WorldWideScience

Sample records for mass loss events

  1. CONNECTING FLARES AND TRANSIENT MASS-LOSS EVENTS IN MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wolk, Scott J., E-mail: osten@stsci.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    We explore the ramification of associating the energetics of extreme magnetic reconnection events with transient mass-loss in a stellar analogy with solar eruptive events. We establish energy partitions relative to the total bolometric radiated flare energy for different observed components of stellar flares and show that there is rough agreement for these values with solar flares. We apply an equipartition between the bolometric radiated flare energy and kinetic energy in an accompanying mass ejection, seen in solar eruptive events and expected from reconnection. This allows an integrated flare rate in a particular waveband to be used to estimate the amount of associated transient mass-loss. This approach is supported by a good correspondence between observational flare signatures on high flaring rate stars and the Sun, which suggests a common physical origin. If the frequent and extreme flares that young solar-like stars and low-mass stars experience are accompanied by transient mass-loss in the form of coronal mass ejections, then the cumulative effect of this mass-loss could be large. We find that for young solar-like stars and active M dwarfs, the total mass lost due to transient magnetic eruptions could have significant impacts on disk evolution, and thus planet formation, and also exoplanet habitability.

  2. High-Resolution, Long-Slit Spectroscopy of VY Canis Majoris: The Evidence for Localized High Mass Loss Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Ruch, Gerald; Wallerstein, George

    2005-01-01

    High spatial and spectral resolution spectroscopy of the OH/IR supergiant VY CMa and its circumstellar ejecta reveals evidence for high mass loss events from localized regions on the star occurring over the past 1000 yr. The reflected absorption lines and the extremely strong K I emission lines show a complex pattern of velocities in the ejecta. We show that the large, dusty northwest arc, expanding at ~50 km s-1 with respect to the embedded star, is kinematically distinct from the surrounding nebulosity and was ejected about 400 yr ago. Other large, more filamentary loops were probably expelled as much as 800-1000 yr ago, whereas knots and small arcs close to the star resulted from more recent events 100-200 yr ago. The more diffuse, uniformly distributed gas and dust is surprisingly stationary, with little or no velocity relative to the star. This is not what we would expect for the circumstellar material from an evolved red supergiant with a long history of mass loss. We therefore suggest that the high mass loss rate for VY CMa is a measure of the mass carried out by these specific ejections accompanied by streams or flows of gas through low-density regions in the dust envelope. VY CMa may thus be our most extreme example of stellar activity, but our results also bring into question the evolutionary state of this famous star. In a separate appendix, we discuss the origin of the very strong K I and other rare emission lines in its spectrum.

  3. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  4. Mass loss from S stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1988-01-01

    The mass-loss process in S stars is studied using 65 S stars from the listing of Wing and Yorka (1977). The role of pulsations in the mass-loss process is examined. It is detected that stars with larger mass-loss rates have a greater amplitude of pulsations. The dust-to-gas ratio for the S stars is estimated as 0.002 and the average mass-loss rate is about 6 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/yr. Some of the properties of the S stars, such as scale height, surface density, and lifetime, are measured. It is determined that scale height is 200 pc; the total duration of the S star phase is greater than or equal to 30,000 yr; and the stars inject 3 x 10 to the -6th solar masses/sq kpc yr into the interstellar medium. 46 references

  5. Mass loss from Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results relating to the stellar winds and mass loss rates of the WR stars are reviewed, emphasising new data and their interpretation acquired at UV, IR and Radio wavelengths. The subject is discussed under the headings: physical and chemical properties of WR stars (effective temperatures and radiative luminosities; masses; chemical abundances); velocity, ionisation and excitation structure of WR winds; mass loss rates of WR stars; mass loss properties of WR stars in the LMC; comparisons with theoretical models of mass loss; ring nebulae around WR stars; conclusions. (author)

  6. Evolutionary effects of mass loss in low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of mass loss on the evolution of low-mass stars (actual mass smaller than 1.4 solar masses) are reviewed. The case of globular cluster stars is discussed in some detail, and it is shown that evolutionary theory sets quite precise limits to the mass-loss rate in population II red giants. The effects of mass loss on the final evolutionary stages of stars producing white dwarfs is also discussed. In particular, the interaction of the wind from the hot central star with the surrounding planetary nebula is considered. Finally, the problem of the origin of hydrogen-deficient stars is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Use of satellite and modeled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, F.; Brocca, L.; Termite, L. F.; Wagner, W.

    2015-09-01

    The potential of coupling soil moisture and a Universal Soil Loss Equation-based (USLE-based) model for event soil loss estimation at plot scale is carefully investigated at the Masse area, in central Italy. The derived model, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), is applied by considering the unavailability of in situ soil moisture measurements, by using the data predicted by a soil water balance model (SWBM) and derived from satellite sensors, i.e., the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). The soil loss estimation accuracy is validated using in situ measurements in which event observations at plot scale are available for the period 2008-2013. The results showed that including soil moisture observations in the event rainfall-runoff erosivity factor of the USLE enhances the capability of the model to account for variations in event soil losses, the soil moisture being an effective alternative to the estimated runoff, in the prediction of the event soil loss at Masse. The agreement between observed and estimated soil losses (through SM4E) is fairly satisfactory with a determination coefficient (log-scale) equal to ~ 0.35 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of ~ 2.8 Mg ha-1. These results are particularly significant for the operational estimation of soil losses. Indeed, currently, soil moisture is a relatively simple measurement at the field scale and remote sensing data are also widely available on a global scale. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying the SM4E model for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.

  8. Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch provides the origin of planetary nebulae. This paper reviews several relevant aspects of AGB evolution: pulsation properties, mass loss formalisms and time variable mass loss, evidence for asymmetries on the AGB, binarity, ISM interaction, and mass loss at low metallicity. There is growing evidence that mass loss on the AGB is already asymmetric, but with spherically symmetric velocity fields. The origin of the rings may be in pulsational instabilities...

  9. Mass-loss Rates from Coronal Mass Ejections: A Predictive Theoretical Model for Solar-type Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are eruptive events that cause a solar-type star to shed mass and magnetic flux. CMEs tend to occur together with flares, radio storms, and bursts of energetic particles. On the Sun, CME-related mass loss is roughly an order of magnitude less intense than that of the background solar wind. However, on other types of stars, CMEs have been proposed to carry away much more mass and energy than the time-steady wind. Earlier papers have used observed correlations between solar CMEs and flare energies, in combination with stellar flare observations, to estimate stellar CME rates. This paper sidesteps flares and attempts to calibrate a more fundamental correlation between surface-averaged magnetic fluxes and CME properties. For the Sun, there exists a power-law relationship between the magnetic filling factor and the CME kinetic energy flux, and it is generalized for use on other stars. An example prediction of the time evolution of wind/CME mass-loss rates for a solar-mass star is given. A key result is that for ages younger than about 1 Gyr (i.e., activity levels only slightly higher than the present-day Sun), the CME mass loss exceeds that of the time-steady wind. At younger ages, CMEs carry 10–100 times more mass than the wind, and such high rates may be powerful enough to dispel circumstellar disks and affect the habitability of nearby planets. The cumulative CME mass lost by the young Sun may have been as much as 1% of a solar mass.

  10. Use of satellite and modelled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, F.; Brocca, L.; Termite, L. F.; Wagner, W.

    2015-03-01

    The potential of coupling soil moisture and a~USLE-based model for event soil loss estimation at plot scale is carefully investigated at the Masse area, in Central Italy. The derived model, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), is applied by considering the unavailability of in situ soil moisture measurements, by using the data predicted by a soil water balance model (SWBM) and derived from satellite sensors, i.e. the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). The soil loss estimation accuracy is validated using in situ measurements in which event observations at plot scale are available for the period 2008-2013. The results showed that including soil moisture observations in the event rainfall-runoff erosivity factor of the RUSLE/USLE, enhances the capability of the model to account for variations in event soil losses, being the soil moisture an effective alternative to the estimated runoff, in the prediction of the event soil loss at Masse. The agreement between observed and estimated soil losses (through SM4E) is fairly satisfactory with a determination coefficient (log-scale) equal to of ~ 0.35 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of ~ 2.8 Mg ha-1. These results are particularly significant for the operational estimation of soil losses. Indeed, currently, soil moisture is a relatively simple measurement at the field scale and remote sensing data are also widely available on a global scale. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying the SM4E model for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.

  11. MASS LOSS IN PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS VIA CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ANGULAR MOMENTUM LOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, Alicia N. [Astronomy Department, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Matt, Sean P. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: aarnio@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We develop an empirical model to estimate mass-loss rates via coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for solar-type pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. Our method estimates the CME mass-loss rate from the observed energies of PMS X-ray flares, using our empirically determined relationship between solar X-ray flare energy and CME mass: log (M {sub CME}[g]) = 0.63 Multiplication-Sign log (E {sub flare}[erg]) - 2.57. Using masses determined for the largest flaring magnetic structures observed on PMS stars, we suggest that this solar-calibrated relationship may hold over 10 orders of magnitude in flare energy and 7 orders of magnitude in CME mass. The total CME mass-loss rate we calculate for typical solar-type PMS stars is in the range 10{sup -12}-10{sup -9} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We then use these CME mass-loss rate estimates to infer the attendant angular momentum loss leading up to the main sequence. Assuming that the CME outflow rate for a typical {approx}1 M {sub Sun} T Tauri star is <10{sup -10} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, the resulting spin-down torque is too small during the first {approx}1 Myr to counteract the stellar spin-up due to contraction and accretion. However, if the CME mass-loss rate is {approx}> 10{sup -10} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, as permitted by our calculations, then the CME spin-down torque may influence the stellar spin evolution after an age of a few Myr.

  12. Transient Mass-loss Analysis of Solar Observations Using Stellar Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosley, M. K.; Norman, C. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Osten, R. A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Low-frequency dynamic spectra of radio bursts from nearby stars offer the best chance to directly detect the stellar signature of transient mass loss on low-mass stars. Crosley et al. (2016) proposes a multi-wavelength methodology to determine coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters, such as speed, mass, and kinetic energy. We test the validity and accuracy of the results derived from the methodology by using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X-ray observations and Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer radio observations. These are analogous observations to those that would be found in the stellar studies. Derived results from these observations are compared to direct white light measurements of the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. We find that, when a pre-event temperature can be determined, the accuracy of CME speeds are within a few hundred km s{sup −1}, and are reliable when specific criteria has been met. CME mass and kinetic energies are only useful in determining the approximate order of magnitude measurements when considering the large errors associated to them. These results will be directly applicable to the interpretation of any detected stellar events and the derivation of stellar CME properties.

  13. Mass loss and cepheid pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two purposes are served: to discuss the latest improvements in nonlinear pulsation theory indicating the ability to resolve features such as the ''Christy bump'' on the light curves and to show from the results of a bump model and recent observations that mass loss is one of the possible explanations for the mass discrepancy problem between evolutionary and pulsation theories. Recent observations by Sanford and Gow of Los Alamos and Bernat (McDonald Observatory) show that extensive mass loss has occurred in the evolution of the M supergiant α Orionis

  14. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  15. Mass loss in early stages of stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Kozlowski, M.; Schramm, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that stars lose mass between their birth on the main sequence and their death as white dwarfs, or as neutron stars or black holes for more massive stars. Solar wind considerations indicate that not all of the mass loss occurs in a 'last gasp' to form a planetary nebula. Mass loss has be observed in O-B stars and in red giants, but the mass loss observed in these stages do not appear sufficient to account for all the loss required for stars to become white dwarfs. The problem is at what stages and in what manner the excess mass is lost. Suggestions have tended to favour He flashes for stars with M < 2.25 M. and possibly double shell instability flashes for stars in the range from 2.25 M. to 8 M. Although is is possible that significant mass is lost during these stages, there appears to be no quantitative support for this suggestion, and in particular none for the He flash. It is shown here that there is increasing evidence for substantial mass loss during the immediate post main sequence stages when the star is moving from the main sequence to the giant branch. Mass loss at these early stages of evolution may have implications on the subsequent evolution of the star and the amount of nuclearly processed material that is ejected into the interstellar-medium. The behaviour of Arcturus is discussed in these connections. (U.K.)

  16. Mass loss from Eta Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.; Viotti, R.

    1979-01-01

    This high luminosity (5x10 6 solar luminosity) star since 1840 is losing mass at the rate of 7.5x10 -2 solar masses per year. The large mass loss could be the result of vibrational instabilities produced in the CNO hydrogen burning phase of a very massive (160 solar masses) star. The presence of high excitation lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of Eta Car suggests the idea of a hot zone excited by dissipation of the supersonic turbulent flow. (Auth.)

  17. Constraining the Mass Loss Geometry of Beta Lyrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R. Lomax

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Massive binary stars lose mass by two mechanisms: jet-driven mass loss during periods of active mass transfer and by wind-driven mass loss. Beta Lyrae is an eclipsing, semi-detached binary whose state of active mass transfer provides a unique opportunity to study how the evolution of binary systems is affected by jet-driven mass loss. Roche lobe overflow from the primary star feeds the thick accretion disk which almost completely obscures the mass-gaining star. A hot spot predicted to be on the edge of the accretion disk may be the source of beta Lyrae’s bipolar outflows. I present results from spectropolarimetric data taken with the University of Wisconsin’s Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter and the Flower and Cook Observatory’s photoelastic modulating polarimeter instrument which have implications for our current understanding of the system’s disk geometry. Using broadband polarimetric analysis, I derive new information about the structure of the disk and the presence and location of a hot spot. These results place constraints on the geometrical distribution of material in beta Lyrae and can help quantify the amount of mass lost from massive interacting binary systems during phases of mass transfer and jet-driven mass loss.

  18. Low-mass stars with mass loss and low-luminosity carbon star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of large carbon enrichments in static stellar envelopes were investigated, using new Los Alamos opacities (including low-temperature carbon and molecular opacities) and including carbon ionizations. To search for the production of low-mass,low-luminosity carbon stars, detailed stellar evolutionary computations were carried out for a grid of low-mass stars of two different metallicities. The stars were evolved from the main sequence through all intermediate stages and through helium-shell flashes on the asymptotic giant branch. The effects of the latest nuclear reaction rates, the new Los Alamos opacities, Reimers-type wind mass loss, and detailed treatment of convection and semi-convection were investigated. Two low-luminosity carbon stars were achieved, in excellent agreement with observations. Conditions favoring dredge-up (and thus carbon-star production) include a reasonably large convective mixing length, low metallicity, relatively large envelope mass, and high flash strength. Mass loss was of major importance, tending to oppose dredge-up; the total mass-loss amounts inferred from observations suffice to prevent formation of high-mass, high-luminosity carbon stars

  19. Evolution of a 30 solar mass star: the interplay of nuclear burning and mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, H.J.; Mitalas, R.

    1981-01-01

    Evolutionary tracks for a 30 solar mass star with various mass loss rates (MLR) were evolved to core He exhaustion. The 'overluminosity' of mass losing (ML) stars is explained in terms of the well known mass-luminosity (M-L) law. A critical ZAMS MLR above which mass loss leads to evolution to fainter luminosities is derived. Two tracks showed reversals in their direction of evolution across the HR diagram. These have been shown to be a consequence of mass loss dominating over the effects of the shell source. An analytic criterion for this condition has been derived. (Auth.)

  20. The relationship between extreme weather events and crop losses in central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2017-09-01

    The frequency of extreme weather events, which cause severe crop losses, is increasing. This study investigates the relationship between crop losses and extreme weather events in central Taiwan from 2003 to 2015 and determines the main factors influencing crop losses. Data regarding the crop loss area and meteorological information were obtained from government agencies. The crops were categorised into the following five groups: `grains', `vegetables', `fruits', `flowers' and `other crops'. The extreme weather events and their synoptic weather patterns were categorised into six and five groups, respectively. The data were analysed using the z score, correlation coefficient and stepwise regression model. The results show that typhoons had the highest frequency of all extreme weather events (58.3%). The largest crop loss area (4.09%) was caused by two typhoons and foehn wind in succession. Extreme wind speed coupled with heavy rainfall is an important factor affecting the losses in the grain and vegetable groups. Extreme wind speed is a common variable that affects the loss of `grains', `vegetables', `fruits' and `flowers'. Consecutive extreme weather events caused greater crop losses than individual events. Crops with long production times suffered greater losses than those with short production times. This suggests that crops with physical structures that can be easily damaged and long production times would benefit from protected cultivation to maintain food security.

  1. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  2. Mass-loss rates of cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrien Els Decin, Leen

    2015-08-01

    Over much of the initial mass function, stars lose a significant fraction of their mass through a stellar wind during the late stages of their evolution when being a (super)giant star. As of today, we can not yet predict the mass-loss rate during the (super)giant phase for a given star with specific stellar parameters from first principles. This uncertainty directly impacts the accuracy of current stellar evolution and population synthesis models that predict the enrichment of the interstellar medium by these stellar winds. Efforts to establish the link between the initial physical and chemical conditions at stellar birth and the mass-loss rate during the (super)giant phase have proceeded on two separate tracks: (1) more detailed studies of the chemical and morpho-kinematical structure of the stellar winds of (super)giant stars in our own Milky Way by virtue of the proximity, and (2) large scale and statistical studies of a (large) sample of stars in other galaxies (such as the LMC and SMC) and globular clusters eliminating the uncertainty on the distance estimate and providing insight into the dependence of the mass-loss rate on the metallicity. In this review, I will present recent results of both tracks, will show how recent measurements confirm (some) theoretical predictions, but also how results from the first track admonish of common misconceptions inherent in the often more simplified analysis used to analyse the large samples from track 2.

  3. Modeling of Camembert-type cheese mass loss in a ripening chamber: main biological and physical phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélias, A; Mirade, P-S; Corrieu, G

    2007-11-01

    A model of the mass loss of Camembert-type cheese was established with data obtained from 2 experimental ripening trials carried out in 2 pilot ripening chambers. During these experiments, a cheese was continuously weighed and the relative humidity, temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations in the ripening chamber were recorded online. The aim was to establish a simple but accurate model that would predict cheese mass changes according to available online measurements. The main hypotheses were that 1) the cheese water activity was constant during ripening, 2) the respiratory activity of the microflora played a major role by inducing heat production, combined with important water evaporation, 3) the temperature gradient existing inside the cheese was negligible, and the limiting phenomenon was the convective transfer. The water activity and the specific heat of the cheeses were assessed by offline measurements. The others parameters in the model were obtained from the literature. This dynamic model was built with 2 state variables: the cheese mass and the surface temperature of the cheese. In this way, only the heat transfer coefficient had to be fitted, and it was strongly determined by the airflow characteristics close to the cheeses. Model efficiency was illustrated by comparing the estimated and measured mass and the mass loss rate for the 2 studied runs; the relative errors were less than 1.9 and 3.2% for the mass loss and the mass loss rate, respectively. The dynamic effects of special events, such as room defrosting or changes in chamber relative humidity, were well described by the model, especially in terms of kinetics (mass loss rates).

  4. A model on CME/Flare initiation: Loss of Equilibrium caused by mass loss of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Mun Song; Kim, Jik Su

    2015-08-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) model should give an answer to enough energy storage for giant bulk plasma into interplanetary space to escape against the sun’s gravitation and its explosive eruption. Advocates of ‘Mass Loading’ model (e.g. Low, B. 1996, SP, 167, 217) suggested a simple mechanism of CME initiation, the loss of mass from a prominence anchoring magnetic flux rope, but they did not associate the mass loss with the loss of equilibrium. The catastrophic loss of equilibrium model is considered as to be a prospective CME/Flare model to explain sudden eruption of magnetic flux systems. Isenberg, P. A., et al (1993, ApJ, 417, 368)developed ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetic flux rope to show occurrence of catastrophic loss of equilibrium according to increasing magnetic flux transported into corona.We begin with extending their study including gravity on prominence’s material to obtain equilibrium curves in case of given mass parameters, which are the strengths of the gravitational force compared with the characteristic magnetic force. Furthermore, we study quasi-static evolution of the system including massive prominence flux rope and current sheet below it to obtain equilibrium curves of prominence’s height according to decreasing mass parameter in a properly fixed magnetic environment. The curves show equilibrium loss behaviors to imply that mass loss result in equilibrium loss. Released fractions of magnetic energy are greater than corresponding zero-mass case. This eruption mechanism is expected to be able to apply to the eruptions of quiescent prominences, which is located in relatively weak magnetic environment with 105 km of scale length and 10G of photospheric magnetic field.

  5. An ATLAS high mass dijet event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    A high mass dijet event: two high-pT jets with invariant mass 2.8 TeV. A track pT cut of 2.5 GeV has been applied for the display. 1st jet (ordered by pT): pT = 310 GeV, y = -2.0, φ = -0.2 2nd jet: pT = 280 GeV, y = 2.5, φ = 2.9 3rd jet: pT = 14 GeV, y = -0.9, φ = -1.0 Jet momenta are calibrated according to the "EM+JES" scheme. Event collected on 5 August 2010.

  6. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets resonance event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass, central dijet event passing the dijet resonance selection collected in 2015 (Event 1273922482, Run 280673) : the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 6.9 TeV, the two leading jets have a pT of 3.2 TeV. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV.

  7. Episodic mass loss from the hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula Longmore 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A spectacular transient mass-loss episode from the extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula (PN) Longmore 4 (Lo 4) was discovered in 1992 by Werner et al. During that event, the star temporarily changed from its normal PG 1159 spectrum to that of an emission-line low-luminosity early-type Wolf-Rayet [WCE] star. After a few days, Lo 4 reverted to its normal, predominantly absorption-line PG 1159 type. To determine whether such events recur, and if so how often, I monitored the optical spectrum of Lo 4 from early 2003 to early 2012. Out of 81 spectra taken at random dates, 4 of them revealed mass-loss outbursts similar to that seen in 1992. This indicates that the episodes recur approximately every 100 days (if the recurrence rate has been approximately constant and the duration of a typical episode is ∼5 days), and that the star is in a high-mass-loss state about 5% of the time. Since the enhanced stellar wind is hydrogen-deficient, it arises from the photosphere and is unlikely to be related to phenomena such as a binary or planetary companion or infalling dust. I speculate on plausible mechanisms for these unique outbursts, including the possibility that they are related to the non-radial GW Vir-type pulsations exhibited by Lo 4. The central star of the PN NGC 246 has stellar parameters similar to those of Lo 4, and it is also a GW Vir-type pulsator with similar pulsation periods. I obtained 167 spectra of NGC 246 between 2003 and 2011, but no mass ejections were found.

  8. Mass loss rates in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, C. de; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; Hucht, K.A. van der

    1988-01-01

    From the literature we collected values for the rate of mass loss for 271 stars, nearly all of population I, and of spectral types 0 through M. Rates of stellar mass loss determined according to six different methods were compared and appear to yield the same result per star within the limits of errors; this is true regardless of the star's position in the HR-diagram. Thus average rates of mass loss were determined, and weights were allocated to the M-determinations for each star. In addition we studied some groups of other stars: fast rotators (22 Be-type stars), and chemically evolved stars (31 Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 C- and 4 S-type stars and 15 nuclei of planetary nebulae). The chemically evolved stars have rates of mass loss which are larger than those of ''normal'' stars occupying the same positions in the Hertzprung-Russel diagram, by factors: 160 for Wolf-Rayet stars; 11 for C-type stars, and by estimated factors of 10 3 to 10 4 for the nuclei of planetary nebulae

  9. Coupling rainfall observations and satellite soil moisture for predicting event soil loss in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, Francesca; Brocca, Luca; Termite, Loris Francesco; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    specifically the analysis was focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of coupling modeled or satellite-derived soil moisture with USLE-derived models in predicting event unit soil loss at the plot scale in a silty-clay soil in Central Italy. To this end was used the database of the Masse experimental station developed considering for a given erosive event (an event yielding a measurable soil loss) the simultaneous measures of the total runoff amount, Qe (mm), and soil loss per unit area, Ae (Mg-ha-1) at plot scale and of the rainfall data required to derive the erosivity factor Re according to Wischmeiser and Smith (1978), with a MIT=6 h (Bagarello et al., 2013; Todisco et al., 2012). To the purpose of this investigation only data collected on the λ = 22 m long plots were considered: 63 erosive events in the period 2008-2013, 18 occurred during the dry period (from June to September) and the other 45 in the complementary period (wet period). The models tested are the USLE/RUSLE and some USLE-derived formulations in which the event erosivity factor, Re, is corrected by the antecedent soil moisture, θ, and powered to an exponent α > 0 (α =1: linear model; α ≠ 1: power model). Both soil moisture data the satellite retrieved (θ = θsat) and the estimates (θ = θest) of Soil Water Balance model (Brocca et al., 2011) were tested. The results have been compared with those obtained by the USLE/RUSLE, USLE-M and USLE-MM models coupled with a parsimonious rainfall-runoff model, MILc, (Brocca et al. 2011) for the prediction of runoff volume (that in these models is the term used to correct the erosivity factor Re). The results showed that: including direct consideration of antecedent soil moisture and runoff in the event rainfall-runoff factor of the RUSLE/USLE enhanced the capacity of the model to account for variations in event soil loss when soil moisture and runoff volume are measured or predicted reasonably well; the accuracy of the original USLE/RUSLE model was

  10. Surface mass balance contributions to acceleration of Antarctic ice mass loss during 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Wilson, Clark R.; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Kim, Byeong-Hoon; Eom, Jooyoung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE?derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by ...

  11. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets angular event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass dijet event passing the angular selection collected in 2015 (Event 478442529, Run 280464): the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 7.9 TeV, the three leading jets have a pT of 1.99, 1.86 and 0.74 TeV respectively. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV

  12. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NianSong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  13. Constraining the Stellar Mass Function in the Galactic Center via Mass Loss from Stellar Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense concentration of stars and high-velocity dispersions in the Galactic center imply that stellar collisions frequently occur. Stellar collisions could therefore result in significant mass loss rates. We calculate the amount of stellar mass lost due to indirect and direct stellar collisions and find its dependence on the present-day mass function of stars. We find that the total mass loss rate in the Galactic center due to stellar collisions is sensitive to the present-day mass function adopted. We use the observed diffuse X-ray luminosity in the Galactic center to preclude any present-day mass functions that result in mass loss rates >10-5M⨀yr−1 in the vicinity of ~1″. For present-day mass functions of the form, dN/dM∝M-α, we constrain the present-day mass function to have a minimum stellar mass ≲7M⨀ and a power-law slope ≳1.25. We also use this result to constrain the initial mass function in the Galactic center by considering different star formation scenarios.

  14. Loss of preferred power events in German BWRs and PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the variety of courses which the loss of auxiliary power case may take in different plants, depending on the initiation of the event, the switching to the alternate auxiliary power supply and the automatic start-up sequences of auxiliaries (e.g. feedwater pumps, condensate pumps) after a short term interruption of auxiliary power. Topics considered include main station transformer failure in a boiling water reactor (BWR), main plant features, event description, evaluation of the event, deviations from expected behavior, operator actions, a comparison with start-up tests and other events, a comparison with postcalculations, and auxiliary transformer failure in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Loss of preferred (or auxiliary) power events are standard design cases taken into account in the design of many reactor and plant systems

  15. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Loss from GRACE Monthly Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is currently experiencing a net mass loss. There are however large discrepancies between the published qualitative mass loss estimates, based on different data sets and methods. There are even large differences between the results based on the same data sources, as is the ...

  16. Weight loss alters severity of individual nocturnal respiratory events depending on sleeping position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Leppänen, T; Tiihonen, P; Mervaala, E; Töyräs, J; Sahlman, J; Seppä, J; Kokkarinen, J; Randell, J; Tuomilehto, H

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mechanisms of how weight loss affects nocturnal breathing are not fully understood. The severity of OSA is currently estimated by the number of respiratory events per hour of sleep (i.e. apnea-hypopnea-index, AHI). AHI neglects duration and morphology of individual respiratory events, which describe the severity of individual events. In the current paper, we investigate the novel Adjusted-AHI parameter (incorporating individual event severity) and AHI after weight loss in relation to sleeping position. It was hypothesised that there are positional differences in individual event severity changes during weight loss. Altogether, 32 successful (> 5% of weight) and 34 unsuccessful weight loss patients at baseline and after 1 year follow-up were analysed. The results revealed that individual respiratory event severity was reduced differently in supine and non-supine positions during weight loss. During weight loss, AHI was reduced by 54% (p = 0.004) and 74% (p < 0.001), while Adjusted-AHI was reduced by 14% (p = 0.454) and 48% (p = 0.003) in supine and non-supine positions, respectively. In conclusion, the severity of individual respiratory events decreased more in the non-supine position. The novel Adjusted-AHI parameter takes these changes into account and might therefore contribute additional information to the planning of treatment of OSA patients. (paper)

  17. Financial system loss as an example of high consequence, high frequency events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1996-07-01

    Much work has been devoted to high consequence events with low frequency of occurrence. Characteristic of these events are bridge failure (such as that of the Tacoma Narrows), building failure (such as the collapse of a walkway at a Kansas City hotel), or compromise of a major chemical containment system (such as at Bhopal, India). Such events, although rare, have an extreme personal, societal, and financial impact. An interesting variation is demonstrated by financial losses due to fraud and abuse in the money management system. The impact can be huge, entailing very high aggregate costs, but these are a result of the contribution of many small attacks and not the result of a single (or few) massive events. Public awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milikin or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These event,s although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. This paper explores the magnitude of financial system losses and identifies new areas for analysis of high consequence events including the potential effect of malevolent intent.

  18. Mass Loss Rates of Fasting Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Richardson, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014. Polar bears were given access to water but not food and held for a median length of 17 d. Median mass loss rates were 1.0 kg/d, while median mass-specific loss rates were 0.5%/d, similar to other species with high adiposity and prolonged fasting capacities. Mass loss by unfed captive adult males was identical to that lost by free-ranging individuals, suggesting that terrestrial feeding contributes little to offset mass loss. The inferred metabolic rate was comparable to a basal mammalian rate, suggesting that while on land, polar bears can maintain a depressed metabolic rate to conserve energy. Finally, we estimated time to starvation for subadults and adult males for the on-land period. Results suggest that at 180 d of fasting, 56%-63% of subadults and 18%-24% of adult males in this study would die of starvation. Results corroborate previous assessments on the limits of polar bear capacity to withstand lengthening ice-free seasons and emphasize the greater sensitivity of subadults to changes in sea ice phenology.

  19. Massive stars evolution with mass-loss. 20-100 M(sun) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C; Sreenivasan, S R [Calgary Univ., Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Nasi, E [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1978-02-01

    The evolution of stars with initial masses 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 M(sun) and Population I chemical composition (X = 0.700, Z = 0.02) is calculated, taking into account mass-loss due to stellar winds, from the main sequence up to the early stages of central He-burning. This study incorporates mass-loss rates predicted by the theory of Castor et al. (1975) for the early type phases and a novel way of treating mass-loss rates due to acoustic energy flux driven winds in the later stages analogous to the work of Fusi-Pecci and Renzini (1975a). The results are presented in terms of evolutionary tracks, isochrones, loci of constant mass-loss rates and loci of constant mass in the HR diagram. The effects of mass-loss on the internal structure of the models as well as on the occurrence of semiconvection are also investigated. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and observational results is made and possible implications for O, Of, Wolf-Rayet stars and red supergiants are brought out.

  20. A loss-of -RHR event under the various plant configurations in low power or shutdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Lee, Suk Ho; Kim, Hho Jung

    1997-01-01

    A present study addresses a loss-of-RHR event as an initiating event under specific low power of shutdown conditions. Two typical plant configurations, cold leg opening case with water-filled steam generators and pressurizer opening case with emptied steam generators, were evaluated using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The calculation was compared with the experiment conducted at ROSA-IV/LSTF in Japan. As a result, the code was capable of simulating the system transient behavior following the event. Especially, thermal hydraulic transport processes including non-condensable gas behavior were reasonably predicted with an appropriate time step and CPU time. However, there were some code deficiencies such as too large system mass errors and severe flow oscillations in core region

  1. Acceleration of the GrIS mass loss as observed by GRACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has previously been analysed in a variety of ways, including altimetry, gravimetry and mass budget calculations, establishing a continuing decrease in the ice mass, with a number of studies finding acceleration in the mass loss. Here, we examine...

  2. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Noel, Brice; Turner, David D.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2015-04-01

    Clouds have a profound influence on both the Arctic and global climate, while they still represent one of the key uncertainties in climate models, limiting the fidelity of future climate projections. The potentially important role of thin liquid-containing clouds over Greenland in enhancing ice sheet melt has recently gained interest, yet current research is spatially and temporally limited, focusing on particular events, and their large scale impact on the surface mass balance remains unknown. We used a combination of satellite remote sensing (CloudSat - CALIPSO), ground-based observations and climate model (RACMO) data to show that liquid-containing clouds warm the Greenland ice sheet 94% of the time. High surface reflectivity (albedo) for shortwave radiation reduces the cloud shortwave cooling effect on the absorbed fluxes, while not influencing the absorption of longwave radiation. Cloud warming over the ice sheet therefore dominates year-round. Only when albedo values drop below ~0.6 in the coastal areas during summer, the cooling effect starts to overcome the warming effect. The year-round excess of energy due to the presence of liquid-containing clouds has an extensive influence on the mass balance of the ice sheet. Simulations using the SNOWPACK snow model showed not only a strong influence of these liquid-containing clouds on melt increase, but also on the increased sublimation mass loss. Simulations with the Community Earth System Climate Model for the end of the 21st century (2080-2099) show that Greenland clouds contain more liquid water path and less ice water path. This implies that cloud radiative forcing will be further enhanced in the future. Our results therefore urge the need for improving cloud microphysics in climate models, to improve future projections of ice sheet mass balance and global sea level rise.

  3. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on stellar and galactic chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    L.A. Willson, G.H. Bowen and C. Struck-Marcell have proposed that 1 to 3 solar mass stars may experience evolutionarily significant mass loss during the early part of their main-sequence phase. The suggested mass-loss mechanism is pulsation, facilitated by rapid rotation. Initial mass-loss rates may be as large as several times 10 -9 M mass of sun/yr, diminishing over several times 10 8 years. The author attempts to test this hypothesis by comparing some theoretical implications with observations. Three areas are addressed: Solar models, cluster HR diagrams, and galactic chemical evolution. Mass-losing solar models were evolved that match the Sun's luminosity and radius at its present age. The most extreme viable models have initial mass 2.0 M 0 , and mass-loss rates decreasing exponentially over 2-3 x 10 8 years. Evolution calculations incorporating main-sequence mass loss were completed for a grid of models with initial masses 1.25 to 2.0 M mass of sun and mass loss timescales 0.2 to 2.0 Gry. Cluster HR diagrams synthesized with these models confirm the potential for the hypothesis to explain observed spreads or bifurcations in the upper main sequence, blue stragglers, anomalous giants, and poor fits of main-sequence turnoffs by standard isochrones. Simple closed galactic chemical evolution models were used to test the effects of main-sequence mass loss on the F and G dwarf distribution. Stars between 3.0 M mass of sun and a metallicity-dependent lower mass are assumed to lose mass. The models produce a 30 to 60% increase in the stars to stars-plus-remnants ratio, with fewer early-F dwarfs and many more late-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence to the present

  4. Chlorine loss and mass loss from polyvinylchloride and polyvinylidenchloride under the electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, K.A.H.; Bertilsson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The loss of chlorine during the irradiation of PVC and PVDC in the electron microscope has been measured by the decay of the X-ray chlorine Kα signal. A number of factors affecting the measured beam damage curves have been considered and the experimental errors reduced to +- 10%. The results show that the chlorine decay curves can be best described by the sum of two exponentials, corresponding to the two different chlorine decay processes, these being: the dehydrochlorination of the polymer molecules and the dehydrochlorination of the polyene structure formed by the beam damage. The higher initial chlorine content of PVDC compared to PVC will result in a larger amount of chlorine atoms reacting with the polyene structure, which is more stable in the electron beam than the undamaged polymer. The chlorine loss, measured by X-ray analysis, has been compared to the mass loss, measured by energy loss analysis, and also with the volume changes of isolated spherical PVC particles. It has been concluded that the mass loss is almost entirely due to chlorine loss and that the residual structure has a density similar to the undamaged PVC. (author)

  5. Stringent limits on the ionized mass loss from A and F dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Veale, A.; Judge, P.; Bookbinder, J.A.; Hubeny, I.

    1990-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Willson et al. (1987) that A- and F-type main-sequence stars might undergo significant mass loss due to pulsationally driven winds, upper limits to the ionized mass loss from A and F dwarfs have been obtained using VLA observations. These stringent upper limits show that the level of ionized mass loss would have at most only a small effect on stellar evolution. Radiative-equilibrium atmospheric and wind models for early A dwarfs indicate that it is highly likely that a wind flowing from such stars would be significantly ionized. In addition, late A and early F dwarfs exhibit chromospheric emission indicative of significant nonradiative heating. The present mass-loss limits are thus representative of the total mass-loss rates for these stars. It is concluded that A and F dwarfs are not losing sufficient mass to cause A dwarfs to evolve into G dwarfs. 24 refs

  6. Reconstructing particle masses in events with displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Giovanna

    2018-03-01

    We propose a simple way to extract particle masses given a displaced vertex signature in event topologies where two long-lived mother particles decay to visible particles and an invisible daughter. The mother could be either charged or neutral and the neutral daughter could correspond to a dark matter particle in different models. The method allows to extract the parent and daughter masses by using on-shell conditions and energy-momentum conservation, in addition to the displaced decay positions of the parents, which allows to solve the kinematic equations fully on an event-by-event basis. We show the validity of the method by means of simulations including detector effects. If displaced events are seen in discovery searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), this technique can be applied.

  7. Mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical populations of white dwarfs and carbon stars were generated for Salpeter initial mass function and constant stellar birth rate history. The effect of very strong mass loss on the mass distribution of white dwarfs and luminosity distribution of carbon stars is discussed and the results are compared with observations. This comparison suggested that a signioficant mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch occurs besides stellar wind and planetary nebulae ejection. Thus it is possible to explain the absence of carbon stars with Msub(bol) 1.0 Msub(sun). The luminosity of asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds appears to be a very good indicator of the age

  8. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  9. Cascading effects of mass mortality events in Arctic marine communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langangen, Øystein; Ohlberger, Jan; Stige, Leif C; Durant, Joël M; Ravagnan, Elisa; Stenseth, Nils C; Hjermann, Dag Ø

    2017-01-01

    Mass mortality events caused by pulse anthropogenic or environmental perturbations (e.g., extreme weather, toxic spills or epizootics) severely reduce the abundance of a population in a short time. The frequency and impact of these events are likely to increase across the globe. Studies on how such events may affect ecological communities of interacting species are scarce. By combining a multispecies Gompertz model with a Bayesian state-space framework, we quantify community-level effects of a mass mortality event in a single species. We present a case study on a community of fish and zooplankton in the Barents Sea to illustrate how a mass mortality event of different intensities affecting the lower trophic level (krill) may propagate to higher trophic levels (capelin and cod). This approach is especially valuable for assessing community-level effects of potential anthropogenic-driven mass mortality events, owing to the ability to account for uncertainty in the assessed impact due to uncertainty about the ecological dynamics. We hence quantify how the assessed impact of a mass mortality event depends on the degree of precaution considered. We suggest that this approach can be useful for assessing the possible detrimental outcomes of toxic spills, for example oil spills, in relatively simple communities such as often found in the Arctic, a region under increasing influence of human activities due to increased land and sea use. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Increasing mass loss from Greenland's Mittivakkat Gletscher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Mernild, S.H.; Knudsen, N.T.

    2011-01-01

    Warming in the Arctic during the past several decades has caused glaciers to thin and retreat, and recent mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet is well documented. Local glaciers peripheral to the ice sheet are also retreating, but few mass-balance observations are available to quantify that ret...... a local phenomenon, but are indicative of glacier changes in the broader region. Mass-balance observations for the MG therefore provide unique documentation of the general retreat of Southeast Greenland's local glaciers under ongoing climate warming....

  11. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  12. Analysis of loss of offsite power events reported in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkanovski, Andrija, E-mail: Andrija.VOLKANOVSKI@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Ballesteros Avila, Antonio; Peinador Veira, Miguel [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kančev, Duško [Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken AG, CH-4658 Daeniken (Switzerland); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft für Anlagen-und-Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Köln (Germany); Stephan, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), BP 17 – 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Loss of offsite power events were identified in four databases. • Engineering analysis of relevant events was done. • The dominant root cause for LOOP are human failures. • Improved maintenance procedures can decrease the number of LOOP events. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of analysis of the loss of offsite power events (LOOP) in four databases of operational events. The screened databases include: the Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) and Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) databases, the IAEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) and the U.S. Licensee Event Reports (LER). In total 228 relevant loss of offsite power events were identified in the IRSN database, 190 in the GRS database, 120 in U.S. LER and 52 in IRS database. Identified events were classified in predefined categories. Obtained results show that the largest percentage of LOOP events is registered during On power operational mode and lasted for two minutes or more. The plant centered events is the main contributor to LOOP events identified in IRSN, GRS and IAEA IRS database. The switchyard centered events are the main contributor in events registered in the NRC LER database. The main type of failed equipment is switchyard failures in IRSN and IAEA IRS, main or secondary lines in NRC LER and busbar failures in GRS database. The dominant root cause for the LOOP events are human failures during test, inspection and maintenance followed by human failures due to the insufficient or wrong procedures. The largest number of LOOP events resulted in reactor trip followed by EDG start. The actions that can result in reduction of the number of LOOP events and minimize consequences on plant safety are identified and presented.

  13. Effects of Main-Sequence Mass Loss on Stellar and Galactic Chemical Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    1988-06-01

    L. A. Willson, G. H. Bowen and C. Struck -Marcell have proposed that 1 to 3 solar mass stars may experience evolutionarily significant mass loss during the early part of their main-sequence phase. The suggested mass-loss mechanism is pulsation, facilitated by rapid rotation. Initial mass-loss rates may be as large as several times 10^{-9}M o/yr, diminishing over several times 10^8 years. We attempted to test this hypothesis by comparing some theoretical implications with observations. Three areas are addressed: Solar models, cluster HR diagrams, and galactic chemical evolution. Mass-losing solar models were evolved that match the Sun's luminosity and radius at its present age. The most extreme viable models have initial mass 2.0 M o, and mass-loss rates decreasing exponentially over 2-3 times 10^8 years. Compared to a constant -mass model, these models require a reduced initial ^4He abundance, have deeper envelope convection zones and higher ^8B neutrino fluxes. Early processing of present surface layers at higher interior temperatures increases the surface ^3He abundance, destroys Li, Be and B, and decreases the surface C/N ratio following first dredge-up. Evolution calculations incorporating main-sequence mass loss were completed for a grid of models with initial masses 1.25 to 2.0 Mo and mass loss timescales 0.2 to 2.0 Gyr. Cluster HR diagrams synthesized with these models confirm the potential for the hypothesis to explain observed spreads or bifurcations in the upper main sequence, blue stragglers, anomalous giants, and poor fits of main-sequence turnoffs by standard isochrones. Simple closed galactic chemical evolution models were used to test the effects of main-sequence mass loss on the F and G dwarf distribution. Stars between 3.0 M o and a metallicity -dependent lower mass are assumed to lose mass. The models produce a 30 to 60% increase in the stars to stars-plus -remnants ratio, with fewer early-F dwarfs and many more late-F dwarfs remaining on the main

  14. DUST PRODUCTION AND MASS LOSS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta; Shiao, Bernie; Whitney, Barbara; McDonald, Iain; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Babler, Brian; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles; Misselt, Karl; Hora, Joe; Indebetouw, Remy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dust production and stellar mass loss in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 362. Due to its close proximity to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), NGC 362 was imaged with the Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer cameras onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy program. We detect several cluster members near the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) that exhibit infrared excesses indicative of circumstellar dust and find that dust is not present in measurable quantities in stars below the tip of the RGB. We modeled the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the stars with the strongest IR excess and find a total cluster dust mass-loss rate of 3.0 +2.0 -1.2 x 10 -9 M sun yr -1 , corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 8.6 +5.6 -3.4 x 10 -6 M sun yr -1 , assuming [Fe/H] =-1.16. This mass loss is in addition to any dustless mass loss that is certainly occurring within the cluster. The two most extreme stars, variables V2 and V16, contribute up to 45% of the total cluster dust-traced mass loss. The SEDs of the more moderate stars indicate the presence of silicate dust, as expected for low-mass, low-metallicity stars. Surprisingly, the SED shapes of the stars with the strongest mass-loss rates appear to require the presence of amorphous carbon dust, possibly in combination with silicate dust, despite their oxygen-rich nature. These results corroborate our previous findings in ω Centauri.

  15. Surface Mass Balance Contributions to Acceleration of Antarctic Ice Mass Loss during 2003- 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, K. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Scambos, T. A.; Kim, B. M.; Waliser, D. E.; Tian, B.; Kim, B.; Eom, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the GRACE mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE-derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by precipitation anomalies. However, on the Antarctic Peninsula and other parts of West Antarctica mass changes are not explained by precipitation and are likely associated with ice discharge rate increases. The total apparent GRACE acceleration over all of the AIS between 2003 and 2013 is -13.6±7.2 GTon/yr2. Of this total, we find that the surface mass balance component is -8.2±2.0 GTon/yr2. However, the GRACE estimate appears to contain errors arising from the atmospheric pressure fields used to remove air mass effects. The estimated acceleration error from this effect is about 9.8±5.8 GTon/yr2. Correcting for this yields an ice discharge acceleration of -15.1±6.5 GTon/yr2.

  16. PULSATION-TRIGGERED MASS LOSS FROM AGB STARS: THE 60 DAY CRITICAL PERIOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars eject much of their mass during the late, red giant branch (RGB) phase of evolution. The physics of their strong stellar winds is still poorly understood. In the standard model, stellar pulsations extend the atmosphere, allowing a wind to be driven through radiation pressure on condensing dust particles. Here, we investigate the onset of the wind, using nearby RGB stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog. We find a sharp onset of dust production when the star first reaches a pulsation period of 60 days. This approximately coincides with the point where the star transitions to the first overtone pulsation mode. Models of the spectral energy distributions show stellar mass-loss rate suddenly increasing at this point, by a factor of ∼10 over the existing (chromospherically driven) wind. The dust emission is strongly correlated with both pulsation period and amplitude, indicating stellar pulsation is the main trigger for the strong mass loss, and determines the mass-loss rate. Dust emission does not strongly correlate with stellar luminosity, indicating radiation pressure on dust has little effect on the mass-loss rate. RGB stars do not normally appear to produce dust, whereas dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars appears commonplace, and is probably ubiquitous above the RGB-tip luminosity. We conclude that the strong wind begins with a step change in mass-loss rate and is triggered by stellar pulsations. A second rapid mass-loss-rate enhancement is suggested when the star transitions to the fundamental pulsation mode at a period of ∼300 days.

  17. Top-quark mass measurement from dilepton events at CDF II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciverez, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Papikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-04-21

    We report a measurement of the top-quark mass using events collected by the CDF II detector from pp collisions at square root of s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. We calculate a likelihood function for the top-quark mass in events that are consistent with tt --> bl(-)nu(l)bl'+ nu'(l) decays. The likelihood is formed as the convolution of the leading-order matrix element and detector resolution functions. The joint likelihood is the product of likelihoods for each of 33 events collected in 340 pb(-1) of integrated luminosity, yielding a top-quark mass M(t) = 165.2 +/- 6.1(stat) +/- 3.4(syst) GeV/c2. This first application of a matrix-element technique to tt --> bl+ nu(l)bl'- nu(l') decays gives the most precise single measurement of M(t) in dilepton events. Combined with other CDF run II measurements using dilepton events, we measure M(t) = 167.9 +/- 5.2(stat) +/- 3.7(syst) GeV/c2.

  18. Effects of mass loss on the evolution of massive stars. I. Main-sequence evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.P.; Blake, J.B.; Hainebach, K.L.; Schramm, D.N.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mass loss on the evolution and surface composition of massive stars during main-sequence evolution are examined. While some details of the evolutionary track depend on the formula used for the mass loss, the results appear most sensitive to the total mass removed during the main-sequence lifetime. It was found that low mass-loss rates have very little effect on the evolution of a star; the track is slightly subluminous, but the lifetime is almost unaffected. High rates of mass loss lead to a hot, high-luminosity stellar model with a helium core surrounded by a hydrogen-deficient (Xapprox.0.1) envelope. The main-sequence lifetime is extended by a factor of 2--3. These models may be identified with Wolf-Rayet stars. Between these mass-loss extremes are intermediate models which appear as OBN stars on the main sequence. The mass-loss rates required for significant observable effects range from 8 x 10 -7 to 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 , depending on the initial stellar mass. It is found that observationally consistent mass-loss rates for stars with M> or =30 M/sub sun/ may be sufficiently high that these stars lose mass on a time scale more rapidly than their main-sequence core evolution time. This result implies that the helium cores resulting from the main-sequence evolution of these massive stars may all be very similar to that of a star of Mapprox.30 M/sub sun/ regardless of the zero-age mass

  19. Explaining individual variation in patterns of mass loss in breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuthill Innes C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of birds have a disproportionate representation in the literature on life-history evolution, because of the (apparent ease with which the costs and benefits can be quantified and manipulated. During reproduction, birds frequently show a highly conserved pattern of mass change and changes in mass loss during breeding have been widely considered to be a valid short-term measure of the costs of reproduction. Experimental manipulations of the breeding attempts of birds usually argue that the presence of a response shows that a cost of reproduction exists, but there is little consensus as to how the size of these costs can be measured. Results We model this mass loss by considering how a parent can maximise its lifetime reproductive success, using a theoretical framework that is particularly suited to modelling parental care in altricial birds. If lifetime reproductive success is taken to be the sum of a parent's current and future reproductive success, we show that the exact forms of these components will influence the optimal amount of mass a parent should lose. In particular, we demonstrate that the shape of the relationship between parental investment and chick survival will lead to differing degrees of investment between parents of different initial qualities: parents with initially high levels of energy reserves could conceivably invested a lesser, similar or greater amount of resources than parents with initially low reserves, and these initially 'heavy' parents could potentially end up being lighter than the initially 'lighter' individuals. Conclusion We argue that it is difficult to make predictions about the dependence of a parent's final mass on its initial mass, and therefore mass loss should only be used as a short-term measure of the costs of reproduction with caution. The model demonstrates that we require a better understanding of the relationship between mass loss and both current and future reproductive

  20. The Role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on Recent Greenland Surface Mass Loss and Mass Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Alexander, P.; Porter, D. F.; Fettweis, X.; Luthcke, S. B.; Mote, T. L.; Rennermalm, A.; Hanna, E.

    2017-12-01

    Despite recent changes in Greenland surface mass losses and atmospheric circulation over the Arctic, little attention has been given to the potential role of large-scale atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal variability of mass loss and partitioning of the GrIS mass loss. Using a combination of satellite gravimetry measurements, outputs of the MAR regional climate model and reanalysis data, we show that changes in atmospheric patterns since 2013 over the North Atlantic region of the Arctic (NAA) modulate total mass loss trends over Greenland together with the spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss partitioning. For example, during the 2002 - 2012 period, melting persistently increased, especially along the west coast, as a consequence of increased insulation and negative NAO conditions characterizing that period. Starting in 2013, runoff along the west coast decreased while snowfall increased substantially, when NAO turned to a more neutral/positive state. Modeled surface mass balance terms since 1950 indicate that part of the GRACE-period, specifically the period between 2002 and 2012, was exceptional in terms of snowfall over the east and northeast regions. During that period snowfall trend decreased to almost 0 Gt/yr from a long-term increasing trend, which presumed again in 2013. To identify the potential impact of atmospheric patterns on mass balance and its partitioning, we studied the spatial and temporal correlations between NAO and snowfall/runoff. Our results indicate that the correlation between summer snowfall and NAO is not stable during the 1950 - 2015 period. We further looked at changes in patterns of circulation using self organizing maps (SOMs) to identify the atmospheric patterns characterizing snowfall during different periods. We discuss potential implications for past changes and future GCM and RCM simulations.

  1. A drop in the pond: the effect of rapid mass-loss on the dynamics and interaction rate of collisionless particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penoyre, Zephyr; Haiman, Zoltán

    2018-01-01

    In symmetric gravitating systems experiencing rapid mass-loss, particle orbits change almost instantaneously, which can lead to the development of a sharply contoured density profile, including singular caustics for collisionless systems. This framework can be used to model a variety of dynamical systems, such as accretion discs following a massive black hole merger and dwarf galaxies following violent early star formation feedback. Particle interactions in the high-density peaks seem a promising source of observable signatures of these mass-loss events (i.e. a possible EM counterpart for black hole mergers or strong gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation around young galaxies), because the interaction rate depends on the square of the density. We study post-mass-loss density profiles, both analytic and numerical, in idealized cases and present arguments and methods to extend to any general system. An analytic derivation is presented for particles on Keplerian orbits responding to a drop in the central mass. We argue that this case, with initially circular orbits, gives the most sharply contoured profile possible. We find that despite the presence of a set of singular caustics, the total particle interaction rate is reduced compared to the unperturbed system; this is a result of the overall expansion of the system dominating over the steep caustics. Finally, we argue that this result holds more generally, and the loss of central mass decreases the particle interaction rate in any physical system.

  2. Motivation and satisfaction of participants and spectators attending mass sport events

    OpenAIRE

    Cloes, Marc; Emond, Catherine; Ledent, Maryse; Piéron, Maurice

    2000-01-01

    Considering their sociocultural and economic impact, sport events represent a pertinent centre of interest for sport management research. Considering their frequent occurrence and importance to the survival of many associations such as sport clubs, schools, youth or neighbourhood committees, mass sport events could receive more attention than they actually do. In this paper attention was focused on participants and spectators attending the following five mass sport events organised in Walloni...

  3. An ATLAS event with a high mass dijet system

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    Event with a high mass dijet system: the invariant mass of the two highest-pT jets is 2.55 TeV. The highest pT jet has a pT of 420 GeV, and an eta of -1.51, the second leading jet has pT of 320 GeV and an eta of 2.32. Jet momenta are calibrated according to the "EM+JES" scheme. No other jets are found with pT above 20 GeV. Event collected on 4 July 2010.

  4. Mass loss rates of OB stars derived from infrared observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, E.G.; Tarenghi, M.; Panagia, N.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper the authors report briefly on a study of the mass loss of early type stars in the infrared. Up to now near infrared (1.25 - 4.8 μ) broad band photometry of 70 southern OB stars of various luminosity class has been secured. Program stars have been selected, among those bright enough in the infrared to give a suitable photometric accuracy, in order to cover a wide range of spectral types. 37 stars are found to exhibit emission in excess over a blackbody photospheric continuum, which is interpreted in terms of gas ejected in the form of an accelerated wind. By means of model calculations the corresponding mass loss rates are derived. The obtained values compare well with those determined independently by various authors for stars in common. Their data show that mass loss rates increase with luminosity and are a decreasing function of surface gravity. (Auth.)

  5. Event-based soil loss models for construction sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2015-05-01

    The elevated rates of soil erosion stemming from land clearing and grading activities during urban development, can result in excessive amounts of eroded sediments entering waterways and causing harm to the biota living therein. However, construction site event-based soil loss simulations - required for reliable design of erosion and sediment controls - are one of the most uncertain types of hydrologic models. This study presents models with improved degree of accuracy to advance the design of erosion and sediment controls for construction sites. The new models are developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) on event-based permutations of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and artificial neural networks (ANN). These models were developed using surface runoff monitoring datasets obtained from three sites - Greensborough, Cookstown, and Alcona - in Ontario and datasets mined from the literature for three additional sites - Treynor, Iowa, Coshocton, Ohio and Cordoba, Spain. The predictive MLR and ANN models can serve as both diagnostic and design tools for the effective sizing of erosion and sediment controls on active construction sites, and can be used for dynamic scenario forecasting when considering rapidly changing land use conditions during various phases of construction.

  6. Core-powered mass-loss and the radius distribution of small exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Schlichting, Hilke E.; Sari, Re'em

    2018-05-01

    Recent observations identify a valley in the radius distribution of small exoplanets, with planets in the range 1.5-2.0 R⊕ significantly less common than somewhat smaller or larger planets. This valley may suggest a bimodal population of rocky planets that are either engulfed by massive gas envelopes that significantly enlarge their radius, or do not have detectable atmospheres at all. One explanation of such a bimodal distribution is atmospheric erosion by high-energy stellar photons. We investigate an alternative mechanism: the luminosity of the cooling rocky core, which can completely erode light envelopes while preserving heavy ones, produces a deficit of intermediate sized planets. We evolve planetary populations that are derived from observations using a simple analytical prescription, accounting self-consistently for envelope accretion, cooling and mass-loss, and demonstrate that core-powered mass-loss naturally reproduces the observed radius distribution, regardless of the high-energy incident flux. Observations of planets around different stellar types may distinguish between photoevaporation, which is powered by the high-energy tail of the stellar radiation, and core-powered mass-loss, which depends on the bolometric flux through the planet's equilibrium temperature that sets both its cooling and mass-loss rates.

  7. Probing the mass-loss history of AGB and red supergiant stars from CO rotational line profiles - I. Theoretical model - Mass-loss history unravelled in VYCMa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decin, L.; Hony, S.; de Koter, A.; Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    Context. Mass loss plays a dominant role in the evolution of low mass stars while they are on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). The gas and dust ejected during this phase are a major source in the mass budget of the interstellar medium. Recent studies have pointed towards the importance of

  8. Event-Driven Control for Networked Control Systems With Quantization and Markov Packet Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongjiu; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Jinhui

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, event-driven is used in a networked control system (NCS) which is subjected to the effect of quantization and packet losses. A discrete event-detector is used to monitor specific events in the NCS. Both an arbitrary region quantizer and Markov jump packet losses are also considered for the NCS. Based on zoom strategy and Lyapunov theory, a complete proof is given to guarantee mean square stability of the closed-loop system. Stabilization of the NCS is ensured by designing a feedback controller. Lastly, an inverted pendulum model is given to show the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed results.

  9. Director´s Fiduciary Duties Before Insolvency: Events Of Equity Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Suescún de Roa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Directors owe fiduciary duties to the company and its shareholders. Before insolvency, more specifically, when corporations are facing events of equity loss, directors should refrain from initiating new transactions and should call for a shareholders meeting. By not doing so, directors would be jointly and severally liable for corporate debts after the equity loss took place.

  10. THE EFFECT OF MASS LOSS ON THE TIDAL EVOLUTION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    By combining mass loss and tidal evolution of close-in planets, we present a qualitative study on their tidal migrations. We incorporate mass loss in tidal evolution for planets with different masses and find that mass loss could interfere with tidal evolution. In an upper limit case (β = 3), a significant portion of mass may be evaporated in a long evolution timescale. Evidence of greater modification of the planets with an initial separation of about 0.1 AU than those with a = 0.15 AU can be found in this model. With the assumption of a large initial eccentricity, the planets with initial mass ≤1 M J and initial distance of about 0.1 AU could not survive. With the supposition of β = 1.1, we find that the loss process has an effect on the planets with low mass at a ∼ 0.05 AU. In both cases, the effect of evaporation on massive planets can be neglected. Also, heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have significant influence on tidal evolution. We find that even low heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have a significant effect on tidal evolution. Our analysis shows that evaporation on planets with different initial masses can accelerate (decelerate) the tidal evolution due to the increase (decrease) in tide of the planet (star). Consequently, the effect of evaporation cannot be neglected in evolutionary calculations of close-in planets. The physical parameters of HD 209458b can be fitted by our model.

  11. Altered primary production during mass-extinction events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schootbrugge, B.; Gollner, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Big Five mass-extinction events are characterized by dramatic changes in primary producers. Initial disturbance to primary producers is usually followed by a succession of pioneers that represent qualitative and quantitative changes in standing crops of land plants and/or phytoplankton. On land,

  12. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Graefener, Goetz, E-mail: jsv@arm.ac.uk [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, BT61 9DG Armagh (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of {approx_equal}2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot{sub trans} between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the {approx}50 M{sub Sun} mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  13. THE TRANSITION MASS-LOSS RATE: CALIBRATING THE ROLE OF LINE-DRIVEN WINDS IN MASSIVE STAR EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Gräfener, Götz

    2012-01-01

    A debate has arisen regarding the importance of stationary versus eruptive mass loss for massive star evolution. The reason is that stellar winds have been found to be clumped, which results in the reduction of unclumped empirical mass-loss rates. Most stellar evolution models employ theoretical mass-loss rates which are already reduced by a moderate factor of ≅2-3 compared to non-corrected empirical rates. A key question is whether these reduced rates are of the correct order of magnitude, or if they should be reduced even further, which would mean that the alternative of eruptive mass loss becomes necessary. Here we introduce the transition mass-loss rate M-dot trans between O and Wolf-Rayet stars. Its novelty is that it is model independent. All that is required is postulating the spectroscopic transition point in a given data set, and determining the stellar luminosity, which is far less model dependent than the mass-loss rate. The transition mass-loss rate is subsequently used to calibrate stellar wind strength by its application to the Of/WNh stars in the Arches cluster. Good agreement is found with two alternative modeling/theoretical results, suggesting that the rates provided by current theoretical models are of the right order of magnitude in the ∼50 M ☉ mass range. Our results do not confirm the specific need for eruptive mass loss as luminous blue variables, and current stellar evolution modeling for Galactic massive stars seems sound. Mass loss through alternative mechanisms might still become necessary at lower masses, and/or metallicities, and the quantification of alternative mass loss is desirable.

  14. Corporate Financial Stability and Change of Capital Availability as a Result of a Loss Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gorczyńska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to present the parameters of financial stability of a company, as well as to show the direction of their potential changes as a result of a loss event. The following thesis was adopted: "Financial stability of a company is a necessary condition for constant, undisturbed development, mainly by ensuring access to external capital in the case when it is necessary to cover the adverse effects of loss events". This study aims at: defining financial stability, identifying financial stability parameters, indicating the potential changes of such parameters as a result of a loss event.

  15. Implementation of a method to visualize noise-induced hearing loss in mass stranded cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Maria; Brownlow, Andrew; McGovern, Barry; Raverty, Stephen A.; Shadwick, Robert E.; André, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Assessment of the impact of noise over-exposure in stranded cetaceans is challenging, as the lesions that lead to hearing loss occur at the cellular level and inner ear cells are very sensitive to autolysis. Distinguishing ante-mortem pathology from post-mortem change has been a major constraint in diagnosing potential impact. Here, we outline a methodology applicable to the detection of noise-induced hearing loss in stranded cetaceans. Inner ears from two mass strandings of long-finned pilot whales in Scotland were processed for scanning electron microscopy observation. In one case, a juvenile animal, whose ears were fixed within 4 hours of death, revealed that many sensory cells at the apex of the cochlear spiral were missing. In this case, the absence of outer hair cells would be compatible with overexposure to underwater noise, affecting the region which transduces the lowest frequencies of the pilot whales hearing spectrum. Perfusion of cochlea with fixative greatly improved preservation and enabled diagnostic imaging of the organ of Corti, even 30 hours after death. This finding supports adopting a routine protocol to detect the pathological legacy of noise overexposure in mass stranded cetaceans as a key to understanding the complex processes and implications that lie behind such stranding events.

  16. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. VI. LUMINOSITIES AND MASS-LOSS RATES ON POPULATION SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebel, D.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Sargent, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the first application of the Grid of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch ModelS (GRAMS) model grid to the entire evolved stellar population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). GRAMS is a pre-computed grid of 80,843 radiative transfer models of evolved stars and circumstellar dust shells composed of either silicate or carbonaceous dust. We fit GRAMS models to ∼30,000 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars in the LMC, using 12 bands of photometry from the optical to the mid-infrared. Our published data set consists of thousands of evolved stars with individually determined evolutionary parameters such as luminosity and mass-loss rate. The GRAMS grid has a greater than 80% accuracy rate discriminating between oxygen- and carbon-rich chemistry. The global dust injection rate to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the LMC from RSGs and AGB stars is on the order of 2.1 × 10 –5 M ☉ yr –1 , equivalent to a total mass injection rate (including the gas) into the ISM of ∼6 × 10 –3 M ☉ yr –1 . Carbon stars inject two and a half times as much dust into the ISM as do O-rich AGB stars, but the same amount of mass. We determine a bolometric correction factor for C-rich AGB stars in the K s band as a function of J – K s color, BC K s = -0.40(J-K s ) 2 + 1.83(J-K s ) + 1.29. We determine several IR color proxies for the dust mass-loss rate (M-dot d ) from C-rich AGB stars, such as log M-dot d = (-18.90/((K s -[8.0])+3.37) - 5.93. We find that a larger fraction of AGB stars exhibiting the 'long-secondary period' phenomenon are more O-rich than stars dominated by radial pulsations, and AGB stars without detectable mass loss do not appear on either the first-overtone or fundamental-mode pulsation sequences.

  17. First stars. II. Evolution with mass loss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bahena, David; Hadrava, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 2 (2012), s. 651-663 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA ČR GA202/09/0772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : first stars * evolution * mass loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2012

  18. Evolution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars. IV. Constraining mass loss and lifetimes of low mass, low metallicity AGB stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Marigo, Paola [Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Girardi, Léo; Gullieuszik, Marco [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Aringer, Bernhard [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria)

    2014-07-20

    The evolution and lifetimes of thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars suffer from significant uncertainties. In this work, we analyze the numbers and luminosity functions of TP-AGB stars in six quiescent, low metallicity ([Fe/H] ≲ –0.86) galaxies taken from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury sample, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry in both optical and near-infrared filters. The galaxies contain over 1000 TP-AGB stars (at least 60 per field). We compare the observed TP-AGB luminosity functions and relative numbers of TP-AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars, N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB}, to models generated from different suites of TP-AGB evolutionary tracks after adopting star formation histories derived from the HST deep optical observations. We test various mass-loss prescriptions that differ in their treatments of mass loss before the onset of dust-driven winds (pre-dust). These comparisons confirm that pre-dust mass loss is important, since models that neglect pre-dust mass loss fail to explain the observed N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB} ratio or the luminosity functions. In contrast, models with more efficient pre-dust mass loss produce results consistent with observations. We find that for [Fe/H] ≲ –0.86, lower mass TP-AGB stars (M ≲ 1 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes of ∼0.5 Myr and higher masses (M ≲ 3 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes ≲ 1.2 Myr. In addition, assuming our best-fitting mass-loss prescription, we show that the third dredge-up has no significant effect on TP-AGB lifetimes in this mass and metallicity range.

  19. LISA extreme-mass-ratio inspiral events as probes of the black hole mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gair, Jonathan R.; Tang, Christopher; Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    One of the sources of gravitational waves for the proposed space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), are the inspirals of compact objects into supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies--extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs). Using LISA observations, we will be able to measure the parameters of each EMRI system detected to very high precision. However, the statistics of the set of EMRI events observed by LISA will be more important in constraining astrophysical models than extremely precise measurements for individual systems. The black holes to which LISA is most sensitive are in a mass range that is difficult to probe using other techniques, so LISA provides an almost unique window onto these objects. In this paper we explore, using Bayesian techniques, the constraints that LISA EMRI observations can place on the mass function of black holes at low redshift. We describe a general framework for approaching inference of this type--using multiple observations in combination to constrain a parametrized source population. Assuming that the scaling of the EMRI rate with the black-hole mass is known and taking a black-hole distribution given by a simple power law, dn/dlnM=A 0 (M/M * ) α 0 , we find that LISA could measure the parameters to a precision of Δ(lnA 0 )∼0.08, and Δ(α 0 )∼0.03 for a reference model that predicts ∼1000 events. Even with as few as 10 events, LISA should constrain the slope to a precision ∼0.3, which is the current level of observational uncertainty in the low-mass slope of the black-hole mass function. We also consider a model in which A 0 and α 0 evolve with redshift, but find that EMRI observations alone do not have much power to probe such an evolution.

  20. Quantifying the Precipitation Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons during a Rapid Dropout Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, K. H.; Tu, W.; Xiang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude within the timespan of hours. In this study, we used the drift-diffusion model that includes azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion of electrons to simulate low-altitude electron distribution observed by POES/MetOp satellites for rapid radiation belt electron dropout event occurring on May 1, 2013. The event shows fast dropout of MeV energy electrons at L>4 over a few hours, observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. By simulating the electron distributions observed by multiple POES satellites, we resolve the precipitation loss with both high spatial and temporal resolution and a range of energies. We estimate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients as a function of energy, pitch angle, and L-shell, and calculate corresponding electron lifetimes during the event. The simulation results show fast electron precipitation loss at L>4 during the electron dropout, with estimated electron lifetimes on the order of half an hour for MeV energies. The electron loss rate show strong energy dependence with faster loss at higher energies, which suggest that this dropout event is dominated by quick and localized scattering process that prefers higher energy electrons. The estimated pitch angle diffusion rates from the model are then compared with in situ wave measurements from Van Allen Probes to uncover the underlying wave-particle-interaction mechanisms that are responsible for the fast electron precipitation. Comparing the resolved precipitation loss with the observed electron dropouts at high altitudes, our results will suggest the relative role of electron precipitation loss and outward radial diffusion to the radiation belt dropouts during storm and non-storm times, in addition to its energy and L dependence.

  1. Massive stars with mass loss: Evolution, nucleosynthesis, and astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prantzos, N.

    1986-06-01

    Evolution and nucleosynthesis of mass loss WR stars is studied, particularly evolution of stars with initial mass between 50 and 100 solar masses, during combustion of H and He. A semi-empirical mass loss formalism, the Roxburgh criterion for convection, and nuclear data are used. Composition of the stellar surface and ejecta (and ejecta contribution to cosmic ray composition) are derived. The contribution of these stars to s elements in our solar system is shown. Their production of 26 Al is compared to the quantity in the galaxy. Gamma ray emission at 1.8 MeV from the decay of this radionuclide is estimated in galactic longitude. The stars evolve as 0 and 0f stars during H combustion and spend 20% of their He combustion period as WN stars and 80% as WC-W0. Evolution always occurs in the blue part of the HR diagram, and satisfies observational constraints on its upper part [fr

  2. Assessment of prism responses to loss of flow events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Sands, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), with Brookhaven national Laboratory providing technical support, is continuing a preapplication review of the 471 MWt, advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), PRISM by General Electric. The revised design has been evaluated using the SSC code, for a series of loss of flow events (LOF) with and without gas expansion modules (GEMs). These devices have a net worth of 69 cents and have reduced the seriousness of the LOF in PRISM. However, it was found that the extremely low probability case of an instantaneous loss of 4 EM pumps without scram could lead to sodium boiling even with the GEMs

  3. Mass loss by stars at the stage of the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    For a given initial stellar mass function, star formation function, and initial chemical composition, distributions have been constructed for stars of the asymptotic giant branch by luminosity, and for white dwarfs by mass, by calculating the approximate evolution of a large number of stars. Variants are calculated with different assumptions about the mass loss in the asymptotic branch. Theory can be reconciled with observation only if it is assumed that at this stage there is also a still large mass loss in addition to the stellar wind and the ejection of a planetary nebula shell. This provides the explanation for the absence in the Magellanic clouds of carbon stars with M /sub bol/ 1.0M /sub ./. The degenerate carbon-oxygen nuclei of stars evolving along the asymptotic giant branch cannot attain the Chandrasekhar limit on account of the great mass loss by the stars. The luminosity of stars of the asymptotic giant branch in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds is a good indicator of the age of the clusters

  4. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on the turnoff ages of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Willson, Bowen, and Struck-Marcell have proposed that globular cluster main-sequence turnoff ages can be reconciled with the lower ages of the Galaxy and universe deduced from other methods by incorporating an epoch of early main-sequence mass-loss by stars of spectral types A through early-F. The proposed mass loss is pulsation-driven, and facilitated by rapid rotation. This paper presents stellar evolution calculations of Pop. II (Z = 0.001) mass-losing stars of initial mass 0.8 to 1.6 M circle dot , with exponentially-decreasing mass loss rates of e-folding times 0.5 to 2.0 Gyr, evolving to a final mass of 0.7 M circle dot . The calculations indicate that a globular cluster with apparent turnoff age 18 Gyr could have an actual age as low as ∼12 Gyr. Observational implications that may help to verify the hypothesis, e.g. low C/N abundance ratios among red giants following first dredge-up, blue stragglers, red giant deficiencies, and signatures in cluster mass/luminosity functions, are also discussed.25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F.; Piro, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M ⊙ (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M ⊙ of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M ⊙ , hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R ⊙

  6. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Piro, Anthony L., E-mail: morozvs@tapir.caltech.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M{sub ⊙} (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M{sub ⊙} of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M{sub ⊙}, hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R{sub ⊙}.

  7. Association of stressful life events with accelerated bone loss in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Howard A.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Cauley, Jane A.; Taylor, Brent C.; Schousboe, John T.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Introduction Prior studies suggest that stressful life events may increase adverse health outcomes, including falls and possibly fractures. The current study builds on these findings and examines whether stressful life events are associated with increased bone loss. Methods 4388 men aged ≥65 years in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study completed total hip bone mineral density (BMD) measures at baseline and visit 2, approximately 4.6 years later, and self-reported stressful life events data mid-way between baseline and visit 2, and at visit 2. We used linear regression to model the association of stressful life events with concurrent annualized total hip BMD loss, and log binomial regression or Poisson regression to model risk of concurrent accelerated BMD loss (>1 SD more than mean annualized change). Results 75.3% of men reported ≥1 type of stressful life event, including 43.3% with ≥2 types of stressful life events. Mean annualized BMD loss was −0.36% (SD 0.88) and 13.9% of men were categorized with accelerated BMD loss (about 5.7% or more total loss). Rate of annualized BMD loss increased with the number of types of stressful life events after adjustment for age (pstressful life events (RR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04–1.16]) per increase of 1 type of stressful life event). Fracture risk was not significantly different between stressful life event-accelerated bone loss subgroups (p=0.08). Conclusions In these older men, stressful life events were associated with a small, dose-related increase in risk of concurrent accelerated hip bone loss. Low frequency of fractures limited assessment of whether rapid bone loss mediates any association of stressful life events with incident fractures. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and to investigate the mechanism that may underlie this association. PMID:25169421

  8. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges...... at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals....

  9. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  10. The fluctuation theory of the stellar mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that fluctuations in the mass flow are as significant as the very existence of the flow has led to the development of a fluctuation theory of the stellar mass loss. A general theory for fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems - and such are stellar atmospheres - was developed long ago. In developing the general theory to a specific stellar theory, however, the arguments have not come up in their logical order. The present sketch of this theory improves on that order and is offered as a framework for further study. (Auth.)

  11. The Frasnian-Famennian mass killing event(s), methods of identification and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldsetzer, H. H. J.

    1988-01-01

    The absence of an abnormally high number of earlier Devonian taxa from Famennian sediments was repeatedly documented and can hardly be questioned. Primary recognition of the event(s) was based on paleontological data, especially common macrofossils. Most paleontologists place the disappearance of these common forms at the gigas/triangularis contact and this boundary was recently proposed as the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) boundary. Not unexpectedly, alternate F-F positions were suggested caused by temporary Frasnian survivors or sudden post-event radiations of new forms. Secondary supporting evidence for mass killing event(s) is supplied by trace element and stable isotope geochemistry but not with the same success as for the K/T boundary, probably due to additional 300 ma of tectonic and diagenetic overprinting. Another tool is microfacies analysis which is surprisingly rarely used even though it can explain geochemical anomalies or paleontological overlap not detectable by conventional macrofacies analysis. The combination of microfacies analysis and geochemistry was applied at two F-F sections in western Canada and showed how interdependent the two methods are. Additional F-F sections from western Canada, western United States, France, Germany and Australia were sampled or re-sampled and await geochemical/microfacies evaluation.

  12. Event-by-Event Hydrodynamics+Jet Energy Loss: A Solution to the R_{AA}⊗v_{2} Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Betz, Barbara; Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2016-06-24

    High p_{T}>10  GeV elliptic flow, which is experimentally measured via the correlation between soft and hard hadrons, receives competing contributions from event-by-event fluctuations of the low-p_{T} elliptic flow and event-plane angle fluctuations in the soft sector. In this Letter, a proper account of these event-by-event fluctuations in the soft sector, modeled via viscous hydrodynamics, is combined with a jet-energy-loss model to reveal that the positive contribution from low-p_{T} v_{2} fluctuations overwhelms the negative contributions from event-plane fluctuations. This leads to an enhancement of high-p_{T}>10  GeV elliptic flow in comparison to previous calculations and provides a natural solution to the decade-long high-p_{T} R_{AA}⊗v_{2} puzzle. We also present the first theoretical calculation of high-p_{T} v_{3}, which is shown to be compatible with current LHC data. Furthermore, we discuss how short-wavelength jet-medium physics can be deconvoluted from the physics of soft, bulk event-by-event flow observables using event-shape engineering techniques.

  13. Developing Public Health Initiatives through Understanding Motivations of the Audience at Mass-Gathering Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Ranse, Jamie; Munn, Matthew Brendan

    2018-04-01

    This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population. A lot of these will depend on what the risks/hazards are with the particular populations in order to "target" them with public health interventions. Audience motivations tell the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services about the types of behaviors they should expect from the audience and how this may affect their health while at the event. Through these understandings, health promotion and event safety messages can be developed for a particular type of mass-gathering event based on the likely composition of the audience in attendance. Health promotion and providing public information should be at the core of any mass-gathering event to minimize public health risk and to provide opportunities for the promotion of healthy behaviors in the local population. Audience motivations are a key element to identify and agree on what public health information is needed for the event audience. A more developed understanding of audience behavior provides critical information for event planners, event risk managers, and Emergency Medical Services personnel to better predict and plan to minimize risk and reduce patient presentations at events. Mass-gathering event organizers and designers intend their events to be positive experiences and to have meaning for those who attend. Therefore, continual vigilance to improve public health effectiveness and efficiency can become best practice at events

  14. Plant litter functional diversity effects on litter mass loss depend on the macro-detritivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoine, Guillaume; Thakur, Madhav P; Friese, Julia; Nock, Charles; Hönig, Lydia; Haase, Josephine; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity. We used 24 leaf mixtures differing in functional diversity, which were composed of litter from four species from a pool of 16 common European tree species. Earthworms, isopods, or a combination of both were added to each litter combination for two months. Litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms than in that of isopods, whereas no synergistic effects of macro-detritivore mixtures were found. The effect of functional diversity of the litter material was highest in the presence of both macro-detritivore groups, supporting the notion that litter diversity effects are most pronounced in the presence of different detritivore species. Species-specific litter mass loss was explained by nutrient content, secondary compound concentration, and structural components. Moreover, dissimilarity in N concentrations increased litter mass loss, probably because detritivores having access to nutritionally diverse food sources. Furthermore, strong competition between the two macro-detritivores for soil surface litter resulted in a decrease of survival of both macro-detritivores. These results show that the effects of litter functional diversity on decomposition are contingent upon the macro-detritivore community and composition. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of litter trait diversity effects and their interaction with

  15. [Mass gatherings: a systematic review of the literature on large events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente Nieto, Pedro; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Ramos, José M

    2017-07-01

    We reviewed the literature on mass gatherings published worldwide to determine event types and topics or epidemiologic aspects covered. Articles using the term mass gatherings indexed in the Scopus database between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Of the 518 returned, we selected 96 with relevant information. The main event types studied were related to sports (46%), music (25%) or religious/social content (23%), and the most commonly studied locations were the United States (n=21), the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (n=17), Australia (n=11), and the United Kingdom (n=10). The four most often studied events were the Hajj (n=17), the Olympic games (n=13), World Youth Day (n=8), and the FIFA World Cup (n=6). The main topics studied were models of health care (n=55), health care evaluation by means of rates of patients presenting for care or transferred to hospitals (n=21), respiratory pathogens (n=18), syndromic surveillance (n=10), and the global spread of diseases (n=10). Mass gatherings are an emerging area of study addressed by various medical specialties that have focused on studying the health care models used at such events. Emergency medicine is particularly involved with this research topic.

  16. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya Univsersity, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Nakamoto, T., E-mail: kurokawa@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (≅ 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  17. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, H.; Nakamoto, T.

    2014-01-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (≅ 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  18. Evidence for mass loss at moderate to high velocity in Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.; Marlborough, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of intermediate resolution have been obtained with Copernicus for 12 objects classified as Be or shell stars and for 19 additional early B dwarfs. Some of these spectra show marked asymmetries in certain resonance lines, especially the Si IV doublet at 1400 A, indicating the presence in some cases of outflowing material with maximum velocities of nearly 1000 km/s. Direct evidence for mass loss at these velocities is seen for the first time in dwarf stars as late as B1.5; the only objects later than B0.5 which show this effect are Be or shell stars. Among the stars considered, there is a correlation between the presence of mass-loss effects and projected rotational velocity, suggesting that the ultraviolet flux from B1-B2 dwarfs is sufficient to drive high-velocity stellar winds only if rotational effects reduce the effective gravity near the equator. The mass-loss rate for one of the most active Be stars, 59 Cyg, is crudely estimated to be one billionth or one ten-billionth of a solar mass per year. The data suggest that the extended atmospheres associated with Be-star phenomena may be formed by mass ejection.

  19. Antarctic Mass Loss from GRACE from Space- and Time-Resolved Modeling with Slepian Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F. J.; Harig, C.

    2013-12-01

    The melting of polar ice sheets is a major contributor to global sea-level rise. Antarctica is of particular interest since most of the mass loss has occurred in West Antarctica, however updated glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models and recent mass gains in East Antarctica have reduced the continent-wide integrated decadal trend of mass loss. Here we present a spatially and temporally resolved estimation of the Antarctic ice mass change using Slepian localization functions. With a Slepian basis specifically for Antarctica, the basis functions maximize their energy on the continent and we can project the geopotential fields into a sparse set of orthogonal coefficients. By fitting polynomial functions to the limited basis coefficients we maximize signal-to-noise levels and need not perform smoothing or destriping filters common to other approaches. In addition we determine an empirical noise covariance matrix from the GRACE data to estimate the uncertainty of mass estimation. When applied to large ice sheets, as in our own recent Greenland work, this technique is able to resolve both the overall continental integrated mass trend, as well as the spatial distribution of the mass changes over time. Using CSR-RL05 GRACE data between Jan. 2003 and Jan 2013, we estimate the regional accelerations in mass change for several sub-regions and examine how the spatial pattern of mass has changed. The Amundsen Sea coast of West Antarctica has experienced a large acceleration in mass loss (-26 Gt/yr^2). While mass loss is concentrated near Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, it has also increased along the coast further towards the Ross ice shelf.

  20. Prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Rimiko; Watanabe, Naoko; Oritsu, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function in patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 65 consecutive patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery who were prescribed speech therapy. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as total psoas muscle area assessed via abdominal computed tomography divided by height squared. Cutoff values were 6.36 cm 2 /m 2 for men and 3.92 cm 2 /m 2 for women. The Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) was used to assess the swallowing function. Univariate and ordered logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between skeletal muscle mass loss and dysphagia. The study included 50 men and 15 women (mean age 73 ± 8 y). The mean SMI was 4.72 ± 1.37 cm 2 /m 2 in men and 3.33 ± 1.42 cm 2 /m 2 in women. Skeletal muscle mass loss was found in 53 (82%) patients. Twelve had tracheostomy cannula. Thirteen were non-oral feeding (FILS levels 1-3), 5 were oral food intake and alternative nutrition (levels 4-6), and 47 were oral food intake alone (levels 7-9) at discharge. The FILS at discharge was significantly lower in patients with skeletal muscle mass loss. Ordered logistic regression analysis of swallowing function showed that skeletal muscle mass loss and tracheostomy cannula were associated independently with the FILS at discharge. The prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss is very high, and skeletal muscle mass loss is associated with swallowing function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence for mass loss at moderate to high velocity in Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, T.P. Jr.; Marlborough, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of intermediate resolution have been obtained with Copernicus of 12 objects classified as Be or shell stars, and 19 additional early B dwarfs. Some of these spectra show marked asymmetries in certain resonance lines, especially the Si iv doublet at 1400 A, indicating the presence in some cases of outflowing material with maximum velocities of nearly 1000 km s -1 . Direct evidence for mass loss at these velocities is seen for the first time in dwarf stars as late as B1.5; the only objects later than B0.5 which show this effect are Be or shell stars. Among the stars considered there is a correlation between the presence of mass-loss effects and projected rotational velocity, suggesting that the ultraviolet flux from B1-B2 dwarfs is sufficient to drive high-velocity stellar winds only if rotation effects reduce the effective gravity near the equator. The mass loss rate for one of the most active Be stars, 59 Cyg, is crudely estimated to be 10 -10 --10 -9 M/sub sun/ yr -1 . The data are suggestive that the extended atmospheres associated with Be star phenomena may be formed by mass ejection

  2. Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth “mass extinction” depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the “background” rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing. PMID:26601195

  3. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Barnosky, Anthony D; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M; Palmer, Todd M

    2015-06-01

    The oft-repeated claim that Earth's biota is entering a sixth "mass extinction" depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the "background" rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 100 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing.

  4. A Study of Hypergiant Mass Loss in the Near-To-Mid Infrared: VY CMa, IRC +10420, mu Cep and rho Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Dinesh Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    -06 down to ~1E-06 M_sun / yr. The mo rphology of VY CMa indicates a cooler dust component coincident with the highly asymmetric reflection nebulae seen in the visual and near-IR. The lack of cold dust at greater distances around VY CMa indicates its mass-loss history is limited to the last ~1200 years, with an average rate of 6E-04 M_sun / yr. Two distinct periods are found in the mass-loss history of IRC +10420, with a high rate of 2E-03 M_sun / yr until approximately 2000 yr ago, followed by an order of magnitude decrease in the recent past, with the change indicating its evolution beyond the RSG stage. The new infrared photometry of rho Cas is consistent with emission from the expanding dust shell ejected in its 1946 eruption, with no evidence of newer dust formation from its more recent events.

  5. Modeling the Magnetopause Shadowing Loss during the October 2012 Dropout Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    The relativistic electron flux in Earth's outer radiation belt are observed to drop by orders of magnitude on timescales of a few hours, which is called radiation belt dropouts. Where do the electrons go during the dropouts? This is one of the most important outstanding questions in radiation belt studies. Radiation belt electrons can be lost either by precipitation into the atmosphere or by transport across the magnetopause into interplanetary space. The latter mechanism is called magnetopause shadowing, usually combined with outward radial diffusion of electrons due to the sharp radial gradient it creates. In order to quantify the relative contribution of these two mechanisms to radiation belt dropout, we performed an event study on the October 2012 dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes. First, the precipitating MeV electrons observed by multiple NOAA POES satellites at low altitude did not show evidence of enhanced precipitation during the dropout, which suggested that precipitation was not the dominant loss mechanism for the event. Then, in order to simulate the magnetopause shadowing loss and outward radial diffusion during the dropout, we applied a radial diffusion model with electron lifetimes on the order of electron drift periods outside the last closed drift shell. In addition, realistic and event-specific inputs of radial diffusion coefficients (DLL) and last closed drift shell (LCDS) were implemented in the model. Specifically, we used the new DLL developed by Cunningham [JGR 2016] which were estimated in realistic TS04 [Tsyganenko and Sitnov, JGR 2005] storm time magnetic field model and included physical K (2nd adiabatic invariant) or pitch angle dependence. Event-specific LCDS traced in TS04 model with realistic K dependence was also implemented. Our simulation results showed that these event-specific inputs are critical to explain the electron dropout during the event. The new DLL greatly improved the model performance at low L* regions (L

  6. Convection and mass loss through the chromosphere of Betelgeuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Betelgeuse is well suited for detailed study of the mass loss process in a massive red supergiant. We have engaged in a multi-scale, multi-color study to trace the ejected material from the photosphere to the interstellar medium, and understand its chemical evolution {formation of molecules and dust}. Infrared interferometry already gave us a detailed image of the photosphere, compatible with large convective cells. Adaptive optics spectro-imaging {1.0-2.2 microns} allowed us to detect the presence of the CN molecule and mass loss plume structures up to at least 6 R*. At larger distances, we observed silicate-rich dust in thermal IR {8-20 microns}. From the surface to 100 R*, we therefore have a continuous coverage with multicolor imagery. The chromosphere lies at a key location, between the photosphere and the molecular envelope. As shown by STIS spatially resolved spectroscopy {Lobel & Dupree 2001}, it contains rising and falling gases. Such structure is supported by our 3D modeling of the convection. In order to probe the dynamics of the envelope and its relation to photospheric spots and mass loss plumes, we propose to obtain UV imaging with STIS at 3 epochs to complement our coordinated ground-based effort as well as the earlier HST UV snapshots. We will use this imagery to correlate structures at different radii and temperatures, and to explore the time-scales of evolution. With the support of our 3D models, this information will answer specific questions including deciding between convective and polar explanations for bright spots and plumes. Our infrared imaging observations will be repeated contemporaneously with the requested HST/STIS images.

  7. Failure of hippocampal deactivation during loss events in treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Blair A; Tolomeo, Serenella; Gradin, Victoria; Christmas, David; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by anhedonia, cognitive biases, ruminations, hopelessness and increased anxiety. Blunted responses to rewards have been reported in a number of recent neuroimaging and behavioural studies of major depressive disorder. In contrast, neural responses to aversive events remain an under-studied area. While selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors are often effective in treating major depressive disorder, their mechanism of action remains unclear. Following a series of animal model investigations of depressive illness and serotonergic function, Deakin and Graeff predicted that brain activity in patients with major depressive disorder is associated with an overactive dorsal raphe nucleus with overactive projections to the amygdala, periaqueductal grey and striatum, and an underactive median raphe nucleus with underactive projections to the hippocampus. Here we describe an instrumental loss-avoidance and win-gain reinforcement learning functional magnetic resonance imaging study with 40 patients with highly treatment-resistant major depressive disorder and never-depressed controls. The dorsal raphe nucleus/ periaqueductal grey region of the midbrain and hippocampus were found to be overactive in major depressive disorder during unsuccessful loss-avoidance although the median raphe nucleus was not found to be underactive. Hippocampal overactivity was due to a failure to deactivate during loss events in comparison to controls, and hippocampal over-activity correlated with depression severity, self-report 'hopelessness' and anxiety. Deakin and Graeff argued that the median raphe nucleus normally acts to inhibit consolidation of aversive memories via the hippocampus and this system is underactive in major depressive disorder, facilitating the development of ruminations, while the dorsal raphe nucleus system is engaged by distal cues predictive of threats and is overactive in major depressive disorder. During win events the striatum

  8. SYNTHETIC AGB EVOLUTION .3. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT MASS-LOSS LAWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROENEWEGEN, MAT; DEJONG, T

    In Paper I of this series we presented a model to calculate in a synthetic way the evolution of thermal-pulsing AGB stars. The model was applied to the LMC and values were derived for the minimum core mass for third dredge-up and the dredge-up efficiency. In Paper I mass loss on the AGB was

  9. Factorial structure of complicated grief: associations with loss-related traumatic events and psychosocial impacts of mass conflict amongst West Papuan refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2016-03-01

    Definitions of complicated grief vary across diagnostic systems, being represented as persistent complex bereavement (PCB) in DSM-5 and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the proposed revision of the ICD system. A past study in a high-income country has identified a six-factor structure for complicated grief, but there are no data testing this or any other model across cultures. The present study reports findings from a survey amongst West Papuan refugees (n = 230, response rate = 92 %) residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We applied culturally adapted measures of conflict-related traumatic event (TEs) (drawing specifically on domains of conflict and loss), symptoms of complicated grief adapted and modified to the culture, and a multidimensional psychosocial index of the broader effects of conflict and displacement. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single higher order construct of complicated grief comprising six factors of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal; behavioural change; estrangement from others/impairment; and a novel dimension of confusion/diminished identity. In contrast, our analysis failed to support DSM or ICD models of PCB or PGD. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model revealed that traumatic loss and the sense of injustice each were associated with the unitary construct of complicated grief and its subdomains of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal (exclusive to injustice); and estrangement from others/social impairment (exclusive to TE domain of conflict and loss). Conflict and loss associated with feelings of injustice may be especially pathogenic in generating the anger/negative appraisal component of complicated grief amongst refugees.

  10. Gamma-ray dose rate increase at rainfall events and their air-mass origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2007-01-01

    The environmental γ-ray dose rate and precipitation rates were measured at our institute, in Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. We analyzed 425 rainfall events in which the precipitation rate was over 0.5 mm from April through November during the years 2003 to 2005. Backward trajectories for 5 d starting from 1000 m above Rokkasho at the time of the maximum dose rate in a rainfall event, were calculated by using the HYSPLIT model of the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory. The trajectories for 5 d were classified by visual inspection according to the passage areas; Pacific Ocean, Asian Continent and Japan Islands. The increase of cumulative environmental γ-ray dose during a rainfall event was plotted against the precipitation in the event, and their relationship was separately examined according to the air-mass passage area, i.e. origin of the air-mass. Our results showed that the origin of air-mass was an important factor affecting the increase of environmental γ-ray dose rate by rainfall. (author)

  11. Mass-casualty events at schools: a national preparedness survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Shirm, Steve; Liggin, Rebecca; Aitken, Mary E; Dick, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Recent school shootings and terrorist events have demonstrated the need for well-coordinated planning for school-based mass-casualty events. The objective of this study was to document the preparedness of public schools in the United States for the prevention of and the response to a mass-casualty event. A survey was mailed to 3670 school superintendents of public school districts that were chosen at random from a list of school districts from the National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education in January 2004. A second mailing was sent to nonresponders in May 2004. Descriptive statistics were used for survey variables, and the chi2 test was used to compare urban versus rural preparedness. The response rate was 58.2% (2137 usable surveys returned). Most (86.3%) school superintendents reported having a response plan, but fewer (57.2%) have a plan for prevention. Most (95.6%) have an evacuation plan, but almost one third (30%) had never conducted a drill. Almost one quarter (22.1%) have no disaster plan provisions for children with special health care needs, and one quarter reported having no plans for postdisaster counseling. Almost half (42.8%) had never met with local ambulance officials to discuss emergency planning. Urban school districts were better prepared than rural districts on almost all measures in the survey. There are important deficiencies in school emergency/disaster planning. Rural districts are less well prepared than urban districts. Disaster/mass-casualty preparedness of schools should be improved through coordination of school officials and local medical and emergency officials.

  12. Galactic chemical evolution with main-sequence mass loss and the distribution of F and G dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.; Struck-Marcell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Simple closed galactic chemical-evolution models incorporating early main-sequence stellar mass loss have been developed for disk ages of 5, 10, and 15 Gyr. Relative to models without stellar mass loss, the models are shown to produce a 30-60 percent increase in the present mass ratio of dwarfs to dwarfs plus remnants, and a 200-250 percent increase in the total mass of late F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence at the current disk age. For present disk ages 5 and 10 Gyr, the total mass of mid-F dwarfs remaining on the main sequence is also shown to increase by 90-120 percent. It is concluded that models with main-sequence mass loss have a slightly reduced gas metallicity and slightly increased gas fraction midway through the evolution. 30 references

  13. The evolution of massive stars with mass loss: the H- and the He-burning phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieffi, Alessandro; Limongi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of a massive star to its final fate is strongly modified by the efficient mass loss episodes it experiences during its lifetime. In the following, we will briefly summarize how the H- and the He- burning phases depend on the adopted mass loss rate.

  14. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, J S; Nyengaard, J R; Duruox, M; Brüel, A

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, Pbone mineral density (aBMD, -13%, Pbone volume (BV/TV, -26%, Pbone strength (-12%, Pbone strength was found. In addition, GH partly prevented loss of muscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, P<0.001), and tended to prevent loss of muscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse-induced loss of periosteal BFR/BS at the mid-femur and rectus femoris muscle mass.

  15. Top quark mass measurement in non-tagged lepton + jets events at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellettini, G.; Budagov, Yu.; Chlachidze, G.; Velev, G.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the first CDF-II measurement of the top quark mass in non-tagged sample of lepton + 4 jet events from p anti p collisions at √s=1.96 TeV. The integrated luminosity of the data sample is 193.5 pb -1 . To improve the sample purity a cut at E T >21 GeV was applied on transverse energy of the jets. 39 events were reconstructed as t anti t and fitted as a superposition of top and W + jet events. The signal-constrained fit imposing a signal of 15.5±3.2 events returned a mass M top =179.1± 9.5 10.5 (stat.) ±8.5 (syst.) GeV/c 2 . The unconstrained fit returned M top =177.5± 7.7 9.1 (stat.) ±8.5 (syst.) GeV/c 2

  16. Limited influence of climate change mitigation on short-term glacier mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg; Maussion, Fabien; Champollion, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    Glacier mass loss is a key contributor to sea-level change1,2, slope instability in high-mountain regions3,4 and the changing seasonality and volume of river flow5-7. Understanding the causes, mechanisms and time scales of glacier change is therefore paramount to identifying successful strategies for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we use temperature and precipitation fields from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 output to force a glacier evolution model, quantifying mass responses to future climatic change. We find that contemporary glacier mass is in disequilibrium with the current climate, and 36 ± 8% mass loss is already committed in response to past greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, mitigating future emissions will have only very limited influence on glacier mass change in the twenty-first century. No significant differences between 1.5 and 2 K warming scenarios are detectable in the sea-level contribution of glaciers accumulated within the twenty-first century. In the long-term, however, mitigation will exert strong control, suggesting that ambitious measures are necessary for the long-term preservation of glaciers.

  17. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Van dam, Tonie; Hamilton, Gordon S.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid unloading of ice from the southeastern sector of the Greenland ice sheet between 2001 and 2006 caused an elastic uplift of 35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic-induced volume losses on two nearby outlet glaciers. Volume loss from Helheim Glacier...... between 62N and 66N. Citation: Khan, S. A., J. Wahr, L. A. Stearns, G. S. Hamilton, T. van Dam, K. M. Larson, and O. Francis (2007), Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss....

  18. Time-Course of Muscle Mass Loss, Damage, and Proteolysis in Gastrocnemius following Unloading and Reloading: Implications in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Cabrera, Alba; Lund-Palau, Helena; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background Disuse muscle atrophy is a major comorbidity in patients with chronic diseases including cancer. We sought to explore the kinetics of molecular mechanisms shown to be involved in muscle mass loss throughout time in a mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy and recovery following immobilization. Methods Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle phenotype (fiber type composition and morphometry and muscle structural alterations), proteolysis, contractile proteins, systemic troponin I, and mitochondrial content were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days) of non-invasive hindlimb immobilization (plastic splint, I cohorts) and in those exposed to reloading for different time-points (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R cohorts) following a seven-day period of immobilization. Groups of control animals were also used. Results Compared to non-exposed controls, muscle weight, limb strength, slow- and fast-twitch cross-sectional areas, mtDNA/nDNA, and myosin content were decreased in mice of I cohorts, whereas tyrosine release, ubiquitin-proteasome activity, muscle injury and systemic troponin I levels were increased. Gastrocnemius reloading following splint removal improved muscle mass loss, strength, fiber atrophy, injury, myosin content, and mtDNA/nDNA, while reducing ubiquitin-proteasome activity and proteolysis. Conclusions A consistent program of molecular and cellular events leading to reduced gastrocnemius muscle mass and mitochondrial content and reduced strength, enhanced proteolysis, and injury, was seen in this non-invasive mouse model of disuse muscle atrophy. Unloading of the muscle following removal of the splint significantly improved the alterations seen during unloading, characterized by a specific kinetic profile of molecular events involved in muscle regeneration. These findings have implications in patients with chronic diseases including cancer in whom physical activity may be severely compromised. PMID

  19. Containment closure time following the loss of shutdown cooling event of YGN Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Hho Jung

    1999-01-01

    The YGN Units 3 and 4 plant conditions during shutdown operation were reviewed to identify the possible event scenarios following the loss of shutdown cooling (SDC) event. For the five cases of typical reactor coolant system (RCS) configurations under the worst event sequence, such as unavailable secondary cooling and no RCS inventory makeup, the thermal hydraulic analyses were performed using the RELAP5/MOS3.2 code to investigate the plant behavior following the event. The thermal hydraulic analyses include the estimation of time to boil, time to core uncovery, and time to core heat up to determine the containment closure time to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products to atmosphere. The result indicates that the containment closure is recommended to be achieved within 42 minutes after the loss of SDC for the steam generator (SG) inlet plenum manway open case or the large cold leg open case under the worst event sequence. The containment closure time is significantly dependent on the elevation and size of the opening and the SG secondary water level condition. It is also found that the containment closure needs to be initiated before the boiling time to ensure the survivability of the workers in the containment. These results will provide using information to operators to cope with the loss of SDC event. (Author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Effect of mass loss on the chemical yields from massive stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C; Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1979-01-01

    Recent results on the calculation of the chemical yields from massive stars, are rediscussed by taking into account the occurrence of mass loss by stellar wind during the core H- and He-burning phases. The new yields are found to be compatible with the observed distribution of chemical abundances in the solar system, except for He. The net enrichment of several elements over the galaxy's lifetime is found to be consistent with the current estimate of the star formation rate, if we adopt a two phase process of galaxy formation (halodisk). The relative He to heavy element enrichment rate ..delta..Y/..delta..Z turns out to agree with the observational value when mass loss by stellar wind is taken into account.

  1. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  2. An Assessment of Direct and Indirect Economic Losses of Climatic Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Willner, S. N.; Wenz, L.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Risk of extreme weather events like storms, heat extremes, and floods has already risen due to anthropogenic climate change and is likely to increase further under future global warming. Additionally, the structure of the global economy has changed importantly in the last decades. In the process of globalization, local economies have become more and more interwoven forming a complex network. Together with a trend towards lean production, this has resulted in a strong dependency of local manufacturers on global supply and value added chains, which may render the economic network more vulnerable to climatic extremes; outages of local manufacturers trigger indirect losses, which spread along supply chains and can even outstrip direct losses. Accordingly, in a comprehensive climate risk assessment these inter-linkages should be considered. Here, we present acclimate, an agent based dynamic damage propagation model. Its agents are production and consumption sites, which are interlinked by economic flows accounting for the complexity as well as the heterogeneity of the global supply network. Assessing the economic response on the timescale of the adverse event, the model permits to study temporal and spatial evolution of indirect production losses during the disaster and in the subsequent recovery phase of the economy. In this study, we focus on the dynamic economic resilience defined here as the ratio of direct to total losses. This implies that the resilience of the system under consideration is low if the high indirect losses are high. We find and assess a nonlinear dependence of the resilience on the disaster size. Further, we analyze the influence of the network structure upon resilience and discuss the potential of warehousing as an adaptation option.

  3. Mass loss from interacting close binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The three well-defined classes of evolved binary systems that show evidence of present and/or past mass loss are the cataclysmic variables, the Algols, and Wolf-Rayet stars. It is thought that the transformation of supergiant binary systems into the very short-period cataclysmic variables must have been a complex process. The new evidence that has recently been obtained from the far ultraviolet spectra that a certain subclass of the Algols (the Serpentids) are undergoing fairly rapid evolution is discussed. It is thought probable that the remarkable mass outflow observed in them is connected with a strong wind powered by accretion. The origin of the circumbinary clouds or flat disks that probably surround many strongly interacting binaries is not clear. Attention is also given to binary systems with hot white dwarf or subdwarf components, such as the symbiotic objects and the BQ stars; it is noted that in them both components may be prone to an enhanced stellar wind.

  4. Mass loss of evolved massive stars: the circumstellar environment at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montarges, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Mass loss of evolved stars is still largely mysterious, despite its importance as the main evolution engine for the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. For red supergiants (RSG), the triggering of the outflow and the mechanism of dust condensation remain unknown. Concerning red giant stars, we still do not know how their mass loss is able to form a bipolar planetary nebula. During my PhD thesis, I observed evolved stars with high angular resolution techniques. They allowed us to study the surface and the close environment of these stars, from where mass loss originates. With near-infrared interferometric observations, I characterized the water vapor and carbon monoxide envelope of the nearby RSG Betelgeuse. I also monitored a hot spot on its surface and analyzed the structure of its convection, as well as that of Antares (another very nearby supergiant) thanks to radiative hydrodynamical simulations. Diffraction-limited imaging techniques (near-infrared adaptive optics, ultraviolet space telescope) allowed me to observe the evolution of inhomogeneities in the circumstellar envelope of Betelgeuse and to discover a circumstellar disk around L2 Puppis, an asymptotic giant branch star. These multi-scale and multi-wavelength observations obtained at several epochs allowed us to monitor the evolution of the structures and to derive information on the dynamics of the stellar environment. With a wider stellar sample expected in the next few years, this observing program will allow a better understanding of the mass loss of evolved stars. (author)

  5. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodpaster, Bret H; Park, Seok Won; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Nevitt, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major determinant of strength loss in aging. However, large-scale longitudinal studies examining the association between the loss of mass and strength in older adults are lacking. METHODS: Three-year changes in muscle mass and strength were

  6. Measurement of the top-quark mass with dilepton events selected using neuroevolution at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shekhar, R; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Whiteson, S; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-04-17

    We report a measurement of the top-quark mass M_{t} in the dilepton decay channel tt[over ] --> bl;{'+} nu_{l};{'}b[over ]l;{-}nu[over ]_{l}. Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top-quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top-quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0 fb;{-1} of pp[over ] collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of M_{t} = 171.2 +/- 2.7(stat) +/- 2.9(syst) GeV / c;{2}.

  7. Measurement of the Top-Quark Mass with Dilepton Events Selected Using Neuroevolution at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Maki, T.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Remortel, N. van; Adelman, J.; Brubaker, E.; Fedorko, W. T.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Kim, Y. K.; Krop, D.; Kwang, S.; Paramonov, A. A.; Schmidt, M. A.; Shiraishi, S.; Shochet, M.; Wolfe, C.; Yang, U. K.

    2009-01-01

    We report a measurement of the top-quark mass M t in the dilepton decay channel tt→bl '+ ν l ' bl - ν l . Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top-quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top-quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0 fb -1 of pp collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of M t =171.2±2.7(stat)±2.9(syst) GeV/c 2

  8. The Roles of Tidal Evolution and Evaporative Mass Loss in the Origin of CoRoT-7 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian; Miller, Neil; Barnes, Rory; Raymond, Sean N.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2010-01-01

    CoRoT-7 b is the first confirmed rocky exoplanet, but, with an orbital semimajor axis of 0.0172 au, its origins may be unlike any rocky planet in our Solar System. In this study, we consider the roles of tidal evolution and evaporative mass loss in CoRoT-7 b's history, which together have modified the planet's mass and orbit. If CoRoT-7 b has always been a rocky body, evaporation may have driven off almost half its original mass, but the mass loss may depend sensitively on the extent of tidal decay of its orbit. As tides caused CoRoT-7 b's orbit to decay, they brought the planet closer to its host star, thereby enhancing the mass loss rate. Such a large mass loss also suggests the possibility that CoRoT-7 b began as a gas giant planet and had its original atmosphere completely evaporated. In this case, we find that CoRoT-7 b's original mass probably did not exceed 200 Earth masses (about two-third of a Jupiter mass). Tides raised on the host star by the planet may have significantly reduced the orbital semimajor axis, perhaps causing the planet to migrate through mean-motion resonances with the other planet in the system, CoRoT-7 c. The coupling between tidal evolution and mass loss may be important not only for CoRoT-7 b but also for other close-in exoplanets, and future studies of mass loss and orbital evolution may provide insight into the origin and fate of close-in planets, both rocky and gaseous.

  9. The Gillette Stadium Experience: A Retrospective Review of Mass Gathering Events From 2010 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Scott A; Maggin, Jeremy; Molloy, Michael S; Baker, Olesya; Sarin, Ritu; Kelleher, Michael; Mont, Kevin; Fajana, Adedeji; Goralnick, Eric

    2018-03-19

    Mass gathering events can substantially impact public safety. Analyzing patient presentation and transport rates at various mass gathering events can help inform staffing models and improve preparedness. A retrospective review of all patients seeking medical attention across a variety of event types at a single venue with a capacity of 68,756 from January 2010 through September 2015. We examined 232 events with a total of 8,260,349 attendees generating 8157 medical contacts. Rates were 10 presentations and 1.6 transports per 10,000 attendees with a non-significant trend towards increased rates in postseason National Football League games. Concerts had significantly higher rates of presentation and transport than all other event types. Presenting concern varied significantly by event type and gender, and transport rate increased predictably with age. For cold weather events, transport rates increased at colder temperatures. Overall, on-site physicians did not impact rates. At a single venue hosting a variety of events across a 6-year period, we demonstrated significant variations in presentation and transport rates. Weather, gender, event type, and age all play important roles. Our analysis, while representative only of our specific venue, may be useful in developing response plans and staffing models for similar mass gathering venues. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 7).

  10. Inflammatory markers and loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Laura A; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether high levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) were associated with the loss of muscle strength or muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons. SUBJECTS: The study included 986 men and

  11. Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1997-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nancy Ellen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. LOOP event frequencies and times required for subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience during calendar years 1997 through 2015. LOOP events during critical operation that do not result in a reactor trip, are not included. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. Emergency diesel generator reliability is also considered (failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour). There is an adverse trend in LOOP durations. The previously reported adverse trend in LOOP frequency was not statistically significant for 2006-2015. Grid-related LOOPs happen predominantly in the summer. Switchyard-centered LOOPs happen predominantly in winter and spring. Plant-centered and weather-related LOOPs do not show statistically significant seasonality. The engineering analysis of LOOP data shows that human errors have been much less frequent since 1997 than in the 1986 -1996 time period.

  12. Treatment of the loss of ultimate heat sink initiating events in the IRSN level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Patricia; Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The total loss of the ultimate heat sink is an initiating event which, even it is mainly of external origin, has been considered in the frame of internal events Level 1 PSA by IRSN. The on-going actions on the development of external hazards PSA and the recent incident of loss of the heat sink induced by the ingress of vegetable matter that occurred in France in 2009 have pointed out the need to improve the modeling of the loss of the heat sink initiating event and sequences to better take into account the fact that this loss may be induced by external hazards and thus affect all the site units. The paper presents the historical steps of the modeling of the total loss of the heat sink, the safety stakes of this modeling, the main assumptions used by IRSN in the associated PSA for the 900 MWe reactors and the results obtained. The total loss of the heat sink was not initially addressed in the safety demonstration of French NPPs. On the basis of the insights of the first probabilistic assessments performed in the 80's, the risks associated to this 'multiple failure situation' turned out to be very significant and design and organisational improvements were implemented on the plants. Reviews of the characterization of external hazards and of their consequences on the installations and French operating feedback have revealed that extreme hazards may induce a total loss of the heat sink. Moreover, the accident that occurred at Fukushima in 2011 has pointed out the risk of such a loss of long duration at all site units in case of extreme hazards. In this context, it seems relevant to further improve the modelling of the total loss of the heat sink by considering the external hazards that may cause this loss. In a first step, IRSN has improved the assumptions and data used in the loss of the heat sink PSA model, in particular by considering that such a loss may affect all the site units. The next challenge will be the deeper analysis of the impact of external hazards on

  13. Measurement of the top quark mass with dilepton events selected using neuroevolution at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; Tsukuba U.; Albrow, M.G.; Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Cantabria U., Santander; Amerio, S.; Padua U.; Amidei, D.; Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; Frascati; Antos, J.; Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report a measurement of the top quark mass M t in the dilepton decay channel t(bar t) to b(ell)(prime) + ν(prime) # ell# (bar b)(ell) - (bar ν) # ell#. Events are selected with a neural network which has been directly optimized for statistical precision in top quark mass using neuroevolution, a technique modeled on biological evolution. The top quark mass is extracted from per-event probability densities that are formed by the convolution of leading order matrix elements and detector resolution functions. The joint probability is the product of the probability densities from 344 candidate events in 2.0 fb -1 of p(bar p) collisions collected with the CDF II detector, yielding a measurement of M t = 171.2 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 2.9(syst.) GeV/c 2

  14. Accelerated ice-sheet mass loss in Antarctica from 18-year satellite laser ranging measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanggen Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the ice-sheet mass balance in Antarctic is very difficult due to complex ice sheet condition and sparse in situ measurements. In this paper, the low-degree gravity field coefficients of up to degree and order 5 derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR measurements are used to determine the ice mass variations in Antarctica for the period 1993–2011. Results show that the ice mass is losing with -36±13 Gt/y in Antarctica, -42±11 Gt/y in the West Antarctica and 6±10 Gt/y in the East Antarctica from 1993 to 2011. The ice mass variations from the SLR 5×5 have a good agreement with the GRACE 5×5, GRACE 5×5 (1&2 and GRACE (60×60 for the entire continent since 2003, but degree 5 from SLR is not sufficient to quantify ice losses in West and East Antarctica, respectively. The rate of ice loss in Antarctica is -28±17 Gt/y for 1993-2002 and -55±17 Gt/y for 2003-2011, indicating significant accelerated ice mass losses since 2003. Furthermore, the results from SLR are comparable with GRACE measurements.

  15. Effect of mass loss on the. beta. Cephei instability strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    In this paper we aim to suggest on a speculative basis that the existence of mass loss by stellar wind in massive stars (M > 10 Msub(sun)) may affect the properties of the ..beta.. Cephei instability strip, and remove some of the difficulties encountered in the interpretation of their pulsation.

  16. Spread of ice mass loss into northwest Greenland observed by GRACE and GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, John; Bevis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from three long-term sites on bedrock adjacent to the ice sheet. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over scales of a few hundred km. The GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice mass loss close to the sites....... The GRACE results can be used to predict crustal uplift, which can be compared with the GPS data. In addition to showing that the northwest ice sheet margin is now losing mass, the uplift results from both the GPS measurements and the GRACE predictions show rapid acceleration in southeast Greenland in late...... 2003, followed by a moderate deceleration in 2006. Because that latter deceleration is weak, southeast Greenland still appears to be losing ice mass at a much higher rate than it was prior to fall 2003. In a more general sense, the analysis described here demonstrates that GPS uplift measurements can...

  17. DUST PRODUCTION AND MASS LOSS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Van Loon, J. Th.

    2011-01-01

    Dust production among post-main-sequence stars is investigated in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) based on infrared photometry and spectroscopy. We identify metallic iron grains as the probable dominant opacity source in these winds. Typical evolutionary timescales of asymptotic giant branch stars suggest the mass-loss rates we report are too high. We suggest that this is because the iron grains are small or elongated and/or that iron condenses more efficiently than at solar metallicity. Comparison to other works suggests metallic iron is observed to be more prevalent toward lower metallicities. The reasons for this are explored, but remain unclear. Meanwhile, the luminosity at which dusty mass loss begins is largely invariant with metallicity, but its presence correlates strongly with long-period variability. This suggests that the winds of low-mass stars have a significant driver that is not radiation pressure, but may be acoustic driving by pulsations.

  18. Effect of mass loss on the driving of g-modes in B supergiant stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godart, Melanie; Noels, Arlette [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Liege (Belgium); Dupret, Marc-Antoine [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, LESIA (France)], E-mail: Helanie.Godart@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: Arlette.Noels@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: ma.dupret@obspm.fr

    2008-10-15

    MOST has detected p and g-modes in the B supergiant star HD163899. Saio et al. (2006) have explained the driving of g-modes in a post main sequence star by the presence of a convective shell which prevents some modes from entering the damping radiative core. We show that this scenario depends on the evolution of the star, with or without mass loss. If the mass loss rate is high enough, the convective shell disappears and all the g-modes are stable.

  19. Effect of mass loss on the driving of g-modes in B supergiant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godart, Melanie; Noels, Arlette; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2008-01-01

    MOST has detected p and g-modes in the B supergiant star HD163899. Saio et al. (2006) have explained the driving of g-modes in a post main sequence star by the presence of a convective shell which prevents some modes from entering the damping radiative core. We show that this scenario depends on the evolution of the star, with or without mass loss. If the mass loss rate is high enough, the convective shell disappears and all the g-modes are stable.

  20. Observations of mass loss from OB and Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this review, three observationally accessible parameters of the winds of OB and Wolf-Rayet stars are discussed: (1) Terminal velocities, (2) Velocity laws, (3) Mass loss rates. In addition, some discussion of the ionisation structure of the winds is included. In general, only the most recent results for OB stars are mentioned. (Auth.)

  1. The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE): Observing Mass Loss on Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Arika; Fleming, Brian; France, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is an NUV spectrograph packaged into a 6U CubeSat, designed to characterize the interaction between exoplanetary atmospheres and their host stars. CUTE will conduct a transit spectroscopy survey, gathering data over multiple transits on more than 12 short-period exoplanets with a range of masses and radii. The instrument will characterize the spectral properties of the transit light curves to atomic and molecular absorption features predicted to exist in the upper atmospheres of these planets, including Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, and OH. The shape and evolution of these spectral light curves will be used to quantify mass loss rates, the stellar drives of that mass loss, and the possible existence of exoplanetary magnetic fiends. This poster presents the science motivation for CUTE, planned observation and data analysis methods, and expected results.

  2. Sharply increased mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Alex S; Moholdt, Geir; Wouters, Bert; Wolken, Gabriel J; Burgess, David O; Sharp, Martin J; Cogley, J Graham; Braun, Carsten; Labine, Claude

    2011-05-19

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are contributing significantly to present rates of sea level rise and will continue to do so over the next century and beyond. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, located off the northwestern shore of Greenland, contains one-third of the global volume of land ice outside the ice sheets, but its contribution to sea-level change remains largely unknown. Here we show that the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has recently lost 61 ± 7 gigatonnes per year (Gt yr(-1)) of ice, contributing 0.17 ± 0.02 mm yr(-1) to sea-level rise. Our estimates are of regional mass changes for the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago referring to the years 2004 to 2009 and are based on three independent approaches: surface mass-budget modelling plus an estimate of ice discharge (SMB+D), repeat satellite laser altimetry (ICESat) and repeat satellite gravimetry (GRACE). All three approaches show consistent and large mass-loss estimates. Between the periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2009, the rate of mass loss sharply increased from 31 ± 8 Gt yr(-1) to 92 ± 12 Gt yr(-1) in direct response to warmer summer temperatures, to which rates of ice loss are highly sensitive (64 ± 14 Gt yr(-1) per 1 K increase). The duration of the study is too short to establish a long-term trend, but for 2007-2009, the increase in the rate of mass loss makes the Canadian Arctic Archipelago the single largest contributor to eustatic sea-level rise outside Greenland and Antarctica.

  3. Measurement of the top quark mass in lepton+jets events with secondary vertex tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Robert Duane [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-02-01

    A measurement of the top quark mass with the matrix element method in the lepton + jets final state in D0 Run II is presented. Events with single isolated energetic charged lepton (electron or muon), exactly four calorimeter jets, and significant missing transverse energy are selected. Probabilities used to discriminate between signal and background are assumed to be proportional to differential cross-sections, calculated using event kinematics and folding in object resolutions and parton distribution functions. The event likelihoods constructed using these probabilities are varied with the top quark mass, m{sub t}, and the jet energy scale, JES, to give the smallest possible combined statistical + JES uncertainty.

  4. Loss of main and auxiliary feedwater event at the Davis-Besse Plant on June 9, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    On June 9, 1985, Toledo Edison Company's Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Plant, located in Ottawa County, Ohio, experienced a partial loss of feedwater while the plant was operating at 90% power. Following a reactor trip, a loss of all feedwater occurred. The event involved a number of equipment malfunctions and extensive operator actions, including operator actions outside the control room. Several operator errors also occurred during the event. This report documents the findings of an NRC Team sent to Davis-Besse by the NRC Executive Director for Operations in conformance with the staff-proposed Incident Investigation Program

  5. Mass loss from red giants - A simple evolutionary model for NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1984-01-01

    NGC 7027 is a young planetary nebula with the remnants of a red giant circumstellar envelope surrounding the central, ionized region. By comparing the outer molecular envelope with the inner ionized material, it is argued that the mass loss rate has decreased by at least a factor of 3, and more probably by about a factor of 10, during the past 1000 years. From this result, it is argued that the luminosity of the central star has also decreased substantially during the same time, consistent with models for the rapid evolution of stars just after they evolve off the asymptotic giant branch. In this picture, the distance to NGC 7027 is less than 1300 pc. NGC 7027 was the last (and best) example of a star where apparently the momentum in the outflowing mass /M(dot)v/ is considerably greater than the momentum in the radiation field (L/c). With the above description of this object, the evidence is now strong that quite often the mass lost from late-type giants is ultimately driven to infinity by radiation pressure on grains. If M(dot)v is as large as L/c for asymptotic branch stars, then it is expected that the total amount of mass lost during this stage of evolution is of the same magnitude as the initial mass of the star, and therefore this mass loss can profoundly affect the star's ultimate fate.

  6. Event sequence quantification for a loss of shutdown cooling accident in the GCFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.; Reilly, J.

    1979-10-01

    A summary is presented of the core-wide sequence of events of a postulated total loss of forced and natural convection decay heat removal in a shutdown Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). It outlines the analytical methods and results for the progression of the accident sequence. This hypothetical accident proceeds in the distinct phases of cladding melting, assembly wall melting and molten steel relocation into the interassembly spacing, and fuel relocation. It identifies the key phenomena of the event sequence and the concerns and mechanisms of both recriticality and recriticality prevention

  7. Numerical analysis of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla heat-treatment: A dynamically detecting method of mass loss during the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Ma, Qing; Mu, Jun; Yi, Songlin; He, Zhengbin

    Eucalyptus particles, lamellas and boards were applied to explore a simply-implemented method with neglected heat and mass transfer to inspect the mass loss during the heat-treatment course. The results revealed that the mass loss of a certain period was theoretically the definite integration of loss rate to time in this period, and a monitoring model for mass loss speed was developed with the particles and validated with the lamellas and boards. The loss rate was correlated to the temperature and temperature-evolving speed in the model which was composed of three functions during different temperature-evolving period. The sample mass loss was calculated in the MATLAB for the lamellas and boards and the model was validated and adjusted based on the difference between the computed results and the practically measured loss values. The error ranges of the new models were -16.30% to 18.35% for wood lamellas and -9.86% to 6.80% for wood boards. This method made it possible to acquire the instantaneous loss value through continuously detecting the wood temperature evolution. This idea could provide a reference for the Eucalyptus heat-treatment to detect the treating course and control the final material characteristics.

  8. Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism during massive weight loss following gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourron, Olivier; Ciangura, Cécile; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Massias, Laurent; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2007-11-01

    Gastric bypass is increasingly used in morbidly obese patients to achieve significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and concurrent improvement in co-morbidities. We report the case of a 53-year-old male patient (141 kg, BMI 50 kg/m2), successfully treated by amiodarone for supraventricular arrythmia, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). 6 months after surgery, he had lost 45% of his preoperative weight (44.8% of weight loss was lean mass) and developed amiodarone-induced subclinical hyperthyroidism. We hypothesize the following sequence of events: weight loss after RYGBP, therefore fat loss, decrease in distribution volume of amiodarone inducing iodine overload and hyperthyroidism, reinforcing weight loss and particularly loss of lean mass. This report emphasizes the importance of careful monitoring of weight and body composition changes after RYGBP. In this situation, checking thyroid status is recommended, especially when there is a history of thyroid disease or potentially toxic thyroid medication.

  9. Loss of mass and performance in skeletal muscle tissue: a continuum model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giantesio Giulia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a continuum hyperelastic model which describes the mechanical response of a skeletal muscle tissue when its strength and mass are reduced by aging. Such a reduction is typical of a geriatric syndrome called sarcopenia. The passive behavior of the material is described by a hyperelastic, polyconvex, transversely isotropic strain energy function, and the activation of the muscle is modeled by the so called active strain approach. The loss of ability of activating of an elder muscle is then obtained by lowering of some percentage the active part of the stress, while the loss of mass is modeled through a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. The obtained stress-strain relations are graphically represented and discussed in order to study some of the effects of sarcopenia.

  10. Atmospheric mass-loss of extrasolar planets orbiting magnetically active host stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Sairam; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Dash, Spandan

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic stellar activity of exoplanet hosts can lead to the production of large amounts of high-energy emission, which irradiates extrasolar planets, located in the immediate vicinity of such stars. This radiation is absorbed in the planets' upper atmospheres, which consequently heat up and evaporate, possibly leading to an irradiation-induced mass-loss. We present a study of the high-energy emission in the four magnetically active planet-bearing host stars, Kepler-63, Kepler-210, WASP-19, and HAT-P-11, based on new XMM-Newton observations. We find that the X-ray luminosities of these stars are rather high with orders of magnitude above the level of the active Sun. The total XUV irradiation of these planets is expected to be stronger than that of well-studied hot Jupiters. Using the estimated XUV luminosities as the energy input to the planetary atmospheres, we obtain upper limits for the total mass- loss in these hot Jupiters.

  11. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Loss of Large Area induced from extreme events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sok Chul; Park, Jong Seuk; Kim, Byung Soon; Jang, Dong Ju; Lee, Seung Woo

    2015-01-01

    USNRC announced several regulatory requirements and guidance documents regarding the event of loss of large area including 10CFR 50.54(hh), Regulatory Guide 1.214 and SRP 19.4. In Korea, consideration of loss of large area has been limitedly taken into account for newly constructing NPPs as voluntary based. In general, it is hardly possible to find available information on methodology and key assumptions for the assessment of LOLA due to 'need to know based approach'. Urgent needs exists for developing country specific regulatory requirements, guidance and evaluation methodology by themselves with the consideration of their own geographical and nuclear safety and security environments. Currently, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) has developed an Extended Damage Mitigation Guideline (EDMG) for APR1400 under contract with foreign consulting company. The submittal guidance NEI 06-12 related to B.5.b Phase 2 and 3 focused on unit-wise mitigation strategy instead of site level mitigation or response strategy. Phase 1 mitigating strategy and guideline for LOLA (Loss of Large Area) provides emphasis on site level arrangement including cooperative networking outside organizations and agile command and control system. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has carried out a pilot in-house research project to develop the methodology and guideline for evaluation of LOLA since 2014. This paper introduces the summary of major results and outcomes of the aforementioned research project. After Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident, the awareness on countering the event of loss of large area induced from extreme man-made hazards or extreme beyond design basis external event. Urgent need exists to develop regulatory guidance for coping with this undesirable situation, which has been out of consideration at existing nuclear safety regulatory framework due to the expectation of rare possibility of occurrence

  12. Equation of Motion of an Interstellar Bussard Ramjet with Radiation and Mass Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly…

  13. The coupling between pulsation and mass loss in massive stars

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Rich

    2007-01-01

    To what extent can pulsational instabilities resolve the mass-loss problem of massive stars? How important is pulsation in structuring and modulating the winds of these stars? What role does pulsation play in redistributing angular momentum in massive stars? Although I cannot offer answers to these questions, I hope at the very least to explain how they come to be asked.

  14. Late Frasnian mass extinction: Conodont event stratigraphy, global changes, and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Charles A.; Ziegler, Willi; Dreesen, Roland; Butler, Jamie L.

    1988-01-01

    Several abrupt changes in conodont biofacies are documented to occur synchronously at six primary control sections across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in Euramerica. These changes occurred within a time-span of only about 100,000 years near the end of the latest Frasnian linguiformis Zone, which is formally named to replace the Uppermost gigas Zone. The conodont-biofacies changes are interpreted to reflect a eustatic rise followed by an abrupt eustatic fall immediately preceding the late Frasnian mass extinction. Two new conodont species are named and described. Ancyrognathus ubiquitus n.sp. is recorded only just below and above the level of late Frasnian extinction and hence is a global marker for that event. Palmatolepispraetriangularis n.sp. is the long-sought Frasnian ancestor of the formerly cryptogenic species, Pa. triangularis, indicator of the earliest Famennian Lower triangularis Zone. The actual extinction event occurred entirely within the Frasnian and is interpreted to have been of brief duration-from as long as 20,000 years to as short as several days. The eustatic rise-and-fall couplet associated with the late Frasnian mass extinction is similar to eustatic couplets associated with the demise of most Frasnian (F2h) reefs worldwide about 1 m.y. earlier and with a latest Famennian mass extinction about 9.5 m.y. later. All these events may be directly or indirectly attributable to extraterrestrial triggering mechanisms. An impact of a small bolide or a near miss of a larger bolide may have caused the earlier demise of Frasnian reefs. An impact of possibly the same larger bolide in the Southern Hemisphere would explain the late Frasnian mass extinction. Global regression during the Famennian probably resulted from Southern-Hemisphere glaciation triggered by the latest Frasnian impact. Glaciation probably was the indirect cause of the latest Famennian mass extinction.

  15. Evidence for Pulsation-Driven Mass Loss from δ Cephei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, M.; Evans, N. R.; Matthews, L. D.; Bono, G.; Barmby, P.; Welch, D. L.; Romaniello, M.; Su, K. Y. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Huelsman, D.

    We found the first direct evidence that the Cepheid class namesake, δ Cephei, is currently losing mass. These observations are based on data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the infrared, and with the Very Large Array in the radio. We found that δ Cephei is associated with a vast circumstellar structure, reminiscent of a bow shock. This structure is created as the wind from the star interacts with the local interstellar medium. We measure an outflow velocity of ≈ 35. 5 km s- 1 and a mass loss rate of ≈ 10- 7-10- 6 M ⊙ year- 1. The very low dust content of the outflow suggests that the wind is possibly pulsation-driven, rather than dust-driven as common for other classes of evolved stars.

  16. [Fatal incidents by crowd crush during mass events. (Un)preventable phenomenon?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Fälker, A; Wenzel, V

    2013-01-01

    Crowd crushes with dozens or even hundreds of casualties have occurred several times at the Hajj in Saudi Arabia and also in soccer stadiums in Western Europe. As fatal accidents after human stampedes during mass events occur very rarely and are usually accompanied by many years of criminal court proceedings in order to identify underlying responsible mechanisms and culprits, it is very difficult to draw conclusions and formulate precautions from an emergency medical point of view. This study analyzed a fatal crowd crush which occurred on 4 December 1999 following the "Air & Style" snowboard contest with approximately 22,000 people attending in the Bergisel stadium in Innsbruck, Austria. Firstly, focused interviews were conducted with professional rescuers, police and physicians and secondly publicly available court records dealing with this incident in the district court of Innsbruck, Austria were analyzed. During the snowboard contest 87 emergency medical technicians, 6 emergency physicians, 1 leading emergency physician, 21 policemen and 140 security personnel were present. Following the accident additionally some 100 emergency medical technicians, 36 emergency medical service vehicles and 4 physician-staffed emergency medical service vehicles responded to the scene. The deadly crowd crush resulting in 6 fatalities, 4 patients still in a vegetative state and 38 injured, was due to a severe crowd accumulation at one stadium exit, which was not recognized and dispersed in time. Construction of the exit in line with darkness, steep slope and slippery surface contributed adversely to this dangerous situation, although panic did not occur at any time. Unfortunately, there is no patent remedy to completely prevent fatal accidents by a crowd crush at mass events. If planning is initiated early, sufficient material and personnel reserves are kept in reserve and despite conflicting interests of the organizers, the host community, security, police and emergency medical

  17. Model independent particle mass measurements in missing energy events at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myeonghun

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation describes several new kinematic methods to measure the masses of new particles in events with missing transverse energy at hadron colliders. Each method relies on the measurement of some feature (a peak or an endpoint) in the distribution of a suitable kinematic variable. The first method makes use of the "Gator" variable s min , whose peak provides a global and fully inclusive measure of the production scale of the new particles. In the early stage of the LHC, this variable can be used both as an estimator and a discriminator for new physics over the standard model backgrounds. The next method studies the invariant mass distributions of the visible decay products from a cascade decay chain and the shapes and endpoints of those distributions. Given a sufficient number of endpoint measurements, one could in principle attempt to invert and solve for the mass spectrum. However, the non-linear character of the relevant coupled quadratic equations often leads to multiple solutions. In addition, there is a combinatorial ambiguity related to the ordering of the decay products from the cascade decay chain. We propose a new set of invariant mass variables which are less sensitive to these problems. We demonstrate how the new particle mass spectrum can be extracted from the measurement of their kinematic endpoints. The remaining methods described in the dissertation are based on "transverse" invariant mass variables like the "Cambridge" transverse mass MT2, the "Sheffield" contrasverse mass MCT and their corresponding one-dimensional projections MT2⊥, M T2||, MCT⊥ , and MCT|| with respect to the upstream transverse momentum U⃗T . The main advantage of all those methods is that they can be applied to very short (single-stage) decay topologies, as well as to a subsystem of the observed event. The methods can also be generalized to the case of non-identical missing particles, as demonstrated in Chapter 7. A complete set of analytical results for the

  18. The Influence of Coronal Mass Ejections on the Mass-loss Rates of Hot-Jupiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherenkov, A.; Bisikalo, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 48 Pyatnitskaya St. 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fossati, L.; Möstl, C., E-mail: bisikalo@inasan.ru [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2017-09-01

    Hot-Jupiters are subject to extreme radiation and plasma flows coming from their host stars. Past ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope observations, supported by hydrodynamic models, confirmed that these factors lead to the formation of an extended envelope, part of which lies beyond the Roche lobe. We use gas-dynamic simulations to study the impact of time variations in the parameters of the stellar wind, namely that of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the envelope of the typical hot-Jupiter HD 209458b. We consider three CMEs characterized by different velocities and densities, taking their parameters from typical CMEs observed for the Sun. The perturbations in the ram-pressure of the stellar wind during the passage of each CME tear off most of the envelope that is located beyond the Roche lobe. This leads to a substantial increase of the mass-loss rates during the interaction with the CME. We find that the mass lost by the planet during the whole crossing of a CME is of ≈10{sup 15} g, regardless of the CME taken into consideration. We also find that over the course of 1 Gyr, the mass lost by the planet because of CME impacts is comparable to that lost because of high-energy stellar irradiation.

  19. Evaluation of a loss of residual heat removal event during mid-loop operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Hho Jung

    1996-01-01

    The potential for the RELAP5/MOD3.2 was assessed for the loss-of -RHR event during the mid-loop operation and the predictability of major thermal-hydraulic phenomena was also evaluated for the long term transient. The analysis results of the typical two cases(cold leg opening case and pressurizer opening case) were compared with experimental data which was conducted at ROSA-IV/LSTF in Japan. As a result, it was shown that the code was capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulic transport process with appropriate time step during the reduced inventory operation with the loss-of-RHR system

  20. The Search for Signatures of Transient Mass Loss in Active Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosley, M.K.; Osten, R.A.; Broderick, J.W.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Rowlinson, A.; Zarka, P.; Norman, C.

    2016-01-01

    The habitability of an exoplanet depends on many factors. One such factor is the impact of stellar eruptive events on nearby exoplanets. Currently this is poorly constrained due to heavy reliance on solar scaling relationships and a lack of experimental evidence. Potential impacts of coronal mass

  1. Compulsory declaration of the loss or theft of property and of serious events: New rules and reminder

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This notification cancels and replaces the notifications published in Bulletins Nos. 13-14/2006 and 28-29/2009 and the update of 18 November 2011.   1.     Definitions "fenced part of the CERN site" means all the different fenced areas used by the Organization, including remote buildings and underground facilities, "serious event" means any event infringing the rules designed to protect people and property (e.g. attacks, threats, acts of sabotage, vandalism).   2.   Internal declarations The loss or theft of property and serious events must be declared internally if they occur: within the fenced part of the CERN site, irrespective of the person and item concerned, outside the fenced part of the CERN site if CERN is the owner or custodian of the item concerned.   3.   Who must make the declaration? In principle, the loss or theft of property and serious events m...

  2. Prehospital Interventions During Mass-Casualty Events in Afghanistan: A Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; April, Michael D; Simon, Erica; Maddry, Joseph K; Carter, Robert; Delorenzo, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    Mass-casualty (MASCAL) events are known to occur in the combat setting. There are very limited data at this time from the Joint Theater (Iraq and Afghanistan) wars specific to MASCAL events. The purpose of this report was to provide preliminary data for the development of prehospital planning and guidelines. Cases were identified using the Department of Defense (DoD; Virginia USA) Trauma Registry (DoDTR) and the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR). These cases were identified as part of a research study evaluating Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines. Cases that were designated as or associated with denoted MASCAL events were included. Data Fifty subjects were identified during the course of this project. Explosives were the most common cause of injuries. There was a wide range of vital signs. Tourniquet placement and pressure dressings were the most common interventions, followed by analgesia administration. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) was the most common parenteral analgesic drug administered. Most were evacuated as "routine." Follow-up data were available for 36 of the subjects and 97% were discharged alive. The most common prehospital interventions were tourniquet and pressure dressing hemorrhage control, along with pain medication administration. Larger data sets are needed to guide development of MASCAL in-theater clinical practice guidelines. Schauer SG , April MD , Simon E , Maddry JK , Carter R III , Delorenzo RA . Prehospital interventions during mass-casualty events in Afghanistan: a case analysis. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):465-468.

  3. Luminosities and mass-loss rates of Local Group AGB stars and red supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Sloan, G. C.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Mass loss is one of the fundamental properties of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and through the enrichment of the interstellar medium, AGB stars are key players in the life cycle of dust and gas in the universe. However, a quantitative understanding of the mass-loss process is still largely lacking. Aims: We aim to investigate mass loss and luminosity in a large sample of evolved stars in several Local Group galaxies with a variety of metalliticies and star-formation histories: the Small and Large Magellanic Cloud, and the Fornax, Carina, and Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Methods: Dust radiative transfer models are presented for 225 carbon stars and 171 oxygen-rich evolved stars in several Local Group galaxies for which spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer are available. The spectra are complemented with available optical and infrared photometry to construct spectral energy distributions. A minimization procedure was used to determine luminosity and mass-loss rate (MLR). Pulsation periods were derived for a large fraction of the sample based on a re-analysis of existing data. Results: New deep K-band photometry from the VMC survey and multi-epoch data from IRAC (at 4.5 μm) and AllWISE and NEOWISE have allowed us to derive pulsation periods longer than 1000 days for some of the most heavily obscured and reddened objects. We derive (dust) MLRs and luminosities for the entire sample. The estimated MLRs can differ significantly from estimates for the same objects in the literature due to differences in adopted optical constants (up to factors of several) and details in the radiative transfer modelling. Updated parameters for the super-AGB candidate MSX SMC 055 (IRAS 00483-7347) are presented. Its current mass is estimated to be 8.5 ± 1.6 M⊙, suggesting an initial mass well above 8 M⊙ in agreement with estimates based on its large Rubidium abundance. Using synthetic photometry, we present and discuss colour-colour and

  4. The kinetic of mass loss of grades A and B of melted TNT by isothermal and non-isothermal gravimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretedal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and activation energy of mass loss of two grades of melted TNT explosive, grade A and grade B, with freezing points of 80.57 and 78.15 °C, respectively, were studied by isothermal and non-isothermal gravimetric methods. In isothermal method, the mass loss of samples in containers of glass and aluminum was followed in temperatures of 80, 90 and 100 °C. The kinetic of the mass loss of the samples in the aluminum container was higher than the kinetic of it in the glass container that can be related to the effects of heat transfer and catalytic of aluminum metal. Also, the presence of impurities in grade B was due to increasing of kinetic of mass loss of it versus grade A. The non-isothermal curves were obtained in range of 30–330 °C at heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 °C⋅min−1. The TG/DTG data were used for determination of activation energy (Ea of mass loss of TNT samples upon degradation by using Ozawa, Kissinger, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS methods as model free methods. The activation energies of grades of A and B of TNT was obtained 99–120 and 66–70 kJ mol−1, respectively. The lower values of activation energy of the degradation reaction of grade B confirm the effect of impurities in the kinetics of mass loss of this grade. Keywords: TNT, Isothermal, Non-isothermal, Kinetic, Mass loss

  5. Relation of air mass history to nucleation events in Po Valley, Italy, using back trajectories analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sogacheva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the transport of air masses to San Pietro Capofiume (SPC in Po Valley, Italy, by means of back trajectories analysis. Our main aim is to investigate whether air masses originate over different regions on nucleation event days and on nonevent days, during three years when nucleation events have been continuously recorded at SPC. The results indicate that nucleation events occur frequently in air masses arriving from Central Europe, whereas event frequency is much lower in the air transported from southern directions and from the Atlantic Ocean. We also analyzed the behaviour of meteorological parameters during 96 h transport to SPC, and found that, on average, event trajectories undergo stronger subsidence during the last 12 h before the arrival at SPC than nonevent trajectories. This causes a reversal in the temperature and relative humidity (RH differences between event and nonevent trajectories: between 96 and 12 h back time, temperature is lower and RH is higher for event than nonevent trajectories and between 12 and 0 h vice versa. Boundary layer mixing is stronger along the event trajectories compared to nonevent trajectories. The absolute humidity (AH is similar for the event and nonevent trajectories between about 96 h and about 60 h back time, but after that, the event trajectories AH becomes lower due to stronger rain. We also studied transport of SO2 to SPC, and conclude that although sources in Po Valley most probably dominate the measured concentrations, certain Central and Eastern European sources also make a substantial contribution.

  6. CNE (Embalse nuclear power plant): probabilistic safety study. Loss of service water. Probabilistic evaluation and analysis through events sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, A.J.; Perez, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    This work is part of a study on the service water systems of the Embalse nuclear power plant from a safety point of view. The faults of service water systems of high and low pressure that can lead to situations threatening the plant safety were analyzed in a previous report. The event 'total loss of low pressure service water' causes the largest number of such conditions. Such event is an operational incident that can lead to an accident situation due to faults in the required process systems or by omission of a procedure. The annual frequency of the event 'total loss of low pressure service water' is calculated. The main contribution comes from pump failure. The evaluation of the accident sequences shows that the most direct way to the liberation of fission products is the loss of steam generators as heat sink. The contributions to small and large LOCA and electric supply loss are analyzed. The sequence that leads to tritium release through boiling of moderator is also evaluated. (Author)

  7. Mass loss and asymmetries in the lines of Iota Coronae Borealis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Recent observations by Smith and Parsons of the Hg--Mn star iota CrB have revealed slight asymmetries in the absorption lines. While these asymmetries are near the limits of detection at the resolution used, their appearance in several lines indicates that they are real. Proposed explanations of this phenomenon are not completely satisfactory. In this Letter it will be shown that the asymmetries are consistent with an accelerating radial flow of material in the photosphere of this star. The velocity needed to reproduce the observed asymmetry corresponds to a mass loss rate of roughly 10 -7 M/sub solar mass/ yr -1

  8. The circumstellar shells and mass loss rates of four M supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernat, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    A reanalysis of the physical structure of the circumstellar gas shells of four bright M supergiants, Betelgeuse, Antares, α Herculis, and μ Cephei, has been undertaken. The observational data include old Hale Observatories plates, recent McDonald Struve telescope plates, and McDonald 2.7 m photoelectric scans. These data are analyzed in the full expanding spherical geometry formulation of the radiative transfer equation.The results of the present analysis indicate that column densities in the gas shells must be revised downward compared with the previous plane-parallel results. However, the physical extents of the shells are considerably larger than previously assumed. These extents are inferred through ionization modeling, Weymann's Ca II technique, and direct observation. Also inferred are schematic wavelength-dependent chromospheric color temperatures. These results lead to much larger mass loss rates (in the range 6.7 x 10 -7 to 4.2 x 10 -4 M/sub sun/ yr -2 ) than previously inferred. The influence of these large rates of mass loss on the evolution of both stars and the Galaxy is briefly discussed

  9. Relationship between oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; García-Anaya, Oswaldo Daniel; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2018-04-09

    Endocrine changes due to menopause have been associated to oxidative stress and muscle mass loss. The study objective was to determine the relationship between both variables in early postmenopause. An exploratory, cross-sectional study was conducted in 107 pre- and postmenopausal women (aged 40-57 years). Levels of serum lipid peroxides and uric acid and enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as total plasma antioxidant capacity were measured as oxidative stress markers. Muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance and muscle strength using dynamometry were also measured. Muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, fat-free mass, and body mass index were calculated. More than 90% of participants were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Postmenopausal women had lower values of muscle mass and strength markers, with a negative correlation between lipid peroxide level and skeletal muscle index (r= -0.326, p<.05), and a positive correlation between uric acid and skeletal muscle index (r=0.295, p<.05). A multivariate model including oxidative stress markers, age, and waist circumference showed lipid peroxide level to be the main contributor to explain the decrease in skeletal muscle mass in postmenopause, since for every 0.1μmol/l increase in lipid peroxide level, skeletal muscle index decreases by 3.03 units. Our findings suggest an association between increased oxidative stress and muscle mass loss in early postmenopause. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of the LEP centre-of-mass energy from Z$\\gamma$ events

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Przysiezniak, H.; Alemany, R.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Grauges, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Morawitz, P.; Pacheco, A.; Park, I.C.; Riu, I.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Boix, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Greening, T.C.; Halley, A.W.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Leroy, O.; Loomis, C.; Maley, P.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I.R.; Tournefier, E.; Wright, A.E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Rensch, B.; Waananen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Machefert, F.; Rouge, A.; Swynghedauw, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Chalmers, M.; Curtis, L.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raeven, B.; Raine, C.; Smith, D.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Ward, J.J.; Buchmuller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Marinelli, N.; Martin, E.B.; Nash, J.; Nowell, J.; Sciaba, A.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Thomson, Evelyn J.; Williams, M.D.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C.K.; Buck, P.G.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Robertson, N.A.; Smizanska, M.; Williams, M.I.; Giehl, I.; Holldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Krocker, M.; Muller, A.S.; Nurnberger, H.A.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Aubert, J.J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Gilardoni, Simone S.; Ragusa, F.; Buescher, Volker; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kado, M.; Lefrancois, J.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; de Viviede Regie, J.B.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Blair, G.A.; Coles, J.; Cowan, G.; Green, M.G.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Jones, L.T.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J.A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Botterill, D.R.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Thompson, J.C.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Faif, G.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Rosowsky, A.; Trabelsi, A.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Kim, H.Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P.N.; Kelly, M.S.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Affholderbach, K.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Misiejuk, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R.W.; Armstrong, S.R.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radiative returns to the Z resonance (Z\\gamma events) are used to determine the LEP2 centre-of-mass energy from the data collected with the ALEPH detector in 1997. The average centre-of-mass energy is measured to be: E_CM = 182.50 +- 0.19 (stat.) +- 0.08 (syst.) GeV in good agreement with the precise determination by the LEP energy working group of 182.652 +- 0.050 GeV. If applied to the measurement of the W mass, its precision translates into a systematic error on M_W which is smaller than the statistical error achieved from the corresponding dataset.

  11. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Murphy, Caoileann H; Longland, Thomas M; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-08-01

    Amino acids are major nutrient regulators of muscle protein turnover. After protein ingestion, hyperaminoacidemia stimulates increased rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis, suppresses muscle protein breakdown, and promotes net muscle protein accretion for several hours. These acute observations form the basis for strategized protein intake to promote lean mass accretion, or prevent lean mass loss over the long term. However, factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are important in mediating the anabolic effects of amino acids on skeletal muscle and must be considered within the context of evaluating the reported efficacy of long-term studies investigating protein supplementation as part of a dietary strategy to promote lean mass accretion and/or prevent lean mass loss. Current research suggests that dietary protein supplementation can augment resistance exercise-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass and strength and can preserve skeletal muscle mass during periods of diet-induced energy restriction. Perhaps less appreciated, protein supplementation can augment resistance training-mediated gains in skeletal muscle mass even in individuals habitually consuming 'adequate' (i.e., >0.8 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) protein. Additionally, overfeeding energy with moderate to high-protein intake (15-25 % protein or 1.8-3.0 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) is associated with lean, but not fat mass accretion, when compared to overfeeding energy with low protein intake (5 % protein or ~0.68 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹). Amino acids represent primary nutrient regulators of skeletal muscle anabolism, capable of enhancing lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating the loss of lean mass during periods of energy deficit, although factors such as protein dose, protein source, and timing of intake are likely important in mediating these effects.

  12. Intermediate mass dimuon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.-G.

    1985-01-01

    We report the observation of 67 dimuon events at the CERN p anti p collider with the UA1 detector. The events will be interpreted in terms of the Drell-Yan mechanism, J/PSI and UPSILON decays and heavy flavour production. (author)

  13. Transfer, loss and physical processing of water in hit-and-run collisions of planetary embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Collisions between large, similar-sized bodies are believed to shape the final characteristics and composition of terrestrial planets. Their inventories of volatiles such as water are either delivered or at least significantly modified by such events. Besides the transition from accretion to erosion with increasing impact velocity, similar-sized collisions can also result in hit-and-run outcomes for sufficiently oblique impact angles and large enough projectile-to-target mass ratios. We study volatile transfer and loss focusing on hit-and-run encounters by means of smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations, including all main parameters: impact velocity, impact angle, mass ratio and also the total colliding mass. We find a broad range of overall water losses, up to 75% in the most energetic hit-and-run events, and confirm the much more severe consequences for the smaller body also for stripping of volatile layers. Transfer of water between projectile and target inventories is found to be mostly rather inefficient, and final water contents are dominated by pre-collision inventories reduced by impact losses, for similar pre-collision water mass fractions. Comparison with our numerical results shows that current collision outcome models are not accurate enough to reliably predict these composition changes in hit-and-run events. To also account for non-mechanical losses, we estimate the amount of collisionally vaporized water over a broad range of masses and find that these contributions are particularly important in collisions of ˜ Mars-sized bodies, with sufficiently high impact energies, but still relatively low gravity. Our results clearly indicate that the cumulative effect of several (hit-and-run) collisions can efficiently strip protoplanets of their volatile layers, especially the smaller body, as it might be common, e.g., for Earth-mass planets in systems with Super-Earths. An accurate model for stripping of volatiles that can be included in future planet

  14. AGB mass-loss variations: What can we learn from (sub)millimetre observations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehaes, S.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Decin, L.; Hony, S.; Raskin, G.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the mass loss of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars undergoes variations on different time scales. We address here the question of the influence of these variations on the spectral energy distribution (SED) of these sources. We therefore constructed models for the

  15. Unusual events regarding losses and finds of radioactive materials in Germany in the years 1991 to 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, I.; Czarwinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany safety related events in the use and transportation of radioactive materials as well as in the operation of accelerators are registered completely. Registration and licensing of radioactive sources and the system of notification of the authorities of unusual events are presented. The analysis of these events demonstrates their causation and allows the conclusion on avoidable errors. Especially events like losses and theft of radioactive materials on the one hand and the finds of such sources in public domain on the other hand are analysed in detail. Conclusions (lessons learned) are drawn. (author)

  16. Accelerated mass loss from Greenland ice sheet : Links to atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Waliser, Duane E.; Lee, Choon-Ki; Tian, Baijun; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; van Angelen, Jan H.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive the mass imbalance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is critical to the accurate projection of its contribution to future sea level rise. Greenland's ice mass loss has been accelerating recently. Using satellite Earth-gravity and regional climate model data,

  17. Jet energy loss in Boson-jet events in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Ran

    2017-01-01

    A typical approach to study the medium produced in heavy ion collisions is to understand the passage of elementary particles through it. As Z bosons and photons do not participate in the strong interaction, their correlation with jets within the same event is a clean probe of the medium-induced energy loss of (predominantly) quark jets. In this analysis, Z+jet and photon+jet correlations are studied using the high statistics PbPb and pp data taken at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector. The evolution of azimuthal angular distributions and average momentum imbalance between the jet and Z or photon as a function of transverse momentum of the color neutral probe will be presented. In addition the jet $I_{AA}$, as a function of photon $p_{T}$ and collision centrality is studied.

  18. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-20

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  19. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  20. Evaluation to Mitigate Secondary System Peak Pressure for Loss of Condenser Vacuum Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bong Oh; Park, Jong Cheol; Park, Min Soo; Lee, Gyu Cheon; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, countermeasures to compensate the increased secondary pressure are introduced and evaluated. From the standpoint of the secondary system pressurization, consideration of the PPCS may result in a conservative secondary system peak pressure. The control systems are generally credited for the safety analysis if the analysis produces conservative results. However, in most of all non-loss of coolant accident (non-LOCA) events, the control system helps to mitigate a transient state. Accordingly, the safety analysis of non-LOCA assumes the control systems are in the manual mode of operation. The loss of condenser vacuum event (LOCV) is a typical anticipated operational occurrence (AOO) which results in an increase in primary and secondary system pressure. The pressurizer (PZR) pressure control system (PPCS) will function to reduce the primary system pressure increase during the transient. Therefore, it is assumed to be in manual mode and credit is not taken for its functioning. However, crediting the function of PPCS has been found to be more conservative with regard to the secondary system pressure. This is due to the delay of the reactor trip on high pressurizer pressure (HPP) and results in an increase in secondary pressure.

  1. Impact of energy loss index on left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Terumasa; Okura, Hiroyuki; Kume, Teruyoshi; Fukuhara, Kenzo; Imai, Koichiro; Hayashida, Akihiro; Neishi, Yoji; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Tanemoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the energy loss index (ELI) has been proposed as a new functional index to assess the severity of aortic stenosis (AS). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the ELI on left ventricular mass (LVM) regression in patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with mechanical valves. A total of 30 patients with severe AS who underwent AVR with mechanical valves was studied. Echocardiography was performed to measure the LVM before AVR (pre-LVM) (n = 30) and repeated 12 months later (post-LVM) (n = 19). The ELI was calculated as [effective orifice area (EOA) × aortic cross sectional area]/(aortic cross sectional area - EOA) divided by the body surface area. The LVM regression rate (%) was calculated as 100 × (post-LVM - pre-LVM)/(pre-LVM). A cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death and heart failure requiring hospitalization. LVM regressed significantly (245.1 ± 84.3 to 173.4 ± 62.6 g, P regression rate negatively correlated with the ELI (R = -0.67, P regression rates (area under the curve = 0.825; P = 0.030). Patients with ELI regression after AVR with mechanical valves. Whether the ELI is a stronger predictor of clinical events than EOAI is still unclear, and further large-scale study is necessary to elucidate the clinical impact of the ELI in patients with AVR.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Adiabatic mass loss in binary stars. II. (Ge+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H.; Webbink, R. F.; Chen, X.; Han, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the limit of extremely rapid mass transfer, the response of a donor star in an interacting binary becomes asymptotically one of adiabatic expansion. We survey here adiabatic mass loss from Population I stars (Z=0.02) of mass 0.10M⊙-100M⊙ from the zero-age main sequence to the base of the giant branch, or to central hydrogen exhaustion for lower main sequence stars. The logarithmic derivatives of radius with respect to mass along adiabatic mass-loss sequences translate into critical mass ratios for runaway (dynamical timescale) mass transfer, evaluated here under the assumption of conservative mass transfer. For intermediate- and high-mass stars, dynamical mass transfer is preceded by an extended phase of thermal timescale mass transfer as the star is stripped of most of its envelope mass. The critical mass ratio qad (throughout this paper, we follow the convention of defining the binary mass ratio as q{equiv}Mdonor/Maccretor) above which this delayed dynamical instability occurs increases with advancing evolutionary age of the donor star, by ever-increasing factors for more massive donors. Most intermediate- or high-mass binaries with nondegenerate accretors probably evolve into contact before manifesting this instability. As they approach the base of the giant branch, however, and begin developing a convective envelope, qad plummets dramatically among intermediate-mass stars, to values of order unity, and a prompt dynamical instability occurs. Among low-mass stars, the prompt instability prevails throughout main sequence evolution, with qad declining with decreasing mass, and asymptotically approaching qad=2/3, appropriate to a classical isentropic n=3/2 polytrope. Our calculated qad values agree well with the behavior of time-dependent models by Chen & Han (2003MNRAS.341..662C) of intermediate-mass stars initiating mass transfer in the Hertzsprung gap. Application of our results to cataclysmic variables, as systems that must be stable against rapid mass

  3. Weight Loss Composition is One-Fourth Fat-Free Mass: A Critical Review and Critique of This Widely Cited Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Cristina Gonzalez, M. C.; Shen, Wei; Redman, Leanne; Thomas, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e., ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ~0.25) with the remaining three-fourths fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relations between FFM, fat mass, and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the “Quarter FFM Rule” used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight, and what is often cited as “Forbes’ Rule”. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as aging, inactivity, and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power, and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic. PMID:24447775

  4. Modelling historical and recent mass loss of McCall Glacier, Alaska, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delcourt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Volume loss of valley glaciers is now considered to be a significant contribution to sea level rise. Understanding and identifying the processes involved in accelerated mass loss are necessary to determine their impact on the global system. Here we present results from a series of model experiments with a higher-order thermomechanically coupled flowline model (Pattyn, 2002. Boundary conditions to the model are parameterizations of surface mass balance, geothermal heating, observed surface and 10 m ice depth temperatures. The time-dependent experiments aim at simulating the glacier retreat from its LIA expansion to present according to different scenarios and model parameters. Model output was validated against measurements of ice velocity, ice surface elevation and terminus position at different stages. Results demonstrate that a key factor in determining the glacier retreat history is the importance of internal accumulation (>50% in the total mass balance. The persistence of a basal temperate zone characteristic for this polythermal glacier depends largely on its contribution. Accelerated glacier retreat since the early nineties seems directly related to the increase in ELA and the sudden reduction in AAR due to the fact that a large lower elevation cirque – previously an important accumulation area – became part of the ablation zone.

  5. Changes in mass loss and chemistry of AG-80 epoxy resin after 160 keV proton irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yu [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)]. E-mail: czq04@yahoo.com.cn; Sun Mingren [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Yang Dezhuang [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); He Shiyu [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Wang Jinhe [Precision Engineering Research Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Xiao Jingdong [Space Materials and Environment Engineering Lab, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Li Zhijun [39th Institute, China Electronic Science and Technology Groups Inc., Xi-an 710065 (China)

    2005-06-01

    The AG-80 resin is a new type of thermosetting matrix for advanced carbon/epoxy composites. Mass loss effect and the related outgassing are major concerns for its application in space. The changes in mass loss, outgassing and chemical structure under 160 keV proton exposure were investigated for the AG-80 epoxy resin. The variation in chemistry was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Experimental results show that with increasing the proton fluence, the surface colour of specimens is getting darker. Mass loss ratios ascend remarkably until the fluence of approximately 5.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, and then tend to leveling off. The surface roughness of specimens exhibits an increasing trend followed by decreasing as a function of proton fluence. Under the exposure, the C-C, C-H, C-N and C-O bonds are broken, a variety of molecule ions with smaller molecule weight are formed, and carbon is enriched in the surface layer of specimens. The changes in mass loss and surface roughness of the AG-80 epoxy resin could be attributed to the formation of the molecule ions and the enrichment of carbon content in the surface layer due to proton radiation.

  6. Using a mass balance to determine the potency loss during the production of a pharmaceutical blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaplow, Michael B

    2010-09-01

    The manufacture of a blend containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inert excipients is a precursor for the production of most pharmaceutical capsules and tablets. However, if there is a net water gain or preferential loss of API during production, the potency of the final drug product may be less than the target value. We use a mass balance to predict the mean potency loss during the production of a blend via wet granulation and fluidized bed drying. The result is an explicit analytical equation for the change in blend potency a function of net water gain, solids losses (both regular and high-potency), and the fraction of excipients added extragranularly. This model predicts that each 1% gain in moisture content (as determined by a loss on drying test) will decrease the API concentration of the final blend at least 1% LC. The effect of pre-blend solid losses increases with their degree of superpotency. This work supports Quality by Design by providing a rational method to set the process design space to minimize blend potency losses. When an overage is necessary, the model can help justify it by providing a quantitative, first-principles understanding of the sources of potency loss. The analysis is applicable to other manufacturing processes where the primary sources of potency loss are net water gain and/or mass losses.

  7. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance: Distribution of Increased Mass Loss with Climate Warming; 2003-07 Versus 1992-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Benner, Anita C.; Beckley, Matthew; Cornejo, Helen G.; DiMarzio, John; Giovinetto, Mario B.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We derive mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) for 2003-07 from ICESat laser altimetry and compare them with results for 1992-2002 from ERS radar and airborne laser altimetry. The GIS continued to grow inland and thin at the margins during 2003 07, but surface melting and accelerated flow significantly increased the marginal thinning compared with the 1990s. The net balance changed from a small loss of 7 plus or minus 3 Gt a 1(sup -1) in the 1990s to 171 plus or minus 4 Gt a (sup -1) for 2003-07, contributing 0.5 mm a(sup -1) to recent global sea-level rise. We divide the derived mass changes into two components: (1) from changes in melting and ice dynamics and (2) from changes in precipitation and accumulation rate. We use our firn compaction model to calculate the elevation changes driven by changes in both temperature and accumulation rate and to calculate the appropriate density to convert the accumulation-driven changes to mass changes. Increased losses from melting and ice dynamics (17-206 Gt a(sup-1) are over seven times larger than increased gains from precipitation (10 35 Gt a(sup-1) during a warming period of approximately 2 K (10 a)(sup -1) over the GIS. Above 2000m elevation, the rate of gain decreased from 44 to 28 Gt a(sup-1), while below 2000m the rate of loss increased from 51 to 198 Gt a(sup-1). Enhanced thinning below the equilibrium line on outlet glaciers indicates that increased melting has a significant impact on outlet glaciers, as well as accelerating ice flow. Increased thinning at higher elevations appears to be induced by dynamic coupling to thinning at the margins on decadal timescales.

  8. An evaluation of the Davis-Besse loss of feedwater event (June 1985) from an accident management perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Salvo, R.; Leonard, M.T.; Wreathall, J.

    1986-01-01

    An accident management perspective is used to analyze events associated with a total loss-of-feedwater at the Davis-Besse nuclear power plant in June 1985. The relationships of accident management to the closely associated concepts of risk management and emergency management are delineated. The analysis shows that the principal contributors to the event's occurrence were shortcomings in risk management. Successful performance by the operators in accident management was principally responsible for terminating the event without consequence to public health

  9. Unusual events regarding losses and finds of radioactive materials in Germany in the years 1991 to 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, I; Czarwinski, R [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In Germany safety related events in the use and transportation of radioactive materials as well as in the operation of accelerators are registered completely. Registration and licensing of radioactive sources and the system of notification of the authorities of unusual events are presented. The analysis of these events demonstrates their causation and allows the conclusion on avoidable errors. Especially events like losses and theft of radioactive materials on the one hand and the finds of such sources in public domain on the other hand are analysed in detail. Conclusions (lessons learned) are drawn. (author) 3 refs, 3 figs

  10. Age-associated bone loss and intraskeletal variability in the Imperial Romans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Helen; Stout, Sam Darrel

    2011-01-01

    An Imperial Roman sample from the Isola Sacra necropolis (100-300 A.D.) offered an opportunity to histologically examine bone loss and intraskeletal variability in an urban archaeological population. Rib and femur samples were analyzed for static indices of bone remodeling and measures of bone mass. The Imperial Romans experienced normal age-associated bone loss via increased intracortical porosity and endosteal expansion, with females exhibiting greater bone loss and bone turnover rates than in males. Life events such as menopause and lactation coupled with cultural attitudes and practices regarding gender and food may have led to increased bone loss in females. Remodeling dynamics differ between the rib and femur and the higher remodeling rates in the rib may be attributed to different effective age of the adult compacta or loading environment. This study demonstrates that combining multiple methodologies to examine bone loss is necessary to shed light on the biocultural factors that influence bone mass and bone loss.

  11. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Nyengaard, J R

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind...... of periosteal BFR/BS (2-fold increase vs. BTX, Pmuscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, Pmuscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse......BMD, -13%, Pmuscle mass (-69%, Pmuscle cell cross sectional area (CSA) (-73%, P

  12. Impact on weight and physical function of intensive medical weight loss in older adults with stage II and III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cook, Miranda; Rushing, Julia; Frain, Annette; Beavers, Kristen; Miller, Gary; Miller, Michael E; Nicklas, Barb

    2016-09-01

    A 6-month pilot trial compared two strategies for weight loss in older adults with body mass indexes (BMIs) ≥35 kg/m(2) to assess weight loss response, safety, and impact on physical function. Twenty-eight volunteers were randomized to a balanced deficit diet (BDD) (500 kcal/day below estimated energy needs) or an intensive, low-calorie, meal replacement diet (ILCD, 960 kcal/day). Behavioral interventions and physical activity prescriptions were similar for both groups. Primary outcomes were changes in body weight and adverse event frequency; secondary outcomes included measures of physical function and body composition. ILCD average weight change was -19.1 ± 2.2 kg or 15.9 ± 4.6% of initial body weight compared with -9.1 ± 2.7 kg or 7.2 ± 1.9% for BDD. ILCD lost more fat mass (-7.7 kg, 95% CI [-11.9 to -3.5]) but had similar loss of lean mass (-1.7 kg, 95% CI [-4.1 to 0.6]) compared with BDD. There were no significant differences in change in physical function or adverse event frequency. Compared with a traditional BDD intervention, older adults who have severe obesity treated with intensive medical weight loss had greater weight loss and decreases in fat mass without a higher frequency of adverse events. In the short term, however, this did not translate into greater improvements in physical function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  13. Cross-section-constrained top-quark mass measurement from dilepton events at the Tevatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; DeCecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyria, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-02-15

    We report the first top-quark mass measurement that uses a cross-section constraint to improve the mass determination. This measurement is made with a dilepton tt event candidate sample collected with the Collider Detector II at Fermilab. From a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.2 fb(-1), we measure a top-quark mass of 170.7(-3.9)(+4.2)(stat)+/-2.6(syst)+/-2.4(theory) GeV/c(2). The measurement without the cross-section constraint is 169.7(-4.9)(+5.2)(stat)+/-3.1(syst) GeV/c(2).

  14. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  15. Resource loss as a predictor of posttrauma symptoms among college women following the mass shooting at Virginia Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Axsom, Danny

    2009-01-01

    We examined risk factors for posttrauma symptomatology, 2 and 6 months following the April 2007 mass shooting at Virginia Tech. Using a conservation of resources framework and a Web-based survey methodology, we prospectively evaluated the relations among preshooting distress, social support, resource loss, and posttrauma symptomatology in a sample of 293 female students enrolled at the university at the time of the shootings. Structural equation modeling supported that preshooting social support and distress predicted resource loss postshooting. Resource loss predicted symptomatology 2 months and 6 months after the shooting. Implications of the results for research and intervention following mass trauma are discussed.

  16. The evolution of low-mass close binary systems. IV. 0.80 M/sub sun/+0.40 M/sub sun/: Catastrophic mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbink, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of both components of a 0.80 M/sub sun/+0.40 M/sub sun/ binary with initial separation 1.60 R/sub sun/ is presented. This system reaches mass transfer during core hydrogen burning in the primary. The primary has such a deep convective envelope that mass transfer proceeds on a dynamical time scale. Mass exchange is followed through the first 6.25 x 10 -3 M/sub sun/, by which time the transfer rate has reached 8.33 x 10 -4 M/sub sun/ yr -1 .It is shown that mass transfer on a dynamical time scale leads to supercritical accretion by the secondary component, and hence is presumably accompanied by extensive mass and angular momentum losses. Stability against such rapid mass transfer may impose severe limitations on the masses and mass ratios of cataclysmic variables

  17. Increase in transmission loss of single panels by addition of mass inclusions to a poro-elastic layer: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidner, M. R. F.; Fuller, C. R.; Gardner, B.

    2006-06-01

    The insertion loss of standard acoustic blankets can be significantly improved at low frequencies by the addition of randomly placed mass inclusions to the poro-elastic layers. The improvement is much greater than that due to the mass effect alone. The mass inclusions act as resonant systems and so increase the structure impedance. This paper reports the results of experimental investigations into this phenomenon. Increases in insertion loss of 15 dB in the 100 Hz third octave band are reported.

  18. On the feasibility of using satellite gravity observations for detecting large-scale solid mass transfer events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peidou, Athina C.; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Pagiatakis, Spiros

    2017-10-01

    The main focus of this paper is to assess the feasibility of utilizing dedicated satellite gravity missions in order to detect large-scale solid mass transfer events (e.g. landslides). Specifically, a sensitivity analysis of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field solutions in conjunction with simulated case studies is employed to predict gravity changes due to past subaerial and submarine mass transfer events, namely the Agulhas slump in southeastern Africa and the Heart Mountain Landslide in northwestern Wyoming. The detectability of these events is evaluated by taking into account the expected noise level in the GRACE gravity field solutions and simulating their impact on the gravity field through forward modelling of the mass transfer. The spectral content of the estimated gravity changes induced by a simulated large-scale landslide event is estimated for the known spatial resolution of the GRACE observations using wavelet multiresolution analysis. The results indicate that both the Agulhas slump and the Heart Mountain Landslide could have been detected by GRACE, resulting in {\\vert }0.4{\\vert } and {\\vert }0.18{\\vert } mGal change on GRACE solutions, respectively. The suggested methodology is further extended to the case studies of the submarine landslide in Tohoku, Japan, and the Grand Banks landslide in Newfoundland, Canada. The detectability of these events using GRACE solutions is assessed through their impact on the gravity field.

  19. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular...... for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here......-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent...

  20. Spatial pattern of mass loss processes across the Greenland Ice Sheet from the Little Ice Age to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    The Greenland Ice Sheet loses mass through surface meltwater runoff and discharge from marine terminating outlet glaciers. The spatial variability and magnitude of these processes have been studied and described in detail for the past decades. Here, we combine the mass loss between the LIA to 2010...... these components are variable between the different sectors of the GrIS, e.g. in the southeast sector of the GrIS we find substantial mass loss, possibly driven by high precipitation rates but also the presence of a large number of marine terminating glaciers. Furthermore many areas currently undergoing changes...

  1. Mass and loss analysis of a space-type radiation cooled insulated DC transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, g.E.

    1986-01-01

    As both the power levels and transmission distances increase such as for large future nuclear power systems, the transmission line becomes an important element in the power chain between the source and load bus. Thus, the transmission line's characteristics must be determined so that the effect of these characteristics on the total power system can be assessed. These design characteristics include the specific mass, percent power loss, size, voltage and power levels, and operating temperatures of the conductor and insulating materials. In a previous paper, the dc transmission line's characteristics of a noninsulated solid cylindrical conductor were determined. In that analysis the expression derived for the transmission line's mass only included the conductor mass and the operating temperature of the line was that of the conductor. In the analysis of this paper, a single layer of insulation is added to the solid cylindrical conductor. In this analysis the dependency of the dc transmission line's mass, loss, and size on the power and voltage levels, conductor and insulation surface temperatures, transmission distance, and conductor and insulation material properties is determined. This analysis can be extended to multi-layers of insulation but the complexity of the analysis increases as the number of layers increase

  2. Mass-gathering Events: The Public Health Challenge of the Kumbh Mela 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Suresh; Cariappa, Mudera P

    2015-12-01

    Mass-gathering (MG) events pose challenges to the most adept of public health practitioners in ensuring the health safety of the population. These MGs can be for sporting events, musical festivals, or more commonly, have religious undertones. The Kumbh Mela 2013 at Allahabad, India may have been the largest gathering of humanity in history with nearly 120 million pilgrims having thronged the venue. The scale of the event posed a challenge to the maintenance of public health security and safety. A snapshot of the experience of managing the hygiene and sanitation aspects of this mega event is presented herein, highlighting the importance of proactive public health planning and preparedness. There having been no outbreaks of disease is vindication of the steps undertaken in planning and preparedness, notwithstanding obvious limitations of unsanitary behaviors and traditional beliefs of those attending the festival. The evident flaw on post-event analyses was the failure to cater adequately for environmental mopping-up operations after the festival. Besides, a system of real-time monitoring of disease and morbidity patterns, harnessing low cost technology alternatives, should be planned for at all such future events.

  3. A data-based model to locate mass movements triggered by seismic events in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future.

  4. HOW THERMAL EVOLUTION AND MASS-LOSS SCULPT POPULATIONS OF SUPER-EARTHS AND SUB-NEPTUNES: APPLICATION TO THE KEPLER-11 SYSTEM AND BEYOND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Miller, Neil; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    We use models of thermal evolution and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) driven mass loss to explore the composition and history of low-mass, low-density transiting planets. We investigate the Kepler-11 system in detail and provide estimates of both the current and past planetary compositions. We find that an H/He envelope on Kepler-11b is highly vulnerable to mass loss. By comparing to formation models, we show that in situ formation of the system is extremely difficult. Instead we propose that it is a water-rich system of sub-Neptunes that migrated from beyond the snow line. For the broader population of observed planets, we show that there is a threshold in bulk planet density and incident flux above which no low-mass transiting planets have been observed. We suggest that this threshold is due to the instability of H/He envelopes to XUV-driven mass loss. Importantly, we find that this mass-loss threshold is well reproduced by our thermal evolution/contraction models that incorporate a standard mass-loss prescription. Treating the planets' contraction history is essential because the planets have significantly larger radii during the early era of high XUV fluxes. Over time low-mass planets with H/He envelopes can be transformed into water-dominated worlds with steam envelopes or rocky super-Earths. Finally, we use this threshold to provide likely minimum masses and radial-velocity amplitudes for the general population of Kepler candidates. Likewise, we use this threshold to provide constraints on the maximum radii of low-mass planets found by radial-velocity surveys.

  5. Mass killings and detection of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Digby J.

    Highly energetic bolide impacts occur and their flux is known. For larger bodies the energy release is greater than for any other short-term global phenomenon. Such impacts produce or release a large variety of shock induced changes including major atmospheric, sedimentologic, seismic and volcanic events. These events must necessarily leave a variety of records in the stratigraphic column, including mass killings resulting in major changes in population density and reduction or extinction of many taxonomic groups, followed by characteristic patterns of faunal and flora replacement. Of these effects, mass killings, marked by large-scale loss of biomass, are the most easily detected evidence in the field but must be manifest on a near-global scale. Such mass killings that appear to be approximately synchronous and involve disappearance of biomass at a bedding plane in many sedimentologically independent sections globally suggest a common cause and probable synchroneity. Mass killings identify an horizon which may be examined for evidence of cause. Geochemical markers may be ephemeral and absence may not be significant. There appears to be no reason why ongoing phenomena such as climate and sea-level changes are primary causes of anomolous episodic events.

  6. Mass loss from the K dwarf in V471 Tauri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.; Bruhweiler, F.; Sion, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spectra of MgII h and k have been obtained for V471 Tau at phases zero (K dwarf in front) and 0.5 (white dwarf in front). At phase zero, strong blueshifted absorption is present, suggestive of a wind from the K dwarf with terminal velocity 600-700 km/sec and mass loss rate at least three orders of magnitude greater than solar. Discrete blue-shifted absorption features occur at velocities of about 200 and 500 km/sec. At phase 0.5, the blueshifted absorption is much weaker, although still detectable

  7. Macroclumping as solution of the discrepancy between Hα and P v mass loss diagnostics for O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šurlan, B.; Hamann, W.-R.; Aret, A.; Kubát, J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Torres, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Recent studies of O-type stars have demonstrated that discrepant mass-loss rates are obtained when different diagnostic methods are employed. Fitting the unsaturated UV resonance lines (e.g., P v) gives drastically lower values than obtained from the Hα emission. Wind inhomogeneity (so-called "clumping") may be the main cause of this discrepancy. Aims: In a previous paper, we presented 3D Monte-Carlo calculations for the formation of scattering lines in a clumped stellar wind. In the present paper we select five O-type supergiants (from O4 to O7) and test whether the reported discrepancies can be resolved this way. Methods: In the first step, the analyses started with simulating the observed spectra with Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) non-LTE model atmospheres. The mass-loss rates are adjusted to fit to the observed Hα emission lines best. For the unsaturated UV resonance lines (i.e., P v) we then applied our 3D Monte-Carlo code, which can account for wind clumps of any optical depths ("macroclumping"), a non-void interclump medium, and a velocity dispersion inside the clumps. The ionization stratifications and underlying photospheric spectra were adopted from the PoWR models. The properties of the wind clumps were constrained by fitting the observed resonance line profiles. Results: Our results show that with the mass-loss rates that fit Hα (and other Balmer and He ii lines), the UV resonance lines (especially the unsaturated doublet of P v) can also be reproduced with no problem when macroclumping is taken into account. There is no need to artificially reduce the mass-loss rates or to assume a subsolar phosphorus abundance or an extremely high clumping factor, unlike what was claimed by other authors. These consistent mass-loss rates are lower by a factor of 1.3 to 2.6, compared to the mass-loss rate recipe from Vink et al. Conclusions: Macroclumping resolves the previously reported discrepancy between Hα and P v mass-loss diagnostics. Based on

  8. Fire spread in chaparral: comparison of data with flame-mass loss relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Thomas H. Fletcher; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; Lulu Sun

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between flame length, mass loss rate, and the Froude number have become well-established for many different fuels over the past 60 years. Chaparral, a mixture of shrub plants from the Mediterranean climate zone of southwestern North America, represents a fuel type—living plants—that has seldom been included in the development of these relationships....

  9. Risk-oriented approach application at planning and orginizing antiepidemic provision of mass events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Efremenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass events tend to become more and more dangerous for population health, as they cause various health risks, including infectious pathologies risks. Our research goal was to work out scientifically grounded approaches to assessing and managing epidemiologic risks as well as analyze their application practices implemented during preparation to the Olympics-2014, the Games themselves, as well as other mass events which took place in 2014–2016. We assessed epidemiologic complications risks with the use of diagnostic test-systems and applying a new technique which allowed for mass events peculiarities. The technique is based on infections ranking as per 3 potential danger categories in accordance with created criteria which represented quantitative and qualitative predictive parameters (predictors. Application of risk-oriented approach and multi-factor analysis allowed us to detect exact possible maximum requirements for providing sanitary-epidemiologic welfare in terms of each separate nosologic form. As we enhanced our laboratory base with test-systems to provide specific indication as per accomplished calculations, it enabled us, on one hand, to secure the required preparations, and, on the other hand, to avoid unnecessary expenditures. To facilitate decision-making process during the Olympics-2014 we used an innovative product, namely, a computer program based on geoinformation system (GIS. It helped us to simplify and to accelerate information exchange within the frameworks of intra- and interdepartmental interaction. "Dynamic epidemiologic threshold" was daily calculated for measles, chickenpox, acute enteric infections and acute respiratory viral infections of various etiology. And if it was exceeded or possibility of "epidemiologic spot" for one or several nosologies occurred, an automatic warning appeared in GIS. Planning prevention activities regarding feral herd infections and zoogenous extremely dangerous infections which were endemic

  10. The evaluation of tissue mass loss in the incision line of prostate with benign hyperplasia performed using holmium laser and cutting electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Mariusz; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Lipiński, Marek Ireneusz; Lipinski, Piotr; Różański, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the changes in the incision line of prostatic adenoma using a monopolar cutting electrode and holmium laser, as well as the assessment of associated tissue mass and volume loss of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The material used in this study consisted of 74 preparations of prostatic adenoma obtained via open retropubic adenomectomy, with an average volume of 120.7 ml. The material obtained cut in vitro before fixation in formaldehyde. One lobe was cut using holmium laser, the other using a monopolar cutting electrode. After the incision was made, tissue mass and volume loss were evaluated. Thermocoagulation changes in the incision line were examinedunder light microscope. In the case of the holmium laser incision, the average tissue mass loss was 1.73 g, tissue volume loss 3.57 ml and the depth of thermocoagulation was 1.17 mm. When the monopolar cutting electrode was used average tissue mass loss was 0.807 g, tissue volume loss 2.48 ml and the depth of thermocoagulation was 0.19 mm. Where holmium laser was used, it was observed that the layer of tissue with thermocoagulation changes was deeper than in the case of the monopolar cutting electrode. Moreover, it was noticed that holmium laser caused bigger tissue mass and volume loss than the cutting electrode.

  11. Brief communication: Post-event analysis of loss of life due to hurricane Harvey

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroy, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, Bas

    2018-01-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life directly caused by hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred directly due to the event. Most of the fatalities occurred in the greater Houston area, which was most severely affected by extreme rainfall and heavy flooding. The majority of fatalities in this area were recovered outside the designated 100 and 500 year flood zones. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles...

  12. Acceptable losses: the debatable origins of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad

    2018-04-16

    It is often claimed that negative events carry a larger weight than positive events. Loss aversion is the manifestation of this argument in monetary outcomes. In this review, we examine early studies of the utility function of gains and losses, and in particular the original evidence for loss aversion reported by Kahneman and Tversky (Econometrica  47:263-291, 1979). We suggest that loss aversion proponents have over-interpreted these findings. Specifically, the early studies of utility functions have shown that while very large losses are overweighted, smaller losses are often not. In addition, the findings of some of these studies have been systematically misrepresented to reflect loss aversion, though they did not find it. These findings shed light both on the inability of modern studies to reproduce loss aversion as well as a second literature arguing strongly for it.

  13. Restructuring of an Event Tree for a Loss of Coolant Accident in a PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Hee; Jang, Seong-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Conventional risk model using PSA (probabilistic Safety Assessment) for a NPP considers two types of accident initiators for internal events, LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and transient event such as Loss of electric power, Loss of cooling, and so on. Traditionally, a LOCA is divided into three initiating event (IE) categories depending on the break size, small, medium, and large LOCA. In each IE group, safety functions or systems modeled in the accident sequences are considered to be applicable regardless of the break size. However, since the safety system or functions are not designed based on a break size, there exist lots of mismatch between safety system/function and an IE, which may make the risk model conservative or in some case optimistic. Present paper proposes new methodology for accident sequence analysis for LOCA. We suggest an integrated single ET construction for LOCA by incorporating a safety system/function and its applicable break spectrum into the ET. Integrated accident sequence analysis in terms of ET for LOCA was proposed in the present paper. Safety function/system can be properly assigned if its applicable range is given by break set point. Also, using simple Boolean algebra with the subset of the break spectrum, final accident sequences are expressed properly in terms of the Boolean multiplication, the occurrence frequency and the success/failure of safety system. The accident sequence results show that the accident sequence is described more detailed compared with the conventional results. Unfortunately, the quantitative results in terms of MCS (minimal Cut-Set) was not given because system fault tree was not constructed for this analysis and the break set points for all 7 point were not given as a specified numerical quantity. Further study may be needed to fix the break set point and to develop system fault tree

  14. Restructuring of an Event Tree for a Loss of Coolant Accident in a PSA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Hee; Jang, Seong-Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Conventional risk model using PSA (probabilistic Safety Assessment) for a NPP considers two types of accident initiators for internal events, LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and transient event such as Loss of electric power, Loss of cooling, and so on. Traditionally, a LOCA is divided into three initiating event (IE) categories depending on the break size, small, medium, and large LOCA. In each IE group, safety functions or systems modeled in the accident sequences are considered to be applicable regardless of the break size. However, since the safety system or functions are not designed based on a break size, there exist lots of mismatch between safety system/function and an IE, which may make the risk model conservative or in some case optimistic. Present paper proposes new methodology for accident sequence analysis for LOCA. We suggest an integrated single ET construction for LOCA by incorporating a safety system/function and its applicable break spectrum into the ET. Integrated accident sequence analysis in terms of ET for LOCA was proposed in the present paper. Safety function/system can be properly assigned if its applicable range is given by break set point. Also, using simple Boolean algebra with the subset of the break spectrum, final accident sequences are expressed properly in terms of the Boolean multiplication, the occurrence frequency and the success/failure of safety system. The accident sequence results show that the accident sequence is described more detailed compared with the conventional results. Unfortunately, the quantitative results in terms of MCS (minimal Cut-Set) was not given because system fault tree was not constructed for this analysis and the break set points for all 7 point were not given as a specified numerical quantity. Further study may be needed to fix the break set point and to develop system fault tree.

  15. Modeling the Magnetopause Shadowing and Drift Orbit Bifurcation Loss during the June 2015 Dropout Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.

    2017-12-01

    The relativistic electron flux in Earth's radiation belt are observed to drop by orders of magnitude on timescale of a few hours. Where do the electrons go during the dropout? This is one of the most important outstanding questions in radiation belt studies. Here we will study the 22 June 2015 dropout event which occurred during one of the largest geomagnetic storms in the last decade. A sudden and nearly complete loss of all the outer zone relativistic and ultra-relativistic electrons were observed after a strong interplanetary shock. The Last Closed Drift Shell (LCDS) calculated using the TS04 model reached as low as L*=3.7 during the shock and stay below L*=4 for 1 hour. The unusually low LCDS values suggest that magnetopause shadowing and the associated outward radial diffusion can contribute significantly to the observed dropout. In addition, Drift Orbit Bifurcation (DOB) has been suggested as an important loss mechanism for radiation belt electrons, especially when the solar wind dynamic pressure is high, but its relative importance has not been quantified. Here, we will model the June 2015 dropout event using a radial diffusion model that includes physical and event-specific inputs. First, we will trace electron drift shells based on TS04 model to identify the LCDS and bifurcation regions as a function of the 2nd adiabatic invariant (K) and time. To model magnetopause shadowing, electron lifetimes in our model will be set to electron drift periods at L*>LCDS. Electron lifetimes inside the bifurcation region have been estimated by Ukhorskiy et al. [JGR 2011, doi:10.1029/2011JA016623] as a function of L* and K, which will also be implemented in the model. This will be the first effort to include the DOB loss in a comprehensive radiation belt model. Furthermore, to realistically simulate outward radial diffusion, the new radial diffusion coefficients that are calculated based on the realistic TS04 model and include physical K dependence [Cunningham, JGR 2016

  16. Large-mass di-jet event recorded by the CMS detector (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This image shows a collision event with the largest-mass jet pair fulfilling all analysis requirements observed so far by the CMS detector in collision data collected in 2015. The mass of the di-jet system is 6.14 TeV. Both jets are reconstructed in the barrel region and have transverse momenta of about 3 TeV each.

  17. EVENT DETECTION USING MOBILE PHONE MASS GPS DATA AND THEIR RELIAVILITY VERIFICATION BY DMSP/OLS NIGHT LIGHT IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a method to detect sudden population concentration on a certain day and area, that is, an “Event,” all over Japan in 2012 using mass GPS data provided from mobile phone users. First, stay locations of all phone users were detected using existing methods. Second, areas and days where Events occurred were detected by aggregation of mass stay locations into 1-km-square grid polygons. Finally, the proposed method could detect Events with an especially large number of visitors in the year by removing the influences of Events that occurred continuously throughout the year. In addition, we demonstrated reasonable reliability of the proposed Event detection method by comparing the results of Event detection with light intensities obtained from the night light images from the DMSP/OLS night light images. Our method can detect not only positive events such as festivals but also negative events such as natural disasters and road accidents. These results are expected to support policy development of urban planning, disaster prevention, and transportation management.

  18. Further properties of high-mass multijet events at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Akimoto, H.; Akopian, A.; Albrow, M.G.; Amendolia, S.R.; Amidei, D.; Antos, J.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Aota, S.; Apollinari, G.; Asakawa, T.; Ashmanskas, W.; Atac, M.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Bagdasarov, S.; Bailey, M.W.; Bao, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Barzi, E.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Benton, D.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Berryhill, J.; Bertolucci, S.; Bhatti, A.; Biery, K.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.E.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bokhari, W.; Bolognesi, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Breccia, L.; Bromberg, C.; Bruner, N.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Cammerata, J.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Castro, A.; Cauz, D.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chang, P.S.; Chang, P.T.; Chao, H.Y.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chikamatsu, T.; Chiou, C.N.; Christofek, L.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Contreras, M.; Conway, J.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Crane, D.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Culbertson, R.; Cunningham, J.D.; Daniels, T.; DeJongh, F.; Delchamps, S.; DellAgnello, S.; DellOrso, M.; Demina, R.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dittmann, J.R.; Donati, S.; Done, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dunn, A.; Eddy, N.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Engels, E. Jr.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Fan, Q.; Fiori, I.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Frautschi, M.; Freeman, J.; Friedman, J.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, T.A.; Fukui, Y.; Funaki, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Galeotti, S.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gay, C.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Gordon, A.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Groer, L.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of high-mass multijet events produced at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider are compared with leading order QCD matrix element predictions, QCD parton shower Monte Carlo predictions, and the predictions from a model in which events are distributed uniformly over the available multibody phase space. Multijet distributions corresponding to (4N-4) variables that span the N-body parameter space are found to be well described by the QCD calculations for inclusive three-jet, four-jet, and five-jet events. The agreement between data, QCD matrix element calculations, and QCD parton shower Monte Carlo predictions suggests that 2→2 scattering plus gluon radiation provides a good first approximation to the full LO QCD matrix element for events with three, four, or even five jets in the final state. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. A Study on the Rate of Events and Water Loss in Water Distribution Network of Azna, Lorstan, Iran during 2008-2014 and Its Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adeli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: One of the problems of water distribution systems is loss of large volumes of water due to the occurrence of various events, which incurs a huge financial loss. Regarding this, the aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of events and water loss in the water distribution system and its related factors in Azna, Lorestan province, Iran, during 2008-2014. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using census method, surveys, and field data collection. The amount of water production and consumption, the volumes of water loss, the number of accidents, type of pipe, pressure zone, as well as the age and length of the pipes recorded during 2008- 2014 were studied and analyzed. Results: According to the results, the highest (34.48% and lowest (20.57% amount of water losses happened in 2008 and 2014, respectively. High pressures in water systems had significant relationship with the number of events as well as the amount of water loss and water consumption. In addition, higher length and age of the pipes had a direct correlation with increased number of events and water loss. Furthermore, the maximum number of events were found to occur in the pipe embranchment and galvanized pipes. Conclusion: This study showed that of events was directly related to the length and age of the pipes, the water pressure, and number of branches. Also water loss quantity can be reduced by applying suitable management techniques in different sections. Furthermore, the water loss can be significantly controlled by taking such measures as reducing the pressure in the high-pressure zones, timely replacement of old and inappropriate pipes, appropriate fixing of the pipes, replacement of the galvanized pipe, and standard implementation of pipes and fittings.

  20. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIver Cassandra M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1.

  1. Do people's goals for mass participation sporting events matter? A self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S J; Sebire, S J

    2017-12-01

    Non-elite mass participation sports events (MPSEs) may hold potential as a physical activity promotion tool. Research into why people participate in these events and what goals they are pursuing is lacking. Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined the associations between MPSE participants' goals, event experiences and physical activity. A prospective cohort study was conducted; pre-event, participants reported their goals for the event. Four weeks post-event, participants reported their motivation for exercise, perceptions of their event achievement and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Bivariate correlations and path analysis were performed on data from 114 adults. Intrinsic goals (e.g. health, skill and social affiliation) for the event were positively associated with perceptions of event achievement, whereas extrinsic goals (e.g. appearance or social recognition) were not. Event achievement was positively associated with post-event autonomous motivation, which in turn was positively associated with MVPA. Pursuing intrinsic but not extrinsic goals for MPSEs is associated with greater perceptions of event achievement, which in turn is associated with post-event autonomous motivation and MVPA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Loss of heterozygosity and carrier identification in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a familiar case with recombination event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca-Mendoza Dora Janeth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD/BMD is an X-linked recessive disease characterizedby muscular weakness. It is caused by mutations on the dystrophin gen. Loss of heterozygosityallows us to identify female carriers of deletions on the dystrophin gen. Objective: identifyfemale carriers in a family with a patient affected by DMD. Material and methods: nine familymembers and the affected child were analyzed using DNA extraction and posterior amplificationof ten STRs on the dystrophin gen. Haplotypes were constructed and the carrier status determinedin two of the six women analyzed due to loss of heterozygosity in three STRs. Additionally, weobserved a recombination event. Conclusions: loss of heterozygosity allows us to establish witha certainty of 100% the carrier status of females with deletions on the dystrophin gen. By theconstruction of haplotypes we were able to identify the X chromosome with the deletion in twoof the six women analyzed. We also determined a recombination event in one of the sisters of theaffected child. These are described with a high frequency (12%. A possible origin for the mutationis a gonadal mosaicism in the maternal grandfather or in the mother of the affected childin a very early stage in embryogensis. This can be concluded using the analysis of haplotypes.

  3. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS, INTEGRATED RED GIANT BRANCH MASS LOSS, AND DUST PRODUCTION IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Whitney, B.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental parameters and time evolution of mass loss are investigated for post-main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104). This is accomplished by fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to existing optical and infrared photometry and spectroscopy, to produce a true Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We confirm the cluster's distance as d = 4611 +213 -200 pc and age as 12 ± 1 Gyr. Horizontal branch models appear to confirm that no more red giant branch mass loss occurs in 47 Tuc than in the more metal-poor ω Centauri, though difficulties arise due to inconsistencies between the models. Using our SEDs, we identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess, finding excess only among the brightest giants: dusty mass loss begins at a luminosity of ∼1000 L sun , becoming ubiquitous above L = 2000 L sun . Recent claims of dust production around lower-luminosity giants cannot be reproduced, despite using the same archival Spitzer imagery.

  4. A Post-Harvest Prediction Mass Loss Model for Tomato Fruit Using A Numerical Methodology Centered on Approximation Error Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Bucio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its nutritional and economic value, the tomato is considered one of the main vegetables in terms of production and consumption in the world. For this reason, an important case study is the fruit maturation parametrized by its mass loss in this study. This process develops in the fruit mainly after harvest. Since that parameter affects the economic value of the crop, the scientific community has been progressively approaching the issue. However, there is no a state-of-the-art practical model allowing the prediction of the tomato fruit mass loss yet. This study proposes a prediction model for tomato mass loss in a continuous and definite time-frame using regression methods. The model is based on a combination of adjustment methods such as least squares polynomial regression leading to error estimation, and cross validation techniques. Experimental results from a 50 fruit of tomato sample studied over a 54 days period were compared to results from the model using a second-order polynomial approach found to provide optimal data fit with a resulting efficiency of ~97%. The model also allows the design of precise logistic strategies centered on post-harvest tomato mass loss prediction usable by producers, distributors, and consumers.

  5. Long-lasting X-ray emission from type IIb supernova 2011dh and mass-loss history of the yellow supergiant progenitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katsuda, Satoru [RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Bamba, Aya [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Terada, Yukikatsu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo 255, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi, E-mail: keiichi.maeda@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2014-04-20

    Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh, with conclusive detection of an unprecedented yellow supergiant (YSG) progenitor, provides an excellent opportunity to deepen our understanding on the massive star evolution in the final centuries toward the SN explosion. In this paper, we report on detection and analyses of thermal X-ray emission from SN IIb 2011dh at ∼500 days after the explosion on Chandra archival data, providing a solidly derived mass-loss rate of a YSG progenitor for the first time. We find that the circumstellar media should be dense, more than that expected from a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star by one order of magnitude. The emission is powered by a reverse shock penetrating into an outer envelope, fully consistent with the YSG progenitor but not with a W-R progenitor. The density distribution at the outermost ejecta is much steeper than that expected from a compact W-R star, and this finding must be taken into account in modeling the early UV/optical emission from SNe IIb. The derived mass-loss rate is ∼3 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for the mass-loss velocity of ∼20 km s{sup –1} in the final ∼1300 yr before the explosion. The derived mass-loss properties are largely consistent with the standard wind mass-loss expected for a giant star. This is not sufficient to be a main driver to expel nearly all the hydrogen envelope. Therefore, the binary interaction, with a huge mass transfer having taken place at ≳ 1300 yr before the explosion, is a likely scenario to produce the YSG progenitor.

  6. Investigation of Electron Beam Induced Mass Loss of Embedding Media in the Low Voltage STEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, V.; Hrubanová, Kamila; Nebesářová, J.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, S3 (2014), s. 1270-1271 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : mass loss * mass -thickness measurement * low voltage STEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  7. HRR Upgrade to mass loss calorimeter and modified Schlyter test for FR Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced Heat Release Rate (HRR) methodology has been extended to the Mass Loss Calorimeter (MLC) and the Modified Schlyter flame spread test to evaluate fire retardant effectiveness used on wood based materials. Modifications to MLC include installation of thermopile on the chimney walls to correct systematic errors to the sensible HRR calculations to account for...

  8. Large-mass di-jet event recorded by the CMS detector (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This image shows a collision event with the largest-mass jet pair fulfilling all analysis requirements observed so far by the CMS detector in proton-proton collision data collected in 2016. The mass of the di-jet system is 7.7 TeV. Both jets are reconstructed in the barrel region and each have transverse momenta of over 3 TeV.

  9. Delta progradation in Greenland driven by increasing glacial mass loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Iversen, Lars Lonsmann; Bjork, Anders Anker

    2017-01-01

    imagery. We find that delta progradation was driven by high freshwater runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet coinciding with periods of open water. Progradation was controlled by the local initial environmental conditions (that is, accumulated air temperatures above 0 degrees C per year, freshwater runoff...... of erosion and accretion along the large deltas of the main rivers in the Arctic5-7. Our results improve the understanding of Arctic coastal evolution in a changing climate, and reveal the impacts on coastal areas of increasing ice mass loss and the associated freshwater runoff and lengthening of open-water...

  10. Radio Photosphere and Mass-Loss Envelope of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscy, S. J.; Jura, M.; Reid, M. J.

    2005-06-01

    We have used the VLA to detect emission from the supergiant VY CMa at radio wavelengths and have constructed 3000-4500 K isothermal outer atmospheres constrained by the data. These models produce a radio photosphere at 1.5-2 R*. An extrapolation of the model can account for the observed total mass-loss rate of the star. We also present mid-infrared imaging of the supergiant which suggests that warm dust is extended in the same direction as the near-infrared reflection nebula around VY CMa. The origin of the asymmetries in the outflow remains an unsolved problem.

  11. Asymptotically simple spacetimes and mass loss due to gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    The cosmological constant Λ used to be a freedom in Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR), where one had a proclivity to set it to zero purely for convenience. The signs of Λ or Λ being zero would describe universes with different properties. For instance, the conformal structure of spacetime directly depends on Λ: null infinity ℐ is a spacelike, null, or timelike hypersurface, if Λ > 0, Λ = 0, or Λ 0 in Einstein’s theory of GR. A quantity that depends on the conformal structure of spacetime, especially on the nature of ℐ, is the Bondi mass which in turn dictates the mass loss of an isolated gravitating system due to energy carried away by gravitational waves. This problem of extending the Bondi mass to a universe with Λ > 0 has spawned intense research activity over the past several years. Some aspects include a closer inspection on the conformal properties, working with linearization, attempts using a Hamiltonian formulation based on “linearized” asymptotic symmetries, as well as obtaining the general asymptotic solutions of de Sitter-like spacetimes. We consolidate on the progress thus far from the various approaches that have been undertaken, as well as discuss the current open problems and possible directions in this area.

  12. Understanding Loss Deductions for Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Greene; Michael Jacobson

    1998-01-01

    Forestland owners whose timber has been destroyed may be eligible to take a deduction for the loss on their federal income tax. The loss must be physical in nature and caused by an identifiable event or combination of events that has run its course. There are two types of losses from natural events. Casualty losses are sudden, unexpected, and unusual - as from a fire...

  13. Research issues in preparedness for mass casualty events, disaster, war, and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton Walker, Patricia; Garmon Bibb, Sandra C; Elberson, Karen L

    2005-09-01

    This article provides a perspective on the types of research questions that might be explored and strategies used in relation to disaster,terrorism, and mass casualty events. Research is addressed in the context of three areas of focus: issues related to the health care provider; issues affecting the patient, individual, family, and community; and issues related to the health care system.

  14. Model atmospheres with periodic shocks. [pulsations and mass loss in variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The pulsation of a long-period variable star generates shock waves which dramatically affect the structure of the star's atmosphere and produce conditions that lead to rapid mass loss. Numerical modeling of atmospheres with periodic shocks is being pursued to study the processes involved and the evolutionary consequences for the stars. It is characteristic of these complex dynamical systems that most effects result from the interaction of various time-dependent processes.

  15. The influence of loss and gain of body mass on ovarian activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian activity was studied in 36 dry, Bos taurus cows fed to achieve different rates of body mass loss and gain in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Cows were fed hay to supply either 70% (Treatments 1, 2) or 40% (Treatments. 3,4) of their ME requirements for maintenance until they became anoestrus. Following a 90-day ...

  16. Isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as probes of nucleosynthesis, stellar mass losses and galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Lequeux, J.; Vigroux, L.

    1975-01-01

    Evidences for a 12 C/ 13 C ratio different in the interstellar medium and in the solar system (40 instead of 89) and for a large N/O ratio in the centers of galaxies are reviewed and are explained by an enrichment of the interstellar medium in 13 C and N by mass loss of stars of various masses [fr

  17. Mitigation Measures Following a Loss-of-Residual-Heat-Removal Event During Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-01-01

    The transient following a loss-of-residual-heat-removal event during shutdown was analyzed to determine the containment closure time (CCT) to prevent uncontrolled release of fission products and the gravity-injection path and rate (GIPR) for effective core cooling using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The plant conditions of Yonggwang Units 3 and 4, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) of 2815-MW(thermal) power in Korea, were reviewed, and possible event sequences were identified. From the CCT analysis for the five cases of typical plant configurations, it was estimated for the earliest CCT to be 40 min after the event in a case with a large cold-leg opening and emptied steam generators (SGs). However, the case with water-filled SGs significantly delayed the CCT through the heat removal to the secondary side. From the GIPR analysis for the six possible gravity-injection paths from the refueling water storage tank (RWST), the case with the injection point and opening on the other leg side was estimated to be the most suitable path to avoid core boiling. In addition, from the sensitivity study, it was evaluated for the plant to be capable of providing the core cooling for the long-term transient if nominal RWST water is available. As a result, these analysis methods and results will provide useful information in understanding the plant behavior and preparing the mitigation measures after the event, especially for Combustion Engineering-type PWR plants. However, to directly apply the analysis results to the emergency procedure for such an event, additional case studies are needed for a wide range of operating conditions such as reactor coolant inventory, RWST water temperature, and core decay heat rate

  18. Non-bleached colonies of massive Porites may attract fishes for selective grazing during mass bleaching events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ikeuchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the variation in grazing scar densities between bleached and non-bleached colonies of massive Porites species in Sekisei Lagoon (Okinawa, southwestern Japan during a mass bleaching event in 2016. The grazing scar densities and bleaching susceptibility varied among neighboring colonies of massive Porites spp. However, non-bleached colonies had significantly more surface scars than bleached colonies. One explanation for these variations is that corallivorous fishes may selectively graze on non-bleached, thermally tolerant colonies. This is the first report of a relationship between grazing scars and the bleaching status of massive Porites spp. colonies during a mass bleaching event.

  19. OGLE-2017-BLG-0173Lb: Low-mass-ratio Planet in a “Hollywood” Microlensing Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.-H.; Udalski, A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; KMTNet Collaboration; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE Collaboration; Bryden, G.; Beichman, C.; Calchi Novati, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Jacklin, S.; Penny, M. T.; UKIRT Microlensing Team

    2018-01-01

    We present microlensing planet OGLE-2017-BLG-0173Lb, with planet–host mass ratio of either q≃ 2.5× {10}-5 or q≃ 6.5× {10}-5, the lowest or among the lowest ever detected. The planetary perturbation is strongly detected, Δχ 2 ∼ 10000, because it arises from a bright (therefore, large) source passing over and enveloping the planetary caustic: a so-called “Hollywood” event. The factor ∼2.5 offset in q arises because of a previously unrecognized discrete degeneracy between Hollywood events in which the caustic is fully enveloped and those in which only one flank is enveloped, which we dub “Cannae” and “von Schlieffen,” respectively. This degeneracy is “accidental” in that it arises from gaps in the data. Nevertheless, the fact that it appears in a Δχ 2 = 10000 planetary anomaly is striking. We present a simple formalism to estimate the sensitivity of other Hollywood events to planets and show that they can lead to detections close to, but perhaps not quite reaching, the Earth/Sun mass ratio of 3× {10}-6. This formalism also enables an analytic understanding of the factor ∼2.5 offset in q between the Cannae and von Schlieffen solutions. The Bayesian estimates for the host mass, system distance, and planet–host projected separation are M={0.39}-0.24+0.40 {M}ȯ , {D}L={4.8}-1.8+1.5 {kpc}, and {a}\\perp =3.8+/- 1.6 {au}, respectively. The two estimates of the planet mass are {m}p={3.3}-2.1+3.8 {M}\\oplus and {m}p={8}-6+11 {M}\\oplus . The measured lens-source relative proper motion μ =6 {mas} {{yr}}-1 will permit imaging of the lens in about 15 years or at first light on adaptive-optics imagers on next-generation telescopes. These will allow one to measure the host mass but probably will not be able to resolve the planet–host mass-ratio degeneracy.

  20. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: julien.dron@up.univ-mrs.fr; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF{sub 3}/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L{sup -1}. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  1. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dron, Julien; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF 3 /methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L -1 . Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices

  2. Mass loss of stars on the asymptotic giant branch. Mechanisms, models and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfner, Susanne; Olofsson, Hans

    2018-01-01

    As low- and intermediate-mass stars reach the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), they have developed into intriguing and complex objects that are major players in the cosmic gas/dust cycle. At this stage, their appearance and evolution are strongly affected by a range of dynamical processes. Large-scale convective flows bring newly-formed chemical elements to the stellar surface and, together with pulsations, they trigger shock waves in the extended stellar atmosphere. There, massive outflows of gas and dust have their origin, which enrich the interstellar medium and, eventually, lead to a transformation of the cool luminous giants into white dwarfs. Dust grains forming in the upper atmospheric layers play a critical role in the wind acceleration process, by scattering and absorbing stellar photons and transferring their outward-directed momentum to the surrounding gas through collisions. Recent progress in high-angular-resolution instrumentation, from the visual to the radio regime, is leading to valuable new insights into the complex dynamical atmospheres of AGB stars and their wind-forming regions. Observations are revealing asymmetries and inhomogeneities in the photospheric and dust-forming layers which vary on time-scales of months, as well as more long-lived large-scale structures in the circumstellar envelopes. High-angular-resolution observations indicate at what distances from the stars dust condensation occurs, and they give information on the chemical composition and sizes of dust grains in the close vicinity of cool giants. These are essential constraints for building realistic models of wind acceleration and developing a predictive theory of mass loss for AGB stars, which is a crucial ingredient of stellar and galactic chemical evolution models. At present, it is still not fully possible to model all these phenomena from first principles, and to predict the mass-loss rate based on fundamental stellar parameters only. However, much progress has been made

  3. Systematic review of strategies to manage and allocate scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Pillemer, Francesca; Waxman, Daniel A; Moore, Melinda; Hansen, Cynthia K; Knebel, Ann R; Ricciardi, Richard; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2013-06-01

    Efficient management and allocation of scarce medical resources can improve outcomes for victims of mass casualty events. However, the effectiveness of specific strategies has never been systematically reviewed. We analyze published evidence on strategies to optimize the management and allocation of scarce resources across a wide range of mass casualty event contexts and study designs. Our literature search included MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from 1990 through late 2011. We also searched the gray literature, using the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report and key Web sites. We included both English- and foreign-language articles. We included studies that evaluated strategies used in actual mass casualty events or tested through drills, exercises, or computer simulations. We excluded studies that lacked a comparison group or did not report quantitative outcomes. Data extraction, quality assessment, and strength of evidence ratings were conducted by a single researcher and reviewed by a second; discrepancies were reconciled by the 2 reviewers. Because of heterogeneity in outcome measures, we qualitatively synthesized findings within categories of strategies. From 5,716 potentially relevant citations, 74 studies met inclusion criteria. Strategies included reducing demand for health care services (18 studies), optimizing use of existing resources (50), augmenting existing resources (5), implementing crisis standards of care (5), and multiple categories (4). The evidence was sufficient to form conclusions on 2 strategies, although the strength of evidence was rated as low. First, as a strategy to reduce demand for health care services, points of dispensing can be used to efficiently distribute biological countermeasures after a bioterrorism attack or influenza pandemic, and their organization influences speed of

  4. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red.

  5. Seeking a paleontological signature for mass extinctions caused by flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.; Bush, A. M.; Chang, E. T.; Heim, N. A.; Knope, M. L.; Pruss, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Flood basalt eruptions coincide with numerous extinction events in the fossil record. Increasingly precise absolute age determinations for both the timing of eruption and of species extinctions have strengthened the case for flood basalt eruptions as the single most important trigger for major mass extinction events in the fossil record. However, the extent to which flood basalt eruptions cause a pattern of biotic loss distinctive from extinctions triggered by other geological or biological processes remains an open question. In the absence of diagnostic mapping between geological triggers and biological losses, establishing the identities of causal agents for mass extinctions will continue to depend primarily on evidence for temporal coincidence. Here we use a synoptic database of marine animal genera spanning the Phanerozoic, including times of first and last occurrence, body size, motility, life position, feeding mode, and respiratory physiology to assess whether extinction events temporally associated with flood basalt eruptions exhibit a diagnostic pattern of extinction selectivity. We further ask whether any events not associated with known large igneous provinces nevertheless display extinction patterns suggestive of such a cause. Finally, we ask whether extinction events associated with other primary causes, such as glaciation or bolide impact, are distinguishable from events apparently triggered by flood basalt eruptions on the basis of extinction selectivity patterns

  6. Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss : a comparison of body composition measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Westerterp, K R; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    Estimates of body composition by densitometry were made in 84 apparently healthy subjects (42 men, 42 women) with a mean age of 40 +/- 6 years (mean +/- s.d.), before and after weight loss. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 30.7 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and the achieved weight loss on a 4.2 MJ/day energy

  7. Flow behaviour, suspended sediment transport and transmission losses in a small (sub-bank-full) flow event in an Australian desert stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerley, David; Brown, Kate

    1999-08-01

    The behaviour of a discrete sub-bank-full flow event in a small desert stream in western NSW, Australia, is analysed from direct observation and sediment sampling during the flow event and from later channel surveys. The flow event, the result of an isolated afternoon thunderstorm, had a peak discharge of 9 m3/s at an upstream station. Transmission loss totally consumed the flow over the following 7·6 km. Suspended sediment concentration was highest at the flow front (not the discharge peak) and declined linearly with the log of time since passage of the flow front, regardless of discharge variation. The transmission loss responsible for the waning and eventual cessation of flow occurred at a mean rate of 13.2% per km. This is quite rapid, and is more than twice the corresponding figure for bank-full flows estimated by Dunkerley (1992) on the same stream system. It is proposed that transmission losses in ephemeral streams of the kind studied may be minimized in flows near bank-full stage, and be higher in both sub-bank-full and overbank flows. Factors contributing to enhanced flow loss in the sub-bank-full flow studied included abstractions of flow to pools, scour holes and other low points along the channel, and overflow abstractions into channel filaments that did not rejoin the main flow. On the other hand, losses were curtailed by the shallow depth of banks wetted and by extensive mud drapes that were set down over sand bars and other porous channel materials during the flow. Thus, in contrast with the relatively regular pattern of transmission loss inferred from large floods, losses from low flows exhibit marked spatial variability and depend to a considerable extent on streamwise variations in channel geometry, in addition to the depth and porosity of channel perimeter sediments.

  8. Mass Extinctions and Biosphere-Geosphere Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Daniel; Bowring, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Five times in the past 500 million years, mass extinctions have resulted in the loss of greater than three-fourths of living species. Each of these events is associated with significant environmental change recorded in the carbon-isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks. There are also many such environmental events in the geologic record that are not associated with mass extinctions. What makes them different? Two factors appear important: the size of the environmental perturbation, and the time scale over which it occurs. We show that the natural perturbations of Earth's carbon cycle during the past 500 million years exhibit a characteristic rate of change over two orders of magnitude in time scale. This characteristic rate is consistent with the maximum rate that limits quasistatic (i.e., near steady-state) evolution of the carbon cycle. We identify this rate with marginal stability, and show that mass extinctions occur on the fast, unstable side of the stability boundary. These results suggest that the great extinction events of the geologic past, and potentially a "sixth extinction" associated with modern environmental change, are characterized by common mechanisms of instability.

  9. Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy and Intended Alcohol Consumption During a Mass-Attended Youth Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole

    2018-04-16

    Mass-attended youth events represent a substantial public health challenge due to high levels of alcohol consumption and corresponding high rates of alcohol-related harm. Although previous research has documented the protective effect of high drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) on alcohol consumption in general, there is a lack of research examining the role of DRSE in reducing consumption during mass-attended youth events and the factors associated with DRSE in these contexts. This study aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors that influence DRSE and drinking intentions to inform interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm during mass-attended events. Australian secondary school students (n = 586; 70% female) in their final two years of high school completed an online survey assessing their alcohol consumption intentions for Schoolies, their perceived degree of DRSE, and other individual and environmental factors. Path analysis was used to assess a mediational model examining factors associated with DRSE and alcohol consumption intentions. DRSE was found to be significantly associated with intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies. Specifically, leavers who believed they would not be able to refuse others' offers of alcoholic drinks reported significantly greater alcohol consumption intentions. Results also revealed that DRSE was enhanced in those respondents who believed there would be a variety of non-drinking activities and non-alcoholic beverages available to them during Schoolies. Results suggest the need to increase leavers' confidence in their ability to refuse unwanted alcoholic beverages and highlight the importance of providing celebration options that do not involve alcohol consumption.

  10. Particle Events as a Possible Source of Large Ozone Loss during Magnetic Polarity Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonKoenig, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Jackman, C. H.; Kallenrode, M.-B.; Kuenzi, K. F.; Quack, M.

    2002-01-01

    The energy deposition in the mesosphere and stratosphere during large extraterrestrial charged particle precipitation events has been known for some time to contribute to ozone losses due to the formation of potential ozone destroying species like NO(sub x), and HO(sub x). These impacts have been measured and can be reproduced with chemistry models fairly well. In the recent past, however, even the impact of the largest solar proton events on the total amount of ozone has been small compared to the dynamical variability of ozone, and to the anthropogenic induced impacts like the Antarctic 'ozone hole'. This is due to the shielding effect of the magnetic field. However, there is evidence that the earth's magnetic field may approach a reversal. This could lead to a decrease of magnetic field strength to less than 25% of its usual value over a period of several centuries . We show that with realistic estimates of very large solar proton events, scenarios similar to the Antarctic ozone hole of the 1990s may occur during a magnetic polarity transition.

  11. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  12. Assessing loss event frequencies of smart grid cyber threats: Encoding flexibility into FAIR using Bayesian network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Anhtuan; Chen, Yue; Chai, Kok Keong; Vasenev, Alexandr; Montoya, L.

    Assessing loss event frequencies (LEF) of smart grid cyber threats is essential for planning cost-effective countermeasures. Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR) is a well-known framework that can be applied to consider threats in a structured manner by using look-up tables related to a

  13. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Zoom into the tracking detector. Muon tracks are colored red.

  14. A data base approach for prediction of deforestation-induced mass wasting events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    A major topic of concern in timber management is determining the impact of clear-cutting on slope stability. Deforestation treatments on steep mountain slopes have often resulted in a high frequency of major mass wasting events. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a potentially useful tool for predicting the location of mass wasting sites. With a raster-based GIS, digitally encoded maps of slide hazard parameters can be overlayed and modeled to produce new maps depicting high probability slide areas. The present investigation has the objective to examine the raster-based information system as a tool for predicting the location of the clear-cut mountain slopes which are most likely to experience shallow soil debris avalanches. A literature overview is conducted, taking into account vegetation, roads, precipitation, soil type, slope-angle and aspect, and models predicting mass soil movements. Attention is given to a data base approach and aspects of slide prediction.

  15. ALMA observations of anisotropic dust mass loss in the inner circumstellar environment of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Richards, A. M. S.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Harper, G. M.; Humphreys, E. M.; Kervella, P.; Khouri, T.; Muller, S.

    2015-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, thus allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R⋆ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R⋆) southeast of the star and has a dust mass of at least 2.5 × 10-4 M⊙. It has a dust emissivity spectral index of β = -0.1 at its peak, implying that it is optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of Td ≲ 100 K. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to the peak of this massive dust clump. The other main dust component, VY, is located at the position of the star and contains a total dust mass of 4.0 × 10-5 M⊙. It also contains a weaker dust feature extending over 60 R⋆ to the north with the total component having a typical dust emissivity spectral index of β = 0.7. We find that at least 17% of the dust mass around VY CMa is located in clumps ejected within a more quiescent roughly spherical stellar wind, with a quiescent dust mass loss rate of 5 × 10-6 M⊙yr-1. The anisotropic morphology of the dust indicates a continuous, directed mass loss over a few decades, suggesting that this mass loss cannot be driven by large convection cells alone. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Modeling time to recovery and initiating event frequency for loss of off-site power incidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Hora, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Industry data representing the time to recovery of loss of off-site power at nuclear power plants for 63 incidents caused by plant-centered losses, grid losses, or severe weather losses are fit with exponential, lognormal, gamma and Weibull probability models. A Bayesian analysis is used to compare the adequacy of each of these models and to provide uncertainty bounds on each of the fitted models. A composite model that combines the probability models fitted to each of the three sources of data is presented as a method for predicting the time to recovery of loss of off-site power. The composite model is very general and can be made site specific by making adjustments on the models used, such as might occur due to the type of switchyard configuration or type of grid, and by adjusting the weights on the individual models, such as might occur with weather conditions existing at a particular plant. Adjustments in the composite model are shown for different models used for switchyard configuration and for different weights due to weather. Bayesian approaches are also presented for modeling the frequency of initiating events leading to loss of off-site power. One Bayesian model assumes that all plants share a common incidence rate for loss of off-site power, while the other Bayesian approach models the incidence rate for each plant relative to the incidence rates of all other plants. Combining the Bayesian models for the frequency of the initiating events with the composite Bayesian model for recovery provides the necessary vehicle for a complete model that incorporates uncertainty into a probabilistic risk assessment

  17. Event-Triggered Control for Multiagent Systems with the Problem of Packet Losses and Communication Delays When Using the Second-Order Neighbors’ Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly investigates the event-triggered control for discrete-time multiagent systems with the problem of packet losses and communication delays when both the first-order and the second-order neighbors’ information are used. Event-triggered control laws are adopted so as to reduce the frequency of individual actuation updating under the sampled-data framework for discrete-time agent dynamics. The communication graph is undirected and the loss of data across each communication link occurs at certain probability, which is governed by a Bernoulli process. It is found that the distributed consensus speeds up by using the second-order neighbors’ information when packet losses and communication delays occur. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  18. ALMA Compact Array observations of the Fried Egg nebula: Evidence for large-scale asymmetric mass-loss from the yellow hypergiant IRAS 17163-3907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, S H J; Lagadec, E; Muller, S; Black, J H; Cox, N L J; Galván-Madrid, R; Justtanont, K; Longmore, S; Olofsson, H; Oudmaijer, R D; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Szczerba, R; Vlemmings, W; van Winckel, H; Zijlstra, A

    2017-01-10

    Yellow hypergiants are rare and represent a fast evolutionary stage of massive evolved stars. That evolutionary phase is characterised by a very intense mass loss, the understanding of which is still very limited. Here we report ALMA Compact Array observations of a 50″-mosaic toward the Fried Egg nebula, around one of the few Galactic yellow hypergiants IRAS 17163-3907. The emission from the 12 CO J=2-1 line, H30 α recombination line, and continuum is imaged at a resolution of ~8″, revealing the morphology of the molecular environment around the star. The continuum emission is unresolved and peaks at the position of the star. The radio recombination line H30 α shows unresolved emission at the star, with an approximately gaussian spectrum centered on a velocity of 21±3 km s -1 with a width of 57±6 km s -1 . In contrast, the CO 2-1 emission is complex and decomposes into several components beyond the contamination from interstellar gas in the line of sight. The CO spectrum toward the star is a broad plateau, centered at the systemic velocity of +18 km s -1 and with an expansion velocity of 100±10 km s -1 . Assuming isotropic and constant mass-loss, we estimate a mass-loss rate of 8±1.5 ×10 -5 M ⊙ yr -1 . At a radius of 25″ from the star, we detect CO emission associated with the dust ring previously imaged by Herschel . The kinematics of this ring, however, is not consistent with an expanding shell, but show a velocity gradient of v sys ±20 km s -1 . In addition, we find a puzzling bright feature radially connecting the star to the CO ring, at a velocity of +40 km s -1 relative to the star. This spur feature may trace a unidirectional ejection event from the star. Our ACA observations reveal the complex morphology around IRAS 17163 and illustrate the breakthroughs that ALMA will bring to the field of massive stellar evolution.

  19. Predictors of fat-free mass loss 1 year after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, B; Cataldi, M; Busetto, L; Aiello, M L; Musella, M; Capone, D; Parolisi, S; Policastro, V; Ragozini, G; Belfiore, A

    2018-03-24

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the most frequently performed bariatric surgery interventions because of its safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised on its detrimental effect on patient nutritional state that can ultimately lead to the loss of fat-free mass (FFM). There is interest in identifying predictors for the early identification of patients at risk of this highly unwanted adverse because they could benefit of nutritional preventive interventions. Therefore, we investigated whether anthropometric parameters, body composition or resting energy expenditure (REE) measured before surgery could predict FFM loss 1 year after LSG. Study design was retrospective observational. We retrieved data on body weight, BMI, body composition and REE before and 1 year after LSG from the medical files of 36 patients operated on by LSG at our institutions. Simple regression, the Oldham's method and multilevel analysis were used to identify predictors of FFM loss. Averaged percentage FFM loss 1 year after LSG was 17.0 ± 7.7% with significant differences between sexes (20.8 ± 6.6 in males and 12.2 ± 6.1% in females, p FFM loss was strongly predicted by pre-surgery FFM and this effect persisted also after correcting for the contribution of sex. High FFM values before surgery predict a more severe FFM loss after LSG. This factor could also account for the higher FFM loss in men than in women. Our finding could help in the early identification of patient requiring a nutritional support after LSG.

  20. Evolutionary calculations for planetary nebula nuclei with continuing mass loss and realistic starting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, D.J.; Wood, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Evolutionary calculations for nuclei of planetary nebulae are described. They were made using assumptions regarding mass of the NPN, phase in the He shell flash cycle at which the NPN leaves the AGB, and time variation of the mass loss rate. Comparison of the evolutionary tracks with the observational Harman-Seaton sequence indicates that some recently published NPN luminosities may be too low by a factor of three. Comparison of the calculated timescales with the observed properties of NPN and of white dwarfs provides marginal evidence for the PN ejection being initiated by the helium shell flash itself

  1. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  2. Method for the elucidation of the elemental composition of low molecular mass chemicals using exact masses of product ions and neutral losses: application to environmental chemicals measured by liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Ishii, Tetsuko; Yasuhara, Akio; Sakai, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    A method for elucidating the elemental compositions of low molecular weight chemicals, based primarily on mass measurements made using liquid chromatography (LC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOFMS), was developed and tested for 113 chemicals of environmental interest with molecular masses up to approximately 400 Da. As the algorithm incorporating the method is not affected by differences in the instrument used, or by the ionization method and other ionization conditions, the method is useful not only for LC/TOFMS, but also for all kinds of mass spectra measured with higher accuracy and precision (uncertainties of a few mDa) employing all ionization methods and on-line separation techniques. The method involves calculating candidate compositions for intact ionized molecules (ionized forms of the sample molecule that have lost or gained no more than a proton, i.e., [M+H](+) or [M-H](-)) as well as for fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, and eliminating those atomic compositions for the molecules that are inconsistent with the corresponding candidate compositions of fragment ions and neutral losses. Candidate compositions were calculated for the measured masses of the intact ionized molecules and of the fragment ions and corresponding neutral losses, using mass uncertainties of 2 and 5 mDa, respectively. Compositions proposed for the ionized molecule that did not correspond to the sum of the compositions of a candidate fragment ion and its corresponding neutral loss were discarded. One, 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, and >20 candidate compositions were found for 65%, 39%, 1%, 1%, and 0%, respectively, for the 124 ionized molecules formed from the 113 chemicals tested (both positive and negative ions were obtained from 11 of the chemicals). However, no candidate composition was found for 2% of the test cases (i.e., 3 chemicals), for each of which the measured mass of one of the product ions was in

  3. Constraints on continental crustal mass loss via chemical weathering using lithium and its isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X. M.

    2012-04-01

    The continental crust has an "intermediate" bulk composition that is distinct from primary melts of peridotitic mantle (basalt or picrite). This mismatch between the "building blocks" and the "edifice" that is the continental crust points to the operation of processes that preferentially remove mafic to ultramafic material from the continents. Such processes include lower crustal recycling (via density foundering or lower crustal subduction - e.g., relamination, Hacker et al., 2011, EPSL), generation of evolved melts via slab melting, and/or chemical weathering. Stable isotope systems point to the influence of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition: the oxygen isotope composition of the bulk crust is distinctly heavier than that of primary, mantle-derived melts (Simon and Lecuyer, 2005, G-cubed) and the Li isotopic composition of the bulk crust is distinctly lighter than that of mantle-derive melts (Teng et al., 2004, GCA; 2008, Chem. Geol.). Both signatures mark the imprint of chemical weathering on the bulk crust composition. Here, we use a simple mass balance model for lithium inputs and outputs from the continental crust to quantify the mass lost due to chemical weathering. We find that a minimum of 15%, a maximum of 60%, and a best estimate of ~40% of the original juvenile rock mass may have been lost via chemical weathering. The accumulated percentage of mass loss due to chemical weathering leads to an average global chemical weathering rate (CWR) of ~ 1×10^10 to 2×10^10 t/yr since 3.5 Ga, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the minimum estimates based on modern rivers (Gaillardet et al., 1999, Chem. Geol.). While we cannot constrain the exact portion of crustal mass loss via chemical weathering, given the uncertainties of the calculation, we can demonstrate that the weathering flux is non-zero. Therefore, chemical weathering must play a role in the evolution of the composition and mass of the continental crust.

  4. Measurement of the top quark mass using the MINUIT fitter in dilepton events at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellettini, G.; Budagov, Yu.; Chlachidze, G.; Glagolev, V.; Prakoshin, F.; Sissakian, A.; Suslov, I.; Velev, G.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel of t anti t events from p anti p collisions at √s=1.96 TeV. The integrated luminosity of the data sample is 193 pb -1 . 13 events were reconstructed according to the t anti t hypothesis and fitted as a superposition of signal and background. Using the background constrained fit (with 2.7±0.7 events expected from background) we measure M top =170.0±16.6 (stat.) GeV/c 2 . The estimate of systematic error is ±7.4 GeV/c 2

  5. Effects of loss aversion on neural responses to loss outcomes: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokmotou, Katerina; Cook, Stephanie; Xie, Yuxin; Wright, Hazel; Soto, Vicente; Fallon, Nicholas; Giesbrecht, Timo; Pantelous, Athanasios; Stancak, Andrej

    2017-05-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of the same amount. To shed light on the spatio-temporal processes underlying loss aversion, we analysed the associations between individual loss aversion and electrophysiological responses to loss and gain outcomes in a monetary gamble task. Electroencephalographic feedback-related negativity (FRN) was computed in 29 healthy participants as the difference in electrical potentials between losses and gains. Loss aversion was evaluated using non-linear parametric fitting of choices in a separate gamble task. Loss aversion correlated positively with FRN amplitude (233-263ms) at electrodes covering the lower face. Feedback related potentials were modelled by five equivalent source dipoles. From these dipoles, stronger activity in a source located in the orbitofrontal cortex was associated with loss aversion. The results suggest that loss aversion implemented during risky decision making is related to a valuation process in the orbitofrontal cortex, which manifests during learning choice outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Influence of 5-jet events on the measurement of the mass of the W boson in e+ e- collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Tim

    2000-01-01

    A measurement of the mass of the W boson in hadronic e+e -> W+W- decays was performed with 183 pb-1 of data recorded with the OPAL detector at a centre-of-mass energy of s = 189 GeV. Using a one-dimensional reweighting technique where the W width is fixed to its Standard Model prediction, the mass was determined to M4q W = 80.360+-0.105stat. +- 0.093syst.GeV Furthermore, the influence of a reconstruction of W+W- > qq¯qq¯ (g) events as five jets on both the statistical and the systematic uncertainty was studied and optimised. It was also shown the feasibility of a two-dimensional analysis, a simultaneous fit to the two W masses of each event.

  7. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied

  8. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semay, Claude [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France)], E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2008-11-15

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied.

  9. Effect of rotational mixing and metallicity on the hot star wind mass-loss rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Kubát, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 567, July (2014), A63/1-A63/7 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10589S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars: winds * outflows * stars: mass-loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  10. The Prospect for Detecting Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Rachel A.; Crosley, Michael Kevin

    2018-06-01

    The astrophysical study of mass loss, both steady-state and transient, on the cool half of the HR diagram has implications bothfor the star itself and the conditions created around the star that can be hospitable or inimical to supporting life. Recent results from exoplanet studies show that planets around M dwarfs are exceedingly common, which together with the commonality of M dwarfs in our galaxy make this the dominant mode of star and planet configurations. The closeness of the exoplanets to the parent M star motivate a comprehensive understanding of habitability for these systems. Radio observations provide the most clear signature of accelerated particles and shocks in stars arising as the result of MHD processes in the stellar outer atmosphere. Stellar coronal mass ejections have not been conclusively detected, despite the ubiquity with which their radiative counterparts in an eruptive event (stellar flares) have. I will review some of the different observational methods which have been used and possibly could be used in the future in the stellar case, emphasizing some of the difficulties inherent in such attempts. I will provide a framework for interpreting potential transient stellar mass loss in light of the properties of flares known to occur on magnetically active stars. This uses a physically motivated way to connect the properties of flares and coronal mass ejections and provides a testable hypothesis for observing or constraining transient stellar mass loss. I will describe recent results using radio observations to detect stellar coronal mass ejections, and what those results imply about transient stellar mass loss. I will provide some motivation for what could be learned in this topic from space-based low frequency radio experiments.

  11. High-resolution refinement of a storm loss model and estimation of return periods of loss-intensive storms over Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Donat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A refined model for the calculation of storm losses is presented, making use of high-resolution insurance loss records for Germany and allowing loss estimates on a spatial level of administrative districts and for single storm events. Storm losses are calculated on the basis of wind speeds from both ERA-Interim and NCEP reanalyses. The loss model reproduces the spatial distribution of observed losses well by taking specific regional loss characteristics into account. This also permits high-accuracy estimates of total cumulated losses, though slightly underestimating the country-wide loss sums for storm "Kyrill", the most severe event in the insurance loss records from 1997 to 2007. A larger deviation, which is assigned to the relatively coarse resolution of the NCEP reanalysis, is only found for one specific rather small-scale event, not adequately captured by this dataset.

    The loss model is subsequently applied to the complete reanalysis period to extend the storm event catalogue to cover years when no systematic insurance records are available. This allows the consideration of loss-intensive storm events back to 1948, enlarging the event catalogue to cover the recent 60+ years, and to investigate the statistical characteristics of severe storm loss events in Germany based on a larger sample than provided by the insurance records only. Extreme value analysis is applied to the loss data to estimate the return periods of loss-intensive storms, yielding a return period for storm "Kyrill", for example, of approximately 15 to 21 years.

  12. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red, the clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen.

  13. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  14. Estimate of neutrons event-by-event in DREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the contribution of neutrons to hadronic showers in the DREAM module event-by-event as a means to estimate the event-by-event fluctuations in binding energy losses by hadrons as they break up nuclei of the Cu absorber. We make a preliminary assessment of the consequences for hadronic energy resolution in dual-readout calorimeters.

  15. The Multidimensional Loss Scale: validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromans, Lyn; Schweitzer, Robert D; Brough, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The Multidimensional Loss Scale (MLS) represents the first instrument designed specifically to index Experience of Loss Events and Loss Distress across multiple domains (cultural, social, material, and intrapersonal) relevant to refugee settlement. Recently settled Burmese adult refugees (N = 70) completed a questionnaire battery, including MLS items. Analyses explored MLS internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and factor structure. Cronbach alphas indicated satisfactory internal consistency for Experience of Loss Events (0.85) and Loss Distress (0.92), reflecting a unitary construct of multidimensional loss. Loss Distress did not correlate with depression or anxiety symptoms and correlated moderately with interpersonal grief and trauma symptoms, supporting divergent and convergent validity. Factor analysis provided preliminary support for a five-factor model: Loss of Symbolic Self, Loss of Interdependence, Loss of Home, Interpersonal Loss, and Loss of Intrapersonal Integrity. Received well by participants, the new scale shows promise for application in future research and practice.

  16. SEARCHING FOR COOL DUST IN THE MID-TO-FAR INFRARED: THE MASS-LOSS HISTORIES OF THE HYPERGIANTS μ Cep, VY CMa, IRC+10420, AND ρ Cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Dinesh; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Jones, Terry J.; Gehrz, Robert D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Helton, L. Andrew [USRA-SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hoffmann, William F.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M., E-mail: shenoy@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We present mid- and far-IR imaging of four famous hypergiant stars: the red supergiants μ Cep and VY CMa, and the warm hypergiants IRC +10420 and ρ Cas. Our 11–37 μm SOFIA/FORCAST imaging probes cool dust not detected in visual and near-IR imaging studies. Adaptive optics 8–12 μm imaging of μ Cep and IRC +10420 with MMT/MIRAC reveals extended envelopes that are the likely sources of these stars’ strong silicate emission features. We find μ Cep’s mass-loss rate to have declined by about a factor of five over a 13,000 year history, ranging from 5 × 10{sup −6} down to ∼1× 10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The morphology of VY CMa indicates a cooler dust component coincident with the highly asymmetric reflection nebulae seen in the visual and near-IR. The lack of cold dust at greater distances around VY CMa indicates that its mass-loss history is limited to the last ∼1200 years, with an average rate of 6 × 10{sup −4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. We find two distinct periods in the mass-loss history of IRC +10420 with a high rate of 2 × 10{sup −3} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} until approximately 2000 years ago, followed by an order of magnitude decrease in the recent past. We interpret this change as evidence of its evolution beyond the RSG stage. Our new infrared photometry of ρ Cas is consistent with emission from the expanding dust shell ejected in its 1946 eruption, with no evidence of newer dust formation from its more recent events.

  17. Solar flares, coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle event characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Sandberg, Ingmar; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Kostas; Tsiropoula, Georgia; Jiggens, Piers; Hilgers, Alain

    2016-12-01

    A new catalogue of 314 solar energetic particle (SEP) events extending over a large time span from 1984 to 2013 has been compiled. The properties as well as the associations of these SEP events with their parent solar sources have been thoroughly examined. The properties of the events include the proton peak integral flux and the fluence for energies above 10, 30, 60 and 100 MeV. The associated solar events were parametrized by solar flare (SF) and coronal mass ejection (CME) characteristics, as well as related radio emissions. In particular, for SFs: the soft X-ray (SXR) peak flux, the SXR fluence, the heliographic location, the rise time and the duration were exploited; for CMEs the plane-of-sky velocity as well as the angular width were utilized. For radio emissions, type III, II and IV radio bursts were identified. Furthermore, we utilized element abundances of Fe and O. We found evidence that most of the SEP events in our catalogue do not conform to a simple two-class paradigm, with the 73% of them exhibiting both type III and type II radio bursts, and that a continuum of event properties is present. Although, the so-called hybrid or mixed events are found to be present in our catalogue, it was not possible to attribute each SEP event to a mixed/hybrid sub-category. Moreover, it appears that the start of the type III burst most often precedes the maximum of the SF and thus falls within the impulsive phase of the associated SF. At the same time, type III bursts take place within ≈5.22 min, on average, in advance from the time of maximum of the derivative of the SXR flux (Neupert effect). We further performed a statistical analysis and a mapping of the logarithm of the proton peak flux at E > 10 MeV, on different pairs of the parent solar source characteristics. This revealed correlations in 3-D space and demonstrated that the gradual SEP events that stem from the central part of the visible solar disk constitute a significant radiation risk. The velocity of

  18. The photometric evolution of star clusters and the preferential loss of low-mass bodies – with an application to globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Context. To obtain an accurate description of broad-band photometric star cluster evolution, certain effects should be accounted for. Energy equipartition leads to mass segregation and the preferential loss of low-mass stars, while stellar remnants severely influence cluster mass-to-light ratios.

  19. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-03-01

    Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ~40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  20. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias mountains, Alaska

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gulick, S.P.S.; Jaeger, J.M.; Mix, A.C.; Asahi, H.; Bahlburg, H.; Belanger, C.L.; Berbel, G.B.B.; Childress, L.; Cowan, E.; Drab, L.; Forwick, M.; Fukumura, A.; Ge, S.; Gupta, S.M.; Kioka, A.; Konno, S.; LeVay, L.J.; Marz, C.; Matsuzaki, K.M.; McClymont, E.L.; Moy, C.; Muller, J.; Nakamura, A.; Ojima, T.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Ridgway, K.D.; Romero, O.E.; Slagle, A.L.; Stoner, J.S.; St-Onge, G.; Suto, I.; Walczak, M.D.; Worthington, L.L.; Bailey, I.; Enkelmann, E.; Reece, R.; Swartz, J.M.

    the onset of quasi-periodic (~100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2–0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50–80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent...

  1. [Contribution of soil fauna to the mass loss of Betula albosinensis leaf litter at early decomposition stage of subalpine forest litter in western Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-02-01

    In order to quantify the contribution of soil fauna to the decomposition of birch (Betula albosinensis) leaf litter in subalpine forests in western Sichuan of Southwest China during freeze-thaw season, a field experiment with different mesh sizes (0.02, 0.125, 1 and 3 mm) of litterbags was conducted in a representative birch-fir (Abies faxoniana) forest to investigate the mass loss rate of the birch leaf litter from 26 October, 2010 to 18 April, 2011, and the contributions of micro-, meso- and macro-fauna to the decomposition of the leaf litter. Over the freeze-thaw season, 11.8%, 13.2%, 15.4% and 19.5% of the mass loss were detected in the litterbags with 0.02, 0. 125, 1 and 3 mm mesh sizes, respectively. The total contribution of soil fauna to the litter decomposition accounted for 39.5% of the mass loss, and the taxa and individual relative density of the soil fauna in the litterbags had the similar variation trend with that of the mass loss rate. The contribution rate of soil fauna to the leaf litter mass loss showed the order of micro- soil fauna played an important role in the litter decomposition in subalpine forests of western Sichuan during freeze-thaw season.

  2. Postoperative loss of skeletal muscle mass, complications and quality of life in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; Verberne, Hein J.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe postoperative undernutrition in terms of postoperative losses of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) with respect to complications, quality of life, readmission, and 1-y mortality after cardiac surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing cardiac

  3. Temperature distributions in a Tokamak vacuum vessel of fusion reactor after the loss-of-vacuum-events occurred

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, K.; Kunugi, T.; Shibata, M.; Seki, Y.

    1998-01-01

    If a loss-of-vacuum-event (LOVA) occurred in a fusion reactor, buoyancy-driven exchange flows would occur at breaches of a vacuum vessel (VV) due to the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the VV. The exchange flows may bring mixtures of activated materials and tritium in the VV to the outside through the breaches, and remove decay heat from the plasma-facing components of the VV. Therefore, the LOVA experiments were carried out under the condition that one or two breaches was opened and that the VV was heated to a maximum 200 C, using a small-scaled LOVA experimental apparatus. Air and helium gas were provided as working fluids. Fluid and wall temperature distributions in the VV were measured and the flow patterns in the VV were estimated by using these temperature distributions. It was found that: (1) the exchange mass in the VV depended on the breach positions; (2) the exchange flow at the single breach case became a counter-current flow when the breach was at the roof of the VV and a stratified flow when it was at the side wall; (3) and that at the double breach case, a one-way flow between two breaches was formed. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of the top quark mass using neutrino φ weighting method in dilepton events at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellettini, G.; Budagov, Yu.; Chlachidze, G.; Glagolev, V.; Prakoshyn, F.; Sisakyan, A.; Suslov, I.; Giokaris, N.; Velev, G.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel of tt bar events from pp bar collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. The integrated luminosity of the data sample is 340 pb -1 . 33 events were reconstructed according to the tt bar hypothesis and fitted as a superposition of signal and background. Using the background constrained fit (with 11.6 ± 2.1 events expected from background) M top = 169.8 ± 9.3 9.2 (stat.) GeV/c 2 is measured. The estimate of systematic error is ± 3.8 GeV/c 2

  5. Nutrient losses from manure and fertilizer applications as impacted by time to first runoff event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Owens, P.R.; Leytem, A.B.; Warnemuende, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient losses to surface waters following fertilization contribute to eutrophication. This study was conducted to compare the impacts of fertilization with inorganic fertilizer, swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure or poultry (Gallus domesticus) litter on runoff water quality, and how the duration between application and the first runoff event affects resulting water quality. Fertilizers were applied at 35 kg P ha -1 , and the duration between application and the first runoff event varied between 1 and 29 days. Swine manure was the greatest risk to water quality 1 day after fertilization due to elevated phosphorus (8.4 mg P L -1 ) and ammonium (10.3 mg NH 4 -N L -1 ) concentrations; however, this risk decreased rapidly. Phosphorus concentrations were 2.6 mg L -1 29 days after fertilization with inorganic fertilizer. This research demonstrates that manures might be more environmentally sustainable than inorganic fertilizers, provided runoff events do not occur soon after application. - Fertilization with manures results in lower nutrient runoff than inorganic fertilizers, especially if at least one week passes between fertilization and runoff

  6. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector and the LAr calorimeter where its detailed structure is highlighted. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  7. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  8. The longitudinal relation between accumulation of adverse life events and body mass index from early adolescence to young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  9. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, L.; Smidt, N.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  10. Agricultural losses related to frost events: use of the 850 hPa level temperature as an explanatory variable of the damage cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannaki, K.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Papagiannakis, G.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is the analysis of damaging frost events in agriculture, by examining the relationship between the daily minimum temperature in the lower atmosphere (at an isobaric level of 850 hPa) and crop production losses. Furthermore, the study suggests a methodological approach for estimating agriculture risk due to frost events, with the aim of estimating the short-term probability and magnitude of frost-related financial losses for different levels of 850 hPa temperature. Compared with near-surface temperature forecasts, temperature forecasts at the level of 850 hPa are less influenced by varying weather conditions or by local topographical features; thus, they constitute a more consistent indicator of the forthcoming weather conditions. The analysis of the daily monetary compensations for insured crop losses caused by weather events in Greece shows that, during the period 1999-2011, frost caused more damage to crop production than any other meteorological phenomenon. Two regions of different geographical latitudes are examined further, to account for the differences in the temperature ranges developed within their ecological environment. Using a series of linear and logistic regressions, we found that minimum temperature (at an 850 hPa level), grouped into three categories according to its magnitude, and seasonality, are significant variables when trying to explain crop damage costs, as well as to predict and quantify the likelihood and magnitude of damaging frost events.

  11. Job loss and broken partnerships: do the number of stressful life events influence the risk of ischemic heart disease in men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    % confidence interval 1.02-1.85). We found no indication of dose-response relationship between number of events and risk of IHD. CONCLUSION: In this study of middle-aged men, we found only weak support for the effect of psychosocial stress on IHD measured with register based life events; we found that IHD...... was associated with broken partnerships but not with job loss. We did not find that the risk of incident IHD varied with the number of these stressful life events....

  12. A comparison of socio-economic loss analysis from the 2013 Haiyan Typhoon and Bohol Earthquake events in the Philippines in near real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Brink, Susan A.; Kunz, Michael; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    In the aftermath of a disaster, the extent of the socioeconomic loss (fatalities, homelessness and economic losses) is often not known and it may take days before a reasonable estimate is known. Using the technique of socio-economic fragility functions developed (Daniell, 2014) using a regression of socio-economic indicators through time against historical empirical loss vs. intensity data, a first estimate can be established. With more information from the region as the disaster unfolds, a more detailed estimate can be provided via a calibration of the initial loss estimate parameters. In 2013, two main disasters hit the Philippines; the Bohol earthquake in October and the Haiyan typhoon in November. Although both disasters were contrasting and hit different regions, the same generalised methodology was used for initial rapid estimates and then the updating of the disaster loss estimate through time. The CEDIM Forensic Disaster Analysis Group of KIT and GFZ produced 6 reports for Bohol and 2 reports for Haiyan detailing various aspects of the disasters from the losses to building damage, the socioeconomic profile and also the social networking and disaster response. This study focusses on the loss analysis undertaken. The following technique was used:- 1. A regression of historical earthquake and typhoon losses for the Philippines was examined using the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database, and various Philippines databases respectively. 2. The historical intensity impact of the examined events were placed in a GIS environment in order to allow correlation with the population and capital stock database from 1900-2013 to create a loss function. The modified human development index from 1900-2013 was also used to also calibrate events through time. 3. The earthquake intensity and the wind speed intensity was used from the 2013 events as well as the 2013 capital stock and population in order to calculate the number of fatalities (except in Haiyan), homeless and

  13. A determination of the centre-of-mass energy at LEP2 using radiative two-fermion events

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; llmendinger, T; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Mazzucato, M; Mönig, K; Mulders, M; Nawrocki, K; Orava, R; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Migliore, E; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Nulty, R M; Moch, M; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Murray, W; Monge, R; Ouraou, A; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Olshevskii, A G; Palacios, J P; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Onofre, A; Palka, H; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Paiano, S; Meroni, C; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Mundim, L; Nicolaidou, R; Österberg, K; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek1, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2006-01-01

    Using e+e- -> mu+mu-(gamma) and e+e- -> qqbar(gamma) events radiative to the Z pole, DELPHI has determined the centre-of-mass energy, sqrt{s}, using energy and momentum constraint methods. The results are expressed as deviations from the nominal LEP centre-of-mass energy, measured using other techniques. The results are found to be compatible with the LEP Energy Working Group estimates for a combination of the 1997 to 2000 data sets.

  14. Windblown sediment transport and loss in a desert-oasis ecotone in the Tarim Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Lei, Jiaqiang

    2017-08-10

    The Tarim Basin is regarded as one of the most highly erodible areas in China. Desert comprises 64% of the land use in the Basin, but the desert-oasis ecotone plays a prominent role in maintaining oasis ecological security and stability. Yet, little is known concerning the magnitude of windblown sediment transport in a desert-oasis ecotone. Therefore, aeolian sediment transport and loss was assessed from a desert-oasis experimental site located near Alaer City in the northwestern Tarim Basin. Sediment transport and factors governing transport were measured during three high wind events in 2012 and four events in 2013. Sediment transport was measured to a height of 10 m using passive aeolian airborne sediment samplers. The mass flux profile over the eroding surface was well represented by the power-law (R 2  > 0.77). Sediment loss from the site ranged from 118 g m -2 for the 20-24Apr 2012 wind event to 2925 g m -2 for the 31Mar-11Apr 2012 event. Suspension accounted for 67.4 to 84.8% of sediment loss across all high wind events. Our results indicate the severity of wind erosion in a desert-oasis ecotone and thus encourage adoption of management practices that will enhance oasis ecological security.

  15. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. Objective: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. Design: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). Results: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Conclusion: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:22258266

  16. Water mass characteristic in the outflow region of the Indonesian throughflow during and post 2016 negative Indian ocean dipole event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhaqi, A.; Iskandar, I.; Surinati, D.; Budiman, A. S.; Wardhana, A. K.; Dirhamsyah; Yuan, D.; Lestari, D. O.

    2018-05-01

    Strong El Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events in 2015/2016 followed by relatively strong negative Indian Ocean Dipole (nIOD) and weak La Niña in 2016 events have affected hydrography conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) region. Two research cruises were conducted using RV Baruna Jaya VIII in August and November 2016. These cruises aim to evaluate possible impact of those two climate mode events on the water mass characteristic in the outflow region of the ITF. Hydrographic data from those two cruises were combined with the sea surface temperature (SST) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and surface wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results showed that in the 2016 anomaly year, the cooler sea surface temperature was observed during the negative IOD (nIOD) event while the warmer temperature was found in the post of nIOD event. The observed water mass characteristics in the outflow region of the ITF revealed that the upper layer was dominated by the Indian Ocean water mass, while the Pacific Ocean water mass was observed in the deeper layer. The observed current data across the Sumba Strait showed that the South Java Coastal Current (SJCC) was observed in the upper layer, propagating eastward toward the Savu Sea. A few days later, the observed currents in the upper layer of the Ombai Strait revealed the ITF flow towards the Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, the lower layer showed an eastward flow towards the Ombai Strait.

  17. Experimental Characterization of a Grid-Loss Event on a 2.5-MW Dynamometer Using Advanced Operational Modal Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsen, J.; Weijtjens, W.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; McNiff, B.; Devriendt, C.; Guillaume, P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper experimentally investigates a worst case grid loss event conducted on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) drivetrain mounted on the 2.5MW NREL dynamic nacelle test-rig. The GRC drivetrain has a directly grid-coupled, fixed speed asynchronous generator. The main goal is the assessment of the dynamic content driving this particular assess the dynamic content of the high-speed stage of the GRC gearbox. In addition to external accelerometers, high frequency sampled measurements of strain gauges were used to assess torque fluctuations and bending moments both at the nacelle main shaft and gearbox high-speed shaft (HSS) through the entire duration of the event. Modal analysis was conducted using a polyreference Least Squares Complex Frequency-domain (pLSCF) modal identification estimator. The event driving the torsional resonance was identified. Moreover, the pLSCF estimator identified main drivetrain resonances based on a combination of acceleration and strain measurements. Without external action during the grid-loss event, a mode shape characterized by counter phase rotation of the rotor and generator rotor determined by the drivetrain flexibility and rotor inertias was the main driver of the event. This behavior resulted in significant torque oscillations with large amplitude negative torque periods. Based on tooth strain measurements of the HSS pinion, this work showed that at each zero-crossing, the teeth lost contact and came into contact with the backside flank. In addition, dynamic nontorque loads between the gearbox and generator at the HSS played an important role, as indicated by strain gauge-measurements.

  18. Ecological selectivity of the emerging mass extinction in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan L; Bush, Andrew M; Heim, Noel A; Knope, Matthew L; McCauley, Douglas J

    2016-09-16

    To better predict the ecological and evolutionary effects of the emerging biodiversity crisis in the modern oceans, we compared the association between extinction threat and ecological traits in modern marine animals to associations observed during past extinction events using a database of 2497 marine vertebrate and mollusc genera. We find that extinction threat in the modern oceans is strongly associated with large body size, whereas past extinction events were either nonselective or preferentially removed smaller-bodied taxa. Pelagic animals were victimized more than benthic animals during previous mass extinctions but are not preferentially threatened in the modern ocean. The differential importance of large-bodied animals to ecosystem function portends greater future ecological disruption than that caused by similar levels of taxonomic loss in past mass extinction events. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of the top quark mass using single top quark events in proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Vienna (Austria); Collaboration: CMS Collaboration; and others

    2017-05-15

    A measurement of the top quark mass is reported in events containing a single top quark produced via the electroweak t channel. The analysis is performed using data from proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb{sup -1}. Top quark candidates are reconstructed from their decay to a W boson decaying leptonically to a muon and a neutrino. The final state signature and kinematic properties of single top quark events in the t channel are used to enhance the purity of the sample, suppressing the contribution from top quark pair production. A fit to the invariant mass distribution of reconstructed top quark candidates yields a value of the top quark mass of 172.95 ± 0.77(stat){sup +0.97}{sub -0.93}(syst) GeV. This result is in agreement with the current world average, and represents the first measurement of the top quark mass in event topologies not dominated by top quark pair production, therefore contributing to future averages with partially uncorrelated systematic uncertainties and a largely uncorrelated statistical uncertainty. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of the top quark mass using single top quark events in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elgammal, Sherif; Mohamed, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Danilov, Mikhail; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Volkov, Petr; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-05-29

    A measurement of the top quark mass is reported in events containing a single top quark produced via the electroweak $t$ channel. The analysis is performed using data from proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. The top quark is reconstructed from its decay to a W boson and a b quark, with the W boson decaying leptonically to a muon and a neutrino. The specific topology and kinematic properties of single top quark events in the $t$ channel are used to enhance the purity of the sample, suppressing the contribution from top quark pair production. A fit to the invariant mass distribution of reconstructed top quark candidates yields a value of the top quark mass of 172.95 $\\pm$ 0.77 (stat) $^{+0.97}_{-0.93}$ (syst) GeV. This result is in agreement with the current world average, and represents the first measurement of the top quark mass in event topologies not dominated by top quark pair p...

  2. GAS LOSS BY RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING AND INTERNAL FEEDBACK FROM LOW-MASS MILKY WAY SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerick, Andrew; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Grcevich, Jana [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Gatto, Andrea [Max-Planck-Institute für Astrophysik, Garching, bei München (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites in the Milky Way (MW) is affected by a combination of ram pressure stripping (RPS), tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the MW using three-dimensional, high-resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low-mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that RPS is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that although RPS can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play to reconcile our computed stripping times with the rapid quenching timescales deduced from observations of low-mass MW dwarf galaxies. We discuss the roles additional physics may play in this scenario, including host-satellite tidal interactions, cored versus cuspy dark matter profiles, reionization, and satellite preprocessing. We conclude that a proper accounting of these physics together is necessary to understand the quenching of low-mass MW satellites.

  3. Unexpected flood loss correlations across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Naomi; Boyd, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Floods don't observe country borders, as highlighted by major events across Europe that resulted in heavy economic and insured losses in 1999, 2002, 2009 and 2013. Flood loss correlations between some countries occur along multi-country river systems or between neighbouring nations affected by the same weather systems. However, correlations are not so obvious and whilst flooding in multiple locations across Europe may appear independent, for a re/insurer providing cover across the continent, these unexpected correlations can lead to high loss accumulations. A consistent, continental-scale method that allows quantification and comparison of losses, and identifies correlations in loss between European countries is therefore essential. A probabilistic model for European river flooding was developed that allows estimation of potential losses to pan-European property portfolios. By combining flood hazard and exposure information in a catastrophe modelling platform, we can consider correlations between river basins across Europe rather than being restricted to country boundaries. A key feature of the model is its statistical event set based on extreme value theory. Using historical river flow data, the event set captures spatial and temporal patterns of flooding across Europe and simulates thousands of events representing a full range of possible scenarios. Some known correlations were identified, such as between neighbouring Belgium and Luxembourg where 28% of events that affect either country produce a loss in both. However, our model identified some unexpected correlations including between Austria and Poland, and Poland and France, which are geographically distant. These correlations in flood loss may be missed by traditional methods and are key for re/insurers with risks in multiple countries. The model also identified that 46% of European river flood events affect more than one country. For more extreme events with a return period higher than 200 years, all events

  4. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red. The inset on the right-hand side shows a zoom into the tracking detector. The inset on top shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 muons originate from the same primary vertex.

  5. A well-balanced diet combined or not with exercise induces fat mass loss without any decrease of bone mass despite bone micro-architecture alterations in obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Lavet, Cédric; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Vico, Laurence; Courteix, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The association of a well-balanced diet with exercise is a key strategy to treat obesity. However, weight loss is linked to an accelerated bone loss. Furthermore, exercise is known to induce beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the impact of a well-balanced isoenergetic reducing diet (WBR) and exercise on bone tissue in obese rats. Sixty male rats had previously been fed with a high fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS) for 4months to induce obesity. Then, 4 regimens were initiated for 2months: HF/HS diet plus exercise (treadmill: 50min/day, 5days/week), WBR diet plus exercise, HF/HS diet plus inactivity and WBR diet plus inactivity. Body composition and total BMD were assessed using DXA and visceral fat mass was weighed. Tibia densitometry was assessed by Piximus. Bone histomorphometry was performed on the proximal metaphysis of tibia and on L2 vertebrae (L2). Trabecular micro-architectural parameters were measured on tibia and L2 by 3D microtomography. Plasma concentration of osteocalcin and CTX were measured. Both WBR diet and exercise had decreased global weight, global fat and visceral fat mass (pdiet alone failed to alter total and tibia bone mass and BMD. However, Tb.Th, bone volume density and degree of anisotropy of tibia were decreased by the WBR diet (pdiet had involved a significant lower MS/BS and BFR/BS in L2 (pdiet inducing weight and fat mass losses did not affected bone mass and BMD of obese rats despite alterations of their bone micro-architecture. The moderate intensity exercise performed had improved the tibia BMD of obese rats without any trabecular and cortical adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass loss, levitation, accretion, and the sharp-lined features in hot white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhweiler, F.C.; Kondo, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We have studied eight white dwarfs, seven DA and one He-rich types, observed at a high resolution (lambda/Δlambdaroughly-equal10 4 ) with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Of the seven DA white dwarfs, three show spectral signatures of ionized heavy elements, such as Si II, SI III, C IV, Si IV, and N V, arising in the immediate environment of these stars. The shortward-shifted lines in two (G191--B2B and 2111+49) of the three DA types showing metallic lines are tentatively interpreted as an indication of mass loss from these stars. The He-rich white dwarf shows the features due to C cV and He II, which also arise in the immediate environment of that star. Although the statistical sample presented here is limited, we tentatively suggest a temperature and effective gravity range (T/sub eff/> or approx. =20,000 K and log (g) < or approx. =8.0) in DA white dwarfs within which metallic lines are present either in the photosphere or in the halo of the stars. We examine the physical processes relevant to the appearance of such metallic lines. We tentatively propose that radiative levitation can explain the appearance of the observed lines in the hot DA white dwarfs, although the role of radiation forces in mass loss is not clear

  7. Mass ablation and magnetic flux losses through a magnetized plasma-liner wall interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubio, F.; Sanz, J.

    2017-07-01

    The understanding of energy and magnetic flux losses in a magnetized plasma medium confined by a cold wall is of great interest in the success of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). In a MagLIF scheme, the fuel is magnetized and subsonically compressed by a cylindrical liner. Magnetic flux conservation is degraded by the presence of gradient-driven transport processes such as thermoelectric effects (Nernst) and magnetic field diffusion. In previous publications [Velikovich et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 042702 (2015)], the evolution of a hot magnetized plasma in contact with a cold solid wall (liner) was studied using the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension. The Nernst term degraded the magnetic flux conservation, while both thermal energy and magnetic flux losses were reduced with the electron Hall parameter ωeτe with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-1/2. In the analysis made in the present paper, we consider a similar situation, but with the liner being treated differently. Instead of a cold solid wall acting as a heat sink, we model the liner as a cold dense plasma with low thermal conduction (that could represent the cryogenic fuel layer added on the inner surface of the liner in a high-gain MagLIF configuration). Mass ablation comes into play, which adds notably differences to the previous analysis. The direction of the plasma motion is inverted, but the Nernst term still convects the magnetic field towards the liner. Magnetization suppresses the Nernst velocity and improves the magnetic flux conservation. Thermal energy in the hot plasma is lost in heating the ablated material. When the electron Hall parameter is large, mass ablation scales as (ωeτe)-3/10, while both the energy and magnetic flux losses are reduced with a power-law asymptotic scaling (ωeτe)-7/10.

  8. Combining Fragment-Ion and Neutral-Loss Matching during Mass Spectral Library Searching: A New General Purpose Algorithm Applicable to Illicit Drug Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Arun S; Wallace, William E; Kearsley, Anthony J; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V; Stein, Stephen E

    2017-12-19

    A mass spectral library search algorithm that identifies compounds that differ from library compounds by a single "inert" structural component is described. This algorithm, the Hybrid Similarity Search, generates a similarity score based on matching both fragment ions and neutral losses. It employs the parameter DeltaMass, defined as the mass difference between query and library compounds, to shift neutral loss peaks in the library spectrum to match corresponding neutral loss peaks in the query spectrum. When the spectra being compared differ by a single structural feature, these matching neutral loss peaks should contain that structural feature. This method extends the scope of the library to include spectra of "nearest-neighbor" compounds that differ from library compounds by a single chemical moiety. Additionally, determination of the structural origin of the shifted peaks can aid in the determination of the chemical structure and fragmentation mechanism of the query compound. A variety of examples are presented, including the identification of designer drugs and chemical derivatives not present in the library.

  9. Can mountain glacier melting explains the GRACE-observed mass loss in the southeast Tibetan Plateau: From a climate perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Ke, Linghong; Huang, Bo; Richards, Keith S.

    2015-01-01

    The southeast Tibetan Plateau (SETP) includes the majority of monsoonal temperate glaciers in High Mountain Asia (HMA), which is an important source of water for the upper reaches of several large Asian river systems. Climatic change and variability has substantial impacts on cryosphere and hydrological processes in the SETP. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravimetry observations between 2003 and 2009 suggest that there was an average mass loss rate of - 5.99 ± 2.78 Gigatonnes (Gt)/yr in this region. Meanwhile, the hydrological data by model calculations from the GLDAS/Noah and CPC are used to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes with a slight negative trend of about - 0.3 Gt/yr. The recent studies (Kääb et al., 2012; Gardner et al., 2013) reported the thinning rates of mountain glaciers in HMA based on the satellite laser altimetry, and an approximate estimation of the glacier mass budget in the SETP was 4.69 ± 2.03 Gt/yr during 2003-2009. This estimate accounted for a large proportion ( 78.3%) of the difference between the GRACE TWS and model-calculated TWS changes. To better understand the cause of sharp mass loss existing in the SETP, the correlations between key climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) and the GRACE TWS changes are examined at different timescales between 2003 and 2011. The results show that precipitation is the leading factors of abrupt, seasonal and multi-year undulating signals of GRACE TWS anomaly time series, but with weak correlations with the inter-annual trend and annual mass budget of GRACE TWS. In contrast, the annual mean temperature is tightly associated with the annual net mass budget (r = 0.81, p < 0.01), which indirectly suggests that the GRACE-observed mass loss in the SETP may be highly related to glacial processes.

  10. A Conceptual Analysis of Mass Loss and Frequency Redistribution in Wolf-Rayet Winds

    OpenAIRE

    Onifer, A. J.; Gayley, K. G.

    2007-01-01

    To better understand Wolf-Rayet stars as progenitors of gamma-ray bursts, an understanding of the effect metallicity has on Wolf-Rayet mass loss is needed. Using simple analytic models, we study the Mdot - Z relation of a WN star and compare the results to similar models. We find that Mdot roughly follows a power law in Z with index 0.88 from -2.5 < log Z/Z_sun < -1 and appears to flatten by log Z/Z_sun ~ -0.5.

  11. Uni- and multi-variable modelling of flood losses: experiences gained from the Secchia river inundation event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Castellarin, Attilio

    2017-04-01

    Flood risk is function of flood hazard and vulnerability, therefore its accurate assessment depends on a reliable quantification of both factors. The scientific literature proposes a number of objective and reliable methods for assessing flood hazard, yet it highlights a limited understanding of the fundamental damage processes. Loss modelling is associated with large uncertainty which is, among other factors, due to a lack of standard procedures; for instance, flood losses are often estimated based on damage models derived in completely different contexts (i.e. different countries or geographical regions) without checking its applicability, or by considering only one explanatory variable (i.e. typically water depth). We consider the Secchia river flood event of January 2014, when a sudden levee-breach caused the inundation of nearly 200 km2 in Northern Italy. In the aftermath of this event, local authorities collected flood loss data, together with additional information on affected private households and industrial activities (e.g. buildings surface and economic value, number of company's employees and others). Based on these data we implemented and compared a quadratic-regression damage function, with water depth as the only explanatory variable, and a multi-variable model that combines multiple regression trees and considers several explanatory variables (i.e. bagging decision trees). Our results show the importance of data collection revealing that (1) a simple quadratic regression damage function based on empirical data from the study area can be significantly more accurate than literature damage-models derived for a different context and (2) multi-variable modelling may outperform the uni-variable approach, yet it is more difficult to develop and apply due to a much higher demand of detailed data.

  12. Computational Modelling of the Structural Integrity following Mass-Loss in Polymeric Charred Cellular Solids

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. M. Whitty; J. Francis; J. Howe; B. Henderson

    2014-01-01

    A novel computational technique is presented for embedding mass-loss due to burning into the ANSYS finite element modelling code. The approaches employ a range of computational modelling methods in order to provide more complete theoretical treatment of thermoelasticity absent from the literature for over six decades. Techniques are employed to evaluate structural integrity (namely, elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratios, and compressive brittle strength) of honeycomb systems known to approximate t...

  13. The fungal and acritarch events as time markers for the latest Permian mass extinction: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Rampino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest Permian extinction (252 Myr ago was the most severe in the geologic record. On land, widespread Late Permian gymnosperm/seed-fern dominated forests appear to have suffered rapid and almost complete destruction, as evidenced by increased soil erosion and changes in fluvial style in deforested areas, signs of wildfires, replacement of trees by lower plants, and almost complete loss of peat-forming and fire-susceptible vegetation. Permian–Triassic boundary strata at many sites show two widespread palynological events in the wake of the forest destruction: The fungal event, evidenced by a thin zone with >95% fungal cells (Reduviasporonites and woody debris, found in terrestrial and marine sediments, and the acritarch event, marked by the sudden flood of unusual phytoplankton in the marine realm. These two events represent the global temporary explosive spread of stress-tolerant and opportunistic organisms on land and in the sea just after the latest Permian disaster. They represent unique events, and thus they can provide a time marker in correlating latest Permian marine and terrestrial sequences.

  14. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru

    2014-08-30

    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2017-07-25

    The population extinction pulse we describe here shows, from a quantitative viewpoint, that Earth's sixth mass extinction is more severe than perceived when looking exclusively at species extinctions. Therefore, humanity needs to address anthropogenic population extirpation and decimation immediately. That conclusion is based on analyses of the numbers and degrees of range contraction (indicative of population shrinkage and/or population extinctions according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature) using a sample of 27,600 vertebrate species, and on a more detailed analysis documenting the population extinctions between 1900 and 2015 in 177 mammal species. We find that the rate of population loss in terrestrial vertebrates is extremely high-even in "species of low concern." In our sample, comprising nearly half of known vertebrate species, 32% (8,851/27,600) are decreasing; that is, they have decreased in population size and range. In the 177 mammals for which we have detailed data, all have lost 30% or more of their geographic ranges and more than 40% of the species have experienced severe population declines (>80% range shrinkage). Our data indicate that beyond global species extinctions Earth is experiencing a huge episode of population declines and extirpations, which will have negative cascading consequences on ecosystem functioning and services vital to sustaining civilization. We describe this as a "biological annihilation" to highlight the current magnitude of Earth's ongoing sixth major extinction event.

  16. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  17. Integrating Urban Infrastructure and Health System Impact Modeling for Disasters and Mass-Casualty Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, J. M.; Kirsch, T.; Mitrani-Reiser, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over recent decades, natural disasters and mass-casualty events in United States have repeatedly revealed the serious consequences of health care facility vulnerability and the subsequent ability to deliver care for the affected people. Advances in predictive modeling and vulnerability assessment for health care facility failure, integrated infrastructure, and extreme weather events have now enabled a more rigorous scientific approach to evaluating health care system vulnerability and assessing impacts of natural and human disasters as well as the value of specific interventions. Concurrent advances in computing capacity also allow, for the first time, full integration of these multiple individual models, along with the modeling of population behaviors and mass casualty responses during a disaster. A team of federal and academic investigators led by the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is develoing a platform for integrating extreme event forecasts, health risk/impact assessment and population simulations, critical infrastructure (electrical, water, transportation, communication) impact and response models, health care facility-specific vulnerability and failure assessments, and health system/patient flow responses. The integration of these models is intended to develop much greater understanding of critical tipping points in the vulnerability of health systems during natural and human disasters and build an evidence base for specific interventions. Development of such a modeling platform will greatly facilitate the assessment of potential concurrent or sequential catastrophic events, such as a terrorism act following a severe heat wave or hurricane. This presentation will highlight the development of this modeling platform as well as applications not just for the US health system, but also for international science-based disaster risk reduction efforts, such as the Sendai Framework and the WHO SMART hospital project.

  18. Volcanic eruptions on Io - Implications for surface evolution and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Active volcanism on Io results in a continual resurfacing of the satellite. Analysis of required burial rates to erase impact craters, the mass production in the observed plumes, and the energy requirements for the volcanic activity suggest resurfacing rates of 0.001 to 10 cm/yr in recent geologic time. If this rate is typical of the last 4.5 Gyr, then extensive recycling of the upper crust and mantle must have occurred. The currently estimated loss rate of S, O, and Na from Io into the magnetosphere corresponds to only a small fraction of the resurfacing rate and should not have resulted in either extensive erosion or total depletion of any of the escaping species.

  19. Analysis of unprotected overcooling events in the Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Simple analytic models are developed for predicting the response of a metal fueled, liquid-metal cooled reactor to unprotected overcooling events in the balance of plant. All overcooling initiators are shown to fall into two categories. The first category contains these events for which there is no final equilibrium state of constant overcooling, as in the case for a large steam leak. These events are analyzed using a non-flow control mass approach. The second category contains those events which will eventually equilibrate, such as a loss of feedwater heaters. A steady flow control volume analysis shows that these latter events ultimately affect the plant through the feedwater inlet to the steam generator. The models developed for analyzing these two categories provide upper bounds for the reactor's passive response to overcooling accident initiators. Calculation of these bounds for a prototypic plant indicate that failure limits -- eutectic melting, sodium boiling, fuel pin failure -- are not exceeded in any overcooling event. 2 refs

  20. A path model of sarcopenia on bone mass loss in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, M; Guido, D; Opizzi, A; Faliva, M A; Perna, S; Grassi, M

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreases in muscle mass, strength, power (sarcopenia) and bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of this study were to investigate in elderly the role of sarcopenia on BMD loss by a path model, including adiposity, inflammation, and malnutrition associations. Body composition and BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in 159 elderly subjects (52 male/107 female; mean age 80.3 yrs). Muscle strength was determined with dynamometer. Serum albumin and PCR were also assessed. Structural equations examined the effect of sarcopenia (measured by Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass, Total Muscle Mass, Handgrip, Muscle Quality Score) on osteoporosis (measured by Vertebral and Femoral T-scores) in a latent variable model including adiposity (measured by Total Fat Mass, BMI, Ginoid/Android Fat), inflammation (PCR), and malnutrition (serum albumin). The sarcopenia assumed a role of moderator in the adiposity-osteoporosis relationship. Specifically, increasing the sarcopenia, the relationship adiposity-osteoporosis (β: -0.58) decrease in intensity. Adiposity also influences sarcopenia (β: -0.18). Malnutrition affects the inflammatory and the adiposity states (β: +0.61, and β: -0.30, respectively), while not influencing the sarcopenia. Thus, adiposity has a role as a mediator of the effect of malnutrition on both sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Malnutrition decreases adiposity; decreasing adiposity, in turn, increase the sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This study suggests such as in a group of elderly sarcopenia affects the link between adiposity and BMD, but not have a pure independent effect on osteoporosis.

  1. Asteroseismology of old open clusters with Kepler: direct estimate of the integrated red giant branch mass-loss in NGC 6791 and 6819

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglio, A.; Brogaard, Karsten Frank; Stello, D.

    2012-01-01

    Mass-loss of red giant branch (RGB) stars is still poorly determined, despite its crucial role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Thanks to the recent detection of solar-like oscillations in G–K giants in open clusters with Kepler, we can now directly determine stellar masses...... for a statistically significant sample of stars in the old open clusters NGC 6791 and 6819. The aim of this work is to constrain the integrated RGB mass-loss by comparing the average mass of stars in the red clump (RC) with that of stars in the low-luminosity portion of the RGB [i.e. stars with L≲L(RC)]. Stellar...... masses were determined by combining the available seismic parameters νmax and Δν with additional photometric constraints and with independent distance estimates. We measured the masses of 40 stars on the RGB and 19 in the RC of the old metal-rich cluster NGC 6791. We find that the difference between...

  2. The Dehydration of Water Worlds via Atmospheric Losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Huang, Zhenguang; Tóth, Gábor; Gombosi, Tamas [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: dcfy@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present a three-species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model (H{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and e {sup −}), endowed with the requisite atmospheric chemistry, that is capable of accurately quantifying the magnitude of water ion losses from exoplanets. We apply this model to a water world with Earth-like parameters orbiting a Sun-like star for three cases: (i) current normal solar wind conditions, (ii) ancient normal solar wind conditions, and (iii) one extreme “Carrington-type” space weather event. We demonstrate that the ion escape rate for (ii), with a value of 6.0 × 10{sup 26} s{sup −1}, is about an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value of 6.7 × 10{sup 25} s{sup −1} for (i). Studies of ion losses induced by space weather events, where the ion escape rates can reach ∼10{sup 28} s{sup −1}, are crucial for understanding how an active, early solar-type star (e.g., with frequent coronal mass ejections) could have accelerated the depletion of the exoplanet’s atmosphere. We briefly explore the ramifications arising from the loss of water ions, especially for planets orbiting M-dwarfs where such effects are likely to be significant.

  3. The Dehydration of Water Worlds via Atmospheric Losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Huang, Zhenguang; Tóth, Gábor; Gombosi, Tamas; Lingam, Manasvi

    2017-01-01

    We present a three-species multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model (H"+, H_2O"+, and e "−), endowed with the requisite atmospheric chemistry, that is capable of accurately quantifying the magnitude of water ion losses from exoplanets. We apply this model to a water world with Earth-like parameters orbiting a Sun-like star for three cases: (i) current normal solar wind conditions, (ii) ancient normal solar wind conditions, and (iii) one extreme “Carrington-type” space weather event. We demonstrate that the ion escape rate for (ii), with a value of 6.0 × 10"2"6 s"−"1, is about an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value of 6.7 × 10"2"5 s"−"1 for (i). Studies of ion losses induced by space weather events, where the ion escape rates can reach ∼10"2"8 s"−"1, are crucial for understanding how an active, early solar-type star (e.g., with frequent coronal mass ejections) could have accelerated the depletion of the exoplanet’s atmosphere. We briefly explore the ramifications arising from the loss of water ions, especially for planets orbiting M-dwarfs where such effects are likely to be significant.

  4. Effect of steam corrosion on HTGR core support post strength loss. Part II. Consequences of steam generator tube rupture event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    To perform the assessment, a series of eight tube-rupture events of varying severity and probability were postulated. Case 1 pertains to the situation where the moisture detection, loop isolation, and dump procedures function as planned; the remaining seven cases suppose various defects in the moisture detection system, the core auxiliary coolant system, and the integrity of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Core post burnoffs beneath three typical fuel zones were estimated for each postulated event from the determined impurity compositions and core post temperature history. Two separate corrosion rate expressions were assumed, as deemed most appropriate of those published for the high-oxidant level typical in tube rupture events. It was found that the nominal core post beneath the highest power factor fuel zone would lose from 0.02 to 2.5 percent of their strength, depending on an assumed corrosion rate equation and the severity of the event. The effect of hot streaking during cooldown was determined by using preliminary estimates of its magnitude. It was found that localized strength loss beneath the highest power factor zone ranges from 0.23 to 12 percent, assuming reasonably probable hot-streaking circumstances. The combined worst case, hot streaking typical for a load-following transient and most severe accident sequence, yields an estimated strength loss of from 25 to 33 percent for localized regions beneath the highest power factor zones

  5. Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event with m(4l) = 122.6 (123.9) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 87.9 GeV and 19.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-Jun-2012, 11:07:47 CEST in run number 205113 as event number 12611816. Zoom into the tracking detector. Muon tracks are colored red, electron tracks and clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored green.

  6. Reco level Smin and subsystem Smin: improved global inclusive variables for measuring the new physics mass scale in MET events at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Partha; /Florida U.; Kong, Kyoungchul; /SLAC; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.

    2011-08-11

    The variable {radical}s{sub min} was originally proposed in [1] as a model-independent, global and fully inclusive measure of the new physics mass scale in missing energy events at hadron colliders. In the original incarnation of {radical}s{sub min}, however, the connection to the new physics mass scale was blurred by the effects of the underlying event, most notably initial state radiation and multiple parton interactions. In this paper we advertize two improved variants of the {radical}s{sub min} variable, which overcome this problem. First we show that by evaluating the {radical}s{sub min} variable at the RECO level, in terms of the reconstructed objects in the event, the effects from the underlying event are significantly diminished and the nice correlation between the peak in the {radical}s{sub min}{sup (reco)} distribution and the new physics mass scale is restored. Secondly, the underlying event problem can be avoided altogether when the {radical}s{sub min} concept is applied to a subsystem of the event which does not involve any QCD jets. We supply an analytic formula for the resulting subsystem {radical}s{sub min}{sup (sub)} variable and show that its peak exhibits the usual correlation with the mass scale of the particles produced in the subsystem. Finally, we contrast {radical}s{sub min} to other popular inclusive variables such as H{sub T}, M{sub Tgen} and M{sub TTgen}. We illustrate our discussion with several examples from supersymmetry, and with dilepton events from top quark pair production.

  7. Measurement of the top quark mass using single top quark events in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Gonzalez, J Suarez; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Marono, M Vidal; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; 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Levchuk, L; Sorokin, P; Aggleton, R; Ball, F; Beck, L; Brooke, J J; Burns, D; Clement, E; Cussans, D; Flacher, H; Goldstein, J; Grimes, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Jacob, J; Kreczko, L; Lucas, C; Newbold, D M; Paramesvaran, S; Poll, A; Sakuma, T; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S; Smith, D; Smith, V J; Bell, K W; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Calligaris, L; Cieri, D; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Olaiya, E; Petyt, D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Thea, A; Tomalin, I R; Williams, T; Baber, M; Bainbridge, R; Buchmuller, O; Bundock, A; Burton, D; Casasso, S; Citron, M; Colling, D; Corpe, L; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; De Wit, A; Della Negra, M; Di Maria, R; Dunne, P; Elwood, A; Futyan, D; Haddad, Y; Hall, G; Iles, G; James, T; Lane, R; Laner, C; Lucas, R; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Malik, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Pela, J; Penning, B; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, D M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Scott, E; Seez, C; Summers, S; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wright, J; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Reid, I D; Symonds, P; Teodorescu, L; Turner, M; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Bartek, R; Dominguez, A; Buccilli, A; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; West, C; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Gastler, D; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Benelli, G; Cutts, D; Garabedian, A; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Hogan, J M; Jesus, O; Kwok, K H M; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Spencer, E; Syarif, R; Breedon, R; Burns, D; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Flores, C; Funk, G; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mclean, C; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Shalhout, S; Shi, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stolp, D; Tos, K; Tripathi, M; Bachtis, M; Bravo, C; Cousins, R; Dasgupta, A; Florent, A; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Mccoll, N; Saltzberg, D; Schnaible, C; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Bouvier, E; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Ghiasi Shirazi, S M A; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Olmedo Negrete, M; Paneva, M I; Shrinivas, A; Si, W; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; Derdzinski, M; Gerosa, R; Holzner, A; Klein, D; Krutelyov, V; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Welke, C; Wood, J; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Amin, N; Bhandari, R; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Franco Sevilla, M; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Heller, R; Incandela, J; Mullin, S D; Ovcharova, A; Qu, H; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Bendavid, J; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Duarte, J; Lawhorn, J M; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Ferguson, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Weinberg, M; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Leontsinis, S; Mulholland, T; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Mcdermott, K; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Tan, S M; Tao, Z; Thom, J; Tucker, J; Wittich, P; Zientek, M; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Cremonesi, M; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, M; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strait, J; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Wu, Y; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Shchutska, L; Sperka, D; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bein, S; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Kolberg, T; Prosper, H; Santra, A; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Castle, J; Forthomme, L; Kenny, R P; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jeng, G Y; Kellogg, R G; Kunkle, J; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Apyan, A; Azzolini, V; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; D'Alfonso, M; Demiragli, Z; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Krajczar, K; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Tatar, K; Velicanu, D; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Malta Rodrigues, A; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Nguyen, D; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Kumar, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Rupprecht, N; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mei, K; Ojalvo, I; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Tully, C; Malik, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Khatiwada, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Schulte, J F; Shi, X; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xie, W; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Foerster, M; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Juska, E; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the top quark mass is reported in events containing a single top quark produced via the electroweak t channel. The analysis is performed using data from proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb[Formula: see text]. Top quark candidates are reconstructed from their decay to a [Formula: see text] boson and a b quark, with the [Formula: see text] boson decaying leptonically to a muon and a neutrino. The final state signature and kinematic properties of single top quark events in the t channel are used to enhance the purity of the sample, suppressing the contribution from top quark pair production. A fit to the invariant mass distribution of reconstructed top quark candidates yields a value of the top quark mass of [Formula: see text]. This result is in agreement with the current world average, and represents the first measurement of the top quark mass in event topologies not dominated by top quark pair production, therefore contributing to future averages with partially uncorrelated systematic uncertainties and a largely uncorrelated statistical uncertainty.

  8. Adverse Events With Sustained-Release Donepezil in Alzheimer Disease: Relation to Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunsoo; Lee, Kyungsang; Yu, Hyewon; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Moon, Seok Woo; Han, Changsu; Lee, Jun-Young; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Shin-Gyeom; Kim, Ki Woong; Lee, Dong Woo; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Bae, Jae Nam; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Jeong Lan; Kim, Byung-Soo; Shin, Il-Seon; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Bong Jo; Kang, Hyo Shin; Myung, Woojae; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2017-08-01

    Sustained-release, high-dose (23 mg/d) donepezil has been approved for treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer disease (AD). Based on a previous clinical trial, body weight of less than 55 kg is a risk factor for adverse events with donepezil 23 mg/d treatment in global population. To clarify whether this finding is consistent across ethnic groups that vary in absolute body mass, we recruited Korean patients aged 45 to 90 years with moderate to severe AD who had been receiving standard donepezil immediate release 10 mg/d for at least 3 months. After screening, we analyzed a final cohort of 166 patients who received donepezil 23 mg/d for 24 weeks to compare the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) between patients with high versus low body mass index (BMI) based on the World Health Organization overweight criteria for Asian populations (23 kg/m). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 79.45% of patients in the lower BMI group and 58.06% of patients in the higher BMI group (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-5.63; χ = 7.58, P = 0.006). In a multivariable survival analysis, the group with lower BMI showed a higher occurrence of TEAEs (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.68; P = 0.002). In Korean patients with moderate to severe AD receiving high-dose donepezil over 24 weeks, TEAEs were significantly more common in those with lower BMI (not clinically overweight), especially nausea. This finding may inform clinical practice for Asian patients.

  9. Assessment of the regional economic impacts of catastrophic events: CGE analysis of resource loss and behavioral effects of an RDD attack scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesecke, J A; Burns, W J; Barrett, A; Bayrak, E; Rose, A; Slovic, P; Suher, M

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the regional economic consequences of a hypothetical catastrophic event-attack via radiological dispersal device (RDD)-centered on the downtown Los Angeles area. We distinguish two routes via which such an event might affect regional economic activity: (i) reduction in effective resource supply (the resource loss effect) and (ii) shifts in the perceptions of economic agents (the behavioral effect). The resource loss effect relates to the physical destructiveness of the event, while the behavioral effect relates to changes in fear and risk perception. Both affect the size of the regional economy. RDD detonation causes little capital damage and few casualties, but generates substantial short-run resource loss via business interruption. Changes in fear and risk perception increase the supply cost of resources to the affected region, while simultaneously reducing demand for goods produced in the region. We use results from a nationwide survey, tailored to our RDD scenario, to inform our model values for behavioral effects. Survey results, supplemented by findings from previous research on stigmatized asset values, suggest that in the region affected by the RDD, households may require higher wages, investors may require higher returns, and customers may require price discounts. We show that because behavioral effects may have lingering long-term deleterious impacts on both the supply-cost of resources to a region and willingness to pay for regional output, they can generate changes in regional gross domestic product (GDP) much greater than those generated by resource loss effects. Implications for policies that have the potential to mitigate these effects are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. O Star Wind Mass-Loss Rates and Shock Physics from X-ray Line Profiles in Archival XMM RGS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    O stars are characterized by their dense, supersonic stellar winds. These winds are the site of X-ray emission from shock-heated plasma. By analyzing high-resolution X-ray spectra of these O stars, we can learn about the wind-shock heating and X-ray production mechanism. But in addition, the X-rays can also be used to measure the mass-loss rate of the stellar wind, which is a key observational quantity whose value affects stellar evolution and energy, momentum, and mass input to the Galactic interstellar medium. We make this X-ray based mass-loss measurement by analyzing the profile shapes of the X-ray emission lines observed at high resolution with the Chandra and XMM-Newton grating spectrometers. One advantage of our method is that it is insensitive to small-scale clumping that affects density-squared diagnostics. We are applying this analysis technique to O stars in the Chandra archive, and are finding mass-loss rates lower than those traditionally assumed for these O stars, and in line with more recent independent determinations that do account for clumping. By extending this analysis to the XMM RGS data archive, we will make significant contributions to the understanding of both X-ray production in O stars and to addressing the issue of the actual mass-loss rates of O stars. The XMM RGS data archive provides several extensions and advantages over the smaller Chandra HETGS archive: (1) there are roughly twice as many O and early B stars in the XMM archive; (2) the longer wavelength response of the RGS provides access to diagnostically important lines of nitrogen and carbon; (3) the very long, multiple exposures of zeta Pup provide the opportunity to study this canonical O supergiant's X-ray spectrum in unprecedented detail, including looking at the time variability of X-ray line profiles. Our research team has developed a sophisticated empirical line profile model as well as a computational infrastructure for fitting the model to high-resolution X-ray spectra

  11. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  12. Stellar Evolution in NGC 6791: Mass Loss on the Red Giant Branch and the Formation of Low-Mass White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jasonjot S.; Bergeron, P.; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Reitzel, David B.; Rich, R. Michael; Richer, Harvey B.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first detailed study of the properties (temperatures, gravities, and masses) of the NGC 6791 white dwarf population. This unique stellar system is both one of the oldest (8 Gyr) and most metal-rich ([Fe/H]~+0.4) open clusters in our Galaxy and has a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that exhibits both a red giant clump and a much hotter extreme horizontal branch. Fitting the Balmer lines of the white dwarfs in the cluster using Keck/LRIS spectra suggests that most of these stars are undermassive, =0.43+/-0.06 Msolar, and therefore could not have formed from canonical stellar evolution involving the helium flash at the tip of the red giant branch. We show that at least 40% of NGC 6791's evolved stars must have lost enough mass on the red giant branch to avoid the flash and therefore did not convert helium into carbon-oxygen in their core. Such increased mass loss in the evolution of the progenitors of these stars is consistent with the presence of the extreme horizontal branch in the CMD. This unique stellar evolutionary channel also naturally explains the recent finding of a very young age (2.4 Gyr) for NGC 6791 from white dwarf cooling theory; helium-core white dwarfs in this cluster will cool ~3 times slower than carbon-oxygen-core stars, and therefore the corrected white dwarf cooling age is in fact >~7 Gyr, consistent with the well-measured main-sequence turnoff age. These results provide direct empirical evidence that mass loss is much more efficient in high-metallicity environments and therefore may be critical in interpreting the ultraviolet upturn in elliptical galaxies. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based on observations obtained at the

  13. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  14. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E ∼ 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20° of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  15. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S. W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Akiyama, S. [Institute for Astrophyics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: AFRL.RVB.PA@kirtland.af.mil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E {approx} 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 Degree-Sign of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  16. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  17. Impaired physical function, loss of muscle mass and assessment of biomechanical properties in critical ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum

    2012-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment. A plaus......Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment....... A plausible contributor to the accentuated catabolic drive in ICU patients is a synergistic response to inflammation and inactivity leading to loss of muscle mass. As these entities are predominantly present in the early phase of ICU stay, interventions employed during this time frame may exhibit the greatest...... potential to counteract loss of muscle mass. Despite the obvious clinical significance of muscle atrophy for the functional impairment observed in ICU survivors, no preventive therapies have been identified as yet. The overall aim of the present dissertation is to characterize aspects of physical function...

  18. Evaluation of Frequency and Restoration time for Loss of Offsite Power events based on domestic operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin-Hee; Han, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Ho Joong

    2006-01-01

    It is recognized that the availability of AC power to nuclear power plants is essential for safe operation and shutdown and accident recovery of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Unavailability of AC power can be a important adverse impact on a plant's ability to recover accident sequences and maintain safe shutdown. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA or PRA) performed for Korea NPPs also indicated that a loss of offsite power (LOOP) event and a station blackout (SBO) event can be a important contributors to total risk at nuclear power plant, contributing from 30% to 70% of the total risk at some NPPs in Korea. But, up to now, the LOOP and subsequent restoration time are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessment have relied upon foreign data. Therefore, in this paper, the actual LOOP events that have occurred from 1978 to 2004 at commercial nuclear power plants in Korea are collected. A statistical analysis for LOOP frequency and restoration time are performed to apply NPPs's specific and realistic risk model in Korea. Additionally, an engineering analysis is also performed to obtain the insights about the LOOP events

  19. Electromagnetic Signals Following Stellar-mass Black Hole Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mink, S. E. de; King, A., E-mail: S.E.deMink@uva.nl, E-mail: ark@leicester.ac.uk [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-04-10

    It is often assumed that gravitational-wave (GW) events resulting from the merger of stellar-mass black holes are unlikely to produce electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. We point out that the progenitor binary has probably shed a mass ≳10 M {sub ⊙} during its prior evolution. If even a tiny fraction of this gas is retained in a circumbinary disk, the sudden mass loss and recoil of the merged black hole shocks and heats it within hours of the GW event. Whether the resulting EM signal is detectable is uncertain. The optical depth through the disk is likely to be high enough that the prompt emission consists only of photons from its optically thin skin, while the majority may take years to emerge. However, if some mechanism can release more photons in a time comparable to the few-hour energy production time, the peak luminosity of the EM signal could be detectable. For a disk retaining only ∼10{sup −3} of the mass shed in the earlier binary evolution, medium-energy X-rays to infrared emission would be observable hours after the GW event for source distances of ∼500 Mpc. Events like this may already have been observed, but ascribed to unidentified active galactic nuclei. Improved sky localization should eventually allow identification based on spatial coincidence. A detection would provide unique constraints on formation scenarios and potentially offer tests of strong-field general relativity. Accordingly, we argue that the high scientific payoff of an EM detection fully justifies search campaigns.

  20. Mass psychogenic illness after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C John

    2003-01-01

    When vaccines are administered to groups, the physical reactions of the recipients may be similar, causing a form of mass reaction, the mechanism for which is the same as that for mass reactions from other causes. These phenomena have been categorised as mass psychogenic illness (MPI), and have been defined as the collective occurrence of a constellation of symptoms suggestive of organic illness but without an identified cause in a group of people with shared beliefs about the cause of the symptom(s). A review of the literature shows that such outbreaks have been reported in differing cultural and environmental settings including developing and industrialised countries, in the work place, on public transport, in schools, and the military. The perceived threats have been against agents such as food poisoning, fire and toxic gases. Whatever the place or perceived threat, the response seems to be similar. The symptoms generally included headache, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Once under way, MPIs are not easy to stop. Incidents reported in the literature show that they can quickly gather momentum and can be amplified by the press who disseminate information rapidly, escalating the events. Management of such mass events can be extremely difficult. Should the public health official in charge continue to try and determine the cause, or should this person call off the entire investigation? It is suggested here that once vaccines are identified as a probable cause of the phenomenon, a dismissive approach may actually be harmful. Unless the spokesperson has already earned a high level of trust, the public are not likely to be convinced easily that nothing was wrong with the vaccine until it has been tested. An increased awareness of MPIs on the part of organisers of future mass vaccination campaigns seems appropriate. Immunisation managers should be aware that mass immunisation campaigns could generate such mass reactions. It is therefore essential that

  1. Predation by feeding aggregations of Drupella spp. inhibits the recovery of reefs damaged by a mass bleaching event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Andrew W.; Coward, Georgia; Bimson, Kathyrn; Rattanawongwan, Tipwimon

    2017-12-01

    High densities of two corallivorous gastropods, Drupella cornus and D. rugosa, may delay the recovery of coral reefs impacted by mass bleaching events by aggregating on the remaining corals. Following severe bleaching in April/May 2016 that resulted in the loss of up to 80% of the living coral cover from reefs in South Malé, Maldives, aggregations of up to 250 Drupella per coral were recorded on surviving colonies. The distribution of snails was not random; larger aggregations were seen on reefs with fewer remaining live corals and also on the largest corals. Branching, digitate and tabular corals, especially species of Acropora and Pocillopora, sustained the highest mortality from the bleaching. Remaining colonies of these taxa exhibited the highest occurrence of snails and the most extensive snail predation, although less-preferred taxa such as Montipora, Porites, Astreopora, Cyphastrea and Pachyseris were also targeted. Drupella also concentrated on broken Acropora branches and overturned colonies; on some reefs, these were the only surviving acroporids, and many of them did not bleach. Continued predation pressure from Drupella may eliminate formerly dominant corals, including genets that are resistant to higher sea water temperatures.

  2. [The role of patient flow and surge capacity for in-hospital response in mass casualty events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefrin, Peter; Kuhnigk, Herbert

    2008-03-01

    Mass casualty events make demands on emergency services and disaster control. However, optimized in- hospital response defines the quality of definitive care. Therefore, German federal law governs the role of hospitals in mass casualty incidents. In hospital casualty surge is depending on resources that have to be expanded with a practicable alarm plan. Thus, in-hospital mass casualty management planning is recommended to be organized by specialized persons. To minimise inhospital patient overflow casualty surge principles have to be implemented in both, pre-hospital and in-hospital disaster planning. World soccer championship 2006 facilitated the initiation of surge and damage control principles in in-hospital disaster planning strategies for German hospitals. The presented concept of strict control of in-hospital patient flow using surge principles minimises the risk of in-hospital breakdown and increases definitive hospital treatment capacity in mass casualty incidents.

  3. Preserving Healthy Muscle during Weight Loss123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss–associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss–induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. PMID:28507015

  4. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.

  5. The impact of realistic models of mass segregation on the event rate of extreme-mass ratio inspirals and cusp re-growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Preto, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most interesting sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for LISA is the inspiral of compact objects on to a massive black hole (MBH), commonly referred to as an 'extreme-mass ratio inspiral' (EMRI). The small object, typically a stellar black hole, emits significant amounts of GW along each orbit in the detector bandwidth. The slowly, adiabatic inspiral of these sources will allow us to map spacetime around MBHs in detail, as well as to test our current conception of gravitation in the strong regime. The event rate of this kind of source has been addressed many times in the literature and the numbers reported fluctuate by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, recent observations of the Galactic centre revealed a dearth of giant stars inside the inner parsec relative to the numbers theoretically expected for a fully relaxed stellar cusp. The possibility of unrelaxed nuclei (or, equivalently, with no or only a very shallow cusp, or core) adds substantial uncertainty to the estimates. Having this timely question in mind, we run a significant number of direct-summation N-body simulations with up to half a million particles to calibrate a much faster orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck code. We show that, under quite generic initial conditions, the time required for the growth of a relaxed, mass segregated stellar cusp is shorter than a Hubble time for MBHs with M . ∼ 6 M o-dot (i.e. nuclei in the range of LISA). We then investigate the regime of strong mass segregation (SMS) for models with two different stellar mass components. Given the most recent stellar mass normalization for the inner parsec of the Galactic centre, SMS has the significant impact of boosting the EMRI rates by a factor of ∼10 in comparison to what would result from a 7/4-Bahcall and Wolf cusp resulting in ∼250 events per Gyr per Milky Way type galaxy. Such an intrinsic rate should translate roughly into ∼10 2 -7 x 10 2 sbh's (EMRIs detected by LISA over a mission lifetime of 2 or 5

  6. Factors which modulate the rates of skeletal muscle mass loss in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Philippe; Bayar, Mohamed Amine; Lanoy, Emilie; Besse, Benjamin; Planchard, David; Ramon, Jordy; Raynard, Bruno; Antoun, Sami

    2017-11-01

    Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with weight loss which may reflect skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and/or total adipose tissue (TAT) depletion. This study aimed to describe changes in body composition (BC) parameters and to identify the factors unrelated to the tumor which modulate them. SMM, TAT, and the proportion of SMM to SMM + TAT were assessed with computed tomography. Estimates of each BC parameter at follow-up initiation and across time were derived from a mixed linear model of repeated measurements with a random intercept and a random slope. The same models were used to assess the independent effect of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and initial values on changes in each BC parameter. Sixty-four patients with stage III or IV NSCLC were reviewed. The mean ± SD decreases in body weight and SMM were respectively 59 ± 3 g/week (P SMM to SMM + TAT, estimated at 37 ± 2% at baseline. SMM loss was influenced by initial BMI (P SMM values (P = 0.0002): the higher the initial BMI or SMM values, the greater the loss observed. Weight loss was greater when the initial weight was heavier (P SMM wasting in NSCLC is lower when initial SMM and BMI values are low. These exploratory findings after our attempt to better understand the intrinsic factors associated with muscle mass depletion need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  7. 7 CFR 760.611 - Qualifying losses, eligible causes and types of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... final planting date; (4) The cause of loss was due to water contained or released by any governmental... containment or release of the water; (5) The cause of loss was due to conditions or events occurring outside...) Losses caused by a failure of power supply or brownout as defined in § 760.602; (2) Losses caused by the...

  8. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display (side view) of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. Electron clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  9. Measurement of the top-quark mass in $t\\bar{t}$ events with lepton+jets final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; De Remigis, Paolo; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The mass of the top quark is measured using a sample of $t\\bar{t}$ candidate events with one electron or muon and at least four jets in the final state, collected by CMS in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV at the LHC. A total of 5174 candidate events is selected from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. For each event the mass is reconstructed from a kinematic fit of the decay products to a $t\\bar{t}$ hypothesis. The top-quark mass is determined simultaneously with the jet energy scale (JES), constrained by the known mass of the W boson in q anti-q decays, to be 173.49 $\\pm$ 0.43 (stat.+JES) $\\pm$ 0.98 (syst.) GeV.

  10. Water vapor concentration dependence and temperature dependence of Li mass loss from Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} with excess Li and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimozori, Motoki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Katayama, Kazunari, E-mail: kadzu@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuch, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ushida, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Ryotaro; Fukada, Satoshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Li mass loss from Li{sub 2.11}TiO{sub 3} increased proportionally to water vapor pressure. • Li mass loss from Li{sub 2.11}TiO{sub 3} at 600 °C was significantly smaller than expected. • Differences of Li mass loss behavior from Li{sub 2.11}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} were shown. - Abstract: In this study, weight reduction of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} with excess Li and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} at elevated temperatures under hydrogen atmosphere or water vapor atmosphere was investigated. The Li mass loss for the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} at 900 °C was 0.4 wt% under 1000 Pa H{sub 2} atmosphere and 1.5 wt% under 50 Pa H{sub 2}O atmosphere. The Li mass loss for the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} increased proportionally to the water vapor pressure in the range from 50 to 200 Pa at 900 °C and increased with increasing temperature from 700 to 900 °C although Li mass loss at 600 °C was significantly smaller than expected. It was found that water vapor concentration dependence and temperature dependence of Li mass loss for the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} used in this work were quite different. Water vapor is released from the ceramic breeder materials into the purge gas due to desorption of adsorbed water and water formation reaction. The released water vapor possibly promotes Li mass loss with the formation of LiOH on the surface.

  11. The abundance of herbivorous fish on an inshore Red Sea reef following a mass coral bleaching event

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Maha T.; Cochran, Jesse; Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    and scarine labrids) were comparatively studied for an inshore reef that was severely impacted by a mass coral bleaching event in 2010 and an unaffected reef within the same region. Densities were found to be significantly higher on the affected reef, most

  12. Drainage in Shallow Peatlands of Marginal Upland Landscapes: DOC Losses from High Flow Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Gatis, N.; Benaud, P.; Brazier, R.

    2013-12-01

    ) and finally headwater catchment-scales. Flow monitoring has been in place at all scales since November 2010. Flow-proportional water samples were collected during a range of events throughout winter 2011 to 2013 and analysed for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and colour, as these variables were identified as critical, both in terms of carbon cycling and for costly water treatment that currently takes place downstream. DOC fluxes were examined temporarily and spatially in relation to season, drain sizes, and magnitude/frequency of event. First results show higher DOC concentrations during rain events occurring in the summer compared to winter times, due to generally drier conditions. DOC fluxes per 24h rain events reach up to 3g/m2. Such measurements are used to evaluate annual DOC losses at the scale of the whole catchment. This will help improving our understanding of carbon losses and fluxes in streams from damaged peatlands, and further estimate the impact on the supply of ecosystem services, and the potential for improvement that can be expected following restoration.

  13. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Naida C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO, bioimpedance analysis (BIA and ultrasonography (US in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM and lean (LM body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals, after 10% of weight loss (T1 and after 20% of weight loss (T2. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM; however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed.

  14. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  15. Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, Amely M; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Memelink, Robert G; van der Plas, Suzanne E; Visser, Marjolein; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for accelerated muscle mass loss. We investigated whether a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise preserves fat free mass (FFM) during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults. METHODS: We included 100

  16. Increased meal frequency attenuates fat-free mass losses and some markers of health status with a portion-controlled weight loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Michelle K; Beam, Jason R; McCormick, James J; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Ferraro, Robert T; Kerksick, Chad M

    2015-05-01

    Increased meal frequency (MF) may be associated with improvements in blood markers of health and body composition during weight loss; however, this claim has not been validated. The purpose of the study was to determine if either a 2-meal (2 MF) or 6-meal frequency (6 MF) regimen can improve body composition and blood-based markers of health while consuming a portion-controlled equihypocaloric diet. Eleven (N=11) obese women (52 ± 7 years, 101.7 ± 22.6 kg, 39.1 ± 7.6 kg/m(2)) were randomized into treatment condition (2 MF or 6 MF) for 2 weeks, completed a 2-week washout, and alternated treatment conditions. In pre/post fashion, changes in body composition, glucose, insulin, and lipid components were measured in response to a test meal. Body mass was successfully lost (P ≤ .05) under both feeding regimens (2 MF: -2.8 ± 1.5 vs 6 MF: -1.9 ± 1.5 kg). Altering MF did not impact glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05). On average, fat-free mass (FFM) decreased by -3.3% ± 2.6% following the 2 MF condition and, on average, increased by 1.2% ± 1.7% following the 6 MF condition (P ≤ .05). Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) percentage increased during the 2 MF condition; this was significantly greater than that in the 6 MF condition (1.3% ± 12.2% vs 0.12% ± 10.3%) (P ≤ .05). Overall, reductions in MF (2 MF) were associated with improved HDL-C levels; but the clinical significance is not clear. Alternatively, increased MF (6 MF) did appear to favorably preserve FFM during weight loss. In conclusion, caloric restriction was effective in reducing body mass and attenuating FFM changes in body composition; however, glucose, insulin, and lipid metabolism had no significant differences between MF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass loss and flammability of insulation materials used in sandwich panels during the pre-flashover phase of fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giunta d'Albani, A.W.; de Kluiver, L.L.; de Korte, A.C.J.; van Herpen, R.; Weewer, R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, buildings contain more and more synthetic insulation materials in order to meet the increasing energy-performance demands. These synthetic insulation materials have a different response to fire. In this study, the mass loss and flammability limits of different sandwich panels and their

  18. Initial concepts on energetics and mass releases during nonnuclear explosive events in fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, M.A.; Mishima, J.

    1986-09-01

    Non-nuclear explosions are one of the initiating events (accidents) considered in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission study of formal methods for estimating the airborne release of radionuclides from fuel cycle facilities. Methods currently available to estimate the energetics and mass airborne release from the four types of non-nuclear explosive events (fast and slow physical explosions and fast and slow chemical explosions) are reviewed. The likelihood that fast physical explosions will occur in fuel cycle facilities appears to be remote and this type of explosion is not considered. Methods to estimate the consequences of slow physical and fast chemical explosions are available. Methods to estimate the consequences of slow chemical explosions are less well defined

  19. Premature loss of muscle mass and function in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, N; Bunout, D; Hirsch, S; Barrera, G; Leiva, L; Henríquez, S; De la Maza, M P

    2016-07-01

    Muscle mass and function are among the most relevant factors that contribute to an optimal quality of life, and are strong predictors of mortality in the elderly. Loss of lean tissues and deterioration of muscle function have been described as one of the many complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but most studies do not isolate age as an intervening factor. To study whether adult DM2 patients up to 60years of age have decreased muscle mass and function compared with healthy non-diabetic (ND) subjects of similar age. Appendicular fat-free mass (ApFFM) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), handgrip strength (HS), quadriceps strength (QS), 12 min walking capacity (12MW) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were measured in 100 DM2 patients and 39 ND controls. Muscle quality, or the ratio between lean mass and muscle strength of upper and lower limbs, and the functional limitations associated with pain and stiffness assessed according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthrosis Index (WOMAC) were also recorded. Specific tests were performed to rule out microvascular diabetic complications (retinal and peripheral nerves), metabolic control, kidney function and vitamin D status and examine their association with ApFFM and function. ApFFM was significantly higher among DM2 female patients and lower among diabetic men. However opposite results were obtained when individual values were corrected for body mass index (BMI), specifically among women, who were more likely to be obese. As for muscle strength and global functionality tests, significantly better performances in TUG, 12MW, QS and HS were observed among ND subjects of both sexes. These differences prevailed even after excluding diabetic patients with microvascular complications as well as those with more than 10years of diabetes. Muscle quality was also significantly better among ND women. Higher scores of pain and stiffness in the WOMAC scale correlated with 12MW and TUG in both groups but

  20. DLK1 is a novel regulator of bone mass that mediates estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Ditzel, Nicholas; Mahmood, Amer

    2011-01-01

    . In a number of in vitro culture systems, Dlk1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis indirectly through osteoblast-dependent increased production of proinflammatory bone-resorbing cytokines (eg, Il7, Tnfa, and Ccl3). We found that ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss was associated with increased production of Dlk1...... in the bone marrow by activated T cells. Interestingly, Dlk1(-/-) mice were significantly protected from ovx-induced bone loss compared with wild-type mice. Thus we identified Dlk1 as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to inhibit bone formation and to stimulate bone resorption. Increasing DLK1...... production by T cells under estrogen deficiency suggests its possible use as a therapeutic target for preventing postmenopausal bone loss....

  1. Intraosseous vascular access in disasters and mass casualty events: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, James M

    2016-01-01

    The intraosseous (IO) route of vascular access has been increasingly used to administer resuscitative fluids and drugs to patients in whom reliable intravenous (IV) access could not be rapidly or easily obtained. It is unknown that to what extent the IO route has been used to gain vascular access during disasters and mass casualty events. The purpose of this review was to examine the existing literature to answer the research question, "What is the utility of the IO route compared to other routes for establishing vascular access in patients resulting from disasters and mass casualty events?" Keyword-based online database search of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. University-based academic research cell. Included evidence were randomized and nonrandomized trials, systematic reviews with and without meta-analysis, case series, and case reports. Excluded evidence included narrative reviews and expert opinion. Not applicable. Of 297 evidence sources located, 22 met inclusion criteria. Located evidence was organized into four categories including chemical agent poisoning, IO placement, while wearing chemical protective clothing (PPE), military trauma, and infectious disease outbreak. Evidence indicates that the IO route of infusion is pharmacokinetically equal to the IV route and superior to the intramuscular (IM) and endotracheal routes for the administration of antidotal drugs in animal models of chemical agent poisoning while wearing full chemical PPE. The IO route is superior to the IM route for antidote administration during hypovolemic shock. Civilian casualties of explosive attacks and mass shootings would likely benefit from expanded use of the IO route and military resuscitation strategies. The IO route is useful for fluid resuscitation in the management of diarrheal and hemorrhagic infectious disease outbreaks.

  2. Highest-mass di-photon event recorded by CMS as of Dec '15 (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This image shows a collision event with the largest-mass photon pair so far observed by the CMS detector in collision data collected in 2015. The mass of the di-photon system is 1.5 TeV. One photon candidate, with a transverse momentum of 530 GeV is reconstructed in the endcap region, while a second, with a transverse momentum of 400 GeV, is reconstructed in the barrel region. Both photon candidates are consistent with the expectation that they are prompt isolated photons.

  3. Decreasing cloud cover drives the recent mass loss on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan; Tedstone, Andrew J; Fettweis, Xavier; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2017-06-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. We show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be attributed largely to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover enhancing the melt-albedo feedback. Satellite observations show that, from 1995 to 2009, summer cloud cover decreased by 0.9 ± 0.3% per year. Model output indicates that the GrIS summer melt increases by 27 ± 13 gigatons (Gt) per percent reduction in summer cloud cover, principally because of the impact of increased shortwave radiation over the low albedo ablation zone. The observed reduction in cloud cover is strongly correlated with a state shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation promoting anticyclonic conditions in summer and suggests that the enhanced surface mass loss from the GrIS is driven by synoptic-scale changes in Arctic-wide atmospheric circulation.

  4. submitter Preparatory studies on the determination of the top-quark mass in single top-quark events with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wahdan, Shayma'; Wagner, Wolfgang

    In this thesis, a measurement of the single top quark mass produced in the t -channel is presented, using the data sample recorded recently in 2015 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, at a centre of mass energy of √ s = 13 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 f b−1 . The selected events contain one charged lepton (electron or muon), missing transverse energy, and two jets with high transverse momentum with one of them being b-tagged. The template method is used to extract the top quark mass from the distribution of the invariant mass of the lepton and the b-jet (m(`b)) in the selected events. The result of the measured top quark mass is: mtop = [174.56 ± 3.11(syst.) ± 1.02(stat.)] GeV.

  5. Basic experiments during loss of vacuum event (LOVE) in fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Seki, Yasushi

    1993-01-01

    If a loss of vacuum event (LOVE) occurs due to damage of the vacuum vessel of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor, some chemical reactions such as a graphic oxidation and a buoyancy-driven exchange flow take place after equalization of the gas pressure between the inside and outside of the vacuum vessel. The graphite oxidation would generate inflammable carbon monoxide and release tritium retained in the graphite. The exchange flow through the breaches may transport the carbon monoxide and tritium out of the vacuum vessel. To add confidence to the safety evaluations and analyses, it is important to grasp the basic phenomena such as the exchange flow and the graphite oxidation. Experiments of the exchange flow and the graphite oxidation were carried out to obtain the exchange flow rate and the rate constant for the carbon monoxide combustion, respectively. These experimental results were compared with existing correlations. The authors plan a scaled-model test and a full-scale model test for the LOVE

  6. Do interacting coronal mass ejections play a role in solar energetic particle events?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Vourlidas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events are produced in shocks driven by fast and wide coronal mass ejections (CMEs). With a set of western hemisphere 20 MeV SEP events, we test the possibility that SEP peak intensities, Ip, are enhanced by interactions of their associated CMEs with preceding CMEs (preCMEs) launched during the previous 12 hr. Among SEP events with no, 1, or 2 or more (2+) preCMEs, we find enhanced Ip for the groups with preCMEs, but no differences in TO+TR, the time from CME launch to SEP onset and the time from onset to SEP half-peak Ip. Neither the timings of the preCMEs relative to their associated CMEs nor the preCME widths W pre , speeds V pre , or numbers correlate with the SEP Ip values. The 20 MeV Ip of all the preCME groups correlate with the 2 MeV proton background intensities, consistent with a general correlation with possible seed particle populations. Furthermore, the fraction of CMEs with preCMEs also increases with the 2 MeV proton background intensities. This implies that the higher SEP Ip values with preCMEs may not be due primarily to CME interactions, such as the 'twin-CME' scenario, but are explained by a general increase of both background seed particles and more frequent CMEs during times of higher solar activity. This explanation is not supported by our analysis of 2 MeV proton backgrounds in two earlier preCME studies of SEP events, so the relevance of CME interactions for larger SEP event intensities remains unclear.

  7. The extraordinary mass-loss bubble G2.4 + 1.4 and its central star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.A.; Mcgregor, P.J.; Rawlings, S.J.; Lozinskaia, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on the WR 102 star and the surrounding nebula (G2.4 + 1.4). It is shown that WR 102 and the nebula are associated, the nebula being a mass-loss bubble powered by the central star. From a photoionization analysis of the surrounding nebula, the star was determined to have the following parameters: log T(ion) = 5.20 + or - 0.05; log (R/solar R) = about 0.05; and log (L/solar L) = 5.85 + or - 0.20. 42 refs

  8. Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event with m(4l) = 122.6 (123.9) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 87.9 GeV and 19.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-Jun-2012, 11:07:47 CEST in run number 205113 as event number 12611816. Muon tracks are colored red, electron tracks and clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored green. The larger inset shows a zoom into the tracking detector. The smaller inset shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 leptons originate from the same primary vertex.

  9. Predicting loss of evolutionary history: Where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, Simon; Davies, T Jonathan; Cadotte, Marc W; Clergeau, Philippe; Pavoine, Sandrine

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's evolutionary history is threatened by species loss in the current sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history. Such extinction events not only eliminate species but also their unique evolutionary histories. Here we review the expected loss of Earth's evolutionary history quantified by phylogenetic diversity (PD) and evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) at risk. Due to the general paucity of data, global evolutionary history losses have been predicted for only a few groups, such as mammals, birds, amphibians, plants, corals and fishes. Among these groups, there is now empirical support that extinction threats are clustered on the phylogeny; however this is not always a sufficient condition to cause higher loss of phylogenetic diversity in comparison to a scenario of random extinctions. Extinctions of the most evolutionarily distinct species and the shape of phylogenetic trees are additional factors that can elevate losses of evolutionary history. Consequently, impacts of species extinctions differ among groups and regions, and even if global losses are low within large groups, losses can be high among subgroups or within some regions. Further, we show that PD and ED are poorly protected by current conservation practices. While evolutionary history can be indirectly protected by current conservation schemes, optimizing its preservation requires integrating phylogenetic indices with those that capture rarity and extinction risk. Measures based on PD and ED could bring solutions to conservation issues, however they are still rarely used in practice, probably because the reasons to protect evolutionary history are not clear for practitioners or due to a lack of data. However, important advances have been made in the availability of phylogenetic trees and methods for their construction, as well as assessments of extinction risk. Some challenges remain, and looking forward, research should prioritize the assessment of expected PD and ED loss for more taxonomic

  10. Body Mass Index Trajectories from Adolescence to Early Young Adulthood : Do Adverse Life Events Play a Role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Hoek, Hans W.; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are different classes of body mass index (BMI) development from early adolescence to young adulthood and whether these classes are related to the number of adverse life events children experienced. Methods: Data were from the TRAILS

  11. Comparing soil carbon loss through respiration and leaching under extreme precipitation events in arid and semiarid grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Wang, Liang; Feng, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jinbo; Ma, Tian; Wang, Xin; Liu, Zongguang

    2018-03-01

    Respiration and leaching are two main processes responsible for soil carbon loss. While the former has received considerable research attention, studies examining leaching processes are limited, especially in semiarid grasslands due to low precipitation. Climate change may increase the extreme precipitation event (EPE) frequency in arid and semiarid regions, potentially enhancing soil carbon loss through leaching and respiration. Here we incubated soil columns of three typical grassland soils from Inner Mongolia and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and examined the effect of simulated EPEs on soil carbon loss through respiration and leaching. EPEs induced a transient increase in CO2 release through soil respiration, equivalent to 32 and 72 % of the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in the temperate grasslands (Xilinhot and Keqi) and 7 % of NEP in the alpine grasslands (Gangcha). By comparison, leaching loss of soil carbon accounted for 290, 120, and 15 % of NEP at the corresponding sites, respectively, with dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, biogenic DIC + lithogenic DIC) as the main form of carbon loss in the alkaline soils. Moreover, DIC loss increased with recurring EPEs in the soil with the highest pH due to an elevated contribution of dissolved CO2 from organic carbon degradation (indicated by DIC-δ13C). These results highlight the fact that leaching loss of soil carbon (particularly in the form of DIC) is important in the regional carbon budget of arid and semiarid grasslands and also imply that SOC mineralization in alkaline soils might be underestimated if only measured as CO2 emission from soils into the atmosphere. With a projected increase in EPEs under climate change, soil carbon leaching processes and the influencing factors warrant a better understanding and should be incorporated into soil carbon models when estimating carbon balance in grassland ecosystems.

  12. Comparing soil carbon loss through respiration and leaching under extreme precipitation events in arid and semiarid grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiration and leaching are two main processes responsible for soil carbon loss. While the former has received considerable research attention, studies examining leaching processes are limited, especially in semiarid grasslands due to low precipitation. Climate change may increase the extreme precipitation event (EPE frequency in arid and semiarid regions, potentially enhancing soil carbon loss through leaching and respiration. Here we incubated soil columns of three typical grassland soils from Inner Mongolia and the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau and examined the effect of simulated EPEs on soil carbon loss through respiration and leaching. EPEs induced a transient increase in CO2 release through soil respiration, equivalent to 32 and 72 % of the net ecosystem productivity (NEP in the temperate grasslands (Xilinhot and Keqi and 7 % of NEP in the alpine grasslands (Gangcha. By comparison, leaching loss of soil carbon accounted for 290, 120, and 15 % of NEP at the corresponding sites, respectively, with dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, biogenic DIC + lithogenic DIC as the main form of carbon loss in the alkaline soils. Moreover, DIC loss increased with recurring EPEs in the soil with the highest pH due to an elevated contribution of dissolved CO2 from organic carbon degradation (indicated by DIC-δ13C. These results highlight the fact that leaching loss of soil carbon (particularly in the form of DIC is important in the regional carbon budget of arid and semiarid grasslands and also imply that SOC mineralization in alkaline soils might be underestimated if only measured as CO2 emission from soils into the atmosphere. With a projected increase in EPEs under climate change, soil carbon leaching processes and the influencing factors warrant a better understanding and should be incorporated into soil carbon models when estimating carbon balance in grassland ecosystems.

  13. Winter reduction in body mass in a very small, nonhibernating mammal: consequences for heat loss and metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jan R E; Rychlik, Leszek; Churchfield, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Low temperatures in northern winters are energetically challenging for mammals, and a special energetic burden is expected for diminutive species like shrews, which are among the smallest of mammals. Surprisingly, shrews shrink their body size in winter and reduce body and brain mass, an effect known as Dehnel's phenomenon, which is suggested to lower absolute energy intake requirements and thereby enhance survival when food availability is low. Yet reduced body size coupled with higher body-surface-to-mass ratio in these tiny mammals may result in thermoregulatory heat production at a given temperature constituting a larger proportion of the total energy expenditure. To evaluate energetic consequences of reduced body size in winter, we investigated common shrews Sorex araneus in northeastern Poland. Average body mass decreased by 19.0% from summer to winter, and mean skull depth decreased by 13.1%. There was no difference in Dehnel's phenomenon between years despite different weather conditions. The whole-animal thermal conductance (proportional to absolute heat loss) in shrews was 19% lower in winter than in summer; the difference between the two seasons remained significant after correcting for body mass and was caused by improved fur insulation in winter. Thermogenic capacity of shrews, although much enhanced in winter, did not reach its full potential of increase, and this corresponded with relatively mild subnivean temperatures. These findings indicate that, despite their small body size, shrews effectively decrease their costs of thermoregulation. The recorded decrease in body mass from summer to winter resulted in a reduction of overall resting metabolic rate (in thermoneutrality) by 18%. This, combined with the reduced heat loss, should translate to food requirements that are substantially lower than would be the case if shrews did not undergo seasonal decrease in body mass.

  14. Study of the Dijet Invariant Mass in W+2jet candidate events by the D0 Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the dijet invariant mass spectrum in events with two jets produced in association with a W boson in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.3  fb-1 collected with the D0 detector at sqrt{s}=1.96  TeV. As we do not find an evidence for anomalous resonant dijet production in the mass range 110-170 GeV, we derive upper limits on the production cross section of a dijet resonance reported by the CDF Collaboration.

  15. Loss of Power and Water Hammer Event at San Onofre, Unit 1, on November 21, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    On November 21, 1985, Southern California Edison's Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1, located south of San Clemente, California, experienced a partial loss of inplant ac electrical power while the plant was operating at 60% power. Following a manual reactor trip, the plant lost all inplant ac power for 4 minutes and experienced a severe incidence of water hammer in the feedwater system which caused a leak, damaged plant equipment, and challenged the integrity of the plant's heat sink. The most significant aspect of the event involved the failure of five safety-related check valves in the feed-water system whose failure occurred in less than year, without detection, and jeopardized the integrity of safety systems. The event involved a number of equipment malfunctions, operator errors, and procedural deficiencies. This report documents the findings and conclusions of an NRC Incident Investigation Team sent to San Onofre by the NRC Executive Director for Operations in conformance with NRC's recently established Incident Investigation Program

  16. Climate change and predicting soil loss from rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Conceptually, rainfall has a certain capacity to cause soil loss from an eroding area while soil surfaces have a certain resistance to being eroded by rainfall. The terms "rainfall erosivity' and "soil erodibility" are frequently used to encapsulate the concept and in the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), the most widely used soil loss prediction equation in the world, average annual values of the R "erosivity" factor and the K "erodibility" factor provide a basis for accounting for variation in rainfall erosion associated with geographic variations of climate and soils. In many applications of RUSLE, R and K are considered to be independent but in reality they are not. In RUSLE2, provision has been made to take account of the fact that K values determined using soil physical factors have to be adjusted for variations in climate because runoff is not directly included as a factor in determining R. Also, the USLE event erosivity index EI30 is better related to accounting for event sediment concentration than event soil loss. While the USLE-M, a modification of the USLE which includes runoff as a factor in determining the event erosivity index provides better estimates of event soil loss when event runoff is known, runoff prediction provides a challenge to modelling event soil loss as climate changes

  17. Fast Winds and Mass Loss from Metal-Poor Field Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.; Smith, Graeme H.; Strader, Jay

    2009-11-01

    Echelle spectra of the infrared He I λ10830 line were obtained with NIRSPEC on the Keck 2 telescope for 41 metal-deficient field giant stars including those on the red giant branch (RGB), asymptotic giant branch (AGB), and red horizontal branch (RHB). The presence of this He I line is ubiquitous in stars with T effgsim 4500 K and MV fainter than -1.5, and reveals the dynamics of the atmosphere. The line strength increases with effective temperature for T effgsim 5300 K in RHB stars. In AGB and RGB stars, the line strength increases with luminosity. Fast outflows (gsim 60 km s-1) are detected from the majority of the stars and about 40% of the outflows have sufficient speed as to allow escape of material from the star as well as from a globular cluster. Outflow speeds and line strengths do not depend on metallicity for our sample ([Fe/H]= -0.7 to -3.0), suggesting the driving mechanism for these winds derives from magnetic and/or hydrodynamic processes. Gas outflows are present in every luminous giant, but are not detected in all stars of lower luminosity indicating possible variability. Mass loss rates ranging from ~3 × 10-10 to ~6 × 10-8 M sun yr-1 estimated from the Sobolev approximation for line formation represent values with evolutionary significance for red giants and RHB stars. We estimate that 0.2 M sun will be lost on the RGB, and the torque of this wind can account for observations of slowly rotating RHB stars in the field. About 0.1-0.2 M sun will be lost on the RHB itself. This first empirical determination of mass loss on the RHB may contribute to the appearance of extended horizontal branches in globular clusters. The spectra appear to resolve the problem of missing intracluster material in globular clusters. Opportunities exist for "wind smothering" of dwarf stars by winds from the evolved population, possibly leading to surface pollution in regions of high stellar density. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which

  18. Measurement of the top-quark mass in $ \\mathrm{t}\\overline{\\mathrm{t}} $ events with lepton+jets final states in pp collisions at $ \\sqrt{s}=7 $ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. 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U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Sibille, J.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Liu, Z. K.; Lu, Y. J.; Mekterovic, D.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Bostock, F.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Plager, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Golf, F.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Koay, S. A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Akgun, B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Edelmaier, C. J.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Heyburn, B.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kilminster, B.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Tan, P.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yumiceva, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; Malek, M.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Rappoccio, S.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Boutemeur, M.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Li, W.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Butt, J.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malbouisson, H.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Baur, U.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Shipkowski, S. P.; Smith, K.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Adam, N.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Safdi, B.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Acosta, J. G.; Brownson, E.; Huang, X. T.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Oliveros, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Johnston, C.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Yohay, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-12-01

    The mass of the top quark is measured using a sample of t t-bar candidate events with one electron or muon and at least four jets in the final state, collected by CMS in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV at the LHC. A total of 5174 candidate events is selected from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. For each event the mass is reconstructed from a kinematic fit of the decay products to a t t-bar hypothesis. The top-quark mass is determined simultaneously with the jet energy scale (JES), constrained by the known mass of the W boson in q anti-q decays, to be 173.49 +/- 0.43 (stat.+JES) +/- 0.98 (syst.) GeV.

  19. Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event with m(4l) = 122.6 (123.9) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 87.9 GeV and 19.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-Jun-2012, 11:07:47 CEST in run number 205113 as event number 12611816. Muon tracks are colored red, electron tracks and clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored green. The Lego plot inset indicates the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters. The second inset shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 leptons originate from the same primary vertex.

  20. Event-triggered control systems under packet losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, V.S.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Networked control systems (NCSs) offer many benefits in terms of increased flexibility and maintainability but might also suffer from inevitable imperfections such as packet dropouts and limited communications resources. In this paper, (static and dynamic) event-triggered control (ETC) strategies

  1. Performing drought indices to identify the relationship between agricultural losses and drought events in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Gallardo, Marina; Serrano, Sergio Martín Vicente; Portugués Santiago, Beguería; Burguera Miquel, Tomás

    2017-04-01

    Drought leads to crop failures reducing the productivity. For this reason, the need of appropriate tool for recognize dry periods and evaluate the impact of drought on crop production is important. In this study, we provide an assessment of the relationship between drought episodes and crop failures in Spain as one of the direct consequences of drought is the diminishing of crop yields. First, different drought indices [the Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI); the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); the self-calibrated Palmer Moisture Anomaly Index (Z-Index), the self-calibrated Crop Moisture Index (CMI) and the Standardized Palmer Drought Index (SPDI)] have been calculated at different time scales in order to identify the dry events occurred in Spain and determine the duration and intensity of each event. Second, the drought episodes have been correlated with crop production estimated and final crop production data provided by the Spanish Crop Insurance System for the available period from 1995 to 2014 at the municipal spatial scale, with the purpose of knowing if the characteristics of the drought episodes are reflected on the agricultural losses. The analysis has been carried out in particular for two types of crop, wheat and barley. The results indicate the existence of an agreement between the most important drought events in Spain and the response of the crop productions and the proportion of hectare insurance. Nevertheless, this agreement vary depending on the drought index applied. Authors found a higher competence of the drought indices calculated at different time scales (SPEI, SPI and SPDI) identifying the begging and end of the drought events and the correspondence with the crop failures.

  2. Magnetic confinement, Alfven wave reflection, and the origins of X-ray and mass-loss 'dividing lines' for late-type giants and supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; An, C.-H.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, R. L.; Suess, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple qualitative model for the origin of the coronal and mass-loss dividing lines separating late-type giants and supergiants with and without hot, X-ray-emitting corona, and with and without significant mass loss is discussed. The basic physical effects considered are the necessity of magnetic confinement for hot coronal material on the surface of such stars and the large reflection efficiency for Alfven waves in cool exponential atmospheres. The model assumes that the magnetic field geometry of these stars changes across the observed 'dividing lines' from being mostly closed on the high effective temperature side to being mostly open on the low effective temperature side.

  3. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Temperature, Melt, and Mass Loss: 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Luthcke, Scott B.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo

    2007-01-01

    Extensive melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented by a variety of ground and satellite measurements in recent years. If the well-documented warming continues in the Arctic, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet will likely accelerate, contributing to sea-level rise. Modeling studies indicate that an annual or summer temperature rise of 1 C on the ice sheet will increase melt by 20-50% therefore, surface temperature is one of the most important ice-sheet parameters to study for analysis of changes in the mass balance of the ice-sheet. The Greenland Ice Sheet contains enough water to produce a rise in eustatic sea level of up to 7.0 m if the ice were to melt completely. However, even small changes (centimeters) in sea level would cause important economic and societal consequences in the world's major coastal cities thus it is extremely important to monitor changes in the ice-sheet surface temperature and to ultimately quantify these changes in terms of amount of sea-level rise. We have compiled a high-resolution, daily time series of surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet, using the I-km resolution, clear-sky land-surface temperature (LST) standard product from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), from 2000 - 2006. We also use Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, averaged over 10-day periods, to measure change in mass of the ice sheet as it melt and snow accumulates. Surface temperature can be used to determine frequency of surface melt, timing of the start and the end of the melt season, and duration of melt. In conjunction with GRACE data, it can also be used to analyze timing of ice-sheet mass loss and gain.

  4. Traders, guns, and money: The effects of mass shootings on stock prices of firearm manufacturers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Anandasivam; Greenwood, Brad N

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how mass shootings influence the stock price of firearms manufacturers. While it is well known that mass shootings lead to increased firearms sales, the response from financial markets is unclear. On one hand, given the observed short-term increase in demand, firearm stock prices may rise due to the unexpected financial windfall for the firm. On the other, mass shootings may result in calls for regulation of the industry, leading to divestment of firearms stocks in spite of short-term demand. We examine this tension using a market movement event study in the wake of 93 mass shootings in the U.S. between 2009 and 2013. Findings show that stock prices of firearm manufacturers decline after shootings; each event reducing prices between 22.4 and 49.5 basis points, per day. These losses are exacerbated by the presence of a handgun and the number of victims killed, but not affected by the presence of children or location of the event. Finally, we find that these effects are most prevalent in the period 2009-2010 but disappear in later events, indicating that markets appear to have accepted mass shootings as the "new normal."

  5. Traders, guns, and money: The effects of mass shootings on stock prices of firearm manufacturers in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandasivam Gopal

    Full Text Available We investigate how mass shootings influence the stock price of firearms manufacturers. While it is well known that mass shootings lead to increased firearms sales, the response from financial markets is unclear. On one hand, given the observed short-term increase in demand, firearm stock prices may rise due to the unexpected financial windfall for the firm. On the other, mass shootings may result in calls for regulation of the industry, leading to divestment of firearms stocks in spite of short-term demand. We examine this tension using a market movement event study in the wake of 93 mass shootings in the U.S. between 2009 and 2013. Findings show that stock prices of firearm manufacturers decline after shootings; each event reducing prices between 22.4 and 49.5 basis points, per day. These losses are exacerbated by the presence of a handgun and the number of victims killed, but not affected by the presence of children or location of the event. Finally, we find that these effects are most prevalent in the period 2009-2010 but disappear in later events, indicating that markets appear to have accepted mass shootings as the "new normal."

  6. Traders, guns, and money: The effects of mass shootings on stock prices of firearm manufacturers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how mass shootings influence the stock price of firearms manufacturers. While it is well known that mass shootings lead to increased firearms sales, the response from financial markets is unclear. On one hand, given the observed short-term increase in demand, firearm stock prices may rise due to the unexpected financial windfall for the firm. On the other, mass shootings may result in calls for regulation of the industry, leading to divestment of firearms stocks in spite of short-term demand. We examine this tension using a market movement event study in the wake of 93 mass shootings in the U.S. between 2009 and 2013. Findings show that stock prices of firearm manufacturers decline after shootings; each event reducing prices between 22.4 and 49.5 basis points, per day. These losses are exacerbated by the presence of a handgun and the number of victims killed, but not affected by the presence of children or location of the event. Finally, we find that these effects are most prevalent in the period 2009–2010 but disappear in later events, indicating that markets appear to have accepted mass shootings as the “new normal.” PMID:28542296

  7. Missing mass spectra in hadronic events from $e^+ e^-$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=161-172 GeV and limits on invisible Higgs decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; Alessandro, R D; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1998-01-01

    Events characterised by large hadronic energy and transverse momentum are selected from the data collected by the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 161 and 172 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 21 $\\rm pb^{-1}$. The visible mass and the missing mass distributions of the selected events are consistent with those expected from Standard Model processes. This result is combined with that from data taken at the Z resonance to set an upper limit on the production rate and decay into invisible final states of a non-minimal Higgs boson, as a function of the Higgs mass. Assuming the non-minimal Higgs production cross section to be the same as for the Standard Model Higgs boson and the decay branching fraction into invisible final states to be 100\\%, a Higgs mass lower limit of 69.6 GeV is derived at 95\\% confidence level.

  8. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  9. A comparison of solar energetic particle event timescales with properties of associated coronal mass ejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    The dependence of solar energetic proton (SEP) event peak intensities Ip on properties of associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been extensively examined, but the dependence of SEP event timescales is not well known. We define three timescales of 20 MeV SEP events and ask how they are related to speeds v CME or widths W of their associated CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO. The timescales of the EPACT/Wind 20 MeV events are TO, the onset time from CME launch to SEP onset; TR, the rise time from onset to half the peak intensity (0.5Ip); and TD, the duration of the SEP intensity above 0.5Ip. This is a statistical study based on 217 SEP-CME events observed during 1996-2008. The large number of SEP events allows us to examine the SEP-CME relationship in five solar-source longitude ranges. In general, we statistically find that TO declines slightly with v CME , and TR and TD increase with both v CME and W. TO is inversely correlated with log Ip, as expected from a particle background effect. We discuss the implications of this result and find that a background-independent parameter TO+TR also increases with v CME and W. The correlations generally fall below the 98% significance level, but there is a significant correlation between v CME and W which renders interpretation of the timescale results uncertain. We suggest that faster (and wider) CMEs drive shocks and accelerate SEPs over longer times to produce the longer TR and TD SEP timescales.

  10. Top quark mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Tuula; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Helsinki U. of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parameterized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parameterized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector

  11. Controls on mass loss and nitrogen dynamics of oak leaf litter along an urban-rural land-use gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard V. Pouyat; Margaret M. Carreiro

    2003-01-01

    Using reciprocal leaf litter transplants, we investigated the effects of contrasting environments (urban vs. rural) and intraspecific variations in oak leaf litter quality on mass loss rates and nitrogen (N) dynamics along an urban-rural gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Differences in earthworm abundances and temperature had previously been documented...

  12. World offshore energy loss statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  13. Sensitivity studies on the approaches for addressing multiple initiating events in fire events PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A single fire event within a fire compartment or a fire scenario can cause multiple initiating events (IEs). As an example, a fire in a turbine building fire area can cause a loss of the main feed-water (LOMF) and loss of off-site power (LOOP) IEs. Previous domestic fire events PSA had considered only the most severe initiating event among multiple initiating events. NUREG/CR-6850 and ANS/ASME PRA Standard require that multiple IEs are to be addressed in fire events PSA. In this paper, sensitivity studies on the approaches for addressing multiple IEs in fire events PSA for Hanul Unit 3 were performed and their results were presented. In this paper, sensitivity studies on the approaches for addressing multiple IEs in fire events PSA are performed and their results were presented. From the sensitivity analysis results, we can find that the incorporations of multiple IEs into fire events PSA model result in the core damage frequency (CDF) increase and may lead to the generation of the duplicate cutsets. Multiple IEs also can occur at internal flooding event or other external events such as seismic event. They should be considered in the constructions of PSA models in order to realistically estimate risk due to flooding or seismic events.

  14. Icing losses on wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, T.; Fotsing, I.; Pearson, S. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the energy losses that can occur as a result of icing on wind turbines. Airfoil deterioration can occur in the presence of rime and glaze ice. Anemometers are also impacted by ice, and shut-downs can occur as a result of icing events. Availability deficits that occur during the winter months can lead to annual energy losses of 0.5 percent. The impact of icing events on total wind power energy production in Quebec is estimated at between 1.3 percent to 2.7 percent. Ice loss estimates are considered during the pre-construction phases of wind power projects. However, ice loss prediction methods are often inaccurate. Studies have demonstrated that preconstruction masts show a reasonable correlation with wind turbine icing, and that icing losses are site-specific. tabs., figs.

  15. Searching for sgluons in multitop events at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, Samuel; Gris, Philippe; Valery, Loic

    2013-01-01

    Large classes of new physics theories predict the existence of new scalar states, commonly dubbed sgluons, lying in the adjoint representation of the QCD gauge group. Since these new fields are expected to decay into colored Standard Model particles, and in particular into one or two top quarks, these theories predict a possible enhancement of the hadroproduction rate associated with multitop final states. We therefore investigate multitop events produced at the Large Hadron Collider, running at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, and employ those events to probe the possible existence of color adjoint scalar particles. We first construct a simplified effective field theory motivated by R-symmetric supersymmetric models where sgluon fields decay dominantly into top quarks. We then use this model to analyze the sensitivity of the Large Hadron Collider in both a multilepton plus jets and a single lepton plus jets channel. After having based our event selection strategy on the possible presence of two, three and f...

  16. Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide glacier retreat and associated future runoff changes raise major concerns over the sustainability of global water resources1-4, but global-scale assessments of glacier decline and the resulting hydrological consequences are scarce5,6. Here we compute global glacier runoff changes for 56 large-scale glacierized drainage basins to 2100 and analyse the glacial impact on streamflow. In roughly half of the investigated basins, the modelled annual glacier runoff continues to rise until a maximum (`peak water') is reached, beyond which runoff steadily declines. In the remaining basins, this tipping point has already been passed. Peak water occurs later in basins with larger glaciers and higher ice-cover fractions. Typically, future glacier runoff increases in early summer but decreases in late summer. Although most of the 56 basins have less than 2% ice coverage, by 2100 one-third of them might experience runoff decreases greater than 10% due to glacier mass loss in at least one month of the melt season, with the largest reductions in central Asia and the Andes. We conclude that, even in large-scale basins with minimal ice-cover fraction, the downstream hydrological effects of continued glacier wastage can be substantial, but the magnitudes vary greatly among basins and throughout the melt season.

  17. Balanced conditions or slight mass gain of glaciers in the Lahaul and Spiti region (northern India, Himalaya during the nineties preceded recent mass loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volume change of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (India, 32° 20 N, 77° 30' E between 1988 and 2010 has been determined using in situ geodetic measurements. This glacier has experienced only a slight mass loss between 1988 and 2010 (−3.8 ± 2.0 m w.e. (water equivalent corresponding to −0.17 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1. Using satellite digital elevation models (DEM differencing and field measurements, we measure a negative mass balance (MB between 1999 and 2010 (−4.8 ± 1.8 m w.e. corresponding to −0.44 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr−1. Thus, we deduce a slightly positive or near-zero MB between 1988 and 1999 (+1.0 ± 2.7 m w.e. corresponding to +0.09 ± 0.24 m w.e. yr−1. Furthermore, satellite DEM differencing reveals that the MB of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (−0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e. yr−1 has been only slightly less negative than the MB of a 2110 km2 glaciarized area in the Lahaul and Spiti region (−0.44 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1 during 1999−2011. Hence, we conclude that the ice wastage is probably moderate in this region over the last 22 yr, with near equilibrium conditions during the nineties, and an ice mass loss after. The turning point from balanced to negative mass budget is not known but lies probably in the late nineties and at the latest in 1999. This positive or near-zero MB for Chhota Shigri Glacier (and probably for the surrounding glaciers of the Lahaul and Spiti region during at least part of the 1990s contrasts with a recent compilation of MB data in the Himalayan range that indicated ice wastage since 1975. However, in agreement with this compilation, we confirm more negative balances since the beginning of the 21st century.

  18. Mass distribution and multiple fragmentation events in high energy cluster-cluster collisions: evidence for a predicted phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Louc, S.; Martin, J.; Senn, G.; Scheier, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    1996-09-01

    Fragment size distributions including multiple fragmentation events have been measured for high energy H 25 + cluster ions (60 keV/amu) colliding with a neutral C 60 target. In contrast to earlier collision experiments with a helium target the present studies do not show a U-shaped fragment mass distribution, but a single power-law falloff with increasing fragment mass. This behaviour is similar to what is known for the intermediate regime in nuclear collision physics and thus confirms a recently predicted scaling from nuclear to molecular collisions

  19. Coronal mass ejections, type II radio bursts, and solar energetic particle events in the SOHO era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopalswamy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the extensive and uniform data on coronal mass ejections (CMEs, solar energetic particle (SEP events, and type II radio bursts during the SOHO era, we discuss how the CME properties such as speed, width and solar-source longitude decide whether CMEs are associated with type II radio bursts and SEP events. We discuss why some radio-quiet CMEs are associated with small SEP events while some radio-loud CMEs are not associated with SEP events. We conclude that either some fast and wide CMEs do not drive shocks or they drive weak shocks that do not produce significant levels of particle acceleration. We also infer that the Alfvén speed in the corona and near-Sun interplanetary medium ranges from <200 km/s to ~1600 km/s. Radio-quiet fast and wide CMEs are also poor SEP producers and the association rate of type II bursts and SEP events steadily increases with CME speed and width (i.e. energy. If we consider western hemispheric CMEs, the SEP association rate increases linearly from ~30% for 800 km/s CMEs to 100% for ≥1800 km/s. Essentially all type II bursts in the decametre-hectometric (DH wavelength range are associated with SEP events once the source location on the Sun is taken into account. This is a significant result for space weather applications, because if a CME originating from the western hemisphere is accompanied by a DH type II burst, there is a high probability that it will produce an SEP event.

  20. Comment of "Event-based soil loss models for construction sites" by Trenouth and Gharabaghi, J. Hydrol. doi: 10.1016/jhydrol.2015.03.010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, P. I. A.

    2015-09-01

    Trenouth and Gharabaghi (2015) present two models which replace the EI30 index used as the event erosivity index in the USLE/RUSLE with ones that include runoff and values of EI30 to powers that differ for 1.0 as the event erosivity factor in modelling soil loss for construction sites. Their analysis on the application of these models focused on data from 5 locations as a whole but did not show how the models worked at each location. Practically, the ability to predict sediment yields at a specific location is more relevant than the capacity of a model to predict sediment yields globally. Also, the mathematical structure of their proposed models shows little regard to the physical processes involved in causing erosion and sediment yield. There is still the need to develop event-based empirical models for construction sites that are robust because they give proper consideration to the erosion process involved, and take account of the fact that sediment yield is usually determined from measurements of suspended load whereas soil loss at the scale for which the USLE/RUSLE model was developed includes both suspended load and bed load.

  1. Measurement of the top quark mass from $b$ - tagged events in the lepton plus jets channel in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Nathan Robert-Claire [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Presented here is an analysis of the top quark mass from events containing at least one jet identified as a b candidate. The events are fit to the Standard Model tt decay hypothesis and a maximum log-likelihood method is used to determine the top quark mass. The event sample was collected in pp collisions at [special characters omitted] = 1.8 TeV with the Collider Detector at Fermilab, and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 109 ± 7pb-1. The top quark mass is measured to be 17