WorldWideScience

Sample records for mass media leads

  1. Cold fusion, mass media and actual science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orefice, A. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The peculiar affair of cold nuclear fusion, a recent and exemplary pattern of today's scientific and public habits, is considered. An overview is proposed on the contemporary approach to science and technology, both of the mass media and research worlds. It shows how mass media with its power of suggestion and ability to raise financial resources can lead many researchers into unpredictable - if not irresponsible behaviour. Yet, an eccess of empiricism may often induce researchers to rely rather on serendipity than on deeper meditation.

  2. The interaction of financial news between mass media and new media: Evidence from news on Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Zuochao; Liu, Lanbiao; Shen, Dehua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate both the contemporaneous and the lead-lag relationships between the mass media news and the new media news of the financial news on the constitute stocks of the CSI 300. The empirical results show that: (1) there exists a strong correlation between these two types of news; (2) the granger causality direction from new media news to mass media news is increasingly obvious, while the reverse direction has a downward trend; (3) new media is playing a increasingly important role in the stock market and exhibits a trend to substitutes the mass media.

  3. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends merely through recurrent messages. The issues frequently conveyed by media industry influences citizens’ interest with regard to community, producing effects on public policy. We must bear in mind that the more persistent in media they are, the more relevant for community this issues will be. The authors of the study put forward a method through which diverse programmes can be analysed. A comparative analysis of mass media and citizens’ social representations and its findings provide information about the influence between them. According to agenda setting theory and many international studies on health policy the authors conclude that mass media institution highly influence the impact of the health policy in health. Moreover, it is important to mention that the impact refers to all the stages of a policy-making: beginning with the problem identification and ending with the evaluation of the implementation process.

  5. Utilising the Mass Media for the Promotion of Religious Activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilising the Mass Media for the Promotion of Religious Activities in Nigeria. ... The media have the ability to communicate religious messages that will enable ... to promote moral attitudes in our people, which will in turn, lead to development in ...

  6. Trust to mass-media: micro- and macrolevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kavyerina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trust is the basic element of civil society.For the last decades Ukrainian social institutions, including mass media, suffering of the crisis of trust. Public informing, socialization, formation of public opinion are the main functions of mass media. Mass media takes part in a lot of social processes and spheres of society. Accuracy of the information, compliance with standards,objectivity and trust of the audience are very important because of the influence of the mass media. The paper deals with various interpretations of trust and theories of N.Luhmann, P. Sztompka and A. Seligmen, thatemphasize the importance of trust during the transformation of society. Also author considers the approaches to defining levels of trust. Attention was focused on two levels – the micro-level which represents personal trust and the macro-level with institutional trust. Author analyzes mass media as a social institution and considers social media as a type of mass media, which has its own unique characteristics such as high level of the informational participation, lack of the law regulation and the organizational structure. These characteristics bring to the foreground figure of the author. So the social media covers both levels of forming a trusting relationship with audience – micro and macrolevel.

  7. Mass Media and Terrorism: Deconstructing the Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Prayudi, Prayudi

    2008-01-01

    Issue of terrorism came to surface in this early twenty first century through a number ofacts violence that have killed hundreds and injured thousands of people. At the same time, theseevents have been dominated the mass media contents. Principally, mass media and issue ofterrorism are inseparable. This paper examines the relationship between mass media and terrorism.It is done through the deconstruction of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism isunderstood as a communicational process. ...

  8. VERBALIZATION OF INFORMATIONAL MODEL «CHINA’S DOMINATION» IN THE U.S. MASS-MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nikolayevna Sorokina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of informational model verbalization titled «China’s Domination», which is formed by the USA mass media. The applicability of this theme is proved by importance of national cognitive activity research (informational model construction through the reference to semiotically ordered set of texts. This study is timely as the mechanisms of informational models representation in mass media are poorly known. Thus, the author offers the term «informational model», considering it as an organized in a special way mass media language which foregrounds mental representations set by authors. The primary goal of this study is a research of informational model foregrounding, viz. informational model verbalization titled «China’s Domination» represented by the U.S. mass-media.  In order to solve this problem the author uses a number of research methods which supplement each other: content-analysis, definitional analysis, method of the contextual analysis, discursive and cognitive analysis of the U.S. mass media, interpretative analysis. The empiric base of this research is the content analysis of five national printing editions of the USA: «The New York Times», «The Washington Post», «The Wall Street Journal», «Time», «Newsweek».Detection of leading psycholinguistic means which form the information model «China’s Domination» in mass-media of the USA becomes the result of the conducted research. Amongst the leading linguistic means the author point out such as:  communicative strategy (polarization, defamation, reliability, allegory, and also the marked lexical units (synonyms, epithets, emotive lexicon, metaphors.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-58

  9. Social education of youth with mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Ryazanova A.; Zakirova A.

    2017-01-01

    This article reveals the influence of mass media; the concepts of education, the distinctive influence and different types, methods and mechanisms of mass media. The object of the study is the social education of young people. The subject is the synthesis of social educator’s work with the youth using the mass media. The aim of the work is to analyze the social educator’s work. Methods: theoretical analysis of literature, work’s synthesis of the specialist.

  10. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  11. Information feedback and mass media effects in cultural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Avella, J. C.; Cosenza, M. G.; Klemm, K.; Eguiluz, V. M.; Miguel, M. San

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of different forms of information feedback associated with mass media on an agent-agent based model of the dynamics of cultural dissemination. In addition to some processes previously considered, we also examine a model of local mass media influence in cultural dynamics. Two mechanisms of information feedback are investigated: (i) direct mass media influence, where local or global mass media act as an additional element in the network of interactions of each agent, and (i...

  12. The Role of Mass Media in the Delivery of Adult Education for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We live in a global world where everyone is interconnected. Investment in the education of adults which will eventually lead to skills development, information and communication technologies, and capital formation at the grassroots level through the mass media cannot be understated. The main thing that separates ...

  13. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  14. Functions and Dysfunctions of Mass Communication Media | Rabiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass communication provides a way of interacting, distantly, with unknown audiences. It is the process of sharing experience in which a huge number of people are involved simultaneously, or almost so. It often occurs through the use of mass media channels and technology. The mass media are all around us. To live even ...

  15. Religious communication and hegemony of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious communication is the complex object of scientific research that involves existential component and the inextricable link with relevant historical trends. Mass culture and the information society put pressure on modern religious communication. Media is actively integrating into the system of religious communication. Hegemony of mass communication is realized through the media and religious communicative system becomes the part of this hegemony. Peculiarities of religious communication processes are conditioned by consciousness of itself impact and the need to integrate into the media system.

  16. Russian and Brazil media systems at the modern stage of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova Viktoria Alexandrovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main characteristics of modern mass communication and media systems in Russia and Brazil. The so-called first-level media - are of elite character, aimed at the ruling classes. They are strengthening their position in the global space and almost are blurring geographical and cultural boundaries. Media audience of the second level is national, they usually focus on the middle and lower segment of the audience, if to divide it by income, education and culture. Informatization and digitalization of media lead to the formation of hybrid media systems, where there is a growing role of new media, in particular, social networks and Twitter. It is important to emphasize that the nature of the social, spiritual and cultural changes caused by informatization, depends not only on information technology, but also on the social conditions of the socioeconomic system where the implemented processes of mass communication are realized. The paper discusses the factors that determine the possibility of functioning of media systems at the present stage: the willingness of the reader to consume information and pay for it by the example of Russia and Brazil, describes the processes of globalization, information technology and digitalization of society and the media. It is presented media preferences and trust in the media in Russia and Brazil in the XXI century, as well as the main indicators of the advertising market in these countries.

  17. Teaching English through Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafani, Vilma

    2009-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal…

  18. Mass Media in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Brian

    The teacher is provided with a range of practical suggestions for teaching about mass media. Chapters are devoted to the press, magazines, television, advertising, and film. The author argues that the teacher must start from the place of the various media in the lives of the children and not from a desire to instruct the children as to what they…

  19. Mass of polaritons in different dielectric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzedolik, I V; Lapayeva, S N

    2011-01-01

    Some models of electromagnetic field interactions with linear and nonlinear dielectric media based on the approach of polarization and electromagnetic wave propagation in media are considered. It is shown that quasi-particles generated in the dielectric medium, called polaritons, have mass whose quantity depends on the efficiency of the electromagnetic field and interaction with the medium. The mass and velocity of polaritons can be controlled by the external electric field. The value of the mass of polaritons was measured in a transparent crystal

  20. [Mass media consumption in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercedo Sanz, A; Redondo Figuero, C; Pelayo Alonso, R; Gómez Del Río, Z; Hernández Herrero, M; Cadenas González, N

    2005-12-01

    To describe mass media use in teenagers (television, mobile phones, computers, Internet and video games) and to analyze its influence on teenagers' health and development. We performed a cross sectional study by means of a survey of 884 teenagers aged between 14 and 18 years old who were in the third and fourth years of high school in six towns in Cantabria (Spain) in June 2003. The statistical analysis consisted of uni- and bivariable descriptive statistics. All the teenagers had a television set at home and 24 % of families had four or more television sets. The presence of distinct mass media in teenagers' rooms was 52.5 % for televisions, 57.8 % for computers, 52 % for the Internet and 38.7 % for games consoles. The most frequently found media in teenagers' bedrooms were radio/cassette players and compact disks with 76.8 % and 67.4 %, respectively. Teenagers watched television for an average of 3 hours per day on weekdays and 3.2 hours per day at weekends. They played games consoles for an average of 0.69 hours per day on weekdays (41 min) and an average of 1.09 hours per day (65 min) at weekends and used the Internet on weekdays for an average of 0.83 hours per day (49 min) and an average of 1.15 hours per day (69 min) at weekends. A total of 87.2 % of the teenagers, especially girls, had a mobile phone (91.6 % of girls versus 82.4 % of boys; p chatting and sending e-mails. Sixty-two percent of teenagers had been to a cybercafé and 40.8 % has visited a pornographic web site, especially boys (33.1 % of boys versus 7.7 % of girls; p video console, especially boys (87 % of boys versus 57.2 % of girls; p video games with shooting, fights, sports and driving, while girls preferred adventure video games. Nearly a quarter (22.2 %) spent money on video games and cybercafés (an average of 27.06 3 a month in boys and 16.81 3 a month in girls) with no significant differences between sexes. Society as a whole and especially health professionals should increase health

  1. Role of Mass Media in Agricultural Productivity in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in Adamawa State. Specifically, it focused on the extent to which mass media have been used to communicate agricultural information dissemination, farmers' media preference, challenges experienced in accessing information through the media and the need to ...

  2. The Dynamic Cross-Correlations between Mass Media News, New Media News, and Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuochao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic cross-correlations between mass media news, new media news, and stock returns for the SSE 50 Index in Chinese stock market by employing the MF-DCCA method. The empirical results show that (1 there exist power-law cross-correlations between two types of news as well as between news and its corresponding SSE 50 Index return; (2 the cross-correlations between mass media news and SSE 50 Index returns show larger multifractality and more complicated structures; (3 mass media news and new media news have both complementary and competitive relationships; (4 with the rolling window analysis, we further find that there is a general increasing trend for the cross-correlations between the two types of news as well as the cross-correlations between news and returns and this trend becomes more persistent over time.

  3. [Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006. Annual cross-sectional study of advertisements in 41 widely difused written mass media (average readers: 10,1 millions). Media admitting alcohol publicity were 29% in the whole. (2,9 millions of readers on average, 29% of total readers). Alcohol advertising constituted the 3,8% of global publicity and the 8,6% of the publicity in media admitting alcohol publicity. In this period only 4% of the media (2,4% of total readers) inserted antidrug campaigns. In brief, three out of 10 total readers and one out of 12 people older than 15 years suffered the impact of tobacco advertising. Young people were included in 33% of alcohol advertisements and 3 out of 6 of youth-oriented magazines permitted a such publicity. Alcohol publicity remains high in written mass media in Spain. By contrast few people received informative antidrug campaigns. Advertising was preferentially directed to young people.

  4. Do mass media campaigns improve physical activity? a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Danaei, Goodarz

    2013-08-02

    Mass media campaigns are frequently used to influence the health behaviors of various populations. There are currently no quantitative meta-analyses of the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We searched six electronic databases from their inception to August 2012 and selected prospective studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We excluded studies that did not have a proper control group or did not report the uncertainties of the effect estimates. Two reviewers independently screened the title/abstracts and full articles. We used random-effects models to pool effect estimates across studies for 3 selected outcomes. Nine prospective cohorts and before-after studies that followed-up 27,601 people over 8 weeks to 3 years met the inclusion criteria. Based on the pooled results from these studies, mass media campaigns had a significant effect on promoting moderate intensity walking (pooled relative risk (RR) from 3 studies=1.53, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.25 to 1.87), but did not help participants achieve sufficient levels of physical activity [4 studies pooled RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.14)]. The apparent effect of media campaigns on reducing sedentary behavior (pooled RR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.30) was lost when a relatively low-quality study with large effects was excluded in a sensitivity analysis. In subgroup analyses, campaigns that promoted physical activity as a 'social norm' seemed to be more effective in reducing sedentary behavior. Mass media campaigns may promote walking but may not reduce sedentary behavior or lead to achieving recommended levels of overall physical activity. Further research is warranted on different campaign types and in low- and middle- income countries.

  5. Caricatural Imagery in the Mass Media. Research Report, Vol. 9, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Lawrence H.

    Caricature and its distortion of reality as developed in the mass press are discussed in relation to the appearance of caricatural elements in other media, such as radio and television. High frequency of appearances of these distorted roles and situations might lead to viewers' perceptual rigidity in typing of characters in general, but might have…

  6. Birth Order, Club Membership and Mass Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeh, Aida K.

    1976-01-01

    Examines the relationship between birth order, club membership and mass media exposure for women college students in Lebanon. Findings show the total membership rate and mass media consumption are higher among last born girls than first born. Birth order differences are explained in terms of the differential socialization of children. (Author)

  7. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  8. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF MASS-MEDIA AND THE CHANGES GENERATED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRAIAN ALEXANDRU NASTASE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to describe the economic implications of mass-media in correlation with the recent socio-economic changes generated by the economic crisis. We take into consideration the dual market on which mass-media evolves: the mass-media products market, and the advertising market, keeping in mind that the behavior of a mass-media institution on one market, can have direct implication on the other market. We analyze the relation between mass-media and the public (audience, the cost for creating mass-media products, the ways in which mass-media reduces costs and the ways of increasing their profits. As mass-media must always adapt to the social changes and to the public, we take our analysis further and we describe how the recent economic changes influenced the mass-media consumption trends and mass-media profits on all the main communication channels: TV, radio, outdoor, internet, newspapers/magazines. This analysis is performed at both a global and a local level, for Romania. In the end we predict how other key changes may affect the economic model approach of the mass-media institutions on short and middle terms.

  9. The Mass Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Laursen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    spaces. We postulate that citizens’ levels of awareness and knowledge of EU matters depend on the EU institutions’ ability to reach European citizens directly or indirectly through a wide range of channels, including the mass media. Citizens’ participation in political debates, however, requires more......(s). The EU institutions also need to communicate frames of interpretation around political issues. In this chapter we analyse the EU institutions’ external communication and specifically their media relations efforts, and suggest improvements in view of remedying some of the legitimacy problems that the EU......This chapter deals with the EU institutions’ external communication and how it relates to the European public sphere(s). We argue that one of the preconditions for establishing a well-functioning European public sphere is that the EU institutions’ decision-making and political debates around...

  10. Mass Media and Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  11. Mass media image of selected instruments of economic develepment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruliš Ladislav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, two instruments of economic development – investment incentives and cluster initiatives – were compared according to the frequency of their occurrence in selected mass media sources in the Czech Republic in the periods 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. Secondly, the mass media image of these two instruments of economic development was evaluated with respect to the frames deductively constructed from literature review. The findings pointed out a higher occurrence of the mass media articles/news dealing with investment incentives. These articles/news were, additionally, more controversial and covered a wider spectrum of frames. Politicians were a relatively more frequent type of actors who created the media message from the articles/news. On the contrary, the mass media articles/news concerning cluster initiatives typically created the frame of positive effects of clusters. The messages were told either by economic experts or by public authority representatives who were closely connected with cluster initiatives. Spatial origin of these messages was rather limited. The definitional vagueness, intangible and uncontroversial nature of cluster initiatives restrained their media appeal.

  12. Health worries: analysis of mass media influence

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez, Marina; Martín Llaguno, Marta; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Hernández-Ruiz, Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    Póster presentado en 18th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society, 21-24 June 2004, Helsinki, Finland. During the last years, mass media have centred on health and illness information more than ever before and stories about health risks fill up newspapers, magazines, TV programmes and internet sites. Recently, much of these informations are focused on emergent health risks, such as genetically modified food. In western countries, mass media appear as one of the main ...

  13. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  14. Teaching English through Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Tafani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal experience. It is a brief description of some practical examples and some tips for novice teachers. Further more, this article tends to deal with some of the key issues of using media in the classroom. Here are included some of the findings of my research work on a post-doctorate Fulbright Program in 2001. The following issues are open for discussion: the importance of Media in general and in education in particular; Media are persuasive and pervasive, newspapers, magazines, radio, television and internet in the classroom, etc.

  15. Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J

    2017-06-02

    Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking

  16. New media technologies and mass media reform processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Boban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and assesses the chances for survival and development of the media in Serbia and ib the region, from the perspective of new information and communication technologies (ICT applied in media business. In the paper theoretical method is used and harmonized with the needs of describing the problems and the observed processes and phenomena, as well as empirical method which is used for collecting and interpreting concrete facts and data on the observed processes and phenomena. The starting point lies in the fact that modern media is definitely, more and more, dependent on new technologies. A part of the new technologies is used in the process of collecting, selecting and editing media content, while the other part of the technology is used in the process of dissemination and propulsion of media content to the mass audience, and also in the feedback function as well. The technology revolution, which we describe, started with mp3, jpg and avi files, and continues with internet broadcasting, social networks, cloud technologies and new digital platforms which are used by today's media for distribution of media content. The particularity of the media in the region lies in the fact that they operating in the societes with delay of political and economic transition, so all the productive resources of society, due to this backlog, are slower adapted to the new conditions of business in the digital era. The consequences that have arisen from such dynamics of development make many media in Serbia and the region quite dysfunctional, especially those who were exposed during this transition to long-standing legal, economic and program crises. That is why most of the existing media in Serbia, especially small ones, are unprepared for modernization and they are not ready for re-modeling in accordance with the new technological circumstances.

  17. The Kenyan indigenous languages and the mass media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vernacular mass media and the Kenyan indigenous languages. ... African indigenous languages had, "against all odds", survived as media of communication ..... regulations should, of course, primarily ensure quality and ethical journalism.

  18. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits.

  19. Innovation Management, Lead Users and Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, M.; Brem, Alexander; Voigt, K.-I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — With the rise of social media, the practice of innovation management is changing rapidly as well. While the opening up of corporate innovation processes can be observed in literature as well as in practice (commonly known as “Open Innovation”), we draw the reader’s attention...... to the strategic potential of social media in innovation management. For this, a conceptual framework will be introduced. Design/methodology/approach — In this chapter, we compare established concepts of knowledge management to potentials of social media in this field, which offer more efficient and promising ways...... social media applications is developed and introduced. Originality/value — The unique conceptual framework derived in this chapter is enriched with a discussion of the challenges resulting from the implementation of Lead-User integration along with social media in corporate innovation management...

  20. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF MASS-MEDIA AND THE CHANGES GENERATED BY THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    TRAIAN ALEXANDRU NASTASE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we intend to describe the economic implications of mass-media in correlation with the recent socio-economic changes generated by the economic crisis. We take into consideration the dual market on which mass-media evolves: the mass-media products market, and the advertising market, keeping in mind that the behavior of a mass-media institution on one market, can have direct implication on the other market. We analyze the relation between mass-media and the public (audience), the c...

  1. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  2. Social percolation and the influence of mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proykova, Ana; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2002-09-01

    In the marketing model of Solomon and Weisbuch, people buy a product only if their neighbours tell them of its quality, and if this quality is higher than their own quality expectations. Now we introduce additional information from the mass media, which is analogous to the ghost field in percolation theory. The mass media shift the percolative phase transition observed in the model, and decrease the time after which the stationary state is reached.

  3. Imaging Teachers: In Fact and in the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Xae Alicia; Rios, Diana I.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of mass media on public images of teachers and students is considered in a dialogue between two educational and mass media researchers. Stereotypes in films, such as teacher-savior and student-failure, and abundant reports about Latino dropout rates and low academic achievement impact teachers and the public, who accept negative images…

  4. Mass Media Orientation and External Communication Strategies: Exploring Organisational Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.; Jacobs, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between mass media orientations of communication professionals in organisations and their external communication strategies. We assume that mass media orientations within an organisation may affect an organisation’s external communication strategies of bridging and

  5. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-09

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass media and the development of pre-reading of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    GALATÍKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis maps mass media, especially television broadcasting and electronic devices with connection to the Internet, in the lives of pre-school children, and investigates the relationship between mass media and development of initial reading skills. The theoretical part analyses existing literature relevant to pre-school child development elementary reading and mass media, while the empirical research makes an independent investigation into this phenomenon in society using questionnaires f...

  7. Mass Media Forces in Our society. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Francis H.; Voelker, Ludmila A.

    The primary purpose of this book is to help the public become more aware and critical in their selection and appraisal of the media. Part 1 consists of a single essay by Theodore Peterson that gives a historical perspective on the development of the mass media in the United States. Part 2 deals with the print and electronic media: magazines, photo…

  8. Mass Society/Culture/Media: An Eclectic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.

    Instructors of courses in mass society, culture, and communication start out facing three types of difficulties: the historical orientation of learning, the parochialism of various disciplines, and negative intellectually elitist attitudes toward mass culture/media. Added to these problems is the fact that many instructors have little or no…

  9. Political Tendencies of Development of Mass Media in Japan in Modern Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Сергеевич Лукин

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author touches upon the features of functioning of mass media in Japan. The author provides analysis of the phenomenon of keiretets and kartelization problems in the system of mass media of Japan. The tendencies of development of Japanese journalism in the context of institutionalization of management processes of mass media are being studied.

  10. Employing the Mass Media for the Promotion of Human Rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The place of the mass media in the promotion of human rights in any given society cannot be overemphasised; the mass media generally, can be used to bring about positive attitudinal change in the individuals. Thus, the paper examines the role of the media in the promotion of human rights in Nigeria; it explores the ...

  11. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    , and predicting the resulting internal body exposure levels and effects that occur under long-term exposure conditions. In this paper, a modeling approach is used to meet these challenges with reference to Danish exposure conditions. Levels of lead content in various media have been coupled with data for lead......Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure......–internalconcentration relationships for the direct linkage between lead in environmental media and resultingconcentrations of lead in blood are then presented....

  12. New Ideas and Fertility Limitation: The Role of Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Axinn, William G.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the mass media as a social change that shapes individual behavior primarily via ideational mechanisms. We construct a theoretical framework drawing on social demography and social psychology to explain how mass media may affect behavior via attitudinal change. Empirical analyses of 1,091 couples in the Chitwan Valley…

  13. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  14. NEW COMMUNICATION MEANS AND THE ECONOMIC CHALLENGES BROUGHT IN MASS-MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BURTIC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogic technology, the old ways of production, distribution, consume and economic fundaments of the mass-media industry are left behind by the new demands and requirements of the creative economy in the digitalization context of the mass-media system. In fact, not only mass-media goes through this transformation, but the whole society. The implications of the digital era are far long to be over and they will affect all mass-media segments: written press, audiovisual, on-line press and social media. The economic aspects, as well as the technical ones, editorial, distribution and final consumers aspects, all will be different from what we experienced in media industry until digitalization. The question is, are we ready to enter into a new economy: the digital economy? Are we ready to enter into a new culture: the digital culture? We entered in the smart world, but do we understand what is happening? The editorial teams that experience a fundamental change of thinking, will be able to overcome this times challenges? These are some of the questions that bothered us along this research. We tried to block in the logic of the system with the new varieties and variables determined by the digital era in order to understand it. We tried to discover the elements whereby mass-media industry and economy can profit more of the digitalization advantages. We tried to find economic solutions for the negative consequences produced in the process of media industry digitalization to be attenuated.

  15. An Appraisal of Mass Media Role in Consolidating Democracy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore critically assessed the performance of Nigerian mass media in consolidating democracy. The study is of the view that the mass contributed immensely to the return of democracy in Nigeria. This the media did through their critical criticism of the military juntas, mobilization of the citizens to participate in ...

  16. Mass media influence on students' professional illusion formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov V.A.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this article presents mass media activities as a possible source of professional socialization, adequateness of social process informative display in the sphere of young people professional identity. It describes pattern distortion of occupational structure, presents the problem of mass media inadequate influence on students’ understanding about the choice and perspectives of their profession. The main factors which help to create student’s understanding about their professional future are examined.

  17. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  18. The role of digital and social media within mass media anti-smoking campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Lloyd; James Mckendrick; Ailsa Rutter

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation The evidence for mass media to raise awareness about the harm of smoking and benefits of quitting remains strong. However, pressures on budgets means TV is not always seen as an affordable option, while the emergence of digital media presents an attractive option to funders as a way of saving costs while maintaining responses. Digital and social media has provided us with learnings about the role of “push” (broadcast) and “pull” (direct responses...

  19. The Mass Media of Entertainment and Human Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, Roderic; Steele, Gary

    Urgently needed for human survival is a means of influencing large numbers of people to put into rapid action measures which could neutralize such menances as pollution, overpopulation, and violence. Though the cumulative effect of the mass media is not fully established, media entertainment may be the most influential institution in our society.…

  20. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Guía básica

    OpenAIRE

    Biblioteca de la Universidad de Málaga

    2016-01-01

    Communication & Mass Media Complete (CMMC) es una de las bases de datos mas completa en lo que a ciencias sociales y humanidades se refiere, dando cobertura a más de 850 títulos, la gran mayoría a texto completo. Surge de la fusión de la base de datos CommSearch y Mass Media Articles Index.

  1. Building brands without mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimsthaler, E; Aaker, D A

    1997-01-01

    Costs, market fragmentation, and new media channels that let customers bypass advertisements seem to be in league against the old ways of marketing. Relying on mass media campaigns to build strong brands may be a thing of the past. Several companies in Europe, making a virtue of necessity, have come up with alternative brand-building approaches and are blazing a trail in the post-mass-media age. In England, Nestlé's Buitoni brand grew through programs that taught the English how to cook Italian food. The Body Shop garnered loyalty with its support of environmental and social causes. Cadbury funded a theme park tied to its history in the chocolate business. Häagen-Dazs opened posh ice-cream parlors and got itself featured by name on the menus of fine restaurants. Hugo Boss and Swatch backed athletic or cultural events that became associated with their brands. The various campaigns shared characteristics that could serve as guidelines for any company hoping to build a successful brand: senior managers were closely involved with brand-building efforts; the companies recognized the importance of clarifying their core brand identity; and they made sure that all their efforts to gain visibility were tied to that core identity. Studying the methods of companies outside one's own industry and country can be instructive for managers. Pilot testing and the use of a single and continuous measure of brand equity also help managers get the most out of novel approaches in their ever more competitive world.

  2. Interaction with Mass Media: The Importance of Rhythm and Tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Stresses that understanding the impact of interaction with mass media requires conceptualizing media as an institutionalized social form. A critical feature of this process is the grammatical character of media interaction in the form of rhythm and tempo, because these rhythms and tempos become established in everyday routine. (SKC)

  3. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  4. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  5. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  6. Mass media interventions for reducing mental health-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Lassman, Francesca; Barley, Elizabeth; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Williams, Paul; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Slade, Mike; Rüsch, Nicolas; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-07-23

    Mental health-related stigma is widespread and has major adverse effects on the lives of people with mental health problems. Its two major components are discrimination (being treated unfairly) and prejudice (stigmatising attitudes). Anti-stigma initiatives often include mass media interventions, and such interventions can be expensive. It is important to know if mass media interventions are effective. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on reducing stigma (discrimination and prejudice) related to mental ill health compared to inactive controls, and to make comparisons of effectiveness based on the nature of the intervention (e.g. number of mass media components), the content of the intervention (e.g. type of primary message), and the type of media (e.g. print, internet). We searched eleven databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2011); MEDLINE (OvidSP),1966 to 15 August 2011; EMBASE (OvidSP),1947 to 15 August 2011; PsycINFO (OvidSP), 1806 to 15 August 2011; CINAHL (EBSCOhost) 1981 to 16 August 2011; ERIC (CSA), 1966 to 16 August 2011; Social Science Citation Index (ISI), 1956 to 16 August 2011; OpenSIGLE (http://www.opengrey.eu/), 1980 to 18 August 2012; Worldcat Dissertations and Theses (OCLC), 1978 to 18 August 2011; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/mrct_about.asp), 1973 to 18 August 2011; and Ichushi (OCLC), 1903 to 11 November 2011. We checked references from articles and reviews, and citations from included studies. We also searched conference abstracts and websites, and contacted researchers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or interrupted time series studies of mass media interventions compared to inactive controls in members of the general public or any of its constituent groups (excluding studies in which all participants were people with mental health problems), with mental health as a subject of the intervention and

  7. An Appraisal of Mass Media Role in Consolidating Democracy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    The Nigerian media has been playing an active role in instituting democratic structures since the ... mass media eventually yielded positive result when on the 29th of May 1999 the ... presence of democratic or special bias in the media may have profound effect. Public ..... Issues in the 2011 general elections in Nigeria.

  8. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  9. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Strzeszynski, Lukasz; Topor-Madry, Roman

    2017-11-21

    Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults. The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group search strategy was combined with additional searches for any studies that referred to tobacco/smoking cessation, mass media and adults. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a number of electronic databases. The last search was carried out in November 2016. Controlled trials allocating communities, regions or states to intervention or control conditions; interrupted time series.Adults, 25 years or older, who regularly smoke cigarettes. Studies which cover all adults as defined in studies were included.Mass media are defined here as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people, and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact. The purpose of the mass media campaign must be primarily to encourage smokers to quit. They could be carried out alone or in conjunction with tobacco control programmes.The primary outcome was change in smoking behaviour. This could be reported as changes in prevalence, changes in cigarette consumption, quit rates, or odds of being a smoker. Two authors independently assessed all studies for inclusion criteria and for study quality (MB, LS, RTM). One author (MB) extracted data, and a second author (LS) checked them.Results were not pooled due to heterogeneity of the included studies and are presented narratively and in table form. Eleven campaigns met the inclusion

  10. Mass Media and Cultural Memory: Idealization of Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Siljanovska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical approach in defining the means for mass communication expressed in functionalist theory, especially in John Riley’s model, determines mass media as a social subsystem which is functionally connected with other systems in society that arises from their mutual conditionality and their causative and consequential connection with politics, economy, education, socialization and culture. The functions of articulating opinion by themselves problematize the creation of creative-thinking public because the imposition of topics, representation of individuals, values and norms of a culture, a space, a time is mediated by the ideological and functional mechanism of an organized structuring and transfer of messages simultaneously to as big an audience as possible. The vastness of the audience simply cannot by itself be understood as democratization of the culture in its broadest sense or simply because it is not a high, elite culture intended solely for a certain number of users.  It is that exact media reality, which almost always and exclusively is created through the selection of facts and values in relation to the audience and the factor of time, which simultaneously problematizes individual and collective memory. In the era of postmodernism and globalization of societies, media shaped content, in different mass media, especially on TV and the Internet, stimulate cultural development and pluralism of ideas in intercultural communication. However at the same time the setting of the stage for a media product, imposed by market logic of supply and demand erases the borders of difference, restructures the modalities of cultural identifiers and relativizes the dimensions of cultural identity through the unification of values transformed in surpassed or modern collective memories and concepts, such as – Balkanization, Americanization, Europeanization, civil society.

  11. Does Health Information in Mass Media Help or Hurt Patients? Investigation of Potential Negative Influence of Mass Media Health Information on Patients' Beliefs and Medication Regimen Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Heewon; Huh, Jisu

    2017-03-01

    As an important public health issue, patient medication non-adherence has drawn much attention, but research on the impact of mass media as an information source on patient medication adherence has been scant. Given that mass media often provide confusing and contradicting information regarding health/medical issues, this study examined the potential negative influence of exposure to health information in mass media on patients' beliefs about their illnesses and medications, and medication adherence, in comparison with the effects of exposure to another primary medication information source, physicians. Survey data obtained from patients on blood thinner regimens revealed that the frequency of exposure to health information in mass media was negatively related to accuracy of patients' beliefs about their medication benefits and patient medication adherence. On the other hand, frequency of visits with physicians was positively associated with patients' beliefs about their medication benefits but had no significant relation to medication regimen adherence. The implications of the study findings are discussed, and methodological limitations and suggestion for future research are presented.

  12. Mass Media Influences on Public Conceptions of Social Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and social problems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of social problems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…

  13. The Roles of Mass Media in Disseminating Agricultural Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study further shows that access to mass media on agricultural information is through radio and television, and most of them indicated that the media sources are conventional, accessible and preferred to listen to the agricultural progammes in the night time (8pm -11.59pm).The respondents identified purchasing and ...

  14. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  15. Mass Media as Instruments for Political and Social Control in China: Media Role in Chinese Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi

    2003-01-01

    Under the influence of Soviet media theory, Chinese media have been held under the control of the Communist Party of China ever since the Party was established in 1921. However, this practice of control was subject to change as a result of rapid economic development and many social changes brought about by economic reform after 1978. This thesis explores the current situation of media control in China. Although the mass media in China began to enjoy more autonomy and diversity after the natio...

  16. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  18. A short analysis of quality and performance in the radio segment of Romanian mass-media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burtic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available More than one hundred years ago, once the radio appeared, mass media started to be more pronounced. Mass-media market diversified its offer, and the quality and creativity of economical agents determined a reassert on the competition and performance scale. For our research in mass media field, we distinguish two vital aspects of economic quality and performance: audience and financial results. In this section we will try to follow the evolution of the main players from the Romanian audio-visual market on the radio segment, taking into account these two variables: audience and financial results. Quality and performance in mass-media are two elements desired on one side by massmedia producers: the owners and employees from this field, and on the other side, by mass-media customers: audience and publicity buyers. We analyse the aspects of quality and performance in Romanian media industry in o period of rapid change. The changes are on multiple levels, and the most accentuated regards the consumer’s behaviour, market environment, technological changes and legal regulations. The changes in the consumer behaviour are determined by their perceptiveness towards the digital world. Quality and performance in mass-media are two desired elements, on one side by the mass-media producers: owners and employees in the field, and on the other side by massmedia customers: audience and publicity buyers.

  19. Deference, Denial, and Beyond: A Repertoire Approach to Mass Media and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymes, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines two general research approaches, within the education world, to these mass-mediated formations: "Deference" and "Denial." Researchers who recognize the social practices that give local meaning to mass media formations and ways of speaking do not attempt to recontextualize youth media in their own social…

  20. The mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Brown, Jane D; Kenneavy, Kristin

    2006-03-01

    This study compared influences from the mass media (television, music, movies, magazines) on adolescents' sexual intentions and behaviors to other socialization contexts, including family, religion, school, and peers. A sample of 1011 Black and White adolescents from 14 middle schools in the Southeastern United States completed linked mail surveys about their media use and in-home Audio-CASI interviews about their sexual intentions and behaviors. Analysis of the sexual content in 264 media vehicles used by respondents was also conducted. Exposure to sexual content across media, and perceived support from the media for teen sexual behavior, were the main media influence measures. Media explained 13% of the variance in intentions to initiate sexual intercourse in the near future, and 8-10% of the variance in light and heavy sexual behaviors, which was comparable to other contexts. Media influences also demonstrated significant associations with intentions and behaviors after all other factors were considered. All contextual factors, including media, explained 54% of the variance in sexual intentions and 21-33% of the variance in sexual behaviors. Adolescents who are exposed to more sexual content in the media, and who perceive greater support from the media for teen sexual behavior, report greater intentions to engage in sexual intercourse and more sexual activity. Mass media are an important context for adolescents' sexual socialization, and media influences should be considered in research and interventions with early adolescents to reduce sexual activity.

  1. [Effect of mass communication media in food purchasing at the family level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya de Sifontes, M Z; Dehollain, P L

    1986-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mass media advertisement of food products (TV, radio and the press), particularly in pre-school and school-age children, as well as the concomitant impact these age groups have on the family food buying patterns. To test the hypothesis that the impact of mass media advertising on foods varied in the different socioeconomic levels of a community, a stratified sample of all children below 13 years of age, who attended the Francisco Fajardo school in the central coast of Venezuela, was drawn. Mass media contact, food and nutrition knowledge and other socioeconomic characteristics were related to the family's food-buying patterns. More specifically, the age, working status and educational level of the mother in regard to beliefs concerning the nutritional value of advertized food products, were related. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and applied to the housewife or whoever performed this role within the family. Findings revealed that families of low socioeconomic status are prone to be most influenced by mass media food product advertising. This is reflected not only in food purchasing practices but also in food consumption patterns at the family level. Chocolate drinks, cereals, jello, sausages, and ice cream are the most popular products among pre-school and school-aged children, without social class distinction. Furthermore, results revealed that the degree of exposure to mass communication media--television, radio and newspapers--is a determining factor in children's food preferences at all socioeconomic levels, and that television is the media exerting the greatest influence.

  2. INTRODUCTION: Theoretical Models as Mass Media Practice: Perspectives from the West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line

    2007-01-01

    What is journalism? How does it exist and why? How does journalism define itself and in what ways can we make use of looking theoretically at the practice of it? These were the central themes of our workshop; Theoretical Models as Mass Media Practice held at the ‘Minding the Gap’ conference...... an exceptional framework for understanding the workings of mass media while helping the press reflect over these workings too. In a time of change for the journalistic profession, when media convergence is growing; the media is marked by deregulation and fewer journalists are being asked to do more...... at Reuters Institute in May 2007, from which this collection of papers has been selected. As with the other workshops during the conference, the majority of our panellists were themselves once media practitioners. It is my opinion that this background and inside knowledge of the field in itself can provide...

  3. Mass Media and Re-Branding Nigeria Project: A Historical Evaluation of a Failed Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelechi Johnmary Ani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass media exercise extra-ordinary influence on the state and citizenry of every country and the ability of media to facilitate man’s behavioural change through its agenda- setting role makes them central in the re-branding process. The implication became that those politicians who champion the re-branding process tried to win the citizenry’s legitimacy through the media. This paper shows that the major challenges of the re-branding project include the inability of the Nigerian political leadership to re-brand themselves, corruption in every sphere of our national life, national insecurity, advance fee fraud, collapse of the education sector, poverty. It revealed that peace is a multi-dimensional term, which creates new environment for progressive nation building process. The rebranding project finally failed when the protagonist minister went to contest for senatorial election and his successor refused to step into her re-branding project shoes. This work called for the rise of a new government and media that would engage in ethical politics through sound leaders, priming, peace building, ethical education, etc as the roadmap to sustainable peace, security and national re-branding. The paper concluded by showing that it is only a national re-branding that is championed by the masses which can lead the citizenry to the desired goals of being a real Giant of Africa.

  4. Five Strategic Imperatives for Interdisciplinary Study in Mass Communications/Media Studies in the U.S. and U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrausch, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Interdisciplinary study can allow students to share ideas with scholars in allied fields and broaden their knowledge of global issues. Mass communication/media studies programs in the U.S. and U.K. can serve as models to lead students into successful learning through interdisciplinary study. This paper outlines five strategic imperatives for the…

  5. Mass Media and Religious Culture of the Audiences; Suggesting a Useful Approach to Media Productions for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Bahonar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The religious program of mass media exclusively produced for children have had a significant growth in recent years. The artistic expression of stories related to the life of the great prophets and to the history of Islam as well as taking advantage of theatrical literature in religious occasions can herald successes in this neglected field. But, what is questionable in national religious policies in that why who are involved in the religious education of children whether in traditional media (family, mosques, religious communities, etc or in modern media (textbooks, press, radio and television do not follow an integrated and coherent policy based on a proved theoretical view of religious communications. In fact, this question results from the same old opposition between audience-oriented and media-oriented approaches in communications as well as the opposition between cognitivism and other approaches in psychology. The findings of the field of study conducted by the author along with psychological achievements of cognitivism in human communications and cultural audience-oriented approaches, especially reception theory in mass communications can solve some existing difficulties in the formulation of religious messages. Drawing upon the above mentioned theoretical schools, this article tries to introduce a useful approach to producing religious programs for children and describes the main tasks of mass media in this field accordingly.

  6. Transport Visualization for Studying Mass Transfer and Solute Transport in Permeable Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Haggerty

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and predicting mass transfer coupled with solute transport in permeable media is central to several energy-related programs at the US Department of Energy (e.g., CO 2 sequestration, nuclear waste disposal, hydrocarbon extraction, and groundwater remediation). Mass transfer is the set of processes that control movement of a chemical between mobile (advection-dominated) domains and immobile (diffusion- or sorption-dominated) domains within a permeable medium. Consequences of mass transfer on solute transport are numerous and may include (1) increased sequestration time within geologic formations; (2) reduction in average solute transport velocity by as much as several orders of magnitude; (3) long ''tails'' in concentration histories during removal of a solute from a permeable medium; (4) poor predictions of solute behavior over long time scales; and (5) changes in reaction rates due to mass transfer influences on pore-scale mixing of solutes. Our work produced four principle contributions: (1) the first comprehensive visualization of solute transport and mass transfer in heterogeneous porous media; (2) the beginnings of a theoretical framework that encompasses both macrodispersion and mass transfer within a single set of equations; (3) experimental and analytical tools necessary for understanding mixing and aqueous reaction in heterogeneous, granular porous media; (4) a clear experimental demonstration that reactive transport is often not accurately described by a simple coupling of the convection-dispersion equation with chemical reaction equations. The work shows that solute transport in heterogeneous media can be divided into 3 regimes--macrodispersion, advective mass transfer, and diffusive mass transfer--and that these regimes can be predicted quantitatively in binary media. We successfully predicted mass transfer in each of these regimes and verified the prediction by completing quantitative visualization experiments in each of the regimes, the

  7. Teachers Must Not Pass along Popular "Myths" Regarding the Supposed Omnipotence of the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    High school teachers must not use that time devoted to the study of the mass media to "beat up" on the press or to "frighten" students with stories which exaggerate the power of the mass media industries. At the same time the potential enormous impact of the contemporary mass media must not be ignored. This means that teachers must not overstate…

  8. Mass-polariton theory of light in dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Tulkki, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    We have recently shown that the electromagnetic pulse in a medium is made of mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticles, which are quantized coupled states of the field and an atomic mass density wave (MDW) [M. Partanen et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 063850 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.063850]. In this work, we generalize the MP theory of light for dispersive media assuming that absorption and scattering losses are very small. Following our previous work, we present two different approaches to the coupled state of light: (1) the MP quasiparticle theory, which is derived by only using the fundamental conservation laws and the Lorentz transformation; (2) the classical optoelastic continuum dynamics (OCD), which is a generalization of the electrodynamics of continuous media to include the dynamics of the medium under the influence of optical forces. We show that the total momentum and the transferred mass of the light pulse can be determined in a straightforward way if we know the field energy of the pulse and the dispersion relation of the medium. In analogy to the nondispersive case, we also find unambiguous correspondence between the MP and OCD theories. For the coupled MP state of a single photon and the medium, we obtain the total MP momentum pMP=npℏ ω /c , where np is the phase refractive index. The field's share of the MP momentum is equal to pfield=ℏ ω /(ngc ) , where ng is the group refractive index and the share of the MDW is equal to pMDW=pMP-pfield . Thus, as in a nondispersive medium, the total momentum of the MP is equal to the Minkowski momentum and the field's share of the momentum is equal to the Abraham momentum. We also show that the correspondence between the MP and OCD models and the conservation of momentum at interfaces gives an unambiguous formula for the optical force. The dynamics of the light pulse and the related MDW lead to nonequilibrium of the medium and to relaxation of the atomic density by sound waves in the same way as for nondispersive media

  9. Mass Shootings: The Role of the Media in Promoting Generalized Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, James N; Ivy, Jonathan W

    2017-03-01

    Mass shootings are a particular problem in the United States, with one mass shooting occurring approximately every 12.5 days. Recently a "contagion" effect has been suggested wherein the occurrence of one mass shooting increases the likelihood of another mass shooting occurring in the near future. Although contagion is a convenient metaphor used to describe the temporal spread of a behavior, it does not explain how the behavior spreads. Generalized imitation is proposed as a better model to explain how one person's behavior can influence another person to engage in similar behavior. Here we provide an overview of generalized imitation and discuss how the way in which the media report a mass shooting can increase the likelihood of another shooting event. Also, we propose media reporting guidelines to minimize imitation and further decrease the likelihood of a mass shooting.

  10. Fashion alienation: older adults and the mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, S B; Chandler, J L

    1984-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire including questions related to fashion alienation, frequency of use of mass media for fashion information, and demographics was completed by 209 "50-plus" aged consumers in Northern California. Fashion alienation was measured using ten separate statements related to 1) degree of identification with fashion symbols in the media and 2) feelings of social and economic estrangement from fashion. Two of the statements produced significant regression models. In both statements, age was positively related to fashion alienation, and there was an inverse relationship between frequency of use of media for fashion information and fashion alienation. The data provide implications for a conceptual distinction between information and meaning processing with regard to fashion.

  11. Overview topic paper on mass media energy conservation communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertinsky, P; Vertinsky, I

    1979-02-01

    The utilization of information diffusion strategies to increase energy conservation knowledge and practices among the general population in Canada is discussed in terms of 5 media functions: information dissemination, remedial behavior modification, lifestyle decisions, initiating conservation action, and crisis management. Each of these functions is critically addressed in terms of media mix, message content and form, timing and intensity, exposure, and specific target populations. The diffusion strategies are then organized into a matrix of policy options to enable the appropriate one to be selected. Four major categories of energy conservation information considered are the nature of the energy problem, methods of conservation, results of conservation, and the individual consumer decision-making process. Heavy television exposure suggests this medium has enormous potential for informing Canadians on conservation issues. Print seems to be the main source of detailed, specialized, and sophisticated kinds of information. However, despite wide media availability, large numbers of the population consistently escape contact with widely reported information. Behavioral modification to change undesirable energy habits is examined from the perspectives of initial change and cultural/social change required to sustain new lifestyles. The use of mass media during crisis situations may be of essential importance for implementation of future energy policies. Information dissemination and responses to the mass media do not appear to have the same patterns during crisis and non-crisis situations. 279 refs.

  12. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  13. The power of mass media in the German civil society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia‑Georgiana Zalupca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass media is playing a significant role in influencing people’s mind and determining the vote’s preference of each single individual. Nowadays, mass media has become an essential part in setting up the public’s agenda. We are living in a social media era that is being governed by Facebook and Twitter. Facebook had played a key role in Germany’s society in the last year, since September 2015, by helping to increase public awareness or to collect opinions and information, and also to influence the attitude of the people towards electing the Eurosceptic political party, Alternative for Germany (AfD. The results of the regional elections in Germany from March 2016 had been strongly influenced by the party’s intense activities on Facebook. It may be said that the electoral campaign of AfD had completely taken place on Facebook, a social media channel where people and the party itself dare to speak up their mind without being afraid that their opinion could be censorship. This article is about to describe the role that the social media channel, Facebook, had had in choosing AfD as main winner of the German regional elections.

  14. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  15. The Information Aspect of Extremism and Terrorism and the Destructive Trends in the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Nekrasova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of destructive trends in modern Russian mass media as well as to the information component in the activities of extremist and terrorist organizations. The destructive trends in the mass media manifest themselves in the escalation of animosity, aggression, creation of the cult of violence and xenophobia moods. Terrorist organizations use the mass media for their own purposes: they create the atmosphere of fear and tension in society, recruit new followers, mainly among the youth, which is a serious problem. It is important to use the positive potential of the mass media to counteract extremism and terrorism.

  16. SPEECH TACTICS IN MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kaptiurova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic speech tactics used in mass media discourse. It has been stated that such tactics as contact establishment and speech interaction termination, yielding up initiative or its preserving are compulsory for the communicative situation of a talk show. Language personalities of television talk shows anchors and linguistic ways of the interview organisation are stressed. The material is amply illustrated with relevant examples.

  17. Mass Media Perception of the European Union in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the mass media perception of the European Union (EU in Kazakhstan through the content analysis of major mass media outlets. This paper examines news reports and periodical articles from four major national Kazakh newspapers: “Yegemen Kazakhstan”, “Kazakhstanskaya Pravda”, “Zhas Alash” and “Vremya” at three measurement points. The first measurement point covers early 1990s when Kazakhstan became an independent state and started to build its foreign relations. The second measurement point covers years before and after introduction of the EU Strategy for Central Asia, namely years between 2006 and 2008. The third measurement point covers last three years (2011-2013 associated with implementation with the EU Strategy and assessing its results. The research suggests that the mass media generally positively perceives the EU, as most publications emphasize the positive role played by the EU in the region and Kazakhstan. Additionally, the initiation of the EU strategy for Central Asia led to wider coverage and therefore wider public recognition of the EU in Kazakhstan. However, discourse analysis of publications authored by the EU and Kazakhstanian elites indicates substantial variation in depiction of the European Union and its engagement in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in particular.

  18. Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia’s Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Hara Blythe J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global obesity prevalence is increasing and population health programs are required to support changes to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Such interventions benefit from mass-communications to promote their use. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service ® (GHS utilised mass-reach media advertising to recruit participants to an Australian state-wide program. Methods A stand alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge and behavioural variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544; August -September 2010, during (n = 1,500; February - March 2011 and after the advertising period (n = 1,500; June-July 2011. GHS usage data (n = 6,375 was collated during July 2010 – June 2011. Results The results showed that television-lead mass-media significantly increased unprompted awareness (0% to 31.8%, p  Conclusions GHS mass-communications campaigns are effective at increasing awareness and usage of the GHS, especially among hard-to-reach population groups. Television advertising provides universal reach, but should be supplemented by health professional referrals and targeted mail-out information to recruit participants to the intensive GHS coaching program.

  19. Mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy; Lloyd, Gareth P; Viswanath, K; Smith, Tenbroeck; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Vernon, Sally W; Turner, Gina; Hesse, Bradford W; Crammer, Corinne; von Wagner, Christian; Backinger, Cathy L

    2009-01-01

    People often seek and receive cancer information from mass media (including television, radio, print media, and the Internet), and marketing strategies often inform cancer information needs assessment, message development, and channel selection. In this article, we present the discussion of a 2-hour working group convened for a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting in San Diego, CA. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators discussed the current state of the science for mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention. We discussed current research, new research areas, methodologies and theories needed to move the field forward, and critical areas and disciplines for future research.

  20. Diffusion of Mass Media Messages among Brazilian Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ivo A.; Fett, John H.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to discover the nature of the flow of messages about recommended agricultural practices first introduced through the mass media in a developing country, and to explore the role opinion leaders plan in the process. (GW)

  1. Multi-criteria media mix decision model for advertising multiple product with segment specific and mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Aggarwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicious media planning decisions are crucial for successful advertising of products. Media planners extensively use mathematical models supplemented with market research and expert opinion to devise the media plans. Media planning models discussed in the literature largely focus on single products with limited studies related to the multi-product media planning. In this paper we propose a media planning model to allocate limited advertising budget among multiple products advertised in a segmented market and determine the number of advertisements to be given in different media. The proposed model is formulated considering both segment specific and mass media vehicles to maximize the total advertising reach for each product. The model also incorporates the cross product effect of advertising of one product on the other. The proposed formulation is a multi-objective linear integer programming model and interactive linear integer goal programming is discussed to solve the model. A real life case study is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed model.

  2. American Mass Media and the Myth of Libertarianism: Toward an "Elite Power Group" Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan-Majid, Roya; Wolf, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Presents evidence of the demise of Libertarianism in the U.S. mass media system and proposes an "elite power group" model as an alternative explanation of the working of the mass media in the United States. (MG)

  3. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-10-15

    Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure, and predicting the resulting internal body exposure levels and effects that occur under long-term exposure conditions. In this paper, a modeling approach is used to meet these challenges with reference to Danish exposure conditions. Levels of lead content in various media have been coupled with data for lead intake and absorption in the human body, for both children and adults. An age-dependent biokinetic model allows then for determination of the blood lead levels resulting from chronic exposure. The study shows that the actual intake of lead is up to 27% of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for children and around 8% for adults. It is confirmed that the critical route of exposure is via ingestion, accounting for 99% of total lead intake, while inhalation contributes only to 1% of total lead intake. The resulting lead levels in the blood after 2 years of exposure to actual contamination conditions have been estimated as up to 2.2μg/dl in children and almost 1μg/dl in adults. Impacts from lead can occur even at such levels. The role of historical and present sources to lead in the environment is discussed, and, for specific child and adult exposure scenarios, external-internal concentration relationships for the direct linkage between lead in environmental media and resulting concentrations of lead in blood are then presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interpersonal versus Mass Media Communication: A False Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; Rogers, Everett M.

    1988-01-01

    Challenges the intellectual separation of interpersonal and mass media communication, arguing that this division rests primarily on grounds of historical convenience and university politics. Discusses the consequences of this dichotomy and suggests ways of encouraging intellectual exchange between the two subdisciplines. (MM)

  5. The nuclear waste issue in Swedish mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, P.

    1991-04-01

    This is an investigation of the representation given in the Swedish mass media of questions concerning the nuclear waste. The investigation covers the period from 1979 to 1989 of 8 newspapers of different political colours and the Swedish radio and television. (KAE)

  6. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  7. Associations between Chinese/Asian versus Western mass media influences and body image disturbances of young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Videos To Teach Mass Media and Society from a Critical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna Lee

    2000-01-01

    Explores using videos to teach mass media and society from a critical sociological perspective. Discusses the content of the course from focusing on analysis of corporate capitalism and media producers to analyzing popular media texts on gender, race, the working class, and sexuality. Addresses the evaluation of the course. (CMK)

  9. High-Q micromechanical resonators for mass sensing in dissipative media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappura, Kirsi; Pekko, Panu; Seppä, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Single crystal silicon-based micromechanical resonators are developed for mass sensing in dissipative media. The design aspects and preliminary characterization of the resonators are presented. For the suggested designs, quality factors of about 20 000 are typically measured in air at atmospheric pressure and 1000–2000 in contact with liquid. The performance is based on a wine-glass-type lateral bulk acoustic mode excited in a rectangular resonator plate. The mode essentially eliminates the radiation of acoustic energy into the sample media leaving viscous drag as the dominant fluid-based dissipation mechanism in the system. For a mass loading distributed over the central areas of the resonator a sensitivity of 27 ppm ng −1 is measured exhibiting good agreement with the results of the finite element method-based simulations. It is also shown that the mass sensitivity can be somewhat enhanced, not only by the proper distribution of the loaded mass, but also by introducing shallow barrier structures on the resonator

  10. Effects of Mass Media and Cultural Drift in a Model for Social Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián; Dossetti, Víctor

    In the context of an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, we study the interplay and competition between the cultural drift, represented as random perturbations, and mass media, introduced by means of an external homogeneous field. Unlike previous studies [J. C. González-Avella et al., Phys. Rev. E 72, 065102(R) (2005)], the mass media coupling proposed here is capable of affecting the cultural traits of any individual in the society, including those who do not share any features with the external message. A noise-driven transition is found: for large noise rates, both the ordered (culturally polarized) phase and the disordered (culturally fragmented) phase are observed, while, for lower noise rates, the ordered phase prevails. In the former case, the external field is found to induce cultural ordering, a behavior opposite to that reported in previous studies using a different prescription for the mass media interaction. We compare the predictions of this model to statistical data measuring the impact of a mass media vasectomy promotion campaign in Brazil.

  11. Desensitizing Children's Emotional Reactions to the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses effectiveness of two desensitization strategies for reducing children's emotional reactions to mass media. Examines children having passive exposure, modeled exposure, or no exposure to lizards before watching a horror movie involving lizards. Finds that modeled exposure decreases emotional reactions and negative interpretations, whereas…

  12. Understanding Crisis-based Communication on Environmental Protection in China : Mass Media and Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Bo; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Xia, Wei; Zeng, Yinchu; 矢部, 光保

    2010-01-01

    Beijing has been frequently stroked by sandstorms. During the occurrence of sandstorms, related information increased dramatically due to mass media. How did the mass media in China react to the sandstorm crisis? Did the crisis arouse public awareness of environmental protection? Were the majority willing to pay an environmental tax for air quality improvement? In response to these questions, the purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of a short-term information explosion from mass m...

  13. Mass Media Agenda and Conflict Resolution in Jos, Plateau State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mass media are known to always set agenda for the public to follow; this they do by raising salient issues, occurrences and events, as they happen in the society and bringing them to public glare. The media set agenda of peace, love, unity, etc, just to mention a few. As they raise these salient issues, people begin to ...

  14. Mass-media publicity campaign on driving while intoxicated.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    Mass media publicity campaigns against driving while intoxicated have been conducted in the netherlands for a number of years. A new, more aggressive approach was introduced in 1984 with the slogan "alcohol ..... all too easily a crime". Goals of this campaign were (1) internationalization of the

  15. Mass media in system of predictors for suicidal behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Vihristyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of international sources that attempt to identify the effect of mass media information messages concerning suicide on the public. We concern the possibility of imitative suicides after media coverage of suicide incidents (“Werter syndrome”, providing data on suicides increase following media reports on this topic. We discuss the data obtained by surveys conducted among Internet users of pro-suicidal web sites. On the example of recent international research, we note that despite the contradicting research results, the mass media impact on suicidal adolescents and young adults is possible, especially among young people most affected by external influences. The analysis of causes, motives and methods of suicide among adolescents and young people, as described by media, showed that among the causes dominate family and peers conflicts, among the motives – “protest"”, “revenge” (48% and “call” (16.6%. Pre-suicidal period in 75% of patients was characterized as affective and stressful. The article emphasizes that simplification of media reports and their focusing on one of the suicide risk factors (family, school, or Internet cannot see the whole picture of suicidal behavior as a set of internal and external factors and their interaction.

  16. "Get smart Colorado": impact of a mass media campaign to improve community antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ralph; Corbett, Kitty K; Wong, Shale; Glazner, Judith E; Deas, Ann; Leeman-Castillo, Bonnie; Maselli, Judith H; Sebert-Kuhlmann, Ann; Wigton, Robert S; Flores, Estevan; Kafadar, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Large-scale strategies are needed to reduce overuse of antibiotics in US communities. To evaluate the impact of a mass media campaign-"Get Smart Colorado"-on public exposure to campaign, antibiotic use, and office visit rates. Nonrandomized controlled trial. Two metropolitan communities in Colorado, United States. The general public, managed care enrollees, and physicians residing in the mass media (2.2 million persons) and comparison (0.53 million persons) communities. : The campaign consisting of paid outdoor advertising, earned media and physician advocacy ran between November 2002 and February 2003. Antibiotics dispensed per 1000 persons or managed care enrollees, and the proportion of office visits receiving antibiotics measured during 10 to 12 months before and after the campaign. After the mass media campaign, there was a 3.8% net decrease in retail pharmacy antibiotic dispenses per 1000 persons (P = 0.30) and an 8.8% net decrease in managed care-associated antibiotic dispenses per 1000 members (P = 0.03) in the mass media community. Most of the decline occurred among pediatric members, and corresponded with a decline in pediatric office visit rates. There was no change in the office visit prescription rates among pediatric or adult managed care members, nor in visit rates for complications of acute respiratory tract infections. A low-cost mass media campaign was associated with a reduction in antibiotic use in the community, and seems to be mediated through decreases in office visits rates among children. The campaign seems to be cost-saving.

  17. Mass media as an Effective Tool for Prevention of Socio-psychological Factors in the Development of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction to terrorism, and using mass media for prevention the development of terrorism. Specific features and the external factors promoting involving into terrorism are analysed. Role of mass media in covering the information about terrorism events is analysed from point of view related to prevention of development of terrorism. Some key recommendations on counterterrorism activity using mass media means are formulated.

  18. Educating women for HIV prevention: does exposure to mass media make them more knowledgeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.

  19. GOVERNMENTAL MECHANISMS FOR ADMINISTRATION OF MASS MEDIA IN RUSSIA’S NATIONAL REPUBLICS

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Dagbayev; Nadezda Aydaeva

    2016-01-01

    Th e systems of public administration in the national republics have one signifi cant diff erence when compared with other types of regional subjects (“oblast” or “kray”) in the Russian Federation. Th ese systems have governmental media (state media) founded by public authorities and these media outlets’ assets are in the ownership of these authorities. It gives a certain originality to both the national republics’ and Russia’s administrative practices and mass media functioning. It is common...

  20. A discussion on leading renormalon in the pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijani, J.

    2017-08-01

    Perturbative series of some quantities in quantum field theories, such as the pole mass of a quark, suffer from a kind of divergence called renormalon divergence. In this paper, the leading renormalon in the pole mass is investigated, and a map is introduced to suppress this renormalon. The inverse of the map is then used to generate the leading renormalon and obtain an expression to calculate its overall normalization. Finally, the overall normalization of the leading renormalon of the pole mass is calculated for several values of quark flavors.

  1. Development of a smoking prevention mass media program using diagnostic and formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, J K; Flynn, B S; Geller, B M; Chen, M; Shelton, L G; Secker-Walker, R H; Solomon, D S; Solomon, L J; Couchey, S; Costanza, M C

    1988-09-01

    The process of developing a mass media campaign to prevent smoking among adolescents is described in detail. This campaign supplements a school smoking prevention program and shares educational objectives with the school program but is otherwise independent. It comprises various television and radio 30- and 60-sec "spot" messages. The campaign development process includes identifying educational objectives and strategies for appealing to young people; conducting diagnostic surveys and focus groups to determine target audience interests and perceptions about smoking and media content; suggesting approaches to producers to create preliminary television and radio messages for testing; conducting formative pretests with target groups to select optimal messages and suggest improvements to those messages; producing final messages for media presentation; and developing a media exposure plan to place messages in local media at optimal times for reception by target audiences. The media campaign is being evaluated in a 5-year project with 5,500 adolescents in four communities to determine the additional effect of mass media over a school program alone in preventing smoking.

  2. Inferring Social Influence of Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qianyi; Zhang, Jiawei; Yu, Philip S; Emery, Sherry; Xie, Junyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem. To address the Site problem, a novel influence inference framework, TV advertising social influence estimation (Asie), is proposed based on our analysis of two real anti-tobacco campaigns. Asie divides audience attitudes toward TV ads into three distinct stages: 1) cognitive; 2) affective; and 3) conative. Audience online reactions at each of these three stages are depicted by Asie with specific probabilistic models based on the synergistic influences from both online social friends and offline TV ads. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Asie.

  3. The Negative Impact of Social and Mass Media on People's Behaviors as Reflected in Harvey Kahn's Girl Fight

    OpenAIRE

    PUSPANINGRUM, GALUH WURI

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: media, mass media, social media, Facebook, Youtube, Socio- Psychology, behavior. Media were created to fulfill people's need of communication and information. The variety of media in this modern era makes people consider media as one of their primary need especially in their social lives. Mass media are used as tools to gain information and social media to communicate each other. This study aims to find the impact of media on people's behaviors in film entitled Girl Fight (201...

  4. Mass Media and Ideology Dissemination against Democracy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyot Buaphuean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study on “Mass Media and Ideology Dissemination against Democracy in Thailand” is qualitative study with the method of documentary research from text books, books, newspapers and online newspapers to find the definition of democracy which was the system of forming the elected government with the principle of sovereignty, majority, equality, freedom and laws. However, some mass media had false consciousness of democracy which included: election brought bad quality politicians; recruitment of persons to form the government was better than election; promotion of superstition; one man one vote was not for Thai society; capitalism deteriorated the nation; The Armed Forces worked for the people. Another concept was the idea that believed Thai society was praising the elite groups. The ideology said the society should obey the senior citizen who had morals, and the Armed Forces forced people to obey.

  5. Usefulness of enteral contrast media in MR evaluation of pelvic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong; Shon, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Sung Moon; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1999-01-01

    To assess the value of enteral contrast media for the evaluation of pelvic masses by MR imaging. Between April and July 1998, 16 women with pelvic masses were examined by MRI. The origin of the lesion was the ovary in twelve cases, the uterus in three, and the sigmoid in one. Using a 1.5T scanner(Magnetom Vision, Siemens), T1-weighted axial spin echo(SE), T2-weighted turbo spin echo(TSE), two dimensional fast low-angle shot(FLASH 2D), and half-Fourier TSE(HASTE) images were obtained in all patients after the administration of Magnevist Enteral (Shering, Berlin, Germany). In each MR imagine sequence, distinction between the lesion and adjacent bowel (1, not distinguished; 2, partly distinguished; 3, clearly distinguished), artifact (0, absent; 1, mild; 2, severe), image quality (1, poor; 2, fair; 3, good), were compared before and after the use of enteral contrast media. Changes in MRI impression after the use of enteral contrast media were also evaluated. Two radiologists reached a consensus after reviewing the images. Statistical significance was determined by Wilcoxon's signed ranked test. For distinguishing lesions, SE T1WI and FLASH 2D with enteral contrast media were significantly superior to SE T1WI without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). With regard to image quality, FLASH 2D and HASTE, both with enteral contrast media, were significantly superior to SE T1WI and TSE T2WI, respectively, both without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). Artefacts were more frequently found after the application of enteral contrast media in conventional sequences but were not present in breathhold sequences. In two patients, MRI impression changed after the application of enteral contrast media. In a limited number of cases, enteral contrast media improved lesion detection, image quality and diagnostic accuracy when breathhold fast MR imaging was applied

  6. The Role of the Mass Media in the Nigerian Electoral Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses generally on the role of the mass media in Nigerian electoral process as it pertains to overall development of Nigeria. The background is the recognition of the central role of the media in political and social affairs as a natural outcome of its unlimited communicative strength and outreach. The statement of ...

  7. Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning [From mass media to media system - code discussions in systems theoretical media research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems theoretical media research raises the question whether the mass media constitute a unified institution, or whether the media, due to their internal differences, should be considered individually and independent of each other. By inscribing the media in a general social theory, systems theory conceptualises the media as an autonomous functional system. This intention is most clearly illustrated by the efforts to identify a shared code for the entire media system. Based on the media theory of Niklas Luhmann, this paper offers a critical presentation of the code discussion within systems theoretical media research. The first part of the paper briefly introduces the systems theoretical notion of a code as well as Luhmann’s definition of the media system as organised and regulated by the code of information. The second part presents a number of alternative suggestions and definitions of the media system’s code, which both indicate the scope of systems theoretical media research, but also point to some of the limitations in the systems theoretical approach. In the last part, the paper takes a critical look at the systems theoretical code discussion by arguing that a too narrow focus on code definitions is blocking a more productive investigation of the conditions, evolution, and autonomy of the media system.

  8. Chemistry in the Popular Culture: Mass Media, Music and Outreach Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jergović, B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Science is often identified with the discipline of chemistry particularly in the popular sphere and in visual culture. The image of science or its profile is created mainly in the mass media, but also in other spheres and in many different ways. Mass media are in the focus of many research groups, as the most frequent and efficient source of scientific information to the public. Science communication research is rather intense also in the attempt to understand the non-linear interaction with popular music and film. In addition, public activities of scientific institutions are being investigated, as well as the public image of science in projects where scientists are directly communicating with the general, lay audience. Notwithstanding, a link between research and the practice of science communication is non-existent. Public communication of science is more emerging than planned, there are many isolated actors and programs, and ‘hard’ sciences are not keen on using the social sciences’ knowledge and skills. In order to improve this situation, it is essential to understand how the public image of science is created, and how science interacts with its audiences. Here, the public image of science is discussed with regard to the news values and the new circumstances for mass communication, particularly the convergence of different media, which offers new possibilities for science in the public. An analysis of the media coverage of chemistry in the International Chemistry Year 2011 shows huge differences in the frequency and nature of the media coverage, particularly with regard to media convergence and the use of different media simultaneously. Outreach events are discussed in the light of the influence on their visitors. Since science communication is present in other spheres of popular culture, and in nonlinear top-down manner, we shortly discuss communication about chemistry in pop music in the attempt to suggest the need to communicate

  9. The Mass Media and Modern Society. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, William L.; And Others

    The focus throughout this second edition is on the 1970's and the impact of mass communication on contemporary society. Analyzing the ways in which communication affects and is, in turn, affected by society, the book examines the social, economic, and intellectual environments in which the media operate. Two intellectual factors which have had the…

  10. Media Construction of Gender: Framing Analysis of Rape Cases in the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the printed media which tends to dramatize and blow up the reporting of rape cases has in fact discredited the rape victim, resulting in gender bias. This is due to the fact that media present the news content concerning on the victim and the perpetrator in imbalanced reporting, in that the victims are scrutinized from diverse facets. This paper analyze the coverage of printed media in rape cases by means of framing analysis. The result shows that printed media coverage generally goes beyond the rape case itself as the victim’s identity and images of the incident are also revealed. The using of visual image (victim’s image is probably aimed to present an overview on the fact or the truth from the media viewpoint. This presentation, however, obscures the differences between factual and fictional reality and this might lead to different interpretation on the readers’ side. Furthermore, inappropriate reporting might become the society’s reference concerning on the modus operandi, in that the society learn or imitate the aspects they once did not know of. Visual image will create a second rape by the media toward the victim, in addition to the stereotyping developed in public, which often brings out psychological impact to the victim and the family. This is called the third rape.

  11. The mass media and nuclear energy in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses some problems of mass media of the United States connected with covering issues of nuclear power development, and makes some recommendations to improve the situation in this field

  12. PROBLEMS OF MODERN RUSSIAN IN A MIRROR OF MASS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Олегович Беляков

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of culture of speech in terms of modern mass media: printing mass media, television and radio programs, Internet. The issues of influence of the information quality on development of communication culture and perception of information are discussed. In addition the aspects of adequate formation of information messages by the organization are considered. Influence of non-official sources of information in the Internet – social networks, forums etc. - are analyzed. This problem is up-to-date because media space is practically out of control in terms of adequate formation  of language culture, the process of change of speakers takes place because of which Soviet culture of conveying information is practically lost and new culture of conveying information has not formed yet. In the same time this problem is insufficiently covered by professional and scientific circles, and the result of it is further deterioration of the situation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-6

  13. Mass Media, Interpersonal, and Social Background Influences in Two Canadian American Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David E.; Caron, Andre H.

    A study investigated the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and sociolinguistic background on adults' political, cultural, and economic attitudes and agendas. Data for the study came from two earlier research efforts: one conducted in Minnesota, involved 414 adults who were interviewed concerning their media use, interpersonal…

  14. Media Agenda Setting Regarding Gun Violence before and after a Mass Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Magnusson, Brianna; Hanson, Carl; Barnes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gun violence is related to substantial morbidity and mortality with surrounding discussions framed and shaped by the media. This study’s objective was to explore national news media’s reporting of gun violence around a mass shooting. National news pieces were coded according to categories of gun violence, media frames, entities held responsible, responses, and reporting of the public heath approach. Individuals were held responsible for gun violence in 63% of pieces before and 32% after the shooting. Lawmakers were held responsible in 30% of pieces before and 66% after. Background checks were a proposed gun violence prevention method in 18% of pieces before and 55% after Sandy Hook, and lethality reduction of firearms was in 9% before and 57% after. Following a mass shooting, the media tended to hold government, not individuals, primarily responsible. The media often misrepresented the real picture of gun violence and key public health roles. PMID:28119907

  15. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Tomkiv, Y.; Oughton, D.H.; Cantone, M.C.; Gallego, E.; Prezelj, I.; Byrkina, E.

    2015-01-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11 March and the 11 May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. (authors)

  16. Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being an integral part of the social system, the mass media is a major stakeholder in the realization of sustainable development in Nigeria. However, several factors like corruption, poor communication channels, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, poor implementation framework and political instability has continued to ...

  17. Impact of mass media on the utilization of antenatal care services among women of rural community in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dilaram; Khanal, Vishnu; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Adhikari, Mandira; Gautam, Salila

    2015-08-12

    Antenatal care has several benefits for expecting mothers and birth outcomes; yet many mothers do not utilise this service in Nepal. Mass media may play an important role in increasing the use of antenatal care and other maternal health services. However, the effect of mass media on increasing health service utilisation has remained an under studied area in Nepal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of mass media on the utilisation of antenatal care services in rural Nepal. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Sinurjoda Village Development Committee of Dhanusha District, Nepal. A total of 205 mothers of children aged under 1 year were selected using systematic random sampling. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association between selected antenatal care services and mass media exposure after adjusting for other independent variables. A majority of mothers were exposed to mass media. Radio was accessible to most (60.0%) of the participants followed by television (43.41%). Mothers exposed to mass media were more likely to attending antenatal visits [Odds ratio (OR) 6.28; 95% CI (1.01-38.99)], taking rest and sleep during pregnancy [OR 2.65; 95% CI (1.13-6.26)], and receiving TT immunization [OR 5.12; 95% CI (1.23-21.24)] than their non-exposed counterparts. The study reported a positive influence of mass media on the utilisation of antenatal care services in Nepal. Therefore, further emphasis should be given to increase awareness of women of rural Nepal through mass media to improve utilisation of antenatal care services in Nepal.

  18. On Question of Interaction of Public Authorities and Mass Media in Modern Political Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kriukov O.; Pakhnin M.

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers the main aspects of public authorities’ interaction with media in the modern political process. The specific features of interaction between public authorities and mass media in the modern political process are determined. A distinction is made between the concepts of “communication media” and “mass media”, the results of which is that the above concepts are not identical.

  19. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  20. DYNAMICS OF METAPHORIC MODELLING OF THE CONCEPT OF TERRORISM IN AMERICAN MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykova, O.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of the research in modern linguistics is defined by the importance of studying the problem of the dynamic nature of the concept content, the need to define the connection type between the concept and discourse as well as to reveal the dependence of the concept content and verbalization means from the type of discourse. The subject of the research is dynamic properties of the verbalization of a socially marked concept in American mass media discourse. The aim is to define the dynamics of structuring and explicating the knowledge about terrorism in mass media discourse. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: to determine the corpus of linguistic units which serve as verbalizers of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse; to define the dynamics of the verbal representation of the concept of terrorism in American mass media discourse as exemplified by metaphoric modelling. The practical applicability of the research consists in the possibility of using its main points and results in such academic courses as general linguistics, stylistics, cultural linguistics, special courses in cognitive linguistics, theory of conceptual metaphor, discourse study and in lexicographic practice.

  1. Educational Leadership in the Era of Mass Media: State, Consequences and Repercussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Tali; Oplatka, Izhar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the relationships between school head teachers and mass media on various aspects of their role: emotional-personal, behavioural-managerial and perception. It also examines the sociocultural experience in which these head teacher-media interactions take place, that is, the adjustment of the school system,…

  2. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  3. REFLECTION OF SELF-IDENTIFICATION IN THE REGIONAL PRINTED MASS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Stepanovna Shmul’skaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ways of reflecting and linguistic expression of territorial identity in the printed regional mass media were the subject of the study. The printed publications of the Yenisei region: Zarya of the Yenisei (socio-political newspaper of the city of Lesosibirsk, Angarsky Rabochiy (socio-political newspaper of Motyginsky district, Yeniseiskaya Pravda (Yeniseisk and Yeniseisky district socio-political newspaper , Zarya (social and political newspaper of Pirovsky district, Severo-Yeniseisky Vestnik (municipal newspaper of North Yenisei district, Novaya zhizn (Kazachinskaya socio-political newspaper of Krasnoyarsk Territory were chosen as the material for the research. Goal. To consider the concept of “regional identity” and to identify markers of territorial identity in the regional printed media. Research methods: the descriptive method and the method of the contextual analysis. Results. The regional identity is defined as a form of collective identity at which its carrier is capable to spatiotemporal identification, valuable, emotional, regulatory correlation with the outside world. When analyzing the texts of the regional newspapers certain features of reflecting and shaping the territorial “self” are revealed, that is characteristic of provincial newspapers in general and distinguishes them from the federal media. It is established that the mass media can be considered as means of formation, expression and transfer of regional values and are effective means of reflection and modeling of territorial identity.

  4. Mass Media: The Invisible Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessing, Robert J.; White, William P.

    This anthology for students of media consists of essays and articles grouped under four topics: media forms, media content, media environments, and "the last word." Media forms deals with the nature of these kinds of media: electronic, print, film, music, and comics, graffiti, and clothing. Media content contains articles on the news, advertising,…

  5. Cost-effectiveness of a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Yan, Hongjin; Wang, Shuo; Negi, Nalin Singh; Kotov, Alexey; Mullin, Sandra; Goodchild, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Tobacco control mass media campaigns are cost-effective in reducing tobacco consumption in high-income countries, but similar evidence from low-income countries is limited. An evaluation of a 2009 smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India provided an opportunity to test its cost-effectiveness. Campaign evaluation data from a nationally representative household survey of 2898 smokeless tobacco users were compared with campaign costs in a standard cost-effectiveness methodology. Costs and effects of the Surgeon campaign were compared with the status quo to calculate the cost per campaign-attributable benefit, including quit attempts, permanent quits and tobacco-related deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses at varied CIs and tobacco-related mortality risk were conducted. The Surgeon campaign was found to be highly cost-effective. It successfully generated 17 259 148 additional quit attempts, 431 479 permanent quits and 120 814 deaths averted. The cost per benefit was US$0.06 per quit attempt, US$2.6 per permanent quit and US$9.2 per death averted. The campaign continued to be cost-effective in sensitivity analyses. This study suggests that tobacco control mass media campaigns can be cost-effective and economically justified in low-income and middle-income countries. It holds significant policy implications, calling for sustained investment in evidence-based mass media campaigns as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako

    2015-09-04

    Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.

  7. Women and mass media: a critical and analytical study of the portrayal of Sudanese women in printed media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, A E; Osama, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examines how Sudanese women are portrayed in the mass media. Data are obtained from a content analysis of historical records of Sudanese daily newspapers and women's magazines and from surveys among female editors in print media. The following types of newspapers are reviewed: independent newspapers; papers for the Al-Umma Party, a communist party, a Bathist party, a Muslim Nationalist Islamic Front Party, and a National Union Democratic Party; and a current military government paper. Women's magazines are published by women. Articles focus on women as the main newsmakers, women's life issues, female authors, a female focus but a male author, and famous Sudanese women. 16 content themes are identified. Women were not extensively featured or photographed in either newspapers or magazines. The Al-Umma Party paper and Al-Sudan Al-Hadith paper (an independent paper) were the only two newspapers with at least 10 photos of women. Women were pictured as professionals, educated persons, and leaders. There were 17 female editors. These editors preferred an image of women as leaders, followed by productive workers. Only 11.76% believed that women's dual roles as producers and reproducers should be portrayed. Female editors did not want a special women's page. 52.94% (the largest percentage) preferred targeting women with substantial leadership abilities. 17.65% desired the portrayal of women as workers and housewives. 58.82% did not think that the mass media image changed behavior or attitudes, because most Sudanese women are illiterate. Women's issues in both newspapers and women's magazines were devoted to women's work, achievements, and needs. The authors recommend removal of obstacles to women's equal participation in the mass media and press and research on the effect of media images on women's self-perception and behavior.

  8. Impact of mass media on adoption of agricultural innovations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of mass media extension activities on ... with the intervention of extension communication to determine small-scale farmers\\' adoption ... and film shows did not make desired significant impact on the adoption of ...

  9. Mass Media vs. Public and National Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Adamski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The media have become an integral part of social life. They have an enormous impact on it. However, they occasionally may be harmful or even―more or less consciously―their actions may lead to various distortions of the public and national safety. Under what circumstances would be such a situation possible to occur? How to prevent it? This article contains answers to those questions.

  10. The mass remote sensing image data management based on Oracle InterMedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi'an; Shi, Shaowei

    2013-07-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, getting the image data more and more, how to apply and manage the mass image data safely and efficiently has become an urgent problem to be solved. According to the methods and characteristics of the mass remote sensing image data management and application, this paper puts forward to a new method that takes Oracle Call Interface and Oracle InterMedia to store the image data, and then takes this component to realize the system function modules. Finally, it successfully takes the VC and Oracle InterMedia component to realize the image data storage and management.

  11. Mass media in health promotion: an analysis using an extended information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; DiTecco, D; Schlegel, R P

    1980-01-01

    The information-processing model of the attitude and behavior change process was critically examined and extended from six to 12 levels for a better analysis of change due to mass media campaigns. Findings from social psychology and communications research, and from evaluations of mass media health promotion programs, were reviewed to determine how source, message, channel, receiver, and destination variables affect each of the levels of change of major interest (knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behavior). Factors found to most likely induce permanent attitude and behavior change (most important in health promotion) were: presentation and repetition over long time periods, via multiple sources, at different times (including "prime" or high-exposure times), by multiple sources, in novel and involving ways, with appeals to multiple motives, development of social support, and provisions of appropriate behavioral skills, alternatives, and reinforcement (preferably in ways that get the active participation of the audience). Suggestions for evaluation of mass media programs that take account of this complexity were advanced.

  12. Effects of a statewide antismoking campaign on mass media messages and smoking beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D M; Prokhorov, A V; Harty, K C

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In 1985, The Minnesota Legislature initiated a long-term and broad-based program to deter adolescent tobacco use. The initiative was funded by higher taxes on tobacco products and combined school-based programming, mass-media campaigns, and local community grants. The Minnesota-Wisconsin Adolescent Tobacco-Use Research Project was designed to evaluate this effort by monitoring adolescent tobacco use and related factors in Minnesota and Wisconsin from 1986 to 1990. The results presented in this paper indicate that the Minnesota initiative dramatically increased Minnesota schoolchildren's reported exposure to the anti-smoking messages in the mass media but had little effect on smoking-related beliefs or smoking behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. These results, together with the findings from other recent studies, suggest that even dramatic increases in exposure to anti-tobacco messages in the mass-media, in the absence of a substantial and sustained school-based tobacco prevention measures, may be insufficient to generate reductions in adolescent tobacco use.

  13. Women’s Perception, Familial and Mass Media Influence upon Ratus Vaginal Douche Usage in Bali, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: The ratus vaginal douching technique is a treatment by evaporation in the genital area,that compound is called “ratus”. There are a number of controversies surrounding the ratus technique, especiallyregarding the benefits and detrimental aspects. This study applies a behaviour model Green (2007 with a focus onthree factors: the determinant, supporting and stimulant. This study was aimed to understand the relationshipperception, socio economic, familial, and mass media upon ratus vaginal douching usage.Methods: This study used a quantitative approach with an analytic observational cross-sectional design. Study usedrandom sampling of 63 samples that taken from 3 different Spas.Results: The respondents were 44 (69.8% who performed the ratus vaginal douching and 19 (30.2% who had notperformed. Results indicated that the variables of perception, knowledge, familial, and the mass media showed asignificant correlation with the value of (p<0.05. The result of multivariate analysis came from mass media that had thegreatest influence with OR=8.47 (95%CI: 1.21-59.42.Conclusion: Mass media had the greatest influence on the use of the ratus vaginal douching in Bali Province.Keywords: ratus vaginal douching usage, women`s perception, familial, mass media

  14. The Influence of the Mass Media on Young People as a Problem of Russian Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapesotskii, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of the mass media on the moral state of Russian society discerns negative consequences of that influence, and sees the mass media (particularly television) as involved in the cultural degradation of the population. It argues in favor of state, social, and pedagogical controls to facilitate a more positive role of the…

  15. Physical activity promotion through the mass media: inception, production, transmission and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Sara-Jane; Faulkner, Guy

    2005-02-01

    Evaluations of physical activity and health media campaigns have been limited and ignore the complex process of communication and the socially constructed nature of news messages. A systematic search strategy was conducted of the literature which was then assessed from two perspectives. First, studies since 1998 were reviewed for their success in impacting message recall and behavior change. Second, employing a critical media studies perspective the papers were assessed for the presence of a more sophisticated understanding of the media processes of inception, transmission and reception. Overall, recent studies support mass media interventions in influencing short-term physical activity message recall and to a lesser extent associated changes in physical activity knowledge. However, the majority of the papers were found to follow a social marketing or media advocacy theory of media promotion with little in-depth consideration of the comprehensive media processes involved in creating media messages and meaning. Simplistic understandings of media transmission dominate in assessing physical activity and health media campaigns. Fuller understandings of the success of media campaigns, the recall of media messages or associated behaviour change can only truly be understood through the application of a more sophisticated form of media analysis.

  16. The effectiveness of mass media in changing HIV/AIDS-related behaviour among young people in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jane T; Anhang, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    To review the strength of the evidence for the effects of three types of mass media interventions (radio only, radio with supporting media, or radio and television with supporting media) on HIV/AIDS-related behaviour among young people in developing countries and to assess whether these interventions reach the threshold of evidence needed to recommend widespread implementation. We conducted a systematic review of studies that evaluated mass media interventions and were published or released between 1990 and 2004. Studies were included if they evaluated a mass media campaign that had the main objective of providing information about HIV/AIDS or sexual health. To be eligible for inclusion studies had to use a pre-intervention versus post-intervention design or an intervention versus control design or analyse cross-sectional data comparing those who had been exposed to the campaign with those who had not been exposed. Studies also had to comprehensively report quantitative data for most outcomes. Of the 15 programmes identified, 11 were from Africa, 2 from Latin America, 1 from Asia, and 1 from multiple countries. One programme used radio only, six used radio with supporting media, and eight others used television and radio with supporting media. The data support the effectiveness of mass media interventions to increase the knowledge of HIV transmission, to improve self-efficacy in condom use, to influence some social norms, to increase the amount of interpersonal communication, to increase condom use and to boost awareness of health providers. Fewer significant effects were found for improving self-efficacy in terms of abstinence, delaying the age of first sexual experience or decreasing the number of sexual partners. We found that mass media programmes can influence HIV-related outcomes among young people, although not on every variable or in every campaign. Campaigns that include television require the highest threshold of evidence, yet they also yield the

  17. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Nishiuchi

    Full Text Available The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs.Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500, conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status. To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model.Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23. Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action.This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further

  18. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further research is needed.

  19. role of mass media in agricultural productivity in adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... LTD PRINTED IN NIGERIA ISSN 1596-2903 ... The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in ..... television are cost of the hardware, cost of maintenance ... Government Area of Kebbi State: A case study of state ...

  20. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Examining the association between exposure to mass media and health insurance enrolment in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansanga, Moses Mosonsieyiri; Asumah Braimah, Joseph; Antabe, Roger; Sano, Yuji; Kyeremeh, Emmanuel; Luginaah, Isaac

    2018-02-12

    Although previous studies have explored the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana, very little attention is paid to the influence of mass media exposure on NHIS enrolment. Yet, understanding this linkage is important, particularly due to the critical role of mass media in disseminating health information and shaping people's health perceptions and choices. Using data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we employed logistic regression analysis to understand the relationship between NHIS enrolment and exposure to print media, radio, and television. Our findings indicate that women with more exposure to radio (OR = 1.23, P NHIS than those with no exposure. For men, more exposure to print media was associated with higher odds of enrolling in the NHIS (OR = 1.41, P NHIS enrolment in Ghana. However, given that the relationship between media exposure and enrolment in the NHIS was gendered, we recommend that policymakers should pay attention to these dynamics to ensure effective targeting in NHIS media campaigns for increased enrolment into the scheme. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Body image, media, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L; Beresin, Eugene V

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The authors attempt to explain the historical context of the problem and explore potential avenues for change. The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth. Throughout history, the ideal of beauty has been difficult to achieve and has been shaped by social context. Current mass media is ubiquitous and powerful, leading to increased body dissatisfaction among both men and women. Parents need to limit children's exposure to media, promote healthy eating and moderate physical activity, and encourage participation in activities that increase mastery and self-esteem. Funding for high-quality, visible advertising campaigns promoting healthy life styles may increase awareness.

  3. 47 CFR 1.1153 - Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. 1.1153 Section 1.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... of annual regulatory fees and filing locations for mass media services. Radio [AM and FM] (47 CFR...

  4. The Performativity of “Media Logic” in the Mass Mediation of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the use of research-based expertise in the mass media often demonstrate how experts are used to confirm journalists’ angles on particular stories or how research-based knowledge claims are twisted. Both among practitioners and science communication scholars, such practices are often...... explained with reference to a pervasive “media logic.” “Media logic” is constructed as governing choices and interactions of researchers and journalists. This article critically examines the extensive use of the term “media logic” to explain choices, changes or content in media production, and presents...... Actor-Network-Theory as an approach that invites us to ask what takes place in practice without resorting to such generalizing explanatory devices. The article argues that a quick jump to “media logic” as an explanation may imply that we forget its contingency and ignore what actually takes place...

  5. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the US mass media, science and government

    OpenAIRE

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on German official government documents, mass media news, and scientific papers on the topic ‘liquid biofuels’. Text Mining was used to extract knowledge from their content. The results indicate that in c...

  6. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government

    OpenAIRE

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on German official government documents, mass media news, and scientific papers on the topic 'liquid biofuels'. Text Mining was used to extract knowledge from their content. The results indicate that in c...

  7. Evaluation of the national tobacco control mass media campaign in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezheng Jin

    2018-03-01

    The mass media campaign reinforced people's knowledge and attitudes about harmful health effects of smoking and SHS exposure, increased people's desire to quit, and improved people's support for smoking bans in public places.

  8. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  9. The Era of Global Disputes and Mass Media Distortions. Dialogue on Recognition, Justice and Democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bittar, E.; Hrubec, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2017), s. 146-154 ISSN 1338-130X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/15 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global conflicts * international law * justice * mass media * recognition * democracy Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Political science https://www.communicationtoday.sk/era-global-disputes-mass-media-distortions-dialogue-recognition-justice-democracy-interview-marek-hrubec/

  10. MASS MEDIA''S MANIPULATIVE POTENTIAL IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSHCHINA L.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of telegraph, radio and television which enable contacts with a large audience, the social impact of communication via the mass media has been a subject of intense research by political and social scientists. Thus the paper discusses the nature of manipulation in political discourse and its ambivalent role in the modern society. The solution of the research tasks is carried out on the basis of the complex methodological base which defines the general orientation and the principles of research, as well as its scientific results, including the general philosophical methodological concept of dialectic materialism in accordance with the principles of unity of form and content, cause and effect, general communication of the phenomena. In conclusion, it summarizes that mentioned above phenomenon is both serious and dangerous, being capable to influence people’s consciousness, depriving them of their critical thinking, and even dooming them to the passivity of life.

  11. Peeling lead paint turns into poisonous dust. Guess where it ends up? A media campaign to prevent childhood lead poisoning in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to increase parents' awareness of childhood lead poisoning, ways to protect their children, and property owners' legal responsibility to fix peeling lead paint safely, and increase awareness of regulatory changes and encourage enforcement of New York City's Local Law 1 of 2004. Campaign materials were focus group tested and the campaign was refined annually. The campaign ran city-wide and in targeted high-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhoods and media venue (bus, train, kiosk, and store) changed annually, based on population risk factors and venue availability. Exposure to the campaign, campaign-related knowledge, and behavior were assessed using pre- and postcampaign street intercept surveys. Results showed that campaign reached the targeted population, and had an impact on knowledge of lead poisoning prevention measures as evidenced by increased knowledge of lead paint exposures sources in one year and increased knowledge of preventive behaviors in another year; these improvements were observed for both genders and most ethnic, primary language, educational attainment, and age groups in each year. Lessons learned indicate that well-targeted media campaigns, designed with audience participation, can reach parents through various venues, and improve key knowledge areas. Evaluation challenges faced include high levels of knowledge at baseline, competing media messages, and balancing between program needs and evaluation design. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Mainstream Media and Social Media Reactions to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morris

    The rise of online social media (such as Facebook and Twitter) has overturned traditional top-down and stovepiped channels for mass communications. As social media have risen, traditional media sources have been steadily crippled by economic problems, resulting in a loss of capabilities and credibility. Information can propagate rapidly without the inclusion of traditional editorial checks and controls. Mass communications strategies for any type of major announcement must account for this new media landscape. Scientists announcing the discovery of extraterrestrial life will trigger a multifaceted and unpredictable percolation of the story through the public sphere. They will also potentially struggle with misinformation, rumours and hoaxes. The interplay of official announcements with the discussions of an extraterrestrial discovery on social media has parallels with traditional theories of mass communications. A wide spectrum of different messages is likely to be received by different segments of the community, based on their usage patterns of various media and online communications. The presentation and interpretation of a discovery will be hotly debated and contested within online media environments. In extreme cases, this could lead to "editorial wars" on collaborative media projects as well as cyber-attacks on certain online services and individuals. It is unlikely that a clear and coherent message can be propagated to a near-universal level. This has the potential to contribute to inappropriate reactions in some sectors of the community. Preventing unnecessary panic will be a priority. In turn, the monitoring of online and social media will provide a useful tool for assessing public reactions to a discovery of extraterrestrial life. This will help to calibrate public communications strategies following in the wake of an initial announcement.

  13. Social media as an instrument for organizing mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have recently become very popular and turned to be an effective instrument for achieving political goals. However, the social networks’ impact is rather ambivalent: on the one hand, social media form specific political actors and support self-organization and civil movements; on the other hand, social media reinforce destructive and aggressive manifestations with the pronounced criminal purposes, e.g. social media ability to disseminate information among large groups is used to organize mass riots. The article analyzes one of the recent and significant events largely provoked by the social networks - mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011 that were originally a reaction to the murder of M. Diggan by a police officer who tried to arrest him as a suspect in drug trafficking and possession of weapons. The way events developed into mass riots was the result of discussions in social media and use of social networks to coordinate joint actions of mass riots participants. The article provides a detailed description of the events and authorities’ actions to overcome the crisis and prevent such riots in the future, thus making some conclusions about the nature of social media impact on the politics.

  14. Use of mass-media and active involvement in a national dental health campaign in Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a Dental Health Mass-Media Campaign directed at 5-7-yr-old children and their mothers. It aimed at increasing knowledge and awareness of dental health by making use of three different components: inserts in women's magazines; television commercial; material...... that future national health education campaigns combine the mass-media approach to increase health awareness with active involvement activities to stimulate behavioural changes....

  15. How does the mass media report and interpret radiation data? The results of media content analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN, Institute for Environment Health and Safety (Belgium); Cantone, M.C. [University of Milano, Faculty of Medicine (Italy); Tomkiv, Y. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Norway); Prezelj, I. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Sciences (Slovenia); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Melekhova, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In communication with the general population, experts often provide quantitative information related to ionizing radiation, expressed with different units of radioactivity. However, quantitative information about radiation risks may be meaningful only to people who have the ability to comprehend basic numerical concepts and possess knowledge related to radiation. Thus, the media, as a bridge between experts and the general population, has to 'translate' quantitative information into a qualitative one. How successful and accurate are the mass media in this transformation of scientific results into publicly understandable information? Our research investigates media reporting on the concept of ionizing radiation in a case of nuclear emergencies. The presentation is focused on summarizing the 'lessons learned' from the use of radiation data in media reporting about the Fukushima nuclear accident. The in-depth media content analysis was conducted in twelve quality newspapers in Belgium, Slovenia, Italy, Spain, Norway and Russia using the same scientific methodology and analyzing the same time period. Preliminary results identified miss concepts of radiation data by media and even within emergency responders and decision makers. The research is a result of FP7 project Innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe - PREPARE and upgraded with a Russian experience. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  17. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  18. Connections of OAO 'Mashinostroitelny zavod' with mass-media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: PJSC 'Mashinostroitelny zavod' (MSZ) is located 55 km to the east of Moscow, in an industrial town called Electrostal with the population 150.000 people. Recently this dynamically developed enterprise joined the world leaders-manufacturers of nuclear fuel (NF), its capacity being 1000 t U02 per year. The quality of the fuel rods and thermal assemblies fabricated by the factory was marked several times with prestigious European and Russian awards and certificates. Currently the products of the factory are supplied to more than 50 NPP units of Russia, CIS and Europe as well as to the power units of the atomic fleet of Russia. Together with the intensive work related to the optimization of nuclear fuel fabrication the management of MSZ pays serious attention to the public communication and connections with mass-media bearing in mind that a part of the town population is concerned a lot about the state of things and development of the atomic power and related enterprises. So the Centre of public information of MSZ is constantly under the supervision of the management. Widely equipped with illustrative material, the Centre meets up to 2000 visitors annually, during tours, lectures and discussions. But the main part of the Centre work is performed outside the Centre. At the beginning of the year the MSZ management signed a number of agreements with to-vn mass-media: newspaper 'Novosty dnya', radio centre, cable TV studio 'Eitelecom'. These mass-media, during the year, gave to the Centre employees and factory technical specialists a good possibility to make presentations that objectively enlighten the safety aspects of NPPs and nuclear technologies, including those performed in the workshops of MSZ. So there were broadcasts on radio and TV that were consecrated to the famous dates in the history of the atomic power: 45th anniversary of starting the first in the world NPP; 35th anniversary of starting Novo- Voronezhskaya NPP; 40th anniversary of commissioning

  19. [Mass media influence and risk of developing eating disorders in female students from Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo Montoya, Yessenia; Quenaya, Alejandra; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-12-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a public health problem, and their relationship to mass media is still controversial. To assess whether there is an association between models of body image shown in mass media and the risk of developing EDs among female adolescent students from Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study conducted in three schools located in the district of La Victoria, Lima, Peru. The risk of developing EDs was measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), while mass media influence was measured using the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), which was categorized into tertiles both in the overall score and its subscales (information, pressure, general internalization, and athletic internalization). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for EDs were estimated. Four hundred and eighty-three students were included, their median age was 14 ? 3 years old. A risk of developing an ED was observed in 13.9% of them. Students who are more influenced by mass media (upper tertile of the SATAQ-3) have a higher probability of having a risk of developing an ED (aPR: 4.24; 95% confidence interval |-CI-|: 2.10-8.56), as well as those who have a greater access to information (PR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.09-3.25), suffer more pressure (PR: 4.97; 95% CI: 2.31-10.69), show a greater general internalization (PR: 5.00; 95% CI: 2.39-10.43), and show a greater level of athletic internalization (PR: 4.35; 95% CI: 2.19-8-66). The greater the influence of mass media, the greater the probability of having a risk of developing an ED among female students from Lima, Peru.

  20. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aims To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Methods Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Conclusion Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. Short summary There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption. PMID:29329359

  1. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ben; Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption.

  2. An assessment of transportation issues under exceptional conditions : the case of the mass media and the Northridge Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This study explores how the mass media covered transportation issues following the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The mass media were a vital channel for travel information, and they provided considerable information to the public about the safety of tr...

  3. Trends in mass media exposure upon women: A review of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

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    Yasmin Jahan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With the rapid advancement of technology, mass media acquired widespread exposure upon major portion of the world population. The overall media platform has smooth access into peoples’ everyday lifestyle through routine tele transmission of all the existing media (such as broadcast, print, digital, outdoor media etc.. Mass media platform is one of the few most powerful influential factors causing dynamic behavioral changes. Objective To assess mass media exposure and it’s changing trends in Bangladesh using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS from 1993- 94 to 2014. Methods The study used data from the published reports of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (BDHS 1993-1994 to BDHS 2014. Results In the years of 1999-2000, 2004, 2007, 2014 women aged 20-24 years (41%, 54%, 56%, 57% respectively have passed more time watching television in weekly basis than the other age groups. Higher percentage was observed among the educated women than uneducated from 1999-2000 to 2014 who has made access to all three media (television, radio and newspaper at least once a week. Proportion of women who had accessed all three media at least once a week was much higher in the highest quintile families than the lowest quintile families and more exposure in urban women than the rural women. The region-wise coverage was higher in 1999-2000 in case of Chittagong (5.2%, Dhaka (4.7%, Khulna (5.1%, Rajshahi (3.1%, and Sylhet (3.9% division with access to all three media at least once a week except Barisal division. Conclusion Findings show higher percentage of television watching tendency among comparatively more educated and economically flourished urban women. Therefore, the major policy challenge addressees the need for designing of communications strategies targeting the less privileged, rural and illiterate people who constitute the majority of population in Bangladesh.

  4. Fan Letters to the Cultural Industries: Border Literature about Mass Media

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    Claire Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the Mexican and U.S. cultural industries in cities outside of the border region and the intermittent outsourcing of Hollywood movies to production facilities in Baja, California, have had a marked impact on the literary practice of "fronterizo" 'border' intellectuals. This essay discusses the theme of the cinema in three narratives by authors from the U.S.-Mexico border region: "Hotel Frontera" ("Border Hotel", by Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz, "Canícula," by Norma Elia Cantú, and "The Magic of Blood," by Dagoberto Gilb. These narratives provide ethnographic information about the reception of nationally distributed mass media in the border region; at the same time they produce a contestatory discourse that challenges the manner in which the border and its populations have been portrayed and employed in the U.S. and Mexican film industries. The study of film culture must take into consideration patterns of consumption as well as production, and literature about mass media is one arena through which it is possible to focus on both of these processes simultaneously. Fronteriza/o writing about cinema reveals a desire to inhabit popular cinematic genres such as film noir and the western while at the same time retaining a critical stance towards them. This ambivalence is understood as a localist response to the marginalization of fronteriza/o cultural production in a bi-national context, rather than as general suspicion toward visual mass media on the part of "traditional" literary intellectuals.

  5. Covering Science as a Mass Media Fellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.

    2006-03-01

    I remember my first unpleasant biology lab dissection in high school. I am not sure if the experience was worse for me or for the unfortunate fetal pig we dissected that day. The sights and smells of that fateful morning forever put me on a path toward the physical sciences, and probably have a lot to do with my ending up as a graduate student in atmospheric chemistry instead of at some medical school cutting up dead bodies. So imagine my horror after encountering the leg of a dead horse as I walked into a bioengineering laboratory to report on a story about artificial joint research. Subjecting myself to such biological horrors, though, was part of my duties as an AGU-sponsored American Association for the Advancement of Science Mass Media Fellow. The program places graduate students and recent graduates from scientific fields in major media outlets throughout the country. The aim of the program is to give science-trained individuals a taste of a career in science journalism as well as to help scientists develop better communication skills.

  6. Method Development for Binding Media Analysis in Painting Cross-Sections by Desorption Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kristen; Lagalante, Anthony

    2018-06-06

    Art conservation science is in need of a relatively nondestructive way of rapidly identifying the binding media within a painting cross-section and isolating binding media to specific layers within the cross-section. Knowledge of the stratigraphy of cross-sections can be helpful for removing possible unoriginal paint layers on the artistic work. Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was used in ambient mode to study cross-sections from mock-up layered paint samples and samples from a 17th century baroque painting. The DESI spray was raster scanned perpendicular to the cross-section layers to maximize lateral resolution then analyzed with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer in linear ion trap mode. From these scans, isobaric mass maps were created to map the locations of masses indicative of particular binding media onto the cross-sections. Line paint-outs of pigments in different binding media showed specific and unique ions to distinguish between the modern acrylic media and the lipid containing binding media. This included: OP (EO) 9 surfactant in positive ESI for acrylic (m/z 621), and oleic (m/z 281), stearic (m/z 283), and azelaic (m/z 187) acids in negative ESI for oil and egg tempera. DESI-MS maps of mock-up cross-sections of layered pigmented binding media showed correlation between these ions and the layers with a spatial resolution of 100 μm. DESI-MS is effective in monitoring binding media within an intact painting cross-section via mass spectrometric methods. This includes distinguishing between lipid-containing and modern binding materials present in a known mockup cross section matrix as well as identifying lipid binding media in a 17th century baroque era painting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. The mass media and national development: the case of 'baby factory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mass media play vital role in the national development of any nation, they ... entertainment, integration and social interaction in a country by giving insight into ... and concluded that they should be allowed to promote the national identity of ...

  8. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  9. The role of mass media in disease outbreak reporting in the United ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Emerging infectious diseases and the growth of information communication technology have produced ... An analysis of disease outbreak information and reporting by the Tanzanian mass media was ...

  10. [Mass media communication of biomedical advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Salas, Sofía; Beca I, Juan Pablo

    2008-10-01

    The public dissemination of advances in biomedical research and clinical medicine generates several difficulties and problems. Mass media have the responsibility to report accurately and in a comprehensive way, and physicians and researchers must provide this information in a timely manner and without bias. After reviewing the literature related to this subject and discussing some examples of inadequate information in the Chilean context, the authors suggest the following recommendations: journalists should compare and evaluate the information appropriately before its publication, researchers and journalists should work together, reports should inform clearly about the state of the research and every academic institution should avoid reporting publicly preliminary experiences. If these recommendations are followed, the general public, physicians, researchers and health care institutions will be benefited.

  11. A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have long been a tool for promoting public health. How effective are such campaigns in changing health-related attitudes and behaviors, however, and how has the literature in this area progressed over the past decade? The purpose of the current article is threefold. First, I discuss the importance of health mass media campaigns and raise the question of whether they are capable of effectively impacting public health. Second, I review the literature and discuss what we have learned about the effectiveness of campaigns over the past 10 years. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for the health campaign literature over the next 10 years. The overriding conclusion is the following: The literature is beginning to amass evidence that targeted, well-executed health mass media campaigns can have small-to-moderate effects not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well, which can translate into major public health impact given the wide reach of mass media. Such impact can only be achieved, however, if principles of effective campaign design are carefully followed.

  12. Lithuania’s Images in Russian Mass Media after the Annexation of Crimea

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    Pugačiauskas Virgilijus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinctive features of Russia’s confrontation with the West over the 2014-2016 period is the intensification of Russian propaganda both in foreign countries and within the state. Lithuania, whose relations with a major neighbour were not normalized, and which openly supported Ukraine’s position, attracted the additional attention of Russian mass media in which an incitement to anti- Lithuanian moods was bolstered. In this case, it is endeavoured to generally describe how the mass media (television and newspapers played a role in contriving a social construct and ascertain the Lithuanian quantitative characteristics which are presented in Russian mass media. Referring to the analysis, one can distinguish three prevailing negative images of Lithuania - that is, Russophobic and anti-Russian; a falsifier of history; and a failing and non-influential state. These images, being consistently and purposefully exploited in Russian information space, almost with no alternative sources, turned into undeniable truth for the majority of Russian citizens. This provides the Kremlin with vast possibilities of manipulation in constructing the tactics and strategy of geopolitical instability. On the other hand, one should not forget that such a negative picture of Lithuania serves as a way in which Russian society justifies Putin’s political system and demonstrates its superiority over the values of the Western world.

  13. Long-term evaluation of a Canadian back pain mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Arnela; Bostick, Geoffrey P; Schopflocher, Donald; Russell, Anthony S; Ferrari, Robert; Battié, Michele C; Hu, Richard; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Gross, Douglas P

    2017-09-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term impact of a Canadian mass media campaign on general public beliefs about staying active when experiencing low back pain (LBP). Changes in beliefs about staying active during an episode of LBP were studied using telephone and web-based surveys. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate changes in beliefs over time and the effect of exposure to campaign messaging. The percentage of survey respondents agreeing that they should stay active through LBP increased annually from 58.9 to ~72.0%. Respondents reporting exposure to campaign messaging were statistically significantly more likely to agree with staying active than respondents who did not report exposure to campaign messaging (adjusted OR, 95% CI = 1.96, 1.73-2.21). The mass media campaign had continued impact on public LBP beliefs over the course of 7 years. Improvements over time were associated with exposure to campaign messaging.

  14. Single Thai women's interpersonal communication and mass media reception on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Y; Schunck, M

    1997-04-01

    This research examines young unmarried women's ways of talking about AIDS, AIDS prevention, and its relationship to mass media AIDS messages in Thailand. Data were derived from a survey conducted in four districts of Kanchanaburi province. Three hundred ninety-seven unmarried women were extracted from the approximately 1,800 original subjects for this analysis. Respondents were asked about the subjects and extent of their conversations about AIDS, the choice of discussion partners, considerations of social appropriateness in talking about the disease, as well as their risk perception. Important findings were that (a) women tend to talk about AIDS primarily with friends and siblings, (b) their reception level of mass media messages is related to the number of topics discussed and frequency of talks by the subjects, and (c) socioeconomic status and age are related to the variety and frequency of talking about AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.

  15. Mass Media as a Remedy for Poverty of the Stimulus in the Foreign Language Context

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    Samaneh Tarighat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is intended to determine how extensive exposure to target language mass media can affect foreign language learning and the poverty of the stimulus problem in the foreign language context. For this purpose, an EFL learner was studied for the period of one month and was asked to have extensive exposure to English language mass media only. The case was also asked to record her experience in a journal on a daily basis. The results indicated tangible improvement in her English speaking, listening, pronunciation and vocabulary but hardly any improvement on her English writing. A more profound impact was reported on the subject’s four-year-old son who was not initially the focus of this study. The results suggest that considering the authentic, lengthy language input it provides, foreign language mass media can compensate for the problem of poverty of the stimulus in foreign language learning. It is concluded that formal language instruction and exposure to foreign language mass media outside the class can complement one another and promote foreign language learning on the whole. It is also evident that the impact of extensive language input varies with the age of the language learner, with young learners bearing more influence than adult learners as the effects of the critical period hypothesis.

  16. Screen Savers. Case Histories of Social Reaction to Mass Media, Children and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Critcher, Chas

    2013-01-01

    Historically the mass media have often been blamed for causing violent behaviour by children and young people. Two case studies of new media, film and video games, are compared in terms of their emergence, reactions to them and outcomes of the debate, mainly in the USA and Britain. Both cases are used to test the sociological model of moral panic which is found to be of limited appli­cation. It needs to be supplemented by two other concepts, those of media panic and moral regulation. Only the...

  17. Association of Mass Media Communication with Contraceptive Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Meta-Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Figueroa, Maria-Elena; Krenn, Susan

    2017-11-01

    Literature abounds with evidence on the effectiveness of individual mass media interventions on contraceptive use and other health behaviors. There have been, however, very few studies summarizing effect sizes of mass media health communication campaigns in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we used meta-analytic techniques to pool data from 47 demographic and health surveys conducted between 2005 and 2015 in 31 sub-Saharan African countries and estimate the prevalence of exposure to family planning-related mass media communication. We also estimated the average effect size of exposure to mass media communication after adjusting for endogeneity. We performed meta-regression to assess the moderating role of selected variables on effect size. On average, 44% of women in sub-Saharan Africa were exposed to family planning-related mass media interventions in the year preceding the survey. Overall, exposure was associated with an effect size equivalent to an odds ratio of 1.93. More recent surveys demonstrated smaller effect sizes than earlier ones, while the effects were larger in lower contraceptive prevalence settings than in higher prevalence ones. The findings have implications for designing communication programs, setting expectations about communication impact, and guiding decisions about sample size estimation for mass media evaluation studies.

  18. Dynamics of Russian business culture values in the reflection of mass media

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    E. A. Sverdlikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses practices of “Traditions and values of Russian business culture” course teaching at Lomonosov Moscow State University’s Faculty of Sociology. The experience allows drawing methodological and theoretical conclusions on the values of business culture which underlie models of the modern business behavior. The first part of the publication concerns analysis of tradition of studying Russian culture values, in the paradigm of which the Russian business culture exists. According to the findings, traditions are enrooted in the Orthodoxy and are determined by patrimonial memories and contradictions of the Russian people’s character, ideals and spiritual framework. A system of Russian business values is developed based on the traditions as well as literary heritage, biographies of famous Russian and Soviet economists and set of rules of ethics code of the pre-revolutionary Russian business class. The main elements of the system include the following values: faith, family, commitment to business, patriotism, natural ingenuity, ability to set and solve atask of extra complexity, original forms of labor organization, and prevalence of moral motivation forms over material ones. The second part of the article deals with succession of the above-mentioned values in the modern Russian business environment. The content analysis is applied to examine the continuity. The object of the research is the text corpus of the Russian business press. The findings of the research show dynamics of the Russian mass media attention to the business culture values for the period from 2010 to 2014. The mass media interest to the issue coverage has been on the constant rise: from 37,2% of the aggregate amount of information on the Russian business in 2012 to 39,8% in 2014. There have also been examined dynamics of mass media attention to certain business culture values. The mass media assignedtop priority in 2012, 2013 and 2014 to the following values

  19. Mass media as an effective tool for prevention of sociopsychological factors in the development of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Zinchenko, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    Recently mass media play crucial role in social counterterrorism activity. The article is devoted to analysis of possibilities of mass media in prevention of the development of terrorism. Socio-psychological factors of development of terrorism, including concept of “contributing events” as well as hypothesis “frustration-aggression” are studied. The psychological component of terrorism in three major attitudes is considered in the article: psychology of terrorism, psychology of counteraction ...

  20. Access to mass media messages, and use of family planning in Nigeria: a spatio-demographic analysis from the 2013 DHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaero, Chukwuedozie K; Odimegwu, Clifford; Ajaero, Ijeoma D; Nwachukwu, Chidiebere A

    2016-05-24

    Nigeria has the highest population in sub-Saharan Africa with high birth and growth rates. There is therefore need for family planning to regulate and stabilize this population. This study examined the relationship between access to mass media messages on family planning and use of family planning in Nigeria. It also investigated the impacts of spatio-demographic variables on the relationship between access to mass media messages and use of family planning. Data from the 2013 demographic and health survey of Nigeria which was conducted in all the 36 states of Nigeria, and Abuja were used for the study. The sample was weighted to ensure representativeness. Univariate, bivariate and binary logistic regressions were conducted. The relationship between each of the access to mass media messages, and the family planning variables were determined with Pearson correlation analysis. The correlation results showed significant but weak direct relationships between the access to mass media messages and use of family planning at p mass media messages on family planning, and on the use of family planning. The results showed that access to mass media messages increases the likelihood of the use of family planning. Also people with higher socioeconomic status and those from the Southern part of the country make more use of family planning. There is need to improve the socioeconomic status of the populations. Also, the quality and regularity of mass media messages should be improved, while other communication avenues such as traditional institutions, blogs, and seminars for youths should be used to make family planning messages more acceptable.

  1. Does Online Social Media Lead to Social Connection or Social Disconnection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Today’s young generation (often called "Millennials," "GenY," or "Generation Me") are the first to grow up with the Internet and social networking websites. Have these experiences led to more and better social connections, or fewer and atrophied ones? Social media use may lead to online political action such as signing an e-mail petition but does…

  2. Utilization of Mass Media and Effects for Developing Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Ozbas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Women's health, family and society resulting from psycho-social factors, women's individual health status, fertility behavior, such as the quality of health services are affected by many factors. Factors that affect health because they are many and various, to develop health strategies and actions are also many and varied. Therefore, the development of health issue, not only the health sector, many sectors of the business. One of the most important of these sectors is the media. Women how to mass media can reach, when they choose what is, and these preferences in women's health in developing discuss how the effective use of women in this study visual media to reach out difficulties they were experiencing. Especially in rural areas, it is observed more pronounced. Women in the use of the media gather useful information, they apply this knowledge in the development of their health and it was concluded that the media would be effective. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 541-546

  3. Mining the Popular Culture: The Mass Media and Freshman Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, M. W.

    The study of mass media and popular culture in a composition class allows students and teachers together to develop a critical awareness of television and advertising. Jerzy Kosinski's book, "Being There," a novel about the impact of television, is a beginning point for the study of television. Using that book as if it were a collection of events,…

  4. The Role of Audiovisual Mass Media News in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the role of audio/visual mass media news in language learning. In this regard, the two important issues regarding the selection and preparation of TV news for language learning are the content of the news and the linguistic difficulty. Content is described as whether the news is specialized or universal. Universal…

  5. Peeling Lead Paint Turns into Poisonous Dust. Guess Where It Ends Up? A Media Campaign to Prevent Childhood Lead Poisoning in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P.; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to…

  6. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  7. Mass-media și adolescența. Modele feminine incipiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica JUNJAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper investigates perceptions of adolescents about influences of mass media regarding feminine models such as Mother, Politician Woman and the Star. Their relationship with the feminine model of the Mother is then explored. In terms of the Politician-Woman there are longterm consequences regarding the image of the self and future political participation of the youth. An important result is that the adolescents have a strongly positive image of the self, recognizing in themselves characteristics positively appreciated to their models: Mother, Star, and Politician. Most of the Politician-Women discussed by the youth have a strong media presence, in a wide range of shows, thus reaching a wide youth target.

  8. Mass Media as Actor in Political Process: Evolution of the Western Approaches since the 1950s. (Part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Гуторов, Владимир Александрович

    2013-01-01

    The author analyses evolution of western political science’s approaches to mass media and mass media’s role in political process in liberal democracies. The author focuses on theories of “Minimal Effect,” “Mediocracy,” “Effects Research,” “Tеxt Analysis,” “Use and Gratification Approach.” The author discusses A. Giddens’s structuration theory as the most elaborate approach to interpreting the role of mass media in the western political and social science.Key words: mass and political communic...

  9. Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

  10. User Behavior in Mass Media Websites

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    Manuel GÓMEZ ZOTANO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass media websites can be worthy to understand user trends in web services. RTVE, the National Broadcaster in Spain is a sample of such kind of service. Trend points to a shorter user interaction over the last three years, and a more straight access to content. Besides the number of pages consumed in a visit is becoming smaller as well. This article reviews these trends with data obtained from public sources, and analyze the distribution of web pages in the client layer and the corresponding distribution observed in the server layer. The two distributions can be characterized by Zipf-like distributions and ?, the degree of disparity in the popularity distribution, is calculated for both. In all cases ? is higher to one implying a huge concentration of popularity on a few objects.

  11. The relationship between trust in mass media and the healthcare system and individual health: evidence from the AsiaBarometer Survey

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    Tokuda Yasuharu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertical and horizontal trust, as dimensions of social capital, may be important determinants of health. As mass media campaigns have been used extensively to promote healthy lifestyles and convey health-related information, high levels of individual trust in the media may facilitate the success of such campaigns and, hence, have a positive influence on health. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between trust levels in mass media, an aspect of vertical trust, and health. Methods Based on cross-sectional data of the general population from the AsiaBarometer Survey (2003–2006, we analyzed the relationship between self-rated health and trust in mass media, using a multilevel logistic model, adjusted for age, gender, marital status, income, education, occupation, horizontal trust, and trust in the healthcare system. Results In a total of 39082 participants (mean age 38; 49% male, 26808 (69% were classified as in good health. By the levels of trust in mass media, there were 6399 (16% who reported that they trust a lot, 16327 (42% reporting trust to a degree, 9838 (25% who do not really trust, 3307 (9% who do not trust at all, and 191 (0.5% who have not thought about it. In the multilevel model, trust in mass media was associated with good health (do not trust at all as the base group: the odds ratios (OR of 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.05–1.27 for do not really trust; OR of 1.35 (95% CI = 1.23–1.49 for trust to a degree, and 1.57 (95% CI = 1.36–1.81 for trust a lot. Horizontal trust and trust in the healthcare system were also associated with health. Conclusion Vertical trust in mass media is associated with better health in Asian people. Since mass media is likely an important arena for public health, media trust should be enhanced to make people healthier.

  12. The Effects of Musical Elements in Mass Media and Internet on the Social Development of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celasin, Cenk

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, musical elements in mass media and internet mostly intended to children and adolescents, were examined in the context of the dimensions of the social development of them in a general approach, through scientific literature and written, audio, visual and audio-visual documents regarding mass media and internet. Purpose of…

  13. Malay Pop: Mass Media Hegemony in Indonesia Popular Music

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    Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the domination of Malay pop music through textual analysis of songs, observation of musical programs, and interviews with important figures. The research data were obtained by library research and analyzed through a critical theory approach to gain an understanding of the text and its effects. The article concludes that Malay pop contains a strong uniformity which may be termed a phenomenon in the context of the culture industry, while also being dominant because of its legitimacy created by the media. The nature of Malay pop is also very profitable for those participating in it, therefore the spirit of capitalism was also quite dominant in this context. There is also resistance from the indie music movement, and its attempts to fight regressive qualities of music that are legitimized in the mainstream mass media.  

  14. Leading US nano-scientists' perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists' perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists' perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  15. Leading US nano-scientists’ perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists’ perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists’ perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  16. How the mass media report social statistics: a case study concerning research on end-of-life decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive

    2010-09-01

    The issue of whether it is right to be concerned about the accuracy with which mass media report social scientific research is explored through a detailed case study of media reporting of two surveys of UK doctors' end-of-life decision-making. Data include press releases, emails and field notes taken during periods of media interest supplemented by a collection of print and broadcast media reports. The case study contributes to existing knowledge about the ways in which mass media establish, exaggerate and otherwise distort the meaning of statistical findings. Journalists ignored findings that did not fit into existing media interest in the 'assisted dying' story and were subject to pressure from interest groups concerned to promote their own interpretations and viewpoints. Rogue statistics mutated as they were set loose from their original research report context and were 'laundered' as they passed from one media report to another. Yet media accounts of the research, fuelling an already heated public debate about ethical issues in end-of-life care, arguably acted as a conduit for introducing new considerations into this debate, such as the role played by sedation at the end of life, the extent to which euthanasia is practiced outside the law, and the extent of medical opposition to the legalisation of assisted dying. The expectation that accuracy and comprehensiveness should be the sole criteria for judging journalists' reports is, finally, considered to be unrealistic and it is argued that social scientists need to understand and adapted to the conditions under which mass media reporting operates if they are to succeed in introducing the findings of social research into public debates. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass media differences in ''nuclear news'' reporting: implications for public opinions and acceptable safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Williams, J.

    1975-01-01

    The technical and political issues of diversion safeguards are at best confusing to the general public, who derive most of their information about nuclear science from the mass media. This investigation compared ''nuclear news'' of all kinds in three national mass media for thirty-three months of 1972-1974 to examine the quantity and quality of atom-related news they provide. Findings from The New York Times, U. S. News and World Report, and the ABC, CBS, and NBC evening news indicate grounds for low public familiarity with essential concepts of safeguards, and consequently, for consumer value conflicts and weak popular supports for safeguards-related policy

  18. CREATIVE ECONOMY: A NEW CADRE FOR MEDIA INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burtic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We wonder why the creative economy concept causes so much passion, excitement and so high expectations. Because imagination, creativity, competence, fantasy, individual talent, ingenuity were and still are today catalysts that led to society development. How does creative economy, that seems to promise so much, distinguish from other economic stamps which imprinted the human community in the course of history? These are some of the questions we will try to answer in this paper work, having in mind as objective the study of communication processes and mass-media. Generally, the research over mass-media system considered that the content analysis may provide the means to understand the society we live in. In terms of methodology, starting from the observation of mass-media industry and economy actuality, we propose to make an analysis of content. We will raise issues regarding concept definition and delimitation, historical development and media industry analysis from an economical perspective, analyzing the opinions of some other researchers about these subjects. We will try to present the concepts we support having in light some reference paper works and to illustrate with realities from Romanian and international mass-media economy. We will go through literature and we will try to support with empirical data the subjects discussed in theory. To achieve these things, we will use relevant statistical and official data of other researchers. In the examination of mass-media economy we will study economical models, comparative analysis and analysis of international organizations positions. In the current situation, mass-media is part of a technological and economic transformation, like the whole society is. An economical approach of media industry is important today both from the scientific and practical point of view. Most of the decisions taken by the factors that lead the businesses in media sector are largely influenced by financial resources

  19. An evaluation of the role of the mass media in conflict management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the role of the mass media in conflict management: The Niger ... ups and downs to the public within the ambit of social responsibility theory of the ... Thus, blowing mere misunderstanding and misconception of issues from the ...

  20. A mass conservative numerical solution of vertical water flow and mass transport equations in unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.; Lee, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Galerkin finite element method is used to solve the problem of one-dimensional, vertical flow of water and mass transport of conservative-nonconservative solutes in unsaturated porous media. Numerical approximations based on different forms of the governing equation, although they are equivalent in continuous forms, can result in remarkably different solutions in an unsaturated flow problem. Solutions given by a simple Galerkin method based on the h-based Richards equation yield a large mass balance error and an underestimation of the infiltration depth. With the employment of the ROMV (restoration of main variable) concept in the discretization step, the mass conservative numerical solution algorithm for water flow has been derived. The resulting computational schemes for water flow and mass transport are applied to sandy soil. The ROMV method shows good mass conservation in water flow analysis, whereas it seems to have a minor effect on mass transport. However, it may relax the time-step size restriction and so ensure an improved calculation output. (author)

  1. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating.

  2. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2014-02-01

    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work `blamed' the mass media for these misunderstandings. This study aimed to determine whether that blame had any foundation by examining the media habits and conceptions about genes and DNA of Australian children. With little prior research considering the influence of entertainment mass media on children's academically relevant knowledge, this was an exploratory study with a mixed modes design. Data were collected by detailed media questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with 62 children aged 10-12 years, and subjected to content and thematic analysis. Specific mass media examples children reported using were examined for genetics content. Results indicate 5 h/day of media use, mostly television including crime shows, and that children perceived television to be their main source of information about genetics. Most children (89 %) knew DNA, 60 % knew genes, and more was known about uses of DNA outside the body such as crime solving or resolving family relationships than about its biological nature and function. Half believed DNA is only in blood and body parts used for forensics. These concepts paralleled the themes emerging from the media examples. The results indicate that the mass media is a pervasive teacher of children, and that fundamental concepts could be introduced earlier in schools to establish scientific concepts before misconceptions arise.

  3. Mass Media and HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the sources of HIV prevention information for female sex workers in Beijing and assess the associations between levels of mass media exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention information and HIV/AIDS knowledge as well as condom use-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 359 female sex workers in Beijing, China. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were employed. Female sex workers sampled in Beijing were more likely to obtain HIV/AIDS prevention information from television and street posters than radio and the Internet. However, a higher level of exposure to and a lasting impression on online information were significantly associated with a higher level of condom use self-efficacy and more consistent condom use among the participants. Exposure to HIV/AIDS prevention information delivered by radio, street posters, and the Internet was found to be associated with sexual communication about HIV or condom use with sexual partners. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of various mass media outlets in delivering HIV/AIDS prevention information among female sex workers in China. Future studies are needed to systematically examine the effectiveness of mass media-based prevention education on HIV/AIDS related attitudes and behaviors among female sex workers and other populations in China.

  4. Mass media effect on vaccines uptake during silent polio outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Iftach; Novack, Victor; Gdalevich, Michael; Greenberg, Dan

    2018-03-14

    During 2013, isolation of a wild type 1 poliovirus from routine sewage sample in Israel, led to a national OPV campaign. During this period, there was a constant cover of the outbreak by the mass media. To investigate the association of media exposure and OPV and non-OPV vaccines uptake during the 2013 silent polio outbreak in Israel. We received data on daily immunization rates during the outbreak period from the Ministry of Health (MoH). We conducted a multivariable time trend analysis to assess the association between daily media exposure and vaccines uptake. Analysis was stratified by ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES). During the MoH supplemental immunization activity, 138,799 OPV vaccines were given. There was a significant association between media exposure and OPV uptake, most prominent in a lag of 3-5 days from the exposure among Jews (R.R 1.79C.I 95% 1.32-2.41) and high SES subgroups (R.R 1.71C.I 95% 1.27-2.30). These subgroups also showed increased non-OPV uptake in a lag of 3-5 days from the media exposure, in all vaccines except for MMR. Lower SES and non-Jewish subgroups did not demonstrate the same association. Our findings expand the understanding of public behaviour during outbreaks. The public response shows high variability within specific subgroups. These findings highlight the importance of tailored communication strategies for each subgroup. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Setting the agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sebastián; Balenzuela, Pablo; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2016-09-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about news with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a fixed feature, representing its point of view in the topic of discussion, while it tries to attract new consumers, by taking advantage of feedback mechanisms, represented by adaptive features. We explore different strategies that the Media can adopt in order to increase the affinity with potential consumers and then the probability to be successful in imposing this particular topic.

  6. The decline of natural sciences in the culture of mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    This study sets out to determine if the interest in and study of natural sciences is declining in western countries as scientists currently contend. Part one demonstrates how survey results reveal a decline of interest in scientific news in the EU. Part two explores the decline of interest further through examining data such as the number of students interested in scientific subjects and scientific careers. I explore the hypothesis that the lack of interest in scientific subjects is influenced by the culture of the mass media, and the manner in which the media covers scientific items. I examine a range of media outlets, from reality TV shows and TV series, to movies and the press. Many aspects of this paper have been discussed in depth in my book published in 2008: La razón estrangulada (Reason Strangled: the Crisis of Science in Contemporary Society).

  7. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Safety in online media – freedom of the media; safety of media actors and media education

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Ch

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, prepared for the international conference ‘Mass Media – Society – Education: Media Safety Problems’ at the Chelyabinsk State University’s Department for Journalism and Media Education from September 30 – October 3, 2013, I would like to address three dimensions of media safety and security in online media.

  9. Numerical investigation of vapor–liquid heat and mass transfer in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Chengyun; Rao, Zhonghao; You, Xinyu; Song, Zhengchang; Han, Dongtai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The heat and mass transfer behaviors in porous media was investigated. • A modified separate flow model (MSFM) was developed. • The influence of heat flux direction on heat and fluid flow behaviors is great. • The saturation profile is weakly discontinuous on the phase interface. • A countercurrent flow exists in two-phase region. - Abstract: A modified separate flow model (MSFM) is developed to numerically investigate the heat and mass transfer behaviors in porous media in this paper. In the MSFM, the effects of capillarity, liquid phase change, nonisothermal two-phase region and the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) are considered. The vapor and liquid velocities are both converted into intermediate variables in the simulations and conveniently convergent solutions are obtained because a special upwind scheme for the convection or boiling heat transfer source and variable convergence factors are simultaneously employed. Two typical numerical examples with a one-dimension model of porous media are studied that the high heat fluxes are vertical and parallel to the fluid flow direction, respectively. And the results indicated that the influence of heat flux direction on heat and fluid flow behaviors in porous media is great. The nonisothermal phenomenon in the two-phase region is obvious for the former while the LTNE phenomenon is remarkable in the two-phase region for the latter. The results also showed several similar behaviors that the saturation profile is weakly discontinuous on the phase interface and a countercurrent flow exists in two-phase region

  10. Effects of mass media action on the Axelrod model with social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Moreno, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The use of dyadic interaction between agents, in combination with homophily (the principle that “likes attract”) in the Axelrod model for the study of cultural dissemination, has two important problems: the prediction of monoculture in large societies and an extremely narrow window of noise levels in which diversity with local convergence is obtained. Recently, the inclusion of social influence has proven to overcome them [A. Flache and M. W. Macy, e-print arXiv:0808.2710]. Here, we extend the Axelrod model with social influence interaction for the study of mass media effects through the inclusion of a superagent which acts over the whole system and has non-null overlap with each agent of the society. The dependence with different parameters as the initial social diversity, size effects, mass media strength, and noise is outlined. Our results might be relevant in several socioeconomic contexts and for the study of the emergence of collective behavior in complex social systems.

  11. Primary care nurses' experiences of how the mass media influence frontline healthcare in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Hilton, Shona

    2013-11-24

    Mass media plays an important role in communicating about health research and services to patients, and in shaping public perceptions and decisions about health. Healthcare professionals also play an important role in providing patients with credible, evidence-based and up-to-date information on a wide range of health issues. This study aims to explore primary care nurses' experiences of how mass media influences frontline healthcare. In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 18 primary care nurses (nine health visitors and nine practice nurses) working in the United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative analysis. Three themes emerged from the data. First, participants reported that their patients were frequently influenced by controversial health stories reported in the media, which affected their perceptions of, and decisions about, care. This, in turn, impinged upon participants' workloads as they had to spend additional time discussing information and reassuring patients. Second, participants also recalled times in their own careers when media reports had contributed to a decline in their confidence in current healthcare practices and treatments. Third, the participants in this study suggested a real need for additional resources to support and expand their own media literacy skills, which could be shared with patients. In an ever expanding media landscape with greater reporting on health, nurses working in the primary care setting face increasing pressure to effectively manage media stories that dispute current health policies and practices. These primary care nurses were keen to expand their media literacy skills to develop critical autonomy in relation to all media, and to facilitate more meaningful conversations with their patients about their health concerns and choices.

  12. A model for cross-cultural reciprocal interactions through mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Cosenza, Mario G; San Miguel, Maxi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the problem of cross-cultural interactions through mass media in a model where two populations of social agents, each with its own internal dynamics, get information about each other through reciprocal global interactions. As the agent dynamics, we employ Axelrod's model for social influence. The global interaction fields correspond to the statistical mode of the states of the agents and represent mass media messages on the cultural trend originating in each population. Several phases are found in the collective behavior of either population depending on parameter values: two homogeneous phases, one having the state of the global field acting on that population, and the other consisting of a state different from that reached by the applied global field; and a disordered phase. In addition, the system displays nontrivial effects: (i) the emergence of a largest minority group of appreciable size sharing a state different from that of the applied global field; (ii) the appearance of localized ordered states for some values of parameters when the entire system is observed, consisting of one population in a homogeneous state and the other in a disordered state. This last situation can be considered as a social analogue to a chimera state arising in globally coupled populations of oscillators.

  13. Is mass media beneficial or not for the information of the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.

    2005-11-01

    The International Year of Physics reminds us, among other things, of the way in which Einstein became famous. In spite of all his remarkable scientific results, without the contribution of the press he would not have become so well known in the entire world as he was and continues to be after a century. And he is not the unique example of celebrity due to mass media (see Carl Sagan or Stephen Hawking). In 1969 the first man stepped on the Moon. It was maybe the first cosmic event, which became famous due to a live TV broadcast. Others followed, if we are to mention only the total solar eclipse of 1999 or Venus's transit of last year. Consequently, mass media can make a scientist famous, can also make an event understood and admired and can attract hundreds or maybe millions of people to science. The same mass media can also destroy a personality or an event. We shall give only two examples: the distrust of many people concerning the same Moon landing or the manipulation of millions of people by means of astrology. All this urges us to make a very thorough analysis of the way in which scientific information is communicated to the general public: well done, it can be beneficial; otherwise it may drive the new generations away from research, the understanding of the phenomena, the neglect of the environment and finally from the neglect and the destruction of our own planet.

  14. Postmodern Spanish Literature between the end of the dictatorship and the rise of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Candón Ríos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the assimilation of postmodern practices into Spanish culture, specifically in the field of literature. Spain remained internationally isolated during the first phase of the Franco dictatorship, which prevented new cultural movements arising in Europe and America from becoming established in Spain. It was not until the economic boom of the 60s that the mass media was imposed as a cultural regulator, commercializing all artistic production and spawning new trends in cultural consumption. The new mass media served as a cultural bridge between Spain and the rest of the world, enabling the Spanish population to become part of a new globalized world.

  15. Gender and age in media education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek,

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities’ rights have to be secured, but also majorities rights have to considered if it happens that majorities are discriminated. Widely accepted gender and age inequalities presented on the media in stereotypes and safely-looking conservatist behaviours may lead to harassment and even violence. That is why understanding media messages and identifying overt and covert forms of discrimination are of special interest of educators. In this article several activities for class teachers are presented to encourage them to introduce the touchy topic of gender and age inequalities into their school practice.

  16. Sex, Pornography, and the Mass Media: How Should Social Studies Teachers Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Many people fear that the current explosion in mass media technology is negatively affecting individuals and society via-a-vis considerations related to the accessibility of pornographic materials. The way this accessibility affects young people is of particular concern. In this article, the author addresses these concerns from the legal and…

  17. Mass media health communication campaigns combined with health-related product distribution: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Elder, Randy W; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L; Eroglu, Dogan; Baur, Cynthia; Lyon-Daniel, Katherine; Fridinger, Fred; Sokler, Lynn A; Green, Lawrence W; Miller, Therese; Dearing, James W; Evans, William D; Snyder, Leslie B; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, K; Beistle, Diane M; Chervin, Doryn D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Rimer, Barbara K

    2014-09-01

    Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Using methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980-December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Twenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. Health communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mass media, online social network, and organ donation: old mistakes and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, A; Uslu, A; Şimşek, C

    2015-05-01

    Contrary to TV programs projecting awareness about organ donation in society, concrete evidence exists about adverse influence of negative broadcasts on organ donation rates. We sought to determine the effect of mass media on public opinion toward organ donation and the efficacy of public campaigns and novel social media attempts on donation rates. We conducted a systematic review of relevant literature and national campaign results. Hoaxes about brain death and organ transplantation adversely affect organ donation rates in both Western and Eastern societies. Scientifically controversial and exaggerated press conferences and institutional advertisements create mistrust in doctors, thus reducing organ donation. The overall effect of public education campaigns in promoting organ donation is a temporary 5% gain. Increments in organ donation rates is expected with novel applications of social media (Facebook effect). Communication, based on mutual trust, must be established between medicine and the media. Continuing education programs with regard to public awareness on organ donation should be conducted over social media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prepovedane droge v slovenskih množičnih medijih: Illicit drugs in Slovene mass media:

    OpenAIRE

    Drev, Andreja; Kamin, Tanja; Sever, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the article was to establish the frequency of Slovene media reports on illicit drugs, as well as to identify the main initiators of media coverage of illicit drugs and to determine the influence of health institutions on the information provided. Method: During the period studied, we collected 360 articles on illicit drugs published in twelve selected Slovene mass media. Basic techniques of descriptive statistical analysis and statistical significance tests were used. The ...

  20. Mass spectrometry of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope analyses of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium are carried out by single filament solid source mass spectrometry. Thermionic emission of Pb and Cd is enhanced using silica gel as an emitter. Details of the chemical and mass spectrometric techniques are described. The low blank levels are maintained by extra purification of the reagents. The applications of isotope ratios of Pb and Cd in environmental sciences and geochemistry are discussed. (Author) [pt

  1. Experimental Evidence of Helical Flow in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Yu; Chiogna, Gabriele; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2015-01-01

    Helical flow leads to deformation of solute plumes and enhances transverse mixing in porous media. We present experiments in which macroscopic helical flow is created by arranging different materials to obtain an anisotropic macroscopic permeability tensor with spatially variable orientation....... The resulting helical flow entails twisting streamlines which cause a significant increase in lateral mass exchange and thus a large enhancement of plume dilution (up to 235%) compared to transport in homogenous media. The setup may be used to effectively mix solutes in parallel streams similarly to static...... mixers, but in porous media....

  2. Impact of increasing social media use on sitting time and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Stephanie; Wellens, Pauline; Schoeppe, Stephanie; de Vries, Hein; Rebar, Amanda L; Short, Camille E; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Sedentary behaviours, in particular sitting, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and poorer mental health status. In Australia, 70% of adults sit for more than 8h per day. The use of social media applications (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) is on the rise; however, no studies have explored the association of social media use with sitting time and body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional self-report data on demographics, BMI and sitting time were collected from 1140 participants in the 2013 Queensland Social Survey. Generalised linear models were used to estimate associations of a social media score calculated from social media use, perceived importance of social media, and number of social media contacts with sitting time and BMI. Results Participants with a high social media score had significantly greater sitting times while using a computer in leisure time and significantly greater total sitting time on non-workdays. However, no associations were found between social media score and sitting to view TV, use motorised transport, work or participate in other leisure activities; or total workday, total sitting time or BMI. Conclusions These results indicate that social media use is associated with increased sitting time while using a computer, and total sitting time on non-workdays. So what? The rise in social media use may have a negative impact on health by contributing to computer sitting and total sitting time on non-workdays. Future longitudinal research with a representative sample and objective sitting measures is needed to confirm findings.

  3. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  4. Towards a Discourse for Criticism in Language Teaching: Analysis of Sociocultural Representations in Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rosa Vargas Torres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a discourse for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines. As illustrated inside, the source and objective of analysis by means of which this discourse can be contextualized in language teaching is the language of mass media and all the sociocultural and signifying practices that it invokes. We conclude that through the analysis of mass media it is possible to educate students with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to interact critically in the world.

  5. Population-Based Evaluation of the "Livelighter" Healthy Weight and Lifestyle Mass Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…

  6. Potential Impact of the Mass Media on Family Planning in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The role of radio and television message is an important factor in creating and changing the values, ideas and attitudes of people in Public Health. Fertility regulation in Nigeria is still yet to meet the optimum level. Objectives: The research therefore is designed to assess the role of mass media, radio and television ...

  7. Americans' Views of Fathers' Competency as Parents through a Mass Media Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Portrayals of fathers in the mass media influence parents' views of the importance of fathers to the well-being of children and of fathers' competence as parents. Awareness of how these portrayals influence parents is crucial to the effectiveness of professionals as they seek to improve child well-being through their work with parents,…

  8. Targeted mass media interventions promoting healthy behaviours to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases in adult, ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdøl, Annhild; Lidal, Ingeborg B; Straumann, Gyri H; Vist, Gunn E

    2017-02-17

    Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SweMed+, and ISI Web of Science until August 2016. We also searched for grey literature in OpenGrey, Grey Literature Report, Eldis, and two relevant websites until October 2016. The searches were not restricted by language. We searched for individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies (ITS). Relevant interventions promoted healthier behaviours related to physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption; were disseminated via mass media channels; and targeted ethnic minority groups. The population of interest comprised adults (≥ 18 years) from ethnic minority groups in the focal countries. Primary outcomes included indicators of behavioural change, self-reported behavioural change and knowledge and attitudes towards change. Secondary outcomes were the use of health promotion services and costs related to the project. Two authors independently reviewed the references to identify studies for inclusion. We extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in all included studies. We did not pool the results due to heterogeneity in comparisons made, outcomes, and study designs. We describe the results narratively and present them in 'Summary of findings

  9. Mass media constructions of 'socio-psychological epidemics' in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of genital shrinking in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Dzokoto, Vivian A; Yevak, Earl

    2015-11-01

    Genital shrinking is a recurring phenomenon with about 180 reported cases in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Transcending national boundaries, it results in distress for victims, mob violence against accused perpetrators and mass panic which law enforcement agencies struggle to contain. This article examines mass media construction and framing of genital shrinking within a social representations theory framework. Our analysis suggests the following: (1) mass media reports are informed by lay and expert perspectives; (2) three stocks of knowledge are drawn on interchangeably, with culture constituting a core representation; (3) lay and expert perspectives overlap on cultural and common-sense explanations of genital shrinking; and (4) scientific explanations are limited to individual pathophysiology and psychopathology and do not inform public opinion. We consider the implications of understanding genital shrinking for improving mass media constructions and dissemination of information on 'socio-psychological epidemics' that may have scientific explanations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Developing antitobacco mass media campaign messages in a low-resource setting: experience from the Kingdom of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, C; Phongsavan, P; Gloede, S; Filiai, S; Tongamana, V O

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use has become the leading cause of preventable death in Tonga, a small island nation in the South Pacific. One pragmatic and economical strategy to address this worrying trend is to adapt effective antitobacco mass media materials developed in high-income countries for local audiences. Using Tonga as an example, this paper shares the practical steps involved in adapting antitobacco campaign materials for local audiences with minimal resources, a limited budget and without the need for an external production team. The Tongan experience underscores the importance of an adaptation process that draws from evidence-based best-practice models and engages local and regional stakeholders to ensure that campaign materials are tailored to the local context and are embedded within a mix of antitobacco strategies. PMID:26969171

  11. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  12. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  13. A numerical study of transient mass transport through a circular hole connecting two semi-infinite media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model of transient diffusive mass transfer through a circular hole that connects two semi-infinite media was used as a means of determining potential effects of waste container penetrations on the release of immobilized contaminants into the environment. The finite difference model as developed necessarily includes treatment of mass transport in both the waste and surrounding medium and allows calculation of release rates for cases with and without preferential adsorption and differing diffusivities of the two media. The dimensionless contaminant release rate was found to vary over several orders of magnitude depending on the product of the ratio of the distribution coefficient and the media diffusivities only. As would be intuitively expected, partitioning favoring the surrounding medium and higher relative waste medium diffusivity cause higher transport rates. There was definitely no unexpected enhancement in the release rate in the case of perforations over that of an uncontained waste form

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (76th, Kansas City, Missouri, August 11-14, 1993). Part II: Mass Media Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Media Studies section of this collection of conference presentations contains the following 20 papers: "Media Awareness of Media Manipulation: The Use of the Term 'Spin Doctor'" (James W. Tankard, Jr. and Randy Sumpter); "Prime Time Network TV Sex as a Counterprogramming Strategy during the 1992 Winter Olympics: An Analysis…

  15. When media matter for politics: partisan moderators of mass media’s agenda-setting influence on parliament in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors moderate the agenda-setting influence of the mass media on the Belgian parliament during the period 1993—2000. Based on elaborate codings of the media, parliamentary questions and interpellations, party manifestos, government agreements and ministerial

  16. Figures of criminal offences that are committed through mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvete Uka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology created endless possibilities for the information and communication between people in the world. This made possible that within few seconds information could be elaborated. In the meantime that freedom of speech and opinion are protected with all international conventions and laws, this freedom and together with it also the possibilities and actual standards endanger to put in service of the persons which in one form or another, damage the general interest. The study seeks to explain cases, forms and methods of how the presence in media can be misused. Based in the Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo there are the range of criminal offenses which can be committed through mass communication in general and sometimes also through more serious media, written or electronic. The major number of them has to do with such acts that help terrorism, encourage race and religious hatred and in different forms, the use of children for pornography, risking in this manner the greater values of humanism anywhere in the world. The fact of abolition of special dispositions for criminal offenses that are committed through media does not mean that the danger from committing these acts does not exist. It is based in the fact that criminal responsibility lays directly on the crime committer and not on the director or publisher of certain media, in the meantime the last ones should be careful not to be in the service of crime instigators by giving space to publication.

  17. Grinding in lead-zinc concentrator Sasa – choice between different grinding media

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris

    2004-01-01

    In this paper will be present result obtained from investigation in the grinding circuit of the lead-zinc concentrator Sasa,using differen grindng media: • Litzkhun-Niederwipper Forged Steel grinding balls; • GSI LUCCHINI Moly-Cop Forged Steel grinding balls; • Cast steel grinding balls from Ukraina and Bulgaria; In the same time will be shown comparation between obtained parameters using different grinding balls specially: • Capacity of the grinding mill; • Particle size; ...

  18. Research of the way of communicating information to the mass media by comparison with the media coverage about nuclear accidents. Analysis of the three main cases of accidents and troubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Media coverage plays an important role in delivering information to the public in a rapid and easy-to-understand manner in terms of the subjects of nuclear energy. The mass media has so far covered nuclear accidents that occurred in nuclear facilities. The media coverage usually gains the attention of the public through the news media, such as TV and newspapers. In this study, three main cases of nuclear accidents were quantitatively examined by using the database of a newspaper. In addition, various comments of journalists whom the author interviewed were added for the evaluation of the three cases. As a result, it was revealed that the amount of media reporting commonly reached a maximum just after the nuclear accidents occurred. It became also clear that the smoothness of the information flow from the nuclear industry to the mass media affected the trend of the media coverage from the viewpoints of the duration and number of news reports. Most of the journalists considered that it was significant for the nuclear industry to strengthen the initial reaction on the occasion of nuclear accidents. The nuclear industry should understand the characteristics that are typical of the media coverage on nuclear accidents in the future. (author)

  19. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted…

  20. CVD Prevention Through Policy: a Review of Mass Media, Food/Menu Labeling, Taxation/Subsidies, Built Environment, School Procurement, Worksite Wellness, and Marketing Standards to Improve Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin, Ashkan; Penalvo, Jose; Del Gobbo, Liana; Kashaf, Michael; Micha, Renata; Morrish, Kurtis; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Rehm, Colin; Shangguan, Siyi; Smith, Jessica D.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procuremen...

  1. Access to mass media messages, and use of family planning in Nigeria: a spatio-demographic analysis from the 2013 DHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria has the highest population in sub-Saharan Africa with high birth and growth rates. There is therefore need for family planning to regulate and stabilize this population. This study examined the relationship between access to mass media messages on family planning and use of family planning in Nigeria. It also investigated the impacts of spatio-demographic variables on the relationship between access to mass media messages and use of family planning. Methods Data from the 2013 demographic and health survey of Nigeria which was conducted in all the 36 states of Nigeria, and Abuja were used for the study. The sample was weighted to ensure representativeness. Univariate, bivariate and binary logistic regressions were conducted. The relationship between each of the access to mass media messages, and the family planning variables were determined with Pearson correlation analysis. Results The correlation results showed significant but weak direct relationships between the access to mass media messages and use of family planning at p < 0.0001 with access to television messages (r = 0.239 being associated with highest use of family planning. Some of the results of the adjusted regression analysis showed that access to television messages (OR = 1.2.225; p < 0.0001, and radio messages (OR = 1.945; p < 0.0001 increase the likelihood of the use of family planning. The adjusted regression model also indicated increased likelihood in the use of family planning by respondents with secondary education (OR = 2.709; p < 0.0001, the married (OR = 1.274; p < 0.001, and respondents within the highest wealth quintiles (OR = 3.442; p < 0.0001. Conclusions There exist significant variations within spatio-demographic groups with regards to having access to mass media messages on family planning, and on the use of family planning. The results showed that access to mass media messages increases the

  2. GLOBALIZATION AND MASS-MEDIA IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtic Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a reality that we cannot deny or run away from. The economic, political or social issues, even if they have a starting point, spread very quickly, covering large areas in a very short time. Modern communication systems enable crisis transfer. They also bring us information about the actions that have been taken in order to overcome those critical circumstances. Does recession have positive aspects, too? If it has, what are these positive aspects and how can they be used to produce highest benefits? We will try to describe the concepts we maintain by means of some notorious works written by authors with a vast experience, some of them being Noble Prize winners. The idea that we propose is to bring hope out of this situation generated by crisis and globalization. The economic crisis has created a huge opportunity to the mass-media system: it brings the required information to citizens from different nations. Taking this into account, mass-media has played and still plays an important part in making the people involved find solutions and communicate whenever the decision makers are trying to hide facts. With the help of innovation and transformation, let’s look for solutions to develop our abilities, relationships, products, markets and results. We should never forget that the greatest and most impressive changes are often born in times of crisis.

  3. Pemerintahan Jokowi-Jusuf Kalla Menurut Kacamata 5 Media Massa di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia D Wulandari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mass media has strong impact to public interest and has formed public perception on issues based on news they published. One of the most popular issues was one year period of Jokowi-Kalla presidential leadership in October 20, 2015. Evaluation, achievement, and reflection of both President and vice president who raise Nawacita program are assumed as indicators of success of them in leading Indonesia. Media objectivity in mass media is the main key in this research because objectivity is very important. The research used quantitative analysis by Robert Entman framing method. It was conducted by text analysis to editorial of five printed media, i.e: Jawa Pos, Kompas, Media Indonesia, Republika, and Tempo, published at October 20, 2015. The research also employs interview and observe secondary sources to as a part of contectual analysis. The result shows objectivity and imparsiality of five printed media in Indonesia in covering Jokowi and Jusuf Kalla presidential leadership. It is shown how media preserve Jokowi-Kalla performance in their 1st year governance as news object.

  4. Herman and Chomsky's Propaganda Model: Production of Consent: Political Economy of Mass Media

    OpenAIRE

    Gadimov, Javanshir

    2016-01-01

    Rızanın İmalatı: Kitle Medyasının Ekonomi PolitiğiEdward S. Herman ve Noam ChomskyOrijinal Adı: Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass MediaÇeviri: Dr. Ender Abadoğluİstanbul: bgst Yayınları, 2012, 478 sayfa

  5. THE IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Katarzyna Grzegorzewska

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21th century from the standpoint of man is regarded as a time of domestication of new media technologies. During that era audiovisual media have displayed the traditional media. Written word has lost is place to television, video games, and in the Internet, whichare having a major impact on people of all ages including young children. The word “illusion” originates from the Latin word “illusio” which means to pretend, to elude. The media world has become independent in terms of the real word and started tolive according to its own rules. We have started to function in two separate realities: actual reality, and virtual media reality. For some people it is very hard to distinguish two types of realities, not to mention kids, which usually perceive media reality as entirely real, actual domain.

  6. The Higgs transverse momentum spectrum with finite quark masses beyond leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Caola, Fabrizio; Marzani, Simone; Muselli, Claudio; Vita, Gherardo

    2016-01-01

    We apply the leading-log high-energy resummation technique recently derived by some of us to the transverse momentum (pt) distribution for production of a Higgs boson in gluon fusion. We use our results to obtain information on mass-dependent corrections to this observable, which is only known at leading order when exact mass dependence is included. In the low pt region we discuss the all-order exponentiation of collinear bottom mass logarithms. In the high pt region we show that the infinite top mass approximation loses accuracy as a power of pt, while the accuracy of the high-energy approximation is approximately constant as pt grows. We argue that a good approximation to the NLO result for pt >~200 GeV can be obtained by combining the full LO result with a K-factor computed using the high-energy approximation.

  7. Print mass media: territory of survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Akhmadulin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the survival of the print media in the information market in the conditions of intense competition with online journalism and the whole information flow on the Internet. Despite the predictions of the impending death of print periodicals, more than half of the world adult population read a daily newspaper. At the same time, the trends taking place in the media market, confirm the reduction of print media segment in favor of the Internet. According to TNS-Russia data, only in 2013 the Internet audience has grown by 6 %. At the same time the circulation of print media in the US fell by 15 % in 2008- 2014, in Western Europe – by a quarter. In Russia, subscription circulation periodicals in the second half of 2014 fell by 20.2 %, and on the basis of subscription for the first half of 2015, the national average – 22 % (data of Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Russian Post”. Finding ways to stabilize the fall of the print media, many US publishing houses see the transition from advertcentric business model to consumcentric model. It is necessary to use the specifics and advantages of newspapers and magazines (comfort, media planning logic, analytic, continuity and consistency of the content of individual and hypertext editions, and others to maintain the intellectual elite. Print media targeting to an elite audience (willing to pay for exclusiveness allows publishers to offset the rising cost of issuing paperbased, and consumers (subscribers will give a sense of communion to a certain social community, receiving verified and thorough information. In this case, the subscription to a newspaper or magazine (no retail outlet and online will be fashionable factor of association of elite communities and acquire new qualitative features in the development of civil society.

  8. What Factors Lead Companies to Adopt Social Media in their processes: Proposal and Test of a Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozé Braz de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand which factors lead companies to use social media to achieve results. For that, a theoretical model was proposed and tested. Data was collected using a survey of 237 companies. In the analysis we analysis used the structural eq uation modeling technique. The results show that the social media relative advantage and its observability were important factors to social media organizational adoption. We also found that big companies with more formalized organizational structure (OS t end to adopt social media more than small ones with no formal OS. The companies studied showed strong organizational disposition for innovation adoption.

  9. Mass transport in fracture media: impact of the random function model assumed for fractures conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilla, J. E.; Rodrigo, J.; Gomez Hernandez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the uncertainty of flow and mass transport models requires the definition of stochastic models to describe hydrodynamic parameters. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K) are two of these parameters that exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. K is usually the parameter whose variability influence to a more extended degree solutes movement. In fracture media, it is critical to properly characterize K in the most altered zones where flow and solutes migration tends to be concentrated. However, K measurements use to be scarce and sparse. This fact calls to consider stochastic models that allow quantifying the uncertainty of flow and mass transport predictions. This paper presents a convective transport problem solved in a 3D block of fractured crystalline rock. the case study is defined based on data from a real geological formation. As the scarcity of K data in fractures does not allow supporting classical multi Gaussian assumptions for K in fractures, the non multi Gaussian hypothesis has been explored, comparing mass transport results for alternative Gaussian and non-Gaussian assumptions. The latter hypothesis allows reproducing high spatial connectivity for extreme values of K. This feature is present in nature, might lead to reproduce faster solute pathways, and therefore should be modeled in order to obtain reasonably safe prediction of contaminants migration in a geological formation. The results obtained for the two alternative hypotheses show a remarkable impact of the K random function model in solutes movement. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S. [SUE SIA RADON, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  11. Radiation safety in the Moscow region: Experience of cooperation SUE SIA Radon with mass media and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, O.; Rakov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation safety in the present period acquires complex character and closely corresponds with other elements of social and political process, with various spheres of public life. After earthquake in Japan in March 11, 2011 and emergency on the nuclear power plant Fukushima-1 the theme of radiating safety of megapolises has today become urgent, as never. Provision of radiation safety of the Moscow region, taking into account a number of factors, is an important problem in a context of modernization state. Today in sphere of radio ecological safety there are certain achievements: new monitoring systems are developed, technological processes are improved, new information-communicative channels of interaction with mass media and public are formed. Information policy of enterprises the functioning of which is connected with provision of safe ecological conditions and its monitoring is focused on constant and duly informing of public through mass-media. Experience and technologies of interaction with mass-media and public of Moscow State Unitary-Enterprise- united ecological, scientific and research centre of decontamination of radioactive waste and environmental protection (State Unitarian Enterprise, Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, SUE SIA RADON) is submitted in the article. (author)

  12. When Can Social Media Lead Financial Markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheludev, Ilya; Smith, Robert; Aste, Tomaso

    2014-02-01

    Social media analytics is showing promise for the prediction of financial markets. However, the true value of such data for trading is unclear due to a lack of consensus on which instruments can be predicted and how. Current approaches are based on the evaluation of message volumes and are typically assessed via retrospective (ex-post facto) evaluation of trading strategy returns. In this paper, we present instead a sentiment analysis methodology to quantify and statistically validate which assets could qualify for trading from social media analytics in an ex-ante configuration. We use sentiment analysis techniques and Information Theory measures to demonstrate that social media message sentiment can contain statistically-significant ex-ante information on the future prices of the S&P500 index and a limited set of stocks, in excess of what is achievable using solely message volumes.

  13. Impact of mass media on public behavior and physicians: an ecological study of the H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codish, Shlomi; Novack, Lena; Dreiher, Jacob; Barski, Leonid; Jotkowitz, Alan; Zeller, Lior; Novack, Victor

    2014-06-01

    The mass media plays an important role in public health behavior. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of mass media coverage of the H1N1 pandemic on the number of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admission rates. An ecological study of ED visits to 8 general Israeli hospitals due to influenza-like illness during the period June-October 2009 was performed. Data on the number of visits per day for children and adults and daily hospitalization rates were analyzed. Associations with the estimated value of H1N1-related publications and weekly reports from nationwide sentinel clinics were assessed. The analysis was performed in 2012-2013. There were 55,070 ED visits due to influenza-like illness during the study period. The overall number of media reports was 1,812 (14.3% radio broadcasts, 9.8% television broadcasts, 27.5% newspaper articles, and 48.5% major website reports). The overall estimated value of advertising of publications was $16,399,000, excluding the Internet. While H1N1 incidence recorded by Israeli sentinel clinics showed no association with mass media publications, peaks of media reports were followed by an increase in the number of ED visits, usually with a delay of 3 days (P = .005). This association was noted in children (P .1), with a corresponding decrease in hospital admission rates. Publications' framing had no association with ED visits. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in Israel, an increase in mass media coverage was associated with an increase in pediatric ED visits.

  14. Evolution of the Digital Society Reveals Balance between Viral and Mass Media Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-07-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) enable researchers to study the social universe at a previously unattainable scale. The worldwide impact and the necessity to sustain the rapid growth of OSNs emphasize the importance of unraveling the laws governing their evolution. Empirical results show that, unlike many real-world growing networked systems, OSNs follow an intricate path that includes a dynamical percolation transition. In light of these results, we present a quantitative two-parameter model that reproduces the entire topological evolution of a quasi-isolated OSN with unprecedented precision from the birth of the network. This allows us to precisely gauge the fundamental macroscopic and microscopic mechanisms involved. Our findings suggest that the coupling between the real preexisting underlying social structure, a viral spreading mechanism, and mass media influence govern the evolution of OSNs. The empirical validation of our model, on a macroscopic scale, reveals that virality is 4-5 times stronger than mass media influence and, on a microscopic scale, individuals have a higher subscription probability if invited by weaker social contacts, in agreement with the "strength of weak ties" paradigm.

  15. Mass balance for lead in the California South Coast Air Basin: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankey, R.L.; Davidson, C.I.; McMichael, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    A mass balance for lead for the year 1989 in the South Coast Air Basin has inputs to the atmosphere of 600 ± 190 kg/day and outputs of 580 ± 160 kg/day, showing rough agreement. Stationary sources are responsible for only about 5% of the total lead emissions. The bulk of the lead is emitted from vehicles using leaded gasoline (37%) and unleaded gasoline (15%), as well as from resuspension of previously deposited lead on roads (43%). Over half of the total emitted lead deposits on roads and nearby soil, while about one-third is carried out of the basin by wind. A small amount, less than 10%, is deposited on surfaces throughout the basin. These percentages are approximately the same as those in a mass balance for the same region calculated for 1972, when lead emissions from leaded gasoline were about a factor of 70 greater than leaded gas emissions in 1989. When the lead emissions re used as inputs o a simple continuously stirred flow reactor model for the basin, reasonable, agreement is obtained between calculated and measured concentrations

  16. Increasing evidence for the efficacy of tobacco control mass media communication programming in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Sandra; Prasad, Vinayak; Kaur, Jagdish; Turk, Tahir

    2011-08-01

    Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time have achieved the most influence. These types of campaigns are now being implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The authors provide 3 case studies of first-ever graphic warning mass media campaigns in China, India, and Russia, 3 priority high-burden countries in the global Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In each of these countries, message testing of core messages provided confidence in messages, and evaluations demonstrated message uptake. The authors argue that given the initial success of these campaigns, governments in low- and middle-income countries should consider resourcing and sustaining these interventions as key components of their tobacco control strategies and programs.

  17. Media advocacy: lessons from community experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, D H; Wright, P A

    1996-01-01

    Media advocacy is the strategic use of mass media and community organizing as a resource for advancing a social or public policy initiative. Across the United States, communities are using media advocacy to promote healthier public policies and environments. The U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention commissioned numerous case studies of media advocacy on alcohol and tobacco issues in a diverse array of communities, including efforts in African-American and Latino communities or using computer-based electronic communication systems. The paper describes these efforts briefly, and summarizes lessons learned, including: media advocacy can lead to larger victories when used as a complement to community organizing in the context of a larger strategic vision for policy change; like policy advocacy, media advocacy is best done in the context of clear long-term goals; conscious framing, guiding the choice of spokespeople, visuals, and messages, can alter media coverage and public debate of health policies; advocates need to respect the media but also remember that they have power in relation to the media; and media advocacy is often controversial and not suited to every situation. The case studies show that media advocacy is a potent tool for public health workers, making an important contribution to campaigns to promote healthier public policies.

  18. Understanding the Impact of Using Mass Media as a Pedagogical Tool for Nutrition Education of Healthcare Workers in the Community College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker Jeffrey, Penny Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition-related messages inundate mass media advertisements in the United States but it is unclear as to how those messages affect a person's food selection behavior and awareness of nutrient and non-nutrient message content. This dissertation is a culmination of research examining the use of mass media (television and print) as a pedagogical…

  19. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on

  20. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the US mass media, science and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on

  1. Migrant Image as an "Other Some" in the Russian Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P. Bakanov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the main approaches and methods of forming a perception stereotype of the migrant image as "other some" in the Russian mass media. The authors of this article analyzed three federal print publications - "Rossiyskaya Gazeta", "Trud" and "Komsomolskaya Pravda", characterized as mass editions, which enabled to make the most complete coverage of several segments of the readership and to highlight the most widespread meaning of the "migrant" concept in the public consciousness. The study of the dynamics of using the "migrant" concept for the period of 2000-2013 in the Russian print media made it possible to conclude that there were shifts towards a positive assessment of "other some". If the "language of enmity" was used in the public consciousness to form the migrant image at the beginning of the period under investigation, which led to the consolidation of migrant phobia, then the situation changed by 2013 - the migrant image was more often associated with a victim of interethnic tension and corruption. The new migrant image is the image of a migrant who has not found a better life, but has adopted Russia as a second home and therefore trying to adopt new standards and living conditions and helping to solve many of the social and economic problems of Russian society.

  2. People as sensors: mass media and local temperature influence climate change discussion on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Molodtsova, T.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether people living under significant temperature anomalies connect their sensory experiences to climate change and the role that media plays in this process. We used Twitter messages containing words "climate change" and "global warming" as the indicator of attention that public pays to the issue. Specifically, the goals were: (1) to investigate whether people immediately notice significant local weather anomalies and connect them to climate change and (2) to examine the role of mass media in this process. Over 2 million tweets were collected for a two-year period (2012 - 2013) and were assigned to 157 urban areas in the continental USA (Figure 1). Geographical locations of the tweets were identified with a geolocation resolving algorithm based the profile of the users. Daily number of tweets (tweeting rate) was computed for 157 conterminous USA urban areas and adjusted for data acquisition errors. The USHCN daily minimum and maximum temperatures were obtained for the station locations closest to the centers of the urban areas and the 1981-2010 30-year temperature mean and standard deviation were used as the climate normals. For the analysis, we computed the following indices for each day of 2012 - 2013 period: standardized temperature anomaly, absolute standardized temperature anomaly, and extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies for each urban zone. The extreme cold and hot temperature anomalies were then transformed into country-level values that represent the number of people living in extreme temperature conditions. The rate of tweeting on climate change was regressed on the time variables, number of climate change publications in the mass media, and temperature. In the majority of regression models, the mass media and temperature variables were significant at the pmedia acts as a mediator in the relationship between local weather and climate change discourse intensity. Our analysis of Twitter data confirmed that the public is able to

  3. Factors influencing the uptake of a mass media intervention to improve child feeding in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny S; Roopnaraine, Terry; Nguyen, Phuong H; Saha, Kuntal K; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul I; Menon, Purnima

    2018-04-11

    Mass media are increasingly used to deliver health messages to promote social and behaviour change, but there has been little evidence of mass media use for improving a set of child feeding practices, other than campaigns to promote breastfeeding. This study aimed to examine the factors influencing the uptake of infant and young child feeding messages promoted in TV spots that were launched and aired nationwide in Bangladesh. We conducted a mixed-methods study, using household surveys (n = 2,000) and semistructured interviews (n = 251) with mothers of children 0-23.9 months and other household members. Factors associated with TV spot viewing and comprehension were analysed using multivariable logistic regression models, and interview transcripts were analysed by systematic coding and iterative summaries. Exposure ranged from 36% to 62% across 6 TV spots, with comprehension ranging from 33% to 96% among those who viewed the spots. Factors associated with comprehension of TV spot messages included younger maternal age and receipt of home visits by frontline health workers. Three direct narrative spots showed correct message recall and strong believability, identification, and feasibility of practicing the recommended behaviours. Two spots that used a metaphorical and indirect narrative style were not well understood by respondents. Understanding the differences in the uptake factors may help to explain variability of impacts and ways to improve the design and implementation of mass media strategies. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Untapped aspects of mass media campaigns for changing health behaviour towards non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Reshman; Froeschl, Guenter; Cruz, Jonas P; Colet, Paolo C; Dey, Sukhen; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2018-01-18

    In recent years, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become epidemic in Bangladesh. Behaviour changing interventions are key to prevention and management of NCDs. A great majority of people in Bangladesh have low health literacy, are less receptive to health information, and are unlikely to embrace positive health behaviours. Mass media campaigns can play a pivotal role in changing health behaviours of the population. This review pinpoints the role of mass media campaigns for NCDs and the challenges along it, whilst stressing on NCD preventive programmes (with the examples from different countries) to change health behaviours in Bangladesh. Future research should underpin the use of innovative technologies and mobile phones, which might be a prospective option for NCD prevention and management in Bangladesh.

  5. FEFLOW finite element modeling of flow, mass and heat transport in porous and fractured media

    CERN Document Server

    Diersch, Hans-Jörg G

    2013-01-01

    Placing advanced theoretical and numerical methods in the hands of modeling practitioners and scientists, this book explores the FEFLOW system for solving flow, mass and heat transport processes in porous and fractured media. Offers applications and exercises.

  6. Post Media Literacy: Menyaksikan Kuasa Media Bersama Michel Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi Syahputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article would like to present Michel Foucault’s idea concerning Knowledge and Power in media industry. As a contemporary intellectual, Foucault’s thought has a unique style of postmodernism. His thought had gone beyond traditional critical theory whose trying to disclose the relation of power and economic behind the ideology of media. Foucault’s thought had given new perspective in understanding how the media produce truth under tightly control process into something that seems normal. With the assumption of media has the power to create mass culture, which has to be studied critically by media literacy approach, Foucault’s thought had given new space of discursive. An alternative thought on how to estimate the work of mass media as supervisor of truth and creator of information trough normalization practice.

  7. Novel palladium-lead (Pd-Pb/C) bimetallic catalysts for electrooxidation of ethanol in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Nguyen, Truong Son; Wang, Xin [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Xuewei [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-05-01

    Carbon-supported bimetallic palladium-lead (Pd-Pb/C) catalysts with different amounts of lead are prepared using a co-reduction method. The catalysts are characterized by various techniques, which reveal the formation of an alloy nanoparticle structure. The electrochemical activities of the catalysts towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media are examined by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods. The results show that the Pd-Pb(4:1)/C catalyst exhibits a better catalytic activity than the Pd/C catalyst. From carbon monoxide (CO) stripping results, the addition of lead also facilitates the oxidative removal of adsorbed CO. The promoting effect of lead is explained by a bi-functional mechanism and d-band theory. (author)

  8. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  9. Food expert and mass media: food crises (BBE 2001- tranquillity food (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Navas López

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the anthropological approach to analyse such important concepts in public health as the perception of food security. We analyse to expert-mass media. First, quantify and reflect on the news appeared in national and regional newspapers in Spain in two different periods:the BSE crisis(2000-2002 and “food tranquillity”(2007. Secondly, we analysed the perception of food expert through a qualitative methodology.

  10. The paradox of the modern mass media: probably the major source of social cohesion in liberal democracies, even though its content is often socially divisive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    The modern mass media (MM) is often regarded a mixture between a trivial waste of time and resources, and a dangerously subversive system tending to promote social division and community breakdown. But these negative evaluations are difficult to square with the fact that those countries with the largest mass media include the most modernized and powerful nations. It seems more plausible that the MM is serving some useful - perhaps vital - function. I suggest that modern mass media function as the main source of social cohesion in liberal democracies. The paradox is that this cohesive function is sustained in a context of frequently divisive media content. This media function evolved because modern MM produce an excess of media communications in a context of consumer choice which generates competition for public attention both within- and between-media. Competition has led the media to become increasingly specialized at gaining and retaining public attention. Social cohesion is the consequence of the mass media continually drawing public attention to itself, and to the extremely large, internally complex and interconnected nature of the MM system. The means by which attention is attracted are almost arbitrary, encompassing both novelty and familiarity and evoking a wide range of emotions both positive and negative. Driven to seek competitive advantage, modern mass media produce a wide range of material to cater to a vast range of interests; thereby engaging a great variety of individuals and social groupings. The consequence is that media content is typically self-contradictory and includes content which is offensive and potentially divisive; since what grabs the interest of some may offend or repel others. For instance, young men must be socially engaged, since they are potentially the most violent social group, yet the interests of young men include material that the majority of the population would find excessively aggressive, disrespectful, subversive or sexual

  11. EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA AS A DOMINANT FACTOR INFLUENCING PUBLIC STIGMA TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS BASED ON SUNRISE MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sintha Pratiwi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The person suffering mental disorders is not only burdened by his condition but also by the stigma. The impact of stigma extremely influences society that it is considered to be the obstacle in mental disorders therapy. Stigma as the society adverse view toward severe mental disorders is related with the cultural aspect. The interaction appeared from each component of nursing model namely sunrise model, which a model developed by Madeleine Leininger is connected with the wide society views about severe mental disorders condition in society. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors related to public stigma and to find out the dominant factors related to public stigma about severe mental illness through sunrise model approach in Sukonolo Village, Malang Regency. Methods: This study using observational analytical design with cross sectional approach. There were 150 respondents contributed in this study. The respondents were obtained using purposive sampling technique. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma about mental illness. The result from multiple logistic regression shows the low exposure of mass media has the highest OR value at 26.744. Conclusion: There were significant correlation between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma toward mental illness. Mass media exposure as a dominant factor influencing public stigma toward mental illness.

  12. Community violence, children's development, and mass media: in pursuit of new insights, new goals, and new strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, B Z

    1993-02-01

    Community violence that victimizes children is an unmitigated evil that is exacerbated by vast economic and social forces that leave people in central cities and the rural countryside adrift on seas of rolelessness, hopelessness, group disintegration, and alienation. The contemporary drug scene and the easy availability of guns greatly intensify violence on a local scale, while crimes of violence, especially with guns, appear to be level or declining in the nation as a whole. Claims that the persistently high levels of violence in mass media, mostly television, are largely responsible for violence in society represent narrow views of very large issues. These narrow views overlook essential elements of both phenomena--violence and media. Direct models of interpersonal violence in families and in the community probably give rise to more violent behavior than indirect models in media. Disinhibitory and provocative aspects of media probably do as much or more to trigger violent behavior than violent narratives and violent actions. Comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that prosocial messages on television can have greater effects on behavior than antisocial messages. These data support the contention that mass media can play a strong and positive role in alleviating some of the distress of victims of community violence, and in redirecting the behavior of some of its perpetrators so as to protect the children.

  13. Evaluation of a mass media campaign promoting using help to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Parvanta, Sarah A; Jeong, Michelle; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-05-01

    Although there is evidence that promoting individual cessation aids increases their utilization, mass media campaigns highlighting the benefit of using help to quit have not been evaluated. The effects of a Philadelphia adult smoking-cessation media campaign targeting using help in ad taglines were analyzed from March to November 2012. This study distinctively analyzed the campaign's impact at both the population level (effects on the average person) and the individual level (effects among those who reported exposure). The 16-month mass media campaign aired in Philadelphia PA from December 2010 to March 2012. A representative sample of adult Philadelphia smokers was interviewed by telephone at baseline (n=491) and new samples were interviewed monthly throughout the campaign (n=2,786). In addition, a subsample of these respondents was reinterviewed 3 months later (n=877). On average, participants reported seeing campaign ads four times per week. Among individual respondents, each additional campaign exposure per week increased the likelihood of later reporting using help (OR=1.08, p<0.01), adjusting for baseline use of help and other potential confounders. This corresponded to a 5% increase in the use of help for those with average exposure relative to those with no exposure. Cross-sectional associations between individual campaign exposure and intentions to use help were consistent with these lagged findings. However, there was no evidence of population-level campaign effects on use of help. Although the campaign was effective at the individual level, its effects were too small to have a population-detectable impact. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparing Tomorrow's Leaders: Integrating Leadership Development in Journalism and Mass Communication Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Kathy R.

    2015-01-01

    New journalism and mass communication curricula must prepare students to lead the media revolutions of the twenty-first century. Journalism, public relations, and advertising are being transformed by new media platforms and entrepreneurship, and these fields are now defined by rapid, radical change. Yet, the corresponding--and urgent--need to…

  15. Mass lead intoxication from informal used lead-acid battery recycling in dakar, senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, Pascal; Mathieu-Nolf, Monique; Lociciro, Stephanie; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Coly, Malang; Diouf, Amadou; Faye, Absa Lam; Sow, Aminata; Tempowski, Joanna; Pronczuk, Jenny; Filipe Junior, Antonio Pedro; Bertollini, Roberto; Neira, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Between November 2007 and March 2008, 18 children died from a rapidly progressive central nervous system disease of unexplained origin in a community involved in the recycling of used lead-acid batteries (ULAB) in the suburbs of Dakar, Senegal. We investigated the cause of these deaths. Because autopsies were not possible, the investigation centered on clinical and laboratory assessments performed on 32 siblings of deceased children and 23 mothers and on 18 children and 8 adults living in the same area, complemented by environmental health investigations. All 81 individuals investigated were poisoned with lead, some of them severely. The blood lead level of the 50 children tested ranged from 39.8 to 613.9 microg/dL with a mean of 129.5 microg/dL. Seventeen children showed severe neurologic features of toxicity. Homes and soil in surrounding areas were heavily contaminated with lead (indoors, up to 14,000 mg/kg; outdoors, up to 302,000 mg/kg) as a result of informal ULAB recycling. Our investigations revealed a mass lead intoxication that occurred through inhalation and ingestion of soil and dust heavily contaminated with lead as a result of informal and unsafe ULAB recycling. Circumstantial evidence suggested that most or all of the 18 deaths were due to encephalopathy resulting from severe lead intoxication. Findings also suggest that most habitants of the contaminated area, estimated at 950, are also likely to be poisoned. This highlights the severe health risks posed by informal ULAB recycling, in particular in developing countries, and emphasizes the need to strengthen national and international efforts to address this global public health problem.

  16. Acceleration of Gas Flow Simulations in Dual-Continuum Porous Media Based on the Mass-Conservation POD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2017-09-12

    Reduced-order modeling approaches for gas flow in dual-porosity dual-permeability porous media are studied based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method combined with Galerkin projection. The typical modeling approach for non-porous-medium liquid flow problems is not appropriate for this compressible gas flow in a dual-continuum porous media. The reason is that non-zero mass transfer for the dual-continuum system can be generated artificially via the typical POD projection, violating the mass-conservation nature and causing the failure of the POD modeling. A new POD modeling approach is proposed considering the mass conservation of the whole matrix fracture system. Computation can be accelerated as much as 720 times with high precision (reconstruction errors as slow as 7.69 × 10−4%~3.87% for the matrix and 8.27 × 10−4%~2.84% for the fracture).

  17. Acceleration of Gas Flow Simulations in Dual-Continuum Porous Media Based on the Mass-Conservation POD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi; Sun, Shuyu; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Reduced-order modeling approaches for gas flow in dual-porosity dual-permeability porous media are studied based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method combined with Galerkin projection. The typical modeling approach for non-porous-medium liquid flow problems is not appropriate for this compressible gas flow in a dual-continuum porous media. The reason is that non-zero mass transfer for the dual-continuum system can be generated artificially via the typical POD projection, violating the mass-conservation nature and causing the failure of the POD modeling. A new POD modeling approach is proposed considering the mass conservation of the whole matrix fracture system. Computation can be accelerated as much as 720 times with high precision (reconstruction errors as slow as 7.69 × 10−4%~3.87% for the matrix and 8.27 × 10−4%~2.84% for the fracture).

  18. Heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lu; Chengyun, Xin; Xinyu, Liu

    2018-04-01

    Liquid nitrogen has been working as an important medium in fire extinguishing and prevention, due to its efficiency in oxygen exclusion and heat removal. Such a technique is especially crucial for coal industry in China. We built a tunnel model with a temperature monitor system (with 36 thermocouples installed) to experimentally study heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in non-homogeneous coal porous media (CPM), and expected to optimize parameters of liquid nitrogen injection in engineering applications. Results indicate that injection location and amount of liquid nitrogen, together with air leakage, significantly affect temperature distribution in CPM, and non-equilibrium heat inside and outside of coal particles. The injection position of liquid nitrogen determines locations of the lowest CPM temperature and liquid nitrogen residual. In the deeper coal bed, coal particles take longer time to reach thermal equilibrium between their surface and inside. Air leakage accelerates temperature increase at the bottom of the coal bed, which is a major reason leading to fire prevention inefficiency. Measurement fluctuation of CPM temperature may be caused by incomplete contact of coal particles with liquid nitrogen flowing in the coal bed. Moreover, the secondary temperature drop (STD) happens and grows with the more injection of liquid nitrogen, and the STD phenomenon is explained through temperature distributions at different locations.

  19. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Associations between mass media exposure and birth preparedness among women in southwestern Uganda: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Gustav; Odberg Pettersson, Karen; Sandberg, Jacob; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to mass media provides increased awareness and knowledge, as well as changes in attitudes, social norms and behaviors that may lead to positive public health outcomes. Birth preparedness (i.e. the preparations for childbirth made by pregnant women, their families, and communities) increases the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and hence reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the association between media exposure and birth preparedness in rural Uganda. A total of 765 recently delivered women from 120 villages in the Mbarara District of southwest Uganda were selected for a community-based survey using two-stage cluster sampling. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with generalized linear mixed models using SPSS 21. We found that 88.6% of the women surveyed listened to the radio and 33.9% read newspapers. Birth preparedness actions included were money saved (87.8%), identified SBA (64.3%), identified transport (60.1%), and purchased childbirth materials (20.7%). Women who had taken three or more actions were coded as well birth prepared (53.9%). Women who read newspapers were more likely to be birth prepared (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.2). High media exposure, i.e. regular exposure to radio, newspaper, or television, showed no significant association with birth preparedness (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-2.0). Our results indicate that increased reading of newspapers can enhance birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance. Apart from general literacy skills, this requires newspapers to be accessible in terms of language, dissemination, and cost.

  1. Disadvantaged Parents' Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda

    2016-09-09

    Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 "Right Outside" mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  2. Disadvantaged Parents’ Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneh Rowa-Dewar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 “Right Outside” mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding, motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS and opportunities to act (barriers was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  3. Research Questions: Women and Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Linda J.

    Typically, research concerning media presentations of women has involved six types of analysis: (1) content analysis (what is said), (2) cultural and social analysis (why it is said), (3) control or gatekeeper analysis (by whom it is said), (4) audience analysis (to whom it is said), (5) media analysis (in which channel), and (6) effects analysis…

  4. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  5. Cytokine responses in relation to age, gender, body mass index, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and otitis media among inuit in greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Soborg, Bolette; Børresen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection.......To evaluate the cytokine response pattern in Inuit in Greenland in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI), and otitis media (OM) to assess whether Inuit may have signs of impaired immune responsiveness to infection....

  6. Impact of mass media and interpersonal health communication on smoking cessation attempts: a study in North Karelia, 1989-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T; Uutela, A; Korhonen, H J; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes an impact evaluation of the North Karelia Project (Finnish CINDI program) on smoking cessation attempts. During the period 1989-1996, data were collected by annual surveys, with response rates varying from 66% to 76%. This study included 1,694 adult current smokers or persons who had quit smoking during the past year, out of a total of 6,011 respondents. Smoking cessation attempts during the past 12 months were examined as a dependent variable. Reported exposures to mass media and interpersonal health communication were examined as possible determinants of smoking cessation. Weekly exposure to mass media health messages was significantly associated with cessation attempts among men only. In contrast, interpersonal health communication, or social influence, was a significant determinant of cessation attempts among both sexes. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal health communication had an even stronger impact on cessation attempts. Thus, interpersonal communication appears to be an important catalyst of community programs, and its inclusion should be emphasized to obtain a higher impact with community programs.

  7. Prostate cancer's hegemonic masculinity in select print mass media depictions (1974-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J N

    1999-01-01

    The meanings associated with prostate cancer were studied in contemporary mass print media. The study includes both manifest and latent content analysis of a period of approximately 2 decades, from 1974 to 1995. The manifest analysis revealed a primary emphasis on the importance of early detection. The latent analysis found that prostate cancer's presentation is gendered. Its description is embedded in themes related to masculinity, sexuality, competition, brotherhood, and machismo. This small, qualitative, and inductive study raises questions about the socially significant portrayal of the meanings of disease in the media, about the men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, have symptoms of prostate cancer, or about all men, because any man might at some time be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Stereotypical imaging could alienate men who either do not or do not want to fit into the stereotypical ideal as it is protrayed in the media. Such a portrayal also may have inplications for the potential willingness of men to engage in early detection, avail themselves of treatment, act preventatively, or become involved in lobbying for monies for research into the early prevention, detection, and treatment of prostate cancer.

  8. Digital Journalism and Public Mass Media: The Bad News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Quiroga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to study how police and security information is presented by the News Agency, San Luis. We examined the production of police and security information produced in 2013 by the San Luis News Agency (ANSI, a state news platform created to transmit government information in the province of San Luis, Argentina in 2012. The initiatives and progress for the people in police and security matters in the mass media, has a material-functional dimension, referring exclusively to improving the detachments, the delivery of police vehicles, and operational controls. That vision is diffused by the state agency for information and does not contribute to the promotion of ideas and discussions on citizen participation in security policies and the development of democracy.

  9. The Press and America: An Interpretative History of the Mass Media. 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Edwin

    This book presents a history of journalism in the United States. The opening chapters discuss the European roots of American journalism and cover the time-span ending with the Civil War; the primary concern is an exposition of the principles of the American press. The remaining chapters examine the mass media--newspapers, television, radio,…

  10. Exploring the Influence of the Mass Media on Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2012-01-01

    The new Australian Curriculum ignites debate about science content appropriate for primary school children. Abstract genetics concepts such as genes and DNA are still being avoided in primary school, yet research has shown that, by age 10, many students have heard of DNA and/or genes. Scientific concepts appear in the mass media, but primary…

  11. IN SEARCH OF ITS OWN IDENTITY: MASS-MEDIA IN POST-COMMUNISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian CHIŞU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research focuses on the mass-media system as it evolved in the first post-communist decade. Right after December 1989, hundreds of newspapers, magazines and other kinds of publications appeared in Romania. Likewise, the number of publishing houses grew exponentially, from a few scores to thousands of titles. During the following years, the first private radio stations started broadcasting and, shortly after them, commercial televisions surpassed the national television in terms of rating. The journalistic career was embraced by thousands of people activating in all sectors of the media, who did not always have specialist studies in the field. As a natural consequence, the first faculties of journalism appeared and grew in number around the country. During this time, the professional elites emerged, yet the criteria of selection were disarmingly diverse, mostly targeting vocation and rather than, marginally, education. Our research aims to address this paradoxical situation and, on the other hand, to offer, in a broader picture, the characteristics of the landscape, the environment and characters that occupied the foreground of the journalistic stage. Regarding the elites, the emphasis lies on the sheer struggle for primacy, alongside with stunning discrepancies between some people`s biography (educational background and their aims, which offers notable elements worth discussing. However, in view of public opinion, the journalistic elites have succeeded in raising the professional (journalistic status to a social position regarded as superior to most public occupations, thus switching the roles they used to have during the communist dictatorship. The relationship between the writer and the journalist is also substantially adjusted by favouring the latter, after decades when, during the communist period, writers seemed to be more sensitive to the contemporary problems than journalists. The research also seeks to establish the

  12. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  13. Culture of Scientific Information in Mass Media on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa 'Isa al-Yasiry

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the quality of scientific information culture that introduce it the Arabic mass media in the internet and how it covering the reality of Arabic scientific information by using analysis content method for these websites then we most be know how these websites treating with information culture considering information systems has input, output and mutual relations between the elements of this system that include the following three components: 1- External relations that connecting between the culture and the reality. 2- Internal elements for this system. 3- Infrastructures for this system that represented in the cultural policy, informational , information resources and human resources

  14. The information psychological periodization of the Chernoby'l NPP accident information in the mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrim, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The activity of mass media reflecting the Chernobyl' accident in 1986-1991 has been surveilled. The information (radio, television, press conferences) given at this period was devided into seven classification periods. The analysis of the information and its assessment in each period was demonstrated. 6 refs

  15. How mass media attract political elites' attention

    OpenAIRE

    Sevenans, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Political agenda-setting research has shown that policy makers are responsive vis-à-vis media priorities. However, the mechanisms behind this effect have remained understudied so far. In particular, agenda-setting scholars have difficulties determining to what extent politicians react to media coverage purely because of the information it contains (information effect), and to what extent the effect is driven not by what the media say but by the fact that certain information is in th...

  16. Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: the example of sun protection in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Gillian Ann; Eagle, Lynne; Verne, Julia

    2011-03-01

    The role of the mass media in communicating health-related information to the wider population is the focus of this paper. Using the example of sun protection within the UK, we highlight some of the major challenges to raising awareness of steadily increasing melanoma rates and of effective sun protection strategies. The implications of potential barriers to official sun protection messages via conflicting messages in the media are discussed in terms of editorial on sun protection and in the way in which television programme content portrays the issues. Implications for public policy and future research conclude the paper.

  17. PERAN MEDIA MASSA NASIONAL DALAM POLITIK INTERNASIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Nita Andrianti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In international politics, the mass media is not only a source of political information but also trigger the occurrence of political change. In general, the mass media has a specific tendency for reporting international coverage of the political events. In short, the media has a major role in the international political communication. Active involvement of the media have spawned the term “media diplomacy”, the mass media as a channel in a diplomatic mission of a state against anot...

  18. Pemberitaan Media Pers Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashadi Siregar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available New freedom and democratic atmosphere existing in Indonesia allow the Indonesian press enjoys its new significant position. This can expand the Indonesian press goals, particularly in enriching the industrial aspiration of the institution. However, bearing in mind that Indonesia is a multicultural country, the Indonesian press can also strengthen the various demographic backgrounds of the state leading to the unity of Indonesia. This article discusses four points of the Indonesian press that need to he considered by the mass media professionals.

  19. Using the Mass Media: Need Gratification and Perceived Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan; Murray, John P.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the needs of media users and the perceived helpfulness of the media in gratifying these needs. Describes the relationship between the media-related needs and the use of the media and also the relationship of media use to perceived helpfulness. (JMF)

  20. Mass spectrometric study of thermodynamic properties of gaseous lead tellurates. Estimation of formation enthalpies of gaseous lead polonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugurov, S.M., E-mail: s.shugurov@spbu.ru; Panin, A.I.; Lopatin, S.I.; Emelyanova, K.A.

    2016-10-15

    Gaseous reactions involving lead oxides, tellurium oxide and lead tellurates were studied by the Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. Equilibrium constants and reaction enthalpies were evaluated. Structures, molecular parameters and thermodynamic functions of gaseous PbTeO{sub 3} and Pb{sub 2}TeO{sub 4} were calculated by quantum chemistry methods. The formation enthalpies Δ{sub f}H{sup 0} (298.15) = −294 ± 13 for gaseous PbTeO{sub 3} and Δ{sub f}H{sup 0} (298.15) = −499 ± 12 for gaseous Pb{sub 2}TeO{sub 4} were obtained. On the base of these results the formation enthalpies of gaseous PbPoO{sub 3} and Pb{sub 2}PoO{sub 4} were estimated as −249 ± 34 and −478 ± 38, respectively. - Highlights: • Gaseous lead tellurates PbTeO{sub 3}, Pb{sub 2}TeO{sub 4} were discovered. • Their thermodynamic properties were studied using both high temperature mass spectrometry and quantum chemistry computations. • The obtained data allows to predict the formation enthalpies of gaseous lead polonates PbPoO{sub 3}, Pb{sub 2}PoO{sub 4}.

  1. Language Policy-Making in Multilingual Education: Mass Media and the Framing of Medium of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, James W.

    2015-01-01

    In some settings, medium of instruction (MOI) policies in multilingual education break out into public debates in mass media involving politicians, business leaders, government officials, parents, and school children. These public discussions of MOI often index struggles over the distribution of political power and economic resources, and issues…

  2. Media Literacy Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Provides an up-to-date bibliography of resources available for teaching media literacy. Groups resources into the areas of media education methodology, mass media texts, general background, television, film, the news and medium of print, advertising, gender and the media, popular culture, popular music and rock video, periodicals, and…

  3. Role of Mass Media in Changing the Attitude Level of Farmers towards Organic Farming in the Western Zone of Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaraj Paramasivam; H Philip

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to assess the role of mass media in changing the attitude level of farmers on organic farming. A sample of 180 certified organic farmers was selected from the districts of Coimbatore, Erode and Tiruppur, Tamil Nadu. Majority of the respondents in the study area had medium level of mass media exposure. Findings revealed that majority of the certified organic farmers was found to possess moderately favourable attitude towards organic farming, followed by highly favourable attitud...

  4. The impact of mass media health communication on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior of u.s. Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Mass media health communication has enormous potential to drastically alter how health-related information is disseminated and obtained by different populations. However, there is little evidence regarding the influence of media channels on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behaviors among the Hispanic population. The Pew 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey was used to test the hypothesis that the amount of mass media health communication (i.e., quantity of media-based health information received) is more likely to influence Hispanic adults' health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior compared to health literacy and language proficiency variables. Results indicated that quantity of media-based health information is positively associated with health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior above and beyond the influence of health literacy and English and Spanish language proficiency. In a context where physician-patient dynamics are increasingly shifting from a passive patient role model to a more active patient role model, media-based health information can serve as an influential cue to action, prompting Hispanic individuals to make certain health-related decisions and to seek more health advice and information from a health provider. Study implications are discussed.

  5. The use of the dusty-gas model for the description of mass transport with chemical reaction in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Veldsink, J.W.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, mass transport accompanied by chemical reactions in porous media is studied according to the Fick model and the dusty-gas model. For mass transport accompanied by a chemical reaction in catalyst structures showing a plane, line, or point of symmetry, the approximate analytical

  6. Borders amidst power, State and mass media, from a critical theory standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortiz Marín

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the power, from the glance of the Critical Theory that it allows to understand the woven complex that links the relations of power to most of the human activities. This paper also approaches to the State as a regulating element of the different forces from institutional character, that they operate in its interior like structures of power and the function as that the massive mass media in the complexity of the modern societies act.

  7. An evaluation of a mass media campaign to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, Robert H; Wolfson, Mark; LaFrance, Betty; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Altman, David

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a mass media campaign in North Carolina that used television (TV) public service announcements (PSAs), radio PSAs, and billboards to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex. The primary message of the campaign was "Talk to your kids about sex. Everyone else is." Thirty-two of the 100 counties in North Carolina were chosen to evaluate the mass media campaign. Paid TV PSAs were aired in 22 of these counties, radio PSAs were aired in 21 counties, and billboards were displayed in 6 counties over a period of 9 months. The counties in our sample varied from no exposure to exposure to all 3 types of media. To assess the impact of the campaign, a sample of 1,132 parents of adolescents living in the 32 counties was administered a postexposure survey via a telephone interview. Questions about exposure to the media campaign were embedded among questions concerning media exposure to other health-related messages. The parent survey assessed the frequency the parents reported exposure to each type of media message, correct knowledge of the message, and multiple item scales that assessed how often they had talked to their child about various issues related to sex during the previous 6 months, intentions to talk to their child about these issues during the next month, and attitudes about discussing sexual issues with their child. In bivariate analyses the levels of parental exposure to the 3 types of media messages were associated with both having talked to their children and intentions to talk to their children about sex (p TV PSA about sex, and frequency of hearing a radio PSA about sex and teenage pregnancy accounted for 12.8% (p TV PSA about sex, and frequency of hearing radio PSAs about sex accounted for 12.3% of the variation in parental intentions to talk to their child about sex during the next month. Exposure to each component of this mass media campaign was associated with parents recently having talked to their adolescent

  8. Mass Media’s Impact on Confidence in Political Institutions: The Moderating Role of Political Preferences. A Preferences-Perceptions Model of Media Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Floss, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on mass media’s impact on citizens’ confidence in political institutions. Drawing on research within the field of political science that builds on the discrepancy theory from cognitive psychology, the paper argues that citizens’ preferences of how political institutions should work and the outcomes they should produce moderate mass media’s impact. Building on research of media framing effects on political attitudes an preference-perception model of media effects is develope...

  9. Measuring the level of public understanding of total solar eclipse from the mass media: Palembang as sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati, F. G.; Ekawanti, N.; Luthfiandari; Premadi, P. W.

    2016-11-01

    The Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on the 9th March 2016 received a huge attention from the mass media. Some of them intensively write articles about it even months before the TSE day. As we know media plays strategic role not only in raising public awareness but also interest. The aim of this project is to study the relation between the number of accesses to the media information and how well public learned the information delivered by the media. We prepared questionnaire consisting of seven semi-multiple choices on how public got information about TSE. We gave them choices of what they had heard to measure their basic understanding of TSE. Furthermore we add two “wrong” choices in the last questions to identify less serious respondents. We analyze 60 respondents of Palembang who visited Ampera bridge area. Our result shows no correlation between the number of information access and the level of understanding about TSE. We also found that local media did not provide the scientific content of TSE as well as the national media.

  10. Induced Monoculture in Axelrod Model with Clever Mass Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Vázquez, G. J.

    A new model is proposed, in the context of Axelrod's model for the study of cultural dissemination, to include an external vector field (VF) which describes the effects of mass media on social systems. The VF acts over the whole system and it is characterized by two parameters: a nonnull overlap with each agent in the society and a confidence value of its information. Beyond a threshold value of the confidence, there is induced monocultural globalization of the system lined up with the VF. Below this value, the multicultural states are unstable and certain homogenization of the system is obtained in opposite line up according to that we have called negative publicity effect. Three regimes of behavior for the spread process of the VF information as a function of time are reported.

  11. Mass shooting and mass media : does media coverage of mass shootings inspire copycat crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...

  12. Impact of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal porous media on coal mine fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

  13. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of “gravity settling” in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

  14. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  15. A scoping review of research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the mass media: looking back, moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Laura C; Strudsholm, Tina

    2008-07-19

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more common in Western developed countries in recent years, as has media reporting on CAM and related issues. Correspondingly, media reports are a primary information source regarding decisions to use CAM. Research on CAM related media reports is becoming increasingly relevant and important; however, identifying key concepts to guide future research is problematic due to the dispersed nature of completed research in this field. A scoping review was conducted to: 1) determine the amount, focus and nature of research on CAM and the mass media; and 2) summarize and disseminate related research results. The main phases were: 1) searching for relevant studies; 2) selecting studies based on pre-defined inclusion criteria; 3) extracting data; and 4) collating, summarizing and reporting the results. Of 4,454 studies identified through various search strategies, 16 were relevant to our objectives and included in a final sample. CAM and media research has focused primarily on print media coverage of a range of CAM therapies, although only a few studies articulated differences within the range of therapies surveyed. Research has been developed through a variety of disciplinary perspectives, with a focus on representation research. The research reviewed suggests that journalists draw on a range of sources to prepare media reports, although most commonly they cite conventional (versus CAM) sources and personal anecdotes. The tone of media reports appears generally positive, which may be related to a lack of reporting on issues related to risk and safety. Finally, a variety of discourses within media representations of CAM are apparent that each appeal to a specific audience through resonance with their specific concerns. Research on CAM and the mass media spans multiple disciplines and strategies of inquiry; however, despite the diversity in approach, it is clear that issues related to production and reception

  16. Laboratory Experiments and Modeling of Pooled NAPL Dissolution in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copty, N. K.; Sarikurt, D. A.; Gokdemir, C.

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) entrapped in porous media is commonly modeled at the continuum scale as the product of a chemical potential and an interphase mass transfer coefficient, the latter expressed in terms of Sherwood correlations that are related to flow and porous media properties. Because of the lack of precise estimates of the interface area separating the NAPL and aqueous phase, numerous studies have lumped the interfacial area into the interphase mass transfer coefficient. In this paper controlled dissolution experiments from a pooled NAPL were conducted. The immobile NAPL mass is placed at the bottom of a flow cell filled with porous media with water flowing on top. Effluent aqueous phase concentrations were measured for a wide range of aqueous phase velocities and for two types of porous media. To interpret the experimental results, a two-dimensional pore network model of the NAPL dissolution was developed. The well-defined geometry of the NAPL-water interface and the observed effluent concentrations were used to compute best-fit mass transfer coefficients and non-lumped Sherwood correlations. Comparing the concentrations predicted with the pore network model to simple previously used one-dimensional analytic solutions indicates that the analytic model which ignores the transverse dispersion can lead to over-estimation of the mass transfer coefficient. The predicted Sherwood correlations are also compared to previously published data and implications on NAPL remediation strategies are discussed.

  17. [Illustration of military medicine on the pages of mass printed media during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-12-01

    The article analyses some of illustrations dedicated to the military medical topics on the pages of some Russian magazines and newspapers (magazine "Ogonek" newspaper "Petrograd's paper" and its annexes), its place among the images of the war, formed in the mass consciousness by periodical subjects. It is concluded that with the beginning of the First World War medical illustrations were finally approved as a recognizable symbol of the war. Mass printed media played a significant role in its entrenchment.

  18. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  19. Opinion dynamics: kinetic modelling with mass media, application to the Scottish independence referendum

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent; Salvarani , Francesco

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider a kinetic model describing some mechanisms of opinion formation in the framework of referendums, by allowing that the individuals, who can interact between themselves and modify their opinion by means of spontaneous self-thinking, are moreover under the influence of mass media. After proving the main properties of the model, such as existence of solutions and conservation properties, we study, at the numerical level, both the transient and the asymptotic re...

  20. The current state and issues regarding communication from the nuclear energy industry to the mass media in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The mass media has the potential to effect the utilization of nuclear power in Japan. In most cases journalists contact PR staff of the nuclear energy industry (hereinafter called 'the industry') to collect information about various events of nuclear energy. The industry is always ready to distribute related information and hold a press conference timely when necessary. In terms of the organizational structure for the PR activities each electric power company organizes the PR section in-house. The PR staff provides journalists with information on a daily basis. For the purpose of grasping the mass media's awareness, the author conducted interviews with 22 journalists who had experience in reporting news on nuclear energy subjects. The result showed that the journalists recognized the necessity of nuclear energy. The interviewees suggested that a proper press launch should be needed at just the right time especially in emergency situations and a press release should be more easily understandable. This interview showed that journalists considered the media reports as reflection of citizens' opinion. Most of the journalists realize that the influence of the media coverage should not be negligible and they acknowledge commutation between the two sides is gradually improved compared to before. (author)

  1. Mediatization Theory and Digital Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2011-01-01

    In the 20th century, the term "media logic" was introduced to denote the influence of independent mass media on political systems and other institutions. In recent years the idea has been reworked and labelled "mediatization" to widen the framework by including new media and new areas of applicat......In the 20th century, the term "media logic" was introduced to denote the influence of independent mass media on political systems and other institutions. In recent years the idea has been reworked and labelled "mediatization" to widen the framework by including new media and new areas...

  2. Garden soil and house dust as exposure media for lead uptake in the mining village of Stratoni, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyraki, Ariadne

    2014-08-01

    The relationships between two exposure media, garden soil and house dust, were studied for Pb uptake in Stratoni village in northern Greece, an industrial area of mining and processing of sulphide ore. Lead data for the two media were assessed in terms of total and bioaccessible content, measurement and geochemical variability, and mineralogical composition. It was found that total Pb was enriched in house dust samples by a factor of 2 on average. Total Pb concentration in soil samples had a maximum of 2,040 mg/kg and reached a maximum of 7,000 mg/kg in house dust samples. The estimated variability due to measurement uncertainty was dominated by the sampling process, and the proportion of sampling variance was greater for soil samples, indicating a higher degree of Pb heterogeneity in soil on the given spatial scale of sampling strata. Although the same general spatial trend was observed for both sampling media with decreasing Pb concentration by increasing distance from the ore-processing plant, Pb in dust samples displayed the highest concentrations within a 300-600-m zone from the ore-processing facility. The significant differences which were observed in Pb speciation between the studied media were explained by differences in mineralogical composition of outdoor soil and indoor dust. Lead-enriched Fe and Mn oxides predominated in soil samples while fine galena grains (<10-20 μm diameter) were the major Pb-bearing phase in dust samples. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model was used to predict the risk of elevated blood lead levels in children of Stratoni. Model prediction indicated an average probability of 61 % for blood-Pb to exceed 10 μg/dl. The results underline the importance of house dust in risk assessment and highlight the effect of outdoor and indoor conditions on the fate of Pb in the particular environment of Stratoni.

  3. PERAN INFOGRAFIS PADA MEDIA MASSA CETAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Bima Wicandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infographics is one of many important visual elements in journalistics%2C whether in printed or electronic mass media. Its function is to make the reader of a news article better understand its narration or better comprehend the process of a publicized scientific research. In its development and besides being an aesthetic appearance of mass media%2C infographics can also reconstruct an event or a happening. Considering its importance as a form of visual news in the mass media%2C its role can be equalled to the verbal news. This article is more focused towards infographics%5C%27 role in printed mass media%2C such as newspapers and magazines. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Infografis merupakan salah satu elemen visual penting dalam dunia jurnalistik%2C baik itu media massa cetak dan media massa elektronik. Infografis diperlukan sebagai usaha untuk mempermudah pembaca memahami narasi sebuah berita maupun memahami proses sebuah penelitian ilmiah yang dipublikasikan. Infografis dalam perkembangannya juga merekonstruksi sebuah kejadian atau peristiwa disamping peran infografis yang mengejar kaidah estetika perwajahan media massa. Melihat pentingnya infografis sebagai bentuk berita visual tersebut dalam media massa%2C maka perannya bisa sejajar dengan berita yang sifatnya verbal. Tulisan ini lebih terfokus pada peran infografis dalam media massa cetak%2C seperti surat kabar dan majalah. infographics%2C+journalism%2C+printed+mass+media%2C+newspaper%2C+magazine.

  4. Developing antitobacco mass media campaign messages in a low-resource setting: experience from the Kingdom of Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, C; Phongsavan, P; Gloede, S; Filiai, S; Tongamana, V O

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use has become the leading cause of preventable death in Tonga, a small island nation in the South Pacific. One pragmatic and economical strategy to address this worrying trend is to adapt effective antitobacco mass media materials developed in high-income countries for local audiences. Using Tonga as an example, this paper shares the practical steps involved in adapting antitobacco campaign materials for local audiences with minimal resources, a limited budget and without the need for an external production team. The Tongan experience underscores the importance of an adaptation process that draws from evidence-based best-practice models and engages local and regional stakeholders to ensure that campaign materials are tailored to the local context and are embedded within a mix of antitobacco strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Do the Media Undermine Democracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, William A.

    This paper considers political reasoning within a democracy and how mass media may affect that process, as well as how the perspective and method of critical thinking may be brought to bear on the subject of media and politics. Specifically, the paper (1) discusses some ways in which the mass media may affect political reasoning; (2) offers a…

  6. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  7. Determinism and mass-media portrayals of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, C M; Ofulue, N; Sheedy, K M

    1998-01-01

    Scholars have expressed concern that the introduction of substantial coverage of "medical genetics" in the mass media during the past 2 decades represents an increase in biological determinism in public discourse. To test this contention, we analyzed the contents of a randomly selected, structured sample of American public newspapers (n=250) and magazines (n=722) published during 1919-95. Three coders, using three measures, all with intercoder reliability >85%, were employed. Results indicate that the introduction of the discourse of medical genetics is correlated with both a statistically significant decrease in the degree to which articles attribute human characteristics to genetic causes (P<.001) and a statistically significant increase in the differentiation of attributions to genetic and other causes among various conditions or outcomes (P<. 016). There has been no statistically significant change in the relative proportions of physical phenomena attributed to genetic causes, but there has been a statistically significant decrease in the number of articles assigning genetic causes to mental (P<.002) and behavioral (P<.000) characteristics. These results suggest that the current discourse of medical genetics is not accurately described as more biologically deterministic than its antecedents. PMID:9529342

  8. Journalism and Mass Communication Textbook Representations of Verbal Media Skills: Implications for Students with Speech Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Elia M.; Haller, Beth

    2017-01-01

    This study examines representation of disabilities by conducting a qualitative content analysis of how 41 journalism/mass communication textbooks frame the ideal standards of verbal communication for media professionals. Textbooks are integral to students' understanding of professional norms and may influence career decisions. Results show that…

  9. FIGHT AMONG POLITICAL ACTORS ON PRINTED MEDIA AS PART OF GENERAL ELECTION HELD TO VOTE FOR REGENT OF BANGLI REGENCY IN 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ras Amanda Gelgel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era of after reformation, Indonesia has developed rapidly enough in political sector and mass media freedom. In the local level such as in Bangli Regency, Bali Province, the fight among political actors on the printed mass media took place when the general election to vote for the regent was held. The general election which was held to vote for the regent was full of dynamism in which the candidates fought against one another on the longer mass media. The problems of the present study are as follows: (1 what was the fight among political actors on the printed media when the general election was held to vote the regent of Bangli Regency in 2010 like?; (2 the factors leading to it?; and (3 what was the impact and meaning of the fight among the political actors on the printed media? The theories used in the present study were the theory of discourse of relation of knowledge and power, the theory of the impact of media such as the agenda setting, the theory of framing, the theory of media text analysis, the theory of hegemony, and the theory of capital. The research method used was the qualitative approach with critical paradigm.  The forms of the fight among political actors took place in the arenas of news articles, advertorials, advertisements, and paid articles. The fight taking place in these arenas started from the fight for the self-image of the actors to the political issue. The factors leading to it was political factor, economic factor, and mass media. The fight among the political actors affected political sector, economic sector, and cultural sector. The fight among the political actors on the printed media contained pragmatic meaning of the media and political actors, the image, popular life style, and change of political culture in Bangli. 

  10. Does neighbourhood walkability moderate the effects of mass media communication strategies to promote regular physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R; Giles-Corti, B; Bauman, A; Rosenberg, M; Bull, F C; Leavy, J E

    2013-02-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used in Australia and elsewhere to promote physical activity among adults. Neighbourhood walkability is consistently shown to be associated with walking and total activity. Campaigns may have different effects on individuals living in high and low walkable neighbourhoods. The purpose of this study is to compare pre- and post-campaign cognitive and behavioural impacts of the Heart Foundation's Find Thirty every day® campaign, in respondents living in high and lower walkable neighbourhoods. Pre- and post-campaign cross-sectional survey data were linked with objectively measured neighbourhood walkability. Cognitive and behavioural impacts were assessed using logistic regression stratified by walkability. Cognitive impacts were significantly higher post-campaign and consistently higher in respondents in high compared with lower walkable neighbourhoods. Post campaign sufficient activity was significantly higher and transport walking significantly lower, but only in residents of lower walkable areas. Cognitive impacts of mass media physical activity campaigns may be enhanced by living in a more walkable neighbourhood.

  11. Editorial "Strategic management and social media: the leading edge"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivas-Lujan, Miguel R.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Olivas-Lujan, M.R.; Bondarouk, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    This volume is a bridge made up by exemplary contributions linking strategic perspectives with the use of social media — the most recent family of technologies that are evolving rapidly and exciting businesses as well as all sectors of society. Social media, defined by Kaplan and Haenlein (2010, p.

  12. Results of a national mass media campaign in India to warn against the dangers of smokeless tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Turk, Tahir; Prasad, C V S; Saradhi, Ranjana; Kaur, Jagdish; Gupta, Shefali; Mullin, Sandra; Ram, Faujdar; Gupta, Prakash C; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco consumption in India is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. In order to educate smokeless tobacco users about the health harms of smokeless tobacco and to denormalise tobacco usage and encourage quitting, a national television and radio mass media campaign targeted at smokeless tobacco users was aired for 6 weeks during November and December 2009. The campaign was evaluated with a nationally representative household survey of smokeless tobacco users (n = 2898). The effect of campaign awareness was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The campaign affected smokeless tobacco users as intended: 63% of smokeless-only users and 72% of dual users (ie, those who consumed both smoking and smokeless forms) recalled the campaign advertisement, primarily through television delivery. The vast majority (over 70%) of those aware of the campaign said that it made them stop and think, was relevant to their lives and provided new information. 75% of smokeless-only users and 77% of dual users said that it made them feel concerned about their habit. Campaign awareness was associated with better knowledge, more negative attitudes towards smokeless tobacco and greater cessation-oriented intentions and behaviours among smokeless tobacco users. Social marketing campaigns that utilise mass media are feasible and efficacious interventions for tobacco control in India. Implications for future mass media tobacco control programming in India are discussed.

  13. Book review of 'Mass-media, modernitate tendentiala si europenizare in era Internetului' [Mass-media, tendential modernity and Europeanization in the Internet era] by Constantin Schifirnet, Bucharest: Tritonic, 2014, 356 pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mălina Ciocea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A strong voice in the Romanian sociology of communication, Constantin Schifirneþ has published extensively in the fields of cultural anthropology and Romanian philosophical and sociological thinking, re-editing fundamental works by Spiru Haret (vol. I-XI, 2009-2010, C. Rãdulescu-Motru, A.D. Xenopol and other significant authors. His most recent papers analyze phenomena and processes in Romanian society: modernization and Europeanization, with a special focus on the role played by mass-media in these developments.

  14. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye OS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olusesan S Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 Esther O Asekun-Olarinmoye,2 Wasiu O Adebimpe,2 Akin G Omisore21Department of Mass Communication, Babcock Business School, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaIntroduction: The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern.Objectives: To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria.Materials and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16.Results: Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%. Most (64.0% respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332, electronic mail (89.0%, n=356, and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298. Most of the respondents (73.5% opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths' sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%, 37 (16.4%, 31 (13.7%, and 10 (4.4% practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0% always used condoms

  15. The Impact of Mass-Media on Consumer Behaviour Among Children and Young People

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Anca Cristea; Mihaela Simona Apostol; Tatiana Corina Dosescu

    2014-01-01

    We note that nowadays the mass-media discourse influences the consumer behaviour of children and young people, more specifically, it is obvious that it has brought about changes in many fields (i.e., culture, economy, society, etc.). Advertising messages which target consumers resulted in attitude and behaviour changes, due to new, specially designed marketing techniques and strategies aimed at reaching children and young people. The consumer behaviour of this type of audience has its own cha...

  16. The Evangelical Origins of Mass Media in America, 1815-1835. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, David Paul

    1984-01-01

    It was the evangelical Christian publicists in the tract and Bible societies who first dreamed of genuinely mass media--that is, they proposed to deliver the same printed message to everyone in America. To this end, organizations such as the American Bible Society and the American Tract Society helped to develop, in the very earliest stages, the…

  17. Smart patient, smart community: improving client participation in family planning consultations through a community education and mass-media program in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mi; Bazant, Eva; Storey, J Douglas

    In health care consultations, patients often receive insufficient information from providers and communicate little with providers about their needs or concerns. This study evaluated a combined community education and mass media intervention to improve clients' participation in family planning consultations. A household survey was conducted with 1,200 women in three sub-districts (two intervention and one control) of West Java province in Indonesia. A comparison of post-campaign findings among family planning clients suggests that the intervention as a whole had a positive effect on client participation, specifically the number of clients who prepared questions to ask the service provider prior to a family planning visit in the past year. Multivariate analyses showed that the "Smart Card" intervention and elements of the "Sahabat" (Friend) mass media campaign were positively associated with clients' preparation of questions and question asking behavior during family planning consultations, indicating that a combined community education and mass-media approach can improve client communication with providers and improve the quality of family planning counseling.

  18. Inner Security in Media from the perspective of social science and media studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Bidlo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Security and entertainment are moving closer together. The term Securitainment expresses in this context, the mediation of security through entertainment formats. This will open a new space for Internal Security, which includes its own actors and patterns of interpretation. This space is portrayed in the media and follows the logic of media for attention but is also part of the process of social control. The mass media are therefore an instance of the design of internal security, social control and an interpretation producer. Mass media become actors of the internal security. They provide a symbolic representation of security.

  19. Mass media and nuclear energy - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    The presentation covers the following areas: the wide spectrum of media outlets that the IAEA seeks to serve and their differing needs; the resources available to the IAEA for that purpose; the way in which IAEA endeavours to disseminate authoritative, reliable nuclear-related information to media; the exceptional role the IAEA may be called on to play in emergency situations

  20. Pengaruh Penggunaan Media Konvensional Dan New Media Terhadap Tingkat Sosialisasi Politik Mahasiswa Fisip Undip (Studi Kasus Mahasiswa Strata Satu)

    OpenAIRE

    Triwijanarko, Ramadhan; Utomo, Susilo; Widayati, Wiwik

    2013-01-01

    Political socialization is a process of how the political system introduced to someone,and how to determine the person's response and reaction to the political phenomenon. One of theagents of political socialization is the mass media. In the modern era of mass media has beendivided into two camps, the conventional media and new media. Widespread development oftechnology and inexpensive price make the new media accessible to many people. Whileconventional media slowly began to incontestably wi...

  1. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.

  2. LEAD SLOWING DOWN SPECTROSCOPY FOR DIRECT Pu MASS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressler, Jennifer J.; Smith, Leon E.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2008-01-01

    The direct measurement of Pu in previously irradiated fuel assemblies is a recognized need in the international safeguards community. A suitable technology could support more timely and independent material control and accounting (MC and A) measurements at nuclear fuel storage areas, the head-end of reprocessing facilities, and at the product-end of recycled fuel fabrication. Lead slowing down spectroscopy (LSDS) may be a viable solution for directly measuring not only the mass of 239Pu in fuel assemblies, but also the masses of other fissile isotopes such as 235U and 241Pu. To assess the potential viability of LSDS, an LSDS spectrometer was modeled in MCNP5 and 'virtual assays' of nominal PWR assemblies ranging from 0 to 60 GWd/MTU burnup were completed. Signal extraction methods, including the incorporation of nonlinear fitting to account for self-shielding effects in strong resonance regions, are described. Quantitative estimates of Pu uncertainty are given for simplistic and more realistic fuel isotopic inventories calculated using ORIGEN. A discussion of additional signal-perturbing effects that will be addressed in future work, and potential signal extraction approaches that could improve Pu mass uncertainties, are also discussed

  3. Social media in public health: an analysis of national health authorities and leading causes of death in Spanish-speaking Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novillo-Ortiz, David; Hernández-Pérez, Tony

    2017-02-03

    Information and communications technologies, like social media, have the potential to reduce some barriers in disease prevention and control in the Americas. National health authorities can use these technologies to provide access to reliable and quality health information. A study was conducted to analyze availability of information about the leading causes of death on social media channels of national health authorities in 18 Spanish-speaking Latin American and Caribbean countries. We gathered data of national health authorities's institutional presence in social media. Exploratory-descriptive research was useful for analysis and interpretation of the data collected. An analysis was carried out for 6 months, from April 1 to September 30, 2015. Sixteen of the 18 countries studied have institutional presences on social media. National health authorities have a presence in an average of almost three platforms (2.8%). An average of 1% of the populations with Internet access across the 18 countries in this study follows national health authorities on social media (approximately, an average of 0.3% of the total population of the countries under study). On average, information on 3.2 of the 10 leading causes of death was posted on the national health authorities' Facebook pages, and information on 2.9 of the 10 leading causes of death was posted on their Twitter profiles. Additionally, regarding public health expenditures and the possibility of retrieving information on the leading causes of death, an apparent negative correlation exists in the case of Facebook, r(13) = -.54, P = .03 and a weak negative correlation in the case of Twitter, r(14) = -.26, P = .31, for the countries with presences in those networks. National health authorities can improve their role in participating in conversations on social media regarding the leading causes of death affecting their countries. Taking into account Internet accessibility levels in the countries under study

  4. Heart disease and gender in mass print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne

    2010-03-01

    Heart disease is a major cause of death, disease and disability in the developed world for both men and women. Women appear to be under-diagnosed and treated both because they fail to visit the doctor or hospital with relevant symptoms and because doctors tend to dismiss the seriousness of women's symptoms of heart disease. This review examined the way that popular mass print media present the possible association between gender and heart disease. It found that there was: [1] an under-representation of heart disease as a possible concern to women, [2] a dismissing or sensationalization of women's heart disease, [3] a tendency to blame women's complex menopausal bodies for the causes of heart disease, [4] an association of women with the heart disease of their husbands, [5] a linking of heart disease with masculinity and [6] a promotion of the idea of the need for women to fear of heart disease and the necessity of taking cholesterol-lowering drugs. The review concluded with suggestions for further research and for practice. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Mass Media and the Internet As Tools to Diagnose Hepatitis C Infections in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuure, Freke R.; Davidovich, Udi; Coutinho, Roel A.; Kok, Gerjo; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Jansen, Peter L. M.; van Leeuwen-Gilbert, Paula; Verheuvel, Nicole C.; Weegink, Christine J.; Prins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are undiagnosed. Purpose: This study describes the development and the use and outcomes of a mass media campaign, combined with an Internet risk assessment and an Internet-mediated blood-testing procedure for HCV to identify

  6. Cancer patients and mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Rajer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUNDNowadays cancer patients tend to be more involved in the medical decision process. Active participation improves health outcomes and patient satisfaction. To participate effectively patients require a huge amount of information, but time limits make it impossible to satisfy all information needs at clinics. We tried to find out which kind of media cancer patients use when searching for information and how often. Lastly, we try to find out how popular the Internet is in this regard.METODSIn this research we invited cancer patients, who had regular clinic examinations at the Oncology Institute between 21st and 25th May in 2012. We carried out a prospective research by anonymous questionnaires. We were investigating which media were used and how often. We analysed results with descriptive statistics, ANOVA, the χ²-Test and the t-test.RESULTS478 of 919 questionnaires distributed among cancer patients were returned. Mean age was 59.9 years. 61 % of responders were female, and the most common level of education was high school (33 %. Most common cancer type was breast cancer (33 %, followed by gastrointestinal and lung cancer. Patients search for information most often on television (81.4% responders, followed by specialized brochures (78%, internet (70.8% and newspapers (67.6%. Patients who do not use media for information searching are older than average (62.5 years vs. 59.9 years; p<0,000.CONCLUSIONSAccording to our results patients search for information most often on television, followed by brochures, internet and newspapers. Older patients less often search for information. This data might help doctors in everyday clinical practice.

  7. Lead accumulation by jabon seedling (Anthocephalus cadamba) on tailing media with application of compost and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, L.; Setiadi, Y.; Budi, S. W.; Hamim; Sopandie, D.

    2017-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the dangerous heavy metal contained in tailing that needs remediation activity. This study aimed to investigate the potency of jabon to take up and accumulate lead in its tissue by the application of compost and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF) on pot observation. In Pb-containing tailing media, the average levels of Pb in roots seedling was 50% greater as compared to the levels of Pb in the stem and leaves of seedlings. Application of compost in tailings media significantly increased (p ≤ 0.5) the average levels of Pb in the roots and stems, but decreased Pb levels in leaves. Applications AMF significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.5) the average levels of Pb in the roots, stem and leaves of seedlings by approximately 18-33%. The combination applications of compost and AMF significantly (p ≤ 0.5) increased the level of Pb in the roots, stems and leaves of seedlings at 6, 16 and 27 fold respectively than that in control plant (without compost and AMF). After 12 weeks exposure, lead bioconcentration factor varied from 0.1-1.6 in seedling tissue with transport factor varied from 0.1-1.0. The application of active compost and AMF increased 1-15 fold lead accumulation from control, and the biggest accumulation was 452.9 x10-2 mg/plant with Pb concentration of 1.5 mM. Active compost and AMF application supported jabon seedling to act as lead phytostabilizer and to remove lead from the tailing to the above part of the plant.

  8. A Large Cross-Sectional Survey Investigating the Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Risk Aetiology and the Predictors of the Adherence to Cervical Cancer Screening Related to Mass Media Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado De Vito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of women who got a Pap-test during the mass media campaign, carried out in an Italian region by broadcasts advertising, and two years later and to identify the determinants of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology and of the adherence to the mass media campaign. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out through a self-administered questionnaire. Results. A total of 8570 randomly selected women were surveyed, 823 of these had a Pap-test during the mass media campaign period and 7747 two years later. Higher educational level, being not married, and living in urban areas were the main independent characteristics associated with a higher level of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, although a previous treatment following a Pap smear abnormality was the strongest predictor (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 2.43–3.41. During the campaign period women had the Pap-test more frequently as a consequence of the mass media campaign (OR = 8.28; 95% CI; 5.51–12.45. Conclusions. Mass media campaign is a useful tool to foster cervical screening compliance; however, its short-term effect suggests repeating it regularly.

  9. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Guía básica (Versión 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Biblioteca de la Universidad de Málaga

    2017-01-01

    Dentro de las Ciencias de la Comunicación, una de las bases de datos más importante y completa es Communication & Mass Media Complete, que de alguna manera viene a sustituir en nuestro catálogo Jábega a Comunication Abstracts, ya que da acceso a casi los mismos títulos que esta última, pero además ofrece el texto completo en PDF de la mayoría de ellos.

  10. Comparison between Removal Efficiency of Slag, zeolite, and Conventional media in slow sand Filter for Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ebrahimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals owing to their health hazards and high toxicity in low concentration for human and environment have very concern and attention. Slow sand filter is one of the simple and cost-effective for removal of these pollutants. In this method, media play an important role for removal of pollutant. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigation of different media like slag, zeolite, and conventional media in slow sand filter for removal of lead and cadmium. Methods: In this research there are three beds filter include typical filter bed, slag and zeolite that used in pilot plant for investigation of lead and cadmium removal at three concentration of 0.1T 1 and 10 ppm. Each of filters has an internal diameter of 8 cm and a height of 120 cm with Plexiglas, which have a continuous flow operation. Results: The removal efficiency of turbidity by three typical filter bed, slag, and zeolite with initial turbidity of 13 NTU was 46%, 77%, and 89% respectively. Removal efficiency of lead without turbidity was 70.3%, 79%, and 59.8% respectively for 0.1 ppm lead. For 1 ppm, concentration of lead removal efficiency was 51.8%, 52.7% and 52.6% respectively and for 10 ppm it was 53.4%, 57.8%, and 59.8% respectively. Cadmium removal for these media was 23.4%, 37.5%, and 59.4% respectively at 0.1 ppm cadmium. At 1 ppm of cadmium concentration, it was 37.9%, 45% and 41.3% respectively and at 10 ppm concentration of cadmium it was 68.3%, 68.6% and 67% respectively. Conclusion: Slag and zeolite beds are more efficiently than the conventional sand beds in the slow sand filter, so it can be used instead of the usual sand for removing lead and cadmium from resources water.

  11. Simulation results for a multirate mass transfer modell for immiscible displacement of two fluids in highly heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecklenburg, Jan; Neuweiler, Insa; Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus; Geiger, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Flow processes in geotechnical applications do often take place in highly heterogeneous porous media, such as fractured rock. Since, in this type of media, classical modelling approaches are problematic, flow and transport is often modelled using multi-continua approaches. From such approaches, multirate mass transfer models (mrmt) can be derived to describe the flow and transport in the "fast" or mobile zone of the medium. The porous media is then modeled with one mobile zone and multiple immobile zones, where the immobile zones are connected to the mobile zone by single rate mass transfer. We proceed from a mrmt model for immiscible displacement of two fluids, where the Buckley-Leverett equation is expanded by a sink-source-term which is nonlocal in time. This sink-source-term models exchange with an immobile zone with mass transfer driven by capillary diffusion. This nonlinear diffusive mass transfer can be approximated for particular imbibition or drainage cases by a linear process. We present a numerical scheme for this model together with simulation results for a single fracture test case. We solve the mrmt model with the finite volume method and explicit time integration. The sink-source-term is transformed to multiple single rate mass transfer processes, as shown by Carrera et. al. (1998), to make it local in time. With numerical simulations we studied immiscible displacement in a single fracture test case. To do this we calculated the flow parameters using information about the geometry and the integral solution for two phase flow by McWorther and Sunnada (1990). Comparision to the results of the full two dimensional two phase flow model by Flemisch et. al. (2011) show good similarities of the saturation breakthrough curves. Carrera, J., Sanchez-Vila, X., Benet, I., Medina, A., Galarza, G., and Guimera, J.: On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects, Hydrogeology Journal, 6, 178-190, 1998. Flemisch, B., Darcis, M

  12. Mass media communication of emergency issues and countermeasures in a nuclear accident: Fukushima reporting in European newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, Eduardo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Oughton, Deborah H.; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Perko, Tanja; Prezelj, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues. A clear lesson is that, even under uncertainty and recognising limitations, responsible authorities need to provide transparent, clear and understandable information to the public and the mass media right from the beginning of the early phase of any nuclear emergency. Clear, concise messages should be given. Mass media could play a key role in reassuring the public if the countermeasures are clearly explained. (authors)

  13. Literasi Media Pada Mahasiswa Prodi Ilmu Komunikasi Universitas Mulawarman

    OpenAIRE

    Inda Fitryarini

    2016-01-01

    Teen relations with the mass media has become a problematic issue. On side of the media is a means of transforming the ideas, values, norms and mental transformation towards awake, enlighment, and progress of life. On the other hand the mass media transmit a bad influencethat degrades humanity format and the ability to think of teenagers. The adverse effect of the mass media, gave to be idea of the so called media literacy. The purpose of the study is to describe and analyze the step of media...

  14. Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning [From mass media to media system - code discussions in systems theoretical media research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Systemteoretisk medieforskning rejser spørgsmålet om, hvorvidt massemedierne udgør en samlet institution, eller om medierne, i kraft af deres indbyrdes forskelle, skal betragtes uafhængigt af hinanden. Ved at indskrive medierne i en generel samfundsteori fremstiller systemteorien medierne som et autonomt funktionssystem. Denne bestræbelse kommer tydeligst til udtryk i identifikationen af en fælles kode for massemediernes system. Med udgangspunkt i Niklas Luhmanns medieteori foretager nærværende artikel en kritisk gennemgang af den systemteoretiske medieforsknings kodediskussion. Første del præsenterer kort systemteoriens kodebegreb og Luhmanns bestemmelse af mediesystemet som organiseret omkring koden information. Den midterste del gennemgår en række alternative forslag til denne kodedefinition, hvilket illustrerer omfanget, men også nogle af begrænsningerne, ved systemteoretisk medieforskning. Sidste del foretager en kritisk diskussion af systemteoriens kodeproblematik og viser, hvordan en ensidig kodefokusering står i vejen for en fortsat udforskning af vilkårene for mediesystemets udvikling og autonomi.Systems theoretical media research raises the question whether the mass media constitute a unified institution, or whether the media, due to their internal differences, should be considered individually and independent of each other. By inscribing the media in a general social theory, systems theory conceptualises the media as an autonomous functional system. This intention is most clearly illustrated by the efforts to identify a shared code for the entire media system. Based on the media theory of Niklas Luhmann, this paper offers a critical presentation of the code discussion within systems theoretical media research. The first part of the paper briefly introduces the systems theoretical notion of a code as well as Luhmann’s definition of the media system as organised and regulated by the code of information. The second part

  15. A generation at risk: a cross-sectional study on HIV/AIDS knowledge, exposure to mass media, and stigmatizing behaviors among young women aged 15-24 years in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah, Charity Konadu; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong; Agardh, Anette

    2017-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors are a huge barrier to early detection and treatment of individuals with the AIDS virus. HIV/AIDS stigma and related consequences are debilitating, especially for vulnerable populations. This study sought to assess whether young women's HIV/AIDS knowledge levels and exposure to mass media (television and radio) have an influence on their stigmatizing behaviors and role as agents of stigma towards individuals living with HIV and AIDS. The data used for this study originated from the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011. Binary and multiple (stepwise) logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between HIV/AIDS knowledge, frequency of exposure to mass media, and HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors among young women aged 15-24 years in Ghana. Of the 3573 young women, 80% of 15-19-year-olds and 76% of 20-24-year-olds had at least one stigmatizing behavior towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Young women with increased knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and frequent exposure to mass media (television and radio) had lesser tendency to stigmatize or act as agents of stigma towards PLHA (proportion with at least one stigmatizing behavior per subgroup - HIV/AIDS knowledge: those with highest knowledge score 579 [70.1%], those with lowest knowledge score 28 [90.3%]; mass media: those with daily exposure 562 [73.4%], those not exposed at all 249 [89.2%]). There was a graded negative 'exposure-response' association between the ranked variables: HIV/AIDS knowledge, mass media, and HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors. The significant inverse association between HIV/AIDS knowledge, frequency of exposure to mass media, and HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors persisted even after adjusting for all other covariates in the multiple logistic regression models. It is extremely important to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and reduce stigma among young women in Ghana through targeted HIV/AIDS factual knowledge transfer. The

  16. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  17. Framing and sources: a study of mass media coverage of climate change in Peru during the V ALCUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Studies about mass media framing have found divergent levels of influence on public opinion; moreover, the evidence suggests that issue attributes can contribute to this difference. In the case of climate change, studies have focused exclusively on developed countries, suggesting that media influence perceptions about the issue. This study presents one of the first studies of media coverage in a developing country. It examines newspapers' reporting in Peru during the Fifth Latin America, Caribbean and European Union Summit in May 2008. The study focuses on the frames and the sources to provide an initial exploratory assessment of the coverage. The results show that the media relied mostly on government sources, giving limited access to dissenting voices such as environmentalists. Additionally, a prominence of "solutions" and "effects" frames was found, while "policy" and "science" frames were limited. The results could serve as a reference point for more comprehensive studies.

  18. How Does Information Spread on Social Media Lead to Effective Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Thomas K

    2017-09-01

    Social media encompasses computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The key, of course, is the ability and willingness for information to be shared. But why does some information spread on social media and not others? What factors translate social media awareness to action? In this article, we explore these themes using case studies, as well as tips on how you can utilize social media to effectively champion a cause.

  19. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane Appleyard; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the published literature on using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use, with particular focus on effects within population subgroups and the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO conducted in March of 2014 yielded 397 studies with 34 suitable for inclusion. Included were quantitative studies that evaluate an antitobacco media campaign intended to influence youth cognitions or behavior or explore the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics among youth. An automated search and assessment of suitability for inclusion was done. Study outcomes were compared and synthesized. Antitobacco media campaigns can be effective across racial/ethnic populations, although the size of the campaign effect may differ by race/ethnicity. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether campaign outcomes differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. Youth are more likely to recall and think about advertising that includes personal testimonials; a surprising narrative; and intense images, sound, and editing. Evidence in support of using a health consequences message theme is mixed; an industry manipulation theme may be effective in combination with a health consequences message. Research is insufficient to determine whether advertising with a secondhand smoke or social norms theme influences youth tobacco use. Our recommendation is to develop antitobacco campaigns designed to reach all at-risk youth, which can be effective across racial/ethnic populations. Research priorities include assessing campaign influence among lower SES and rural youth, disentangling the effects of message characteristics, and assessing the degree to which this body of evidence may have changed as a result of changes in youth culture and communication technology.

  20. Concept on groundwater flow and mass transport through heterogeneous porous media and application to in-situ test analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Koichiro; Umeki, Hiroyuki.

    1995-01-01

    Generally, geological media is modelled as porous or fractured media depending on their characteristics. Since the channels of groundwater flow and the transport paths are determined by the heterogeneity of the geological media, quantitative understanding of the heterogeneity is an important issue for modelling flow and transport processes through them. Therefore, it becomes popular way to develop statistical identification approaches of the heterogeneous field by using data from in-situ test and conduct validation studies of flow and transport models through the field by comparing with observed data. In this report, the theories of the identification approach and the concept on groundwater flow and mass transport are explained briefly and the application to tracer tests conducted at Grimsel test site, Switzerland, are described. (author)

  1. High-precision lead isotope ratio measurement by inductively coupled plasma multiple collector mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, A.J.; Furuta, Naoki.

    1993-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source coupled to a magnetic sector mass analyser equipped with seven Faraday detectors has been used to measure the lead isotope ratios in solutions of Sanshiro Pond sediment collected at the University of Tokyo, airborne particulates collected at Shinjuku in Tokyo and Merck multielement standard product number 97279494. A thallium correction technique was utilized to allow a simultaneous correction for mass bias. This work followed an earlier interlaboratory comparison study of the above-mentioned solutions using ICP quadrupole mass spectrometry, and has demonstrated a considerable improvement in analytical precision. The following isotope ratio measurements were recorded. Pond sediment solution containing 82 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=17.762±0.014; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.1424±0.0009; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=37.678±0.034. Airborne particulate solution containing 45 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=17.969±0.006; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.1528±0.0003; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=37.915±0.021. Merck multielement standard solution containing 100 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=19.255±0.015; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.2238±0.0004; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=38.476±0.021 (All errors are given as ±2 standard deviations). (author)

  2. Systematic review of the design, implementation and effectiveness of mass media and nutrition education interventions for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziose, Matthew M; Downs, Shauna M; O'Brien, Quentin; Fanzo, Jessica

    2018-02-01

    To systematically review the design, implementation and effectiveness of mass media and nutrition education interventions for improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and related psychosocial factors. A search of PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases, a Google search, and a consultation with experts in the field of IYCF performed in July 2016. Low- and middle-income countries, as defined by the World Bank Group. Eligible studies: included a mass media component (with or without nutrition education); conducted a pre-post evaluation (with or without a control group); assessed IYCF knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and/or practices; and were published in English between 2000 and present. Eighteen unique studies were identified that examined the effect of mass media (types included: television; print; voice and/or SMS (text) messages; radio; megaphones/loudspeakers; videos; social media; songs/dramas) and nutrition education interventions on IYCF practices within thirteen countries. Of these, fifteen studies reported improvements in breast- and/or complementary feeding practices, using indicators recommended by the WHO, and six studies reported improvements in related psychosocial factors. However, little detail was provided on the use of formative research, a formal behaviour change theory and behaviour change techniques. Few studies reported both dose delivered and participants' exposure to the intervention. Despite evidence of effectiveness, few common elements in the design of interventions were identified. Future research should consistently report these details to open the 'black box' of IYCF interventions, identify effective design components and ensure replicability.

  3. Parental monitoring of children's media consumption: the long-term influences on body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberio, Stacey S; Kerr, David C R; Capaldi, Deborah M; Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Nowicka, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    Although children's media consumption has been one of the most robust risk factors for childhood obesity, effects of specific parenting influences, such as parental media monitoring, have not been effectively investigated. To examine the potential influences of maternal and paternal monitoring of child media exposure and children's general activities on body mass index (BMI) in middle childhood. A longitudinal study, taken from a subsample of the Three Generational Study, a predominantly white, Pacific Northwest community sample (overall participation rate, 89.6%), included assessments performed from June 1998 to September 2012. Analyses included 112 mothers, 103 fathers, and their 213 children (55.4% girls) at age 5, 7, and/or 9 years. Participation rates ranged from 66.7% to 72.0% of all eligible Three Generational Study children across the 3 assessments. Parents reported on their general monitoring of their children (whereabouts and activities), specific monitoring of child media exposure, children's participation in sports and recreational activities, children's media time (hours per week), annual income, and educational level. Parental BMI was recorded. Predictions to level and change in child BMI z scores were tested. Linear mixed-effects modeling indicated that more maternal, but not paternal, monitoring of child media exposure predicted lower child BMI z scores at age 7 years (95% CI, -0.39 to -0.07) and less steeply increasing child BMI z scores from 5 to 9 years (95% CI, -0.11 to -0.01). These effects held when more general parental monitoring, and parent BMI, annual income, and educational level were controlled for. The significant negative effect of maternal media monitoring on children's BMI z scores at age 7 years was marginally accounted for by the effect of child media time. The maternal media monitoring effect on children's BMI z score slopes remained significant after adjustment for children's media time and sports and recreational activity. These

  4. MASS MEDIA HEALTH COMMUNICATION: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKPOBO ODORUME

    the media subjugate themselves to the political, social, economic, cultural ... owing substantially to wide spread rumors and misconceptions among Muslims over ... these immunization sessions, health stakeholders address women on their ...

  5. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  6. The Social Construction of Breast Cancer in Mass Media and Its Influence on Public Understanding and Citizen Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharf, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a social problem, a disease, and personal illness experience...

  7. The Social Construction of Breast Cancer in Mass Media and its Influence on Public Understanding and Citizen Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharf, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a social problem, a disease, and personal illness experience...

  8. A Systematic Search and Review of Adult-Targeted Overweight and Obesity Prevention Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: 2000-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, James; Grunseit, Anne; Bohn-Goldbaum, Erika; Bellew, Bill; Carroll, Tom; Bauman, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Mass media campaigns are a commonly used strategy in public health. However, no review has assessed whether the design and evaluation of overweight and obesity campaigns meets best practice recommendations. This study aimed to fill this gap. We systematically searched five databases for peer-reviewed articles describing adult-targeted obesity mass media campaigns published between 2000 and 2017, complemented by reference list searches and contact with authors and agencies responsible for the campaigns. We extracted data on campaign design, implementation, and evaluation from eligible publications and conducted a qualitative review of 29 publications reporting on 14 campaigns. We found a need for formative research with target audiences to ensure campaigns focus on the most salient issues. Further, we noted that most campaigns targeted individual behaviors, despite calls for campaigns to also focus upstream and to address social determinants of obesity. Television was the dominant communication channel but, with the rapid advance of digital media, evaluation of other channels, such as social media, is increasingly important. Finally, although evaluation methods varied in quality, the evidence suggests that campaigns can have an impact on intermediate outcomes, such as knowledge and attitudes. However, evidence is still limited as to whether campaigns can influence behavior change.

  9. [The pandemic of the experts in the mass media. How to create trust in public communication by acknowledging ignorance and uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollorz, V

    2013-01-01

    The first influenza pandemic in the twenty-first century is an example of how public trust in expert recommendations can erode if prognostic ability of these experts is suddenly doubted in the mass media. A highly consonant pandemic alarm communicated through the mass media can later cause heightened resonance concerning the appropriateness of the same alarm. In this case a paradoxical effect can develop, in which the same media outlet first paints an overly risky picture of an unfolding pandemic only to later condemn this assessment as alarmist. Can such behavior be considered a defect of journalism? In this article I describe the circumstances under which such media dynamics and "hypes" without trust in expertise are more likely to develop: when there is nontransparent decision making; when uncertainty and nescience of expert judgments are not communicated transparently; when warnings and measures taken are not readily adapted to the evolving risk situation in reality. If these basic principles are recognized in future pandemic risk communication, long-term public trust in scientific expertise can be secured. In this way, despite a public health crisis, a long-lasting break in the credibility of sound science can be avoided.

  10. Determination of particulate lead during MILAGRO / MCMA-2006 using Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Dara; Onasch, T. B.; Aiken, A. C.; Williams, L. R.; de Foy, B.; Cubison, M. J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Molina, L. T.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2010-05-01

    We report the first measurements of particulate lead (Pb) from Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, which were deployed in and around Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) / Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006) field campaigns. The high resolution mass spectrometer of one of the AMS instruments (HR-AMS) and the measured isotopic ratios unequivocally prove the detection of Pb in ambient particles. A substantial fraction of the lead evaporated slowly from the vaporizer of the instruments, which is indicative of species with low volatility at 600oC. A model was developed in order to estimate the ambient particulate Pb entering the AMS from the signals in the "open" and the "closed" (or "background") mass spectrum modes of the AMS. The model suggests the presence of at least two lead fractions with ~25% of the Pb signal exhibiting rapid evaporation (1/e decay constant, τ PEMEX32 site). From laboratory experiments with pure Pb(NO3)2 particles, we estimated that the Pb ionization efficiency relative to nitrate (RIEPb) is 0.5. Comparison of time series of AMS Pb with other measurements carried out at the T0 urban supersite during MILAGRO (using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and single-particle counts from an Aerosol Time-of-Fight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS)) shows similar levels (for PIXE and ICP-MS) and substantial correlation. During part of the campaign, sampling at T0 was alternated every 10 minutes with an Aerosol Concentrator, which enabled the detection of signals for PbCl+ and PbS+ ions. PbS+ displays the signature of a slowly evaporating species, while PbCl+ appears to arise only from fast evaporation, which is likely due to the higher vapor pressure of the compounds generating PbCl+. This is consistent with the evaporation model results. Levels of particulate Pb measured during MILAGRO at T0 were similar to previous studies in Mexico

  11. Determination of particulate lead using aerosol mass spectrometry: MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Onasch, T. B.; Aiken, A. C.; Williams, L. R.; de Foy, B.; Cubison, M. J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Molina, L. T.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2010-06-01

    We report the first measurements of particulate lead (Pb) from Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, which were deployed in and around Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)/Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006) field campaigns. The high resolution mass spectrometer of one of the AMS instruments (HR-AMS) and the measured isotopic ratios unequivocally prove the detection of Pb in ambient particles. A substantial fraction of the lead evaporated slowly from the vaporizer of the instruments, which is indicative of species with low volatility at 600 °C. A model was developed in order to estimate the ambient particulate Pb entering the AMS from the signals in the "open" and the "closed" (or "background") mass spectrum modes of the AMS. The model suggests the presence of at least two lead fractions with ~25% of the Pb signal exhibiting rapid evaporation (1/e decay constant, τPEMEX site). From laboratory experiments with pure Pb(NO3)2 particles, we estimated that the Pb ionization efficiency relative to nitrate (RIEPb) is 0.5. Comparison of time series of AMS Pb with other measurements carried out at the T0 supersite during MILAGRO (using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and single-particle counts from an Aerosol Time-of-Fight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS)) shows similar levels (for PIXE and ICP-MS) and substantial correlation. During part of the campaign, sampling at T0 was alternated every 10 min with an Aerosol Concentrator, which enabled the detection of signals for PbCl+ and PbS+ ions. PbS+ displays the signature of a slowly evaporating species, while PbCl+ appears to arise only from fast evaporation, which is likely due to the higher vapor pressure of the compounds generating PbCl+. This is consistent with the evaporation model results. Levels of particulate Pb measured at T0 were similar to previous studies in Mexico City. Pb shows a diurnal cycle

  12. Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Corrections to Higgs Boson Plus Jet Production with Full Top-Quark Mass Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. P.; Kerner, M.; Luisoni, G.

    2018-04-01

    We present the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the production of a Higgs boson in association with one jet at the LHC including the full top-quark mass dependence. The mass of the bottom quark is neglected. The two-loop integrals appearing in the virtual contribution are calculated numerically using the method of sector decomposition. We study the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution, focusing on the high pt ,H region, where the top-quark loop is resolved. We find that the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections are large but that the ratio of the next-to-leading-order to leading-order result is similar to that obtained by computing in the limit of large top-quark mass.

  13. Participatory advocacy: a counter to media imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M

    1996-01-01

    Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge.

  14. MEDIA INDUSTRY IN THE DIGITAL WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burtic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the internet and the expansion of digitalization changed the way society works, especially mass-media. The question is if the internet was an advantage or a disadvantage for mass-media? Apparently, on one hand digitalization determined the reduction of production and distribution costs but also content diversification. At the same time, social media and rapid documentation brought an accession in the quality of journalistic product as well as the entering on the market of multiple actors, in consequence, more ideas more carefully selected. On the other hand, it is possible that the internet may have increased the volume of information, detrimental to its credibility. In other words, the quality of the journalistic act and its results have been altered or at least crippled. Methodologically, starting from the observation of the actual situation in mass-media industry and economy, we propose to make a content analysis. We will talk about aspects concerning the challenges and the opportunities from media industry in the digital context, analyzing the opinions of other researchers about the topic. We are trying to present the concepts that we sustain in the light of some reference works and to give examples from the reality of Romanian and international mass-media economy. The mass-media sector in the digital world is confronting with opportunities and challenges. The change isn’t simple and without risks but is expensive and may be the only way of survival for each of the societies in this sector. In order to build successful businesses in media industry just like in any other sectors, sustainable growth has to be the main characteristic. Sustainable development, predictability and upward economic growth are possible only taking into account the context in which the organization operates. Adapting press organization to the external environment, a creative response to market challenges and optimal management of the financial

  15. Influence of Culture Media on Detection of Carbapenem Hydrolysis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana Carolina; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy; Cordeiro-Moura, Jhonatha Rodrigo; Rockstroh, Anna Carolina; Machado, Antonia Maria Oliveira; Gales, Ana Cristina

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of distinct bacterial growth media on detection of carbapenemase hydrolysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. False-negative results were observed for OXA-25-, OXA-26-, and OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates grown on MacConkey agar medium. The other culture media showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for detecting carbapenemase. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Understanding Social Media Logic

    OpenAIRE

    José van Dijck; Thomas Poell

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media log...

  17. Pengguna Media Interaktif Sebagai Kenyataan Maya: Studi Resepsi Khalayak Suarasurabaya.net Sebagai Media Interaktif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Prijana Hadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available My aim in writing this paper is to describe that in this fast-changing world, media in Indonesia has undergone a rapid transformation. Digital technology continues to reshape the mass media landscape using internet technology. Internet brings a technical communication revolution, a fundamental change takes place in the structure of connections, artificial memories and the reproduction of their content. Internet technology has made communication much easier and less expensive. It has attracted many people and has penetrated into people’s daily lives. The mass media also have accepted the internet. Almost all forms of traditional media (old media in local media, such as radio, television, and newspaper have extended their work into this new field. The internet and the World Wide Web have both significantly influenced modern journalism. In online media allows readers to enjoy browsing their product and service of contents, such as news feed, podcasts, desktop alert, news on mobile phones, PDA and others mobile devices. Online media offer not only text but also digital images , audio file, moving images (video, internet radio and internet t v. The interactive features of the internet seemingly imply that online media have more advantages than traditional media forms (old media. So, the internet have dramatically evolved become new media with characteristic multimedia, hypertext, interactivity, archives , and virtuality. The most important structural new media characteristic is the integration of telecommunications, data communications and mass communication in a single medium – it is the convergence. It should be pointed out that the trend toward digital is affecting the various media and brings the local media in East Java to become a global media, where breaking news from Surabaya or anywhere in East Java is transmitted to around the world in a matter of minutes . The research was carried out to find out how user reception on convergence media

  18. Mass Media and Consensus Politics: A Critical Evaluation of the Coverage of the 1980 Presidential Election Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Charles; Stovall, Jim

    Presidential candidates in the United States tend to seek consensus rather than to try to discover new answers to problems and to convince voters that they should be elected to implement those answers. Reporters in the mass media emphasize objectivity and fairness in their reporting. This emphasis produces an intense interest in the…

  19. The synergy between mass-media and public management: a positive perspective for the Departments of Communication and Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan (Mocanu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to emphasize the major role the departments of communication and public relations detains in the synergy process between mass-media and public institutions, starting from a series of short-circuits which have occurred in Romanian public sector and led to the misunderstanding of messages, due to an unprofessional communication. Synergy, on its basic meaning, represents a simultaneous action oriented in the same direction, which involves several agents who have the same purposes (DEI, 1999. In the present context, I define synergy as intensifying two activities with a determinant role in the proper functioning of public management which contributes, to a large extent, on informing and educating the general public. The premises I start with are that crisis situations occur because of a faulty communication department and these could be avoided if there would be a permanent and efficient relationship between mass-media and public institutions. In other words, an efficiently organized department of communication could enhance company’s activity starting from the partnership between media and public institutions. Through collaboration, both units could present advantages to be felt at the organizational, social, economic and cultural levels.

  20. Journalism Practice and Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi KURT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media applications which have been emerging with the spread of developing internet technology, have deeply transformed all variants of the phenomenon of the communication, including mass communication. Social media has transformed phenomenon of communication into an accelerant and interactive format that can be contributed continuously; while, mass media carries the information which is designed from a certain center (newsrooms to masses conventionally. It can be expressed that social media applications, corresponding to the different forms of interactive communication, such as internet forums, weblogs, social blogs, wikis, photo/video/text sharing applications/websites, have also created significant changes in the field of journalism. This new (social media which provides readers to participate in the news texts actively, even provides the opportunity to every ordinary person (who has an internet connection for being a citizen journalist, is not only a new source of news for journalists, but it is also seen as a new reporting enviroment that provides possibility for making profession of journalism in an interactive format. This study aims to examine the social media usage habits of journalists and their relation with social media. The journalists who work for local and national media organizations located in İzmir, are determined as a sample of this study and the questionnaire/survey method is chosen for to achieve specific data for the aim of the study

  1. Mass Media and the Debate about Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Thomas M.

    Many factors contribute to the difficulties the media have in dealing with science, engineering, and technology. These difficulties were pointed up in the media coverage of the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant, which reflected confusion and lack of understanding and which combined with other factors (including the movie…

  2. Non solo quotidiani in classe: considerazioni sull’italiano dei mass media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Morgana

    2009-12-01

    -size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The article suggests that school, the place of linguistic education, should teach pupils to reflect on the ‘norma implicita’ of the media, to which young people are exposed every day outside school.  The development of critical faculties to apply to the vehicled language of the media can take as its starting point the experience of reading newspapers in class at upper secondary school, something that now involves over 44 000 teachers and almost one million eight hundred thousand students. Observation of innovative features different to the standard Italian described in the grammar books, reflections on the variety and spread of oral registers in writing, the identification of “transversal” elements involving different textual areas, may provide valid tools for practical application in teaching.   But the entire system of mass media nowadays aims at becoming complementary, at cross reference between one medium and another with constant shifts: TV and the worldwide web to newspapers, strip cartoons to the cinema,   the cinema to strip cartoons, strip cartoons to advertising.  It would thus seem to be important for our teaching to introduce the ability to reflect on the language of the other media that enter the daily experience of young people, such as strip cartoons.   

  3. Radionuclide transport through heteogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.

    1980-01-01

    One-dimensional radionuclide migration for conevective water transport with sorption and longitudinal dispersion is investigated. A semianalytic solution for layered media with piecewise constant parametes can be written when taking into account mass conservation and approximate flux conservation at interlayer boundaries. The solution is analytic in the first layer and allows for a recursive calculation in the following layers. Scaling laws for the relevant parameters can be formulated. Numerical examples exhibit the importance of at least a single highly sorbing layer. Small values of dispersivity may not lead to a conservative estimate of conservation at the geological column's end

  4. Social Communication between Traditional and the New Mass-Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Maria Tîrziu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The means of communication, from the most simple and natural ones – such as gestures and voice, to the most complex and developed ones – such as the new electronic media, have constantly brought changes to the society, their own transformation being due to the social environment that generated them. Nowadays, the new media – being in a rapid development unprecedented in the past – is giving new insights of communication and learning to the younger generations which, unlike those formed by elder people, manage to quickly assimilate the changes that occur. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for public institutions for a better interaction with citizens. It shows the literature that focuses on social media statistics. At the end of our study, it is necessary to refer again to the needs of the organizations in which social communication has its origins, to exit the logic of politics and the media and to completely redefine the relationship between them and the social communication itself. We have treated the terms of the relationship between media and social communication, but it is the case to reiterate the importance of this point. In this context, we have identified the social nature still in embryo of a new relationship between media and educational sector; the more fragile the more difficult it is to overcome the stereotype of the “recreational” media.

  5. Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Karroum, Lama; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Faraj, Yasmine; Ojha, Utkarsh; Shahrour, Maher; Darzi, Andrea; Ali, Maha; Doumit, Carine; Langlois, Etienne V; Melki, Jad; AbouHaidar, Gladys Honein; Akl, Elie A

    2017-04-18

    Media interventions can potentially play a major role in influencing health policies. This integrative systematic review aimed to assess the effects of planned media interventions-including social media-on the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomized and non-randomized designs, economic studies, process evaluation studies, stakeholder analyses, qualitative methods, and case studies. We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Global Health Library. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria: 10 evaluation studies using either quantitative (n = 7) or qualitative (n = 3) designs and 11 case studies. None of the evaluation studies were on social media. The findings of the evaluation studies suggest that media interventions may have a positive impact when used as accountability tools leading to prioritizing and initiating policy discussions, as tools to increase policymakers' awareness, as tools to influence policy formulation, as awareness tools leading to policy adoption, and as awareness tools to improve compliance with laws and regulations. In one study, media-generated attention had a negative effect on policy advocacy as it mobilized opponents who defeated the passage of the bills that the media intervention advocated for. We judged the confidence in the available evidence as limited due to the risk of bias in the included studies and the indirectness of the evidence. There is currently a lack of reliable evidence to guide decisions on the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Additional and better-designed, conducted, and reported primary research is needed to better understand the effects of media interventions, particularly social media, on health policy-making processes, and

  6. Mass Media and Health: Opportunities for Improving the Nation's Health. A Report to the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and Office for Substance Abuse Prevention. Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

    Several interested organizations and agencies completed an exploration of the complexities and challenges affecting the communication of health information through the mass media. The goal of this effort was to create a shared agenda for increasing cooperation between mass media and public health professionals in addressing the issues, problems,…

  7. MASS MEDIA COMMUNICATION OF EMERGENCY ISSUES AND COUNTERMEASURES IN A NUCLEAR ACCIDENT: FUKUSHIMA REPORTING IN EUROPEAN NEWSPAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Eduardo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Oughton, Deborah H; Perko, Tanja; Prezelj, Iztok; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues. A clear lesson is that, even under uncertainty and recognising limitations, responsible authorities need to provide transparent, clear and understandable information to the public and the mass media right from the beginning of the early phase of any nuclear emergency. Clear, concise messages should be given. Mass media could play a key role in reassuring the public if the countermeasures are clearly explained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Studies in the determination of lead isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, A.R.; Yuk Ying Cheung

    1987-01-01

    The application of ICP-MS to the determination of lead isotope ratios in geological materials is described. Data presented for a series of lead mineral concentrates are compared with reference values obtained by conventional solid source thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. The simultaneous determination of lead isotope ratios and trace elements is carried out in a rapid analysis mode. The application of an electrothermal vaporisation technique for small solution aliquots is described. Lead isotope ratio data for the United States Geological Survey standard reference silicate rock BCR-1, obtained without separation of lead from the matrix, are compared with previously published values obtained after separation. (author)

  9. MASS TRANSFER IN FERMENTATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shevchenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of anaerobic fermentation processes with the accumulation of dissolved ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide in the culture media are considered in the article.The solubility of CO2 is limited by the state of saturation in accordance with Henry’s law. This, with all else being equal, limits the mass transfer on the interface surface of yeast cells and the liquid phase of the medium. A phenomenological model of the media restoration technologies based on the unsaturation index on СО2 is developed. It is shown that this restoration in the existing technologies of fermentation of sugar-rich media occurs, to a limited extent, in self-organized flow circuits, with variable values of temperatures and hydrostatic pressures, due to the creation of unsaturated local zones.It is shown that increasing the height of the media in isovolumetric apparatuses leads to an increase in the levels of flow circuits organization and to the improvement of the desaturation and saturation modes of the liquid phase and intensification of mass transfer processes. Among the deterministic principles of restoring the saturation possibilities of the media, there are forced variables of pressures with time pauses on their lower and upper levels. In such cases, the possibilities of short-term intensive desaturations in full media volumes, the restoration of their saturation perception of CO2, and the activation of fermentation processes are achieved. This direction is technically feasible for active industrial equipment.The cumulative effect of the action of variable pressures and temperatures corresponds to the superposition principle, but at the final stages of fermentation, the pressure and temperature values are leveled, so the restoration of the unsaturation state slows down to the level of the bacteriostatic effect. The possibility of eliminating the disadvantages of the final stage of fermentation by means of programmable variable pressures is shown

  10. Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076

  11. Increasing help-seeking and referrals for individuals at risk for suicide by decreasing stigma: the role of mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Reidenberg, Daniel J; Till, Benedikt; Gould, Madelyn S

    2014-09-01

    Increasing help-seeking and referrals for at-risk individuals by decreasing stigma has been defined as Aspirational Goal 10 in the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's 2014 prioritized research agenda. This article reviews the research evidence on the impact of mass media awareness campaigns on reducing stigma and increasing help-seeking. The review will focus on both beneficial and iatrogenic effects of suicide preventive interventions using media campaigns to target the broad public. A further focus is on collaboration between public health professionals and news media in order to reduce the risk of copycat behavior and enhance help-seeking behavior. Examples of multilevel approaches that include both mass media interventions and individual-level approaches to reduce stigma and increase referrals are provided as well. Multilevel suicide prevention programs that combine various approaches seem to provide the most promising results, but much more needs to be learned about the best possible composition of these programs. Major research and practice challenges include the identification of optimal ways to reach vulnerable populations who likely do not benefit from current awareness strategies. Caution is needed in all efforts that aim to reduce the stigma of suicidal ideation, mental illness, and mental health treatment in order to avoid iatrogenic effects. The article concludes with specific suggestions for research questions to help move this line of suicide research and practice forward. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vectors into the Future of Mass and Interpersonal Communication Research: Big Data, Social Media, and Computational Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Joseph N

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous developments in big data, social media, and computational social science have set the stage for how we think about and understand interpersonal and mass communication. This article explores some of the ways that these developments generate 4 hypothetical "vectors" - directions - into the next generation of communication research. These vectors include developments in network analysis, modeling interpersonal and social influence, recommendation systems, and the blurring of distinctions between interpersonal and mass audiences through narrowcasting and broadcasting. The methods and research in these arenas are occurring in areas outside the typical boundaries of the communication discipline but engage classic, substantive questions in mass and interpersonal communication.

  13. People's trust in health news disseminated by mass media in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjat, Sima; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Farshadi, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    People are increasingly interested in health news. As a mass media, the 'Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting' (IRIB) has the highest number of target audiences. In Iran, some people follow health news via health programs on satellites and other means of communication. However, all of these programs do not live up to the standards of scientific evidence. In this study, we examined Tehran people's trust in health news disseminated by the IRIB and other mass media outlets. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran. Through multistage sampling, 510 households proportional to size were randomly selected from five regions of Tehran including northern, eastern, western, southern and central regions. One person from each household completed the questionnaire through interviews. The questionnaire included questions on people's level of trust in health news delivered by the IRIB, satellite programs, the internet and magazines. It also included demographic questions. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated. Among the interviewees, 50.6% was female. The highest level of trust by the participants was observed in the IRIB (65.2%), and the lowest trust was observed in satellite news (43.4%); pnews broadcasters had more mastery over the subject than the ones in satellite channels (pnews (pnews had improved in the past 10 years. Fifty nine point eight percent of participants believed the quality and accuracy of the IRIB health news was monitored. People's higher level of trust in domestic news as compared to foreign sources and the better status of domestic sources in other areas such as precision in reporting, coverage of more important news, its delivery in lay language, the news broadcasters' proficiency, and other cases - from the participants' point of view - can highlight the significance of designing interventions for changing health behavior among domestic health news producers. Therefore, the results of this study can prove useful to health

  14. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  15. Mass media and risk factors for cancer: the under-representation of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Sara; Cunningham, Yvonne; Patterson, Chris; Robb, Katie; Macleod, Una; Anker, Thomas; Hilton, Shona

    2018-04-26

    Increasing age is a risk factor for developing cancer. Yet, older people commonly underestimate this risk, are less likely to be aware of the early symptoms, and are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage cancer. Mass media are a key influence on the public's understanding health issues, including cancer risk. This study investigates how news media have represented age and other risk factors in the most common cancers over time. Eight hundred articles about the four most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colorectal) published within eight UK national newspapers in 2003, 2004, 2013 and 2014 were identified using the Nexis database. Relevant manifest content of articles was coded quantitatively and subjected to descriptive statistical analysis in SPSS to identify patterns across the data. Risk was presented in half of the articles but this was rarely discussed in any depth and around a quarter of all articles introduced more than one risk factor, irrespective of cancer site. Age was mentioned as a risk factor in approximately 12% of all articles and this varied by cancer site. Age was most frequently reported in relation to prostate cancer and least often in articles about lung cancer. Articles featuring personal narratives more frequently focused on younger people and this was more pronounced in non-celebrity stories; only 15% of non-celebrity narratives were about people over 60. Other common risks discussed were family history and genetics, smoking, diet, alcohol, and environmental factors. Family history and genetics together featured as the most common risk factors. Risk factor reporting varied by site and family history was most commonly associated with breast cancer, diet with bowel cancer and smoking with lung cancer. Age and older adults were largely obscured in media representation of cancer and cancer experience. Indeed common risk factors in general were rarely discussed in any depth. Our findings will usefully inform the development of

  16. RELIGIOUS COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CULTURE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Petrushkevych

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the work is to determine the features of media culture that bind it with mass culture and mass communications and have the most significant effect on the general principles of the religious mass communication. In addition, the objective is to identify the skills system and traits of mass human that are necessary for using media culture. Methodology. The methodological basis is related to structuring, analytical analysis and synthesis of media features; highlighting phenomena that illustrate modern communicative situation; characteristics of media trends influence for the specific functioning of religious communication. Scientific novelty. Main part of the work is devoted to the analysis of the progressive media culture, mass-media and their main features, design of religious communication in this culture. Media gradually form the appearance of religious communication quietly, especially the mass one, they adapt the modern religious discourse to rates of transfer and perception of information. Modern believer gets a lot of different kinds of religious information, on any subject, any explanation of the religious question, with respect to any religion. Such volume of religious information and the speed with which a person receives it, does not usually make it religious or spiritually advanced, but only informed. Spiritual perfection and religious development, religious communication is possible only when the customer is aware of media culture and way of seeing the ultimate goal of such communications using the Mass Media. So far these mechanisms are perfectly designed in traditional religious communication. Phenomena, that reflects the dramatic changes in the communicative environment are: mediatization of body and mind, the new practice of processing / reading information, the phenomenon of simultaneous perception of a large number of information channels – similar or different. Features of media culture that connect it with

  17. Measurements of total lead concentrations and of lead isotope ratios in whole blood by use of inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delves, H.T.; Campbell, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for the accurate and precise determination of total lead and its isotopic composition in whole blood using inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sensitivities of up to 3 x 10 6 counts s -1 for 208 Pb at a total lead concentration of 5 μmol l -1 (1 μg ml -1 ) enabled total blood lead levels to be measured in 4 min per sample, with a detection limit of 0.072 μmol l -1 (15 μg l -1 ). The agreement between ICP-MS and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for this analysis was excellent: ICP-MS 0.996 x AAS -0.0165 μmol l -1 ; r 0.994. Isotope ratio measurements required 15 min to achieve the required accuracy and precision both of which were generally better than 0.5% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb and 208 Pb: 206 Pb isotopic lead ratios. The ICP-MS data for these ratios in ten quality control blood specimens has a mean bias relative to isotope dilution mass spectrometry of -0.412% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb ratios and of +0.055% for the 208 Pb: 206 Pb ratios. This level of accuracy and that of the total blood lead measurements is sufficient to permit application of these ICP-MS methods to environmental studies. (author)

  18. Place and Role of Mass Media Institution in the Context of the Political Communication System in the XXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. Yufereva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the analysis of classical approaches of foreign scientists (U. Lippman, G. Laswell, etc. and Russian scientists (N.Biryukov, V.Borev, etc.. The purpose is to determine the role of the of mass media institution in context of the political communication system. In order to achieve this aim the information was gathered from books, monographs, scientific articles, etc. In this research the corresponding method was used to get reliable results. The method of historical analyses was implied to study the crucial stages of understanding the phenomenon of mass media in the context of the political communication system. In particular the author studies both foreign and national approaches to conduct an extensive analysis of this topic. The article describes as well the basic principles and areas of analysis, which allow to identify several areas in the understanding of the problem.

  19. The mass media destabilizes the cultural homogenous regime in Axelrod's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Lucas R; Fontanari, Jose F

    2010-01-01

    An important feature of Axelrod's model for culture dissemination or social influence is the emergence of many multicultural absorbing states, despite the fact that the local rules that specify the agents interactions are explicitly designed to decrease the cultural differences between agents. Here we re-examine the problem of introducing an external, global interaction-the mass media-in the rules of Axelrod's model: in addition to their nearest neighbors, each agent has a certain probability p to interact with a virtual neighbor whose cultural features are fixed from the outset. Most surprisingly, this apparently homogenizing effect actually increases the cultural diversity of the population. We show that, contrary to previous claims in the literature, even a vanishingly small value of p is sufficient to destabilize the homogeneous regime for very large lattice sizes.

  20. Tantangan Literasi Era Media Digital (Analisa Pengguna Media berdasarkan Model Kemungkinan Elaborasi)

    OpenAIRE

    Yudha, Reza Praditya

    2017-01-01

    Negative content is a common thing encountered in social media. Not resolved yet, precisely social media is used as reference or source by mass media. In fact, media literacy has been put into practice and exposed the dangers of negative content since long time ago. Two interesting phenomena are; negative content that predicted would be soar on Jakarta Governor Election, April 2017, was missed. Those negative content still exists, organized, even commodified nowdays. The second phenomenon, th...

  1. Media Literacy Is the Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampiets, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Highlights the importance of using music, multimedia, video, and computers to enrich and enhance religious education, and of integrating media education into faith formation. Suggests that media literacy plays an important role in increasing awareness of the influence of mass media on society. (DJM)

  2. PEREMPUAN DALAM JERATAN EKSPLOITASI MEDIA MASSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmira Syafrini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of women now comes in new faces; through the mass media. Media currently has a dual role, like two sides of a coin, on one side the media serves as a mediator for the improvement and progress of the nation, on the other side contributes to the suppression of media for the benefit of market capitalism toward consumer culture women once again being the subject of image construction. Expansion of the market and the mass media can not be separated from the flow of consumerism, because the mass media (particularly advertising on television is an extension of the market to boost sales of industrial products in the form of imagery that originates from the "mode of production". Through the process of meaning people are affected by the image created by the market and advertisement that increase their consumptive behavior. Here begins the role of advertising in blurring the identity as the supporting tool of consumerism, therefore those who identify themselves as modern men are no longer themselves but apparently no more than "Robot Man" impersonator without original identity, the principle of life pawned in the name of modernity. Women are vying to look beautiful, to buy up all whitening products, hair straightener tools, body slimming drugs, making them "Paranoid" who are restless because being haunted by old age. Actually they are aware of the exploitation, but enjoy it on the pretext of style and fashion. Key words: women, exploitation, mass media

  3. MEDIA INDUSTRY IN THE DIGITAL WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Burtic

    2014-01-01

    The development of the internet and the expansion of digitalization changed the way society works, especially mass-media. The question is if the internet was an advantage or a disadvantage for mass-media? Apparently, on one hand digitalization determined the reduction of production and distribution costs but also content diversification. At the same time, social media and rapid documentation brought an accession in the quality of journalistic product as well as the entering on the market of m...

  4. The mass media and nuclear energy in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.

    1994-01-01

    The role of the US media in informing the public about benefits of nuclear industry is discussed. Usually the media in USA is biased against nuclear energy and works on the side of anti-nuclear groups. The tendency of reporters to mistrust government and industry experts, and to trust 'environmental groups' poses a particular problem for the US nuclear industry. One of the challenges of nuclear industry is to convince the media that anti-nuclear groups are not acting in the public interest, but in self-interest too. The scientists who communicate with the media must help reporters to understand technology, but to do that, they must understand reporter's needs. Those include a quick response to requests for information, spokespersons who speak clearly and understandably, in human terms, and candor and honesty in all of the information they provide. (I.P.)

  5. Coolant Chemistry Control: Oxygen Mass Transport in Lead Bismuth Eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisenburger, A.; Mueller, G.; Bruzzese, C.; Glass, A.

    2015-01-01

    In lead-bismuth cooled transmutation systems, oxygen, dissolved in the coolant at defined quantities, is required for stable long-term operation by assuring the formation of protective oxide scales on structural steel surfaces. Extracted oxygen must be permanently delivered to the system and distributed in the entire core. Therefore, coolant chemistry control involves detailed knowledge on oxygen mass transport. Beside the different flow regimes a core might have stagnant areas at which oxygen delivery can only be realised by diffusion. The difference between oxygen transport in flow paths and in stagnant zones is one of the targets of such experiments. To investigate oxygen mass transport in flowing and stagnant conditions, a dedicated facility was designed based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD also was applied to define the position of oxygen sensors and ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry transducers for flow measurements. This contribution will present the test facility, design relevant CFD calculations and results of first tests performed. (authors)

  6. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Lessons learned from H1N1 epidemic: The role of mass media in informing physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Gholami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Preparedness and response at the time of pandemic range from writing programs to conducting procedures as well as informing the target population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of general practitioners in Tehran, at the time of H1N1 pan-demic. It also aimed to identify the main sources used for gathering information at each alert level. Methods: Two telephone surveys were conducted with a 4 month interval, at the beginning of H1N1 pandemic alert level 5 and 6, on 90 and 100 general practitioners, respectively. The knowledge of these physicians on the symptoms of H1N1 flu, the transmission methods, the preventative measures, and existing treatments along with the sources used for gathering information were assessed. Results: While mass media was the main source of gathering informa-tion in the H1N1 pandemic alert level 5, more professional sources were used at the H1N1 pandemic alert level 6. Despite the acceptable improvement noted in the knowledge of the physicians during the two phases of the study, their understanding of the disease was believed to be less than the expected level based on H1N1 pandemic alert level. Conclusions: The routine use of mass media as one of the main sources of information gathering at the two stages of the study points out its importance in providing physicians with the required informa-tion at the time of H1N1 pandemic. Using adequate, up-to-date, but non-specialized media can fill the gap in information gathering, re-quired for fighting pandemic.

  8. The Mass and Individual Terror in the Mirror of the Soviet and Russian Cinema (the Feature Films of the Sound Period and Media Literacy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives the way for hermeneutic analysis of the topic of the mass and individual terror in the mirror of the Soviet and Russian cinema (the feature films of the sound period. The hermeneutical analysis suggests media text comprehension through comparison with historical, cultural tradition and reality; penetration of its logic; through comparison of media images in historical and cultural context by combining historical, hermeneutical analysis of the structural, plot, ethical, ideological, iconographic / visual, media stereotypes and analysis of media text characters. An analysis of this kind of media texts, in our opinion, is particularly important for media literacy education of future historians, culture and art historians, sociologists, psychologists and educators.

  9. Local Appropriation of Global Communication Forms: A Micro Case Study of Teacher and Learners' Uses of Mass Media Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fiona M.

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Blending Theory (CBT) (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002), a cognitive theory of human processes of innovation, can be productively used alongside critical literacy approaches, for the analysis of how teachers and learners draw selectively, transformatively and purposively from aspects of the mass media. While numerous studies have pointed…

  10. Female body dissatisfaction after exposure to overweight and thin media images : The role of body mass index and neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Umit, Turul

    Exposure to thin media images is thought to play a significant role in the development of body image dissatisfaction (BID) amongst females. In this study we examined whether individual differences in body mass index (BMI) and neuroticism can make females more vulnerable to BID upon exposure to

  11. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was pr...

  12. Factors influencing public risk-benefit considerations of nanotechnology: Assessing the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Scheufele, Dietram A; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing on public perception of benefits and risks of nanotechnology, based on a large-scale nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adult citizens. Results indicate that cognitive processes in the form of news elaboration had a significant positive main effect on benefits outweigh risks perception. The influences of attention to science in newspapers, attention to science news on television, and interpersonal communication about science on public perception of benefits outweigh risks were moderated by elaborative processing, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, religious beliefs, trust in scientists, and scientific knowledge. The findings highlight the importance of elaborative processing when it comes to understanding how the mass media differentially influence public benefits outweigh risks perception of emerging technologies. Specifically, high elaborative processing emphasizes higher levels of perceived benefits outweigh risks than low elaborative processing. This study explores explanations for this phenomenon and offers implications for future research and policy.

  13. Media Educational Practices in Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article described the methods of media education development of personality (including the audience's individual, "creative critical thinking" corresponding to "conceptual" (knowledge of media culture theory), "sensory" (intentional communication with mass media, orientational experience in genre and topical…

  14. Psychiatric emergency "surge capacity" following acts of terrorism and mass violence with high media impact: what is required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Cindy; Kashner, T Michael; Kashner, Tetyana K; Xuan, Lei; Larkin, Gregory L

    2011-01-01

    Adequate preparedness for acts of terrorism and mass violence requires a thorough understanding of the postdisaster mental health needs of all exposed groups, including those watching such events from a distance. This study examined emergency psychiatric treatment-seeking patterns following media exposure to four national terrorist or mass casualty events. An event was selected for study if (a) it precipitated local front-page headlines for >5 consecutive days and (b) emergency service psychiatrists identified it as specifically precipitating help-seeking in the study hospital. Four events qualified: the Oklahoma City bombing (1995), the Columbine High School (1999) and Wedgewood Baptist Church (1999) shootings and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Time-series analyses were used to correct for autocorrelation in visit patterns during the postdisaster week, and equivalent time periods from years before and after each event were used as control years. Overall, disaster week census did not differ significantly from predisaster weeks, although 3-day nonsignificant decreases in visit rate were observed following each disaster. Treatment-seeking for anxiety-related issues showed a nonsignificant increase following each disaster, which became significant in the "all disaster" model (t=5.17; P=.006). Intensity of media coverage did not impact rate of help-seeking in any analysis. Although these sentinel US disasters varied in scope, method, geographic proximity to the study site, perpetrator characteristics, public response, sequelae and degree of media coverage, the extent to which they impacted emergency department treatment-seeking was minimal. Geographically distant mass violence and disaster events of the type and scope studied here may require only minimal mental health "surge capacity" in the days following the event. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mediating social media use : connecting parents mediation strategies and social media literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Daneels, Rowan; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Increasingly complex and multipurpose social media platforms require digital competences from parents and adolescents alike. While adolescents grow up with social media, parents have more difficulties with them, leading to uncertainties regarding their adolescents social media mediation. This study contributes to parental mediation research by (1) investigating whether mediation strategies defined by previous research are also relevant for social media use, and (2) exploring whether...

  16. Determination of particulate lead using aerosol mass spectrometry: MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Salcedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first measurements of particulate lead (Pb from Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, which were deployed in and around Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO/Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006 field campaigns. The high resolution mass spectrometer of one of the AMS instruments (HR-AMS and the measured isotopic ratios unequivocally prove the detection of Pb in ambient particles. A substantial fraction of the lead evaporated slowly from the vaporizer of the instruments, which is indicative of species with low volatility at 600 °C. A model was developed in order to estimate the ambient particulate Pb entering the AMS from the signals in the "open" and the "closed" (or "background" mass spectrum modes of the AMS. The model suggests the presence of at least two lead fractions with ~25% of the Pb signal exhibiting rapid evaporation (1/e decay constant, τ<0.1 s and ~75% exhibiting slow evaporation (τ~2.4 min at the T0 urban supersite and a different fraction (70% prompt and 30% slow evaporation at a site northwest from the metropolitan area (PEMEX site. From laboratory experiments with pure Pb(NO32 particles, we estimated that the Pb ionization efficiency relative to nitrate (RIEPb is 0.5. Comparison of time series of AMS Pb with other measurements carried out at the T0 supersite during MILAGRO (using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS and single-particle counts from an Aerosol Time-of-Fight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS shows similar levels (for PIXE and ICP-MS and substantial correlation. During part of the campaign, sampling at T0 was alternated every 10 min with an Aerosol Concentrator, which enabled the detection of signals for PbCl+ and PbS+ ions. PbS+ displays the signature of a slowly evaporating species, while PbCl+ appears to arise only

  17. New Directions in Mass Communications Research: Physiological Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James E.

    Psychophysiological research into the effects of mass media, specifically the music of the masses, promises increased insight into the control the media exert on all their consumers. Attention and retention of mass media messages can be tested by measuring the receiver's electrodernal activity, pupil dilation, peripheral vasodilation, and heart…

  18. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Developing a Mass Media Campaign to Promote Mammography Awareness in African American Women in the Nation's Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Oppong, Bridget; Iddirisu, Marquita; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2017-12-26

    This study developed and examined the reach and impact of a culturally appropriate mass media campaign pilot, designed to increase awareness about the importance of mammography screening and the available community mammography services for low-income African American women ages 40 and above. We conducted formative research using focus groups to inform campaign development, resulting in five emergent themes-good breast health, holistic views of healthiness, cancer fatalism, fear of mammogram machines, and mammogram affordability. The campaign targeted specific low-income African American communities in the District of Columbia via print ads in Metro stations and on buses, print ads in the Washington Informer, and online ads on a local TV network website. Data were collected before, during, and after campaign implementation to assess reach and impact. Reach was measured by number of impressions (number of people exposed to the campaign), while impact was assessed via online ad click-through rates, website use and referrals, and mammography center calls. The campaign was successful in reaching the target audience, with a total combined reach from all media of 9,479,386 impressions. In addition, the mammography center received significant increases in new website visitors (1482 during the campaign, compared to 24 during the preceding period) as well as 97 calls to the dedicated phone line. Further research involving a more long-term investment in terms of funding and campaign run time, coupled with a more robust evaluation, is needed to assess if culturally appropriate mass media campaigns can generate increased mammography screening rates and decrease breast-cancer-related mortality.

  20. A national quitline service and its promotion in the mass media: modelling the health gain, health equity and cost-utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Cleghorn, Christine L; Leung, William; Nair, Nisha; Deen, Frederieke S van der; Blakely, Tony; Wilson, Nick

    2017-07-24

    Mass media campaigns and quitlines are both important distinct components of tobacco control programmes around the world. But when used as an integrated package, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are not well described. We therefore aimed to estimate the health gain, health equity impacts and cost-utility of the package of a national quitline service and its promotion in the mass media. We adapted an established Markov and multistate life-table macro-simulation model. The population was all New Zealand adults in 2011. Effect sizes and intervention costs were based on past New Zealand quitline data. Health system costs were from a national data set linking individual health events to costs. The 1-year operation of the existing intervention package of mass media promotion and quitline service was found to be net cost saving to the health sector for all age groups, sexes and ethnic groups (saving $NZ84 million; 95%uncertainty interval 60-115 million in the base-case model). It also produced greater per capita health gains for Māori (indigenous) than non-Māori (2.2 vs 0.73 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per 1000 population, respectively). The net cost saving of the intervention was maintained in all sensitivity and scenario analyses for example at a discount rate of 6% and when the intervention effect size was quartered (given the possibility of residual confounding in our estimates of smoking cessation). Running the intervention for 20 years would generate an estimated 54 000 QALYs and $NZ1.10 billion (US$0.74 billion) in cost savings. The package of a quitline service and its promotion in the mass media appears to be an effective means to generate health gain, address health inequalities and save health system costs. Nevertheless, the role of this intervention needs to be compared with other tobacco control and health sector interventions, some of which may be even more cost saving. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  1. Aspek Ekonomi, Politik, Dan Kultural Media Massa

    OpenAIRE

    Inayah, Sitti Syahar

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of mass media relates to economic, political, and cultural aspects. Implication of each aspect can be explained theoretically through several models and theories. Some of them are issues and themes in mass communication theory, available paradigms and approaches – including their methodological implications, models and theories supplemented with brief description of each theory, and strengths and weaknesses of each paradigm and approachwithin mass media research.

  2. A media maniac's guide to removable mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, Linda S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses at a high level, the many individual technologies available today in the removable storage arena including removable magnetic tapes, magnetic floppies, optical disks and optical tape. Tape recorders represented below discuss logitudinal, serpantine, logitudinal serpantine,and helical scan technologies. The magnetic floppies discussed will be used for personal electronic in-box applications.Optical disks still fill the role for dense long-term storage. The media capacities quoted are for native data. In some cases, 2 KB ASC2 pages or 50 KB document images will be referenced.

  3. Ability of a mass media campaign to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about sugary drinks and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Myde; Adams, Adelle; Gredler, Amy; Manhas, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    We examined the impact of a mass media campaign that was designed to educate residents about the amount of added sugars in soda and other sugary drinks, as well as the health impacts of consuming such drinks. The campaign was implemented in Multnomah County (Portland), Oregon in 2011 and included paid and unpaid media on the web, television, billboards, and transit. A telephone survey (n=402) measured campaign awareness, attitudes toward obesity, knowledge about health problems of excessive sugar, and behavioral intentions and behaviors around soda and sugary drink consumption. Nearly 80% of people who were aware of the media campaign intended to reduce the amount of soda or sugary drinks they offered to a child as a result of the campaign ads. Those who were aware of the campaign were more likely to agree that too much sugar causes health problems (97.3% vs. 85.9%). There was no significant change in self-reported soda consumption. Media campaigns about sugary drinks and obesity may be effective for raising awareness about added sugars in beverages, increasing knowledge about health problems associated with excessive sugar consumption, and prompting behavioral intentions to reduce soda and sugary drink consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

    2014-01-01

    The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1-5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths' sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008-0.679), and those who said accessing the Internet for sexual material is not acceptable to them

  5. Association between exposure to media and body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries: a preliminary cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2014-03-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (pbody weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (pmedia on the body weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets.

  6. Mass Media and the School: Descartes or McLuhan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Pierre

    1980-01-01

    Compares the world of learning with the world of the media, with emphasis on the areas of common interest. Discusses areas of potential cooperation, including local audiovisual centers, adaptation of new media to educational content, computer technology, telematics, and accumulation of audiovisual stock on topics pertinent to education. (DB)

  7. Dysfunctional eating behaviors, anxiety, and depression in Italian boys and girls: the role of mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaccia, Barbara; Balestrini, Viviana; Saliani, Angelo M; Baiocco, Roberto; Mancini, Francesco; Schneider, Barry H

    2018-01-01

    Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV) on adolescents' body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19) from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Form Y. The main factors contributing to females' eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends' desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents' eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.

  8. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  9. Lonely older people as a problem in society – construction in Finnish media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Uotila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Loneliness is a prevalent stereotype of old age but there is a lack of studies of how it is represented in mass media. This study examines how the loneliness of older people is portrayed in mass media. The research material consists of 154 texts from the leading 50+ magazines and daily newspapers in Finland. In the texts, loneliness was rarely seen solely as a lack of companionship and many negative attributes were connected to it. Among other things, loneliness was connected to the low status of older people in society, inhumane practices in elderly care, lack of meaning in life and neglect by relatives. Loneliness was also viewed as an inevitable part of ageing. However, many suggestions were made to alleviate loneliness. The extent of these suggestions varied from broad and collective actions to simple and perfunctory solutions.

  10. The Relationship between Media Use and Body Mass Index among Secondary Students in Kuching South City, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Whye Lian; Chang, Ching Thon; Rosalia, Saimon; Charles, Lai Dekun; Yii, Sze Lin; Tiong, Pik Hoong; Yeap, Kim Pey

    2011-07-01

    Overweight and obesity rates among adolescents have increased substantially over the years. This study aimed to determine the body mass index (BMI) of students and parents and the relationship among media use, BMI, socio-demographic profiles, and snacking behaviour during television watching of secondary school students in Kuching South City. In accordance with the two-stage sampling method, a total of 316 adolescents aged 13-17 years from 7 secondary schools participated. Data were collected using questionnaire and anthropometric measurement. Independent t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test were performed. The mean BMI was 20.56 kg/m(2) (SD 4.33) for boys and 20.15 kg/m(2) (SD 3.91) for girls. No significant difference in terms of z score for BMI-for-age or socio-demographic factors was found. The mean duration of time devoted to media use was 4.69 hours (SD 2.93) on weekdays and 5.69 hours (SD 2.87) on weekends. Boys were found to spend more hours on media use than did the girls (t = 4.293, P < 0.01). Respondents were reported to consume more cereal compared with soft drinks and junk foods. Respondents whose fathers worked in the private sector devoted the fewest hours to media use, whereas those with self-employed fathers devoted the most time to media use. Respondents with mothers who were employed spent more time on media use than did respondents whose mothers were housewives (F = 4.067, P < 0.01). No significant difference was found between BMI and media time or snacking habits. This finding indicated that media time has no effect on body weight, because respondents were found to have normal weight and to consume less unhealthy food.

  11. DIGITALIZATION AND NEW MEDIA LANDSCAPE

    OpenAIRE

    Tadej Praprotnik

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the phenomena of new communication technologies. It exposes the role of social media (Web 2.0) and sketches some global trends within the field of new media. It further outlines basic characteristics of traditional mass communication and consumption of media products, and as a counter-part presents interactive nature of a new media and the phenomena of user-generated media contents. The main focus of the article is the process of digitalization and its influence on import...

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part VIII: Mass Media Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Media Effects section of the proceedings contains the following eight papers: "The Spiral of Static: A Multivariate Analysis of a Public Opinion Theory Applied to Perception of Radio Station Popularity" (Terry Wedel and Tony Rimmer); "More Than Just Talk: Uses, Gratifications and the Telephone" (Garrett J. O'Keefe and…

  13. Porous media fluid flow, heat, and mass transport model with rock stress coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runchal, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the physical and mathematical basis of a general purpose porous media flow model, GWTHERM. The mathematical basis of the model is obtained from the coupled set of the classical governing equations for the mass, momentum and energy balance. These equations are embodied in a computational model which is then coupled externally to a linearly elastic rock-stress model. This coupling is rather exploratory and based upon empirical correlations. The coupled model is able to take account of time-dependent, inhomogeneous and anisotropic features of the hydrogeologic, thermal and transport phenomena. A number of applications of the model have been made. Illustrations from the application of the model to nuclear waste repositories are included

  14. Media matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L M

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the mass media on woman's status was addressed at two 1995 conferences: the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, and the Congress of the World Association for Christian Communication, held in Puebla, Mexico. The globalization process facilitated by the mass media has served to increase the power of patriarchy, with no advantages to the cause of women's rights. Coverage of popular movements has been suppressed out of deference to male-controlled governments. Coverage of the Beijing Conference highlighted celebrities and personal stories, to the exclusion of the economic and political issues under debate. Television has commodified women, reinforcing their oppression. On the other hand, the alternative media, which tend to be decentralized, democratic, low-cost, and low in technology, are presenting women as subjects rather than objects and deconstructing gender stereotypes. Of concern, however, is the tendency of computer technology to widen the gap between social classes and developed and developing countries. Women must use information networks to disseminate information on women's rights and strengthen the links between women throughout the world.

  15. The effects of media on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulck, Jan

    2010-12-01

    The media are an important part of young people's lives, but television, computer games, Internet use, cellular phone use, and even book reading threaten healthy sleep. Adults do not fully comprehend the ways in which young people use various media. Media use is a type of behavior that may displace sleep time or shorten it. Media content may lead to overexcitement or cause recurring nightmares. The cellular telephone is a particular threat. Parents may also use media excessively, establishing an unhealthy environment that may lead to sleep dysfunction in children and adolescents. Therefore, anticipatory guidance for healthy behavioral changes should be focused on the family.

  16. Educational Potential of New Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Yu. Kazak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Digitalization of the mass media, which has radically changed the information environment, creates new opportunities for self-education and upgrowth of the audience. The paper defines the communicative and cultural status of new media, characterizes the socio-cultural and technological aspects of their dynamics; substantiates the necessity of elaborating mechanisms for systematization of heterogeneous information flows and elaborating criteria for their evaluation in the era of globalization of the media sphere, what implies a qualitatively different level of media competence of the audience, provided with such factors as media education, media coverage, media criticism. The definition of concepts "media competence", "media enlightenment", "media education", "media criticism" is given and their functional areas are delineated. Social networks are considered as an important tool for media enlightenment which provides significant opportunities for promoting cultural achievements in the new media environment.

  17. Mass media as a population-level intervention tool for Chlamydia trachomatis screening: report of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, M Kim; Grimley, Diane M; Merchant, Jeanne S; Brown, Pernell R; Cecil, Heather; Hook, Edward W

    2002-07-01

    To determine the feasibility and affect of mass media use in a population-level intervention for chlamydia screening promotion. A population-level chlamydia intervention protocol was field tested. The intervention, targeting 15-25-year-old individuals, was designed to: (a) increase awareness of personal risk for chlamydial infection; (b) facilitate dissemination of chlamydia knowledge by use of a telephone hot line; and (c) promote care-seeking behavior (report for a chlamydia screening program). The intervention activities included: (a) mail outreach, (b) a television and radio campaign, (c) a prerecorded Check-It-Out chlamydia hot line, (d) a staffed chlamydia Options information line, and (e) a free confidential urine ligase chain reaction (LCR) test for chlamydia. Mass mailings were scheduled at intervals, starting two-weeks before the beginning of the television advertisement. The 30-second television advertisement was aired on local television stations 130 times in a 6-week period. The outcome measures were quantity and characteristics of incoming calls to the automated hot line and staffed chlamydia information phone line in response to the chlamydia campaign, and response to the urine screening program. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to evaluate the outcomes. The hot line was called 642 times during the monitoring period (November 1, 1999 to March 8, 2000), the majority (92%) during the 6 weeks of television advertisement, with an average of 99 calls per week, compared with an average of 9 calls per week after the commercial ended. Each bulk mailing was accompanied by a boost in the incoming hot line calls. The research staff triaged 133 calls to the "Options" phone line, 81% in the 6 weeks of the TV ad. The mean age of the 133 callers was 23.9 +/- 7.7 years (range 14-49 years). A majority called for screening information; 67% of callers were females and 84% of female callers were under age 26 years. Five percent of callers identified

  18. Media education. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (ie, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising, etc) presents both health risks and benefits for children and adolescents. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing the risk of exposure to mass media for children and adolescents.

  19. Reduced Bone and Body Mass in Young Male Rats Exposed to Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellipe Augusto Tocchini de Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see whether there would be differences in whole blood versus tibia lead concentrations over time in growing rats prenatally. Lead was given in the drinking water at 30 mg/L from the time the dams were pregnant until offspring was 28- or 60-day-old. Concentrations of lead were measured in whole blood and in tibia after 28 (28D and 60 days (60D in control (C and in lead-exposed animals (Pb. Lead measurements were made by GF-AAS. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the concentration of whole blood lead between Pb-28D (8.0±1.1 μg/dL and Pb-60D (7.2±0.89 μg/dL, while both significantly varied (P<0.01 from controls (0.2 μg/dL. Bone lead concentrations significantly varied between the Pb-28D (8.02±1.12 μg/g and the Pb-60D (43.3±13.26 μg/g lead-exposed groups (P<0.01, while those exposed groups were also significantly higher (P<0.0001 than the 28D and 60D control groups (Pb < 1 μg/g. The Pb-60D group showed a 25% decrease in tibia mass as compared to the respective control. The five times higher amount of lead found in the bone of older animals (Pb-60D versus Pb-28D, which reinforces the importance of using bone lead as an exposure biomarker.

  20. Czeska literatura i nowe media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piorecký, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2013 (2013), s. 11-23 ISSN 1641-7453 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP406/12/P603 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech literature * new media Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  1. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    OpenAIRE

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  2. Gender and Age in Media Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…

  3. The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers and Teacher Candidates towards the Use of Mass Media in Teaching Turkish Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ruhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the perceptions of primary school teachers and teacher candidates of the use of mass media in teaching Turkish in primary education. The data for this descriptive study is collected via semi-structured interviews--one of the qualitative data analysis methods and the collected data is analyzed by employing…

  4. Transparency and accountability in mass media campaigns about organ donation: a response to Morgan and Feeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    We respond to Morgan and Feeley's critique on our article "Mass Media in Organ Donation: Managing Conflicting Messages and Interests." We noted that Morgan and Feeley agree with the position that the primary aims of media campaigns are: "to educate the general public about organ donation process" and "help individuals make informed decisions" about organ donation. For those reasons, the educational messages in media campaigns should not be restricted to "information from pilot work or focus groups" but should include evidence-based facts resulting from a comprehensive literature research. We consider the controversial aspects about organ donation to be relevant, if not necessary, educational materials that must be disclosed in media campaigns to comply with the legal and moral requirements of informed consent. With that perspective in mind, we address the validity of Morgan and Feeley's claim that media campaigns have no need for informing the public about the controversial nature of death determination in organ donation. Scientific evidence has proven that the criteria for death determination are inconsistent with the Uniform Determination of Death Act and therefore potentially harmful to donors. The decision by campaign designers to use the statutory definition of death without disclosing the current controversies surrounding that definition does not contribute to improved informed decision making. We argue that if Morgan and Feeley accept the important role of media campaigns to enhance informed decision making, then critical controversies should be disclosed. In support of that premise, we will outline: (1) the wide-spread scientific challenges to brain death as a concept of death; (2) the influence of the donor registry and team-huddling on the medical care of potential donors; (3) the use of authorization rather than informed consent for donor registration; (4) the contemporary religious controversy; and (5) the effects of training desk clerks as organ

  5. Health Education and Mass Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    Health educators should be able to use mass comunications media and should be knowledgeable about the most recent media theories, methods, and technologies. Suggestions for making effective use of television, newspapers, and other media for disseminating health information and for conducting media campaigns are given. (PP)

  6. Media Ethics: Some Specific Problems. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This digest identifies some of the ethical issues which appeared in the mass media in the 1980s and discusses the implications which these issues have for the law and for those who already work in or study the mass media, as well as for those college students contemplating a career in journalism or broadcasting. (NKA)

  7. Exploring the linkage between exposure to mass media and HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Boateng, Godfred O; Kuuire, Vincent Z; Boamah, Sheila; Kwon, Eugena

    2016-01-01

    Although HIV testing is critical to the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, utilization rate of HIV testing services among married women and men remains low in Ghana. Mass media, as a tool to increase overall HIV testing turnouts, has been considered one of the important strategies in promoting and enhancing behavioural changes related to HIV/AIDS prevention. Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the current study examines the relationship between levels of exposure to print media, radio, and television and the uptake of HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana. Results show that HIV testing is more prevalent among married women than their male counterparts. We also find that higher levels of exposure to radio is associated with HIV testing among women, while higher levels of exposure to print media and television are associated with HIV testing among men. Implications of these findings are discussed for Ghana's HIV/AIDS strategic framework, which aims to expanding efforts at dealing with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Specifically, it is important for health educators and programme planners to deliver HIV-related messages through television, radio, and print media to increase the uptake of HIV testing particularly among married women and men in Ghana.

  8. Digitally Inspired Thinking: Can Social Media Lead to Deep Learning in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels-Peretz, Debbie; Dvorkin Camiel, Lana; Teeley, Karen; Banerjee, Gouri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, students from a variety of disciplines, who were enrolled in six courses that incorporate the use of social media, were surveyed to evaluate their perception of how the integration of social-media tools supports deep approaches to learning. Students reported that social media supports deep learning both directly and indirectly,…

  9. Dysfunctional eating behaviors, anxiety, and depression in Italian boys and girls: the role of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV on adolescents’ body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Methods: Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19 from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – Form Y. Results: The main factors contributing to females’ eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends’ desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Conclusion: Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents’ eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.

  10. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba.

  11. A nanofiber functionalized with dithizone by co-electrospinning for lead (II) adsorption from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jianjun; Kang, Xuejun; Chen, Liqin; Wang, Yu; Gu, Zhongze; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We fabricated a composite electrospun nanofiber as a selective sorbent for lead (II) in PFSPE. ► The composite nanofiber was functionalized with the dithizone by co-electrospinning of the PS solution containing unbonded dithizone. ► The nanofiber was characterized by scanning electron microscope and IR spectra. ► We applied the nanofiber by packing in a cartridge. ► The nanofiber performed well in the absorption of lead (II) and was applied successfully in aqueous samples. - Abstract: An electrospun nanofiber was utilized as a sorbent in packed fiber solid phase extraction (PFSPE) for selective separation and preconcentration of lead (II). The nanofiber had a polystyrene (PS) backbone, which was functionalized with dithizone (DZ) by co-electrospinning of a PS solution containing DZ. The nanofiber exhibited its performance in a cartridge prepared by packing 5 mg of nanofiber. The nanofiber was characterized by a scanning electron microscope and IR spectra. The diameter of the nanofiber was less than 400 nm. After being activated by 2.0 mol L −1 NaOH aqueous solution, the nanofiber quantitatively sorbed lead (II) at pH 8.5, and the metal ion could be desorbed from it by three times of elution with a small volume of 0.1 mol L −1 HNO 3 aqueous solution. The breakthrough capacity was 16 μg mg −1 . The nanofiber could be used for concentration of lead (II) from water and other aqueous media, such as plasma with stable recovery in a simple and convenient manner.

  12. Fluid dynamics and mass transfer in variably saturated porous media: formulation and applications of a mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation and applications of a mathematical model designed to predict the fluid dynamics and associated mass transfers in variably saturated porous media. Novelties in the formulation are emphasized and demonstrated to provide several computational advantages. The numerical procedure employed is of the integrated finite-difference variety which employs a hybrid differencing scheme. This procedure, while solving the coupled governing equations in conservative form, permits accommodation of substantial heterogeneities and anisotropies in material properties of the porous media. Accordingly, it is capable of making reliable predictions of steeply varying moisture and chemical-specie concentration fronts. The paper provides several examples of application of the model to the solution of practical problems. It is demonstrated that economical solutions to highly non-linear problems associated with solid and liquid waste disposal practices can be obtained

  13. Quarkonium spectral function in medium at next-to-leading order for any quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnier, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The vector channel spectral function at zero spatial momentum is calculated at next-to-leading order in thermal QCD for any quark mass. It corresponds to the imaginary part of the massive quark contribution to the photon polarisation tensor. The spectrum shows a well-defined transport peak in contrast to both the heavy quark limit studied previously, where the low frequency domain is exponentially suppressed at this order, and the naive massless case where it vanishes at leading order and diverges at next-to-leading order. From our general expressions, the massless limit can be taken and we show that no divergences occur if done carefully. Finally, we compare the massless limit to results from lattice simulations. (orig.)

  14. Erasing the Scarlet Letter: How Positive Media Messages about Sex Can Lead to Better Sexual Health among College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erika K.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how positive media messages about sex can lead to better sexual health among young adults (college students at a large university, N = 228) by de-emphasizing sensation seeking, condom embarrassment, and stigma. Employing social learning theory and normative influence frameworks, the research found that college-age women had…

  15. Litigation, Mass Media, and the Campaign to Criminalize the Firearms Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Haltom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the co-authors’ researches on mass media coverage of crusades against manufacturers and marketers of tobacco products in the United States to media coverage of similar crusades against manufacturers and marketers of firearms in the United States. The major contention of the article is that firearms-reformers have used civil suits and allied publicity outside courts to depict firearms producers and retailers as criminals. A major tactic that has unified reformers’ efforts inside and outside courts is deployment of crimtorts, civil litigation for torts that includes elements of criminal prosecution. Crimtorts and publicity through entertainment media enabled opponents of firearms companies to lose case after case yet to damage the reputations or brands of firearms makers and marketers. The firearms interests fended off crusaders in civil action after civil action yet became portrayed as outright criminals owing mostly to crimtorts. Este artículo amplia las investigaciones de los autores sobre la cobertura mediática de las cruzadas contra productores y vendedores de tabaco en los Estados Unidos hacia la cobertura mediática de cruzadas similares contra productores y vendedores de armas de fuego en Estados Unidos. El argumento principal del artículo sostiene que los que buscan la reforma de la legislación sobre armas de fuego han utilizado las demandas civiles y la publicidad externa a los tribunales para representar a los productores y vendedores de armas de fuego como criminales. Una táctica principal que ha unido los esfuerzos de los reformistas dentro y fuera de los tribunales es el uso de crimtorts, juicios civiles para acciones por responsabilidad civil extracontractual que incluyen elementos de procesos criminales. A pesar de perder caso tras caso, los crimtorts y la publicidad en los medios de entretenimiento permitió a los oponentes a las compañías armamentísticas perjudicar la reputación o las marcas de

  16. Crisis communication - selected aspects of mass media communication

    OpenAIRE

    WRÓBLEWSKI DARIUSZ

    2007-01-01

    Целью данной публикации является представление кризисной коммуникации. Из-за обширности и многоаспектности тематики были выбраны только важнейшие (по мнению автора) аспекты кризисной коммуникации, а на самом деле коммуникации со СМИ.The main purpose of this publication is to present crisis communication. The author has chosen major aspects of crisis communication (communication with mass media in fact) because the problem is very spacious and multidimensional....

  17. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  18. Perceptions and attitudes of students of mass communication toward mental illness in Nigerian Tertiary Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole; Adetunji Obadeji; Mobolaji Usman Dada

    2016-01-01

    Background: The power of the modern mass media is not limited to its ability to communicate information and entertain but derives primarily from its ability to define situations, thereby enabling it to construct social reality. Stigma is related to negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes that in turn lead to discriminatory practices. Aims: The study sought to know the perceptions of and attitudes of mass communication students towards mental illness and the mentally ill. Settings and ...

  19. Fantasy-Reality Use of Mass Media by Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of media use by children was conducted to produce an index of fantasy-reality orientation derived from the respondents' stated preferences for media content combined with their responses to a series of open-ended questions designed to tap the gratifications they claimed to receive from the media. Data were collected in three waves, when…

  20. Mass “Non-communication” of the Young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarijaBoranijašević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors in the paper analyze the phenomenon of excessive presence of the mass communication media, television in the first place, and the modern computer technology in the lives of young people, as well as the issue whether this fact influences the reduction of interpersonal communication of the young. The goal of the research was to determine to which extent the newest technological achievements are present in the lives of the young in Serbia and how often they use them as media in the process of communication with their peers, and whether this kind of mediated communication consequently leads to the reduction of interpersonal communication face-to-face, which as an ultimate result can have alienation of an individual in the modern world as a widely spread phenomenon of the present.

  1. Computers, Mass Media, and Schooling: Functional Equivalence in Uses of New Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study of 156 California eighth grade students which contrasted their recreational and intellectual computer use in terms of academic performance and use of other media. Among the conclusions were that recreational users watched television heavily and performed poorly in school, whereas intellectual users watched less television,…

  2. Gender and age in media education

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Gajek,

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities’ rights have to be secured, but also majorities rights have to considered if it happens that majorities are discriminated. Widely accepted gender and age inequalities presented on the media in stereot...

  3. Digital media in Serbia: Uses and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Miroljub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the overview of the distribution and consequences of the use of digital media in Serbia based on the systematization of the answers to four research questions. By the opinion of the author, when we say digital media, we should consider at least five types of institutions. These are: all mass media that have done convergence with digital, information-communication technology; electronic media that have switched to program diffusion through 'Internet protocol'; web sites and portals which fulfill the legal norms to become mass media; public announcements via blogs and posts by the individuals on social networks; and cultural institutions which improve interactions with their audience through Internet. The article lists the numerous advantages of digital media that are inevitably multiplied. On the other hand, the risks and menaces caused by this trend are also listed. In conclusion, it is ascertained that media and cultural institutions cannot just archive huge production of information and cultural and/or quasi cultural, artistic products, and that the burden of selection and responsibility falls on the shoulder of the users.

  4. Media Literacy: Can We Get There from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between mass media and education, and stresses the need for better media education in the United States. The Channel One project is discussed, advertising and marketing strategies are considered, media studies in other countries are described, and U.S. barriers to media education are suggested. (33 references) (LRW)

  5. Impact of the Make Healthy Normal mass media campaign (Phase 1) on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, James; Gale, Joanne; Grunseit, Anne; Bellew, William; Li, Vincy; Lloyd, Beverley; Maxwell, Michelle; Vineburg, John; Bauman, Adrian

    2018-06-01

    To determine the impact of the first phase of the Make Healthy Normal mass media campaign on NSW adults' active living and healthy eating knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviour. Cohort design with NSW adults, followed up three times over 12 months, with n=939 participants completing all three waves. We used generalised linear mixed models to examine campaign awareness, knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviours over time. Campaign recognition built to a reasonable level (45% at Wave 3), although unprompted recall was low (9% at Wave 3). There were significant increases in knowledge of physical activity recommendations (46% to 50%), the health effects of obesity (52% to 64%), and weight loss benefits (53% to 65%), with stronger effects in campaign recognisers. Conversely, we found declines in self-efficacy and intention to increase physical activity (39% to 31%) and decrease soft drink consumption (31% to 24%). Overall, there are some positives for the campaign but intentions need to be a focus of future campaign phases. Continued investment over the medium- to long-term is needed. Mass media campaigns can play a role in obesity prevention but robust evaluations are needed to identify the characteristics of effective campaigns. © 2018 The Authors.

  6. Mass media: spaces for leisure or socialization agents in adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Pallarés Piquer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The information and communication technologies are transforming ourways of living and our ways of being related with each other. They condition both the lives of individuals and the occurrence of social phenomena. In the last decade, have become a source of symbolic strategies for the younger sectors of society. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact that these strategies have on 11 to 14-year-old students; socialization agents are those responsible for transmitting norms, values and behaviourmodels. From a sample of 846 students, who belong to schools situated in different geographical contexts, two variables have been researched into, with a Cronbach’s consistency index of 0,918: the first one analyzes the students’ implication factors, that is to say, the psychoeducational variables produced in their process of personal commitment and in their psychosocial development. The second one determines the organization into a hierarchy of those agents which play a socializing role on these students. Is an  utline of some frames of interaction among individuals and groups that enable new technologies. The results highlight the fact that mass media have took over from families and schools themselves as focal socialization points

  7. Social Communication between Traditional and the New Mass-Media

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea-Maria Tîrziu; Cătălin I. Vrabie

    2014-01-01

    The means of communication, from the most simple and natural ones – such as gestures and voice, to the most complex and developed ones – such as the new electronic media, have constantly brought changes to the society, their own transformation being due to the social environment that generated them. Nowadays, the new media – being in a rapid development unprecedented in the past – is giving new insights of communication and learning to the younger generations which, unlike those f...

  8. Did we make it to the news? Effects of actual and perceived media coverage on media orientations of communication professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, S.; Wonneberger, A.

    The aim of this study is to assess the mass media orientations of communication professionals: Is past media coverage for their organization related to the way communication professionals currently evaluate the importance of the media for their organizations? Following the debates on mediatization

  9. Extraction behaviour of 2-octylaminopyridine towards lead(II) from succinate media and its separation from other toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, Chandrashekhar P.; Anuse, Mansing A.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of lead(II) from succinate media was carried out with 2-octylaminopyridine (2-OAP) in chloroform. Lead(II) was quantitatively extracted with 0.036 M 2-OAP in chloroform from 0.005-0.007 M sodium succinate when equilibrated for 5 min. Lead(II) from the organic phase was stripped with three 10 mL portions of 0.4 M acetic acid and determined titrimetrically with EDTA. The nature of extracted species was determined from the log-log plot. The optimum conditions have been evaluated based on a critical study of weak acid concentration, extractant concentration, period of equilibration and effect of diluents. The metal loading capacity of the reagent was found to be 8 mg of lead(II) with 10 mL 0.036 M of the extractant. The extraction of the lead(II) was carried out in presence of various ions to ascertain the tolerance limit of individual. Temperature dependence of the extraction equilibrium constants was examined to estimate the apparent thermodynamic functions (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) for extraction reaction. Lead(II) was successfully separated from commonly associated metal ions such as Bi(III), Hg(II), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Ca(II), Ba(II) and from binary and ternary mixtures. The method was extended for determination of lead(II) in real samples

  10. Mass Media Portrayals of Suicide: Informing the Australian Policy Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, R. Warwick; Putnis, Peter; Pirkis, Jane

    Research on the news media's reporting on suicide and mental illness is understudied in Australia despite the controversial nature of much coverage and its possible consequences for a variety of audiences. This paper critiques the underlying assumptions of most international research in this area, which follows a media imitation or contagion…

  11. Mass communication and development: impact depends on strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wete, F N

    1988-01-01

    Development scholars are moving toward an emphasis on noneconomic factors (social values, social advancement, equality, individual freedom) and their interactions with labor, capital, and technology. People are now conceptualized as the agents of change, and they in turn must be convinced of the need for change. This new approach implies a need for a review of the role of mass communication in development. A central question is whether development makes possible mass communication development or do improved mass communication facilities--and the resulting increase in the flow of information--make possible economic and social development. Although there have undoubtedly been incidents in which self-serving politicians have used mass communication to oppress the masses, the mass media has the potential to be a powerful force in the education of the society, the sharing of consciousness, the creation of nationhood, and the promotion of socioeconomic development. Mass communication is, for example, vital in the development approach that accords importance to self-sufficiency at the village level. The mass media can be used in such cases to transmit information of a background nature to a group or community about their expressed needs and to disseminate innovations that may need these needs. In the final analysis, mass media's role in development depends on the media's messages reaching the target audiences. This underscores the importance of analyzing in advance who will be the recipients of a mass media campaign and encouraging community involvement in communications planning.

  12. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  13. Quantifying the Economic and Cultural Biases of Social Media through Trending Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Juan Miguel; Cuevas, Ruben; Gonzalez, Roberto; Azcorra, Arturo; Garcia, David

    2015-01-01

    Online social media has recently irrupted as the last major venue for the propagation of news and cultural content, competing with traditional mass media and allowing citizens to access new sources of information. In this paper, we study collectively filtered news and popular content in Twitter, known as Trending Topics (TTs), to quantify the extent to which they show similar biases known for mass media. We use two datasets collected in 2013 and 2014, including more than 300.000 TTs from 62 countries. The existing patterns of leader-follower relationships among countries reveal systemic biases known for mass media: Countries concentrate their attention to small groups of other countries, generating a pattern of centralization in which TTs follow the gradient of wealth across countries. At the same time, we find subjective biases within language communities linked to the cultural similarity of countries, in which countries with closer cultures and shared languages tend to follow each other's TTs. Moreover, using a novel methodology based on the Google News service, we study the influence of mass media in TTs for four countries. We find that roughly half of the TTs in Twitter overlap with news reported by mass media, and that the rest of TTs are more likely to spread internationally within Twitter. Our results confirm that online social media have the power to independently spread content beyond mass media, but at the same time social media content follows economic incentives and is subject to cultural factors and language barriers.

  14. Media use and insomnia after terror attacks in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Lemola, Sakari; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2018-03-01

    Direct exposure to traumatic events often precipitates sleep disorders. Sleep disturbance has also been observed amongst those indirectly exposed to trauma, via mass media. However, previous work has focused on traditional media use, rather than contemporary social media. We tested associations between both traditional and social media consumption and insomnia symptoms following 2015 terror attacks in Paris France, controlling for location and post-traumatic symptomology. 1878 respondents, selected to represent the national French population, completed an internet survey a month after the Bataclan attacks (response rate 72%). Respondents indicated different media use, post-traumatic stress and insomnia. Controlling for demographics, location and PTSD, insomnia was associated with both traditional (β 0.10, P = .001) and social media use (β 0.12, P = .001). Associations between social media and insomnia were independent of traditional media use. Interventions targeted at social media may be particularly important following mass trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Media Exposure, Interpersonal Communication and the Electoral Decision Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsey, William D.; Hantz, Alan

    The relationships among mass media, interpersonal communication, and voting behavior were explored in a two-stage panel study of 141 respondents during a 1974 Illinois congressional election. Analyses of perceived exposures to mass media and to interpersonal communication were interpreted as supporting Rogers and Shoemakers' (1971)…

  16. Biblical antecedents of modern Agenda-Setting: religious platforms in lieu of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuriel RASHI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Can a primitive society set a public agenda? Are there some advantages for a religious society in setting an agenda? From a critical study of the communicative perspective of the Bible and hermeneutic reading of its texts, it can be said that certain elements in primitive societies succeeded in influencing the political and social agendas. They did so by exploiting specific public assemblies or appearing in crowded places in attempts to impact local and national agendas. This notion is significant because it suggests that in countries that do not have developed communication infrastructures or established religious institutions (e.g., churches, mosques, and synagogues that serve as public arenas, indeed even in seemingly closed religious communities, there may well be attempts to use venues other than mass media to influence the public agenda.

  17. Overview: new media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin

    2012-06-01

    Pediatricians care for children's growth and development from the time they are born until they become adults. In addition, pediatricians must be vigilant for external influences. Technology influences children of all ages. Seventy-five percent of teenagers own cell phones, with 25% using them for social media. Technology can lead to an increase in skills and social benefits but there is also the potential for harm such as sexting, cyberbullying, privacy issues, and Internet addiction, all of which can affect health. Pediatricians must become well versed in the new media to provide media-oriented anticipatory guidance and advice on media-related issues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Media as Leisure Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech; Albrechtslund, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The main idea of this article is to situate social media practices in broader cultural practices. We point to certain dynamics in social media practices which we connect to the culture of 20th century mass tourism. This gives us a nuanced understanding of the activities connecting everyday life...... and social media. Further, our analysis provides new insights into the basic motivation for engaging in online sociality despite concerns about privacy, time-waste and exploitation....

  19. Effects of "Find Thirty Every Day [R]": Cross-Sectional Findings from a Western Australian Population-Wide Mass Media Campaign, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shilton, Trevor; Maitland, Clover; Barnes, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internationally, over the last four decades large-scale mass media campaigns have been delivered to promote physical activity and its associated health benefits. In 2002-2005, the first Western Australian statewide adult physical activity campaign "Find Thirty. It's Not a Big Exercise" was launched. In 2007, a new iteration…

  20. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work "blamed" the mass media for these…