and at a pressure of about 150 mm of mercury. The study of the thermal decomposition of the hydride in sodium was then studied. It was possible to make some qualitative observations concerning the reaction between sodium and sodium hydroxide. Finally some complementary tests made it possible to define the nature of the phenomena occurring during the attack of pyrex glass by sodium. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte essentiellement deux parties. La premiere est consacree a la mise au point de methodes de dosages permettant de determiner selectivement les impuretes oxygenees et hydrogenees presentes dans le sodium, a savoir l'oxyde, l'hydrure et l'hydroxyde. La seconde met a profit ces methodes en vue de l'etude du systeme Na-H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}. ainsi que du phenomene connexe d'attaque du verre pyrex par le sodium fondu. La methode classique de dosage de l'oxygene par amalgamation a d'abord ete adaptee au dosage simultane de l'hydrure. Nous avons ensuite mis au point le dosage de l

  19. Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  20. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; L'enseignement de genie atomique de l'Institut national des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires au Centre d'Etudes nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissas, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1- Reasons for its creation. The Electricite de France, and industries interested in the development of atomic energy, have requested the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to train scientists who will be able to study pile planning and to be in charge of their construction. 2- Recruiting and enrolment fees. The demand for enrolment has always exceeded the possibilities. This year the courses have been attended by 74 permanent students, including 20 foreigners, and some hundred part-time listeners. All students are already scientists or have high university qualifications. Enrot fees: 250 000 F for students, 125 000 F for part-time attendance. 3- Organisation of the teaching. This consists of two branches: physics and chemistry, and in each branch: some hundred lectures, some thirty sessions of practical work, periods of work in the departments, study of a reactor project by a group of 4 or 5 students. The course takes place during the university year 1 november to 14 july. 4- Qualifications. A final examination, combining the results from two theoretical tests, from the practical work, from the period of work in the establishment and from the reactor project leads to a diploma in atomic energy. In reality new scientists are not produced, a new mention is merely added to a diploma already held. Results have always been excellent; the percentage of failures is very small. 5- Placing of graduates. They all return to their original industries, who have paid their salaries and enrolment fees whilst giving up their services during the 9 months duration of the course. 6- Similar ventures. A similar course has been created at the C.F.N. Grenoble. Whilst the Saclay course is particularly for scientists already working, that at Grenoble is destined in principle for young scientists leaving college. 7- Conclusion. This organization is satisfactory both for the students and the industries. The C.E.A. works towards yearly improvement, and hopes to welcome large numbers of

  1. 2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Garvan, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Gathered from the 2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference honoring Krishna Alladi on his 60th birthday, these proceedings present recent research in number theory. Extensive and detailed, this volume features 40 articles by leading researchers on topics in analytic number theory, probabilistic number theory, irrationality and transcendence, Diophantine analysis, partitions, basic hypergeometric series, and modular forms. Readers will also find detailed discussions of several aspects of the path-breaking work of Srinivasa Ramanujan and its influence on current research. Many of the papers were motivated by Alladi's own research on partitions and q-series as well as his earlier work in number theory.  Alladi is well known for his contributions in number theory and mathematics. His research interests include combinatorics, discrete mathematics, sieve methods, probabilistic and analytic number theory, Diophantine approximations, partitions and q-series identities. Graduate students and researchers will find th...

  2. The Origin of Mass

    OpenAIRE

    森岡, 達史

    2013-01-01

    The quark-lepton mass problem and the ideas of mass protection are reviewed. The hierarchy problem and suggestions for its resolution, including Little Higgs models, are discussed. The Multiple Point Principle is introduced and used within the Standard Model to predict the top quark and Higgs particle masses. Mass matrix ans\\"{a}tze are considered; in particular we discuss the lightest family mass generation model, in which all the quark mixing angles are successfully expressed in terms of si...

  3. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  4. Neutrino masses and oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A Yu

    1996-11-01

    New effects related to refraction of neutrinos in different media are reviewed and implication of the effects to neutrino mass and mixing are discussed. Patterns of neutrino masses and mixing implied by existing hints/bounds are described. Recent results on neutrino mass generation are presented. They include neutrino masses in SO(10) GUT`s and models with anomalous U(1), generation of neutrino mass via neutrino-neutralino mixing, models of sterile neutrino. (author). 95 refs, 9 figs.

  5. Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, Peter P; Webb, James G; Huntington, Elanor H; Ralph, Timothy C

    2007-01-01

    Number-resolving photo-detection is necessary for many quantum optics experiments, especially in the application of entangled state preparation. Several schemes have been proposed for approximating number-resolving photo-detection using non-number-resolving detectors. Such techniques include multi-port detection and time-division multiplexing. We provide a detailed analysis and comparison of different number-resolving detection schemes, with a view to creating a useful reference for experimentalists. We show that the ideal architecture for projective measurements is a function of the detector's dark count and efficiency parameters. We also describe a process for selecting an appropriate topology given actual experimental component parameters

  6. Neutrino masses and beyond from supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, O.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    A generic form of the supersymmetric SM naturally gives rise to the lepton number violating neutrino masses and mixings, without the need for extra superfields beyond the minimal spectrum. Hence, SUSY can be considered the origin of beyond SM properties of neutrinos. We have developed a formulation under which one can efficiently analyze the model. Various sources of neutrino masses are discussed. Such mass contributions come from lepton number and flavor violating couplings that also give rise to a rich phenomenology of the neutrinos and other leptons, also to be discussed. (author)

  7. Etude de la fixation d'atomes de brome dans les traces latentes d'ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareille, J. C.; Moliton, J. P.; Decossas, J. L.; Teyssier, J. L.; Delaunay, B.

    1981-09-01

    We show that the branching of bromide atoms is possible on chemically active sites produced by Kr 8+, Cl 6+ and He 2+ ion irradiation on cellulose triacetate. The number of fixed atoms increases with ion fluence and atomic number. These results are in good agreement with those concerning radical yield around the ions' path.

  8. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  9. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation; Etude de la fluorescence des gaz rares excites par des particules nucleaires. Utilisation pour la detection des rayonnements nucleaires par scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-12-15

    In the first part is studied the properties of atoms excited by the passage of {alpha} particles through the various rare gases at atmospheric pressure. A spectral analysis of the emitted light showed that certain impurities play an important part in producing the fluorescence, and it has led to the conclusion that the light emission contains at least two components - one very short - lived due to the direct deexcitation of the rare gas, the other relatively slower due to the energy transfers to the impurity. The measurement of the life-time of the excited states has confirmed this foregoing hypothesis, the rapid part of the impulse is extremely short: less than 2,25.10{sup -9} s in the case of xenon; the slower part has a life-time depending directly on the nitrogen concentration, nitrogen being the impurity giving the largest effect in all cases. The study of rare gases under the influence of an electric field has made it possible to show that the amount of light produced by an {alpha} particle can be multiplied (by 60, for example, in a field of 600 V:cm) so that the luminescent efficiency is greater than in the case of INaTI. In the second part the characteristics of the rare gases acting as scintillators is examined, the most important property being the absence of fluorescence saturation when the intensity of the excitation incident on the gas is very large. This, together with the very short time of scintillation has made it possible to study a certain number of nuclear physical applications (heavy particle energy-measurements, kinetic studies on nuclear reactors, neutron spectroscopy). (author) [French] On etudie dans la premiere partie les proprietes des atomes excites par le passage de particules {alpha} dans les differents gaz rares a la pression atmospherique. L'etude spectrale de la lumiere emise a montre que certaines impuretes jouent un role considerable dans la fluorescence et on a ete amene a penser que l'emission de lumiere comporte au moins deux

  10. Bernoulli numbers and zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Arakawa, Tsuneo; Kaneko, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of ...

  11. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  12. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  13. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Sharonville, OH (United States); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Taylor, J. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Murphy, M. J. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-22

    This report is an updated version of the 2014 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single-compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until December 2016 as well as a number of previously unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This version of the compendium contains cetane values for 496 pure compounds, including 204 hydrocarbons and 292 oxygenates. 176 individual measurements are new to this version of the compendium, all of them collected using ASTM Method D6890, which utilizes an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) a type of constant-volume combustion chamber. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. The text of this document is unchanged from the 2014 version, except for the numbers of compounds in Section 3.1, the Appendices, Table 1. Primary Cetane Number Data Sources and Table 2. Number of Measurements Included in Compendium. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines. It is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant-volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane number has been expanded, and the data have been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  14. Schwinger Model Mass Anomalous Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Keegan, Liam

    2016-06-20

    The mass anomalous dimension for several gauge theories with an infrared fixed point has recently been determined using the mode number of the Dirac operator. In order to better understand the sources of systematic error in this method, we apply it to a simpler model, the massive Schwinger model with two flavours of fermions, where analytical results are available for comparison with the lattice data.

  15. Attempt of absolute analysis with spark source mass spectrometry; Essai d'analyse absolue par spectrometrie de masse a etincelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjardins, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    By means of a graphical method developed in our laboratory, we have studied the linearity of the response of the MS-7 mass spectrometer for impurity determinations over a concentration range of 1 to 1000 ppm (parts per million of atoms). This method consist in transforming optical density measurements into 'true intensities', which are plotted on a logarithm-scale paper against the exposures. A moving transparent ruler graduated at the inverse scale of the exposures allows us to determine directly on the graph, the concentration of impurities in ppm. We have used this method for the determination of sensitivity coefficients in standard samples such as Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zr, and non conducting powders like SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This study shows that, for the samples studied, the sensitivity coefficients are practically independent of the matrix and the concentration. Moreover the results show the possibility of obtaining an absolute analysis by spark source mass spectrometry. (author) [French] Au moyen d'une methode graphique developpee ou laboratoire, nous avons etudie la linearite des determinations d'impuretes au spectrometre de masse, type MS-7, dans un domaine de concentration allont de 1 a 1000 ppm. Cette methode consiste en la transformation des mesures de densite optique en 'intensite vraie'. Ces dernieres mesures sont portees sur un graphique logarithmique et une reglette transparente graduee a l'inverse de l'echelle des expositions nous permet de determiner directement la teneur des impuretes en ppm (partie par million d'atomes). Nous avons utilise cette methode pour la determination des coefficients de sensibilite dans des echantillons etalons tels que Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zr, et des poudres non conductrices genre SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Cette etude a montre que, pour les echantillons etudies, les coefficients de sensibilite sont pratiquement independants de la matrice et de la concentration. De plus, les resultats obtenus montrent la

  16. Composes inter-halogenes sous pression: etude des transformations structurales dans le monobromure d'iode sous forme dense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Alexandre

    La famille des composes halogenes et inter-halogenes representent des solides moleculaires adoptant des phases denses communes avec des solides moleculaires diatomiques comme l'azote et l'hydrogene. Parmi les transformations structurales et electroniques induites sous haute pression et observees dans ces solides, on note, entre autres, la dissociation moleculaire et la metallisation. De plus, l'etude des phases denses de l'iode a permis recemment l'observation d'une structure cristalline possedant une modulation dite incommensurable, c'est-a-dire une modulation possedant une periodicite differente de celle de la structure cristalline, jetant ainsi une lumiere nouvelle sur le processus de dissociation moleculaire dans les solides halogenes. Dans ce memoire, on propose d'etudier les changements structuraux dans monobromure d'iode (IBr), un compose inter-halogene possedant des proprietes structurales semblables a celles de deux composes halogenes, soit l'iode (I 2) et le brome (Br2) sous leur forme solide. Des experiences de diffraction des rayons X de poudres en utilisant un rayonnement synchrotron ont ete realisees a temperature ambiante sur l'IBr en variant la pression jusqu'aux environs de 60 GPa. La nature chimique particuliere du compose IBr a necessite la mise au point de techniques de chargement d'echantillon destinees a preserver l'integrite chimique de la substance utilisee. On rapporte egalement l'observation d'une phase de l'IBr presentant une modulation incommensurable. Les phases observees dans l'IBr permettent d'etablir des paralleles avec les phases denses rapportees dans I2 et Br2 par le biais d'un modele phenomenologique decrivant la sequence structurale des solides halogenes sous forme condensee.

  17. Contribution to the study of the uranium-hydrogen system; Contribution a l'etude du systeme uranium-hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    Previous work on uranium-hydrogen system is reviewed. The U-H{sub 2}-UH{sub n} equilibrium is then investigated at pressures below one atmosphere, i.e. at temperatures lower than 430 deg. C. The hydride obtained at equilibrium is deficient in hydrogen (UH{sub n<3}), the hydrogen deficit increasing as the temperature rises. Thermodynamic functions for the formation of non-stoichiometric hydride and of one hydrogen vacancy are derived from pressure composition isotherms, in U-H phase diagram is proposed. The hydrogenation of U-UC alloys is also examined at pressures below one atmosphere with regard to the equilibrium: (free U + UC) - H{sub 2}-UH{sub n}. The equilibrium conditions are found different from that observed for pure uranium. (author) [French] Une etude bibliographique du systeme uranium-hydrogene est exposee. L'equilibre U-H{sub 2}-UH{sub n} est ensuite etudie sous des pressions inferieures a une atmosphere, soit aux temperatures inferieures a environ 430 degs. C. L'hydrure obtenu a l'equilibre est deficitaire en hydrogene - UH{sub n<3} - et d'autant plus que la temperature s'eleve. Les grandeurs thermodynamiques relatives a la formation et a la saturation de l'hydrure, ainsi qu'a la formation d'une lacune d'hydrogene sont deduites des pressions d'equilibre. Un modele de diagramme de phases U-H est propose. L'hyduration des alliages U-UC est etudiee egalement sous des pressions inferieures a l'atmosphere, au point de vue de l'equilibre (U libre + UC) - H{sub 2}-UH{sub n}. Les conditions d'equilibre sont trouvees differentes de celles observees sur l'uranium pur. (auteur)

  18. Comparative study of thyroid fixation of different iodine compounds; Etude comparative de la fixation thyroidienne de differents composes iodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, R; Coeur, A; Raynfeld, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the thyroid fixation of various iodine compounds in mineral or organic form. The animals (rats) are given therapeutic doses of the derivative orally with the object of saturating the thyroid, and then receive a determined dose of radio-iodine 131 by intra-peritoneal injection; any fixation of this latter is then measured under anaesthetic by means of a scintillation counter. Whatever form of iodine derivative was used whether in ionic (potassium iodide type) or organic form (iodo-tannic syrup) or in the form of elementary iodine (iodinated water), thyroid saturation was always obtained, as shown by practically zero fixation of the 4 {mu}curies of iodine 131 administered by intra-peritoneal injection. (author) [French] Notre travail a pour but l'etude de la fixation thyroidienne de differents composes iodes sous forme minerale ou organique. Les animaux (rats), apres absorption orale de doses therapeutiques de derives destines a saturer leur thyroide recoivent par voie intra-peritoneale une dose determinee de radio-iode {sup 131}I, la fixation eventuelle de ce dernier est ensuite mesuree sous anesthesie en utilisant un compteur a scintillation. Quelle que soit la forme utilisee, c'est-a-dire derive iode sous forme ionique (type iodure de potassium) ou sous forme organique (sirop iodotanique) ou encore sous forme d'iode metalloidique (eau iodee), nous avons obtenu chaque fois une saturation thyroidienne mise en evidence par une fixation pratiquement nulle des 4 {mu}curies de l'iode 131 injectes par voie intraperitoneale. (auteur)

  19. Systematic study of plasma and serum proteins in the pig; Etude systematique des proteines plasmatiques et seriques du porc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F; Nizza, P; Hatchikian, C; Schmidt, J -P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France)

    1966-07-01

    This work has been carried out in the framework of the determination of the physiological constants of a normal pig. The aim was to study the serum and plasma proteins of this animal species, the ultimate object being to discover whether the qualitative and quantitative changes in these proteins can make a significant contribution to the establishment of a biological dosimetry for irradiated pigs. The serum and plasma from a normal pig were analyzed first by various simple electrophoretic methods and then by immuno-electrophoresis. As a result of the particular characteristics of pig serum we have gradually been led to make numerous modifications to the techniques used for human serums or for those of small laboratory animals. Much careful work and patience were required in order to obtain reproducible results. (authors) [French] Ce travail se situe dans le cadre de la determination des constantes physiologiques du porc normal. il s'agissait de proceder a l'etude des proteines seriques et plasmatiques de cette espece animale, le but ulterieur etant de savoir si les modifications qualitatives et quantitatives de ces proteines pourront representer une contribution valable a l'etablissement d'une dosimetrie biologique chez le porc irradie. Le serum et le plasma du porc normal ont ete analyses d'abord par diverses methodes electrophoretiques simples puis par immunoelectrophorese. Les caracteristiques particulieres du serum de porc nous ont conduits a apporter progressivement de nombreuses modifications aux techniques utilisees pour des serums humains ou de petits animaux de laboratoire. L'obtention de resultats reproductible a exige beaucoup de patience et de minutie. (auteurs)

  20. Study of free acidity determinations in aqueous solution; Etude des dosages d'acidite libre en solution aqueuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kergreis, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-04-01

    The object of this work is the study of the principal methods which can be applied to the measurement of 'free' acidity. In the first part, we define the various types of acidity which can exist in aqueous solution; then, after having studied some hydrolysis reactions, we compare the value of the neutralisation pH of the hydrated cation and that of the precipitation of the hydroxide. In the second part we have started to study the determination of the acidity of an aqueous solution. After having rapidly considered the 'total' acidity determination, we deal with the problem of the 'free' acidity titration. We have considered in particular certain methods: extrapolation of the equivalent point, colorimetric titrations with or without a complexing agent, and finally the use of ion-exchange resins with mixed aqueous and solvent solutions. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est l'etude des principales methodes de determination de l'acidite 'libre'. Dans une premiere partie nous avons defini les differentes sortes d'acidites pouvant exister en solution aqueuse, puis apres avoir etudie quelques reactions d'hydrolyse, nous avons compare la valeur de pH de neutralisation du cation hydrate et celle de precipitation de l'hydroxyde. Dans la seconde partie nous avons aborde l'etuce des dosages de l'acidite d'une solution aqueuse. Apres avoir envisage assez rapidement la determination de l'acidite 'totale', nous traitons du probleme du titrage de l'acidite 'libre'. Nous avons porte notre attention sur certaines methodes: extrapolation du point equivalent, titrimetrie colorimetrique avec ou sans complexant, et enfin utilisation des resines echangeuses d'ions en milieu aqueux et solvant mixte.

  1. Study of superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn coils; Etude de bobinages supraconducteurs en Nb{sub 3}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivet, B

    1963-07-01

    Composite superconducting Nb{sub 3}Sn wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm and a length of about 100 m were made, and Hc-Ic diagrams were plotted up to fields of 80 kgauss for short lengths. Two solenoids producing fields of about 20 kgauss were studied. Nb{sub 3}Sn solenoids, as opposed to those of Nb-Zr or Nb-Ti, appear to have a predictable behavior. Solenoids with less insulation produced stronger fields than heavily insulated solenoids. (author) [French] Une etude des fils composites supraconducteurs de Nb{sub 3}Sn a ete entreprise au C.E.N. Saclay, en collaboration avec la Societe S.O.D.E.R.X. Des fils de 0,5 mm de diametre et d'une centaine de metres de longueur ont ete produits de facon experimentale. Des diagrammes Hc-Ic ont pu etre traces, jusqu'en des champs de 80 kG, sur des echantillons de petite longueur. Deux solenoides ont ete etudies produisant les champs de l'ordre de 20 kg. Il semble que, contrairement aux alliages Nb-Zr ou Nb-Ti, les solenoides en Nb{sub 3}Sn aient un comportement previsible d'apres les tests sur des echantillons courts. On montrera d'autre part qu'un bobinage a faible isolement peut produire un champ notablement plus eleve qu'un bobinage isole. Une production plus extensive permettra, dans les semaines a venir, la fabrication de solenoides de plus grosse dimension et produisant des champs plus eleves. (auteur)

  2. Systematic study of plasma and serum proteins in the pig; Etude systematique des proteines plasmatiques et seriques du porc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F.; Nizza, P.; Hatchikian, C.; Schmidt, J.-P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France)

    1966-07-01

    This work has been carried out in the framework of the determination of the physiological constants of a normal pig. The aim was to study the serum and plasma proteins of this animal species, the ultimate object being to discover whether the qualitative and quantitative changes in these proteins can make a significant contribution to the establishment of a biological dosimetry for irradiated pigs. The serum and plasma from a normal pig were analyzed first by various simple electrophoretic methods and then by immuno-electrophoresis. As a result of the particular characteristics of pig serum we have gradually been led to make numerous modifications to the techniques used for human serums or for those of small laboratory animals. Much careful work and patience were required in order to obtain reproducible results. (authors) [French] Ce travail se situe dans le cadre de la determination des constantes physiologiques du porc normal. il s'agissait de proceder a l'etude des proteines seriques et plasmatiques de cette espece animale, le but ulterieur etant de savoir si les modifications qualitatives et quantitatives de ces proteines pourront representer une contribution valable a l'etablissement d'une dosimetrie biologique chez le porc irradie. Le serum et le plasma du porc normal ont ete analyses d'abord par diverses methodes electrophoretiques simples puis par immunoelectrophorese. Les caracteristiques particulieres du serum de porc nous ont conduits a apporter progressivement de nombreuses modifications aux techniques utilisees pour des serums humains ou de petits animaux de laboratoire. L'obtention de resultats reproductible a exige beaucoup de patience et de minutie. (auteurs)

  3. Recent research on the pharmaceutical checking of radioelements (1961); Etudes recentes sur le controle pharmaceutique des radioelements (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Y; Ingrand, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Checking on radioactive preparations for medical use is complicated by difficulties due to the radioactivity, the instability and the methods of using these solutions. In effect it is necessary, in order to draw up a practicable set of rules governing such checks, to know both the method of preparation and the properties of the radioelement, as well as special and often contradictory features of its use. These tests fall into three categories: physical, chemical and biological. Preparations of chromium 51, iron 59 and arsenic 76 have been dealt with in recent studies. In each case special tests were necessary, and these will be described in this paper. The practice of these tests is of twofold interest: firstly they provide a maximum guarantee to the user, and secondly they guide the chemist in his manipulations, immediately and thoroughly. (author) [French] Le controle des preparations radioactives a usage medical est complexe par suite des difficultees dues a la radioactivite, a l'instabilite et aux modalites d'utilisation de ces solutions. En effet, l'etablissement justifie d'un protocole de controle necessite la connaissance aussi bien du mode de preparation, que des proprietes du radioelement et des particularites parfois contradictoires de son emploi. Ces controles sont de trois ordres physiques, chimiques, biologiques. Des etudes recentes ont porte sur des preparations de chrome 51, de fer 59, d'arsenic 76. Dans chaque cas, il est apparu necessaire de pratiquer des controles particuliers qui seront exposes dans la communication. La pratique de ces derniers presente un double interet; d'une part, ils assurent a l'utilisateur un maximum de garantie, d'autre part, ils orientent le chimiste dans ses mises au point, immediatement et de facon approfondie. (auteur)

  4. Study of the stopping power of various filters; Etude du pouvoir d'arret de differents filtres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madelaine, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The first part is devoted to a study of aerosols obtained from the combustion of various smoke-producing compounds. A trial aerosol of which the size distribution is the closest possible to that of atmospheric dusts has been defined. The efficiency of various filters has been determined for successive increments of the dimensions and not for the whole range of its diameter distribution. The variation in the efficiency of the filtering layers as a function of the filtering speed and particle size has been studied for aerosols having particle diameters of over 0.3 {mu}. The second part describes an original method for measuring the efficiency of filters for ultra-fine particles (under 0.1 {mu}) using the fixation properties of radioactive atoms resulting from the decay of thoron. (author) [French] La premiere partie est consacree a l'etude des aerosols obtenus a partir de la combustion de divers types de fumigenes. Un aerosol d'essai, dont la repartition granulometrique se rapproche le plus possible des poussieres atmospheriques a ete defini. L'efficacite de plusieurs filtres a ete determinee pour des tranches successives de dimension et non pour l'aerosol pris dans sa totalite. La variation de l'efficacite des couches filtrantes en fonction de la taille des particules et de la vitesse de filtration a ete examinee pour des aerosols superieurs a 0,3 {mu}. La seconde partie decrit une methode originale permettant de mesurer l'efficacite des filtres pour des particules ultrafines (inferieures a 0,1 {mu}) en utilisant la propriete de fixation des atomes radioactifs des descendants du thoron. (auteur)

  5. Contribution to the study of alpha-alpha interaction; Contribution a l'etude de l'interaction alpha - alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darriulai, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    Two sets of measurements of the {alpha}-{alpha} elastic scattering differential cross section are presented. The first set - angular distributions from 50 up to 120 MeV - shows two new resonances, 6{sup +} and 8{sup +}, at 25 and 57 MeV. Complex phase shifts are extracted from the data and a phenomenological potential is given. A description of the 3 {alpha}-particle 0{sup +} states in C{sup 12} is made with this interaction potential. The second set - excitation curves between 20 and 50 MeV - allows investigation of the Be{sup 8} level structure within this energy range - It identifies the 16.6 and 16.9 MeV states as 2{sup +}, but the rise of inelastic processes at higher energies makes further identification of spins and parities more and more difficult. (author) [French] Deux series de mesures de la section efficace differentielle de diffusion {alpha}-{alpha} sont presentees. La premiere - distributions angulaires entre 50 et 120 MeV - fait apparaitre deux nouvelles resonances, 6{sup +} et 8{sup +}, a 25 et 57 MeV d'excitation. Des dephasages complexes en sont extraits et un potentiel phenomenologique est presente. Une etude des etats 0{sup +} a parentage (3{alpha}) de {sup 12}C est faite a partir de ce potentiel. La seconde - courbes d'excitation s'etendant de 20 a 50 MeV - met en evidence la structure de {sup 8}Be dans cette region. Elle montre que les niveaux a 16,6 et 16,9 MeV sont des 2{sup +} mais l'importance des processus inelastiques rend difficile l'identification des niveaux d'excitation plus elevee. (auteur)

  6. Experiments on neutron-attenuation by ordinary concrete; Etude experimentale de l'attenuation des neutrons dans le beton ordinaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauge, R; Millot, J P; Rastoin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The penetration of fission-neutrons in water and glass mixtures has been investigated in the NAIADE facility. The slopes of the thermal and fast fluxes (the latter measured with a dosimeter) remain similar when the volume proportion of water is greater than 15 per cent. For smaller water-contents the measurements show the evidence of streaming, presumably due to slowing-down neutrons of energy smaller than 300 keV. Since a volume proportion of about 15 per cent of water in glass corresponds to the composition of ordinary concrete, the present work enables to predict the effects of a desiccation of concrete. Moreover, it is seen that there is no interest in increasing the proportion of water in ordinary concrete beyond the usual values (15-20 per cent). (author) [French] La propagation des neutrons de fission a ete etudiee dans les melanges verre-eau au moyen du dispositif NAIADE. La pente du flux thermique et la pente du flux rapide (obtenue au moyen d'un dosimetre) restent voisines lorsque la proportion d'eau dans le melange depasse 15 pour cent en volume. Pour des proportions d'eau inferieures les mesures mettent en evidence un 'streaming' de neutrons en ralentissement d'energie probablement inferieure a 300 keV. La composition des melanges verre-eau aux environs de 15 pour cent d'eau en volume correspondant au beton ordinaire, la presente etude permet de prevoir les effets d'une dessication du beton, et montre, en outre, qu'il n'y a pas interet a essayer d'augmenter la proportion d'eau dans le beton ordinaire au dela des valeurs usuelles (15 a 20 pour cent). (auteur)

  7. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  8. Number-unconstrained quantum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2017-12-01

    Quantum sensing is commonly described as a constrained optimization problem: maximize the information gained about an unknown quantity using a limited number of particles. Important sensors including gravitational wave interferometers and some atomic sensors do not appear to fit this description, because there is no external constraint on particle number. Here, we develop the theory of particle-number-unconstrained quantum sensing, and describe how optimal particle numbers emerge from the competition of particle-environment and particle-particle interactions. We apply the theory to optical probing of an atomic medium modeled as a resonant, saturable absorber, and observe the emergence of well-defined finite optima without external constraints. The results contradict some expectations from number-constrained quantum sensing and show that probing with squeezed beams can give a large sensitivity advantage over classical strategies when each is optimized for particle number.

  9. On gauged Baryon and Lepton numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpoot, S.

    1990-01-01

    The observation that Baryon number and Lepton number are conserved in nature provides strong motivation for associating gauge symmetries to these conserved numbers. This endeavor requires that the gauge group of electroweak interactions be extended from SU(2) L X U(1) Y to SU(2) L X U(1) R X U(1) Lepton where U(1) R couples only to the right-handed quarks and leptons. If it furthur postulated that right-handed currents exist on par with the left-handed ones, then the full electroweak symmetry is SU(2) L X SU(2) R X U(1) Baryon X U(1) Lepton . The SU(2) L X SU(2) R X U(1) Baryon X U(1) Lepton model is described in some detail. The triangle anomalies of the three families of quarks and leptons in the model are cancelled invoking leptoquark matter which is new fermionic matter that carries baryon as well as lepton numbers. In addition to the standard neutral boson (Z degree), the theory predicts two neutral gauge bosons with mass lower bounds of 120 GeV and 210 GeV which makes these particles prospective candidates for production at LEP, the TEVATRON and the SSC

  10. Schmidt number for quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Siendong

    2006-01-01

    To understand how entangled states behave under local quantum operations is an open problem in quantum-information theory. The Jamiolkowski isomorphism provides a natural way to study this problem in terms of quantum states. We introduce the Schmidt number for quantum operations by this duality and clarify how the Schmidt number of a quantum state changes under a local quantum operation. Some characterizations of quantum operations with Schmidt number k are also provided

  11. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemyre, L.; Johnson, C.; Corneil, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, food-borne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, health care and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. (authors)

  12. Random number generation and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William

    2008-01-01

    A previous paper suggested that humans can generate genuinely random numbers. I tested this hypothesis by repeating the experiment with a larger number of highly numerate subjects, asking them to call out a sequence of digits selected from 0 through 9. The resulting sequences were substantially non-random, with an excess of sequential pairs of numbers and a deficit of repeats of the same number, in line with previous literature. However, the previous literature suggests that humans generate random numbers with substantial conscious effort, and distractions which reduce that effort reduce the randomness of the numbers. I reduced my subjects' concentration by asking them to call out in another language, and with alcohol - neither affected the randomness of their responses. This suggests that the ability to generate random numbers is a 'basic' function of the human mind, even if those numbers are not mathematically 'random'. I hypothesise that there is a 'creativity' mechanism, while not truly random, provides novelty as part of the mind's defence against closed programming loops, and that testing for the effects seen here in people more or less familiar with numbers or with spontaneous creativity could identify more features of this process. It is possible that training to perform better at simple random generation tasks could help to increase creativity, through training people to reduce the conscious mind's suppression of the 'spontaneous', creative response to new questions.

  13. Unsolved problems in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Richard K

    1994-01-01

    Unsolved Problems in Number Theory contains discussions of hundreds of open questions, organized into 185 different topics. They represent numerous aspects of number theory and are organized into six categories: prime numbers, divisibility, additive number theory, Diophantine equations, sequences of integers, and miscellaneous. To prevent repetition of earlier efforts or duplication of previously known results, an extensive and up-to-date collection of references follows each problem. In the second edition, not only extensive new material has been added, but corrections and additions have been included throughout the book.

  14. Complex numbers in n dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, Silviu

    2002-01-01

    Two distinct systems of hypercomplex numbers in n dimensions are introduced in this book, for which the multiplication is associative and commutative, and which are rich enough in properties such that exponential and trigonometric forms exist and the concepts of analytic n-complex function, contour integration and residue can be defined. The first type of hypercomplex numbers, called polar hypercomplex numbers, is characterized by the presence in an even number of dimensions greater or equal to 4 of two polar axes, and by the presence in an odd number of dimensions of one polar axis. The other type of hypercomplex numbers exists as a distinct entity only when the number of dimensions n of the space is even, and since the position of a point is specified with the aid of n/2-1 planar angles, these numbers have been called planar hypercomplex numbers. The development of the concept of analytic functions of hypercomplex variables was rendered possible by the existence of an exponential form of the n-complex numbe...

  15. A Research on a Certain Family of Numbers and Polynomials Related to Stirling Numbers, Central Factorial Numbers, and Euler Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many mathematicians have studied different kinds of the Euler, Bernoulli, and Genocchi numbers and polynomials. In this paper, we give another definition of polynomials Ũn(x. We observe an interesting phenomenon of “scattering” of the zeros of the polynomials Ũn(x in complex plane. We find out some identities and properties related to polynomials Ũn(x. Finally, we also derive interesting relations between polynomials Ũn(x, Stirling numbers, central factorial numbers, and Euler numbers.

  16. BKP and projective Hurwitz numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanzon, Sergey M.; Orlov, Aleksandr Yu.

    2017-06-01

    We consider d-fold branched coverings of the projective plane RP^2 and show that the hypergeometric tau function of the BKP hierarchy of Kac and van de Leur is the generating function for weighted sums of the related Hurwitz numbers. In particular, we get the RP^2 analogues of the CP^1 generating functions proposed by Okounkov and by Goulden and Jackson. Other examples are Hurwitz numbers weighted by the Hall-Littlewood and by the Macdonald polynomials. We also consider integrals of tau functions which generate Hurwitz numbers related to base surfaces with arbitrary Euler characteristics sc {e}, in particular projective Hurwitz numbers sc {e}=1.

  17. Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.

    1993-06-01

    Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the toroidal plasma. It is found that the Prandtl number is of order unity both for the ballooning mode turbulence in tokamaks and for the interchange mode turbulence in helical system. The influence on the anomalous transport and fluctuation level is evaluated. Hartmann number and magnetic Prandtl number are also discussed. (author)

  18. Contribution to the micro-calorimetric study of the characteristics of radio-elements and to their qualitative and quantitative analysis; Contribution a l'etude microcalorimetrique des caracteristiques des radio-elements et a leurs analyses qualitative et quantitative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozias, Y [Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule, 30 (France)

    1964-10-01

    equal to that obtained by mass spectrography (destruction of the sample) 1 to 3 per cent, and higher than that obtained by counting techniques (greater than 5 per cent). (author) [French] Le principe de cette etude consiste a enregistrer avec le microcalorimetre E. CALVET le flux d'energie emis par les radioelements en fonction du temps at a partir de cette courbe de determiner soit leurs caracteristiques (periode et energie du rayonnement), soit la composition d'un melange de radioelements. Dans une premiere partie on a adapte les relations theoriques de la radioactivite a l'etude microcalorimetrique. Dans une deuxieme partie on determine experimentalement au microcalorimetre E. CALVET les caracteristiques de divers radioelements, yttrium 90, phosphore 32, soufre 35, iode 131, etc. et leurs melanges. On a etudie plus particulierement l'analyse isotopique du melange de {sup 239}Pu, de {sup 240}Pu et eventuellement de {sup 241}Pu. La methode microcalorimetrique n'a pas la sensibilite des methodes classiques de comptage, sa limite actuelle para etre de l'ordre du micro-watt pour les appareils utilises, mais elle est la plus directe pour les emetteurs de rayonnements facilement absorbables({alpha} et {beta}). Pour les emetteurs {gamma} une partie seulement de l'energie est absorbee par les parois du recipient. La determination de leurs caracteristiques et de leurs masses dans les melanges ne depend ni de la forme, ni de la dilution, ni surtout de l'auto-absorption de la source. Pour des echantillons de forte activite, cette auto-absorption est pour les methodes classiques la source de grosses difficultes entra ant de multiples manipulations: divisions, mise en solution, dilutions qui introduisent autant de causes d'erreur. La methode calorimetrique permet de travailler sur l'echantillon brut. Toutes les mesures ont ete faites avec le microcalorimetre E. CALVET classique; mais pour effectuer une mesure tres precise de' l'energie due au rayonnement {gamma} il faut faire

  19. Study of a capillary evaporator; Etude d`un evaporateur capillaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figus, C; Le Bray, Y; Bories, S; Prat, M [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1997-12-31

    The phenomena that occur during heat and mass transfers by vaporization in porous medium can be described in various ways depending on the length-scale chosen. The most rigorous method is the one that uses the classical fluid mechanics equations to describe the phenomena at each point and in each phase of the domain considered. However, because of the geometrical complexity of the porous domain, this microscopic description is generally unusable. In order to get round this difficulty, the notion of fictive continuum is used to describe the phenomena at a macroscopic scale. In a first step, a numerical model is proposed which is based on the heat and mass transfer equations applied to a representative elementary volume. This approach allows to describe the development of a vapor pocket beneath the flange and to determine the dimensioning sizes of the capillary evaporator. In a second step, a model with a simplified geometry, called numerical network, which represents each pore of a given evaporator structure and which describes the heat and mass transfers at this scale is developed. This second approach confirms the previous results and allows to reach the mechanisms linked with the microstructure heterogeneities (percolation accidents, influence of microscopic heterogeneities..). (J.S.)

  20. Study of a capillary evaporator; Etude d`un evaporateur capillaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figus, C.; Le Bray, Y.; Bories, S.; Prat, M. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena that occur during heat and mass transfers by vaporization in porous medium can be described in various ways depending on the length-scale chosen. The most rigorous method is the one that uses the classical fluid mechanics equations to describe the phenomena at each point and in each phase of the domain considered. However, because of the geometrical complexity of the porous domain, this microscopic description is generally unusable. In order to get round this difficulty, the notion of fictive continuum is used to describe the phenomena at a macroscopic scale. In a first step, a numerical model is proposed which is based on the heat and mass transfer equations applied to a representative elementary volume. This approach allows to describe the development of a vapor pocket beneath the flange and to determine the dimensioning sizes of the capillary evaporator. In a second step, a model with a simplified geometry, called numerical network, which represents each pore of a given evaporator structure and which describes the heat and mass transfers at this scale is developed. This second approach confirms the previous results and allows to reach the mechanisms linked with the microstructure heterogeneities (percolation accidents, influence of microscopic heterogeneities..). (J.S.)